You are on page 1of 115

Presentation Plus!

The American Republic To 1877


Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
Send all inquiries to:
GLENCOE DIVISION
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240
Chapter Introduction
Section 1 The War for Independence
Section 2 The War Continues
Section 3 Battlegrounds Shift
Section 4 The Final Years
Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
Chapter Objectives
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Understand why some Americans supported the
British.
Explain how the Battle of Saratoga marked a
turning point in the war.
Section 1: The Early Years
Chapter Objectives
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Understand why other nations helped the Patriots.
Describe how Washingtons troops survived the
winter at Valley Forge.
Recognize the challenges Americans faced at home
as a result of the war.
Section 2: The War Continues
Chapter Objectives
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Explain how the war involved Native Americans.
Describe how a new kind of fighting developed in
the South.
Section 3: The War Moves West and South
Chapter Objectives
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Describe how George Washington changed his
military strategy.
Explain how the Americans won the Revolutionary
War despite many disadvantages.
Section 4: The War Is Won
Why It Matters
Although the United States declared its
independence in 1776, no country recognized it
as an independent nation at that time. It took a
war and the efforts of American diplomats to
win this recognition.
The Impact Today
In fighting for the principles set forth in the
Declaration of Independence, the American
Patriots laid the foundation for the United States
of America we know today.
Guide to Reading
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The British and the Americans each had advantages
and disadvantages as they faced one another in war.
Main Idea
Key Terms
mercenary
recruit
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
British cannon
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Two Armies Face Off
1. Independence= fighting a war!
2. Patriot problems---
A. Britain had:
1.) Largest population
2.) Worlds best navy
3.) Well-trained army
B. Americans had no regular army or navy.
C. Not all Americans supported the war:
1.) 1/3 neutral
2.) 1/3 patriots= fighting for independence
(pages 162166)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
3.) 1/3 Loyalists (Tories)= Loyal to England
A.) Anglican Church
B.) British jobs
C.) Feared a govt. change
D.) Strongest in Carolinas and Georgia
E.) African-Americans promised freedom
3. Patriot advantages:
A. Home turf (Familiar Terrain)---Britain 3,000
miles away.
B. Freedom of their land ( Motivation )
C. George Washington ( Continental Army )
(pages 162166)
The Two Armies Face Off (cont.)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Early Campaigns
1. Britain sent 32,000 troops---summer of
1777--
2. British victory at Long Island---August
1777-- = American hero ( Nathan Hale )
3. Washington retreats to New Jersey
A. Supplies run out
B. Soldiers discouraged
C. Enlistments ran out= army shrank
(pages 166167)
Early Campaigns
1. African-Americans enlisted.
2. American victories at Trenton
and Princeton, New Jersey.
(page 167)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
British Strategy
1. Split New England away from the
Middle Colonies. ( control Albany and
the Hudson River )
A. Gen. Burgoyne= South from Canada
and captures Ft. Ticonderoga and then
retreats to Saratoga, New York.
B. Gen. St. Leger= East from Lake
Ontario.
C. Gen. Howe= North from N.Y.C. and
captures Philadelphia, but doesnt
continue on to Albany, New York.
(pages 167168)
2. Burgoyne is surrounded at Saratoga
and must surrender on October 17,
1777 (turning point of the
Revolutionary War )
British Strategy (cont.)
(pages 167168)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding
__ 1. to enlist soldiers in the army
__ 2. taking no side in a conflict
__ 3. paid soldier who serves in the
army of a foreign country
A. neutral
B. mercenary
C. recruit
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
C
A
B
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Compare the strengths of the
British and American military forces.
The British forces strengths were a strong navy,
a larger population, and more experience. The
Americans were fighting on their own land for
freedom and Washington was a skilled military
leader.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes
Groups and Institutions What problems did
the Continental Congress face in raising as
army to fight during the American Revolution?
