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# Statistical Tests –

Parametric
Dr. S. Nishan Silva
(MBBS)
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Variables
Quantitative
•Discrete
•Continuous
Qualitative
•Ordinal
•Categorical
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Parametric Vs.
non parametric tests
• Parametric: decision making method
where the distribution of the
sampling statistic is known
• Non-Parametric: decision making
method which does not require
knowledge of the distribution of the
sampling statistic
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t-Test
• Compare the means of a continuous
variable into samples in order to
determine whether or not the
difference between the 2 expected
means exceed the difference that
would be expected by chance
What is probability the mean will differ?
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Requirements

• The observations are independent
• Drawn from normally distributed
population
• Sample size < 30 if it’s >30 use
normal curve z test (binomial test)
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Types of t-Test
• One sample t test: test if a sample mean
for a variable differs significantly from the
given population with a known mean

• Unpaired or independent t test: test if the
population means estimated by
independent 2 samples differ significantly
(group of male and group of female)

• Paired t test: test if the population means
estimated by dependent samples differ
significantly (mean of pre and post
treatment for same set of patients
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chi² test
• Used to test strength of association
between qualitative variables
• Used for categorical data

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Requirements
• Data should be in form of frequency
• Total number of observed must exceed 20
• Expected frequency in one category or in
any cell must be >5 (When 1 of the cells have <5
in observed yats correction) or if (When 1 of the cells
have <5 in expected fischer exact)
• The group compared must be
approximately the same
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Correlation and Regression
• Methods to study magnitude of the
association and the functional
relationship between two or more
variables
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Correlation
• Denote strength of relationship between variables

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Regression
• Method that’s indicate a mathematical
relationship between a dependant and
one or more independent variables
• Simple linear regression and multiple
regression are appropriate for
continuous variables like(BP, Weight)
• Logistic regression applicable for
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Measures
• If parametric
• Pearson correlation coeff.
»Continuous variables
»Linear relationship
• If nonparametric
• Spearman rank
»Both variables are continuous

• Kendall’s tau
»Two ordinal or one ordinal one
continuous
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ANOVA
• is used to uncover the main and
interaction effects of categorical
independent variables (called "factors")
on an interval dependent variable

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Types of ANOVA
• One-way ANOVA tests differences in
a single interval dependent variable
among two, three, or more groups
formed by the categories of a single
categorical independent variable.

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• Two-way ANOVA analyzes one interval
dependent in terms of the categories
(groups) formed by two independents,
one of which may be conceived as a
control variable
• Multivariate or n-way ANOVA. To
generalize, n-way ANOVA deals with n
independents. It should be noted that as
the number of independents increases,
the number of potential interactions
proliferates

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How to select appropriate
statistical test
• Type of variables
• Quantitative (blood pres.)
• Qualitative (gender)
• Type of research question
• Association
• Comparison
• Risk factor
• Data structure
• Independent
• Paired
• matched
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Body of research question
Association of 2 variable(dep, indep)
Spearman Correlation
linear Regression
Quantitative Quantitative
2 out come T test
3+out come ANOVA
categorical Quantitative
Log. regression Quantitative categorical
chi-square categorical categorical
Test Types of variable
Dependent independent
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Comparing (difference) variables
chi-square
Kruskal
wallis
ANOVA
McNemar
chi-square*
Wilcoxon
Mann-
Whitney
Paired T test
T test
Quantitative

Ordinal

Categorical
Number of independent variable
2 groups paired data >2groups
Variable
* When 1 of the cells have <5 in expected fischer exact
When 1 of the cells have <5 in observed yats correction
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Looking for Risk Factor
Test Types of variables
Dependent several indepen.
Multiple log.
Regression
categorical categorical
ANOVA categorical quantitative
Linear, log
regression
quantitative quantitative