13 Tavi 1. fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi • ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri?

gansazRvrebebi fsiqologiis miznebi • fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ratomaa saWiro fsiqologiis Seswavla? • Tanamedrove fs iqologiis ganviTareba fsiqologiis istoriuli safuZvlebi Tanamedrove fsiqologiis mimdinareobebi • ras akeTeben fsiqologebi • fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: vifiqroT momavalze • sakvanZo s akiTxebi ZiriTadi cnebebi

14 1954 wels SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesma sasamarTlom brauni topekas ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg saqmeSi ganaCeni gamoitana, romlis mixedviTac Savkaniani da TeTrkaniani bavSvebis skolebis segregacia ukanonod gamocxadda. uze naesi sasamarTlos da sxva gadawyvetilebaze socialuri kvlevis araviTari zemoqmede ba ar mouxdenia Cvenebebs, naTlad fsiqologebis romlebmac mecnierebebis Sedegebi warmomadgenlebis Sedegebi sasamarTlos warudgines. metyvelebda imaze, rom segregirebuli swavleba Savkanian bavSvebze uaryofiTad moq medebda. mogvyavs erT-erTi fsiqologis, kenet klarkis Cveneba, romelmac Savkanian bavSvTa jgufi ikvlia vaiTmeni, (Whiteman, 1993, 49-51 gv.): testireba gasuli kviris xuTSabaTs da paraskevs Cavatare Tqvni moTxovnis mixedviT skot branCis dawyebiT skolaSi, ZiriTadad pirvel klasSi. gamoviyene meTodi, rome lzec adre gesaubreT - zangi da TeTri Tojinebi, romlebic kanis feris garda sxvamx riv absoluturad identuria. moswavleebs furclebi vaCvene, romelbzec es Tojinebi e xata.... bavSvebs am Tojinebs vaCvenebdi da Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT vusvamdi am k iTxvebs: "maCveneT, romeli Tojina mogwonT yvelaze metad? an romliT TamaSi gindaT yvelaze metad?", maCveneT "cudi" Tojina"..... sul 6-dan 9 wlamde 16 bavSvi gamo vkiTxe, maTgan aTma airCia TeTri Tojina, is yvelaze metad moewonaT, Tanac maT es Tojina daaxasiaTes, rogorc "sasiamovno". ar dagaviwydeT, rom es ori Tojina abso luturad identuria, kanis feris garda. TerTmetma bavSvma miiCnia, rom yavisferi T ojina cudad gamoiyureba. es Sedegebi Tanxvdeba adre miRebul rezultatebs, romelic 300-ze met bavSvze Catarebulma gamokvlevam gviCvena. Sedegebi ase avxseniT: zan gi bavSvi ukve 6, 7 an 8 wlis asakSi eqceva sakuTari jgufis Sesaxeb arsebuli neg atiuri stereotipebis tyveobaSi..... iZulebuli var davaskvna, rom klarendonis sag rafos es bavSvebi, iseve rogorc nebismieri sxva adamiani, romelic aSkarad daqvem debarebul statuss atarebs sazogadoebaSi, pirovnuli ganviTarebis procesSi daziand nen. maTSi naTlad SeimCneva arastabilurobis niSnebi da, Cemi azriT, yvela fsiqol ogi swored amgvarad axsnida miRebul Sedegebs. xedavT, ratom hqonda am Cvenebas _ fsiqologiuri kvlevis monaTxrobs _ didi zemoqm edeba uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaze da imaze, Tu rogor aRiqva mTeli qvey nis mosaxleobam segregaciis fsiqologiuri Sedegebi?

15 kenet klarkis Cveneba miuTiTebs fsiqologiuri kvlevis potenciur gavlenaze rogorc calkeuli adamianebis, aseve sazogadoebis cxovrebaze. es magaliTi am saxelmZRvanelos ZiriTad miznebze miuTiTebs: wagiyvanoT mogzaurobaSi, sadac adamianuri gamocdilebis sirTuleebs daxvewili kvleviT gamovavlenT, es ki saSualeb as mogvcems ukeT vakontroloT is Zalebi, romlebic Cvens cxovrebas ayalibebs. fsiqologia da cxovreba tvinis da fsiqikis Sinagani sivrcidan adamianis qcevis garegan ganzomilebamde migviyvans. SeviswavliT iseT procesebs, romlebic azris mqone struqturas mianiWeben Tqvens gamocdilebas; magaliTad, iseT sakiTxebs, ufro rogoricaa: dramatuli rogor aRviqvamT samyaros, rogoricaa, rogor rogor vswavlobT, da ratom vurTierTobT sxvebTan, vazrovnebT, vimaxsovrebT. Sevecd ebiT gavarkvioT adamianis cxovrebis gamovlinebebi, naxuloben sizmrebs adamianebi, rogor uyvardebaT erTmaneTi, ratom morcxvoben, rat om arian agresiulebi, ratom avaddebian fsiqiurad. da bolos, vaCvenebT, rogor Sei Zleba gamoviyenoT fsiqologiuri codna, raTa gavigoT da - zogierT, magaliTad, segr egaciis SemTxvevaSi - SevcvaloT kidec Cvens cxovrebaSi moqmedi kulturuli Zalebi. Cven, fsiqologiis da cxovrebis avtorebs, fsiqologiis kompetenturobis gvjera. pedagogiuri da samecniero karieris manZilze fsiqologia sul ufro da ufro momxibvleli gaxda CvenTvis. bolo wlebSi fsiqikuri da qcevis procesebis warmmarTv eli ZiriTadi meqnizmebis Sesaxeb informaciis mozRvavebas aqvs adgili. Zveli Sexe dulebebi axali ideebiT icvleba. magram adamianis bunebis mravali momajadovebeli mogzaurobis mxare jer kidev amoucnobi rCeba. imedi gvaqvs, rom am dasaruls Tqvenc saTuTad

moepyrobiT fsiqologiuri codnis sakuTar marags. mogzaurobis ZiriTadi mizani iqneba wvdomis mecnieruli wyurvili. davsvamT kiTxvebs adamianis qcevis Sesaxeb _ rogor, ratom, ra, rodis da im qcevi s mizezebis da Sedegebis Sesaxeb, romelsac Tqven sakuTar TavSi, sxva adamianebSi , cxovelebSi aRmoaCenT. avxsniT, ratom fiqrobT, grZnobT da iqecviT ase. riTi gan sxvavdebiT sxvebisagan, raSia Tqveni unikaloba da mainc, ratom iqceviT xSirad sx vebis msgavsad? Tqvens CamoyalibebaSi memkvidreobam iTamaSa roli, Tu piradma gamocdilebam? rogor Tanacxovrobs am rTul qmnilebaSi - adamianur cxovelSi _ agres ia da altruizmi, siyvaruli da siZulvili, sigiJe da Semoqmedeba? am TavSi

16 ganvixilavT, rogor da ratom gaxda yvela es kiTxva mniSvnelovani fsiqologiis, rog orc disciplinis miznebisaTvis. ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri? fsiqologiis unikalo bisa da erTianobis dasafaseblad unda gaarkvioT, rogor esmiT fsiqologebs kvlevis da praqtikis miznebi da areali. wignis damTavrebis Semdeg Tqven unda iazrovnoT, rogorc fsiqologma, xolo am TavSi pirvelad gaecnobiT seriozulad, Tu ras unda niSn avdes es. gansazRvrebebi mravali fsiqologi eZebs pasuxs fundamentur kiTxvaze: ro goria adamianis buneba? am kiTxvas fsiqologia imiTi pasuxobs, rom swavlobs indiv idSi mimdinare procesebs, iseve rogorc fizikur da socialur garemoSi aRmocenebul Zalebs. am TvalsazriT, fsiqologias formalurad ganvmartavT, rogorc individis qcev is da fsiqikuri procesebis mecnierul Seswavlas. ganvixiloT am ganmartebis mniSvn elovani nawilebi; mecnieruli, qceva, individi da fsiqikuri. fsiqologiis mecnieru li mecnieruli moicavs aspeqti moiTxovs, rom fsiqologiuri monacemebs da daskvnebi saWiro mecnieruli meTodis meTodi principebis mixedviT mopovebul analizisa efuZn ebodes. problemis gadaWrisaTvis Tanmimdevrul nabijebs. es meTodi daskvnebis gamosatanad obieqturad Segrovebul mo nacemebs iyenebs. mecnieruli meTodis maxasiaTeblebs ufro dawvrilebiT me-2-e TavS i ganvixilavT, rodesac gavecnobiT, Tu rogor atareben fsiqologebi kvlevas. qceva is iaraRia, romlis saSualebiTac organizmi garemos ergeba. qceva moqmedebaa. fsiq ologiis sagani ZiriTadad adamianis da cxovelis dakvirvebadi qcevaa. sicili, tiri li, sirbili, Sexeba ikvleven, qcevis ras is da magaliTebia, rogor romlebsac indi vidi SeiZleba daakvirde. fsiqologebi akeTebs mocemul garemoSi da ufro farTo socialur da kulturul konteqstSi. fsiqologiuri ana lizis sagani yvelaze xSirad aris individi _ axalSobili, mozardi sportsmeni, kole jis studenti, romelic studentur saerTo sacxovrebelSi cxovrebas egueba, Suaxnis m amakaci, romelic karieras icvlis, an qali, romelmac unda gadalaxos alchaimeris d aavadebiT Sepyrobili meuRlis TandaTanobiTi ukusvliT gamowveuli stresi. amave dro s, kvlevis sagani SeiZleba iyos Simpanze, romelic komunikaciisaTvis saWiro simbo loebs swavlobs,

17 labirinTSi mosiarule TeTri virTxa, an safrTxis signalze moreagire zRvis loqora. individi unda SeviswavloT mis bunebriv garemoSi, an kvleviT laboratoriaSi, gakontrolebul (kontorlirebad) pirobebSi. mravali mkvlevari fsiqol ogi aRiarebs, rom adamianis moqmedebas fsiqikuri procesebis, anu adamianis fsiqi kis muSaobis axsnis gareSe ver gavigebT. adamianuri aqtivobis didi nawili Sinaga nia _ azrovneba, dagegmva, msjeloba, Semoqmedeba (Seqmna), ocneba. mravali fisqo logisaTvis swored fsiqikuri procesebia fsiqologiuri Ziebis yvelaze saintereso aspeqtebi. male gaigebT, rom fsiqologma m kvlevrebma daxvewili teqnikebi gamoigones fsiqikuri movlenebis da procesebis Ses aswavlad - raTa es piradi gamocdileba sazogado gaxadon. am sakiTxebis kombinacia fsiqologias unikalur sferod aqcevs. maSin, rodesac fsiqologebi ZiriTadad indivi debis qcevaze arian fokusirebuli, sociologebi swavloben adamianTa qcevas jgufebS i an organizaciebSi, xolo anTropologebi yuradRebas amaxvileben qcevis ufro farTo konteqstze sxvadasxva kulturaSi. miuxedavad amisa, fsiqologebi farTod iyeneben sxva mecnierebebis miRwevebs. rogorc erT-erTi socialuri mecniereba, da fsiqologia iyenebs ekonomikas, saerTo politologias, sociologias eTnologias. fsiqologebs bevri interesi aqvT biologebTan, gansakuTrebiT maTTan, vinc tvinis procesebs da qcevis bioqimiur safuZvlebs swavlobs. fsiqologebs ainteresebT, Tu rogor muSaobs admian is fsiqika, rac, axlad warmoSobili kognituri mecnierebebis _ kompiuteruli mecnie rebis, xelovnuri inteleqtis da gamoyenebiTi maTematikis kvlevasa da TeoriasTanaa dakavSirebuli. rogorc janmrTelobis mecniereba _ medicinasTan, ganaTlebasTan, iu risprudenciasTan da ekologiasTan dakavSirebuli fsiqologia _ cdilobs gaaumjobesos TiTeuli individisa da koleqtivis cxovrebis done. fsiqologia, aseve, inarCunebs kavSirebs filosofiasTan, sxva humanitarul mecnierebebTan, religiasTan da xelovne bis iseT dargebTan, rogoricaa literatura da dramaturgia. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tanamedrove fsiqologi is siRrme da farTo Tvalsawieri siamovnebis wyaroa ukve Camoyalibebuli specialist ebisaTvis, studentebisaTvis, vinc pirvelad ecnoba fsiqologias, is erTgvar sirTul es warmoadgens. • fsiqologia (psychology) _ individebis qcevis da fsiqikuri proces ebis mecnieruli Seswavla

18 • mecnieruli meTodi (scientific method) - im procedurebis wyeba, romlebic obieqtur i informaciis Segrovebisa da interpretaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba, Tanac imgvarad, ro m Secdoma minimumamdea dayvanili da ganzogadeba sandoa. • qceva ergeba. fsiqologii s informaciis Seswavlis saganze kidev bevria am saTqmeli, miznebis magram, garkv eva bevri Rirebuli sferos modiT, (behavior) - is moqmedebebi, romlis saSualebiTa c organizmi garemos miReba saukeTeso SegiZliaT gzad Sesavali Tavidan. fsiqologiis migvaCnia, fsiqologTa ganvixiloT es miznebi. fsiqologiis miznebi im fsiqologebis mizani, romlebic fund amentur kvlevas axorcieleben, aris qcevis aRwera, axsna, winaswarmetyveleba da g akontroleba. gamoyenebiT (praqtikos) fsiqologebs kidev erTi, mexuTe mizani aqvT _ adamianis cxovrebis gaumjobeseba. es miznebi fsiqologiuri saqmianobis safuZvels Seadgens. ra igulisxmeba TiTeul am mizanSi? movlenis aRwera fsiqologiis pirveli amocanaa zusti dakvirveba qcevaze. Cveulebriv, fsiqologebi aseTi dakvirvebis Sedegad miRebul masalas monacemebs uwodeben. qceviTi monacemebi aris organizmis qcevis da im pirobebis aRwera, romelSic es qceva xorcieldeba. monacemebis Segrovebisas mkvlevrebma unda airCion analizis saTanado done da SeimuSaon qcevis is sazomebi, romlebic misi obieqturad Seswavlis garantias gvaZlevs. individis qcevis kvlevis mizniT analizis sxvadasxv a donis gamoyeneba SeiZleba - yvelaze farTo, globaluri donidan yvelaze detalur, specifikur donemde. fsiqologiuri aRweris gansxvavebuli doneebic sxvadasxva kiTxv as pasuxobs. fsiqologiuri analizis yvelaze farTo doneze mkvlevrebi swavloben mTl iani pirovnebis mkvlevrebma crurwmenebis qcevas rTul socialur da kulturul konteq stSi. am doneze SeiZleba mizezebi, Seiswavlon fsiqikuri Zaladobis daavadebis kro s-kulturuli Sedegebi. Semdeg sxvaobebi, doneze, fsiqologebi qcevis ufro natif erTeulebs swavloben, rogoricaa SuqniSanis sinaTlez e reaqciis siCqare, Tvalebis moZraoba kiTxvis dros, bavSvebis mier

19 daSvebuli gramatikuli Secdomebi enis Seswavlisas. mkvlevrebs qcevis kidev ufro m cire erTeulebis Seswavla SeuZliaT. isini cdiloben Seiswavlon qcevis biologiuri s afuZvlebi, sxvadasxva anu daadginon tvinis is ubnebi, romlebic dros pasuxismgebelia tipis mogonebis Senaxvaze; daswavlis warmoSobili bioqimiuri cvlilebebi, smenaze, an mxedvelobaze pasuxismgebeli senso ruli gzebi. analizis TiTeuli done gvaZlevs im arsebiT informacias, romlis saSual ebiTac dgeba adamianis bunebis saboloo saerTo portreti, risi miRwevis imedic aqv T fsiqologebs. • qcevis monacemebi (Behavioral data) _ organizmis qcevis da im pirobebis aRwera, romlebSic es qceva mimdinareobs, an icvleba. rac ar unda farTo an viwro iyos dak virvebis fokusi, fsiqologebi cdiloben, rom qceva obieqturadDaRweron. im faqtebis Segroveba, romlebic realurad arsebobs da ara iseTebisa, rogorsac mkvlevari moelis, an surs, rom iyos, upirvel esi mniSvnelobisaa. radganac yovel damkvirvebels dakvirvebis procesSi sakuTari, molodini rogorc subieqturi _ Tvalsazrisi rom am Seaqvs esenia ar mikerZoeba, daamaxinjos crurwmena, monacemebi.

aucilebelia, Tvalsazrisma Semdeg TavSi naxavT, fsiqologma mkvlevrebma mravalgvari meqanizmi Seqmnes obieqturobis SesanarCuneblad. movlenis axsna maSin, aRqmulis rodesac miRma aRwera unda aRmoCena TvalsaCino ixedebodes. fsiqol ogiis informacias qceviT da unda eyrdnobodes, axsna fsiqikur dargis procesebSi mizania. kanonzomierebebis mravali mTavari fsiqologebs surT aRmoaCinon, rogor muSaobs qceva. ratom iciniT moulodnel situaci ebSi? ra garemoebebi ubiZgebs adamians Caidinos suicidi, an danaSauli? fsiqologi uri axsna ZiriTadad aRiarebs, rom qcevaTa umetesobaze gavlenas axdens faqtorTa k ombinacia. zogierTi faqtori individis SigniT moqmedebs, rogoricaa genetikuri mocemuloba, motivacia, inteleqtis done, an TviTSefaseba. qc evebis am Sinagan determinantebs organizmis (organizmuli) cvladebi ewodeba, orga nizmis radgan isini organizmis Sesaxeb gvawvdis informacias. adamianis SemTxveva Si, am determinantebs dispoziciuri cvladebi ewodeba. arsebobs agreTve garegani faqtorebi. warmoidgineT, rom bavSvi cdilobs asiamovnos maswavlebeli, raTa prizi moigos, an transportis sacobSi moxvedrili mZRoli agresiuli da mtruli

20 xdeba. am qcevebze did gavlenas axdens pirovnebis gareT arsebuli movlenebi. qcev aze garegan zegavlenas garemos, an situaciis (situaciuri) cvladebi ewodeba. rode sac fsiqologebs qcevis axsna surT, isini TiTqmis yovelTvis iTvaliswineben axsnis orive tips. warmoidgineT, rom fsiqologs surs axsnas, ratom iwyebs adamiani siga retis mowevas. SesaZlebelia individi gansakuTrebiT midrekilia riskisaken (dispoz iciuri axsna), an zogierTi individi ganicdis TanatolTa zewolas (situaciuri axsna) - an, rom orive aucilebelia (kombinirebuli irad fsiqologis mizania qcevis farTo diapazoni safuZvlad mdebare erTi snas. warmoidgineT situacia, romelSic Tqveni maswavlebeli ambobs, rom is miReba. misaRebad Tqveni aucileblia megobari gakveTilze diskusiaSi aqtiuri magram monawileobis yovelTvis kargad axsna). xS mizeziT ax kargi niSn swavlobs,

gakveTilze ar aqtiurobs, xels ar iwevs da ar gamoTqvams Tavis azrebs da Sexduleb ebs. maswavlebeli sayvedurobs, rom saTanadod motivirebuli araa da miiCnevs, rom igi gonieri ar aris. igive adamiani dadis wveulebaze, magram arasodes iwvevs vin mes sacekvaod, Riad ar icavs sakuTar azrs, Tuki vinme sakiTxSi masze nakleb Caxe duli ekamaTeba, iSviaTad erTveba saubarSi sufrasTan. ra diagnozs dasvamdiT? safu Zvlad mdebare romeli mizezia am tipis qcevebze pasuxismgebeli? mravali sxva morc xvi adamianiviT, Tqveni megobaric ver axerxebs ise moiqces, rogorc saWiroa, Ciki da zimbardo (Cheek, 1989, Zimbardo, 1990). aq SegviZlia morcxvobis cneba gamovi yenoT da Tqveni megobris qcevaTa mTeli diapazoni amiTi avxsnaT. • organizmis cvladebi (organizamic variables) _ organizmi s qcevis Sinagani determinanti. • dispoziciuri cvladebi (dispozitional variables) _ organizmis cvlad i, anu qcevis Sinagani determinanti, romelic adamianebSi Cndeba. • garemos cvladeb i (environmental variables) – garegani zemoqmedeba qcevaze. • situaciuri cvladebi (s ituational variables) – garegani zemoqmedeba qcevaze. amgvari mizez-Sedegobrivi ax snebis mosapoveblad mkvlevrebi xSirad sxvadasxva tipis monacemis Segrovebis Semo qmedebiT process axorcieleben. daxelovnebuli deteqtivi Serlok holmsi nawyvet-naw yveti monacemebis safuZvelze akeTebda gamWriax daskvnebs. msgavsad amisa, yovelma mkvlevarma unda gamoiyenos warmosaxv a da SemoqmedebiTad Serwyas is, rac icis, da is, rac jer ar icis. kargad

21 ganswavlul fsiqologs SeuZlia monacemebi adamianis gamocdilebis sakuTari wvdomisa da sxva mecnierebis mier aRmoCenili cdilobs faqtebis safuZvelze mravali axsnas. SesaZlo fsiqologiuri kvlevis umetesoba gansazRvros, variantidan romeli xsnis yvelaze zustad mocemul qcevas. winaswarmetyveleba fsiqologiaSi winaswarmetyveleba niSnavs, rom garkveuli qceva an mocemuli kavSiri raRac albaTobiT gamovlindeba. xSirad qcevis romelime formis safuZvlad mdebare mizezebis zusti axsna saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevars zustad iwina swarmetyvelos momavali qceva. magaliTad, Tu migvaCnia, rom Tqveni megobari morcx via, SegviZlia darwmunebiT viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom is uxerxulad igrZnobs Tavs, Tu ucnob adamianTan gasaubrebas vTxovT. rodesac romelime qcevis a n kavSiris asaxsnelad sxvadasxva axsna arsebobs, maT imis mixedviT Seafaseben, r amdenad megobars kargad SeuZliaT rom zusti da amomwuravi ucnobTan winaswarmetyve leba. kontaqti, diagnozi Tqven unda warmatebiT daemyarebina Segvecvala. zustad iseve, rogorc dakvirveba, mecnieruli winaswarmetyvelebac obie qturi da naTlad Camoyalibebuli unda iyos, ise, rom SesaZlebeli iyos misi Semowme ba da uaryofa, Tu faqtebi mas ar adasturebs. mecnieruli winaswarmetyveleba imis gagebas emyareba, Tu rogor aris dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan movlenebi da varaudobs , romeli meqanizmebi akavSirebs am movlenebs garkveul winapirobebTan. mizez-Sedegobrivi piris Tandaswreba ki winaswarmetyveleba azustebs im pirobebs, romelSic qceva SfoTvis niSnebs iwvevs. dakvirvebul situaciis qcevaSi SigniT gamowveuli variacie bze, Seicvleba. magaliTad, garkveuli asakis Semdeg bavSvebsa da maimunebSi ucnobi cvlilebebi SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos magaliTad, ucnobobis (ucxoobis) xarisxi. ucnobi imave asakis rom yofiliyo, rac b avSvi da maimuni, nakleb SfoTvas miviRebdiT? kauzaluri winaswarmetyvelebis gaumj obesebis mizniT mkvlevari sistematurad cvlis garemo pirobebs da maT bavSvis reaq ciaze gavlenas akvirdeba.

kontroli mravali fsiqologisaTvis kontroli centraluri, yvelaze mniSvnelovani mizania. kont roli niSnavs, rom qceva an moxdeba, an ar moxdeba - daviwyoT, SevinarCunoT, Seva CeroT da zemoqmedeba movaxdinoT mis formaze, Zlierebaze an

