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Acoustical Design for Architects

Mike Wilson
Low Energy Architecture Research Unit
School of Architecture and Interior Design
University of North London
Spring House
6-40 Holloway Rd.
London N7 8JL
U.K.

Tel: +44 171 753 7006


Fax: +44 171 753 5780

Introduction
For good room acoustics the following conditions need to be satisfied

1) There needs to be good sound distribution in the room. This may be effected by
various acoustic ‘faults’ such as concentrations and shadows, ringing and colouration,
or echoes.

2) The background level needs to be an optimum for the acoustic activity in the space.
Often this optimum will be the minimum sensibly obtainable but may not if masking
noise is required such as in open plan offices.

3) The reverberation or rate of decay of the sound should be an optimum for the
acoustic activity.

Sound Behaviour within Rooms


Sound within rooms can be analysed using different techniques. These can usefully
be divided into the following categories:

1) Geometric methods. By using the basic law of angle of incidence equals angle of
reflection the sound field may be described. The drawback of this method is that it
takes no account of the wave nature of sound where typical wavelengths can be of
the same order of magnitude as the reflecting or obstructing objects. One simple
example of this is the acoustic barrier. The sound behind the barrier is not simply
reduced equally over the whole noise spectrum but the tonal character is changed.
The longer the wavelength or the lower the frequency the more the sound wave
diffracts or bends round the barrier reducing the attenuation. With sound reflectors the
lower frequencies may not ‘see’ the barrier at all, the middle frequencies may suffer
diffuse reflection while only the higher frequencies undergo specular or mirror-like
reflection.

2) Statistical methods. The rate of decay of sound in the room depends on the mean
free path of the sound wave between reflections and the absorption of surfaces,

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objects and air.

3) Wave Theory. A full description of the sound field in a room depends on solving the
wave equations in that room. This is difficult without immense computing power and
is normally limited to simple geometry. It is essential however in predicting standing
waves ( otherwise known as room modes or eigen functions) , and particularly
important in small room (studio) acoustics.

Analysis of Room Shape

Most acousticians would try to avoid concave focusing shapes. If unavoidable they can
be treated with absorber but this will often lead to loss of loudness. Concave shapes
are often associated with echoes. Within approx 50 ms of the direct sound arriving at
the listener the following reflections are integrated by the ear. Thus strong early
reflections are very important in ensuring a sound is perceived sufficiently loudly.
Where neither wall nor ceiling exist to provide these reflections the area of the floor
in front of the source provides an important reflecting surface. This is important in
amphitheatres where the apron provides such a facility. Rays can be drawn to ensure
the audience can hear the reflected sound and this determines the raking. Note that
glazing rays over the heads of an audience are heavily absorbed. A reflection arriving
80 ms after the direct sound will be perceived as part of the general reverberation of
the room or if it is sufficiently strong as an echo. Concave shapes concentrate sound
and therefore increase the likelihood of an echo. An important consideration is the
relationship between the radius of curvature of the concave surface and the room
dimensions. In the following diagram for a room with a dome or vault the radius should
be less than half the source - max ceiling height to ensure the reflected sound is no
more concentrated than that from a flat surface. Note that the sound reflected from a
flat surface would be concentrated in distance d while the concave surface covers a
distance d’.
Fig 1 ( Source Ref
1)

A similar method
can be applied to
alert designers to
the potential of an
echo in an
auditorium .
Assuming a
simple rectangular
shape for an echo
to occur two
conditions need to
be satisfied:

1) The path
d i f f e r e n c e
between reflected
and direct sound should be at least 17m. This is the distance covered by a sound

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wave in 50 ms travelling at 340 m/s.

2) The reflected sound should have sound energy at least 10% of the direct sound.

The following diagram shows the critical dimensions

Fig 2 ( Source Ref 1, p. 120.) CR = Critical Region, r, x - axis, source-receiver


distance, h, y-axis, effective ceiling height

Ray tracing is a very common technique for investigating the behaviour of reflectors
and an example is shown below

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Fig 3 ( Source ref
1, p 125) Ceiling
profile for the
German Opera in
Berlin. Top:
proposal based on
ray construction.
Bottom: ceiling as
built ( architect,
Bornemann:
a c o u s t i c
consultants,
Cremer and
Gabler)

Elliptical shapes
need very special
consideration. It is
vitally important
that no source of
sound is located
near either of the foci as these will be focussed at the other focus. They are best
avoided but are a common architectural form.

