P. 1
Explosive Principles

Explosive Principles

|Views: 261|Likes:
Published by kylar_manson

More info:

Published by: kylar_manson on Dec 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/11/2016

pdf

text

original

..

Robert A. Sickler

di '. ~ f

imono

P .. 04 8~", IJC1t US,A.

,bplrJsi¥B , ri lIeiples.:'

h 2s'SWl/i. G iti·- to ORJ:rnJ'tmtD,na .!l~ltJiwu ~ DeiO,*litg'h$. by Itobcn t Sf

, ri~ l' - .... xeept or u.s m~. ul'ieW' ~ ~B

JI011km fJ[U\it .. k m·R)· 00 rL-pradUCM • b" $arm

·Lbout fM. ~;(]11i writf£D .,. . ":I~ of rlte pH 'lish'll' ..

iDlY or use or mi

ormatiOi'l co I in Q m _ ~ 5 boo,k ~

Chap,feT Six Te,s:, I ~ - r' 5,3,

Chapter IOlnQ Introdueti'QJl 10, ExpJlosives 1

-

ChGjJ"~r 2\(Ia

FhYsJl,QS ofE~,u~r'getic MatctiAl Deeozn position 5

€lit" ' ter Tl1r,f!£ &:p,lpsive. I' aterial C:he -".-try 17

C,1Jap't-e,r Four Physics, of Erplosives 23

eh ~j]Jt~r Ftuie &ql1oai re Ma:t.eriaIs 3,19

G

WA,

The procedures described i"n 'this lna.·n.u.iitI land. t11e resulting . 'na fJ"rloQ! ucts arec4tremel;y ri:q/I'ig.~"'D.,U8. .. 'Vhen' ver dlea.ling ~tb high e¥R.] "ili $;S~ sp'eci,aJ precaustons must be fol {lowed ,"n aa.Go;e,Qanee with inauat};y stand,ards far eZpetim~n.:titi,o flJJJd prc4u(tiQD of high e~p,l@p.ilv'as. Fa..ilura tl~ &tr.ictJ,- fnllo,w' *ueh industry standards may resnll in harm to lir~ ,and ltJ.llb

. refore, the autho l' puhl:.i:lne·r, and ~striblJ:tQrs 'af disel im an l~·;tbility frtlm ,al)j! ,damages er

any type tha;t II r~a4rfll nr UE;,BT' of Trlfor'-

-, · ~ ~ th 0; .. b 1,.,..

con amen Wl-, lin j', , s ~~;OO!fi,., may I~'n'o,albfft~:r fro:ll1.

e of said i,nfolT a·ti~,·o. U'>0 th~ ma.'e:~ial :a-:1I,A:""&.~ manual aD~ aw end p ~Jil:u~{)F by~ own r~·]t.

r i;ifiJrrnarion purpO,fjeJf Q~~",

~i.."Mter' O.'d. ~~. ~.~ - .. ~

_' TRODUCTIO TO EXPLOS':VES

e:~e of':ihe· !B~jt feared)., mlS ~ ., and

1,~a&1:llA,der~t, 'IQdsubS!*1lDCeS 0 the ~ __ ~1IP'" .fa~~of'tbe~a~h··~ell~n1r(?tiem· teri-

"~.~~~. ~

atl .. ~l1i 1hB~'tir'Q,a' 'est~~ense~,e erg,e .ic

,~~~~, m.a?t'.·';Ei,al~ ~a~ e,ov·~·r a.vet '~. lUg

(!lO,m e'la,miJl!Bt~~'h~l'e~ to~.,}tjgh eAplo ...

~&1t~~ !,f~e.~ @ If!tilCihY e, : ;~eln\iDi ·'his " · de

l~f" ~c,~p.\gB of m ;lteri-a'L' ~IS·tc ,cons-de,'

~'~-:;:_~ the. ~~ at, :jfe~p.empo;u_n· s of mi~-

. _J ~ i-eS: ~~ 'I ,_'®m~utlldi~ i:tta't) l}p\4elme~s a Ic}iaUge 0 -, mma. a~a.-. '.IYl a ~,om!iistti.·-.I-:· ~bil~h r~~II~_iB t~e' leneT.atifJelt, o11«m:er~ ~o. ate dteh~p ~ ~ tie ~o'W puionUij{ Qi cl!lmbll$ti:lilltls w :ehe ,Filll/P" Q C : e:m ~e" decomposition

qf a bljap~~ ; ... ~p)~(si¥ti,.

H4~~ of ij,le ~e ,iJ1"&ne~ mtt~ltial.rit ca,nnot lWa.tge " . ~~i'f;1 . n 'nnfil ;Stt~t tllet:,,· has me.1. Dem Qade(fiO, .. g;Ett~_ pryces.$'~stariH Gf,g"liitlO;n, O( ·ini:tia .boa); Th'6·ett~"'gy atil~d to.' e ma,,,,,.ial ca . b <:in the Jonn of:bmt, i:inpa~ Ii "etlan] shook,. ,or an!, oombIntio

ff1h~~ e.;Q~ sowoos'(S · Fig" 1,), .

Oaee 11 JDatreri~ IStaIPudlO und .;rg;" dooomposition, it

als" " ' .• IgiDs )9. diii&. to·· ew m . .ed.·· .. T':new nnrte ·i· al :".; sai .. : ~ he · .. . mat'fl!ltAh .. e st '. l!!~' 9'P is ~ .... '. e . .. ~

to am tJ'le-ilI'i'W, all,. a.terial FIJt ins-tan. piecEIof

I

\

,\,'\' \

\. \ \ y'-

\ \ \ I -'--.lL~:

/ / / I /

.. -.,~ethods of eM~'€:tic M{Zt'e.rlal mltiatw

~~,~ ... ' I' ,to smoke and a&h;~"I' which arr@ ~for,e~, the bumi~r afWOO', 'pte J, , ,ce ..."" ... ...& ..... , or a.mor~ 8,. ¢}l, tl!P8 of.t ,I, ",

:::nn. .. ",",-*~;a dr ,. ng:' the decamp'Qs 'tiOO 01'

'8 newtttutrformed b)? ~ .fe-com ... mai.e-n$, is 'so a mo):,e' slable s; - itQ .... ¥\' .. ,A.'W'!.:Eii.·st to-theupl,osiV'eB e~eer7. the

bf an eaplOl, ~ V'e material proAuces.181r,ge gases '. I C>fl:ik, smoke) and ~ ,or am~ts ot r ld-, -" ~p o["ke aShes)" allGf ,,- :ten are.8Ceblt\, _Q_

· ed Y the release- ," ~ ;~t artlOuuts 0 h.eat~

T.hi 'rapi pro' nc~on " , IJ-le's frOm " ~,Ie d "".filJ~po~ , :OD an .plo le results in th '0~ __: - aU6Il of a bigb,-p,r.'$re zone i hearea here ~ ecomp,os.ltiofi is \alting' . if; a. .. port, nt concept, to uDh(lets,tanQ

·spneratjbn fpc',sureie. "@ orthe-thtn,p

w'~i~~nt .tb,~p~t to RSe,_ 'lr-eIample" irthe e~e,rgeti~ ·m~tef1~ 1& 'n~de or.;omfl el .:;;ed Qf p~a11yJ'closeA cp'l)" taIner.r (. Aol.ln th&·ground a buildin~ ec_C,,-) then. tlte

, e.;' .:J 1::.. d ' . ~, ~. ' e ,

.pEQBs~ I6f1II~: ~ u~ - 8ooDiposi'1iQn eottlc\ Qa ~ enough

~'~.PQ~~ th~ oon\amJeP apa~ fibt ill tlte tl~~~ the pDl8:" p~" It "'ui1_ .. -,pf~~.~ :n~u4t~ ~ll ,push 2lg1t\n.t Obj~t5 "~.D1oy. 00, .~troy :th~~ kind .oflilfe a. ~: r.(fDg' . d

On .' " ;'e~Q;~~' h1'prl~ if t;." .. ~e:~' mpcnftioJ1 of th~ _ ·ner .. i.elje ~m:a,~ri'~ . i.e . tl8~~I:r r~t'" the .ar·ee oj .. ',ecoIl1po,i~]'OD til' ",elo.:Ie' 'by $Ji~' Qt ·$!!'re~$~l#Q·pj~,8 whieR mcrve 0Ut. throu . ,-)thQJQrrtlnnding media.' w' ile' pt~ 'u,rais &19'0' hli*g Dujl1ti bp]Y":"I ,._ a,l '1':8· " lie.&O)ll_" Ifjitif)J;;l).Ofiwpor-

't; q • • .....)0,. ,. • - ~h .,p: 1., ""~ , '~'" . ~ 'II!: - ,

baD~e, so 115115, iii', Ie lae"b Li.l1elt tilt. S,uO&JL c a '9 ,:0 ',aJ:ns so

m~u'elt e,-JerB tliat~ilt WI' l1)reG' thin~s arou' d ~t , e

7,>." ~

Et' nc:k _B'V"., \l.n1tke i.J2eSsu;r,e_, :d;b'esAo,t pllsh {tgainSct an

o~j.q;t; it ae~-ualty en~x .l!h'eocjs<t.:i Bntlbreaks it apart :[rDm.th.e i~sill" ~ l\is .t;h·,~ c:om.bjm ·_i ]a or preaure and

~'L,~~I~~-:-fI'!I,"'6 '~··~'n~Q/ .. ,f.'J~: ""'L·~~t .. m·, I' a" ,'1 ..... BC!('.~a;~n· ~~ti-" n m" . ill 01

~~'~.!\:: '-il"~: ~ . -.;."~I~·l-a, ~l~~ -11IIl~1 .:__: .. Ji.~~ U1 -.' ~_~v#. ~ . \.if!' I· - ~ , ~

froth \IS~rul a:tld, ha~tlfrdoo.~

In t,· e p~a(}e:alng pU:--, F,b!.~ th~~_IUij l'Uitij: fj~S et}n-

_ .. ' pre,' .I,'ail e.k\Si9nkn.reo.mi,~tibll· r. ·tmDpgb Ito!. ~ex.~ a? e.p~~~- - ure o-r' pressu, -.e ,ltd slio~k)' 'it.:a· . I11t', Oldl1tteeL. In 'nl'QrE! '·s "Je',tifie·'· :nraal, 11 the decGmpt)sit~OJ1'~ en:ege,t!~ m,&W/ : ",: 0Ct~~,6t II ratrs,.~~eBtBr' tllantbte':pseGl,bf~saund~ the ' ! :eb~~.tiq9lJ}<p':r~e'f! i:,~~J~J.ed,ditena&ion,~ 'WJj${l: an len~' g.tie tnaw);,f'~ ·~i~ capablltlOf lU1, ': rgaing, detenAtion ..