People feared that the Continental Congress
would control the colonies as the British
Parliament had; thus, it had difficulty enlisting
soldiers and raising money.
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Information Explain why African
Americans were willing to enlist
in the Continental Army.
Some believed in the fight, needed money, or
wanted to earn their freedom.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Examine the map on page
165 of your textbook. Which event came first
the British capture of New York or the British
capture of Philadelphia?
The British capture of New York came first.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Descriptive Writing Write a newspaper article
that describes the Battle of Saratoga. Include
details about British and American strategies and
troop movement.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Guide to Reading
As the Revolutionary War continued, the Americans
received support from European countries.
Main Idea
Key Terms
inflation
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
French medal showing
Benjamin Franklin
Gaining Allies
1. France and Spain help the American cause:
A. France sends $, equipment and troops.
( Alliance Feb. 1778 )
B. Spain attacks and keeps the British busy
in the southeast
C. Tough winter at Valley Forge
D. Marquis de Lafayette (French)= trains and
leads Washingtons troops.
E. Thaddeus Kosciuszko (Polish Engineer)
built bridges and defense positions
F. Casmir Pulaski lead by example
in leading the troops.
G. Friederich Von Steuben a Prussian General
taught the troops discipline.
H. Juan Miralles from Spain sent $ and cattle.
I. Lots of $ was needed by the Americans to
fight the war, but theirs was worthless
because there was no gold or silver to back
it up.
Gaining Allies (cont.)
(pages 172175)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Life on the Home Front
1. Women took over mens duties
back home.
2. Inflation due to the fact that
American $ was worthless.
3. African-Americans fought in hopes
of winning their independence.
( Hopes to abolish slavery )
4. Loyalist suffered!
(pages 175176)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding
__ 1. a continuous rise in the price
of goods and services
__ 2. to leave without permission
A. desert
B. inflation
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
B
A
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Explain why the French did
not publicly support the Americans until after the
Battle of Saratoga.
After the Battle of Saratoga, the French believed
the Americans had a chance of defeating Britain.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes
Groups and Institutions How were the
Loyalists treated by the Patriots during the war?
They were shunned by neighbors and were
occasionally victims of mob violence; some were
arrested and tried as traitors; a few were
executed.
Critical Thinking
Making Inferences The Americans claimed to
fight for liberty and freedom. How did these
ideals make women and enslaved Africans
question their positions in society?
These ideals highlighted the fact that they did not
have equal rights or the same freedoms and
opportunities that white American males had at
the time.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals
Graphic Organizer Skills Study the cause-
and-effect chart on page 174 of your textbook.
In what ways did France help the Americans in
their fight for independence? What event led
France to aid the Americans in the first place?
France lent money to the Continental Congress
and sent soldiers and ships. The Battle of
Saratoga led France to aid the Americans.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Expository Writing Why was Washington
such an effective leader? Write a one-page
paper describing both his personal and
professional characteristics.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Guide to Reading
Revolutionary War fighting spreads to the West and
South.
blockade
Main Idea
Key Terms
privateer
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
The Swamp Fox and his troops
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Fighting in the West
1. Native Americans helped the British on
the frontier ( West of the Appalachians ).
NativeAmericans hoped to get their land
back.
2. George Rodgers Clark captures
Kaskaskia and Vincennes ( Illinois )
which were British strongholds.
(pages 177178)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The War at Sea
1. Britain blockaded the American
coastline, cutting off supply lines and
reinforcement from Europe.
2. Privateers fought on the side of the
Americans. ( 2,000 ships )
3. John Paul Jones becomes a naval hero
as his ship the Bonhomme Richard
defeats theBritish ship the Serapis in
the North Sea. ( He becomes the father
of the American Navy.)
(pages 178179)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Fighting in the South
1. British plans change as they attempt to take
the Southern Colonies controlled by the
Loyalists.
2. Savannah, Georgia ( 1778 ) Charlestown S. C.
( 1780 ) and Camden S. C. ( 1780-worst
defeat ) fall to the British.