In general the areas that need attention for echoes in theatres and concert halls are
the rear wall, particularly the intersection of ceiling and rear wall and balcony fronts.
This may be achieved by the use of absorber or correct orientation of the surfaces.

Reflectors are often used in theatres and concert halls either to increase early
reflections to parts of the seating area which are some distance from the source or
more particularly in concert halls to increase diffusion. Care must be paid to the size
of the reflector as small reflectors will not reflect low frequency sound ( due to
diffraction effects) and the reflection does not become fully specular until the
dimensions of the reflector are several times larger than the wavelength of the sound.

Ringing and colouration are a phenomenon in small rooms that are caused by flutter
echoes and standing waves. Some acousticians will argue that these are essentially
the same phenomena but it is easier to treat them separately.
A flutter echo is caused by repeated echo between two hard parallel surfaces and is
most clearly noticeable when the surfaces in the other dimensions are absorbing.
Where the dimension of the space is small these appear as a ring but with larger
dimensions can appear like (subdued) rapid machine gun fire. They can be cured by
treating one of the surfaces with absorber or where this could cause an unacceptable
loss in reverberation such as in a recording studio by building the walls out of parallel-
an early acoustic version of deconstructivism.

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Sound as a wave

To understand standing waves it is necessary to understand a little about sound as


a wave.
Sound in air is a longitudinal wave, that is the pressure fluctuations which are the
sound wave take place in the direction of travel of the wave. A pure tone is a sine
wave where the wavelength is the distance between two successive compressions or
rarefractions and the frequency is the number of waves that pass a point in space
every second.

Fig 4

The range of audible sound stretches from a frequency of 20 Hz to 20000 Hz ( Hz


= Hertz = waves per second). As we grow older our hearing at the high frequencies
falls off (presbycusis) . Additionally hearing loss caused by excessive noise during a
lifetime ( the permanent threshold shift as opposed to the temporary threshold shift
which is experienced when coming out of a noisy space such as a disco) occurs at
high frequencies around 4 kHz.

Standing waves are caused by the incident and reflected wave at a surface interfering
with each other. The result is a series of nodes and antinodes in space, the former
being places where there is no change in the relevant property ( e.g. sound pressure)
with time and the latter where the property fluctuates at a maximum. A pressure
fluctuation maximum (antinode) is produced against the wall whereas the air particles
can barely move against the hard wall and give rise to a particle velocity node. A
partial standing wave is formed against any surface but a full standing wave will not
be set up unless the nodes and antinodes from another partial standing wave formed
against an opposite parallel surface coincide. The room dimension under which this
will occur is related to the wavelength by the expression:


 

  
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THE NATURE OF VIBRATION : BASIC CONCEPTS AND DESCRIPTORS

Introduction
This Section begins with a consideration of the nature of vibration, and of the terms and

33
parameters which may be used to describe and measure it, starting with the simplest, single
frequency vibration and then continuing to more complex types.

Single frequency vibration


A vibration is a type of motion in which there is a to and fro oscillation about a fixed
position. In the case of the simplest type of vibration the displacement, from the fixed
position varies sinusoidally with time, t, and described mathematically by :

x = X.sin t = X sin 2ft

where X is the vibration amplitude, and is the angular frequency, in radians per second, equal
to 2f, where f is the frequency of the vibration, in cycles per second, or Hertz. Frequency
is the reciprocal of the period, T, of the vibration, which is the time taken for one complete
cycle of the motion to occur.

ie f= l/T

The Root Mean Square value, RMS, of a vibration is given by :

where x(t) denotes that displacement x is a function of time, t.

In the case of a sine wave vibration where x = Xsin2ft, evaluation of the above expression
shows that RMS = X/ ie that:
RMS = PEAK / = 0.7071 x PEAK

In this case also, the peak value is the same as the amplitude, and the peak to peak value
is twice the amplitude. A reduction by a factor of in terms of displacement corresponds to a
reduction by a factor of 2 in vibration energy (compare with the relationship: sound intensity
(sound pressure)2 ) so that, for a sinusoidal vibration the RMS value is 3 dB below the peak
value.