, _;o '-'L.i., .' .. , ........ 1 )01 11 ";'~'.

tl'']J;~ deC,fllrRp6'siil an ~~ w~ ~t-··e . t;~"get1e' ma'~w 'lS It! ~e,tl Me

hi;g.h. !e~pln'8i1Jll.' ~he. 2lfR,UaI IpeE!d .a~. whi.e· c tJlf!! r. 'ne. onation moveS' t/J'IQfJag€t~es ~!J~ .' Qug\·t·~a- e~~·eti(;'.D\ll· en ~ [ is ~e.fened.to {U t&-e materiaf~s; de'~n6It~'n ~lQftfj~, and i~ is l<"\A'~,' 'iI!I'~~e,d as a,~~,~·l .Of'·C ,asameatioD Ofbigh ex~1Iosi178 ~ VJl.I: ;;"ibe ~tit~ hand. ihe,en ··glltic m,a:fu ~~. ndeTgOft!~:' o'CQmp9Biin at · :a"tle 1 .. s ·tban t1i . ~pee~ D J$Qumi the rl~QQl1l,R~jtio.n WGtCflSS Ii "C:aille(i ilr4ftCf.grttt' Qn tgupetfasrt buffdng~~ Eli .Egetic ma c,-·rialS that dacomp.O$e

,hr'~ ugh defl.Q'r&. ioa are ,.rQ· .-ad i'a, as ~iliw' zyt(JS ~"fJ.es) &Bd ·the~ ·do! n~Qf. gElne, ' '. ' ~ 1; I t)'~ a" ~ . . ",an' ] , 'p

, -1." ~':~ ~n'i'!i' +, .-. .PiI:iv.:, i n 0" [" ~):a L .. ,. L d. ;to ' : I g. d

~~WI ;J;:VtL v.-.~ I ~~...~ I~ IL I e. ,jIjr;,&~ ~ " •

LOs-lVE'

:1

"D "9 a deeo p, ition veioc-ty of abo ut 3,~OOO .,....,.,_ (ipS).

_ ' leeornpositio I" ' Is v -1, w. it i! '- e _ e ' , to

eombu tion, or b- .ing, Comb _ -,ti In is the normal form of d composition far mlste- ~ all ~ '-or the most part noneneree . c tha h,t!ve been ignite,d. III mos't cases of Jon, th e - e~-- ~ tt e, if any~ ; ess:ur" geaer'at ...

eli Ho ' " r .irr s '05; -, I tbilJ:~, ,', re are eKC. ~ptiOIlS

,t 'rule c .nd under sp seial co' ditions booth energetic and! non _ lerg1etie m aterials CI_D be made to burn, de,flagrate, or d- tonate;

! ' •. etlagratiC· of energetie mat. "Ills is an e3:e,b,er.mie redox r'eaeti'Ql1, In [Il[@~e [CJQm mon terms ' i t ~ - .. a!f[· "&c ' ... on

tbatl1 3Zlce mitia:te1d" gen,era,rtes, &uftiei : !tt energy' te sustain the readion. The ac'b:\l1!a.l physics of iIDtiartion of eneL'getic materials i~ v~(ry eoraplea and eyond t.he scopsufLste t, Lis .9",' nrn-nto know tha "gn"tion .Qe.w-rs 1f~Jil' en an e~ro- - eD;~~ souree intl'-.'_ -C'-!, ener-

.gy to an. e:Q&'~tie m teriaJ, eaus . g WIt spots '1;0 form on

or in the, material.

Figur ~.' 2, is ai', -~'cro eopie rep.res. n t·· - ~o- -" a Dar-sur ..

face c , ..... , ..• sectio ot,nerg ic ." ajerial. '. " ipp ed

red .. ' :gl ~ rli!:lITeB t ' een ' ou (. d

up of ni Ol"e Lb.' ", one t.ype fs ,ff)' . . ( . tu

D· ~ _ .. A-G' O_A~TI'; '[0" -N; D.E'I~ .. , ~ . _'.

AlCROSCOPlC V~EW

.-

t t is no, all ( e ,1., B 6ha~ e: lor ~ Dat lie m, the same dir '.. . ion) char _ cter of melt commOln ene~letie materi ... al'.T e . ,"C -,,·tche~ btooksreprale:t.tbtlf!!eaeetioflSof -.-.:-' al at are . "" t susceptible to the external enert i : bela' ,~ trodu,ce" 1£ he energy was hea,!;" P8l"ro . an adjacent ,fire, the c ·.I~ shate ~.ed bl c.ks

........ -- be tho . po . ioi s of the -; fl, eri,al " ost;~ . _e .. p ~_ heat ene c. ,Yo ha ._Ie t:. 8' xte nal soure ~ 11).[

e gY2 it", impo. tan' 0 r .eog. - ize t . at ',e initial

t r _ on of . ,n . U ith _ nerg:etic material m y ntt

I rm 00' SI

e e three _ a.:· . . e" hods for

n

-

co .prlesslo-'

~ateri,~ ean cause ,adiabatie com_pT@ssian afl:i.ny gas bub· bles entrapped. within the 'exPlosive mbrlure; (2) deforms .. tio'n 0, m~vement ofte mat'Grial an eause: "ct"on he~atlq' when, the sudaces ot solidinpedient rubbed tt)ge'~r; and (3) rapidly flowing IDJlterialB can generate viscous beat ~~ the! are forced throuJh the explosi e. In most cases Lof,defiagr,ation, there will be mare than one ho,t-spot gene " ,ation. m,e.ebanilm a' .' ark" The resultant hot lpot i'niti.ally.is very ma,ll (10 JJ to, 10 .s, em ~ . am ter.

Dr .001 to .000'01 ~m) re:b,tive to the: explosiv&· . ture f overaJJ volume. ,Altilaugb 'rn];keLy, lfthefe ;ere no nsj.t ive areas lor y.oi,ds in ha uplosive mixt· , could no, _ for.ml. GJd., 11~'1 D ", erploslon wo,uld ace this doe ' 'happftyn (often due to OV6'r'c,om aeti ~lrJsive is ,oonli~d a.a being de,ad~1'7e,Ssed~,

Once the ener-p't;ie material lias, been exposed· sternal enelrgy an,d h.ot spot '" hav¥ -I, een generated, he 8 ,-

fa!ce ofthe,ma lemal wi111~Dn reach temperat-enough to vO atilise It. GeneraIlJI . ·s proce . 1 C eil the tnriuctioDlag or i.gn.ition. t'tme ,i!kq" eeeurs in 8. very short

.. eried of tim . (xneasure .. in mie pseconds). T er is no ~tandlD'd lag tim:e £or exploSive m: .. , rial since the · nduetion lagi" depenOOnoo. the oompo.·~.· ion Dfthe .. losive mixture" As an exatrJ,pleJ the liquid, nitlYJ~lYCBrin, begins

o vaporize a1; olnty 1401ioF, whereas tbB soltd, sulpB,ul!,

requiTesl aro\:ll\d ,6fJOQ-, . to yolati1i~e.

, . 'ith t,h~ def]a~atiDln prcce~s Qn,Etle,r~,a,y, -eh,Q eneT-

geticaterial environment takes CD: a del' ite la. ered eharaeter (POg. 3). Beea . se 'be fl~,m' WIle i' the heat sro~e that :peirpetuates volatihzatJon of the e:rc:plosivel it ean 1:1 ..• viewed as the key layer. The hoUer the flame zone:. th : moe rapid ;the rate 0 ... . oa iliza.' ooandl t I u

the llloeaflid then' at of decor osi lien, he e prorlnced hy .. efi.a.gr - tWill or the < loBi v ere t·· . P • SM

sure zone that expand = into t.he surroundt . g m dda, rbe pressue experlelPCOO' this z. ~. i ' .. runio . al

the rat~' of defl g atio and tc I.' dBgr" ~. _,-, Q ...

ment 0: t. .... e" 'gati€:' I ,- ."a1 ~

- ~ -

n. T1efI,argratitJn __ ' ne8.