3. Patriots fight back by using guerilla warfare
tactics---Frances Marion = Swamp Fox.
4. Americans defeat the British at Kings Mt. N.
Car. ( 1780 ) and Cowpens S. Car. ( 1781 ).
Stalemate at Guilford Courthouse, N.C.
( 1781 ).
(pages 179182)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
5. In June of 1781 General Cornwallis (
British commander in the South ) sets up
camp on a peninsula in and around
Yorktown, Virginia.
(pages 179182)
Fighting in the South (cont.)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding
__ 1. cut off an area by means of
troops or warships to stop
supplies or people from
coming in or going out; to
close off a countrys ports
__ 2. a hit-and-run technique used in
fighting a war; fighting by
small bands of warriors using
tactics such as sudden
ambushes
__ 3. armed private ship
A. blockade
B. privateer
C. guerrilla warfare
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
A
C
B
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Explain why most Native
Americans sided with the British in the conflict.
The British seemed less of a threat than the
Americans did. They knew the Americans
wanted to expand onto their lands.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes
Geography and History How did the British
navy use the location of the colonies to its
advantage?
The colonies bordered the Atlantic, which
allowed the British to blockade harbors.
Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Why was guerrilla
warfare effective against the British?
Possible answer: The British, more formal
in their fighting style, were not familiar with
guerrilla hit-and-run tactics. The British also
were unfamiliar with the terrain, giving the
guerrillas an added advantage.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Study the maps on pages
180 and 181 of your textbook. Who won the
battle at Cowpens, South Carolina? At Kings
Mountain, South Carolina? Whose forces did
George Rogers Clark face at Vincennes?
The Americans won the battles at Cowpens and
Kings Mountain, South Carolina. George Rogers
Clark faced Hamiltons forces.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Art Create a symbol or emblem that captures the
spirit of the Patriot soldiers.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Guide to Reading
The American colonies overcame many
disadvantages to win independence.
ratify
Main Idea
Key Terms
Ambush
siege
Click the Speaker button
to replay the audio.
General Rochambeau, French
commander
Victory at Yorktown
1. A surprise plan by General Washington
entraps the British at Yorktown,
Virginia. Cornwallis is surrounded by
the American/French army and the
French fleet in Chesapeake Bay.
2. The Patriots laid siege to Yorktown from
Oct. 11
th
to Oct. 19
th
1781. Cornwallis
surrenders and the Americans win the
last major battle of the American
Revolution.
(pages 183185)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Victory at Yorktown (cont.)
(pages 183185)
3. Victorious leaders at Yorktown
included American generals
Washington and Wayne. French
generals Rochambeau and the
Marquis de Lafayette and the
French admiral Francois de
Grasse.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Independence Achieved
1. Fighting continued at a big cost of lives to
both sides after Yorktown.
2. Delegates from America and Britain met in
Paris to discuss and draw up a peace treaty in
hopes of ending the war.
3. The Treaty of Paris, signed on Sept. 3
rd
, 1783
stated the following:
A. Britain recognized America as a free
and independent country.
B. Boundaries were drawn up:
(pages 185187)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Independence Achieved (cont.)
(pages 185187)
(1) Canada to the north.
(2) The AtlanticeOcean on the east.
(3) Spanish Florida to the south.
(4) The Mississippi River to the west.
4. Congressional conspiracy is avoided
5. Washington returns home ( Mt. Vernon )
6. Americans won the war because of
perseverenceand determination!!!!!!!!!!
They wore down the British.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding
__ 1. a surprise attack
__ 2. to give official approval to
A. ratify
B. ambush
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
B
A
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Describe how the French navy
helped George Washington at Yorktown.
It prevented Cornwallis and his soldiers from
escaping by sea.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes
Groups and Institutions What influence did the
American Revolution have around the world?
It inspired the ideals of freedom and democracy
in France, influencing the French Revolution.