22 gamovlenis sixSireze. qcevis mizez-Sedegobrivi axsna damajerebelia, Tu is qcevis gakontrolebis saSualebas qmnis. qcevis gakontrolebis unari mniSvnelovania, radg an is fsiqologebs saSualebas aZlevs adamianebs cxovrebis donis gaumjobesebaSi da exmaron. am wignSi periodulad SexvdebiT fsiqologebis mier gamogonebul sxvadasxva tipis Carevas im mizniT, rom daexmaron adamianebs TavianTi cxovrebis problemuri aspeqtebis gakontorlebaSi. me-16 Tavi, magaliTad, exeba fsiqikuri daavadebebis mkurnalobas. wignSi agreTve aRwerilia, rogor SeuZliaT adamianebs aRmofxvran araj ansaRi qcevebi, rogoricaa magaliTad, sigaretis moweva, wamoiwyon jansaRi qcevebi , rogoricaa regularuli varjiSi (Tavi 13). Tqven SeityobT aRzrdis ra stili exmare ba mSoblebs SvilebTan myari kavSiris SenarCunebaSi (Tavi 11). ris gamo ar surs u cxo adamians daexmaros sxvas ubeduri SemTxvevis dros da rogor SeiZleba am xelisS emSleli faqtorebis gadalaxva (Tavi 18). aq moyvanilia mxolod ramdenime magaliTi im uricxvi situaciidan, romlebSic fsiqologebi TavianT codnas iyeneben, raTa gaaumjobeson da gaakontrolon adamianebis cxovreba. am Tvalsazrisi T, fsiqologebi sakmaod optimistebi arian. mraval maTgans sjera, rom praqtikulad nebismieri arasasurveli qceva SeiZleba Seicvalos saTanado CareviT. fsiqologia da cxovreba iziarebs am optimizms. interess moklebuli ar iqneba aRvniSnoT, rom gag eba da ara kontroli warmoadgens mravali aziuri da afrikuli qveynis fsiqologebis saboloo mizans, noubels da triandisi yuradRebis (Nobles 1980, Triandis 1990). ga maxvileba dasavlur kritikosebs miaCniaT, im rom kontrolze fsiqologiaSi kulturuli mikerZoebis amsaxvelia, romelic industrializaciis, evropelTa kolonializmis da aS S-Si arsebuli dampyrobluri mentalitetis Sedegia. dasavluri fsiqologiis kontrolze fokusireba agreTve mamakacur midgomad iTvleba, is aseTi dominanturi ar iqneboda, qalebs rom eTamaSaT wamyvani roli fsiqologiis ganviTare baSi bornSteini da qvina, (Bornstein, Quina, 1989; Riger, 1992). Sejameba am Sesaval TavSi warmovadgenT fsiqologiis da cxovrebis zogierT seqcias, romlebic specialurad SevadgineT, raTa ufro efeqturad aiTvisoT teqsti. Sejamebis qveTavi Tan sdevs yoveli Tavis garkveul, msxvil informacias. amgvari Sejameba ganvlili masalis sakvanZo sakiTxebis ukeT gagebaSi dagexmarebaT. yovel

23 Tavs boloSi darTuli aqvs seqcia, romelsac sakvanZo sakiTxebi ewodeba. es seqcia teqstis wvdomis Sesamowmeblad unda gamoiyenoT. Tu armoaCenT, rom ar gesmiT Sejam eba, teqsts daubrundiT da Sesabamisi masala Tavidan waikiTxeT, sanam ar darwmund ebiT, rom namdvilad gesmiT teqsti. amgvari seqciebi testirebisaTvis mzadebaSi da gexmarebaT. Sejameba fsiqologebi mecnierul meTods imisaTvis iyeneben, rom indivi debis qcevisa da fsiqikuri procesebis Sesaxeb daskvna gaakeTon. fsiqologebs ramd enime mizani aqvT: obieqturad da saTanado doneze aRweron qceva, axsnan misi aRmZ vreli Zalebi, iwinaswarmetyvelon rodis ganxorcieldeba qceva da gaakontrolon is, raTa cxovrebis done gaaumjobeson. fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ra saWiroa fsiqol ogia? am Sesavali Tavis kiTxvisas SeiZleba dainteresdeT, ra saWiroa fsiqologia? Cveni pasuxi am kiTxvaze sakmaod pirdapiria: gvjera, rom fsiqologiur kvlevas dau yovneblivi da mniSvnelovani gamoyeneba aqvs yoveldRiur mizania cxovrebaSi. fsiqologiis da cxovrebis erT-erTi umTavresi fsiqologiuri gamocdilebis pirovnuli da sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba gaaSuqos. yovel semestrSi v xvdebiT studentebs, romlebic fsiqologiis disciplinis Sesaval kurss eswrebian da garkveuli kiTxvebi uCndebaT. xandaxan es kiTxvebi maTi sakuTari gamocdilebiTaa g amowveuli ("rogor unda moviqce, Tu vfiqrob, rom deda fsiqikurad daavadebuli myav s?" "es sagani maswavlis, rogor unda miviRo ukeTesi niSnebi?"); xandaxan es kiTx vebi presis saSualebiT gavrcelebuli fsiqologiuri informaciiTaa gamowveuli ("marTalia, rom rac ufro didia bavSvi, miT ufro konservatulia igi?" "qalebi yovelTvis ukeTesi mSoblebi arian, vidre kacebi ?"). CvenTvis am kursis swavlebis sirTule swored imaSia, rom mecnieruli kvlevis is Sedegebi warmoavaCinoT, romlebic mniSvnelovania studentebisaTvis. fsiqologiisa da cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela seqcia cdilobs swored amgvar kiTxvebs upasuxos. am gamocemaSi specialuri CanarTebi movaTavseT - fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi. TiTeuli aseTi CanarTi pasuxobs kiTxvas, romelic araerTxel cxov rebaSi gvsmenia studentebisagan. romlebic Cvens mizans metad warmoadgens aRelvebT mecni erulad studentebs. agvexsna imedi is sakiTxebi, yvelaze gvaqvs

24 dagveTanxmebiT, rom fsiqologiis Seswavla gaamdidrebs Tqvens cxovrebiseul gamocdi lebas. Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba XXI saukuneSi CvenTvis SedarebiT advi lia ganvmartoT, ras niSnavs fsiqologia da ra aris fsiqologiuri kvlevis miznebi. Tumca, fsiqologiis Seswavlis dawyebisas mniSvnelovania gesmodeT is mravali Zala, romelmac Tanamedrove fsiqolo giis gaCena ganapiroba. es istoriuli mimoxilva emyareba erT martiv princips: mni Svneloba aqvs ideebs. fsiqologiis mecnierebis ganviTarebis mTel manZilze gacxare buli kamaTi mimdinareobda fsiqologiis sagnisa da kvlevis meTodebis Sesaxeb. Cven i istoriuli mimoxlva analizis or doneze ganxorcieldeba. pirvel ganyofilebaSi mimovixilavT istoriis im periods, roca fsiqologias safuZveli Caeya ra, xolo meore ganyofilebaSi farTod fokusirebis orive aRvwerT amJamad SeecadeT a rsebul Svid is mimdinareobas. donisaTvis warmoidginoT inteleqtualuri vneba, romliTac Cndeboda es Teoriebi. fsiqologiis istoriuli safuZ vlebi "fsiqologias xangrZlivi warsuli aqvs, magram mokle istoria", werda eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis erT-erTi warmomadgeneli, herman ebinhausi (Hermann Eb binghaus, 1908). bunebis mravali mecnierebs saidumlo saukuneebis rogor ganmavlob aSi aRiqvams ainteresebdaT realobas, gamo ar admianis rogoria gaaCndaT. berZeni adamiani cnobierebis buneba, saidan modis sigiJe - magram amgvar kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemi s SesaZlebloba gavixsenoT kvlevis saTanado iaraRis meoTxe ararsebobis da mexuTe Cvens welTaRricxvamde saukuneSi filosofosebis: sokrates, platonis da aristoteles mier dasmuli fundamenturi SekiT xvebi. marTalia, fsiqologiis garkveuli formebi induri iogas uZveles tradiciaSic arsebobda, dasavluri fsiqologiis safuZvlebi swored did berZen moazrovneTa dialog ebSi unda veZeboT, sadac midioda msjeloba imaze, Tu rogor muSaobs goneba, ra ari s Tavisufali neba, ra mimarTebaa calkeul moqalaqeebsa da maT saxelmwifos Soris. me-19-e saukunis bolosTvis mkvlevrebma sxva mecnierebebidan, rogorebicaa fiziolo gia da fizika, kvlevis laboratoriuli

25 meTodebis fsiqologiaSi gadmotana daiwyes, raTa pasuxi gaecaT filosofosebis mier dasmul am fundamentur kiTxvebze. Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTarebaSi gadamwyve ti roli Seasrula vilhelm vundtma (Wilhelm Wundt), romelmac, karieris 1879 wels l aipcigSi misma eqsperimentuli ganaTlebiT sxeulis fsiqologiis fiziologi pirveli iyo, laboratoria daaarsa. marTalia, vundti samecniero manZilze interesebma Seswvlidan fsiqikis Seswavlaze gadainacvla. mas surda Seeswavla SegrZnebis da aR qmis ZiriTadi procesebi da martivi fsiqikuri procesebis siCqare. im ukve droisaTvis, rodesac vundtma fsiqologiuri laboratoria daaarsa, ganxorcielebuli hqonda kvlevaTa seria da gamoqveynebuli Tavisi fiziologiuri fsiqologiis safuZvlebis pirveli gamocema (sul 7 aseTi gamocema iyo) kendleri, (Kendler, 1987). laboratoriis gaxsnis Semdeg vundtma fsiqologiis studentebis aRz rda daiwyo, misma mowafeTa didma raodenobam SemdegSi TavianT samSobloSi daaarsa msgavsi laboratoriebi. raki fsiqologia damoukidebel disciplinad Camoyalibda, Crd iloeT amerikis mraval universitetSi fsiqologiuri laboratoriebi gaCnda, pirveli m aTgani _ jons hopkinsis universitetSi, 1883 wels. am adreul laboratoriebs vundti s gavlena etyoboda. magaliTad, eduard titCeneri (Edward Titchener) vundtis mowaf e, erT-erTi pirveli fsiqologi gaxldaT aSS-Si, romelmac 1892 wels kornelis univer sitetis laboratoria daaarsa. Tumca, daaxloebiT amave dros, harvardis universitet is filosofiis axalgazrda profesorma, romelic medicinas swavlobda da literatura da religia ainteresebda, wminda amerikuli xedva SeimuSav a. uiliam jemsma (William James), didi romanistis, henri jemsis Zmam, or tomad g amosca "fsiqologiis safuZvlebi" (1890/1950), romelic, mravali eqspertis azriT, y velaze mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri naSromia. maleve, 1892 wels, h. stenli holma amerikis fsiqologTa asociacia daaarsa. 1900 wlisTvis CrdiloeT ameri kaSi 40-ze meti fsiqologiuri laboratoria funqcionirebda, hilgardi

(Hilgard, 1986). fsiqologiis gaCenisTanave daiwyo debatebi misi kvlevis sagnisa da meTodebis Sesaxeb. am debatebSi gamokveTili zogierTi sakiTxi jerac ar kargavs mniSvnelobas. ganvixiloT dava struqturalizmsa da funqcionalizms Soris. struqturalizmi: fsiqikis Sinaarsi

26 rodesac fsiqologia laboratoriuli mecniereba gaxda da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis Catareba daiwyo, naTlad gamoCnda misi potenciali unikaluri wvlili Seet ana codnis SeZenaSi. vundtis laboratoriaSi cdis pirebi martiv reaqciebs ("ki"-s an "ara"-s Tqma, Rilakze TiTis daWera) iZleodnen sxvadasxva pirobaSi aRqmul stim ulebze. radganac monacemebi sistematuri da obieqturi procedurebis saSualebiT iyo Segrovebuli, sxvebsac SeeZloT am eqsperimentebis Sedegebis gameoreba. vundtis f siqologiuri tradiciis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia aqcenti mecnierul meTodze, zust g azomvebsa da monacemTa statistikur analizze. rodesac titCenerma vundtis fsiqolog ia aSS-Si Caitana, igi amtkicebda, rom cnobierebis sakvlevad swored amgvari mecn ieruli meTodebi unda gamoeyenebinaT. cnobieri fsiqikuri cxovrebis elementebis Se swavlis miseuli meTodi introspeqcia iyo - individis mier konkretuli sensoruli gancdiT gamowveuli azrebis da grZnobebis ganxilva. titCeneri aqcents fsiqikis Sinaarsis raobaze ake Tebda da naklebad ainteresebda kiTxvebi "ratom" da "rogor". mis midgomas struqtu ralizmi ewodeba, struqturalizmi ewodeba anu swavleba fsiqikis da qcevis struqtur is Sesaxeb. struqturalizmi efuZneba varauds, rom adamianis fsiqikuri gancda SeiZ leba gavigoT, rogorc ZiriTadi komponentebis kombinacia. am midgomis mizani iyo f siqikis struqtura SegrZnebis da fsiqikuri gziT cxovrebis sxva gancdebis fsiqolog i Semadgeneli elementebis analizis ekvlia. mravali struqturalizms sam frontze daesxa Tavs: (1) is reduqcionistuli iyo, radganac ada mianis gancdis mTeli sirTule martiv SegrZnebebamde daiyvana; (2) is elementaruli iyo, radgan nawilebs an elementebs erT mTelSi aerTebda da uSualod adaimianis am mTel qcevas ar swavlobda; mxolod (3) is mentalisturi iyo, radgan aRweras swavlobda da ar cnobieri gancdis verbalur

iTvaliswinebda maT gamocdilebas, visac ar SeeZlo Tavisi introspeqciis aRwera, ma T Soris, cxovelebs, bavSvebs da fsiqikurad daavadebul avadmyofebs. struqturalizm is erT-erTi mniSvnelovani alternativa iyo gelStalt fsiqologia, romlis fuZemdebeli gaxldaT germaneli fsiqologi maqs verthaimeri (Max Wertheimer). misi azriT, mraval movlenas fsiqika aRiqvams, rogorc geStalts _ organizebul mTels da ara martivi nawilebis erTobas: rodesac, magaliTad, naxats aRviqvamT, is ufro metia, vidre saRebavis calkeuli monasmebis erToblioba. rogorc mexuTe TavSi vnaxavT, geStalt fsiqologias kvlavac aqvs gavlen a aRqmis Seswavlaze.

27 struqturalizmis kidev erTi sapirispiro mimdinareobaa funqcionalizmi. funqcionalizmi: mizanmimarTuli fsiqika uiliam jemsi titCeners eTanxmeboda, rom fsiqologiis Seswavlis sagani cnobiereba unda iyos, magram misTvis cnobiereba ar daiyvaneboda elementebze, Sin aarssa da struqturebze. cnobiereba aris nakadi, fsiqikis Tviseba, romelic mudmiv urTierTqmedebaSi imyofeba garemosTan. adamianis cnobiereba mis garemosTan morgebas aadvilebs, amdenad, mniSvnelovania fsiqikuri procesebis moqm edebebi da funqciebi da ara Sinaarsi. funqcionalizmisaTvis umniSvnelovanesia das wavlili Cvevebi, romlebic organizms garemosTan morgebis da efeqturad funqcionire bis saSualebas aZlevs. kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas "ra aris nebismieri qc eviTi aqtis funqcia an mizani?" funqcionalizmis skolis damaarsebeli iyo amerikel i filosofosi jon diui. mis mier fsiqikuri procesebis praqtikuli gamoyenebis mcde lobam ganaTlebis sferoSi mniSvnelovan warmatebas miaRwia. misma msjelobam impulsi misc a progresul ganaTlebas sakuTar laboratoriul skolaSi da Semdgom mTel aSS-Si: "meq anikuri daswavla uaryves da praqtikiT swavlaze gadavidnen im imediT, rom es inte leqtualur cnobismoyvareobas aRZravda da Sedegad masalis ukeTesi wvdoma miiReboda " (kendleri 1987, gv. 124). marTalia, jemss dakvirvebis sjeroda, vundtis mier Se muSavebul daxvewil laboratorul meTodebs is mcire mniSvnelobas aniWebda. jemsis f siqologiaSi arsebobda adgili emociebis, me-s, nebisyofis, Rirebulebebis, religiu ri da mistikuri gancdebisTvisac ki. misi „Tbilsisxliani“ fsiqologia aRiarebda, rom TiTeuli individi unikaluria da ver daiyvaneba formulebze an testis qulebze. jemsisTvis fsiqologiis mizans warmoadgenda axsna da ara eqsperimentuli kontroli, arkini (Arkin, 1990). am mimdinareobebis memkvidreoba miuxedavad maT Soris gansxvavebisa, struqturalizmis da funqcionalizmis praqtikos Ta Tanamedrove rogorc aRmoCenebma fsiqologia is inteleqtualuri amJamad konteqsti fsiqologebi Seqmnes, romelSic qcevis ganviTarda. aseve swavloben struqturas, funqcias, magaliTad, metyvelebis procesi. warmoidgineT, rom megobris kinoSi dapatiJeba gsurT. amisaTvis Tqvens mier warmoT qmulma sityvebma sworad unda Seasrulos Tavisi funqcia - varskvlavuri

28 omebi CemTan erTad am saRamos - amave dros winadadebas unda hqondes swori struqtura: swori ar iqneba Tu ityviT "ginda varskvlavuri omebi erTad CemTan am s aRamos wamosvla?" metyvelebis procesis gagebis mizniT mecnierebi swavloben, Tu r ogor axerxebs mosaubre erTmaneTs moargos sityvis mniSvneloba (funqcia) da enis g ramatikuli struqtura, boki (Bock 1990). (enis da metyvelebis zogierT process mec xre TavSi aRvwerT). am wignSi aqcents gavakeTebT rogorc struqturaze, ise - funqciaze, ganvixilavT rogorc klasikur, aseve Tanamedrove kvl evebs. fsiqologebi mraval sxvadasxva meTods iyneben yvela individisaTvis damaxas iaTebeli zogadi movlenebisa da TiTeuli individis unikaluri aspeqtebis Sesaswavla d. • struqturalizmi (Srtucturalism) _ swavleba fsiqikisa da qcevis Sesaxeb, sadac fsiqikuri gamocdileba gaigeba, rogorc martivi elementebis an movlenebis kombinac ia. • funqcionalizmi (Functionalism) _ swavleba, romelic fokusirdeba organizmis fu nqcionalizmi garemosTan urTierTqmedebis dros fsiqikisa da qcevis funqciebze. Tan amedrove fsiqologiis mimdinareobebi ganvixilavT ganviTarebis Tanamedrove da fsiq ologiis _ ZiriTad mimdinareobebs. kuTxesa da TiTeuli daSvebebs, maTgani _ biologiuri, fsiqodinamikuri, bihevioristuli, humanisturi, kognituri, f siqo-kulturuli iZleva xedvis romelic gavlenas axdens imaze, Tu ras Seiswavlian fsiqologebi da rogor: adamiane bs Tavisufali neba gaaCniaT, Tu memkvidreobiT miRebul (biologiuri determinizmi), an garemoTi ganpirobebul (garemos determinizmi) scenars aTamaSeben? organizmi aqtiuri da SemoqmedebiTia, Tu meqanikuri da reaqtiuli? Ses aZlebelia fsiqologiuri da socialuri fenomenebi fiziologiuri procesebiT aixsnas? rTuli qceva mravali ufro mcire komponentis jamia, Tu mas axali da gansxvavebuli Tvisebebi aqvs? fsiqologiis mimdinareoba ganapirobebs, ra eZebos, sad da ra meTo debiT. yoveli momdevno seqciis wakiTxvisas miadevneT Tvali, rogor gansazRvravs q cevis mizezebs da Sedegebs TiTeuli aseTi mimdinareoba. marTalia, fsiqologiis cen tralur sakiTxebs TiTeuli es mimdinareoba gansxvavebulad udgeba, mravali fsiqologi sesxulobs da erTmaneTs uTavsebs sxvadas xva mimarTulebis cnebebs. TiTeuli mimdinareoba saSualebas gvaZlevs ukeT

29 gavigoT adamianis gamocdileba. amitom, aq TiTeuli mimarTulebis wvlils ganvixilavT, xolo erTad aRebuli, isini Tanamedrove fsiqologias asaxaven. biologiuri mimdinareoba biologiuri nervuli da mimidnareobis endokrinuli axsnilia mis warmomadgenlebi sis temebis safuZvlad qcevis mizezs genebis, tvinis, funqcionirebaSi mdebare fizikuri eZeben. organizmis da funqcionireba struqturebis bioqimiuri procesebis terminebiT. gancda da qceva gaigeba, rogorc nervul ujredeb s Soris da SigniT qimiuri da eleqtruli aqtivobis Sedegi. am mimarTulebis warmoma dgenlebi Tvlian, rom fsiqologiuri da socialuri fenomenebi SeiZleba bioqimiuri pr ocesebis terminebiT aixsnas: yvelaze rTuli fenomenic ki SeiZleba gagebul iqnas u fro mcire, ufro specifikur erTeulebze dayvaniT. magaliTad, isini Seecdebian axsn an, rogor kiTxulobT am winadadebis Semadgenel sityvebs tvinis ujredebSi mimdinar e zusti fizikuri procesebis gziT. aq qceva misi fizikuri struqturiT biologiuri d a memkvidreobiTi da procesebiT procesebis ganisazRvreba. safuZvlad mdebare struq turebis SecvliT gamocdilebam SeiZleba qcevac Secvalos. mkvlevrebma SeiZleba gkiTxon: "ra cvlilebebi xdeba Tqvens tvinSi, roca kiTxvas swavlobT? fsiqobiologiuri mimarTul ebis amocanaa qceva analizis yvelaze zust doneze gaigos. mravali aseTi mkvlevari universitetebsa da samedicino laboratoriebSi muSaobs, sxvebi klinikebSi. pirvel ebi swavloben, SeiZleba Tu ara gavaumjobesoT asakovani virTxebis mexsiereba Cana saxovani virTxebis qsovilebis gadanergviT, xolo meoreni avtosagzao SemTxvevis an daavadebis Sedegad gamowveuli mexsierebis dakargvas. am mkvlevrebis gamaerTianebelia biologiuri Zalebisagan wa rmoSobili qcevis aspeqtebis Seswavla. fsiqodinamikuri mimdinareoba fsiqodinamikuri mimarTulebis mixedviT, qcevas marTavs, an mis motivs warmoadgens Zlieri (mZlavri) Sinagani Zalebi. adamianis qcevebi Tandayolili inst inqtebidan, deprivaciis biologiuri ltolvebidan, pirovnul da moTxovnilebebsa konf

liqtebi da sazogadoebis moTxovnebs Soris konfliqtis gadaWris mcdelobidan momdinareobs. mdgo mareoba, fiziologiuri aRgzneba qcevis ganxorcielebis energias zustad iseve iZlev a, rogorc naxSiri - sawvavs orTqlis lokomotivisaTvis. am modelis mixedviT, organ izmi wyvets reagirebas, Tu misi

30 moTxovnilebebi dakmayofilebulia da misi ltolvebi Semcirebuli. qcevis mTavari mizania daZabulobis Semcireba. motivaciis fsiqodinamikuri principebi yve laze srulad venelma eqimma zigmund froidma (Zigmund Freud) ganaviTara 19-e sauku nis bolos da 20-e saukunis muSaobis dasawyisSi. froidis ideebi fsiqikurad daavad ebul pacientebTan Sedegad warmoiSva, magram, misi azriT, is principebi, rolmebic man avadmyofebTan aRmoaCina, vrceldeba rogorc normalur, jansaR, ise _ paTologiur qcevaze. froidis fsiqodinamikuri Teoriis mixedviT, pirovnebas aqeT-iqeT eqaCeba Sinagani da gare gani Zalebi. froidis modelSi pirvelad iyo naCvenebi, rom adamianis buneba yovelT vis racionaluri ar aris, rom qcevebi SeiZleba iseTi motivebiT iyos gamowveuli, r omlebic ar aris gacnobierebuli. froidis Semdeg es Teoria misma mimdevrebma sxvad asxva mimarTulebiT adreuli ganaviTares. bvSvobaa, froidis mixedviT, pirovnebis Camoyalibebis periodi neo-froidianelebma gaafarToves misi Teoria da masSi socialuri zemoqmedeba da urTierTqmedeba CarTes, romelic indvidis sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi iCens Tavs. froidis ideebs didi gavlena hqonda fsiqologiis mraval sferoze. misi wvlilis sxvdasxva aspeqts waawydebiT, r odesac gaecnobiT bavSvis ganviTarebis, sizmris, Terapiis yofila daviwyebis, sist ematuri aracnobieri mecnieruli motivaciis, kvlevis pirovnebis da fsiqoanalituri amisa, es iyo sakiTxebs. magram gakvirvebiT aRmoaCenT, rom misi ideebi arasodes Sedegi. nacvla d gamorCeuli SemoqmedebiTi gonebis nayofi, romelic Sepyrobili iyo adamianis azrebi s, grZnobebisa da moqmedebebis Rrmad dafaruli saidumlos amocnobis surviliT. bihevioristuli mimdinareoba am mimdinareobis tipis warmomadgenlebi qcevas garemos swavloben, Tu rogor akontr olebs yovlisa, win konkretuli konkretuli winapirobebs,

stimuli. upirveles bihevioristebi aanalizeben garemos im pirobebs, romlebic uswrebs qcevas da organizms imisaTvis amzadebs, moaxdinos Tu ara reagireba. Semd eg isini ganixilaven qceviT reaqcias, romelic maTi kvlevis mTavar obieqts