Iftb en@rg'etic mat:e-ri- ] ~JI u.n,eonfine1i.{iln 0'- er words it is sitting Olut 1. _ ~e open))' - t@!;SSllre mt11in. t, e ...... _El< sure zone l"ap dly drops to the 3UlTDundihg amb ent nra ~at. 'aspheric resi ure.ifyo,\l are'- tdOQra)~ Ir' ene. ge' · £ material is oojOfiDed~ , ., mW'&ve 1 sUJeb.1UJ. in a drill bole 'Or steel pipe" ~ ~ e ': ~ure: zonftt~ p -eBsur~ cannot dro " 'BDlhien prel"Sllre until - t, has first risen tu a

1 19 eooug to, overeome the st en,gth of w'ha1av'er

s c · glt As, t,h pr seure inha P:F1BSflUre ZGl1e

·ncreases, i forces ,s'flame zone to d the fA, - ace of'

e)lerge c aterial; ~ - creasing the rate 'of,hefl'- iT:'- _ ,8 o t e ,I ateria11 which res llts in an increase in the, tlagrati n,

_ A gOOd e,'~ple of deflagra~bn is ill tbe~b~tioD; Of a~ b~ack pow.dc:rmle• To represent unconfined. deoompris·: wn,.-!I' ~ormalload.ofb' aelr p.owcier, apprOXimately 90. gram!" ts- plae.ed 00 the g-roun:li..A 1- aa bUllet it; place: on

~ »~ of powder "nd the'powder ill ~~ted. Up ignitlt\1l a.,latgec".;Olld lofl~Slel will bile ,'reated and a small

'nOise .':- OCCDrJ ~iQt the lead tiulle will. barel 00 moved. DreQarnp.Q;siti'GntOP~·p.ll:ee~~bp .. t. the lmltORfil)ed p. sure !lone. D·e.er ;r~acbe.td_a~vel Mdt eoou.gh to fG,oo th flame zon " lbwlttd ~ surra~ ,oftbe bJ~,'r .. PDwtler~'

[F~ h:',.,wew~.J tMSJIlle B#lbiint of'±~Qwdel:we~ p a's into. a Piflie.anda hltJllet,iirmlYFoP]ac" d ()B toll oft e pq der, tl),e ,energebie m ,ateriBl ~ ~ .til, "'" e()nfin~d. 'gnj'- .. " h Eaw~'Wi ~,~oduee a ~iaerab ' n.nisll~ ani the bullet Will Q~~ th,ow.·~m l'!a~1g·.·, isean~~e Wh'at has hap~~ed is t~ at, the de$)l)gratioB .,~Dtu'.!e~s remained oonfine, un'·~ it . i ad geiletat,e.d a p'r~s~~l·'~~&uf.ficient to mo'¥s,t e b Ie do:\~ the B~ei Q~fi~he-~ .. ITh4s smell i . ere· age ~. , , ~es-

!ilu:r~ farced tbe,flam$'wDe, ~lose,r[;J.,the explosive and

merna"sei'the raie 0' deo~Q~ 1'~in~eased ra~ of r dIag'l'a'ian l»'fI:du- a m'T:" '~' ", ,'ul rtll6ase ore, erJm iha4 the .d@eo~tiD" of hbi uncOin fined p1J.e ofl>Wde}',

In t.b:e-3blJy~~ple:;.the lead .. \iDe' "9.d;~, en-se.ed

m ffte rifle Eo Wat it-mula: D~, be m:aveID. ~ def1apation prt'lC-(!h~ ooulcihaveJ)'IC!Jme a"detQnatioh~i~e ~e'OOmpq§i. tW-ll. Iil hf)agh ii-is doomJ1L~' ft1 '_ .luw:- eqloBl'v.e t ~. ritlllOO d&tonat'iM. i ,C8rI. h:JlP~.n u del' the prbp r -c:andi.~. In ~case, tP-e 10 eJP10si v~ ~ us'll lie C llfille:d in

slltlh a '_ flY Ibat- the. ~R~~~JS pre:uml'e ine "OS1!s to a pamt whj:li a -tbe- -, 'Jl19: ziJffe is- dliv. into the U'l"Pti'C mat0rid1. Thf_ i~ !rftferred {o as a- c.f);1t-!)ee~it!e flam.' (r(Jn~ , ,dis ehanre~~, b J .e propag~m w:hot eo bu t-w

gaH$ ;thiougli . :he pores of tlle.e-tPlosive.

;For Murnple, ifaJ OJ;! g- p,j!e is fille' wi,th a low ~plo.

sive and ~: eit:PJ_", ,Y is i:g'ulted at tb:e 0; en end of the ipe.,1I; , explosive wdl st~ -~ deBa' , ating, iii iti -een.umed" t .' ~ •. ame front '. ~li)~ de., r into· · e and

pre~!i!ue begia!J" uild, phi it. Th pi S

N 9

. ga· e . i :creas s . a "al.. SDOn a

serles of oompre'Ssfw w-a~s of'small i tEinlJl Y' ue pl'Q ,dllCIJd and trB~1 fQrwar.d mto the material. These aves are _ar,ac_.enz"e.d ,bY'8 front and ba'clf slo t~·, t are ~mest idEt . ,ti~tLl (~ig. . .. '); ~ ~opagati.on o£eompr&Fo

~lil~. Wl\'~R.tuOu.rli ~he le'Jp1'osjve m~te-rial Ee.sults in an eYAIJ more. a~~~1"r'ated pre· .urre and temperat\l.re b·uildn ,'.' .. E~ent, . ·QU, ~h" 'mte ofbnild . p eatl '.' . a poi w.here, ·the. wa·.tt.&peak runpli de (it kJp~ is IC' -~ e ate to a spee'·' fute~ mam~·leading·~ "<dge or~ wave (Fig .. 4B}~, i,ls the i e~ oCthlif" ,a:ve'Ove, tU"es ~;ts le.adi4g- dge~ il nQlonger is ~, cro,mp~'erS'ai\;!.1e wa, -s but- has become a shoclt W8Ye~ /W'uieh is ~a»aeteriZed by an almos' instan'tat\~ ~~:s. prJl~ur'e n,se. c···t its ~Nlnt, (, "-ig~ tlG)~ k.t t ~:. pain

thl}.expUl$il·;e m,a;~al~d.~i -positie!p.i~ bPro g d· toB,at-ion. W:hieb. ~ s ~sed b" th'BJ .hoek w, '.v; ~ The phe ... "~"lIe ..nju.st described is mClst Qt~Ji. T.ltlJifarre i as a Detlf:m~.t{J'll; to. D,fJtiJnem.rm Tha/It.t{" (DDT).

N II

DETONATION

Th~e: de~t~~~~ ~l,an J~,alt:getic' material i' " shoe ,. wave lm<tia.' eB" .s,e1fiip '~l1ai 'tlng p eeess ..w:, ' [Cn 'tlr axi. - com .e!;.:" ,e, cttt~t, ofaju,ta}!fositioned sho-:' ·ave

pro: lUG . s a change e. " .tate,n'" h"'L'U1'eJige:tie m, 1:erial. .. .' 8i a m:outbfuI! €Jns ",;:t to I ' Dk .t t]rill is 'to m'tl'atize

tbe~ah-o,clt-w~liI" as semething that ,lams into the upio-

sift SG hmrd' and S6 Pi 1ft . iJ1,alt 'tha e' plOtfive maitBrial ean-

not :roo :e'out. of the -wa::.. A1 a l' nit. tb.ell&rg Ii at .. oul h.a,valiutiN'! te :rpatfa"' aL'nsta, ea . S&. it tl! tmdeJ'iIO ce ,~6rM_~ 'E:bis cba.nge of state re .Qlts :in an -e;othermiee'b!.em.i6a! de'· ompositiml thaat is glV'Em oro. ~ ~ Dl.p€)sition th~ nrov'ls th~h,e 0lI:P 0 ,.-ve at !it r-stJe proortlP al W t speed ef ~ e hoc: '. - • .and it keeps the IlIhlook W'I;I\' movilll 0 ,1 . ,onto' - ,

:AJthQngh it .1$ the shock w2ve,.tbat; m~es thr u .~ t1!e 9~tic: . aileri~ another way o.f · .. ¥lUl~ iietona lion IS

to coo Jdet' the sb . waY . aJS bet,' ,t· ti .. ry' d th

eDel"1 tic ,at .:rIal .J -b

1E.. ....... _1~.., .' .,~ IL::,-"Il

~~A Wal&B:,lS,. . e. 'l.lU,·

= : : }

rod. :·8. ·th., wave has, the S'- ,', pe of's

com pression ' aV~jl a- m. - -, '" '.'. e 4A~ it is ~.' e a smoot

hill 'atthe mate, ial can ,_asny~ao.@l'r~'snlt'hltgin no

etona ' to on. Howelfer.. if the S <(Jj k - , '. ave is, like a bill that, teep erward ,I-ide, as h1 '. '''glU'e -lO, the material . am into ecl~rri' ,st::dorpa.s$~ngo'erthahill~

oc' of Iamm ~ irrt.Q the enr . ~nts-en,erD into the' aster th~ t e - aten-al e·aQ deftil1, ; as a result

10 - ~ - begins D undergo c~emieal deroIDposf- ----on., a 5 illust atesth s . onr:ep~ '8.ee~pt that;on t- e e e ,ock a e is m~vi '2 and the enel~tim ,ti!Qn -~'~ eshee .Qf.eace.oft1ew'ave "to e erpl, e ~ II ·lates the .de.~.DJLpos."·:ti,olt

.. ,- theD. geDerate~ eno, gh., eD.ftrgy to kee . tho a "on proc:ess go ~,' li-

Interes i- g tl\ gs about a u e is til.

. ple, and: ',' - t - Q ds tr - D r the d lo,na;ticn ~.!Jl,I' p e £the "n ·th the'steep on, s·d

i no, go h detai ,r: ally

·• I • !iii !!l iI r:"" - -.-~ ~.~ .Ii i.. ~- - 1'1 -'~ ...

~ .

~ • I~. _ ' 'f'!" i j'!l. ~E'" '(O-J l' -',,"~

II ,v ..

. ,C J H~~ ~ - '

F~rt 6:~ Tbre rllf&~fl~,tliirtp'rQ(jft~J ~

~ain wh.afe is heRPenmg.m the ~fotmtlQ . NI'o ,So 1bt b,ette: unde~El1Y' ~t;8 'hawe'n dtll'lllg Ii -(I- ROlfnOh, we will '·:ee2:e ~ de' ; .. a,'mi .·.toc;eS~ in ti, , • and View -the b~Jif{' ·c terlaJ·as :b~g sub.divitled 'nttl sb"; ba$icWe.s-!ifl!llre !LOD:l\ls. Th:.~ are: tbo.e-who W'ONb:ll at'gue that.~. m;fr 1':1(:(\:' Iftl;t;e "6sCri~€m..o£ the: ~i~ .zones 1'1 uldo

P" ~,-. ;V-" ~1"", -_

be i . hasebeir el~&t:i~dhthtH:rum~ria1 dimsit, in

each. zan~ For our e . Igil10e,ariEg Ile:,sa.: ,howrQ;ve f e c' 'n

l1Ww tile sti.hr!l.iriSj.tlIL as i~,m ~ )h1C)p: 'e 1JU!Ltftrial ;is

;3,. ..., 13''::'" J,,'L,·

\UlIQ,Q' 119m:, '~lereJllf ,c-"ange,s.