Critical Thinking
Predicting Consequences What might have
happened if the French fleet had not arrived at
Yorktown?
Washingtons troops may not have been
victorious because Cornwallis most likely would
have been able to escape by sea.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals
Picturing History Look at the painting on
page 185 of your textbook. How does the artist
focus attention on the figures in the center of
the painting?
The troops lined up on the sides focus attention
on the center, as does the bright white horse in
the center.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography Create a map of the United States that
shows the boundaries of the country at the time of the
Treaty of Paris. Use colored pencils to show the lands
that the British gave to the Americans.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding
__ 1. armed private ship
__ 2. paid soldier who serves in the
army of a foreign country
__ 3. a hit-and-run technique used in
fighting a war; fighting by
small bands of warriors using
tactics such as sudden
ambushes
__ 4. to enlist soldiers in the army
__ 5. a surprise attack
A. mercenary
B. recruit
C. blockade
D. privateer
E. guerrilla warfare
F. ambush
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
D
A
E
B
F
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
__ 6. cut off an area by means of
troops or warships to stop
supplies or people from
coming in or going out; to
close off a countrys ports
C
A. mercenary
B. recruit
C. blockade
D. privateer
E. guerrilla warfare
F. ambush
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
How did Thomas Paine help the Patriots during
the Revolutionary War?
Thomas Paine published The Crisis, a pamphlet
that boosted American spirits
and determination for freedom.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
What European nations fought with the
Americans against the British?
France and Spain sent money, supplies, and
troops to aid the Americans.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
Why did many Native Americans give their
support to the British?
They knew that many Americans wanted to take
their land.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
What fighting method did the Americans use to
keep the British from taking the Southern
Colonies?
The Americans used guerrilla warfare against
the British.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
Which battle convinced the British that fighting
the Americans was too costly?
The Battle of Yorktown convinced the British
that fighting the Americans was
too costly.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking
Compare and Contrast What advantage did the
Patriots have over the British mercenaries?
The Patriots had a personal interest in the
outcome of the war; the mercenaries were
fighting for money.
Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Why do you think the
British found it easier to capture American cities
than to take over the American countryside?
Patriots had an advantage in rural areas because
they were more familiar with the terrain.
Guerrilla warfare used this advantage.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History Activity
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 established the boundaries of the new
United States. The newly independent nation shared land claims on
the North American continent with several nations. Study the map
below and answer the questions on the following slides.
Geography and History Activity
The Mississippi
River formed the
new western
boundary.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Location What
natural landmark
formed the new
western boundary
of the United
States?
Geography and History Activity
Spain claimed the
most land in North
America in 1783.
Russia claimed the
least land.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Region Which
country claimed
the most land in
North America in
1783? The least
land?
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.
Test-Taking Tip Remember to eliminate answers that you know
are wrong. For example, the Patriots did not win the battle of
Bunker Hill; therefore, choice C is not correct.
What American victory convinced the French to form an alliance
with the United States?
A Saratoga
B Ticonderoga
C Bunker Hill
D Trenton
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Standardized Test Practice
By what nickname was Anthony Wayne known,
and why?
He was called Mad Anthony Wayne because of
his eagerness for battle.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Explore online information about the topics introduced
in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to
The American Republic to 1877 Web site. At this site, you will
find interactive activities, current events information, and Web
sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook.
When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return
to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to
the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
http://tarvol1.glencoe.com
About 30,000 Hessians fought during the American
Revolution. The Hessians were paid about 25 cents a day
for their service. The American cause appealed to some
Hessians, causing them to desert the British army. Many
Hessians stayed in the United States after the war.
Many Patriots wore their own clothing, such as breeches,
vests, hose and tricorner hats, rather than uniforms. They
carried muskets and knives into battle.
For a little more than two years after the Battle of
Yorktown and for seven months after Congress ratified
the Treaty of Paris ending the war, New York remained
securely under the control of Sir Guy Carleton and his
British forces.