31 warmoadgens, qceva unda gavigoT, viwinaswarmetyveloT da gavakontroloT. bolos, ik vleven reaqciis dakvirvebad Sedegebs. bihevioristis interesis sagania, magaliTad, rogor cvlis motocikletistis marTvis stils, aiZulebs mas ufro frTxilad iaros, an saerTod Tavi daanebos tarebas (qceviTi reaqcia) sagzao jarimebi (Sede gi). monacemebs bihevioristebi gakontrolebuli (kontrolirebadi) laboratoriuli eqs perimentebidan iReben, maT SeiZleba eleqtronuli aparatura da kompiuterebi gamoiy enon stimulis warsadgenad da reaqciis dasafiqsireblad. isini miiCneven, rom Sesa swavli fenomeni zustad unda iyos ganmartebuli da raodenobrivad gamoxatuli. xSira d isini cxovelebs swavloben (umetes SemTxvevaSi mtredebs da virTxebs), radgan eq sperimentis pirobebs aq ufro srulad gaakontroleben, vidre adamianebis SemTxvevaS i. bihevioristebi Tvlian, rom cxovelebze Seswavlili ZiriTadi procesebi igivenairad mimdinareobs sxva saxeobebSic. biheviorizmi farTo d gamoiyeneba fsiqologiis praqtikaSi. mis mier moTxovnili zusti eqsperimentireba da cvladebis zedmiwevniTi dadgena fsiqologiis sferoTa umetesobaSi gaiziares. bi hevioristebis mier cxovelebze aRmoCenili kanozomierebebi adamianis problemebzec gamoiyenes. bihevioristulma principebma ganaTlebisadmi ufro humanur midgomamde m igviyvana (dasjis nacvlad dadebiTi ganmtkicebis gamoyeneba), Seiqmna qceviTi dar Reevebis axali tipis Terapia da utopiuri sazogadoebis modelis Seqmnis instruqcie bi. humanisturi mimdinareoba humanisturi fsiqologia 1950-ian wlebSi gaCnda, rogorc fsiqodinamikuri da bihevio ristuli modelebis alternativa. humanisturi fsiqologiis mixedviT, adamianebis qcevas ar ganapirobebs arc Sinagani, instinqturi Zalebi, rogorc amas froidianelebi miiCneven da arc garegani Zalebi, rogorc bihevioristebs miaCndaT. adamianebi aqtiuri qmnilebebi arian, Sinaganad kargebi da arCevanis gakeTebis u nari aqvT. humanisturi mimdinareobis mixedviT, adamianis ZiriTadi amocanaa swraf va sakuTari potenciis, SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisken. humanisti fsiqologebi sw avloben qcevas, magram ara laboratoriul pirobebSi da ara mis Semadgenel elemente bze an komponentebze dayvaniT. isini adamianTa cxovrebis manZilze gamovlenil cxo vrebiseul istoriebis paternebs akvirdebian. biheviorisitebisgan mkveTrad gansxva vebiT, humanisturi fsiqologiis

32 warmomadgenlebi swavloben individis mier gancdil subiqtur samyaros da ara garega ni damkvirveblis da mkvlevris TvaliT danaxul obieqtur samyaros. amitom, isini fenomenologiuri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebadac iTvlebian, radgan movlenebze calkeuli (moqmedi) subieqtis (actor) pirad Sexedulebas swavloben. gar da amisa, humanisti fsiqologebi cdiloben mTliani pirovneba Seiswavlon da holistu r midgomas aRiareben. maTi azriT, namdvili wvdoma niSnavs individis fsiqikis, sx eulis da qcevis codnas socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT. humani sturi midgoma afarToebs fsiqologiis sferos da masSi literaturis, istoriis, fsiqo logia xelovnebis ufro Seswavlidan savse miRebul gakveTilebs rTavs. amgvarad, disciplina xdeba. humanisturi fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi amboben, rom maTi midgoma aris is safuari, romelic exmareba fsiq ologias adamianis bunebis cxovelur aspeqtebze da uaryofiT Zalebze zemoT dadges. rogorc 16-e TavSi vnaxavT, humanisturma mimdinareobam didi gavlena iqonia fsiqoT erapiaSi axali midgomebis gaCenaze. • bihevioristuli ainteresebs • biheviorizmi • huma nisturi romelic mimdinareoba (Behaviorists perspective) _ am mimdinareobas fiqsi rdeba da dakvirvebadi qceva, romelic obieqturad dakvirvebadi qcevis mimarTeba garemos stimulebTan. (Behaviorism) _ mecnieruli mi dgoma, romelic fsiqologiis Seswavlas mxolod gazomvadi an dakvirvebadi qceviT farglavs. mimdinareoba (Humani stic perspective) fenomenologiur _ fsiqologiuri samyaroze, modeli, aqcents individis racionaluri arCevanis gakeTebisa da maqsimaluri potencialis ganviTarebis Tandayolil unarze a keTebs.

kognituri mimdinareoba kognituri SezRudulobis revolucia fsiqologiaSi gaCnda, rogorc biheviorizmis kidev erTi gamowveva. kognituri mimdinareobis centrSi dgas adamianis Semecneba da codnis SeZenis yvela procesi _ yuradReba, azrovneba, dama xsovreba da gageba. kognituri mimarTulebis mixedviT, adamianebi moqmedeben, radg an isini azrovneben, xolo azrovneben, radgan adamianebi arian.

33 kognitur modelSi qceva mxolod nawilobrivadaa ganpirobebuli garemos winmswrebi movlenebiT da warsuli qcevebis SedegebiT, rogorc es bihevioristebs mi aCniaT. zogierTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani qceva azrovnebis sruliad axali da ara war sulSi gamoyenebuli gzebidan Cndeba. im alternativebis warmodgenis unari, romlebi c sruliad gansxvavdeba imisgan, rac aris, an iyo, saSualebas aZlevs adamians mom avlisken iswrafos da awmyo situacia gadalaxos. individi realobaze reagirebs ara ise, TiTqos is obieqturi samyaro iyos, aramed ise, rogorc is misi fiqrebis da wa rmosaxvis Sinagani samyaros subieqtur realobaSi aisaxeba. kognituri fsiqologebisaTvis azrebi qcevebis rogorc Sedegi, aseve mizezia. Tu viR acas awyenineT da nanobT, es azria, romelic qcevis Sedegad gagiCndaT, xolo sinan ulis magaliTia. kognituri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi iseT umaRles fsiqikur proc esebs swavloben, rogoricaa aRqma, mexsiereba, enis gamoyeneba, problemis gadaWra da gadawyvetilebis miReba sxvadasxva doneze. maT SeiZleba ikvlion tvinSi sisxli s moZraobis sqemas sxvadasvxa tipis kognituri amocanis gadawyvetisas, studentis mogonebebs adreuli bavSvobis SemTxvevaze, an sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi gancdis Semd eg bodiSis moxda azris, rogorc qcevis mizezis mexsierebis unaris cvlilebebs. fsiqikur procesebze fokusirebis gamo, mravali mkv levrisaTvis kognituri mimdinareoba dRes fsiqologiaSi dominanturia. evoluciuri evoluciuri mimdinareoba evoluciuri mimdinareoba cdilobs Tanamedrove fsiqologia biologiuri mecnierebebis ZiriTad ideebs, Carlz darvinis bunebrivi SerCevis gziT evoluciis T eorias daukavSiros. bunebrivi SerCevis idea sakmaod martivia: garemosTan ukeT Se guebuli organizmebi ukeTes STamomavlobas iZlevian (da gadascemen Tavis genebs), vidre cudad Seguebulebi. mravali Taobis manZilze, adaptaciis unari sul ufro da ufro Zlierdeba rom da ixveweba. iseve, fsiqologiaSi rogorc evoluciuri un arebi mimdinareoba gulisxmobs, fsiqikuri, fizikuri

milionobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi viTardeboda, raTa konkretul adpataciur miznebs moms axureboda. mkvlevrebi ganviTarda. im garemo pirobebs swavloben, istoriis 99% rom lebSic adamianis eraSi tvini mcire adamianis ganviTarebis pleistocenis

34 jgufebad cxovrebas, nadirobasa da SemgroveblobaSi mimdinareobda (uxeSad, 2 milio nwliani periodi, romelic 10 000 wlis win damTavrda). evoluciuri fsiqologia evoluciuri biologiis mdidar Teoriul CarCos iyenebs, raTa is centralur i adaptaciuri problemebi daadginos, romlebic cocxal arsebebs udga win: mtacebleb isa da parazitebis Tavidan acileba, sakvebis Segroveba da gacvla, wyvilis mopove ba da SenarCuneba, Semdeg janmrTeli bavSvebis gazrda. daskvnebs adaptaciuri akeT ebs im problemebis dadgenis evoluciuri fsiqologia fsiqikuri meqanizmebis, an fsiqologiuri adaptaciis Sesaxeb, romelic SeiZleba am problemebis gadasWrelad gaCeniliyo. evoluciuri gansxvavdeba, fsiqologia rom misi sxva mimarTulebebisagan amxsneli principi upirvels yovlisa, imiT ZiriTadi evolu ciis ukiduresad xangrZlivi procesia. am mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi cdiloben gaigon qalisa da m amakacis mier aRebuli gansxvavebuli sqesobrivi rolebi, rogorc evoluciis da ara T anamedrove sazogadoebis gavlenis produqti. imis gamo, rom evoluciuri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebs ar SeuZliaT eqsperimentebis Catareba, radgan evoluciis process ver Secvlian, maT araordinaruli gzebis Zieba uwevT, raTa Teori is damamtkicebeli sabuTebi moipovon. • kognituri mimdinareoba (Cognitive perspecti ve) _ fsiqologiis mimdinareoba, romelic aqcents akeTebs adamianis azrovnebis da codnis SeZenis procesebze, rogor icaa yuradReba, azrovneba, damaxsovreba, molodini, problemis gadaWra, fantazia d a cnobiereba. • evoluciuri mimdinareoba (Evolutionary perspective) _ fsiqologiis m idgoma, roemlic xazs usvams qceviTi da mentaluri adapaturobis mniSvnelovnebas im varaudi s safuZvelze, rom fsiqikuri unarebi milionobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi viTardeboda, ra Ta konkretul adpatur miznebs momsaxureboda. • kulturuli mimdinareoba (Cultural per spective) _ aqcents qcevis mizezebis da Sedegebis kros-kulturul sxvaobaze akeTeb s. kulturuli mimdinareoba am mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebi qcevis mizezebisa da Sedegebis kroskulturul sxvaobebs swavloben. kulturuli mimdinareoba mniSvnelovani pasuxia im kritikaze, rom fsiqologiuri kvleva zedmetad xSirad emyareba adamianis bunebis gagebis dasavlur koncefcias da ikvlevs mxolod TeTrkanian, saSualo

35 klasis amerikelebs gergeni (Gergen et al; 1996). kulturuli Zalebis saTanado gaTv aliswineba erTi da imave eris SigniT jgufebis Sedarebasac gulisxmobs. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma SeiZleba Seiswavlon kvebiTi aSlilobebi TeTrkanian da Savkanian amer ikel mozardebSi aSS-Si (ixileT me-12-e Tavi). kulturuli Zalebi SeiZleba aseve Se fasdes sxvadasxva erSi, magaliTad, moraluri msjelobebis Sedareba aSS-sa da indoe TSi (Tavi me-11-e). kros-kulturuli fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebs ainteresebT, yvela adamians exeba arsebuli Teoriebi, Tu ufro viw ro, specifikur populaciebs. kros-kulturuli mimdinareoba fsiqologiuri kvlevis TiT qmis yvela sferoze vrceldeba: zemoqmedebs Tu ara kultura adamianis mier samyaros aRqmaze? ganapirobebs Tu ara ena samyaros aRqmas? rogor zemoqmedebs kultura bavSvis ganvi Tarebaze? rogor zemoqmedebs kulturuli ganwyobebi moxucebulobis asakis gamocdileb aze? ganapirobebs kultura sakuTari Tavis aRqmas? zemoqmedebs Tu ara kultura imaz e, Tu rogor gamoxatavs adamiani emociebs? ganapirobebes Tu ara kultura imas, Tu ra qcevebs ganaxorcielebs individi? zemoqmedebs Tu ara kultura imaze, Tu ra zomi T ganicdian adamianebi fsiqikur aSlilobebs? amgvari kiTxvebis dasmiT kulturuli m imdinareoba xSirad iseT daskvnebs gvaZlevs, romlebic sxva mimarTulebis mier wamo yenebul Tezisebs ewinaaRmdegeba. magaliTad, mkvlevarTa azriT, froidis Teoriis mr avali aspeqti ar miesadageba venis kulturisagan Sors mdgom sazogadoebebs. amgvar i idea jer kidev anTropologma bronislav malinovskim (Bronislav Malinowski) gamoTqva 1927 wels da froidis mamaze centrirebuli ojaxebi Teoria dedazea axali gvineis magaliTis amrig ad, safuZvelze kulturuli gaakritika, sadac centrirebuli. mimdinareoba miiCnevs, rom fsiqodinamikuri mimdinareobis zogierTi debuleba arasw oria. kulturis sxvadasxvaoba da simdidre gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos, rodesac ada mianis gamocdilebis Sesaxeb daskvnebis ganzogadebas vaxdenT. mimdinareobebis Sedareba: agresiis magaliTi Svidive mimdinareoba sxvadasxva daSvebazea agebuli da gansxvavebulad esmis qceva . cxrili 1.1. ajamebs am mimdinareobebs. cxrili 1.1. Tanamedrove fsiqologiis Svi di mimdinareobis Sedareba mimdinareoba rogor esmis qcevis kvlevis kvlevis

36 adamianis buneba determinanteb i fokusi ZiriTadi Temebi biologiuri pasiuri meqanisturi memkvidreoba, bioqimiuri procesebi tvini da nervuli sistemis procesebi qcevis da fsiqikuri procesebis bioqimiuri safuZveli fsiqodinamik uri instinqtiT marTuli memkvidreoba, adreuli gamocdileba aracnobieri ltolvebi, konfliqtebi qceva, rogorc aracnobieri motivebis garegani gamoxatva biheviorist uli reagirebs stimulze, SeiZleba misi Secvla garemo, stimulis Semcveli pirobebi potenciurad sakuTari Tavisadmi mimarTuli stim ulis Semcveli pirobebi, fsiqikuri procesebi konkretuli garegani reqciebi qceva da misi stimulebi, mizezebi da Sedegebi humanisturi aqtiuri, usazRvro potencialis mqone adamianis gamocdileba da potenciali fsiqikuri procesebi, ena cxovrebis paternebi faseulobebi, miznebi qceviTi indikatorebis saSualebiT Seswav lili fsiqikuri procesebi kognituri SemoqmedebiTad aqtiuri, reagirebs stimulze evoluciuri plesitocenis eris problemebis gadaWraze adaptacia gadarCenis mizniT

ganviTarebul i fisqologiur ganviTarebis adapturi funqciebis

37 adaptirebuli i adaptacia TvalsazrisiT ganxiluli fsiqikuri meqanizmebi kulturuli icvleba kulturis zegavleniT kulturuli normebi damokidebule bebisa (attitudes) da kulturuli sqemebi adamianis gamocdilebis universaluri qcevebis kros- da kulturulad specifikuri aspeqtebi magaliTisaTvis mokled ganvixiloT, rogor axsnida TiTeuli es Teoria agresiis faqts, imas, Tu ratom iqcevian adamianebi agresiulad. yvela es midgoma iyo gamoyenebuli agresiisa da Zaladobis bunebis gagebis mcdelobisas. TiTeuli mim arTulebisaTvis mogvyavs mkvlevrebis mier SesaZlod gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi da Sesa Zlod ganxorcielebuli eqsperimentebi. • biologiuri. ikvlveven tvinis konkretuli sis temebis rols agresiaSi. isini sxvadasxva regions astimulireben da Semdeg amiT ga mowveul destruqciul moqmedebebs afiqsireben. agreTve, swavloben, raime normidan gadaxra xom ar aris seriuli mkvlelebis tvinSi, xom ar aris dakavSirebuli qalis a gresia menstrualur ciklTan. • fsiqodinamikuri. aanlizeben agresias, rogorc reaqcias frust raciaze, romelsac siamovnebis miRwevis dabrkolebebi iwvevs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, usamarT lo xelmZRvaneli. es mimdinareoba agresias uyurebs, rogorc bavSvobaSi mSoblebis m imarT gancdili mtrobis gadatanas zrdasrul asakSi. bihevioristuli. adgens warsulSi Cadenili agresiuli qcevebis ganmtkicebis faqtebs, vTqvaT, moswavlem klaselebis, an Tanatolebs daartyma da es zedmeti yura dRebis sagani gaxda. es midgoma amtkicebs, rom bavSvebi mSoblebisagan agresiul mopyrobas swavloben da Semdeg Tavis Svilebsac aseve epyrobian.

38 • humanisturi. ikvlevs im pirovnul Rirebulebebs da socialur pirobebs, romlebic xel s uwyobs agresiul da TviTSemzRudav gamocdilebas da ara harmoniul ganviTrebas. • ko gnituri. Soris swavlobs mtrul azrebs da fantaziebs, romelsac adamiani Zaladobis aqtis yurebisas ganicdis. ikvlevs filmebSi arsebuli agresiis, maT porn ografiuli Zaladobis gavlenas iaraRis xmarebisadmi, gaupatiurebisadmi da omisadmi damokidebulebaze. • evoluciuri. ganixilavs, ra pirob ebis gamo gaxda agresia adaptaciuri (adapturi) qceva adreuli adamianebisaTvis. adgens fsiqologiur meqanizmebs, romle bic pasuxismgebelia agresiuli qcevis seleqciur warmoSobaze. • kulturuli. ganixilav s, rogor avlenen da xsnian agresias sxvadsxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi. rogor zemoqmedeben kulturuli Zalebi agresiuli qcevis s xvadasxva tipis gamovlenis albaTobaze. ras akeTeben fsiqologebi ukve sakmarisi i ciT fsiqologiis Sesaxeb, raTa is kiTxvebi CamoayaliboT, romlebic fsiqologiuri kv levis mTel diapazons moicavs. kiTxvebis amgvari sia rom mogemzadebinaT, sxvadasx va dargis fsiqologis saeqsperto sferos SeexebodiT. 1.2 cxrilSi amgvari kiTxvebis Cveneuli versiaa moyvanili Sesabamisi dargis fisqologebis miTiTebiT. Tu dro gaqvT, Tqvni sakuTari kiTxvebis sia Camowe reT. gadaxazeT TiTeuli kiTxva, rogorc ki mis pasuxs amoikiTxavT am wignSi. cxril i 1.2. fsiqologiuri kvlevis mravalferovneba kiTxva rogor unda gadaWran adamianeb ma ukeT TavianTi yoveldRiuri problemebi? vin pasuxobs am kiTxvas? klinikuri fsiq ologiis warmomadgeneli fsiqiatri fsiqologi konsultanti (counceling psychologist) Temis fsiqologi (community psychologist)

39 rogor inaxeba mogonebebi tvinSi? bio-fsiqologi fsiqofarmakologi rogor SegviZlia vaswavloT ZaRls brZanebebis Sesruleba? eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli qcevis analitikosi ratom ver vixseneb yovelTvis informacias, romelic namdvilad vici? kognituri fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli kognituri mecnierebis warmomadgeneli ratom gansxvavdebian adamianebi erTmaneTisagan? pirovnebis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli qcevis genetikosi rogor muSaobs "TanatolTa zewola"? socialuri fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli ra ician Cvilebma samyaros Sesaxeb? ganviTarebis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli ratom iwvevs CemSi depresias Cemi samuSao? Sromis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli adamianis faqtoris fsiqologi rogor unda moepyras maswavlebeli "amrev" moswavles? ganaTlebis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli skolis fsiqologi ratom vxdebi cudad yoveli gamocdis win? janmrTelobis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli Seuracxadi iyo braldebuli danaSaulis Cadenis dros? ratom miWirs sunTqva kalaTbur Tis mniSvnelovani matCebis dros? sasamarTlo fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli sportis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli albaT, ukve mixvdiT, rom msoflioSi Zalian bevri fsiqologia. gamokvlevebi aCveneb s, rom, maTi raodenoba 500 000-s aWarbebs, maTgan 62-dan 82 aTasamde

40 fsiqologiuri kvlevis sferoSi moRvaweobs (ixileT suraTi 1.2). marTalia, fsiqologebis procenti dasavleTis industriul qveynebSi metia, sxva mraval qveyana Sic izrdeba interesi 64 fsiqologiis qveynis mimarT. fsiqologiuri gaerTianebuli m ecnierebis rozencvaigi saerTaSoriso kavSirSi fsiqologia (Rozenzweig, 1999a). amerikis fsiqologTa asociacias (APA) 1998 wlis bolos 155 00 0 wevri yavda msoflios yvela kuTxidan fouleri (Fowler, 1999). kidev erTi saerTaSoriso organizacia, amerikis fsiqologTa sazogadoeba (APS), 16 000-ze met w evrs aerTianebs da fsiqologiis ufro samecniero aspeqtebzea fokusirebuli, vidre k linikur, mkurnalobis mxareze. sur. saavadmyofoebi, klinikebi, sxva samsaxurebi _ 24,5 akademiuri dawesebulebebi _ 3 3,9 33,9 daudgenelia _ 2,9 1.2. fsiqologTa samuSao garemo naCvenebia sxvadasxva adgilas momuSave fsiqologTa procenti amerikis fsiqologTa a sociaciis fsiqologiis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mqone wevrTa Soris Catarebuli gamokiTxvis mixedviT. 24,5 22 13 2,9 3,7 skolebi da sxva saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi _ 3,7 biznesi, mTavroba _ 13,0 da moukidebeli praqtika _ 22,0 fsiqologiis doqtoris xarisxis mwone qalebis procentuli wili

70 miniWebuli sur. 1.3. qalebisaTvis miniWebuli fsiqologiis doqtoris xarisxis proce nti 60 50 40 gasuli 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi am mxriv 30 20 qalebi umetesobas Seadgenen ar gagikvirdebaT imis da gageba, rom 10 0 1971 1981 1991 1997 fsiqologiis kvlevac praqtikac