Displacement, Velocitv and Acceleration

Velocity is the rate of change of displacement, with respect to changes in time. During a
complete cycle of the vibration the velocity also changes, through a complete cycle, as well
as the displacement. Similarly acceleration is rate of change of velocity, and cyclic changes
of acceleration will also occur during the vibration. These three cycles have the same
frequency, but different amplitudes: X (displacement), V (velocity), and A (Acceleration).

Displacement, velocity and acceleration therefore give three different ways in which a
vibration may be described and measured. The three are obviously related, and, for single
frequency vibration, sinusoidal vibration only the relationships, between the three amplitudes
are:
V= 2fX

and A= 2fV

34
from which A = 4f 2 X

A similar set of equations relate the three RMS values.

Displacement, X may be measured in m., mm. or m. (microns). Velocity, V, may be


measured in m.s-1 , or mm.s-1 .Acceleration, A, is measured in m.s -2 .

Vibration Isolation

A vibration isolator is a spring or mount which reduces the transmission of the vibration to
the sturcture at freque ncies 2 1/2 x natural frequency of spring or mount. The transmissibiltiy
(T) is given by
T = 1/ (1 -[f/fr]2)

where f is the driving frequency


and fr is the natural frequency of mount ( isolator)
.

Springs and mounts may be simply sized by their static defection under load. The natural
frequency of the loaded mount is given by:

fr = 15.8/d1/2 where d is the static deflection in mm and f r the natural frequecy of the loaded
mount.

More Complex Vibrations, and Vibration Spectra. More complex vibrations may be thought
of as being built from a combination of simple sinusoidal vibrations, and represented by a
frequency spectrum. The frequency spectrum of a single frequency vibration with a sinusoidal
waveform is a single line. Vibrations with a harmonic waveform, ie one which repeats itself
exactly, have a line spectrum, in which the frequency components are integer multiples of the
fundamental frequency defined by the period of the waveform. Such a series of lines is often
called a Fourier series, after the French mathematician J.B.Fourier (1768-1830) who showed
that any repetative function can be broken down (ie analysed into) a series of sinusoidal
functions. The waveform of a random vibration never repeats itself and has a continuous

35
frequency spectrum, ie one in which the lines have moved infinitesimally close together. This
continuous spectrum may be analysed into octave or one-third octave bands, exactly as for
sound signals.The spectrum of a single transient vibration is also a continous spectrum, with,
usually, higher levels at the lower frequencies and with the levels reducing at higher
frequencies. Repeated transients produce a line spectrum in which the line spacing is
determined by the repetition rate, but where the shape of the spectrum is determined by the
waveform of the transient. Examples include the vibration produced by rotating machines such
as fans, pumps and motors, and reciprocating machines such as engines.

THE EFFECTS OF VIBRATION ON PEOPLE

Depending upon the level, and a variety of other factors, vibration may affect people’s
comfort and well-being, impair their efficiency at performing a variety of tasks. or even at
very high levels become a hazard to their health and safety. The best known example of the
harmful effects of vibration is the White Finger syndrome (also known as Reynaud’s disease)
in which prolonged use of hand-held equipment, such as chain saws, in very cold conditions.
produces loss of sensation in the fingers. The vibration produced by the various forms of
transportation (e.g. road traffic, trains and aircraft) is of great interest for a variety of reasons.
First of all. there is concern about the safety and efficiency of the driver or operator subjected
to vibration; secondly, there is the effect of vibration levels on the comfort of passengers; and
thirdly, there is often great concern amongst members of the public about vibration produced
in buildings. including domestic dwellings adjacent to roads or railway lines or near to air
routes. A great variety of industrial machinery produces vibration which is experienced by
people at work. Particular sources which can cause vibration to be experienced by the
occupants of nearby buildings and thus often give rise to concern amongst members of the
public include heavy-duty air compressors, forge hammers, pile driving and quarry blasting
operations.