Tlu~.most imp ort lin,; 'subdi vilSl 0 . is t.le are,..a w:b.ere . _. h. dt ~i ..•. 111 .. ed 1tea:(JJ' deenmp'.··· ' . ~,·t" on - s ,'. ki ' g p ace, :te~et 00 as the iJ(f.ffiE;J, ,·8ltt:tWll or d ~ ",Q1l,e (Fig, ill.1n thltiUnsration "~ dfn;I¢tio ofde'iona '0. is from lJi, .. t ~ !f: ~;~~ Qi:ere. 01':0', tq ,th~ ri;'ht also mMnS to tb £ront. Th~1!I the imt'i81lf·;a.etiO'tl eene has·b) its f " q:l; the 3kpQk -iJ);lJ!)e. {ron' an ,. ,. e i ill" .. · tee ... plon ,Th

shu.t.. oav . -on :1:' 1;hlb Vl 1'1 s '.. U PC)) '0 or·, . ,. o-

.aiv«b':fi~ th d ont,IOU w: ·e,ists. The .. J pI

ON I

1

I J '_-,:.

~ ,r - 1'.4

I J I

I jP

I •

ree

out-goi I i 0' or, -~' S,' _ ··a ~JiJl :ed'd, the interaction (I,bas',c esp o~·~·, '_n~~:htscan be ~l\ ... -"~i. .... .l with,·two rJf'the emenows found m black guQ ..

l'u"",u"QWU ,_..,_l ~ 1.,.1 '.,

po del'. The oxittWngcbeitU~ ~ae ' ~.' ..... fjl'IS ~ta$~

• or te ' I '_ 0a)' __ don c _ , ,_ f s • IS caTbpn,~m~F In.

, . rea • a prot s, the COlD. onentJ of he .~di2&1" ~ s~p ,.' amd and reeombi4ed _ t the tarbon. The dlellUcal eqdti'Ol1 ~r tbi~ ~ss • as rJllll~ws::

9~' " 0,,+ Gla·.~ '~COa + ,CO! + 001 N2

BeC8.llS8 paWsi\lm 'ni~late, :supplies, conC8lltratl$:loQ~ geu. to 'the ear1J9111 the: t.emp'e'fatnre ,g]v'eil ,olfi~ ttt~mg earbon diOxide (C02~ and c:: ,-lion moneX:ide 'CO~ i!; Dlla, 'Weal ,. "an or~~h$tits • wh.~ h. g . ygs'3, is lupp{i,sd lw ib;e air. AlSJO, ", _ e rate ,~t whieh the Q~ pels· tiQO bikes, pla,e€!: " ; ~ llch fas'" be£~l,lJ9 oetha canova ...

ra:' - d o::gg~n~, and 'tlltll u_~ble ~B~ ~'e prod C'e~

If t- ,.;J~d '" "L ..,'11.;. 'Ii' :d, r ,< '" I ,.I": ...J'~ 1..1" gl~. -, ere lJO aYJ, 'Wle l!.nttq ,0. 'emlea iQ'Ullti.1n H_,a~

po de, sulp'h_ ".(:,,_, a differeJ1t",de~mpG8itien f)P\iiteSs

. ,oukL~ place. 1, " "oom~ ~the C»ti ":rBr are l'l, p~ ~ted _d 1"~¢OmJ;ji~"wJthtbreyciP'btm and. the.suIpb1w:. l'lis results ill t,·, ... "fO~3tiQ'Q of . (~ alnQ11Rt of solld

.,' " II rlne w\e'd 'n"(:ir~,.,.~ 1l~'ft!1 '&llln~,~~~ t,l('~g!\. l_~~ ~~ i~'I"'''IflIlir~ ~f;;

, ~. '~. ~'~ "~·»F~.J..CU.~b-~~ 'o..uLIl~u...lI..L~ M

the, as carhoo dio.:nde (CQ~) alla SZIlalle-' atbolllit, . olthe:

gaa. .~~~. Writtlm Ui the ~.d'chemist!,' he

dettJm.~tibn'Of~~d'erwaulJi~_foill~; .>

~03~S- Sc guJlJKNIi ,ar

I .....

-

w

Figurt 8~ \latl'U~·~t~, r~etrMJ' .' UJ 4f;tOMJta'k JJliXt'UTie CfJD he-hazardlJl1s1o ·YOU)! be·alih.

If it W'tte p/os$ibl~ to tl1im ~ e":e:tgIHtie mat,sri,g1, £tum.p _ 'rretem~ts. ~ fuel 8l~ud 'QXi,~z~' -a~&f:~Q,",""OX)!€en'" b,a fanc_e miatu,re w.Quld.1!u~,' e~s1 to oti~~it)f)~, This is, pot . b '. e.Me~ huw:eve;rt F<)l: ~, '. ample:; tti~.mns:t ejJmmo.liQ·'~ -~ ~ ze.:rft used in cOltllmersial·tUpl0.i~es .. ·tirp am.mo" :1~:lI;lm

'1"11; t:.~"!lII'+ . " ~n'l;F:, ~' .. ~ Y~ ..; ... :"> Q'.. t,d, dQ 'n'~ ...l a:g,~t A; '1'ir~1 ~,4.'"M.~·~aJ ,.gll,~ o~..e_ ~ ~J.""O'~ ., 1j;';JU U.J;¥A.JA. ~ A~tlI v, ~ til 1Iki~, ¥.'L.,~ '~:~~£-'~ ~I~ ... IU.JJ. _~;~

:51 b haY'e _he 0 "d.i:~mr element ,,,ut,·g.l1 ('Q;) elJ;tBbl·~ed

,. ~t· Olthw eieme'_ '18, Wh~n~ en~g~t(e: m.ieria~l eo.r,~ f:ainmg lb_'eBle Qxitti'lemunde~g6~ d,ett!ll\PfQ'BitiQ~ 'some of fibl~lO- .-en i::s llsBi up ift :pl(qtinc;tion' {'s~" ·~,'~~li:Qh ... bing CEH:npO unds s»cla- as NO,I{,&O atltfl';r l:J2 .~As wa:\." " ~aid &adieI~ tlris results ~ D an 0Vetall~redum(}'1fl in en" '" ;. 'BI gyTlolease and ofL'Bfl::m tbe ._"., , ~G'$ of to~ f\Un~~~,

Th common comm _eiaJ. biC-"plol: ~1"i8 O:.j.dl2;er, ammQmllll\ nit ate t-, :", )7ln cumbinati'O!L Vlith th,e.~"df:'l.

.. l,,:~. I

fuel 0·1 (CHg)s or in t;om..bUrat£~n with, t&.- se.neiti7&."u,g

f el, aluminum (AJ).,_ t;atl be used :ta, 1.d0m~ ;_ z,t~ate ,e:nergy~, rete~{'e13xio~ps~ Itquati&ns 1 throug~~3 <be'lcrw I ".~

--

...

,_ I ,I , . if' ~ .. " h

1\:s~ hat ,~e ,pe: !l.ect ttxp 0']V0 mu::~'u;r nas

been ce . 0~3.ted. anE ·as ..•. " ideal ~mdrril: eoo . gn . alWn, th .' Ii e.is a theol',tloo1 ceto atiOll' ociliyl and def.onaWn pre98\U'e. Tb. th~Nal detoDatilm velpcltt will be depeH,ren: on e " ~ eo ·tjilOSlt""14 bulk ~~

}il. ~ . ·.ra::tru-It~ p:re~ '$ .' '6, catalytic i' QJ(i'DOO:; ~ ana the elQcitr ' 'he int iationprOcsB' - T', 'B·,~ll~~,,"ng.'-· ,\1Jt' trons e _ ~abiti,h a wOTki:tl,g ~JltiODs:btp btlt;,al,ecn (1e~ tioh If 't 'II: ,or., .dem'nJt ~o,n :'le'laci~1 ar d 'Jjne dell.t, of the

,\... ~,

&xpJ.OSlve~ 'uuxture,iJ

Eq __ ati,nft 1

Pd~ (2.~{l5lx lO-'1)x>e,e ' "i;

- , here" P:d = de mea , l,j'Otl i_sma in kilOba1s

"s ~ de~~~n 1t~19Gi:t7·'·1 ie&tpw'SseGn "

. .do c, deumt, ~i"n ~am_s PftT eu"biQ '~ntitneter~

Squ"fltioa J

P...J :: tPj, ~ "'l-n :8\.~., IV' --r, .~ ~ lP-. ~ .U } ,.;Q,.. e-"~ d.

, -hie.; Vd = det.o,'n~· ,~on velcei~i~ ~~iI-;.. .. [~, PQ'" . s' g

~ ~ "VJ' ~ ,~~I1.CJL'Jj3 O~ll"iin'

: it ,- .. . . , ' .. " ~'~I~IJ'

. ..... '. 'ntl!~''!' Y' nams" 'cum- " .ol>

fJ a -- I ,e~l " . , L" I' I', I " " " ~ .