41 mamakacebis dominirebiT mimdinareobda, magram mcire raodenobiT qalma fsiqologebma arsebiTi wvlili Seitanes am sferoSi (Russo and Denmark, 1987; Scarb orough and Furomoto, 1987). 1894 wels margaret uoSbornma (Margaret Washburn) kor nelis universiteti daamTavra da qalebSi pirvelma miiRo doqtoris xarisxi. man daw era cnobili saxelmZRvanelo "cxovelis goneba". 1895 wels meri kalkinsma (Mary Cal kins) warCinebiT daamTavra harvardis universitetis doqtorantura, magram administ racia mas ar aZlevda doqtoris xarisxs. amisda miuxedavad, kalkinsi warmatebuli p rezidenti mkvlevari gaxda. ana da amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis pirveli qali froidma (Anna Freud) mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana fsiqoanalizis praqtikaSi. wamyvani qali mkvelevrebis Sromebs saxelmZRvaneloSi ar aerTxel SexvdebiT. Tanamedrove fsiqologiaSi qalebi da mamakacebi erToblivad izia reben Teoriis da praqtikis warmatebebs. rogorc 1.3 suraTzea naCvenebi, doqtoris xarisxis umetesoba amJamad qalebs aqvT pioni da sxv. (Pion et al; 1996) da es te ndencia 21-e saukuneSi myarad narCundeba miurei da uiliamsi (Murray and Williams , 1999). rac ufro meti wvlili Seaqvs fsiqologas adamianis Seswavlis saqmeSi, miT meti da meti adamiani - qali da kaci, sazogadoebis yvela segmentis warmomadgene li misdevs am karieras. Tqven gzas adgaxarT. romelic imedi savsea gvaqvs, rom fsiqologia da cxovreba da Rirs mogzaurobad, moulodneli siamovnebebiT samaxsovro

momentebiT. daviwyoT, an, rogorc italielebi ityvian, "wavediT!" (andiamo!) Sejam eba adre fsiqologebs marTuli miaCndaT, da rom fsiqologiuri da fizikuri procesebi movlenebi akeTebda, detreminizmis ganpirobebulia meore midgoma, doqtriniTaa kon kretuli fsiqikur fsiqikuri qcevis mizezebiT. erT-erTi adreuli midgoma, struqturalizmi, aqcents struqturaze Sinaarsebsa funqcionalizi ki - qcevis funqciaze. Tanamedrove fsiqologia mimdinareoba swavlob s Svid ZiriTad mimdinareobas da tvinis moicavs; biologiuri Soris, mimarTebas qcevasa qceva meqanizmebs da fsiqodinamikuri mimarTulebisaTvis cnobieri aracnobieri motivaciebiTaa gamowveuli, bihevioristuli mimarTulebisaTvis qceva garegani stimu luri pirobebiTaa ganpirobebuli, humanisturi mimarTulebisaTvis aqcenti

42 keTdeba individis Sinagan unarze miaRwios pirovnul is zrdas (individualur procesebi, cvlilebas), kognituri mimarTulebisaTvis mTavaria fsiqikuri romlebic qceviT reaqciebze zemoqmedebs, evoluciuri mimarTulebisaTvis qceva gadar CenisaTvis brZolisas garemosTan Seguebis Sedegia, da bolos, kulturuli mimarTuleb isaTvis qceva da misi interpretacia kulturis konteqstSi ganixileba. fsiqologebi kiTxvaTa did diapazons pasuxoben. fsiqologis profesia gasuli ramdeni me aTwleulis manZilze Seicvala, misi Tvalsawieri ufro internacionaluri gaxda da met qals moiTvlis. fsiqologia 21-e saukuneSi: vifiqroT momavalze fsqologiis da cxovrebis am gamocemas mokle eseebi davamateT, romlebic fsiqologiaSi, rogorc mecnierebaSi momxdar vclilebebs arwers 21-e saukuneSi gadas vlasTan disciplina erTad. gasuli am 100 TavSi wlis mokled aRvwereT, Tu rogor Sei cvala es ganmavlobaSi, gansakuTrebiT, Teoriuli mimdinareobebis kuTxiT. ras mogvitans Semdegi 100 weli? aSkaraa, rom fsiqlogiis Sinaarsi da praqtika momavalSi Seicvleba. marTalia, zogierTi sakiTxi, romelsac f siqologebi swavloben, droze ar aris damokidebuli, magaliTad, rogoria enis aTvise bis ZiriTadi procesebi, magram arsebobs iseTi sakiTxebic, romlebic konkretul dro s moaqvs. magaliTad, me-17-e da me-18-e TavebSi ganxiluli socialuri fsiqologiis kvlevebis umetesoba im mecnierebma msoflio wamoiwyes, omis vinc cdilobda Cven ga ego, ver ra Zalebma ganapiroba meore romeli magram saSinelebani. moZraoba viwinaswarmetyvelebT, 21-e saukuneSi,

sazogadoebrivi danamdvilebiT agreTve did Seipyrobs vTqvaT, rom is msoflios fsiqologebi SegviZlia gavlenas dauyovnebliv siaxleeebi, reagirebas romlebic moaxdenen am sakiTxebze da maT Seswavlas daiwyeben. fsiqologiur kvlevaze moaxden s teqnologiuri adamianebsa da kulturebs Soris manZils amcirebs. internetis gamo 21-e saukuneSi didi mniSvneloba mieniWeba sxvadasxva kulturis msgavsebisa da sxvaobis sakiTxs. teqnologiuri siaxleni fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebzec iqoniebs gavlenas, radgan f siqikuri procesebis kvlevisas ukve 20-e saukunis bolos farTod gamoiyeneboda komp iuterebi da tvinis Sesaswavli sxva mowyobilebebi, romlebzec vundts da mis kolege bs warmodgenac ki ar hqondaT. kidev ufro daxvewili

43 teqnologiuri miRwevebis Sedegad mkvlevrebs saSualeba miecemaT zedmiwevniT zustad gaarkvion, ra mimarTebaa fsiqikur procesebsa da tvinis aqtivobas Soris. aseve, genetikuri kvlevis teqnologiuri iaraRebis ganviTarebam SesaZloa swrafad Secvalos is gzebi, romlebiTac mkvleverebi acalkeveben bunebisa da aRzrdis zegavlenas TiT euli individis cxovrebaSi. am tipis sakiTxebs inovaciebi fsiqologiis Sinaarssa d a praqtikaSi mivmarTavT sowred am specialur seqciaSi, fsiqologia 21-e saukuneSi. 21veb gverde bi: www.apa.org - amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis gverdi www.psychologicalscience .org - amerikis fsiqologTa sazogadoebis gverdi sakvanZo sakiTxebi ratomaa fsiqol ogia unikaluri? • • fsiqologia aris individebis qcevis da fsiqikuri procesebis mecni eruli Seswavla fsiqologiis mizania qcevis aRwera, axsna, winaswarmetyveleba da g akontrolebis xelSewyoba Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba • vundtis aqcents da t itCeneris Sromebidan ganviTarda struqturalizmi, fsiqikisa da romelic qcevis elementaruli SegrZnebebisagan agebuli struqturaze akeTebs. • jemsisa da diuis mier ganviTarebuli funqcionalizmi aqcents qcevis miRma (gareT) arsebul mizanze akeTebs. • am Teoriebma Seqmnes Tanamedrove f siqologiis safuZvlebi • fsiqologiis Seswavlis Svidive Tanamedrove midgoma gansxvav ebulad xedavs adamianis bunebas, qcevis determinantebs, kvlevis sferosa da meTod ebs. • biologiuri swavlobs • fsiqodinamikuri mimarTulebisaTvis qceva instinqturi Zal ebiTa da Sinagani konfliqtebiT, cnobieri da aracnobieri motivebiTaa ganpirobebul i • biheviorizisaTvis qceva ganpirobebulia garegani stimulebiT mimdinareoba qcevas a da tvinis meqanizmebs Soris mimarTebas

44 • humanisturi mimarTulebisaTvis mniSvnelovania racionaluri arCevanis gakeTebis Tan dayolili unari individSi • kognituri mimdinareoba xazs usvams im fsiqikur proceseb s, romlebic qceviT reaqciebze zemoqmedebs • evoluciuri mimdinareoba Tvlis, rom qce va gadarCenis procesSi Seguebis Sedegad ganviTarda. • kulturuli mimdinareoba qcevas da mis interpretacias kulturul konteqstSi ganixilavs ras akeTeben fsiqologebi • fsiqologebi sxvadasxva sferoSi m uSaoben da sxvadasxva specialobis gamocdilebas eyrdnobian. fsiqologiis profesiis warmomadgeneli pasuxs scems TiTqmis yvela kiTxvas, romelic realur cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas exeba • 21-e saukunis dasawyisisaTvis da fsiqologis da profesia moculobiT SemadgenlobiT ufro ufro internacionaluri praqtikosebisa mkvlevrebis mravalferovani gaxda. ZiriTadi cnebebi ZiriTadi cnebebi yvela TavSi muqi SriftiT aa gamoyofili, rom advilad SeamCnioT. xolo yoveli Tavis bolos igive terminebi ganmeorebiTaa mocemuli Sesaba misi gverdis miTiTebiT. garda amisa, yvela ZiriTadi cneba wignis bolos leqsikonS ia mocemuli anbanis mixedviT. biheviorizmi bihevioristuli mimdinareoba biologiuri mimdinareoba garemos cvladeb i dispoziciuri cvladebi evoluciuri mimdinareoba kognituri mimdinareoba kulturuli mimdinareoba mecnieruli meTodi organizmis cvladebi situaciis cvladebi struqturalizmi funqcionalizmi fsiqodinami kuri mimdinareoba fsiqologia qceva qcevis monacemebi humanisturi mimdinareoba

37 Tavi 2. fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi • • aRmoCenis etapi dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi etapi: damkvirveblis tendenciuroba da operaciuli gansazRvrebebi eqsperimentuli meTodi: alternatiuli axsna da kontrolis saWiroeba korelaciuri meTodi qvezRurblovani zemo qmedeba? • fsiqologiuri gazomva sandooba da validoba TviTangariSi qcevis dakvirveba da gazomva • kvlevis eTikuri sakiTxebi informirebuli Tanxmoba riskis/sargeblis Sefaseba ganzrax motyueba kvlevis Semdgo mi interviu cxovelTa kvleva: mecniereba, eTika, politika • • • rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi 21fsiqologia 21-e saukuneSi : fsiqologiuri kvleva da informaciis afeTqeba sakvanZo sakiTxebi ZiriTadi cnebebi

38 Tavis premiiis avtobiografiaSi namdvilad xumrobT, riCard mister feinman (1985) nobelis laureatma fizikosma feinmanma (Richard Feynman) WianWvelebis navigaciis unaris araformaluri kvlevis programa aRwera (gv. 93-95): prinstonis universitetis oTaxSi nalis formis rafiani fanjara mqonda. erT mSvenie r dRes WianWvelebi gamoCndnen. davinteresdi, rogor moZraoben WianWvelebi? rogor xvdebian, saiT unda wavidnen? SeuZliaT erTmaneTs uTxran, sad aris saWmeli, rogor c amas futkrebi akeTeben? aqvT geometriis raime SegrZneba? axalbedasaviT viqceod i, dRes yvelam icis pasuxi am kiTxvebze, magram maSin ar vicodi..... erT eqsperi mentSi fanjris rafaze SuSis bevri mikroskopuli slaidi davalage, romlebzec meCven ebina, xvdebodnen, ar irCevdnen. amave dros, WianWvelebma garkveuli kvali datove s SuSis slaidebze, rasac eqsperimentebis mTeli seriebi moyva imis Sesamowmeblad, Tu ramden xans narCundeba es kvali, SeiZleba Tu ara misi advilad waSla, da sxv. aRmovaCine, rom kvals mimarTuleba ar gaaCnda. rom ameyvana WianWvela, Semetrial ebina da missave kvalze damebrunebina, is araswor gzas daadgeboda, Tanac amas ve r xvdeboda, sanam sxva WianWvelas ar Sexvdeboda. feinmanis martivi, magram gonivruli eqsperimentebi saSualebas aZlevdnen mas Wian Wvelebis qcevis Sesaxeb cnobismoyvareoba daekmayofilebina. SesaZloa, Tqven araso des gagCeniaT kiTxvebi WianWvelebis qcevis Sesaxeb, magram sxva tipis kiTxvebi n amdvilad gagiCndebodaT adamianis an cxovelis qcevasTan dakavSirebiT. am TavSi vi saubrebT imaze, rogor pasuxoben fsiqologebi kiTxvebs, romlebic TqvenTvisac saint eresoa. vnaxavT, rogor iynebs fsiqologia mecnerul meTodebs kvlevisaTvis. gvinda, rom gaigoT, rogor gegmaven fsiqologebi TavianT kvlevas: rogor SeiZleba rTuli da xSirad aburduli monacemebidan azrovnebis, grZnobebis da qcevebis Sesaxeb myari, seriozuli daskvnebis gakeTeba. WianWvelebi Semdeg, iyo rom sad win Zveli da ukan dadiodnen axliT Tu araviTari winaswar da erTi dayrili amgvarad ar gziT Saqris SevZeli ver

mosapoveblad. slaidi Sevcvale raRac WianWvelebs raime geometriis moTavsebuli. SegrZneba aqvT: midiodnen Saqrisaken, ukanac aucileblad imave gziT brundebodnen, sxva, ufro mokle gzas

39 am TavSi mowodebuli informaciis daufleba Zalian sasargeblo iqneba TqvenTvis im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu arasodes ganaxorcielebT mecnierul kvlevas. Cven i mizania dagexmaroT da kritikuli korelatebis azrovnebis Sesaxeb gaumjobesebaSi pasuxebi imiT, rom gaswavloT, rogor unda dasvaT swori kiTxvebi da fsiqologiuri movlenebis mizezebis , Sedegebis miRebuli SeafasoT. masmediaSi gamudmebiT SexvdebiT amgvar frazas: "kvleva aCvenebs, rom...." Tqveni inteleqtualuri skepticizmis daxvewis gziT dagexmarebiT kvlevis Sedegebi ufro br Znulad moixmaroT. gaCvenebT, rogor gadaWraT kamaTi "faqtebTan da ara polemikasTan" mileri (Miller, 1992). aRmoCenis etapi fsiqologiuri kvlevis proces i SeiZleba or Semadgenel nawilad davyoT, Tanac am TanmimdevrobiT: ideis Camoyali beba (aRmoCena) da misi Semowmeba (dasabuTeba). aRmoCenis mivyavarT. etapi saida n kvlevis sawyisi da fazaa, romlis ganmavlobaSic axleburi maTgani dakvirvebas, x edvisaken movlenaTa, Sexedulebas, informacias uCndeba zogad codnas movlenis zogierTi kiTxvebi mkvlevars?

adamianTa da cxovelTa uSualo dakvirvebidan modis, zogierTi ukve tradiciad qceul sakiTxebs swavlobs, romlebic fsiqologiaSi did, gadauWrel problemad iTvleba. xSir ad mkvlevrebi Zvel ideebs da maT kombinaciebs axali axleburad WeSmaritebis mimar TulebiT warmoadgenen. aRmoCenaa, amoZravebs. • aRmoCenis WeSmaritad Semoqmedi da moazrovnis sinji romelic mecnierebas sazogadoebas ukeTesi etapi (context of discovery) _ kvlevis sawyisi da fazaa, zogad romlis codnas ganmavlobaSic dakvirvebas, Sexedulebas, informacias movlenis axleburi xedvisaken mivyavarT. fsiqologiuri Teoriebi cdiloben gaarkvion , rogor funqcionirebs tvini, fsiqika, qceva da garemo da ra kavSiria maT Soris. Teoria aris cnebebis organize buli wyeba, romelic movlenas an movlenaTa erTobliobas xsnis. fsiqologiuri TeoriebisTvis saerTo isaa, rom isini determinizmis poziciaze dganan . determinizmi gulisxmobs, rom yvela movlena - fizikuri, fsiqikuri da qceviTi ganpirobebulia konkretuli mizeziT, anu mis Sedegs warmoadgens. es mizezebi SeiZl

eba Tavad adamianSi iyos, an garemoSi. amave dros, mkvlevrebi

40 uSveben, rom qcevac da fsiqikuri procesebic mimarTebaTa kanonzomierebebs misdevs (xasiaTdeba, avlens) da maTi aRmoCena kvlevis saSualebiTaa SesaZlebeli. amitom, fsiqologiuri Teoria, Cveulebriv, amgvar kanonzomierebaTa mizezebs eZebs. Teoriam ukve cnobili faqtebi unda axsnas da, amave dros, axali ideebi da hipoTe zebi wamoayenos. hipoTeza aris mizezebsa da Sedegebs Soris mimarTebis Sesaxeb ar sebuli Semowmebadi debuleba. hipoTezebs xSirad "Tu-maSin" winaswarmetyvelebis formiT ayalibeben, konkretuli pirobebidan gansazRvruli Sedeg ebis miRebis mizniT. SegviZlia, magaliTad, viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom Tu bavSvebi bevr Zaladobas uyureben televiziiT, maSin isini ufro agresiulad moiqcevian Tavia nT TanatolebTan. kvlevam "Tu-maSin" mimarTeba unda Seamowmos. Teoriebi rodesac u kiduresad mecnieruli Tavisi mniSvnelovania monacemebi Teoria. ar axali hipoTezeb is hipoTezas, da kvlevas CamoyalibebisaTvis. mkvlevarma Soris unda adasturebs Teoriasa gadasinjos amrigad, mudmivi urTierTqmedebaa. aRmoCenis etapis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani nawilia kvlevisaTvis saWiro saTanado Rirebulebebi da damokidebuleba. mecniereba moiTxovs Ria - kritikul da s keptikur - damokidebulebas nebismieri daskvnisadmi manam, sanam is ar aris miReb uli damoukidebeli mkvlevrebis mier. Riaoba or mizans emsaxureba. pirveli, WeSmar iteba absoluturi ar aris, is damokidebulia garkveul pirobebze da axali monacemeb is gaCenis SemTxvevaSi misi gadasinjva SesaZlebeli unda iyos. meore, Ria orienta ciis gamo mkvlevrebi seriozulad udgebian iseT fenomenebsac ki, romlebisac Tavad ar sjeraT, rogoricaa, magaliTad, eqstrasensoruli aRqma (bemi da honortoni, (Bem, Honorton, 1994). mecnieruli praqtika im monacemebs emyareba, r omlebic gakontrolebuli dakvirvebiTa da frTxili gazomviTaa miRebuli. mecnierebis samyaroSi, roca kargi monacemebi anu, sxva eqspertebis mkvlevrebs an uaryon azrs unda upirispirdeba, hqondeT da sakiTxi monacemebis Seamowmon, sasrgeblod gaakri tikon, da wydeba. saidumloeba gaZevebulia kvlevis proceduridan, is Riaa SemowmebisaTvis, S esaZlebloba meTodebi. gaimeoron,

monacemebi monacemebis, Sedegebisa monacemebis Segrovebis meTodis aRwera maTgan gakeTebuli daksvnebisagan calke dga s. samecniero da publikaciebSi mkiTxvels kvlevis TiTeuli aZlevs nawili calke seq ciaSia ganasxvavos moyvanili amiT saSualebas erTmaneTisagan obietquri monacemebi da maTi subieqturi interpretacia. da bolos, kvleva unda

41 gamoqveyndes, radgan kvlevis Sedegebi da monacemebi ar unda daikargos, Tanac, sx va mecnierebs unda mieceT saSualeba, rom gaimeoron kvleva. • Teoria (Theory) _ cne baTa organizebuli wyeba, romelic movlenas an movlenaTa erTobliobas xsnis. • determinizmi (Determinism) _ es doqtrina gulisxmobs , rom yvela movlena fizikuri, fsiqikuri da qceviTi - ganpirobebulia konkretuli m izezebiT, romelTa dadgena SesaZlebelia. • hipoTeza (Hypothesis) _ Semowmebadi debu leba mizezebsa da Sedegebs Soris mimarTebis Taobaze, xSirad is gamoxatulia winas warmetyvelebis formiT, konkretul pirobas gansazRvruli Sedegi moyveba. Sejameba a RmoCenis etapi kvlevis is fazaa, romelSic mkvlevrebi dakvirvebas, informacias da codnas iyeneben, raTa axali ideebi da Teoriebi Camoayalibon. fsiq ologiuri Teoriebi cdiloben gaarkvion tvins, fsiqikas, qcevasa da garemos Soris a rsebuli deterministuli mimarTeba. dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacva umetes S emTxvevaSi mkvlevrebi aRmoCenidan Teoriebis Semowmebaze gadadian. dasabuTebis da sabuTebis etapi kvlevis is fazaa, romelSic hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad faqtebis mopo vebaa saWiro. es ki sakmaod rTulia, fsiqologebma iseTi monacemebi unda Seagrovon , romlebic validuri daskvnebis gakeTebis saSualebas miscemT. amisaTvis fsiqologe bi iyeneben mokavSires: mecnierul meTods mecnieruli meTodi meTods. aris monacemT a Segrovebisa da interpretaciis procedurebis erToblioba, romlis saSualebiTac min imumamdea dayvanili Secdomis wyaro da sando daskvnebia miRebuli. fsiqologia mecn ierebad imdenad iTvleba, ramdenadac is mecnieruli meTodis mier damkvidrebul wese bs misdevs. radganac mecnieruli kvlevis monacmebis Segrovebisa da maTi analizis fazebze subieqturoba minimumamde unda iyos dayvanili, amitom, obieqturobis gasaz rdelad gamoiyeneba sWirdeba: specialuri mkvlevrebma damcavi srulad saSualebebi. unda erT-erT maTgans axsnac ki ar da daafiqsiron monacemTa Segrovebisa analizis stadiebi iseTi formiT, rom sxva mkvlevars maTi gageba da Sefaseba

42 SeeZlos. amitom, jer aRvwerT, ra safrTxe aqvs obieqturobas da Semdeg ganvixilavT masTan brZolis gzebs. damkvirveblis tendenciuroba da operaciuli gans azRvrebebi erTi da igive movlenebze dakvirvebisas adamianebi yovelTvis erTsa da imaves ar "xedaven". am seqciaSi damkvirveblis tendeciurobis problemas da misi gadaWris gzebs ganvixilavT. obieqturobis sirTule obieqturobis damkvirveblis tendenciuroba pirovnuli motivebisa da molodinebisagan gamomdinare Secdomaa. xSirad adamianebs is esmiT da imas xedaven, rasac moelian da ara imas, rac sinamdvileSi xdeba. ganvixiloT damkvirveblis tendenciurobis sai ntereso magaliTi: 20-e saukunis daswyisSi erT-erTma wamyvanma fsiqologma, hiugo miunsterbergma (Hugo Munsterberg) mSvidobis Temaze sityva warmosTqva didi audito riis winaSe, romelSic Jurnalistebic Sediodnen. man Semdegnairad aRwera Tavisi si tyvis gaSuqeba mediaSi: reportiorebi dauyovnebliv moTavsdnen platformis garSemo. erT-erTma Jurnalistma dawera, rom auditoria imdenad iyo gaocebuli Cemi sityviT, rom srul s iCumeSi moismina is, meorem aRniSna, rom Cems gamosvlas gamudmebiT wyvetda mquxa re aplodismentebi, xolo sityvis dasrulebisas taSi wuTebis ganmavlobaSi ar wydebo da. kidev erTma dawera, rom Cemi oponentis gamosvlisas gamudmebiT viRimebodi, xo lo sxvam aRniSna, rom saxe sruliad uZravi (utyvi) mqonda da erTic ki ar gamiRimi a. erTma miuTiTa, rom aRelvebisagan Zlierad gavwiTldi, xolo meorem, rom qaRaldiv iT gavTeTrdi (1908, 35-36 gv.). saintereso iqneboda marTlac gvenaxa imdroindeli gazeTebi da Segvemowmebina, ra k avSirSi iyo reportaJebi avtorebis politikur SexedulebebTan. SesaZloa, maSin mivm xvdariyaviT, ratom "dainaxes" Jurnalistebma ase da ara sxvagvarad. fsiqologiur e

qsperimentSi damkvirveblebs Soris sxvaoba aseTi radikaluri ar unda iyos, rogorc minusterbergis SemTxvevaSi iyo, magram es magaliTi gvaCvenebs, rom sxvadasxva da mkvirvebelma SesaZloa gansxvavebuli daskvnebi gamoitanos erTi da igive monacemeb is informaciis safuZvelze. nawili damkvirveblis tendenciuroba xolo filtria, dana rCenis romelSic mniSvnelovnad iTvleba, ugulvebelyofa xdeba, radgan irelevanturad da uazrodaa miCneuli.