FACTORS INVOLVED IN HUMAN RESPONSE TO VIBRATION

The assessment of human response to vibrati on is made difficult by the fact that there are a
large number of factors involved, and because of the great differences between individuals.
The main physical factors determining the response to a vibration are the amplitude (or
intensity) and frequency, and also the duration (exposure time), point of application and
direction of the vibration. Amongst the configurations which are of interest are the
transmission of vibration from the floor through the feet of the standing person and from the
seat via the buttocks and possibly the head (through the headrest) of the seated person. In
these cases the vibration may be transmitted and felt throughout all parts of the body, and it
is the whole body response which will be required. In other cases the vibration may be
applied and sensed at a particular part of the body - the vibration produced in the fingers and
hands by power tools being a good example. In this particular case it is the response of the
hand-arm system which is important.

As far as vibration transmission is concerned. the human body may be thought of as a


complex mass-spring system. It therefore has a complicated frequency response which
includes resonances associated with either the whole body or various parts of the body such
as the head or the shoulder girdle. These frequencies may vary greatly for different people.
Different parts of the body are therefore most sensitive to different frequencies of vibration.
Therefore there is not only a difference in individual sensitivity to vibration, but also a

36
difference in individual transmissibility as well. Even the response of any one individual can
vary with posture and body tension. The situation may be further complicated by the effects
of seats, headrest. gloves, etc., unless great care is taken to measure the vibration level at the
exact point of application of the vibration to the body. One more difficulty in the assessment
of human response to vibration is in separating it from the response to the high noise levels
which are often associated with vibration-causing processes.

EARLY RESEARCH INTO HUMAN RESPONSE : THE REIHER-MEISTER AND THE


DIECKMANN SCALES FOR ViBRATION ASSESSMENT

Many schemes have been developed for the assessment of human response to vibration. One
of the earliest. published by Reiher and Meister in 1931, covers the frequency range 1-100
Hz and vibration amplitudes, specified as displacements in the range 1-100 m.Using the
Reiher-Meister scale it is possible to rate the vibration as belonging to one of six categories
ranging from imperceptible to painful. Separate scales are used for vibrations in the vertical
and horizontal directions. The threshold of perception corresponds to a velocity amplitude of
0.3 mm/s and the annoyance threshold to 2.5 mm/s.

Dieckmann, in 1955, proposed a similar scheme but extending to lower frequencies (down
to 0.1 Hz) and higher amplitudes than Reiher and Meister. The vibration level is quantified
in terms of K-values, ranging from 0.1 to 100, which are related to the intensity. The effect
of a vibration can be assessed from its K-value:

K = 0 1 - lower limit of perception


K = 1 -allowable in industry for any period of time
K = 10 - allowable only for a short time
K =100 - upper limit of strain allowable for the average man

The K-values may be read off charts of frequency against amplitude, similar to the
Reiher-Meister scales, or they may be calculated in terms of displacement amplitude A and
frequency f.

BRITISH AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON HUMAN REPONSE TO


VIBRATION

ISO 2631 Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

The Introduction to the standard states that : "Various methods rating the severity of exposure
and defining limits of exposure based on laboratory or field data have been developed in the
past for specific applications. None of these methods can be considered applicable in all
situations and consequently none has been universally accepted.

In view of the complex factors determining the human response vibrations, and in view of
the shortage of consistent quantitative data concerning man’s perception of vibration and his
reactions to it, this International Standard has been prepared first, to facilitate the evaluation
and comparison of data gained from continuing research in the field; and, second, to give
provisional guidance as to acceptable human exposure to whole body vibration."

Part 1 1985 : General requirements

37
This Part of the standard takes into account frequency (in the range 1-80 Hz), vibration
amplitude (acceleration), duration (from 1 minute to 24 hours exposure) and the direction of
the vibration relative to the human body. Three different criteria are proposed; working
effficiency, health and safety, and comfort. These three criteria give rise to three boundaries
or limits; the fatiguedecreased proficiency boundary, the exposure limit (for health and
safety),. and the reduced comfort boundary. Fig. shows the limits for the fatiguedecreased
proficiency boundary in terms of the amplitude, frequency and duration for a vertical vibration
(along the toe-to-head axis). Exposure limits are 6 dB above and reduced comfort values 10
dB below these values, the shape of the contours remaining the same. The human subject is
most sensitive to vertical vibrations in the frequency range 4-8 Hz. Above 8 Hz the response
contours correspond to constant velocity amplitudes. The ISO standard also allows the effect
of broad-band vibrations (i.e. containing many frequencies) to be evaluated .

Parts 2,3 and 4 of ISO 2631 are concerned with the vibration of humans in buildings, at low
frequencies, and on board ships.