Illness at Valley Forge Of the approximately 12,000
soldiers at Valley Forge, more than 2,000 died of various
diseases that winter. Dysentery, pneumonia, typhus, and
typhoid were the leading killers.
Medical Practices For every Patriot soldier killed by the
British, about nine died from disease or poor medical
practices. In some cases, doctors drained about three-
fourths of a soldiers blood. Draining sick blood to spur
the production of healthy blood later proved fatal to the
Patriots commander. In 1799 the ailing George
Washington gave his permission to be bled three times
and died shortly afterward.
George Washington
The Black Pioneers
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
George Washington George Washington actually lost
more battles than he won. However, he met his goal of
keeping the army in the field.
The Black Pioneers The British also made an appeal to
African Americans, offering freedom and grants of land
in Canada for fighting on their side. In response,
thousands of African Americans, including a group
called the Black Pioneers, took up arms against the
Patriots.
Yankee Many scholars believe the word Yankee comes
from the Dutch Jan Kees, or John Cheese, a term that
other Europeans used to ridicule the Dutch. The Dutch
then used the term to ridicule the English settlers of
Connecticut, and the English later used it to ridicule the
Patriots.
Guerrilla Guerrilla is a Spanish word meaning little
war.
Reading a Military
Map
Why Learn This Skill?
In your study of American history, you often have to read
maps. A military map shows the areas where battles
occurred, routes soldiers took, who won the battles, and
who controlled various sites.
This feature can be found on page 169 of your textbook.
Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.
This feature can be found on page 169 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Learning the Skill
Military maps use colors, symbols, and arrows to show major
battles, troop movements, and defensive positions during a
particular battle or over a period of time.
Read the map title. This will indicate the location and time
period covered on the map.
Read the map key. This tells what the symbols on the map
represent. For example, battle sites may be symbolized by
crossed swords, a burst shell, or a star.
Reading a Military
Map
When reading a military map, follow these steps:
Learning the Skill
Study the map itself. This will reveal the actual events or
sequence of events that took place. Notice the geography of the
area and try to determine how it could affect military strategy.
Reading a Military
Map
This feature can be found on page 169 of your textbook.
Practicing the Skill
Analyze the information on the map
on the right; then answer the
following questions.
This feature can be found on page 169 of your textbook.
Reading a Military
Map
Practicing the Skill
This feature can be found on page 169 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
1. What troops surrounded Boston Harbor? How do you know
this?
American; the symbol that depicts American forces appears
around the harbor.
2. What action did the American forces take after fighting the
Battle of Bunker Hill?
They retreated.
Reading a Military
Map
Practicing the Skill
This feature can be found on page 169 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
3. Which commander led the British troops to Breeds Hill?
Gage led the British troops to Breeds Hill.
4. In which direction did the British forces move when they left
Boston? What parts of the map help you find this information?
They moved counterclockwise, to the northwest. The compass
rose and the arrows help find this information.
Reading a Military
Map
The American Revolution
After viewing The American Revolution, you should:
Understand that General Howe was exasperated with the war
and was pleased to be resigning as commander of the British
forces.
Discern that Howe both abhorred
and respected the Americans
military tactics.
Note the elusive nature of a
workable peace plan.
Objectives
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window
above to view a preview of The American Republic to 1877 video.
Discussion Question
Who replaced General William Howe as
commander of the British army?
The American Revolution
General (Henry) Clinton replaced General
William Howe as commander of the British
forces.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Discussion Question
Whom did General Howe call the most
dangerous man in America?
The American Revolution
General Howe called Ben Franklin the most
dangerous man in America.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
The symbol that represents the colonies is the bucking horse.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Mary Hays went with her husband to the war.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
The Americans and
the French were
expected to win
because they have
surrounded the
British troops and
cut them off from
supplies.
End of Custom Shows
WARNING! Do Not Remove
This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and
return to the main presentation.