43 • dasabuTebis etapi (context of justification) _ kvlevis is fazaa, romelSic hipoTe zis SemowmebisaTvis faqtebia saWiro (faqtebi unda moipovo). • mecnieruli meTodi (S cientific method) _ monacemTa Segrovebisa da interpretaciis procedurebis erTobli oba, romlis saSualebiTac minimumamdea dayvanili Secdomis wyaro da sando daskvneb ia miRebuli. • damkvirveblis tendenciuroba (observer bias) _ realobis damaxinjeba, romelic damkvirveblis pirovnuli motivebisa da molodinebisagan momdinareobs. mkv levrebi gamocdileba xSirad Semoaqvs akvirdebian movlenebs. iseve yovel rogorc da mkvirvebels simpatiebi Tavisi dakvirvebaSi, romelime Teoriisadmi. axla xedavT, ratom aCens problemas damkvirveblis tendenciuroba. ra SeuZliaT gaakeTon mkvlevrebma, raTa es tendenciuroba minimumamde daiyvanon? problemis gadaWris saSualeba damkvirveblis tendenciurobis minimumamde dayvanis mizniT mkvlevrebi iyeneben sta ndartizacias da operaciul gansazRvrebebs. standartizacia niSnavs monacemTa Segro vebis yvela fazaze Tanmimdevrulad dalagebuli da yvelasaTvis saerTo procedurebis gamoyenebas. testis, an eqsperimentis yvela faza standartuli unda iyos, anu, kvl evis yvela monawile erTsa da imave pirobaSi unda imyofebodes. standartizacia niS navs, rom kiTxvebs erTnairad svamT da pasuxebs winaswar dadgenili wesebiT aniWeb T qulebs. Sedegebis Cawera (dafiqsireba) saSualebas gvaZlevs SevadaroT isini sxv a dros da adgilas, sxva cdis pirebze da sxva mvklevrebis mier miRebul monacemebs . Tavad SeZlon dakvirvebis TavianTi procedurac iseT unda iyos standartuli. rom m ecnierebma maT unda Teoriebi cnebebad Targmnon, SeTanxmebuli strategias konkretuli mniSvneloba hqondeT. cnebebis mniSvnelobis standartizaciis cnebas operacionalizacia ewodeba. operaciuli gansazRvreba operaciebis an procedurebis terminebiT ganmartavs. eqsperimentis yvela cvlads un da hqondes operaciuli gansazRvreba. cvladi aris nebismieri faqtori, romelic raod enobrivad an Tvisebrivad icvleba. stimulis piroba, romlic sxva nebismieri cvladi sagan damoukideblad icvleba eqsperimentul garemoSi, aris damoukidebeli cvladi. c

vladi nebismieri cvladi, romlis mniSvneloba erTi an meti damoukidebeli cvladis c vlilebis Sedegia, aris damokidebuli cvladi _ is damokidebulia stimulis pirobebis cvlaze.

44 warmovidginoT, rom gvsurs adre moyvanili hopTezis Semowmeba: is bavSvebi, romleb ic bevr Zaladobas uyureben telviziiT, ufro agresiuli iqnebian TavianT TanatolebT an. avlens bavSvi SegiZliaT agresias dagegmoT eqsperimenti, cvladi). sadac Tqven i agresiis siZlieris manipulirebas moaxdendiT (damoukidebeli cvladi), da Semdeg naxavT, ra zomiT (dam okidebuli eqsperimentisaTvis mniSvnelovania orive cvladis _ sxvadasxva teleprogramaSi arsebuli Zaladobis raod enoba da Tqveni eqsperimentis monawileebis mier gamnvlenili agresiis zoma operac ionalizacia moaxdinoT. ra procedurebi unda gamoiyenoT, rom zustad gazomoT es ori cvladi? fsiqologebisaTvis xSirad problemaa zogierTi rTuli cvladis operacionaliz acia. rogor moaxdendiT, vTqvaT, bavSvis mSobelTan urTierTobis xarisxis agreTve o peracionaliziacias? iseTi cvladebis (pasuxs me-11-e TavSi ixilavT). fsiqologebs uSualod operacionalizacia uxdebaT, romelTa dakvirveba SeuZlebelia. rogor moaxdenT TviTpativiscemis operacionalizacias? (ixi leT Tavi 14-e). Tu Tqven fsiqologi mkvlevari SeiZleba xarT ar da cvladis da operacionalizacia moaxdineT, Tqveni kolegebi dageTanxmon CaTvalon, rom TviTpativiscemis Tqveneuli operacionalizacia arasworia, magram Tu Tqveni operaciuli gansazRvreba zustia, maT ecodinebaT, rogor gaimeoron da Seafas on Tqveni Sroma. • standartizacia monawilisadmi procedura. • operaciuli gansazRvreba (operational definition) _ axdens cvladis an pirobis (standardization) mopyrobi s an _ testSi, interviuSi dafiqsirebis an eqsperimentSi unificirebuli monacemebis definicias konkretuli operaciebis an procedurebis terminebiT. • cvladi (variable) _ nebismieri faqtori, romelic raodenobrivad an Tvisebrivad icvleba • damoukidebeli cvladi (independent variable) _ eqsperimentul garemoSi, stimulis piroba, romeli c sxva nebismieri cvladisagan damoukideblad icvleba. • damokidebuli cvladi Sedegia . (dependent variable) _ eqsperimentul garemoSi, nebismieri cvladi, romlis mniSvneloba erTi an meti damoukidebeli cvladis cvlilebis

45 eqsperimentuli meTodi: alternatiuli axsna da kontrolis saWiroeba yoveldRiuri gam ocdilebiT iciT, rom adamianebi erTi da igive Sedegis mraval mizezs dagisaxeleben . fsiqologebi imave problemis winaSe dganan, roca mizezSedegobriobis gadasalaxav ad dadgenaze mkvlevrebi aqvT pretenzia. mizez-Sedegobrivi meTods iyeneben. orazr ovnebis isini axdenen eqsperimentul damoukidebeli cvladis manipulirebas, raTa naxon, ra zemoqmedeba eqneba amas damo kidebul cvladze. am meTodis mizania daadginos erTi cvladis mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri meoresTan. am seqciaSi ganvixilavT alternatiuli axsnis probl emas da misi gadaWris gzebs. obieqturobis sirTule rodesac warmodgena fsiqologebi imaze, Tu hipoTezas ratom amowmeben, ukve winaswa r aqvT garkveuli cvladis SeiZleba Secvalos damoukidebeli cvlilebam damokidebuli cvladi ase da ara sxvagvarad. magaliTad, SeiZleba iwinasw armetyveloT yureba agresiis da eqsperimentulad dones iwvevs. aCvenoT, magram rom televiziiT iciT, rom Zaladobis namdvilad maRal saidan Zaladobis yurebaa agresiis mizezi? hioTezis yvelaze Zlieri SesaZlo mizezis dasad genad fsiqologebi yovelTvis unda eZebdnen alternatiul axsnebs. SesaZlo Sedegis r ac meti alternatiuli axsna arsebobs, miT naklebad viqnebiT darwmunebuli Tavdapir vel varaudSi. Tu kvlevis procesSi eqsperimentatoris mier specialurad Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladis garda raRac sxva ereva da monacemebis interpretacias arTul ebs, mas damatebiTi cvladi ewodeba. rodesac romelime qcevis efeqtis realur mizez s damatebiTi cvladi Seereva, eqsperimentatoris mier monacemTa interpretacia sarisko xdeba. warmovidginoT, mag aliTad, rom televiziiT naCvenebi Zaladobis scenebi ufro xmamaRla da meti moZraob iT mimdinareobs, vidre sxva tipis scenebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, "Zaladobas" ereva a m scenebis sxva, zedapiruli aspeqtebi. mkvlevars aRar SeuZlia gaarkvios, romeli faqtori ganapirobebs agresiul qcevas. marTalia, TiTeuli eqpserimentuli meTodi po tenciurad alternatiul axsnaTa unikalur wyebas iwvevs, SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT ori tipis damatebiTi cvladi, romelic TiTqmis yvela eqsperimentSi gvxvdeba. esenia m olodinis efeqti da placebo efeqti. molodinis efeqti Cndeba maSin, roca mkvlevari Zalauneburad mianiSnebs monawileebs, ra tipis qcevas moelis maTgan, riTic sasurvel reaqcias

46 iRebs. am dros, gamomwvevi mizezi ara damoukidebeli cvladi, aramed eqsprimentatoris molodinia. • eqsperimentuli meTodi (experimental method) _ kvlevi s meTodi, romelic damoukidebeli cvladiT manipulacias gulisxmobs, raTa dadgindes misi efeqti damoki debul cvladze. • damatebiTi cvladi (confounding variable) _ cvladi, romelic monawi lis qcevaze zemoqmedebs eqsperimentatoris mier Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladis garda. • molodinis efeqti (Expentancy effects) _ Sedegi, romelic maSin Cndeba, roc a mkvlevari Zalauneburad mianiSnebs monawileebs, ra tipis qcevas moelis maTgan, riTic mosalodnel reaqcias iRebs. robert rozentalma (Robert Rothental) molodinis tendenciurobis fenomeni Seiswavla da naxa, rogor amaxinjebs is kvlevis Sedegebs (rozentali, 1966): saida n viciT virTxebi Tqvens molodins gaamarTleben am saxelmZRvaneloSi xSirad fsiqolo giuri mTels seqciis kvlevis Sedegebs gagiziarebT. amgvari Cveni daskvnebi Sedegebs swored am msoflioSi mizania Catarebuli kvlevebis romlebic daeyrdnoba. gaecnoT eqsperimentebs, pirdapir pasuxoben konkretul kiTxvebs. TiTeuli saidan viciT saSualebas gvaZlevs davinaxoT kavSiri eqsperimentsa Cans, da mignebas SeiZleba Soris. aq mokled ganv ixlavT eqsperiments, sadac rogor eqsperimentatorma zemoqmedeba moaxdinos kvlevis Sedegze. klasikur eqsperimentSi 12 students misces virTxebis jgufebi, romlebisTvisac labirinTSi gasvla unda eswavlebinaT. studentebis naxevars uTxres, rom maTi virTxebi labirinTSi kargad gamsvlel jiSs miekuTvneba, xolo meore naxev

ars, rom maTi virTxebi labirinTSi cudad gamsvlel jiSs miekuTvneba. sinamdvileSi, orive jgufisaTvis gadacemuli virTxebi sruliad erTnair i iyo. Sedegebi Seesabameboda studentebis molodins. karg gamsvlelebad dasaxelebu li virTxebi cud gamsvlelebad dasaxelebul virTxebze ukeT swavlobdnen (Rosenthal & Fode), 1963). rogor fiqrobT, rogor Seatyobines studente bma TavianTi molodinebi virTxebs? albaT xvdebiT, rom saqme kidev ufro rTuladaa, roca adamianebze

47 vatarebT kvlevas da ara cxovelebze. molodinis efeqti aRmoCenis Sinaarss amaxinje bs. placebo efeqti maSin Cndeba, roca eqsperimentis monawileebi eqsperimentuli m anipulaciis Carevis gareSe icvlian qcevas. es termini medicinidan modis, im SemT xvevebis aRsaniSnavad, rodesac pacientis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba qimiurad inert uli wamlis miRebis Semdeg mainc umjobesdeboda. janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba xdeba rwmenis gamo, rom mkurnaloba efeqtiani iqneba. k vlevebiT aRmoCnda, rom zogierTma arasamedicino efeqtis mqone mkurnalobam pacient Ta 70%-Si gamoiwvia placebo efeqti (Roberts et al; 1993). fsiqologiuri kvlevis s ituaciaSi placebo efeqti Cndeba yovelTvis, roca qceviT reaqciaze zemoqmedebas ax dens pirovnebis molodini, Tu ra gaakeTos, an ra igrZnos da ara realuri gamomwvev i mizezi. gavixsenoT televiziiT Zaladobis yurebisa da momatebuli agresiis eqsper imenti. vTqvaT, aRmoCnda, rom im cdis pirebmac maRali agresia aCvenes, visac ar uyurebia amgvari gadacemebisaTvis. SeiZleba vivarudoT, rom es adamianebi xvdebia n, rom radgan agresiis gamosavlen situaciaSi moaTavses, maTgan agresiis gamovlen as moelian da amitom iqcevian ase. eqsperimentatorma yovelTvis unda icodes, rom cdis pirebi icvlian qcevas, roca ician, rom viRac ucxo uyurebs, akvirdeba, amowm ebs maT. magaliTad, monawileebi gansakuTrebulad grZnoben Tavs, roca kvlevaSi mon awileobisaTvis SearCeven da amitom gansxvavebulad iqcevian da ara Cveulebrivad. amgvari efeqtic moqmedebs kvlevis Sedegebze. problemis gadaWris saSualeba radgan adamianis da cxovelis qceva rTulia da xSirad mravali gamomwvevi mizezi aq vs, kargi kvlevis gegma yvela damatebiT cvlads iTvaliswinebs da maT gauvnebelyof as cdilobs. aseT strategias kontrolis procedurebi ewodeba _ meTodebi, romlebiTac mkvlevari cdilobs mudmivi hqondes yvela cvladi da piroba, garda ganzrax Semotan ili damoukidebeli cvladisa. instruqciebi, oTaxis temperatura, davalebebi, eqsper imentatoris Cacmuloba, gamoyofili dro, monacemTa Caweris xerxi da situaciis sxva mravali detali eqsperimentis yvela mon awilisaTvis erTnairi unda iyos. erTaderTi sxvaoba monawilis gamocdilebaSi unda i yos damoukidebeli cvladis mier Semotanili. vnaxoT, rogor cdiloben fsiqologebi ga daWran molodinis da placebo efeqtiT gamowveuli problemebi.

48 • placebo efeqti (Placebo effect) _ maSin Cndeba, roca eqsperimentis monawileebi e qsperimentuli manipulaciis Carevis gareSe icvlian qcevas • kontrolis procedurebi ( Control procedures) _ meTodebi, romelTa saSualebiTac eqsperimentatori cdilobs mudmivi hqondes yvela cvladi da piroba, garda ganzrax S emotanili damoukidebeli cvladisa. warmoidgineT, rom agresiis eqsperimenti gaamdi dreT da masSi kidev erTi jgufi CarTeT, romelic komediur gadacemebs uyurebda. frT xilad unda iyoT, rom gansxvavebulad ar moepyraT komediis da Zaladobis mayurebel monawileebs Tqveni molodinebidan romelmac miekuTvneba unda cdis gamomdinare. Sea fasos piri. amdenad, cdis pirTa sasurvelia, agresia, rom ar kvlevis asistentma, jgufs icodes, romel saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, tendenciurobis aRmofxvra SesaZlebelia maSin, roca arc asistents da arc monawileebs ar ecodinebaT, romel p irobaSi moxvdnen isini. am teqnikas ormagad brma kontroli ewodeba. mraval eqsper imentSi monawileobis ufleba ar eZlevaT maT, visTvisac cnobilia kvlevis hipoTeza. placebo efeqtis aRmosafxvrelad mkvlevrebs kidev erTi, sakontrolo piroba SeaqvT eqsperimentSi, am dros Careva ar xdeba. amas placebo kontrols vuwodebT. placebo kontroli kontrolis zogad kategoriaSi Sedis, romelic Sedarebis saSualebas aZlevs eqsperimentators. gaixseneT gogonas istoria, romelsac hkiTxes, uyvarda ufrosi da , Tu ara. man ki upasuxa: "rasTan SedarebiT?". es kiTxva unda daisvas da pasuxic unda gqondeT, radgan sxvagvarad ver gaigebT, ras niSnavs kvlevis Sedegebi. davu SvaT, gaecaniT kvlevis Sedegebs, romlis mixedviTac, "mowevis danebebis msurvelTa 3/4-ze metma warmatebas nikotinis salbuniT miaRwia", endriusi (Andrews, 1990). rasTan SedarebiT? sad aris sakontrolo jgufi? am kvlevaSi sakontrolo jgufis wevre bi nikotinis gareSe salbuns atarebdnen da maTma 39%-ac Tavi daaneba mowevas! met ic, rac ufro didxans atarebdnen isini samedicino TvalsazrisiT absoluturad usarge blo salbuns, miT ufro meti albaTobiT anebebden Tavs mowevas, abelini da sxvebi, (Abelin et al., 1989). amri gad, nikotinis salbuni efeqturi saSualeba aRmoCnda, magram misi zemoqmedebis nax evari placebo efeqtis damsaxurebaa, radgan mwevlebs molodini hqondaT, rom es sal buni maT uSvelidaT. sakontrolo pirobaSi miRebuli monacemebi mniSvnelovan safuZvels gvaZlevs, romelsac eqsperimentis efeqts vadarebT.

49 kvlevis zogierT sqemaSi, romelsac cdis pirTa Soris sqemas uwodeben, cdis pirebs SemTxveviTad anawileben eqsperimentul (erTi an meti eqsperimentuli CareviT) da s akontrolo (eqsperimentuli Carevis gareSe) pirobebSi. cdis pirebis SemTxveviTi ga nawileba erT-erTi yvelaze efeqturi saSualebaa im damatebiTi cvladebis aRmosafxvr elad, gansxvavebebis romlebic gamo cdis Tavs. pirebs Soris arsebuli sqemas individualuri iCens swored amgvar vgulisxmobdiT agresiis eqsperimentSi. eqsperimentul da sakontrolo pirobaSi cdis pirebis SemTxveviTi ganawileba did Sanss gvaZlevs imisa, rom orive jgufSi msgavs i cdis pirebi moxvdebian, radgan SemTxveviTi ganawilebisas TiTeul cdis pirs rogo rc sakontrolo, aseve eqsperimentul jgufSi moxvedris erTi da igive albaToba aqvs. aseT SemTxvevaSi, ar gamova ise, rom eqsperimentul jgufSi mxolod Zaladobis scenebis moyvaruli cdis pirebi moxvdebian da sakontroloSi - Zal adobis scenebis moZule cdis pirebi. SemTxveviTma ganawilebam orive tipis adamian i unda moaxvedros TiTeul jgufSi. Tu Sedegad jgufebis Sedegebs Soris sxvaobas miv iRebT, ufro darwmunebuli viqnebiT, rom am sxvaobas Cveni Careva iwvevs da ara cd is pirebs Soris gansxvaveba. mkvlevrebi cdiloben SemTxveviT SerCevas miuaxlovdne n, roca cdis pirebs kvlevaSi monawileobis misaRebad iwveven. Cveulebriv, fsiqolo giur eqsperimentSi 20-dan 100-mde cdis piri monawileobs. SerCevaze miRebul Sedeg ebs ki mkvlevari im populaciaze azogadebs, saidanc miiRo es SerCeva. davuSvaT, g surT SeamowmoT hipoTeza, rom 6 wlis bavSvebi ufro mets ityuebian, vidre 4 wlis b avSvebi. kvlevaSi msoflios am asakis bavSvTa mxolod mcire nawils Tu CarTavT, mag ram ganzogadebis gasakeTeblad darwmunebuli unda iyoT, rom Tqvens mier SerCeuli b avSvTa jgufebi nebismieri SemTxveviT SerCeuli jgufis Sesabamisi iqneba. SerCeva populaciis reprezentatulia Tu is imeorebs populaciis zogad maxasiaTeblebs, repre zentatulia, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, sqesi, asaki da sxv. SerCevaSi mxolod biWebi rom gyavdeT, ufleba ar geqnebaT, rom gogonebze gaakeToT daskvna da a. S. • ormaga d brma kontroli (Double-blind control) _ eqsperimentuli teqnika, romelic saSuale bas gvaZlevs Tavidan aviciloT eqsperimentatoris molodinis efeqti, imiT, rom arc asistentma da arc monawileebma ar ician, romel pirobaSi moxvdnen isini.

50 • placebo kontroli (Placebo control) _ eqsperimentuli pirobaa, rodesac Careva ar x deba da im SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba, roca placebo efeqtis saSiSroeba Cndeba. • cdis pirTa Soris sqema (between subjects design) _ cdis pirebs SemTxveviTad anawileb en eqsperimentul da sakontrolo pirobebSi. • SerCeva (Sample) _ populaciis nawili, romelic eqsperimentSi monawileobisaTvis gadaarCies • populacia (Population) _ indi vidTa sruli erToblioba, romelzec, eqsperimentul SerCevaze dayrdnobiT, generaliza cia gakeTdeba. • reprezentatuli reprezentatulia, SerCeva Tu is (representative ime orebs sample) _ SerCeva zogad populaciis populaciis maxasiaTeblebs, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, sqesi, asaki da sxv • cdis pirTa SigniT sqema (within subj ects design) _ kvlevis sqema, sadac TiTeuli cdis piri sakuTari Tavis kontrolia. cdis piris eqsperimentul pirobaSi qceva SeiZ leba SevadaroT missave qcevas am pirobamde, an mis Semdeg. • A-B-A sqemaSi cdis pi rebi jer xvdebian safuZvlis pirobaSi (A), Semdeg eqsperimentul CarevaSi (B), xolo Semdeg ubrundebian safuZvlis pirobas. eqsperime ntuli sqemis kidev erTi tipia cdis pirebs SigniT sqema - aq TiTeuli cdis piri sa kuTari Tavis kontrolia. magaliTad, SeiZleba erTmaneTs SevadaroT cdis pirTa qceva Carevamde da Carevis Semdeg. A-B-A sqemaSi cdis pirebi jer xvdebian safuZvlis p irobaSi (A), Semdeg eqsperimentul CarevaSi (B), xolo Semdeg isev ubrundebian saf uZvlis pirobas (A): ukan, safuZvlis pirobaSi dabruneba mkvlevars saSualebas aZle vs sabolood darwmundes, rom cvlileba mxolod misi Carevis da ara romelime damateb iTi cvladis, magaliTad, drois gasvlis, Sedegia. saidan viciT? bavSvebis agresiul i TamaSi A-B-A sqemaSi amgvari sqema iyo gamoyenebuli kvlevaSi, sadac fsiqologs surda Seemowmebina Semdegi hipoTeza: Tu bavSvebs ecodinebaT, rom anonimurebi ari an, isini ufro advilad gamoavlenen agresiul qcevas. skolis moswavleebi dapatiJes maskaradze, iseT wveulebaze, sadac yvela specialur kostiumSi gadacmuli modioda. bavSvebs mravalgvar TamaSs sTavazobdenen, rig maTgans agresiuli qcevis gamowveva SeeZlo, rigs - araagresiulis. safuZvlis pirobaSi (A) bavSvebi

51 kostiumebis gareSe TamaSobdnen, Carevis pirobaSi (B) kostiumebi Caicves da Tavis i surviliT irCevdnen TamaSebs. bolos, safuZvlis pirobaSi (A) dabrunebisas, maT kostiumebi kvlav gaxades, oRond TamaSis gagrZeleba SeeZloT. ro gorc 2.3 suraTze xedavT, Sedegebma daadastura kvlevis hipoTeza. bavSvebi bevrad ufro agresiulad iqceodnen, roca anonimurebi iyvenen (B) (Fraser, 1974). aqamde a Rweril kvleviT meTodologiebSi damoukidebeli cvladiT manipulireba da misi damokid ebul cvladze efeqtis gazomva xdeba. marTalia, eqsperimentuli meTodi saSualebas a Zlevs mkvlevrebs cvladebs Soris kauzaluri kavSiris Sesaxeb daskvna gamoitanon, z ogierT situaciaSi am meTodis gamoyeneba arc ise sasurvelia. upirveles yovlisa, q cevas xSirad xelovnurad Seqmnil garemoSi swavloben, raTa advilad gaakontrolon yo velgvari situaciuri faqtori, samagierod, xSirad aseTi situacia realurisagan sakmaod Sors dgas. kritikosebis a zriT, simdidre gakontrolebul da eqsperimentul ikargeba, pirobebSi radgan kvlevis as mxolod qcevis an mTeli mcire mravalferovneba erTi, raodenobiT cvladis da reaqciis gamartivebul kvlevas ewireba. meorec, cdis pirebm a ician, rom eqsperimentSi monawileoben da maT cdian da zomaven. isini cdiloben agresiuli aqtebis saSualo procenti 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 imgvari reagireba moaxdnon, esiamovneba rogoric eqsperimentators da, saerTodac, maTi qceva gansxvavebuli iqneba sxva Cveulisagan, akvirdebaT. rad gan mesame, ician, rom arsebobs sakiTxebi, Catareba ver Tu mniSvnelovani romelTa A1 sawyisi mdgomareoba B anonimuroba A2 saboloo mdgomareoba eTikuri eqsperimentis xdeba. gamoc SeuZlebeli vikvlevT, ara magaliTad, gadaecema memkvidreobiT Cagvris bavSvis tendencia, radgan daCagruli bavSvebis eqsperimentuli jgufi da aradaCagrulebis sakontrolo jgufi und a gvqondes. Semdeg seqciaSi kvlevis iseT meTods davubrundebiT, romelic xSirad aw

ydeba amgvar problemebs. sur. 2.3. anonimurobiT gamowveuli agresia anonimurobis efeqti mniSvnelovania: erTi da igive bavSvebi bevrad maRal agresias avlenen anonimur pirobaSi, vidre manam da Semdeg araanonimur pirobebSi.