Part 2 1989 : Human exposure to continuous and shock-induced vibration in buildings (l to


80 Hz).

Part 3 1985 : Evaluation of exposure to whole-body z-axis vertical vibration in the frequency
range 0.1 to 0.63 Hz.

Part 4 : Evaluation of crew exposure to vibration on board sea-going ships (1 to 80 Hz}. This
part of the standard is at present at the stage of draft.

The subject matter of parts 1,2 and 3 of IS0 2631 are also cover by BS6841 and BS6472.
Although there are some similarities there are also some very significant differences between
the British and International Standards. One of these is the introduction of the concept of
Vibration Dose Value into the British Standards, in order to take into account the effects of
impulsive and intermittent vibration.

THE EFFECT OF VIBRATION ON BUILDINGS

It is almost inevitable that high noise and vibration levels experienced by the occupants of
a building should give rise to concern about the possible effects that these may have on the
building. However, cases in which even minor damage to a building can he attributed directly
to the effects of vibration alone are very rare. Usually many other factors are involved as
well, such as ground settlement or movement caused by changes of moisture content. It is
generally accepted that the vibration levels in a building would become absolutely intolerable
to the human occupants long before they reached a level at which there was danger of
damage to the building. In cases where minor damage does occur, and in which vibration is
alleged to play a part, the most common occurrences are: damage to unsound plaster, cracking
of glass, loosening of roof tiles and cracks to masonry. However, it is very likely that existing
minor damage may he noticed for the first time by an occupant whose attention and concern
has been aroused hy the disturbance caused by a new source of vibration.

Heavy vibrating machinery located at high levels in a building can produce intense vibrations
in the horizontal direction, and these are more likely to be damaging than vertical vibration.

38
Bells situated in church towers can also produce high levels in the building structure.
Sustained sources of vibration may produce resonances in buildings or parts of buildings.
However, this is less likely to cause problems if the vibrations are transient. The natural
frequency of a building will depend mainly on its height and base dimensions, typical values
ranging from 10 Hz for a low building to 0.1 Hz for a very tall building. The natural
frequency is of interest since this type of vibration may be excited by wind loading of the
building. Floors, ceilings and windows also have their own natural frequencies. Typical values
for floors are in the range 10-30 Hz depending on size and type of construction. People in
buildings are more aware of vibrations transmitted via the floor than from any other part of
the structure. It is important therefore that the natural frequency of the floor does not coincide
with the range of maximum sensitivity (4-8 Hz) for vertical vibrations of the human body at
which whole-body resonance occurs. The maximum amplitude usually occurs in the centre
of the floor. Modern long-span floors are likely to cause an increase in floor vibration
amplitudes. Natural frequencies of windows range from 10 to 100 Hz depending on the size
and thickness of the glass, and for plaster ceilings typical values range from 10 to 20 Hz.

Many investigations have been carried out in an attempt to define threshold limits for the
occurrence of vibration induced damage to buildings. The evidence from these investigation
has been fully reported and discussed in a Building Research Establishment Report by R.
Steffens entitled ’Structural Vibration and Damage’, first published in 1974, and recently
re-issued. In one investigation on the effects of blasting on buildings it was shown that
buildings can withstand peak amplitudes of about 400 m. In contrast, typical levels produced
in buildings by nearby road traffic often lie in the range 5-25 m. (10-30 Hz). It is often found
that internal sources of vibration in a building, such as footsteps, door slamming, furniture
moving, washing machines and vacuum cleaners, will produce levels comparable with or even
greater than the external source which is the subject of complaint (road traffic, compressor,
pile driver, etc.) Typical vibration levels produced by footsteps and by door slamming can be
in the region of 50-150 m.

Other investigations have suggested that limits for damage are best expressed in terms of peak
vibration velocity, and various values have been suggested ranging from 50 to 230 mm.s -1
depending on the type of building and the degree of damage. For comparison it is interesting
to note that a level of 75 mm.s-1 corresponds to a Dieckmann K-value of 60, which would be
extremely unpleasant, and is well into the painful zone of the Reiher-Meister scale (assuming
frequencies in the range 5-40 Hz)

Yet another method for rating vibration, based on energy considerations and developed by
Zeller in Germany, has been used for assessing possihle damage to buildings. This involves
the acceleration and the frequency of the vibration, the Zeller power being given by the
acceleration squared divided by the frequency, and measured in mm 2/Hz 3 .