_ tW "- - _ - ~ _. pe '.' ~ , e .sew ~m;eter

"'
" c -
.
~
~
~
w
(j .0

.-;:::.0-

,

t.:o

. ~

n- {"5 1 k Y, '~g J po;, • .,J

. iB 1L~".e 9. lletoMu '(0,11- iHrl'Q~ttiii fqlr slteo 1t·dd" le',:qJ Z,~wtD.e:I." ('Ad(lfJtIJ4j7tom Joh.;Q.~; tl:~ p~. JfJ:1D~J

m ~,d,e \11' of' . 0 O~ D;loie OOmpfJne,n fjs ~ r . , :;I,out e.a5&S o':(u1! '-wnpa ent 'lll b., ~X')!gen-rleh 8;' '_;t.: ',n,. loth .. ~,ax,Y..,B.lI'" ~,£ici~ (or Q f'\ls1)~ m en lIs.inJ m.ul~'·"_·~J _ ~lDponeftt '~ll.~lQ~

ives, as·you ~. ·-_re·a"~'e _ Ie a'f1I\6ftt~ O,~t,1 ':: e"::p:l4al!:\YfJ lau wi~l inereqcse the de, "QIl2l'tioll "~el®.i_tl"~UP ~o ,a PQ~'Il.t: .. FuTbher ~'a-se in de -·~i' _' _., __ 1111,,~ a -r'eduG1i~ - _ in

t e ~ttlllation iel06tl'~Bee FiflUr~ 11).,

t e 1YQ in ere s-u,p1_~ eQtJatiollS 1, 2, 51.1)11.3 would

-

m

~.

""-.

SI

"

-

B

,~

Irlri' 1 :tj ~ t O,i>he~o. !).

1·~

1

f

/

I

~.

L

..

7

L

j =< -i...J_.:;........ --.;,.._.!!",;.~ __ ),....L ---,-....,..,.

1 1 i

c

1

1,

'] ....

I'

I / /

~

I

r

-

. ",

.....

·~----""'_"'_"" .9 L.h... ::::L---.... ..~ ........_. ______

?

Ffeb,n 1~., Det~tion ~ »ersse a,ll/Jpge ~l".

IQ~. den i y.and detenat~ velom.t, . 'f.be1'El! -IS atlother

. - ~ ~

me (If' eLpre$ing "~ prewute in: benn" , of'~1:

ona<o "" .at, an epli:ge'p "'cle"AI'~y,' ',', '., :Oq . '1l 'Equat~o 4belo ~eealI~e:it is al& ipt1s'bll!\i'to dete.m:rine. ,', e w:,loclty' f upl.os.ive p l'titl~itl: ~,'. ',.~xnt i.s har4 f;p pllOtQg:r,8.l"h ~ to duttt. antl~~llf ga~,

f

-,

i

--

, close relative to e~plo,sive seJlB:iin ',y. is explO$We - .. ,....,iitivene8S.' .~ .ast'tie " $S8 lfHl me~ ofaa

-.wI " , '8 ability ,to p~t.~ detonatiop aeros, an aft

gap. OIle ay 0{ e;asuriDg '~his i , to difide a 1114 iDih bY .. cll tick of, d ,QDlite in ~aff andle~ate (e.nd ~

tAd) Qtwohalveshy.a&ed~:.~e~~. i8lves ; then mitiated ana " detennUlatlOn:t1l mafia Ifttie JiPe<mul hal:t'was untiatOO..o et' tl)e air gap. This is amtiuued a ian?ngdina '.OOS until.he tl),nimtml di'·t1ine~ ein mches; over which the iIlitmtad balfiliicI Will catnm,tne. se.e.on.d i... r tel detonate is I': ·"etepmmled. T-bis maRimum dia~ is a meaaUl'&o1the'"8 .pk$ve.?g, '_siti:~ •

. . lLITY

.- . . '

. -" -

FI ~ mabilitx iSl1lllcb ~ sen ~;tilO"t~,i it is:A de.mnni !lation of 'an 8&P! 'osire -, ~-bsiti~tt to }j~in_i~'"·tea b~;'

, 'j,. ~ ,,. - - " ,t..., - .e ''1..''-' t l'

bea1L ThlS 1S a -·rel1'atlve measure of tae ,amm.mt 0,£ .098 .' :It

t It, ~ _ 0 ca,ILl.- e tll,'e ,explosive tQ h'urn/bat IJ;tli aetonate'~

L '

'l!i~T.eis '_l'Q~l t~'i·h.a.., .~_,I-:a~ ifreat$B!i!4" wi eause ~q:.~~

e 1.' .. ""'!fil!1~· ' .... .ii'i- ...1 ...... "' __ , ,,"~ ••• , * i',' -iin' , ,..:I , .. , 4&L, A'. ~'" i" f' J,..M,~

I X:,PllDSJ 11' ew \ft)wna,~,,, .t ~ _ • re.£¢lTeu ."' as 1)...U8 cnb;J~'Ql: ~/I"~-

pe rat ure 'af the ea_p19Is~;ve.

,~ftlJ KmSISTANCE

The }ater ~ . sl:&ta.nee bf an.expl(}s~-vle is' .ft m· ".~, ~~ ,,~rr~ of'

ho . ~an, hour.·;t. call remain Bubme~ge~ :lJl stUl Wia~~' and stiJ be detana . d~ Basieiill~ fbi's i15 a m~ of ~OVl

-,

5

-on t, i a defitrii\e l'elatlOoll hlp netwl!.Qn

:;;''\.I.ftd,.' -.' e "am' 'a' d length. Th~s O'datio II lip: is eonU d t, c,'o red lets' Iter "~,, l?o '.,Miid

'rero/r hel ~ for'rOOl'J); 'ep; d a FOpr.teb. bl asbee " own t!I, " erilllertbaily that mpst commerei'l

" plosiv s ' Q ire A eharg:e IffRgth ,t _a~tl~ fo.ur t~, tht~ S ' e ch if tli:uo~r to suppo'tt ' ptimUlU d~atWll"O~' ~-. i' i aao aT of the key' " ,mnefel;S~:U1 designing:

an ' . Ilosive train, ,-

10 ' 883, C E. MlllU'O'~' di:~ftt)ve -·d" sec,&md 8Te'a .' -'here

e c arne. shape i c nenees eqloSiye p, fo.rmapee. By indenting ODe gEld af a colw:nn oiupl415i ~"and'gIdtj -'g be op~'te end. M~ ."as able 1.0 dhtam a high~§ , , pIma.. Thi$ plaZl!.Ui pm~ded!Tom 1llteiIulemte ,end o~tbe ebarg', atspeeti~ frea:ter'illLan tbt! de~a"" -n.~ ~~~ t, _~, th~e!qltn!i):"e:-.. T'hllll~nOl'Ile1 flftl. re e:rr~d -bD. rae t'~' '~1 M'ltaroe Effet:t,~ or a s~a~e'ha,.ge'~ It it m9t~~Uie mat ' .' : ~al is used 'f)lin~ t'he 5,~\~e of-'~he.·i\lde;ff~tatidn,. the p"asma ~ ,~~ta~{l will be 9f'hi~H d$U:~it,. al:td t~b.lll PQ8:R", -f}tiT

eaCet ettetgias,., ~ es;pt{)',~~B-arame~s- (g,t the ~~to~

slv~ engin1eer to ltno'w, and 'lm'lie stit&d.~

~ A 'fl~E,,~n.TIa';t~ .. ~ ~~ ., ~"'trdl'.l.""~"~~'["l~

other fa~for tndt o,e:a-n iDirnl~inc" as.' ,1o~i'V'e IDe: Io:r ... rhant!i& is :~ne tleFee.df·-~tli1:nemit~· Qftheexp1.si;v'IE5' charge. In t e~quatjor.t: fil dl$.tollat~:(r'- .pr~S:sure-and veloci".l~ it is ,asSlUJlre~ that he charge' IS ·tPtan, , @~ :~, {l This: ID~I tl,~a~:iDbe e.41iatioo. UQ aIlowB1lU is m~Q8. f0r 10". ofhea.t 01"' the n~lea, ,~'C' eKpl~i .~ P:fQ~~t;s~ IDJt1.st, the :re-ver.;e a. "e ,oollfi.nement, _slIrIlptiollt tB:e equ:a::ti'tJn

. ssumes . h at. he'r~ &~ no lateral cGJnii1L~J)1e~fa \~ the pa~sago ,,,[the :de·t'nation ·WB~;e. in ~.oenl'<e) these 00, .'.~

fi~ftl1\B~~ fa'c\QTI t-eu', ~Q "ft \l~e the ~l . '.- '4)r},d ~Qluft~ ,of d. ,oaatjo'n p'feGsure and velGc~" to ba']ism thQ( " thGSf!

roduced, ·by ID. . .equat _anll"

p', · TIO:LE, SIZE

, asi pa a et,_rtp~t~' ", enr;;e'$ Fl'p,'losi,ieple~£or-

... L

-

'1

~
.. 1 L L
-
32
I -
f

S~(I 41 ~-5
-=

J) l:r: t, a
- expJOSiVf~ t.F3in~ Th· m1lin charge an:Q ~e~~o§t_r ~ seeaad:uy e:X'Pt'rJk~"vS! '~n~~e' nt ~ ea~. t~: .. i~iteid a, th.e

h ~ ~,~]j "

primer, - )lie: 1$, a p.Q:rnaQT ~~ti9'rve:

Th,o!I:P.81 «I'fr'irn. "";'m" ~Q 'Hlr_;}!-,.~ o· . a A'?'ii, t·'ft;;fi':!!I, n"~"'~.l'l .~. Q' 'l~~A'"nii'~~~ ·ar&-

~(~~ iQU. I(.il L'1o ~ 1f'f.~JLJ~.J:J.i ... - ~'" w:i'7 _.iIIT'[J! ~,~.u~, ,··f.t~.v..u...~~ ,_.A

add d ·t~- .het-.~plo.$~_n t:r,ai",·_ .. (Jew' ,~s~: Ch.Qtement.l-. ~a delfJj!" W' uch "IS de.signedt& p~eyent, dato) l·a~i~Jl oTt· .e

b I&." ~ 10?: ... c ~'A f"'" ...... R ~iI '~" t...