52 korelaciis meTodi kavSirSia inteleqti kreatulobasTan? optimistebi ufro janmrTele bi arian, vidre pesimistebi? aris kavSiri bavSvobaSi es Cagvris gancdasa da Semd egSi moicavs, Tanac, aq fsiqikuri daavadebis gaCenas Soris? kiTxvebi iseT cvlade bs romlebiT manipulirebas fsiqologi ase martivad ver moaxerxebs, eTikuri mosazrebebic erTveba. amitom, amgvar kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad iyenebe n meTods. korelaciis meTods fsiqologebi korelaciis meTodebs iyeneben, roca surT A B A gansazRvron, ra zomiTaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli ori cvladi. or cvlads Soris ko relaciis ufro zustad gansazRvrisaTvis fsiqologebi iyeneben statistikur sazoms, r omelsac korelaciis koeficienti ewodeba (r). korelaciis koeficienti icvleba +1-dan -1-mde, sadac +1 aris sruli dadebiTi korel acia, -1 - sruli uaryofiTi korelacia, xolo 0 niSnavs, rom korelacia ar arsebobs. cvladis korelacia dadebiTi korelaciis izrdeba erTi koeficienti meore niSnavs, r om Tu izrdeba erTi maCveneblebi, niSnavs, rom cvladis maCveneblebic. zrdas uaryofiTi cvladis cvladis maCveneblebis meore maCveneblebis Semcireba mohyveba (ixileT suraTi 2.4).. sur. 2.4. dadebiTi da uar yofiTi korelaciebi es warmosaxviTi monacemebi dadebiT da uaryofiT korelaciebs Soris sxvaobas aCvene bs. TiTeuli wertili erT fexburTels asaxavs. (a) zogadad, rac ufro met burTs gait ans fexburTeli, miT met fuls gamoimuSavebs. ese igi, am or cvlads Soris dadebiTi korelaciaa. (b) uaryofiTi korelaciis magaliTi, rac ufro nakleb jarimas daimsaxu rebs fexburTeli, miT met fuls gamoimuSavebs. nulTan axlos myofi korelacia niSnavs, rom ori sazomis qulebs Soris susti kavSiri a, an is saerTod ar aris. rac ufro uaxlovdeba korelaciis koeficienti 1-s, miT uf ro Zlieria kavSiri or cvlads Soris. magaliTad, Tu mkvlevari ikvlevs muSakis prod uqtulobasa da stress Soris kavSirs, man unda gazomos, ra zomiT stress ganicdian adamianebi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi da rogor aisaxeba es maT muSaobaze. operaciula d stresi SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, rogorc stresis kiTxvarze miRebuli qula, xolo pro duqtuloba, rogorc produqciis, saqonlis is raodenoba, romelsac adamiani dReSi amz adebs. Semdeg mkvlevari am cvladebs

53 mraval adamianze gazomavs da maT Soris korelaciis koeficients gamoTvlis. Zlieri uaryofiTi korelacia imis maCvenebli iqneba, rom stresis zrdas produqtulobis Semcireba moyveba. Sesabamisad, Tu mkvlevarma icis romelime adamia nis stresis qula, mas SeuZlia iwinaswarmetyvelos misi produqtuloba. mkvlevarma S eiZleba kidev erTi nabiji gadadgas da Tqvas, rom stresis Semcireba produqtulobis gazrdas gamoiwvevs. amgvari daskvna arasworia. Zlieri ko relacia mxolod imas miuTiTebs, rom monacemTa ori jgufi sistematuradaa dakavSireb uli erTmaneTTan, magram ar gveubneba, rom erTi cvladi iwvevs meores. korelacia mizez-Sedegobrioba ar aris. korelaciam SeiZleba asaxos SesaZlo mizez-Sedegobrivi efeqtidan nebismieri, an arcerTi. magaliTad, stressa da produq tulobas Soris arsebuli uaryofiTi korelacia SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom (1) saxlSi ga ncdili stresis gamo adamianebi uaresad muSaoben, (2) dabali produqutuloba iwvevs stress adamianebSi, (3) garkveuli tipis adamianebi ufro met ad ganicdian stress da uaresad muSaoben. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom ukanasknel SemT xvevaSi mesame cvladi iwvevs danarCen ors. da bolos, davuSvaT, rom axali teqnolo giis gamo samsaxurSi bevrad meti xmauria, rac, Tavis mxriv, ufro met stress (rad ganac adamianebi ver axdenen koncentracias) da ufro dabal produqtulobas iwvevs (radgan TanamSromlebi erTmaneTTan ver urTierToben). korelac ia isev darCeba, magram mizez-Sedegobrioba _ aRar. • korelaciis meTodi (correlatio nal method) _ gansazRvravs, Tu ra zomiTaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli ori cvladi. • korelaciis koeficienti ( ) (correlation co efficient) _ statistika, romelic or (r) cvlads Soris kavSiris xarisxs aCvenebs. korelacia, SesaZloa, mcdari iyos, radgan mkvlevarma saTanado sakontrolo Sedarebe bi ar ganaxorciela. ganvixiloT savaraudo kavSiri 1965 wels niu iorkSi momxdar si naTlis Caqrobasa da cxra Tvis Semdeg Sobadobis maCveneblis zrdas Soris. '"niu io rkelebi Zalian romantiulebi arian, es sanTlis Suqis gamo moxda" _ Tqva erT-erTma mamam. saxelmwifo moxelem ki es faqti amgvarad axsna: "im saRamos seqsis Canacv lebis yvela saSualeba _ Teatri, saloni, Sexvedra, kartis TamaSi _ moispo da sxva raRa darCenodaT?" ("niu iork Taimsi", 8/11/1966). msgavsi korelaciaa aRmoCenili , agreTve, qariSxlis da sxva bunebrivi katastrofebis Semdeg. "miwisZvram SeiZleb a Sobadobis afeTqeba gamoiwvios" _ werda san

54 francisko qronikli, Ceni (Chen, 1990). magram, Tu ar davizarebT da am Sedegebs Sobadobis sezonur maCveneblebs SevadarebT, aRmoCndeba, rom korelacia mizezSedego briobad SeniRbuli damTxveva aRmoCndeba. anu, sezonsa da Sobadobis maCvenebels Soris namdviladaa korelacia da swored esaa katastrofasa da Sobadobis maCvenebels Soris korelaciis sakontrolo piroba. naTelia, rom korelaciis Sedegeb s imave sifrTxliT unda movekidoT, rogorc eqsperimentis meTodis gamoyenebisas miR ebul Sedegebs. ar gvinda iseTi STabeWdileba dagrCeT, TiTqos korelaciis meTodi us argebloa. wignSi xSirad SevxvdebiT korelaciur kvlevebs, romlebmac mniSvnelovani aRmoCenebi Semates fsiqologias. madaze mosayvanad kidev erT magaliTs gTavazobT: saidan viciT? biWebis cudi yofaqcevis saTaveebi garemos romeli faqtorebi xsnis, Tu ratom avlenen zogierTi 5 wlis asakis biWebi problemur qcevas, xolo sxvebi ara ? mkvlevarTa gundis azriT, amgvari sxvaobis safuZvlebi, nawilobriv, da-Zmebs Sor is destruqciul konfliqtSi unda veZeboT,Ygarsia mizniT, TamaSebi Seafases. da sxv (Garcia et al; 2000). maTi 180 azriT, biWis da da-ZmebTan da-ZmasTan gancdili T amaSi. es konfliqtis done ganamtkicebs sxva situaciebSi gamovlenil agresiul qcevas. am mkv levrebma da-Zmebs videokameriT gadaiRes Soris konfliqtis analizma raodenobisa daadastura intensiurobis rom mxriv korelaciurma varaudi, da-ZmasTan konfliqtis maRali donis mqone biWebi ufro metad avlendnen agresiul da destruqciu l qcevas. xedavT, jgufebSi konfliqti ratomaa saWiro ver korelaciuri gaanawileb u nda kvlevis bavSvebs, da gamoyeneba romlebsac mxolod am SemTxvevaSi? an bevri SemTxveviTad aqvT cota da-ZmasTan, daicadoT Semdeg dainaxavT, gamovlindeba Tu ara raime sxvaoba situaciebs Soris. qvezRurblovani zemoqmedeba? am seqciis dasasruls gTavazobT imis konkretul magaliTs, Tu rogor gamoiyenes fsiqologiuri kvleva reklamis gamomSvebTa saqmianobis Sesafaseblad, ro mlebsac didi survili aqvT dagarwmunoT, rom maTi produqcia saukeTesoa. albaT, Seg

xvedriaT qvezRurblovani reklamebi, romlebic gpirdebian, rom

55 amieridan Tqveni cxovreba sruliad Seicvleba. erTi reklama ukeTes seqsualur cxovr ebas gpirdebaT, meore - dabali TviTSefasebis swraf gazrdas gTavazobT, mesame - w onis swraf da efeqtur daklebas, rogor? Zalian martivad, gamudmebiT unda usminoT kasetas, romelzec "qviSian napirze okeanis talRebis nazi Sxapunis xmaa" Cawerili . "qvezRurblovan" praqtikulad gamoiwvia xriki zemoqmedebas iyo, 1957 xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. marTalia, didi es wels Catarebulma gamokvlevam reklamis aJiotaJi presis furclebze. qvezRurblovani "gamomgonebeli" amtkicebda, rom kinofilmis msvlelobisas ekranze gaelvebulma warweram "iyideT bat ibuti!" 58 procentiT meti batibutis gayidva gamoiwvia, rojersi, (Rogers, 1993). uol stritis JurnalSi ewera, rom niu orleanis supermarketma mniSvnelovnad Seamcira qurdoba sistemaSi Semdegi qvezRurblovani teqstis ganTavsebiT: "Tu movip arav, cixeSi Cavjdebi". ohaios StatSi, toledoSi Catarebulma satelefono gamokiTxv am aCvena, rom gamokiTxuli 400 mozardis 75 procents sjera, rom qvezRurblovani reklama warmatebiT gamoiyeneba marketingis specialistebis mier. r ac ufro metad ganaTlebuli iyvnen respondentebi miT ufro metad sjerodaT responden tebi, maT qvezRurblovani reklamis. axla ukve gaqvT sakmarisi codna, rom upasuxoT kiTxvas: namdvilad zemoqmedebs qvezRurblovani kasetebi fsiqikur mdgomareobasa d a qcevaze? pasuxs Cvens mier aRwerili eqsperimentuli meTodis saSualebiT gavcemT (ixileT suraTi 2.5). sur. 2.5. qvezRurblovani kasetebis efeqturobis Sesamowmebel i kvlevis eqsperimentuli gegma eqsperimentis am gamartivebul versiaSi SerCeva populaciidanaa gakeTebuli. cdis p irebs jer winaswar uzomaven damokidebul cvlads, Semdeg SemTxveviTad anawileben j gufebSi, sadac isini usmenen mexsierebis, an TviTSefasebis teqstis Semcvel qvezR urblovan kasetas. Semdeg maT kvlav uzomaven saTanado Tvisebebs, raTa ipovon raim e SesaZlo cvlileba damokidebul cvladSi: mexsierebasa da TviTSefasebaSi. aRmoaCin a. saidan viciT? qvezRurblovani efeqtis Sefaseba mkvlevarTa gundma gadawyvita mexsi erebis da TviTSefasebis gaumjobesebaze kvlevam qvezRurblovani darwmunebis sando

zemoqmedeba ver

56 qvezRurblovani teqstis mosmenis efeqti Seefasebina. kvlevaSi 18-dan 60 wlamde 23 7 qali da mamakaci monawileobda. jer maT mexsiereba da TviTSefaseba Seumowmes saTanado testebis da kiTxvarebis meSveobiT da Semdeg SemTxveviTad gaan awiles or jgufSi. erT jgufs moasmenines mexsierebis kaseta, meores TviTSefasebis . isini regularulad usmendnen kasetebs 5 kviris ganmavlobaSi da Semdeg laborator ias daubrundnen, rom xelmeored gaezomaT maTi mexsiereba (oTxi testiT) da TviTSef aseba (sami skaliT). mkvlevrebma ar icodnen (brma sqema), romeli cdis piri romel pirobaSi moxvda (Greenwald et al; 1991). am gakontrolebuli eqsperimentis Sedege bi miuTiTebs, rom arc TviTSefaseba da arc mexsiereba sandod ar gaumjobesebula. T umca, gaCnda erTi, Zalian Zlieri efeqti: placebo efeqti _ cdis pirebi moelodnen, rom maT daexmarebodnen. mkvlevrebma gaiTvaliswines es efeqti da kidev erTi damo ukidebeli cvladi daamates. orive jgufis cdis pirTa naxevars mexsierebis kasetaze arasworad ewera "TviTSefaseba", xolo TviTSefasebis kasetaze "mexsiereba". cdis pirebs sjerodaT, rom TviTSefaseba da gaumjobesdeboda, Tu Sesabamisi Tu warweris mqone kasetas warwera mousmendnen, mexsiereba gaumjobesdeboda, kasetebs eqneboda "mexsiereba", Tumca, sinamdvileSi, isini sxva kasetas usmendnen! es daxvewili eq sperimenti sakmod konkretuli rCevis micemis saSualebas gvaZlevs: nu daxarjavT fuls tyuilad, qvezRurblovani kasetebi placebo efeqtis gar da arafers gvTavazobs. fsiqologiis da cxovrebis mniSvnelovani mizania myar eqspe rimentul meTodebze damyarebuli amgvari konkretuli daskvnebi mogawodoT. es eqsper imenti, agreTve, specifikur magaliTs gaZlevT cvladebis im tipebis Sesaxeb, romle bsac fsiqologebi zomaven - am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvqonda cdis pirebis rwmenasTan, rom maTi mexsiereba da TviTSefaseba gaizrdeboda da imave mexsierebisa da TviTSe fasebis obiequr gazomvasTan. Semdeg seqciaSi ufro zogadad ganvixilavT, Tu rogor zomaven fsiqologebi gamocdilebis sxvadasxva ganzom ilebas da mniSvnelovan procesebs. Sejameba kvlevis procesis meore fazaa dasabuTe ba. amisaTvis fsiqologebi mecnierul meTods iyeneben. damkvirveblis tendenciuroba daZleulia, roca monacemTa Segrovebis procedurebis standartizacia da cnebebis operaciuli gansazRvra

57 xdeba. eqsperimentuli meTodi mkvlevrebs mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris kvlevis saSua lebas aZlevs. agreTve, mkvlevrebma unda gaacnobieron alternatiuli axsnis arsebob is faqtic, rogoricaa molodinis da placebo efeqtebi. myari daskvnebis misaRebad isin i iyeneben iseT procedurebs, rogoricaa ormagad brma kontroli da placebos kontrol i. cdis pirTa Soris sqemis dros jgufebSi cdis pirTa SemTxveviT ganawileba kontro lis mniSvnelovani iaraRia da sakontrolo da eqsperimentul jgufebs Soris msgavsebi s garantias gvaZlevs. cdis pirTa SigniT sqema moicavs AB-A sqemas, sadac monawil eebi sakuTari Tavis kontrolad gamodgebian. mkvlevrebi korelaciis meTodebs iyeneb en, raTa gansazRvron, ra zomiT arian erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli cvladebi. korelac iis mniSvnelovani SezRudva isaa, rom is ar gulisxmobs mizez-Sdegobriobas. eqsper imentuli meTodebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT, realuri samyaros zemoqmedebis Seswavlisa Tvis, rogoricaa, magaliTad, qvezRurblovani kasetebis efeqti. fsiqologiuri gazomv a radgan fsiqologiuri procesebi mravalferovani da rTulia, maTi gazomva siZneleeb Tanaa dakavSirebuli. zogierTi qceva advilad dakvirvebadia, xolo sxvebi, magaliTad, SfoTva da sizmari _ ara. amdenad, mkvlevaris erT-erTi amocanaa uxilavi xiluli gaxados, Sinagani movlenebi da procesebi _ garegani, xol o piradi gamocdileba _ sazogado. Tqven ukve naxeT, ramdenad mniSvnelovania sakvl evi fenomenis operaciuli gansazRvreba. es gansazRvrebebi im proceduras gvaZlevs, romliTac xdeba sxvadasxva donis, zomis, intensiurobis an raodenobis cvladisaTvi s raodenobrivi mniSvnelobis mikuTvneba. arsebobs gazomvis mravali meTodi, yovel maTgans Tavisi upiratesobani da nakli gaaCnia. fsiqologiuri gazomvis ganxilvas g azomvis sizustis or indikators Soris gansxvavebis ganxilviT viwyebT, esenia sand ooba da validoba. Semdeg ganvixilavT monacemTa Segrovebis sxvadasxva teqnikas. r ogorc ar unda agrovebdes fsiqologi monacemebs, hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad igi saTan ado statistikur monacemebs unda iyenebdes. statistikur damatebaSi aRwerilia, Tu rogor aanalizeben fsiqologebi monacemebs. sandoobis da validobis miRweva

58 fsiqologiuri gazomvis mizania sando da validuri daskvnebis miReba. sandooba niSn avs fsiqologiuri testirebis an eqsperimentuli kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli qcevis mo nacemebis Sesabamisobas da sarwmunoebas. sando Sedegi sxva dros, msgavs pirobebS i Semowmebisas unda gameordes. Tu sazomi instrumenti sandoa, misi ganmeorebiT ga moyenebisas msgavsi qulebi unda miviRoT. ganvixiloT eqsperimenti, romelmac aCven a, rom qvezRurblovani kasetebi mxolod placebo efeqts iZleva. am eqsperimentSi 23 7 cdis piri iyo. eqsperimentatoris pretenzia, rom Sedegi sandoa, niSnavs, rom da axloebiT igive zomis jgufze eqsperimentis gameorebis Semdeg msgavsi Sedegebi und a miviRoT. validoba niSnavs, sazomi saSualebas rom kvleva, an testireba im fsiqo logiur cvlads, an Tvisebas zomavs, romlis gazomvasac apirebda. magaliTad, bednie rebis validuri unda gvaZlevdes viwinaswarmetyveloT, ramdenad bednieri iqnebiT Tqven ama Tu im situaciaSi. validuri eqsperimenti niSnavs, rom mkvlevars ganzogadebis gakeTeba SeuZlia, anu, Sedegebis gavrcoba laboratoriidan realur sa myaroze. rodesac kasetebis eqsperimentze dayrdnobiT rCeva mogeciT, vicodiT, rom kvlevis Sedegebi validuria. SesaZloa eqsperimenti da testi sando iyos, magram ar a - validuri. magaliTad, Tqveni bednierebis maCveneblad SegviZlia Tqveni fexsacm lis zoma gamoviyenoT. es sazomi sando iqneba (yovelTvis igive pasuxs miviRebT), magram ara validuri. SeecadeT sandoobis da validobis TvalsazrisiT SeafasoT is sa zomebi, romlebsac am wignSi SexvdebiT. TviTangariSi mkvlevrebs uSualod grZnobebi , ver xSirad ainteresebT esenia (attitudes), imgvari Sinagani gamocdilebis fsiqo logiuri SesaZloa, kvleva, romelsac _ daakvirdebi. mdgomareobebi es damokidebulebi Sexedulebebi. gamocdileba garegani qcevac iyos, magram fsiqologi mainc ver daakvirdes mas, magaliTad, seqs ualuri TviTangariSs kiTxvebze aqtivoba an kriminaluri eyrdnoba. an qceva. es ase T aris SemTxvevebSi mkvlevris mier kvlevebi dasmul amgvari (self-report measures) miRebuli werilobiTi zepiri verbaluri pasuxebi. Sefasebebis raodenobrivi saxiT gadmocemis sando xerxebi arsebobs, ase rom, fsiqo logebs SeuZliaT sxvadasxva adamianis pasuxi Seadaron erTmaneTs. TviTangariSi int ervius dros an kiTxvarze miRebul pasuxebs gulisxmobs. kiTxvari an anketa kiTxvebis werilobiTi krebulia, kiTxvebis Sinaarsi SeiZleba

59 iyos: faqtobrivi ("Tqven amomrCeveli xarT?") warsuli an awmyo qcevis Sesaxeb (ra mdens eweviT?) damokidebulebebisa da grZnobebis Sesaxeb ("ramdenad gakmayofilebT Tqveni samuSao?"). Ria kiTxvebi saSualebas aZlevs respondents Tavisuflad, sakuT ari sityvebiT gasces pasuxi SekiTxvas. arsebobs, agreTve, daxuruli kiTxvebi, sadac pasuxis variantebi mocemulia, magaliTad, diax, ara, ar vici. • sandooba (reliability) _ xarisxi, romliTac testi msgavs Sedegebs iZleva yoveli g amoyenebisas, instrumentis gamoyenebiT miRebuli qulebis stabiluroba da Sesabamis oba • validoba (validity) _ testi zustad imas zomavs, ris gazomvasac apirebda • TviT angariSi (self-report measures) _ adamianis mier sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebis Sedeg ad miRebuli monacemebi interviu aris mkvlevarsa da individs Soris dialogi detalu ri informaciis miRebis mizniT. mTlianad standartizebuli kiTxvarisagan gansxvaveb iT, interviu interaqtiuria. interviuerma SeiZleba Secvalos kiTxvebi imisda mixed viT, Tu ras pasuxobs respondenti. kargi interviuerebi socialuri interaqciis proc essac iTvaliswineben respondentTan, iwvevs. marTalia, mkvlevrebi sakuTari TviTan gariSis mravalgvar sazoms iyeneben, maT umetesobas ver gamoviyenebT patara bavSv ebTan, wera-kiTxvis ucodinar da amyareben raports da dadebiT socialur urTierTobas survils romelic ndobas piradi informaciis gaziarebis zrdasrulebTan, sxva enaze molaparakeebTan, gonebrivad CamorCenil adamianebTan da cxovelebTan. xolo iq, sadac maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba, SesaZloa gaCndes sandoobi s da validobis problema. monawileebma SeZleba ver gaigon kiTxvebi an zustad ver gaixsenon TavianTi warsuli gamocdileba. ufro metic, sakuTari Tavis Sefasebaze, S esaZloa, imoqmedos socialuri sasurvelobis efeqtma rodesac adamiani araswor pasuxs iZleva, raTa sakuTar Tavze sasurveli (xandaxan a rasasurveli) STabeWdileba Seqmnas. maT SeiZleba moeridoT namdvili grZnobebis gam oxatva. Tu respondentebma ician intervius an kiTxvaris mizani, maT SeiZleba tyui li Tqvan, raTa miiRon samuSao, gamovidnen saavadmyofodan an raime sxva mizans mi aRwion. intervius situacia aseve iZLeva saSUalebas, rom tendenciurobam

60 da mikerZoebam gavlena moaxdinos interviueris mier dasmul kiTxvebze da respondentis mier gacemul pasuxebze. qcevis gazomva da dakvirveba fsiqologebs qc evaTa farTo speqtri ainteresebT. isini swavloben virTxis labirinTSi gavlas, bavS vs, romelic suraTs xatavs, students, romelic leqss izepirebs, an muSas, romelic raRac davalebas asrulebs. qcevis sazomi garegan, dakvirvebad da dafiqsirebad qce vebs da reaqciebs swavlobs. qcevis Seswavlis erT-erTi ZiriTadi gza aris dakvirve ba. dakvirveba unda iyos dagegmili, zusti da sistematuri. dakvirveba fokusirdeba qcevis procesze an produqtze. magaliTad, daswavlis eqsperimentSi mkvlevari akvirdeba ramdenjer imeorebs cdis piri sityvebis sias (CamonaTvals) (procesi) da Semdeg ramden sityv as aRadgens igi (produqti). uSualo dakvirvebisaTvis sakvlevi qceva advilad dasan axi da Casaweri unda iyos. magaliTad, emociebis laboratoriul eqsperimentSi vakvi rdebiT cdis piris saxis gamometyvelebas, rodesac is emociis gamomwvev stimuls xe davs. uSualo fsiqologebi dakvirvebas xSirad xSirad teqnikas axmaren. raTa magali Tad, zustad Tanamedrove is dro, iyeneben kompiuterebs, gazomon roemlic kvlevis monawileebs sWirdebaT, raTa sxvadasxva davaleba Sesarulon, rogor icaa, magaliTad, windadebis wakiTxva, an porblemis gadaWra. marTalia, zusti gazo mvis zogi forma kompiuteris eris gaCenamdec arsebobda, kompiuterebi araCveulebri vi moqnilobis saSualebas iZleva zusti informaciis Segrovebisa da analizisaTvis. mesame TavSi uaxloes teqnologiebs aRvwerT, romlebic saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs qcevis RirSesaniSnavi gazomva ganaxorcielon da naxo n, rogor muSaobs tvini. bunebrivi dakvirvebis dros mkvlevari bunebrivad gaCenil qcevas akvirdeba, magram ar ereva masSi. magaliTad, mkvlevari SeiZleba calmxrivi sarkidan akvirdeb odes bavSvebis TamaSs, romlebmac ar ician, rom maT uyureben. adamianis qcevis zo gierTi saxis Seswavla mxolod bunebrivi dakvirvebiTaa SesaZlebeli, radgan araeTik uri an arapraqtikuli iqneba sxvagvarad moqceva. magaliTad, araeTikuri iqneba bav Svi mkacri deprivaciis pirobebSi movaTavsoT, raTa bavSvis Semdgom ganviTarebaze misi zemoqmedeba SeviswavloT.