BS7385 Evaluation and Measurement for Vibration in Buildinqs Part 1. Guide for
measurement of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on buildings

This standard, which is identical to IS0 4866 :1990, discusses some of the principles involved
in the measurement and evaluation of building vibration, and gives guidance on information
to be recorded.The following factors are considered :

-the characteristics of vibration (type of signal, range of magnitudes and frequencies)

39
produced by different types of source, such as traffic, blasting, pile driving, and machinery

-type of building. Buildings are grouped into fourteen different classes, taking into account
the different types of construction, types soil and foundations, and a political importance
factor.

-selection of measurement parameters, equipment, transducers, measurement positions, data


collection and analysis.

Most ground-borne vibration entering buildings from man-made sources is in the frequency
range from 1Hz to 150 Hz. Natural sources such wind, and earthquakes produce significant
amounts of vibrational energy lower frequencies, down to 0.1Hz. Vibration induced damage
to buildings is classified into categories : cosmetic, minor and major.

Part 2 : 1993 Guide to damage levels from ground-borne vibration

The preferred method of measurement is to simultaneously record unfiltered time-histories of


the three different orthogonal components (eg x, y, and z) of particle velocity. The (total)
particle velocity may then be found, by taking the root mean square value of the three
components, andd its peak value obtained. The peak values of the individual components
should also be measured, since it is this type of data which has usually been presented in the
various case histories used to develop the limits in the standard.

The case history data suggests that the probability of damage tends towards zero at levels
below 12.5 mm.s-1 peak component particle velocity. The limit for cosmetic damage varies
from 15 mm.s-1 at 4 Hz to 50 mm.s-1 at 40Hz and above, for measurements taken at the base
of the building. Different low frequency limits (below 40 Hz) are given for two different
types of buildings. The limits for cosmetic damage should be doubled for minor damage, and
doubled again for major damage.

BRE Digest 353, 1990 Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration

This Digest reviews various methods for measuring and assessing building damage caused by
vibration, including German, Swiss and Swedish standards. The German standard, DIN 4150
Part 3 1986, which has been widely used, adopts a similar approach to B57385 Part 2.
Guideline values of peak component particle velocity, in mm.s -1 , are given for three different
types of building structure. Different limits are given for the frequency ranges : less than 10
Hz, 10 to 50 Hz, and 50 to 100 Hz.

SOURCES OF VIBRATION IN BUILDINGS

Road Traffic.

It is the variability of the interaction between tyres and the road which is the main source of
vibration produced by traffic. ’Out of balance’ forces produced by the operation of the vehicle
also cause vibration, but with modern vehicles these are of less importance than the effects
of variability in the road surface caused either by random surface roughness or by

40
imperfections such as bumps or potholes. A perfectly balanced engine driving a vehicle along
a perfectly smooth road would not produce any vibration.

The main parameters determining the magnitude and frequency of traffic vibration are : road
surface profile, vehicle mass and road speed, and the characteristics of the vehicle suspension
system, and in particular its natural frequency.

Vibration from trains.

The vibration producing mechanisms are not fully understood, but it is believed that the main
source of ground vibration from trains is the variability in the interaction between wheels and
rails, arising from imperfections, irregularities and roughnesses in the surfaces of both.
Irregularities in the track system supporting the rails may also cause vibration. The important
parameters are rail and wheel profiles, vehicle mass, speed and suspension characteristics.

Wind induced vibration

Variability in the wind loading forces on buildings cause vibration, and this is particularly
important for tall buildings. Steffens states that serious vibration in tall buildings is likely if
the natural frequency of the building is less than the frequency of vortex shedding at the
maximum wind velocity, and gives a method for calculating both quantities.

Other sources

Other sources of vibration in buidings include earthquake s, blasting operations, pile-driving,


acoustic excitation eg from blasting, road and rail traffic and aircraft, machinery of various
kinds, and human activities such as walking and door slamming. BS7385 Part 1 indicates the
characteristics of vibration produced in buildings by various sources.