DOSier'lor a Sp~u~1!h;pe :c OU '0:' jinle~~lt~ J~' )Jams·: .. ,~a~

been fired. t1le" .' lh·~:· is,a nZo.._",. ~hi.~Jb. '~y be l\~ede~d to,

stren . ··l1eb 1he $.Acck ave O!fth~ de:l~ sp 'I. ,hat th,e mt11 -

.l~'r!w:I! ~n.~~I' '~ .' • ~ t...iII!I. . ..il

eror~~~~~FiOJ,I~"'C8Jl . ~TDl"a~u~

AJ- ... lGn'!li'l,d:k n": rn·b-M:3 ~'~ l,"'l" ... ~:t',Th~· J~"",,.D h-1., X;.? u.~[r t1.:,8 ~1;OC~I'" ,..Ih"PN ~._::auM,-~~ .r~·~a.tT~ ~~~~rf'~AT~ q. ... ~ ~< [~Q~- Iln:W':_~· Q,'~~lU~~

gerous lenergetic maltieri~ils~lle~*\lse·the~~re . fl' e."Sy te,>initjitte, . " . " do h'aw, aW'litati&~, irftrtDe'f' ~as-. F~ ·eaatrapl&" IillJtmatt,bes ~ ~.f~CtiOD~se .' s,itive comL~Q1LlDds in

btrmawh head. Also,: all . t&y,cfI1S ~: ~&eS, ~ lirsila-r~~~"Viees used fO".-1tCi ,af'atiDJ nni~ah ule ,of pri ... mary. explQsi~ To Sr.JtDe e '. ~1t1 Qne~ mig]]:t say t~t 'f~ app-: Ica.fiQJ1S af pnm8lY .~.~ lOai ~~l·· !jted be£~ t~~ used in tb,e ~!ia}llfJsives. .~-s." u.skJ~ It,;sB~wJd 'b'~ -note_d;t. D,()W~(tV~' er, tha't in all of'thtte riomndttstripl apjlliea ' ,~tflll~ the prj .... mary l!)tpl_ve is lS$Cl in'V 'ry smaD am.bunts,.,

-

---

- sf5

p

fA.t

l' rr

t 5 ReI AT V£

A I IT. TO

r "

rain ,f " 10 ives, These minutes may OltmaN·not

ude _' -mary e . . ',m ve, · Jlgl~' ~ ~ents. Beeause the~ ate e head of an e plosiv~: t am, hOW,tl sr', they are ed" his ~ext, . _e t, oillostcommon i .. iti~,:;'o

s a' ~ into thl.s category are friction.primsr«

,

pereu lion p ,- mer« ~

=-

.

~

.....

are any' de~ oomposed of an @Der-.-....,_!' eae able of prqducmg., " t1. . e, ,D~

......... ,V.L,IWiI .... · ner ., A ., ~ ,. al prime. material CD· -, 0 to

.. 8 the kitchen mate .. When used ' n. field-

.. -

a c. .. 0 . I! ~t 'kite:en mat<! . oes kt3'V··.

aofH91~aPPJication owev:e· ,the '~ct·'- -

al ~m~~ Otinieret hue an those used to tight fuzeii, mr:rotecbni~., or p:r:opeJla,nta~

Th.e mOB'. _~mmGll Itt.ion p,rimera are th~e: th:at franSla~ EJlU!h or pull cuero into mctiQpal enoilirg,:. This is. ~~~,_r~cL:by _lf1OV'~_t_ €lf'a rod 01: wire fhrough a lijctiO'~-~~B~ -'.tiT, oompottrid. To aeeent tbEf pr 'uctiOll Dr i:riction,th .rod1wle :maJ" be rougheneilD('! gr--ano.lar matE!~_a1 I _. ay ~ ad<led. to ~e explusive (1,0 pound.

T ';ha.~~~·b"'_ 1 ."" 1.... . b. -. if .• •

. .Lilt:tiI~W . ·m·OW a.re-me·~reent~ge· o~ BQJtlrQomtion and parw

eompo5iti~o~ ;fBI"'tloif'e t!J;rl911~~~mt pr-jm$t 00 ~ Pounds~

IV
VIT !]l 1::1
1 l-iiKt Itlr;l"- C
C~
HC'ar. e C un

• {l l!

It - L

I

I

....

~
I::; ~ z
~ r ~ r.;3
~ l?" .-.e ~..P'oI
::::Ii ,,_. 9, . ==
c.J- f..J: p.,; ~
g ~ :;.-.,
at .--
W g n.. E-- (loll
~ t:.... 1J,r In
E-
.....
'!ltl. ....... \
.
. .
'""" I
,.::;II, ,-

F t~, Boer arimer, asti~ eo, ,ve,. two, .. or three~ leaf eirculs me al foil is ,r'cssed, ,W nt~ ike eup after t" e er material. This me-tal foil. :1 bent S9 l~bat the can I ~',r e nt-ae 'ith h:e rimer m~c·.,t"., ial and t:b,e fJU er ___ ~. S 'f e Ias 's are see LrB tv tn,e Ii ,., oft,he e.,up, .. lJi1

a the: -ta of the foil a~te as ananvil 'he11 the surface 0 the CU" i strqc,k»y a Dring, pin,

u -1· e t .e ercussion R mar, the. pF 'mar cup is edi to a e 1 d8sign~d 0 hold it. W~n BOill '"" ' .......:II ...... JiI~ are used, , e~]l ,er e - as, a he' _ 'i'l, , i' - ~ts

te .. hole pro . :, a,s' .V,' ue ftlr the

, ' s through to' e boos er c:harge (I to

PBDIE,.R INGREDIEm

A· B C

tSi·1i% li~~"c ~.;;;~
21tO:~ 62[.5[9$ 5"S:i 50%
I .... ~. ~ 1._,' 11 •• :' ~~. [
~a i! -:6.5r~
r~"':'~ 17%
"!II~[. I!IIIIIII 3fj~ ..... ;;.

·D:~,~fI!;!!.£t~'[I"'rT"jl'lI C" 11:... ~ ~:;eg J.,,::'" C l:} LD~D'2". IIi:LU..:L . . &JLl talll!Jj''-rDLUZ=

I dT'~1i! ~

. - rF1 - i·- - - . '. ..... -. . I _' I ,r'

~l~a c<" . 0' I~ ,;rana,

• iii iI) iii

2,5~

!i Ii"!i

rlJiIi .. '1I'

5%

LiECONDARYEDLOSMS

.$·a. dellW'alliflo r- ~e:la~ ~a Got u~[ed i& ttr -e~, .·lOSiV:1::; trai- J: the· ,~~plosive most [9'., fQllo'ring the p,rimer is ' blo,~te:r which tsa secll)'ndatl··, IYn,1,dlllr8~ T a .hfU),$:be,r.~

u • ~'~ '- jill, • ".,.. . I'~' • r;::... "";t,r, , i"rf ' "'"

~e,a's ;Sie~sit$ve 1;b.Yiu~ f-, tie I, tlllln ~Uhe prim~er but j~ Iller "

srQ.nsi~iYe tflan fhe. main cr.~ as· it is sQlmetimes called, bur,t['t1t~l' 'ellar:!1-€? E 'The -:Oloster~ _ ,. ole i . to a '. d ,o.e a '\iGll

ehergy:co '. t \ - tlia P' ~ 'em) Ilt:! briTl" , '"ng it ~ip ," lrR(TQ;

..... ..BI':i: ::;. ,- ["- ........ ',., '!! i;4 .... , th .:. 1:.. .... -

I[ t:lIJLJJolClen , w lDl !l.aa·lJie " ' e In al . C.um.ji ~

BbQtb th,e bf~H}Sl~er'4Uld th\e . 3Jin harpat8 s:. eondary ·HpJ.oily!, J8,. ~ a seOOi·adary ,exploSlv' they di1Jer from pri, ... mary explosiv@fj; in tllree' basic. w· 'Y'"' .. 'he .. : is th ttCondar . ex ,1,' • iVf8~,S" se DS,~ ,.J/;~ ty-' I, ,tive 0 n p Ir ar:

~ l~Uir'l!l~ ".;].~. IIJ II!" •

·&&pIo6 ~ve,", . I O[~_ WOl ~J i t-a. lil,Sc mo,', inr ." , (l'rl ' :gy

lOP IE: r

et seOOnd9.Jj explQ_. i eJI to det-onate than it does Ilri. osives. A ~IPO .d~ difference "'.s t,b;at :seconda :1' .. 61 do not I1:onnally nn<iergo a DPT (ramemer: ,R • 0, to detonation t.I"'a sfer. co SgeODd&ry explol~

) ela" ve insensiti ~" to igni ion by ,elec,rosatlc

.. e bird difiere_ eQ bet ree '~ndary and pri-

-_ .. iA~loslVesil

. an extremely large range of eBE!!lfgetie matericPs to, category of ntiaFtelZplO . ill -I~ too, many

of the n general~ bra ev'er~ seco dary- ,eJ!P]'O'-

"M _ .. _ be di de, into sev_ _' b . ie .gioUPS4 '. ac J gro ' p

~.amg~of 'entati.· pws.ives are ntte'· belG: ..

Cn~1ZI~£tW.;i.. mGu' 'D'V'"DL

.V·~"AI.'].,".D'_J..''l:JI.LKLJ >.'~ ~ .IJJ4E" ............. -..