61 laboratoriaSi qcevis Seswavlisas mkvlevari ver dainaxavs, Tu ra xangrZlivi efeqt i aqvs adamianis bunebriv garemos misi qcevis rTuli sqemis (paternis) formirebaz e. bunebrivi dakvirvebis erT-erTi yvelaze Rirebuli magaliTia jein gudalis (Jane Goodall) Sroma (1986-1990; petersoni da gudali 1993). gudali 30 wlis manZilze sw avlobda Simpanzeebis qcevas afrikaSi, tanganikis tbaze. igi aRniSnavs, rom 10 we liwadSi rom daemTavrebina Sroma, rogorc amas Tavdapirvelad apirebda, swor daskvn ebs ver gaakeTebda: • qcevis gazomva (Behavioral measures) _ garegani qcevebi da r eaqciebi, romlebsac akvirdebian da iweren, eqskluziuri an TviTangariSiT aRwerili qceva. Simpanzeebis da adamianebis qcevaSi mraval saerTos davinaxavdiT, magram dagvrCeboda STabeWdileba, rom Simpanzeebi bevrad ufro mSvidobiani arsebebi arian , vidre adamianebi. radganac pirveli dekadis Semdegac gavagrZeleT kvleva, SevZel iT dagvefiqsirebina socialuri jgufis dayofa da am or axal jgufs Soris warmoSobil i sastiki agresia. aRmoCnda, rom zogierT SemTxvevaSi Simpanzeebma SeiZleba mokla n da SeWamon kidec Tavisi saxeobis warmomadgenlebi. meores mxriv, Simpanzeebma o jaxis wevrebisadmi ukiduresad xangrZlivi emociuri kavSirebi gamoavlines. . . kar gad ganviTarebuli kognituri unarebi, kulturuli tradiciebis (ganviTareba). . . (G oodall, 1986, gv.3-4) kvlevis dasawyis etapze bunebrivi dakvirveba gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa. is mkvle vrebs movlenis sazRvrebis dadgenaSi exmareba, an warmodgenas uqmnis, romeli iqneba mniSvnelovani cvladi, an kavSiri. bunebrivi dakvirvebis monacemebi mkvlevars xSirad miniSnebebs aZlevs konkretuli hipoTezis, an kvlevis gegmis Cam oyalibebisaTvis. sanam fsiqologiuri gazomvis Temas davamTavrebT, xazi unda gavus vaT imas, rom mravali kvleviTi proeqti TviTangariSisa da qcevis dakvirvebis meTo debs kombinaciaSi iyenebs. magaliTad, mkvlevarma SeiZleba kidev erTi, zogierTi kvleva Seiswavlos, ras ambobs warmoadgens, analizma anu, erT adamiani momavali qcevis Sesaxeb da realurad rogor iqceva (ixileT 17-e Tavi). SemTxvevis Seswavlas individze tardeba. calke aRebuli individis

intensiurma xandaxan SeiZleba bevrad meti sayuradRebo informacia mogvces, vidre didi raodenobiT adami anebis kvlevam. magaliTad, 3-e TavSi SeityobT, rom tvinis dazianebis mqone

62 calkeuli pacientebis yuradRebiT Seswavlam tvinSi enis funqciis lokalizaciis Sesa xeb Teoriebis warmoSobas daudo safuZveli. Cven aRvwereT mkvlevrebis mier gamoyen ebuli sxvadasxva tipis procedura da sazomi instrumenti. Semdeg seqciaSi im eTiku r standartebs ganvixilavT, romlebic am meTodebis da procedurebis gamoyenebas mar Tavs. eTikuri sakiTxebi adamianis da cxovelis kvlevisas qvezRurblovani Setyobine bis efeqturobis Sesamowmebel kvlevaSi mkvlevrebma monawileebi moatyues, radgan k asetebze araswori warwerebi gaakeTes. maT es ganzrax Caidines, rom enaxaT, xom a r iwvevs monawilis molodini, rom mas daexmarebian, motyueba daijeros, aris rom k argi, Setyobineba magram sasargebloa maSinac ki, roca am mexsierebisa da TviTSefasebis obieqturi sazomebi aCvenebda, rom es ase ar iyo. a rsodes rogor Seafasebdnen mkvlevrebi SemTxvevaSi araswori rwmenis placebo efeqts ? rogor unda SevadaroT kvlevis SesaZlo sargebeli im xarjTan, romelsac wevs kvlev is monawile, Tu procedura riskiani, tkivilis, an stresis momyenebeli, motyuebiTi a? fsiqologebi amgvar kiTxvebs gamudmebiT usvamen sakuTar Tavs (rozentali, 1994) . adamianebis da cxovelebis ZiriTadi uflebebis pativiscema yvela mkvlevris aucil ebeli movaleobaa. am uflebebis dacvisaTvis arsebobs specialuri komitetebi, romle bic kvlevis yvela proeqts ixilavs da SesabamisobaSi mohyavs is aS.S.-s janmrTelo bis departamentis mier gamoqveynebul mkacr instruqciebTan. universitetebs, kolej ebs, saavadmyofoebs da kvleviT dawesebulebebs reviziis sabWoebi hyavT, romlebic amgvar proeqtebs ixilaven. amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciam (1992) detaluri eTikuri standartebi SeimuSava, ganvixiloT rigi maTgan i. informirebuli Tanxmoba adamianebze Catarebuli labratoriuli kvlevis dasawyisSi monawileebs aRuweren proceduras, masTan dakavSirebul potenciur risks da im Sedegebs, romlis miRebasac moelian kvlevis dasasruls. monawileebs arwmuneben, rom maTgan miRebuli informacia daculi da xelSeuxebeli iqneba gareSe pirTaTvis: maTi monacemebi dafiqsirdeba da specialur adgilas Seinaxeba, xelmisawvdomi iqneba mxo lod mkvlevrebisaTvis, xolo, Tu mkvlevars kvlevis Sedegebis

63 moxsenebis survili gauCndeba, monawileTa Tanxmobis gareSe amas ver gaakeTebs. mo nawileebs xels awerineben gancxadebaze, sadac weria, rom kvlevis Sesaxeb sruli i nformacia miawodes da isini Tanaxma arian monawileobaze. garda amisa, monawileeb s afrTxileben, rom maT nebismier momentSi SeuZliaT datovon kvleva da oficialuri pirebis sakontaqto monacemebs aZleven, Tu maT Civilis survili gauCndebaT. riskis /sargeblis Sefaseba fsiqologiuri kvlevis umetesoba ar aris dakavSirebuli raime r iskTan, miTumetes, roca mis monawileebs rutinuli davalebebi eZlevaT. magram aris iseTi e qsperimentebi, romlebic adamianis bunebis ufro pirad aspeqtebs swavlobs rogorica a emociuri reaqcia, me-s xati, konformuloba, stresi an agresia romlebmac SeiZleb a aaRelvos, an fsiqologiurad Seawuxos adamiani. amitom, amgvari kvlevisas riski minimumamde unda iyos dayvanili, monawileebs unda SevatyobinoT riskis Sesaxeb da winaswari zomebi unda miviRoT, rom Zlier reaqcieb s gavumklavdeT. aseT riskian SemTxvevebSi, sabWoebi yuradRebiT ixilaven, aucileb elia kvleva Tu ara, SesaZlebelia Tu ara riskis gareSe misi Catareba, ramdenad be vris momtania amgvari kvleva mecnierebisa da sazogadoebisaTvis. ganzrax motyueba zogierT kvlevaSi monawileebisaTvis sruli informaciis miwodeba SeuZlebelia, radg an es kvlevis Sedegebze imoqmedebs. magaliTad, roca agresiaze televiziiT Zaladob is monawiles. SemTxvevaSi mecnieruli yurebis zogierT ar da aris zemoqmedebas mkv levars swavlobT, miaCnia, ar unda uTxraT Tqveni mizani arcerT rom monawilis motyueba gamarTlebuli, korni (Korn, 1987). amerikis fsiqologTa motyueba asociaciis (1992) instruqciebi amis Taobaze sakmaod naTelia: (1) kvlevas sakmari si saganmanaTleblo mniSvneloba unda hqondes, rom gavamarTloT, (2) mkvlevarma unda aCvenos, rom motyuebis gaereSe mizans ver miaRw evs, (3) monawileebi arasodes unda movatyuoT im sakiTxebSi, ris gamoc maT SeiZle ba saerTod uari Tqvan monawileobaze, (4) kvlevis dasasruls monawileebs unda avux snaT, ratom movatyueT. amgvari eqpserimentebi SesaZloa sabWom SezRudos, an saerTod ar miiRos, steiningeri da sxvebi, ( Steininger et al; 1984) . kvlevis Semdgomi interviu

64 fsiqologiur kvlevaSi monawileoba yovelTvis mkvlevarsa da monawiles Soris informa ciis ormxrivi gacvla unda iyos. monawilis reqciebidan da pasuxebidan mkvlevari r aRac axals igebs im movlenis Sesaxeb, romelsac swavlobs, xolo monawiles unda Sev atyobinoT kvlevis miznebi, hipoTeza, SesaZlo Sedegebi da kvlevis mosalodneli sar geblianoba. eqpserimentis dasasruls, yovel monawiles unda CavutaroT kvlevis Semd gomi interviu, sadac mkvlevari maqsimalur informacias miawodebs kvlevis Sesaxeb da ar gauSvebs monawiles, sanam ar darwmun deba, rom is aRelvebuli, dabneuli, an damorcxvebuli ar aris. Tu kvlevis romelime etapze monawilis motyueba aucilebelia, eqsperimentatori dawvrilebiT uxsnis, rat om gaakeTa es. da bolos, monawileebs ufleba aqvT gaauqmon TavianTi monacemebi, T u miaCniaT, rom maTi uflebebi dairRva. cxovelTa kvleva: mecniereba, eTika, polit ika SeiZleba Tu ara cxovelebis gamoyeneba fsiqologiur da samedicino kvlevebSi? e s kiTxva xSirad Zalian polarizebul rom pasuxebs iwvevda. erT mxares arian mkvlev rebi, romlebic miuTiTeben, misces cxovelebze Catarebulma purdi, kvlevebma petrin oviCi umniSvnelovanesi aRmoCenebi mecnierebas domjani, (Domjan and Purdy, 1995; Petrinovich, 1998). cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevebis miR wevebia iseTi wamlebis gamogoneba da gamocda, romlebic SfoTvas da fsiqikur miReb a daavadebebs mkurnaloben, narkomaniis Sesaxeb mniSvenlovani codnis (mileri, 1985) da sxv. cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevebi Tavad cxovlebisaTvisac gam osadegia. magaliTad, fsiqologiurma kvlevebma aCvena, rogor unda SevamciroT zoopa rkSi, socialuri galiebSi myofi cxovelebis stresi. cxovelTa mignebebma daswavlisa maTi da organizaciis sferoSi gakeTebulma volierebis ukeTesi dagegmareba da janmrTelobisaTvis ufro sasikeTo garemo pirobebis Seqmna g amoiwvia, nikoli da sxv., (Nicoll et al; 1988). miRwevaTa amgvari CamonaTvali ar aris sakmarisi sabuTi cxovelTa uflebebis damcvelebisaTvis. maTi azriT, adamiane bs jer kidev mcdarad miaCniaT, rom "homo sapiensis sxva qmnilebebisagan gamoyofa moralurad gamarTlebulia", boudi da Sapiro (Bowd and Shapiro 1993, p. 136; Shapi ro, 1998). am Secdomis gamosasworeblad gvTavazoben "laboratoriuli kvlevebidan minimalurad manipulaciur kvlevebze gadavi deT, romlebic bunebriv da naxevrad bunebriv garemoSi tardeba" (boudi da

65 Sapiro, 1993, gv. 140). yoveli specialisti gansakuTrebuli sifrTxiliT unda miudge s cxovelebis kvlevas. • kvlevis Semdgomi interviu (Debriefing) _ mkvlevari maqsima lur informacias miawodebs kvlevis Sesaxeb da ar gauSvebs monawiles, sanam ar dar wmundeba, rom is aRelvebuli, dabneuli, an damorcxvebuli ar aris. cxovelebis kvle vaSi gansakuTrebul sifrTxileze miuTiTebs, agreTve, gamokiTxvis Sedegebi, romelSic fsiqologiis fakultetis studenti 1188 da amerikis fisoqologTa asociaciis 3982 wevri monawileobda, plousi (Plous, 1996a, 1 996b): • gamokiTxulTa daaxloebiT 80 procents miaCnia, rom bunebriv garemoSi Catare buli dakvirveba dasaSvebia. ufro naklebi (30 dan 70 procenamde) mxars uWers iseT kvlevebs, romlebic galiaSi Casmul cxovelebze tardeba, rac, nawilobriv cxovelis tipzea damokidebuli (magaliTad, virTxebi, mtredebi, ZaRlebi, an primatebi). rogo rc studentebma, aseve, leqtorebma uaryves tkivilis mimyenebli an sikvdilis gamow vevi kvlevebi cxovelebze. • orive jgufis umravlesobam (daaxloebiT 60-ma procentma) mxari dauWira fsiqologiis saswavlo kursebSi cxovelebis gamoyenebas, magram oriv e jgufSi mxolod erTma mesamedma CaTvala, rom cxovelebTan laboratoriuli muSaoba b akalavris xarisxis mosapovebel aucilebel moTxovnad unda iyos miCneuli. Tqven ras fiqrobT? rogor SeafasebdiT cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevis sargebels da xarjs? Sejameba fsiqologiurma gazomvam imgvari Sedegebi unda mogvce s, romlebic erTdroulad sandocaa da validuric. saSualebiT uSualo sakuTari xdeba. Tavis Sefasebis iyenebs gazomva agreTve kiTxvarebis qcevis adamianis da interviuebis rogoricaa fsiqologi da sazomebs, kvlevis dakvirveba bunebrivi dakvirveba. mniSvnelovani eTikuri sakiTxebia informirebuli Tanxmoba, kvlevis riskis da mogeb is Sefaseba, ganzrax motyuebis gamoyeneba da kvlevis Semdgomi intervius aucilebl oba. mkvlevrebma frTxilad unda ganixilon cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevebis eTikuri Sedegebi.

66 rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi am Tavis bolos ganvixilavT kritikuli azrovnebis im unarebs, romlebic imisaTvis gWirdebaT, rom fsiqologiuri codna azrianad moixmaroT. es nebismieri pirovnebisaTvisaa romelic aRsavsea aucil ebeli pretenziiT Cvens dinamikur sazogadoebaSi, "saRi gonebis" im situaciaSi, mi TebiT, WeSmaritebaze, mcdari konkretuli interesebis samsaxurSi Camdgari mikerZoebuli daskvnebiT. kritikuli azrovneba niSnavs informaciis miRma xedvas, imis siRrmeSi Wvretas, rac zedapirze ar Cans, arsis Cawvdomas, rom garegnulma mxarem ar mogatyuoT. fsiqologiur mgrZno biare samwuxarod, codna fsiqologiurad yoveldRiuri daxvewili sazogadoebis Tanmdev i ara moazrovne, aspeqtia. subieqtis cxovrebis didi mudmivad raodenoba fsiqologiuri informaciis mecnieruli wignebidan, statiebidan da kvlevebidan, aramed gazeTebis furclebidan, tele da ra dio gadacemebidan, popularuli fsiqologiis "bulvaruli" wignebidan modis. davubrun deT fsiqikis qvezRurblovani kontrolis ideas. marTalia, is mogebaze orientirebuli marketingis konsultantis jeims vikaris motyuebiTi propagandiT daiwyo (rojersi, 1993) - da, rogorc vnaxeT laboratoriulma kvlevam uaryo, es idea jer kidev muSaob s da adamianebi isev xarjaven fuls amgvar kasetebSi! fsiqologiis codna monacemeb ze dayrdnobiT brZnuli daskvnebis gakeTebaSi dagexmarebaT. yovelTvis unda ecadoT fsiqologiis Seswavlidan miRebuli formaluri codna im araformalur fsiqologiur informacias miuyenoT, romelic gars ga rtyiaT. dasviT kiTxvebi Tqveni sakuTari, an sxva adamianebis qcevis Sesaxeb, pas uxebi racionaluri fsiqologiuri Teorebis safuZvleze eZebeT da TqvenTvis xelmisawv dom faqtebze dayrdnobiT SeamowmeT es pasuxebi. yovelTvis unda gaxsovdeT zogierTi zogadi wesi, romelic informaciis zRvaSi garkvevaSi dagexmarebaT: • korelacia mize z-Sdegobrioba ar aris. • mniSvnelovani terminebi da cnebebi operaciulad unda iyos gansazRvruli, ise rom yvelas erTnairad esmodes maTi mniSvneloba.

67 • sanam Teoriis, hipoTezis an Sexedulebis damamtkicebel sabuTebs dauwyebT Zebnas, ifiqreT, rogor SeiZleba misi uaryofa. • yovelTvis eZebeT SemoTavazebuli axsnis alt ernatiuli variantebi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca axsna “SemomTavazebels” (anu avtors) aZlevs xels. • gaxsovde T, rom pirovnul tendenciurobas SeuZlia daamaxinjos realobis aRqma. • eWvi SeitaneT kompleqsuri kiTxvebis martiv pasuxebSi, an rTuli problemebis da movlenebis mart iv mizezebsa da gadaWris gzebSi. • eWvi SeitaneT raime mkurnalobis, Carevis, an pr oduqtis efeqturobaSi, aucileblad SeadreT is ukve arsebul saSualebas. • Ria da amave dros skeptikuri iyav iT: aRiareT, rom daskvnaTa umetesoba ar aris naTeli da xelSesaxebi, axali damamt kicebeli sabuTebi eZebeT, mzad iyaviT sakuTari azris SecvlisaTvis. gvinda, amave Ria skeptikuri midgomiT ganixiloT es wigni, ar gvinda, fsiqologiis Seswavla Tqv enTvis mxolod faqtebis aTviseba iyos. imedi gavqvs, rom monawileobas miiRebT ide ebis aRmoCenaSi, maT SemowmebaSi da es siamovnebas moganiWebT. fsiqologia 21-e s aukuneSi fsiqologiuri kvleva da informaciis afeTqeba internetSi fsiqologiisadmi miZRvnil uamrav gverds waawydebiT. magaliTad, Sizofrenia erT-erT misamarTze 83.7 60 gverdze iyo naxsenebi (ixileT Tavi 15). sxva misamarTze imave Temaze 63.812 g verdi vipoveT. ueWvelia, am wignis gamosvlamde es raodenoba kidev ufro gaizrdeba . es monacemebi naTlad aCvenebs, ratom uwodeben Tanamedroveobas informaciis afeT qebis periods. yvela CvenTaganisaTvis namdvili gamowvevaa am informaciis brZnuli moxmareba. rogor ganvsazRvroT, internetSi ganTavsebul romel informacias vendoT da romels ara? biblioTekaSi bevrad ufro advilia informaciis wyaros gansazRvra, radgan aq ZiriTa dad seriozuli samecniero Jurnalebia moTavsebuli, romelTa umetesoba amerikis fsiq ologTa mas asociaciis, 2-dan 5-mde an amerikis fsiqologiuri sazogadoebis romlebi c gamocemulia. rodesac kvleva JurnalSi igzavneba, is Semowmebis rTul process gad is. redaqcia aRiarebul specialists ugzavnis,

68 naSroms detalurad ixilaven misi Teoriuli safuZvlebis, meTodologiis da Sedegebis TvalsazrisiT. Tu eqspertebi moiwoneben kvlevas, is qveyndeba. magaliTad, 1998 wels amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis mier (1999) gamoqveynebulma Jurnalebma mowodebuli naSromebis 69 procenti uaryves. ra Tqma unda, es procesi s rulyofili ar aris, zogierTi Rirebuli Sroma usamarTlod uariyofa, xolo zogi Sedare biT susti rogorRac "gaZvreba", magram, zogadad, es procesi garantias gvaZlevs, rom JurnalTa umetesoba maRal standartebs akmayofilebs. amito m, rodesac informacias internetSi naxavT, yovelTvis dainteresdiT, saidan modis is, ra aris misi wyaro. SegiZliaT internetSi seriozuli samecniero J urnalebis eleqtronuli versiebi ixiloT. aseve, nebismieri informacia unda Seicavd es gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvals da aqedanac mixvdebiT, ramdenad seriozul wyarosTan gaqvT saqme. fsiqologia da cxovreba-Si moyvanili informaciis sandooba Si eWvi ar unda SegeparoT, radgan yvelagnaa miTiTebuli saTanado imoqmedeT! sakva nZo sakiTxebi aRmoCenis etapi • kvlevis aRmoCenis stadiaze dakvirvebas, Sexeduleba s, informacias da zogad codnas movlenis axleburi xedvisaken mivyavarT. mkvlevari Teorias da hipoTezas ayalibebs. dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualeb ebi • es is fazaa, romelzec ideebi mowmdeba da dasturdeba, an uariyofa. • ideebis Se mowmebisaTvis mkvlevrebi mecnierul meTods iyeneben. es aris samecniero wyaro, am itom, internetSi muSaobisas imave principiT monacemebis imgvarad Segroveba da inetrpretireba, rom Secdomebi minimumamde iyos dayvanili. • mkvlevrebi ebrZvian damkvirveblis tendenciurobas procedurebis standartizaciis da operaciuli gansazRvrebebis gamoyenebis gziT. • kvlevis eqsperim entuli meTodebi gansazRvravs, arsebobs Tu ara cvladebs Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi m imarTeba. • mkvlevrebi alternatiul axsnebs kontrolis saTanado porcedurebis gamoyenebiT gamoricxaven.