Steffens gives a fascinating and comprehensive account of vibration produced by a wide range
of sources, including bell ringing, church organs, industrial knitting machines and door
slamming, as well as all the sources mentioned above.

Vibration from pile-driving

There are many different methods of pile-driving, and these may result in vibration which
is either continuous, or intermittent, or impulsive in nature.

BS5228 Part 4 (Appendix A) gives a detailed account of the characteristics of vibration


associated with various types of pile-driving operations and a wide range of case study data.

Vibration from machinery

The motion associated with the operation of reciprocating machi nes (eg internal combustion
engines) inevitably causes vibration.Rotating machinery (such as pumps, motors, fans) also
causes vibration because there will always be some ’out of balance’ forces associated with
the rotary motion, although in principle the perfectly balanced rotating machine would not
produce any vibration.

41
Vibration is also produced as a by-product of the ’working forces’ associated with various
types of machine including , for example : cutting, pressing, pumping, abrading and polishing,
electrical forces in rotating machinery, combustion forces, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic
forces in fans and pumps, forces in bearings, gear meshing forces, and impact forces.

Vibration is also produced by the imperfect operation of machinery caused by wear, looseness
and mis-alignment of parts, and imperfect balancing. It is for this reason that good
maintenance procedures are so important in minimising vibrationand noise from machines.

Since most machinery operates on a cyclic basis of either rotational or reciprocal movement
the frequency spectrum of machine vibration usually consists of a series of pure tone
components (fundamentals and harmonics) associated with the repetition rates of the various
cycles, (and with frequencies therefore dependent on machine speed), superimposed upon a
broad band spectrum of raNDOM VIBRATION caused by impacts, wear, and irregularities
in the machine motion. The narrow band component of the spectrum, or ’vibration signature’
as it is sometimes known, can be used to diagnose the source of a particular noise or vibration
frequency, eg to identify a particular set of gears, or fan or bearing. For a particular machine
the spectrum can also be used to identify the vibration producing mechanism, such as ’out
of balance’ or ’misalignment’ and this knowledge forms the basis of vibration monitoring of
machinery in order to give early warning of malfunction.

THE TRANSMISSION OF VIBRATION

THE PROPAGATION OF VIBRATION IN UNIFORM MEDIA

There are two sorts of elastic waves which can travel in an infinite, ie unbounded
homogeneous solid elastic medium : longitudinal compressional waves, often called P waves,
and transverse shear waves, often called S waves. Only the P waves can be propagated in a
fluid such as air or water. In bounded solids, such as plates, beams, rods and bars (such as
in the elements of a building) there are in addition a number of other types of waves, such
as flexural and torsional waves, which are combinations of the two main types. Also in
bounded solids and fluids surface waves are transmitted, but, as the name suggests, only on
and at limited depths below the surface. Surface waves in solids are also known as Rayleigh
waves.

NB Homogeneous means having the same properties throughout the medium, ie ’being the
same everywhere’. Isotropic means having the same properties in every direction

Propagation of ground-borne Vibration

Ground-borne vibration is, then, transmitted by P, S, and, near the surface, by Rayleigh
waves. The velocity of shear waves in soils ranges from approximately, 30 m.s -1 to 300 m.s -1
, and for rock it is about 1000 m.s-1 . The velocities of compressional waves is about 2.5 to
4 times higher than for the shear waves, and the Rayleigh waves travel at speeds slightly
lower than shear waves. The amplitude of surface waves reduces rapidly with depth below
the surface, so that they are confined within a wavelength or so of the ground. Because of this
Rayleigh waves are subject to less spreading loss than P or S waves, and especially in lightly
damped soils or rock, they can travel greater distances with less attenatuion.

42
The propagation of vibration in the idealised situation of an infinite, homogeneous, isotropic
medium is well understood, and can be predicted from theory. The propagation of vibration
in the ground is much more complex. Soils are not homogeneous, but are granular, with the
voids between grains sometimes being filled with water. The medium is also usually
non-isotropic,consisting of a number of strata or layers, each with different elastic properties.
Additional types of waves arise from interactions at the boundaries between layers, and
between waves propagating in the solid soil grains and the water surrounding them. There is
usually inadequate or incomplete information about the thicknesses and extent of the various
layers, and about the relevant elastic properties of each soil or rock type ie elastic moduli,
density, wave speeds and damping constant.
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43