There are'Jl ume. 'MOU ;jomes,~,ic aILld. :§:. ': 'fiign ~~Qlactare-mil orezplb$i~es~ Often lbejr prQ,d~ts~, ~d "nJi·~ iii peMo mance l e~en t12 ()ug~ the 'm~}f ha . e .' i £feting names Tqr1L ~ .. &:qilr r ~'. ,:]J'I! the '~omp1~~ty Df,de:c "bing ,comme,reihl ~Jl,I-Qs,iVes, i,u:diVid ... ·;aj m'3nu~dll.mtJs names MIL n·at. be lJ,rti·8i1d. i~' tltt follQ·lring se,ct~f,on~ Instead, the I~P . ~lV.'S wi) blQ .g.rd~PiHi into 0"wses base on t air ove ' iIll ~iIeFi1 pre .,: ~e''i'

,~o~"D'lDt .. ~. ""'-J:

Dp,amjt'l migiBate,d when J\lfre.~ Nobel mlxed nitro-

:gl¥cerin 'wa tl) cla,y~, 1 114 ~ .. dust, an, a mi~ :ure ,of the two, Binee that"~ ~ e ' ' , 'B c1fjmpC(sition· _Idature 0;' 'd '. a.m 'te

have e hB.flgsd, ".~ '. :,t~"ca1ly: Hl, I,'" in edi'c., . a ': b" 0

m~.~_' oratJi1d in".· .. r , ttl,.· COPlP09~tie'Jl~ PrQlllwlcing d~t~atnite$ . h~~~adll!7~r~§afel: and better:designed to rolli·· r .' 1ft ul ti .. 'tlLtQQof m ~ ·sion~~

. - ,ypu '. '; . ;,t in '1 -,de 11 0 th v - ~,~ '. ~ ndi· ~ d .:) ..

uiact.l.l., - ,~. 1 '10, _, in c a;ti.on, ~ :J ,djna_lll'~ I.' can b 'L . I n.di ir t~· t,h'eQ Jlati,ic eiHBSres. The~fi '-'t· - 'is r £i!w'ItI ........ ~'"rI

·----~ .... ·;ul dynamite due to the~~ul:u texture of he rial, This chms does not oo·ntain mtrocellulose ~ ~'- clas of dYllamite is, c:ailled gelcti,n d,)·ltl(jmite: T~s

~~ of'explo ,-~e doe '!ut have a gtanular ~ext.ure b'ut it doe contain ID.~llul9Se'. The thWd class i'· .. a granular dJDam·te (am.m()nia dJ'J!l.ami~)h~"~ eont~n_1 a ··m:aU amount of nitroee,Jlulose~ called sem.l8e,la'&n dyrtIJrIt&te"

igure 11 shas the 1"' .at1~sltip between .the ingyedi,~ ants DC dynamite and the resrrltin~ dyllamtte t,ype, sad Figure, 18& I s typi,cal commercial dyn,amiie parameters.

WotgGel,

ater g,elbs are high 8I,plt).si es that do .not contD'n

"itrogl eerin. Ftrs,t man-afaetul:-ed lJiY Du Peat ia 1958' under the trade name, ~Thve.xJ w'ater gels offtMfld aOODsiij~ erable increase in safe;,' o:ve,r dynamites:, A 'wa er .plsi beeam rmore ll0Pul'81"·tbey took on the industrial name1)f slurnjt e:;p lo"iv,6,S .'

In general, 'i~ qplosiv8s aremada up of .·· r- ,()UJ; basi-c,

ingr dient 'YP41S~ 'Th,e oxidiser fgT'slur,ry etfplos·v'9s, i~s mas o:!ten AN or Jf'N' + NOS), and t,h~e fuel is T,NT~ Riu ... minum powde~ nitric fiQ'd" or nitrome,th:aIlc" The gelatin

b J, ..... 1 '11 d- - ~,

sa sraaee m wa~er ge s rs gu,ar gum,. a sugar'ienvatlve ..

'Phe'se ingredients ,31" ctben held 'tage111Bf" as a mixture by the tro,ss ... lin ki 01 "~~nt 'PQtas,ft"um, ,diehr~om8te, ..

For the mo,st part, water g.els are. of a lower. ·,de, . sl ~.' than most dj'Uamitf5s and haV1~ a lower del-a c' anon ve ocl.~ ty. Tb~) are mach f$uerl ·'oweJl~l"~iID,dw1J.~n ooDlJj,ared to most blas _ing agents t,lley. a e ,hi~h~F de3S"ty~ hig'h,e'r detonation 'VelloJc,itl~. much igher tiete.a,nan I',~es:snre"

and better' wa"~'r r'A;~ '-·t -:-'" .

. ,~ . ~ll ance ..

. L ·.ti, .AgeJl'~8'

B1astIDg agents are e:rpto!i"Ye campau. "',ds; that cannot

e ~~ .. ia ,ed by hlasting caps a" a are made'. uPQf_wo baSIC no exploMi· & ingredientsF That is to sal!~ the t_'v basic ing e ., ants of a blasting Ell ~ It;· t are by: '\ihems,alv~ no expl iv'S; w' n yo'. m" .' t "em to;gethel", ho ·eve"r,

~. Ii. • •• Ii.

I..!' It·.

I

~. -

r

,gen-a "ze 'Will

~cfumes ..

( ) ge DeDsit,: An mere. se m densit.y ~-,e ~ nlts in an

.. d .J_~ ..... _ -, .~, ~n,f

d.etonati ' n "¥eloclty an· a ~J,~... seQ81w\11~;.

, .. e Size~ A - _. _ - . e in parti~ ~ '-~ize :results ~ an

meres. in detonation velocity ,~- inetea~e in semitivity..

(4) 'cent ater, A v'gO' littl, . am,t,,-n.nt ofwutel: 'Will ecrease etonat ion veJocl'ty and s6n,sitiVlt_ '. and JUII: a

tt 'terwill top d,i;onatioIl~

5) Confinement An in' ease in co::a:finemf!: t wlll

r in an irrcresst! in deto . afiaa vel10ci ty and an

.. crease - . sens" ·'Vl~ ..

(6,· Charge Diameter, An increase ~, "eharge diameter' of up to 9 to 0 rncaes \Vi 1 re~wt i, an lJterea· :1 in deton tio velocit~ An In _ rea - e i cha'rge fliam ete;r ~ 1 esult - a decrease ill ,~: . nsitiv:it ~' up ttl,' allon "in('he$~

{7 Primer S renerth~ AD. i~C%e,as,e in p,nme:r s ~rength Will increase etoD,atioQ velOOl,ty' 'N-V to a ~ .. ~

..6.J,;", .. r&Iio'_ ..

o -- of the ne "r commercial eplo.siv"0s now on th~

.&IIoI;~' ke 1 e fa' -1" of ez.plomrves Icalled emulsions. An

m Ion is'a.,li nid tha' is, a mi we 'fl WO -",q ,1- -~ Tha'

o sa -he t 0 Iiqui - So i . t.' e emulsio . are m(L .. B,d toget er but re . :... &eparam~ One of the, easies ways, to

" alize t IS is - e . 'e. s . I all amount ,of' oil is J)u,t into a of ater ana the "aria, shook. ~T'h.e"(lllru~m8 s,mall _..."".".- bea t " tare mise thro\1~h6ut the . tar. If the QeilQ& of oil CQ a -. ma "very small and i they could be

" ad thrrm.gho ,t the liquid y'oa w6-d. - ave an

emulsi - ,8· 1 .. sive is ,. ad.e, IT of a. 1:.. qui

'oxidizer ill.te ... laJ.;phas@ (lilt. the fimaU 0.11 be1f.4s) SllSJ*tnded in a tiq~d ew.ti'nUOl,UJ fuel pltase tlj Ice the:wat.6 1-

'Qn.:ofthe nni':'ue ~J&i~ pnperties ofemUIOnSl$ that tlbey -db, ot.liave to J;, a, i €('Uld as we.~ of a .. q_

uid. ll~Qe the eon~l1on.$,ph:age is the pre:doxn:inaw tpm,d~en·t, it.4ietate's tile Pi "ital iiatl1J!e o' the em ~ ~i~j, T' : -~an emiilsi~dB ~" 'y: , r£"W like a- tbi,ck li. aid or ·t J.J1i\-y .. ·.ue" mfl,Ue lit81 a. ~iffif pwt·ty~Also'J be¢au e uf the Il."a\hre_aftl1e-"ilt~n;t'·bl·iUl timulsiCn, the"rp y,sical

Dat~ ,em~:I4~. tJUts~allla lijry'er It at er ,. e an~ 0 ~

- -.- ~-a-"

- p;e7a:u~ I-~,.

f)ae of,th& s4v'a' 'I .tagS: : Of emullion is the fact t \heyar,• 'q~~l:.: i-nlrIJltiti.!lr'11 ¥ret on~&ini ~,j.ed a e good de'tGIl ... ti;Pft ,elfM~;ir!)as .. ODe _911 &P the good detooa ·0 v .,~.'oei.tjes {ft. tBe, mct tWa, , the em,nl~ilon i8 ,:' de' ry tl~e D8'JtticleB llh.t $'8 'Ill a very .u.ntfo· ~m .d.istributio ,~ This In .'. alfs that th&!det~8ti,mI p~~ce!$$ ~ , mom uni 0

thlln "ith ~g,c~an:gla~r Qr' ~~oJ~d Efltplosives,~ herain he m,atmal is Dot, uDi£&j:lm ..

I" ~.. •

·de an opera onal mission area as TNTt

( ) Compo ition E:cplbs ~lJ'eB .. C,QI' posi tion e posives

a * UJ form. ,ofm'ilitary' explosivle eon sis ting ,of two

or more materials:

AS == 91 peroont MIX, 9 peYeent wax,~ Used as a boqat05 r arge·' dezaolitton devices and as a main charge in

t! '"1

80m PIUJec e ..

B ;; 60 perce t RDK. 39' percent ~ ~l perrellrt wn:

Used most often as 'the D1aiD eb.arg&in Is,baped qhillFP8.

