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Elicits the

Infammatory
Response:
Swelling, Fever, Pain,
Redness, Loss of
Bronchial
sthma since
childhood
Fre!"ent
attac#s at
least $ per
month
Infammation
%a"sal Factors
E&pos"re to
allergens or
occ"pational
%ontri'"ting
Factors
ir Poll"tion
ctive(Passive
Swelling of the
mem'rane that line
the airways Bronchospasm
Increased m"c"s
prod"ction
Red"ction of airway
diameter
F"rther narrowing
of 'ronchial tree
)iminishes airway
si*e and pl"gs
'ronchi
Bronchial m"scles
and m"coid glands
enlarge
+enacio"s sp"t"m
prod"ced
,yperinfation of
the alveoli
-'str"ction of the
airways and
possi'le .'rosis
Increased wor# of 'reathing,
chest pain, dyspnea, whee*ing,
crac#les and rhonchi, and
hypo&emia
)amage to
respiratory
str"ct"res
Lowered or
impaired
respiratory
Impaired gas
e&change
Poor ventilation
Increased ris# for
infection from other
microorganisms
ltered resistance
spiration of fora
from oropharyn&
Inoc"lation of
pathogenic
microorganisms from
the comm"nity
+ravel to p"lmonary
'ed
/B%0c in.ltrate
and .ll air spaces
of alveoli
Formation of
e&"dates
-ccl"sion of
airways
)ecrease in
alveolar o&ygen
tension
Poor ventilation
1(2 mismatch
Poorly "no&ygenated
'lood
rterial hypo&emia
Pathophysiology of
CAP and BA