.c

B4 :: 60 percent RDX, 3:~l5 percent mT,.,and ,OE05 :pel'~

cent ealcium ilicate~ Used in -Iiap,ea cltar:es and other demo]itlo' 51: devices"

C4 ~ 91 p'er,oent ,RDX~ " I?e.rocnt nonesplosive plasti~ cisers, Used as a burster chsrge and. a~: a m;aln ,demo)"'-

t · h 1- h'·' h d +. "'" \0. el iO.

t008 e. at B, ne _~ ''If:_ r at.10nOilf), "V, - OCltl0S a_a

r ~ .' ,

(5,) n.~ry,t~fE 'Tet:ry,tol i. made up of 75 pel100nt -retry], and 25 p~erc~nt 'TN['~ It is most aft9n used as, '"3 ,demoliti.nns 'I; ~., e.tilat 1:., mere pllwerful and bFisan' than TNT~

&2

ChtJpter8ix

TE'STING

,-? he beStiB\,g p£ tlXp']O~v.s ill a Qiffi 1 and IQ'mewhat d'~Brn'U$'-u~d t k-

f- ~'11g~ , ~Qq~thi~t. ,.-'he .. xp o.-ive

en,ginee:r;' -.- 9O~J~ ·~ethed&·'[Or·. ' ... '!i~

:. ., ~ . i~~S o£:ms ~lqS,rvflCaQOOC ~o,ns~ The

'. ~ . .

c .-' - _e',tAQ~ ,derl;e-ed by' e(Jliineer.rs~ are a 8

, d: .. d.~[Vi!P~~'~: 'l1h·e ~llgi;nel _ rs themselves',

." {o e-e .' t-')-t:. R,~'llL"e:r' tl .' .. &g in to - .. Jl t'vp'e~o-D- f

c::,~3: ~ ti.~ .. o • ~ !~ ~ • 6 .J.' . ~'

... FfJ''r._. ,~ m' ~- . .

~ . . -L-._ t.e.Wtitii'" CUll <. -, taos .. -fe:sts mtfl_ t fre-

qUQrntly' cae,' ~ ~~mdustry 1Vill be CGver1ed" . this ,~p.t1'}r.

BWAe~ .- ··.'1 '-. rr

'l'he imp'TiZi, ts:t!i,t consl,- ts of,:pJ_a~pg_&fiutl~td~l1m~ of mate' ia .on avs.lid ~turfae(t; lan1:roi1) and t,~.e.' "~OJ)pi - a kiiOWD ... ·'efght from '- known h~ight olta,! 'e, e , ... losi e. VariAble.: "o,bhis :best a·vel b~w ·mUr.fA t 19 '1/;': ig'~t w .. i,bs ami ho~"~gh rtibe' weight ise abo ' ~ the ~ lV;il.,

1LirIIn,¥, thQ ~ rGl!:!Ift ng-+ 1Q,1'1 ""f- t~'n ,~~ ·b· j:l,i!!! l"'n the '!I~~"P . ,.t

LI V.ft. ~rl I~' -UL VQ I" %:\l~JI, ~'J ~~~J I~- _ . fJL~ 'y I~ jill. - ~ ~ ~ _ '~I~ QlI . I ~

~,st ~tt~· . 9fDlfi_t .,b1led,", spe~ 1]· -" b, th' te _'~ is.e " ~ IdJ l,tted ()Jj1'all . _, IIIB~iv8 Rfialeoa~1 '&ft _I ~b-o i -.t "y' . I.} P:itcatillAY ArsB" 8}1 mac'h~'n· ., The minimum . '~ght th ea sre.s t).lal-·-ploBive t.o Ide: Gnat lor t,hlo ,!~od1t. lof the

i. h I'; L ,jJ iili... '"nl':)." .~ ,. t· -

mln-I rum ~ .. ·L1!IJ\ anrt ti~ -.1 v, e: ,~.t.-- w.' g ,U as

m-easJJreoJimp!Qt _l' 's'_' .~',

GAPlTEST

The gap test iSI used to determ'1D,e ~am eJlptQSi'V'I@?I~8Iasitivit.y to shoek 01:" as was relate,d learlie .) i1& se"Q.Bitive· ... ~e~.- Explosive~ ·s~sitivene's is a m~asure of (iD e;cxp}iQsivs's abilit: 001 propag;"te de~a.tion aeros;sagap .. Q' e method. of ' , I ,mg ]:s a measure of'me maximum di$ta:nce (' 'inches.-) over which O·Ble.: hsffofa stidt,o£'djnamite vrill cause the at' er 'alr!t~ deto·lia_~ .Aneth, .' tes' is t;a saps-, ate two explosives by an inert material anld iDitia' " (line

lo.sive,. "'e, maximum t ~,clmes'l[; of the inert epa er ~ s a measure of the explar Ive~s sensitivsnass.

o her impact test is called the flying plate test. In. . s test a m tal plate is exp,losiv. ,. driven again 'It an. ---losive sample. The've, ','~ ~ of'the Dla~'-i~ a mea. n'r&: of the etplosi."e's sensitivity to' high~velOClt)r imRaet't

S r ~ ,(ELEU ~ .~ STATIC) TEST

The spark we,t 11 used to ,dete~ 'e' : Ie. s~sl~rit1 of

, e ,·[osiva W a spark .. In this ~st tItle e~loBlve lis·,se~pa· .. · rated fitJ.m an ele.ctrooe by an air s,pace OF gap' (~ere are many differen1 devices t,o, ,do (lri;5'),~ Th~ ene.rg;y frlo·m a

capacitor or otb·· r device is disCharged tb.Jvug:tJ_ the. ~ec~ trod -. re8ul~g in u are o· - sparkjumpiJl;g' to the' ~plo-

'.~ ve, The eqlo,si;ve's sensiti ~'._. ·is a measure of the e ' er-

gy dumped 4100 t :~e electrgde~

FBlC:TjO~:' TEST'

The friction test is . I sed to. determ"jHe arr s ·~plosive's s ~nsitivity. to me' itm,~ W . rich its or censidleyabl~ inte est

d '"_ .' '.. ufs J-"'; -. 0'· .' '·m ··th·:: . ..JI , ...... ,(,. ,. "d"''''~~'''''''''fI' t·~h'l~ nrmg man a~Lunngl' n,e '!f.' Ouw. u' tr.D, ~:~e . .I,e!

t~e5t is to use ill pendulum and anvtl~ T'be explosive is spread out, on the aavil, and' a epe,~ar Y' d.esig.oed we ~ght (. h e) a taeh - d to a psnduh m attm is, allQ~d to $vring back a:nd=forth aer ·s~ t·h~'~ ,aItvi _. Sem~ .. tivit,'· irto frir.tio~ is measured .' y. the number 'oren.pa, eraeks, ignitions, or ,exlJlDS1'DllS .res·u1ting from, the in tera,ctW'Ih '0£ '&he'leDdu~ lum hoe and .' . e IEmplosi,' fa •.

FD"'W~,O"'~~"'" ~ .ft1.1~ Y~:l!BI' ~"'.!I!I~£l" ~~ JI.. ..0.0111.'

There Sl"e a rittlIl1fe:r of teats that, all under this hea "IB~~ Ol\.C Ileries Qfteat&'i&to c'vcle the oolilJPMature an

h "" ..J,::~ ~ ft ".3 .. ' J'i'i; . 'lli'i!<d' ",I);. ,A .L!'.o~e· eti!! ~ .... L 0. ·,;;e.-p·lOSl- v..; bein g

:um.lw '~j ~DL r'e~ " ,lIlo' ~ r~l1~ ~£.Iyc , .. ' "~'= '-iI.L!. IJD~.~,' " ' U'lI;=

-te8~1d.~ Whfrtl ~1tre:·ms temp8r,atQre cliang'es e mad , tbre e3Rlc6.ive s'a;~rJiPlle·m.:a7~ergo ph,mear.. . gas that

adV0rBelv ~r~ct its se "'.t1i-Otu O~ e±Teefive~ _e,' I •

- "~.1 IJ,I~ _. I :I.

nn;;1i1~"II':'k 'l'"'n ,_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

CONCLUSION

"iJli~&n't has been te p~ .S',;O t in s

~"

GGliciS&ilB. manaer as wssib e an rot 0-

d:uctlo!~ ~o. the complegit:ies of81P_Osiv.est ThQ ptlrpGse Of tkiS'twcit is to edu-

, r:~ ,"' ~~ c'atoeb2os,e Wh~0 ,h~ve a s~riou -

~ lnte:reut 111 working Q,r QXperlm'Q t ..

:. -BI wit.," ~,",plo~ ives~, It is moy observa ..

l ~ >, ~'{ ;to;-n 4"tat th,el"e :are' m,,~ 1 ndividu ~

~'~~~ ;tls, wlhfo_'t'laim t~ibe elf,pro,gives ,'%-

peres;: y~t ill "utJl t~' tY~,mz&'Qnly ,dangeri . us preqple It all lOU ;want, to do ;"s ICffdi.' ~Il and hear .a 'rJad I1'lli~f!? these s:()~c,a11ed ,e~]J'erQl ean p,mb,~bl get the j,cb' ODHust be e,~eru around tllsm. HQVt"e1re.r.i if'you UTe ,aemeooe who ~ ~ 1;;1 waatste und~'1iltnd th0 prep e reies of'.xp1ol.iv~gJ' tben l hGlpe ~.c.'U. "ft .~:o USG " . bat yeD C 'aT ~ JB',a' I ne,~ Jn thi, te~~,as an ll1tr'od,u~ti9n to:us w'otlid of,explosivcs. Qvontlljlte,t~, 8~U.tiy wh~ti .. e expe tshave to S8:Y an~ Ef,Iiik .. ~ " "t ta po ~ :·t to~ a]pPUr this lm.owl - die in a safe m iUl er. Ki]I~g yfOl1'r:s,e.t,fble"ca~ you 'ailed itO take th tim .. t.O und:ersts,Q ,e~plQ'iv,as··n"ci t .cir 1"'0,'. r nan, Iing .. B I,tnpi-d~ ,bUtt kiilln·g .' '.,11' '! .lng so-mOOB! ,~Isa 'Wit exp osive6 is u-6forpv8 . le.

,I

7

Don't be misled by the technical title of this book - Exploeioe Pri ciples is a readable, ea ~..v .... to-underatand primer on the nature of detoriatauns. as

wel ass ccrici sa ] ookat the

basic b . t often ov rlooked tech .. niques that prnfassionals use to maximiae the performance of primary and secondary explosives 0 get any jn~l done right . ..... /Ji must fOI" demolitf n personnel, amateur "powder monkeys," or anybody interested in things that go bang,

For information purposes on(v'.

A PALADIN PRESS B,OOIK ISBN 01-8'73,64-6,59-2

. ~

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->