69 • kvlevis korelaciuri meTodi gansazRvravs, ramdenad aris ori cvladi dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan. korelacia ar gulisxmobs mizez-Sedegobriobas. fsiqolog iuri gazomva • fsiqologebi cdiloben ise gazomon monacemebi, rom isini sando da val iduri iyos. • fsiqologiuri kvleva moicavs sakuTari Tavis Sefasebis da qcevis gazom vas. kvlevis eTikuri sakiTxebi • yvela mkvlevari valdebulia pativi sces kvlevis mo nawileTa, ara aqvs mniSvneloba, adamianis, Tu cxovelis, ZiriTad uflebebs. eTikuri da humanuri mopyr obis garantirebisaTvis SemuSavebulia rigi damcveli saSualebebi. mecnieruli rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi • imisaTvis, rom kvlevis Sedegebi sworad gamoviyenoT, unda vicodeT, rogor viazrovnoT kritikulad da rogor SevafasoT kvlevis Sedegebi. ZiriTadi cnebebi a-b-a sqema aRmoCenis etapi TviTangariSi dasabuTebis etapi dama tebiTi cvladi damokidebuli cvladi damoukidebeli cvladi damkvirveblis tendenciuro ba determinizmi eqsperimentuli meTodi validoba Teoria kvlevis Semdegi interviu k ontrolis procedura korelaciis koeficienti korelaciuri meTodi mecnieruli meTodi m olodinis efeqti operaciuli gansazRvreba ormagad brma kontroli placebo efeqti pla cebo kontroli populacia reprezentatuli SerCeva sandooba standartizacia qcevis ga zomva SemTxvevis Seswavla SerCeva cvladi cdis pirTa Soris sqema cdis pirTa Signi T sqema hipoTeza

3. Tavi 3. qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi • memkvidreobiToba da qceva evolucia da bunebrivi gadarCeva adamianis genotipis cvalebadoba • biologia da qceva miyuradeba tvinze nervuli sistema Tavis tvinis struqturebi da maTi funqciebi hem isferoTa lateralizacia endokrinuli sistema • fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: miRwevebi tvinis funqciebis lokalizaciis sferoSi • nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi neironi moqmedebis potenciali sinafsuri gadacema neirotransmiterebi da maTi funq ciebi • • fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: rogor gavlenas axdens cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba tvinze? sakvanZo sakiTxebi ZiriTadi cnebebi

71 1848 wlis 13 seqtembers rkinigzis muSas, fineas geijs ubeduri SemTxveva mouvida: _ moulodneli afeTqebis Sedegad daaxloebiT erTi metri sigrZis palo TavSi SeerWo. srul gonebaze myofi, geiji etliT miiyvanes sastumromde, sadac man kibeebze Tavad SeZlo asvla. momdevno ori-sami kviris ganm avlobaSi geiji sikvdils ebrZoda, oqtombris Sua ricxvebidan ki misi mdgomareoba S emTxveva aRniSnavda, mudmivad rom umjobesdeboda. samedicino gadarCena jon harlou , eqimi, romelmac es masaCusetis geijis sazogadoebas samedicino 1968 wels moaxsena, saswauls TvalsazrisiT warmoadgenda: es SemTxveva daaxloebiT oci wlis winaT moxda. naklebad cnobil qalaqSi (kavendiSi , vermonti). SemTxveva aRweril iqna naklebad cnobili soflis eqimis mier da metro politenis eqimebis mierac Zalian didi sifrTxiliT iqna miRebuli. mravali maTgani uars ambobda daejerebina am adamianis gadarCena, vidre maT TiTebi mis TavSi arse bul xvrelSi ar Cayves… (harlou, 1968, gv.329). sinamdvileSi geijs saocrad msubuqi fizikuri dazianebebi qonda. man dakarga mxedv eloba marcxena TvalSi magram da misi saxis marcxena mxare nawilobriv paralizebuli iyo, misi sxeulis poza, moZraoba da metyveleba ucvleli darCa. Tumca, fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, es iyo sxva adamiani , rogorc amas misi eqimis angariSi adasturebs: balansi mis inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebsa da cxovelur midrekilebebs Soris dairRv a. is gaxda meryevi, mouridebeli, RvTisgmobis gamovlenebis momTmeni adamiani (ra c mas adre ar sCveoda). Tavisi megobrebisa da kolegebis mimarT araviTar pativisc emas ar amJRavnebs; ver itans veranair SeZRudvebs, an rCevebs, Tu es mis survile bs ar eTanxmeba. zogjer Zalian jiuti da meryevi uamrav gegmebs awyobs da vidre m aT ganxorcielebas daiwyebs, ukve sxva gegmebze gadadis. Tavis travmamde. is cnob ili iyo, rogorc moxerxebuli da Wkviani biznesmeni, Zalian energiuli da Tanmimdev ruli sakuTari gegmebis aRsrulebaSi. am TvalsazrisiT, misi goneba radikalurad Sei cvala, imdenad cxadad, rom misi megobrebi erTxmad aRniSnavdnen, _ „es aRar iyo gei ji“ (gv. 339-340). geijis hipoTezebis kavSirebis travma moxda maSin, rodesac mecnierebi d a mxolod iwyebdnen Soris geijis istorias, Seqmnas tvinis funqciebsa Tumca

kompleqsur aravin dRemde qcevas arsebobis Sesaxeb. isurvebda SemorCa saxelganTqmulobis gaziarebas, misi SemTxveva

72 radganac is warmoadgens yvelaze ufro adreul dokumentirebul cnobas imis Sesaxeb, rom fsiqologiur procesebs tvinis cxovelqmedeba gansazRvravs. ratom aris TiToeuli CvenTagani unikaluri individi? fineas geijis istoriidan gamomdinare, pasuxs am kiTxvaze nawilobriv Tavis tvini da, ufro zogad ad, Tqveni biologiuri Taviseburebebi gansazRvravs. imis gagebaSi rom dagexmaroT, Tu ra gangansxvavebT Tqven garSemomyofTagan, Cven aRvwerT, ra rols TamaSobs mem kvidreobiToba Tqveni cxovrebis Camoyalibebisa da Tqveni tvinis formirebis saqmeS i. dafiqrdiT, _ qcevis ra SesaZleblobebi gaaCniaT adamianebs da rogor vlindeba e s SesaZleblobebi TiToeul CvenganSi? garkveulwilad wignis es Tavi Tqveni biologiu ri potencialis mniSvnelovani aspeqtis dadasturebas warmoadgens. Tqveni tvini sakmarisad kompleq suria imisaTvis, rom sakuTari funqciebis sistematuri kontroli da koordinireba ga naxorcielos. ratom aris is aseTi mniSvnelovani? adamianis tvins xSirad kompiuter s adareben. iwonis ra mxolod 1500 grams, Tqveni tvini met ujreds Seicavs, vidre varskvlavia Cvens galaqtikaSi – 100 miliardi ujredi, romelic erTmaneTTanaa dakavSi rebuli da informaciis gacvlasa da Senaxvas saocari efeqturobiT axerxebs. magram msoflioSi yvelaze ufro Zlieri kompiuteric ki ver SeZlebs im wesebis asaxvas, rom lebic mis sakuTar operaciebs gansazRvraven. ase rom Tqven nebismier kompiuterze bevrad ufro rTuli agebulebisa xarT; Tqveni cnobiereba saSualebas gaZlevT gansazRvroT is wesebi, romlebic Tqvens cxovelqmedebas uzrunvelyofen. kvleva, rom elsac Cven wignis am TavSi avRwerT, warmoiqmna adamianis survilidan, _ Seicnos sakuTari Tavi. bevri studentisaTvis es Tavi ufro did sirTu les warmoadgens, vidre mTeli am wignis darCenili nawili. is moiTxovs Tqvengan an atomiisa da mravali axali terminis swavlas, romelic TiTqos Zalian Sorsaa im informaciisagan, romelsac Tqven fsiqologiis Sesavlis kursSi moelodiT. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, Tqveni biologiuri bunebis gageba dagexmarebaT ufro kompleqsurad Sei grZnoT urTierTkavSiri tvins, gonebas, qcevasa da garemos Soris, romelic im gansa kuTrebul SegrZnebas gansazRvravs, rasac qvia iyo adamiani. am Tavis mizania, agi xsnaT, Tu rogor monawileobs biologia unikaluri individebis SeqmnaSi. am miznis m isaRwevad Cven jer avRwerT, rogor gansazRvravs evolucia da memkvidreobiToba Tqve ns biologiasa da qcevas; Semdeg vnaxavT, rogor gvexmareba laboratoriuli da klini kuri kvleva

73 tvinis, Semdgom nervuli da endokrinuli saintereso sistemebis kavSirebs muSaobis biologiur SeswavlaSi. funqciebsa amis da ganvixilavT cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas Soris. dabolos, Cven SeviswavliT individebs Soris gans xvavebas tvinsa da qcevas Soris kavSiris fonze. memkvidreobiToba da qceva pirvel TavSi Cven ganvsazRvreT, rom fsiqologiis erT-erTi umTavresi amocanaa, Seiswavlo s adamianis qcevis mravalferovnebis gamomwvevi mizezebi. am mizezebis dadgenaSi dagvexmareba kavSir-gansxvaveba iseT punqtebs Soris, rogoricaa buneba – aRzrda; me mkvidreobiToba – garemo. Tqven SegiZliaT warmoidginoT, rom individebi agresiulni a rian maTi biologiuri Taviseburebebis gamo. SesaZloa maT romelime mSoblisagan memkvidreobiT ergoT tend encia agresiulobisaken. alternatiuli variantia imis daSveba, rom yvela adamianSi xarisxi agresiuloba damokidebulia agresiul Tanabradaa im warmodgenili sadac es da misi gamomJRavnebis unda moepyros garemoze, – adamianebi Zalisxmeva aRizardnen. swori pasuxi am kiTxvaze Zireulad gansazRvravs imas, Tu rogor sazoga doeba individs moaxmaros garemos garkveuli pirobebisa Tu Tavad adamianebis Tvise bebis Secvlas. Tqven unda SegeZloT ganasxvavoT garemos gavlena memkvidreobiTobis agan. radganac garemoze dakvirveba pirdapir SeiZleba, ufro advilia imis dadgena, Tu rogor axdens is gavlenas adamianis qcevaze. magaliTad, Tqven SegiZliaT daakv irdeT mSoblis agresiul qcevas bavSvis mimarT da warmoidginoT, ra gavlenas moaxde ns es momavalSi bavSvis agresiulobaze; Tqven SegiZliaT daakvirdeT Warbdasaxlebul da Rarib garemocvas, romelSic bavSvebi izrdebian da dainteresdeT, SeuZlia Tu ar a am garemo pirobebs agresiuli qcevis gamowveva. biologiur TvaliT Zalebs, romleb ic qcevas qcevis gansazRvraven, SeuiaraRebeli verasdros davakvirdebiT. biologia rom ukeT gaiTavisoT, Cven daviwyebT zogierTi iseTi principis aRweriT, r omelic saxeobebis qcevis potenciur repertuars gansazRvravs (evoluciis Teoriis el

ementebi) da mere aRvwerT, Tu rogor gadaecema qceviTi variaciebi Taobidan Taobas . evolucia da bunebrivi gadarCeva 1831 samxreT wels Carlz darvini, gem romelmac Sesaswavlad. koleji Teologiis dros ganxriT darvini daamTavra, inglisidan amerikis „bigliT“ gaemgzavra xuTwlian eqspediciaSi sanapiros mogzaurobis

74 agrovebda yvelafers, rac ki mas gzad xvdeboda: _ zRvis cxovelebs, frinvelebs, mcenareebs, namarxebs, niJarebsa da qvebs. misi dakvirvebebis Sedege bi safuZvlad daedo wigns, romelic moicavda sakiTxebs dawyebuli geologiidan sayov elTaod zoologiisa gauTqva am da emociebis aris 1859 CaTvliT. wels wigni, romelma c mas saxeli, gamocemuli mecnierebis sicocxlis saxeobaTa erT-erTi evoluciis warmoSoba. Sesaxeb. naSromSi darvinma moZRvreba Camoayaliba dedamiwaze umniSvnelovanesi Teoria: _ bunebrivi gadarCeva darvinma Camoayaliba moZRvreba evoluciis Sesaxeb, romelSic mogzaurobis dros Segr ovili dakvirvebebis Sedegebi aisaxa. erT-erTi im mravalricxovan adgilTa Soris, r omelic „biglma“ moinaxula, iyo galapagosis kunZulebi – vulkanuri arqipelagi samxreT amerikis dasavleT sanapirosTa n. am kunZulebze uamravi cxoveli binadrobs, maT Soris amJamad darvinis skvinCad cnobili frinvelis 13 saxeoba. darvini dainteresda, Tu ratom arsebobda skvinCas a mdeni sxvadasxva saxeoba arqipelagze. cxadi iyo, rom isini kontinentidan ver gad movidodnen, radganac iq es saxeobebi ar binadrobdnen. man ivarauda, rom saxeobaT a es sxvadasxvaoba iyo Sedegi garkveuli procesisa, romelsac mogvianebiT bunebriv i gadarCeva uwoda. • bunebrivi gadarCeva – darvinis Teoriis mixedviT, saxeobis zogierTi warmomadgenlis ukeTesi Segueba garemosadmi, saSualebas aZlevs mas sxvasTan SedarebiT ufro warma tebulad gamravldes. darvinis Teoriis Tanaxmad, skvinCas yoveli saxeoba saerTo winaprisagan warmoiSva . Tavidan frinvelebis patara gundma daido bina kunZulebze; isini gamravldnen erT maneTTan Sejvarebis gziT. droTa ganmavlobaSi, zogierTi frinveli arqipelagis sxva

kunZulze gadavida. procesi, romelic Semdgom etapze ganviTarda, iyo bunebrivi ga darCeva. sakvebi resursebi da sacxovrebeli pirobebi – bunebrivi pirobebi – mniSvnelo vnad gansxvavdeba sxvadasxva kunZulze. zogan uxvadaa kenkra da Teslovani mcenare ebi, zogi kunZuli kaqtusebiTaa dafaruli, xolo sxvaze uamravi mweria. erTi Sexedv iT, populaciebi sxvadasxva kunZulze msgavsi iyo – magram yovel kunZulze frinvelebs Soris garkveuli araerTgvarovneba arsebobda. imis gamo, rom kunZulebze sakvebi r esursebis raodenoba SezRuduli iyo, skvinCebis gadarCenis Sansi izrdeboda, Tu maTi niskartis forma ukeT iyo misadagebuli am kun Zulze arsebuli sakvebis mopovebisaTvis. magaliTad, skvinCebi,

75 romlebic kenkriTa da Teslovani mcenareebiT mdidar kunZulebze binadrobdnen, gadarCebodnen, Tu msxvili niskarti hqondaT. frinvelebi wvrili, wawvetebuli niskartiT, romelic mouxerxebelia Teslis gatexvisa Tu gaxsnis aTvis, aseT kunZulebze iRupebodnen. yoveli kunZulis garemo pirobebi gansazRvravd a, da frinvelebis da sawyisi populaciidan romeli gadarCeboda gamravldeboda, romeli daiRupeboda STamomavlobis gareSe. droTa ganmavlobaSi aman gamoiwvia kunZulebze Zalian gansxvavebuli popula ciebis Camoyalibeba da xeli Seuwyo saerTo winaprisagan darvinis skvinCebis sxvad asxva saxeobebis ganviTarebas. zogadad, bunebrivi gadarCevis Teoria gulisxmobs, rom organizmi, romelic kargad aris Seguebuli bunebriv garemos, rogoric ar unda iyos igi, ufor m et STamomavlobas tovebs, vidre naklebad Seguebuli. drois ganmavlobaSi, organizme bi, romelTac gadarCenisaTvis saWiro niSan-Tvisebebi gaaCniaT, ricxobrivad imateb en imaTTan SedarebiT, romelTac es niSan-Tviseba ar aqvs. evoluciisaTvis individi s warmateba izomeba mis mier datovebuli STamomavlobis raodenobiT. Tanamedrove ga mokvlevebma aCvena, rom bunebriv gadarCevas mokle drois ganmavlobaSic ki dramatu li efeqtebis gamowveva SeuZlia. peter da rozmari grantebis mier (Grant & Grant, 1989; Grant, 1986; Weiner, 1994) kunZulze romlis darvinis skvinCebze seria, dros ac registrirebul iqna galapagosis iqna naleqebis arqipelagis gamokvlevaTa erT-erT Catarebul raodenoba, sakvebis miwodeba da frinvelebis populaciis zoma. 1976 wels populacia moicavda aTasze met skvinCas. momdevno wels gamanadgurebelma gvalvam mospo sakv ebis maragi. patara zomis Teslebi gamoifita, darCa mxolod didi da uxeSi. im wels frinvelTa populacia Semcirda 80%-ze metiT, TumcaRa

, unda aRiniSnos, rom patara niskartebis mqone mcire zomis skvinCebi ufro meti d aiRupa, vidre mozrdili zomis frinveli msxvili niskartiT. Sesabamisad, rogorc ama s darvini winaswarmetyvelebda, momdevno wels didi zomis frinvelTa raodenobam ima ta. ratom? imitom rom mxolod eseni, didi sxeulebiTa da msxvili niskartebiT iyvne n sakmarisad Zlierni imisaTvis, rom epasuxaT mcire gvalviT gamowveuli garemos cv lilebebisaTvis. mcire zomis sainteresoa, rom 1983 wels naleqebis raodenoba Warbi iyo da Teslebi, gansakuTrebiT zomis, uxvad ganviTarda. Sedegad, frinvelebma raodenobaSi ajobes didi zomis frinvelebs, imitom, rom maTi niskarteb i ukeT iyo morgebuli mcire zomis Teslebis mopovebisaTvis. peter

76 da rozmari grantebis kvlevam aCvena, rom bunebrivi gadarCeva mniSvnelovan efeqte bs drois mokle periodSic iZleva. dResac mkvlevaebi agrZeleben sxvadasxva saxeobe bis bunebriv gadarCevaze garemo pirobebis gavlenis Seswavlas, maT Soris evropul xilis buzze (Huey et al., 200) da Tevzebis sxvadasx va saxeobaze (Rundle et. al., 2000). genotipi da fenotipi skvinCebis populaciis zrda-Semcirebis magaliTi cxadyofs, Tu ratom uwodebda darvi ni evoluciis process ukeT Seguebulis gadarCenas. warmoidgineT, rom yoveli saxeobisaTvis nebismier garemoSi uamravi saarsebo sirTu le moiZebneba. saxeobis is warmomadgenlebi, romelTac garemosTan ukeT Sexamebuli fizikuri da fsiqologiuri atributebi gaaCniaT, ufro advilad gadarCebian. imis gaT valiswinebiT, rom am atributebis gadacema SesaZloa Taobidan TaobaSi (da garemoSi es sirTuleebi droTa ganmavlobaSi narCundeba), saxeobis evoluciis Sansi izrdeba. bunebrivi gadarCevis procesis detaluri Seswavlis mizniT, Cven unda SemovitanoT evoluciuri Teoriis mSoblebisgan memkvidreobiT ramdenime mniSvnelovani cneba. mod iT, anu genetikuri struqtura miiRo. SevCerdeT calkeul skvinCaze, kerZodDki im faqtze, rom am skvinCam misi genotipi, genotipi konkretuli garemos konteqstSi am genotipma gansazRvra skvinCas ganviTa reba da qceva. skvinCas garegnoba da misi qcevis repertuari ganixileba rogorc fe notipi. fenotipi Cveni skvinCas SemTxvevaSi genotipi gansazRvravs mocemul garemo pirobebTan erTad mokle niskartis fenotips; am niskartiT SesaZlebelia patara Tes lebis akrefa. yvela tipis Tesli mravlad rom yofiliyo, maSin am fenotips davuSveb T, SesaZlebeli, gadarCenisaTvis rom mxolod Cven araviTari mcire skvinCas mniSvne loba Teslebis niskartis eqneboda. mopoveba mqone magram Tu zomis msxvili yofiliy o skvinCebTan maSin SedarebiT seleqtiuri upiratesoba eqneboda. mxolod didi zomis Teslebis arsebobis pirobebSi iqneboda Cveni skvinCa araxelsayrel mdgomareobaSi. mxolod gadarCenil s kvinCebs SeuZliaT gamravleba. memkvidreobiT TavianTi genotipis gadacema SeuZliaT mxolod im cxovelebs, romlebic mravldeba. Se sabamisad, Tuki garemoSi mxood mcire zomis Teslebi moipoveba, mravali garemo Tao bis saxeobis Semdeg qcevis mxolod SesaZlo mcireniskartian repertuars. skvinCebs 3.1 miviRebT – Sesabamisad mxolod mcire zomis Teslebis mopovebis unariT. ase cvlis suraTi warmo gvidgens

77 bunebrivi gadarCevis gamartivebul models. Cven SegviZlia es idea adamianis evolu ciasac mivusadagoT. • genotipi – organizmis genetikuri struqtura, romelsac is mSoblebisagan memkvidreobi T iRebs. • fenotipi – organizmis xiluli niSan-Tvisebebi, romlebic misi genotipisa da garemos urTierTqmedebis Sedegad yalibdeba. adamianis evolucia Tuki gadavxedavT im garemoebebs, romlebSic adamianis saxeobis evolucia moxda, mi vxvdebiT, Tu ratom warmoadgenen garkveuli fizikuri da qceviTi Tvisebebi adamiani s saxeobis biologiuri kapitalis nawils. adamianis evoluciaSi bunebrivi gadarCevisTvis ori umTavresi Tviseba – bipedalizmi da encefal izacia – iyo gadamwyveti. orivem erTad ganapiroba kacobriobis civilizaciis warmoqm na. bipedalizmi niSnavs or fexze amarTulad siarulis unars, xolo encefalizacia – Ta vis tvinis zomis momatebas. Cvenma es ori adaptacia pasuxismgebelia adamianis ev oluciis umravles – Tu ara, yvela miRwevaze, kulturuli ganviTarebis CaTvliT. rodesa c winaprebma SeZles or fexze amarTuli siaruli, maT SeiZines garemos Seswavlisa d a axali resursebis eqspluataciis unari; Tavis tvinis zomis momatebasTan erTad ki maTi inteleqti gaumjobesda, maT SeiZines kompleqsuri azrovnebis, msjelobis, dam axsovrebisa da dagegmvis unari (Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom ufro da ra didi tvinis evolucia is ar warmoadgens ufro didi inteleqtis romelic garantias – mniSvnelovani iyo is, Tu ra tipis tvinis qsovili viTaredeboda adgils ikavebda tvinis farglebS i). genotipma, gansazRvravda Wkvian da mobilur fenotips, nel-nela gandevna naklebad warmatebula d adaptirebuli genotipebi adamianTa genuri fondidan, ramac gamravlebis unari ufr o Wkvian orfexa arsebebs misca. bipedalizmisa da encefalizaciis Semdeg, Cveni sa xeobis evoluciis gzaze yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani etapi iyo metyvelebis warmoqmn a (Bicketron, 1990; Holden, 1998). ifiqreT, ra SeguebiTi upiratesoba SeeZlo moet ana metyvelebis ganviTarebas adreuli periodis adamianebisaTvis. iaraRebis gakeTe bisaTvis saWiro martivi miTiTebebi, kargi sanadiro Tu saTevzao adgilebis povna d a saSiSroebis Tavidan acileba zogavda dros, Zalas da sicocxles. imis magier, rom yovel jerze Tavidan eswavlaT sakuTari gamocdilebidan cdisa da Secdomis meTodiT, adamianebma SeZles sxvaTa gamocdilebis gamoyeneba. saubari, iumoric ki, aZliere bda socialur kavSirebs bunebrivad isedac

78 sazogadoebrivi metyvelebis saxeobis wevrebs Soris. yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom SesaZlo gaxada dagrovili codnis warmoqmna-ganviTarebam gadacema Taobidan Taobaze. garemos gavlena (cvlilebebi garemoSi) konkurencia (resursebisaTvis) ukeT Seguebuli fenotipis SerCeva (mraval fenotips Soris) warmatebuli reproduqcia (Seguebuli fenotipis Sesabamisi genotipi gadaecema momde vno Taobas) am genotipis (da fenotipis) sixSire matulobs (momdevno TaobaSi) sur. 3.1. rogor muSaobs bunebrivi gadarCeva garemo pirobebis cvlileba ganapirobebs saxeobis wevrebs Soris konkurencias resursebisaTvis brZolaSi. mxolod im individebs, romelTac am cvlileb ebTan ukeT Seguebuli Tvisebebi gaaCniaT, eqnebaT gadarCenisa da gamravlebis Sans i. momdevno TaobaSi Seguebuli genetikuri struqturis mqone individTa raodenoba me ti iqneba. metyveleba tendecia, warmoadgens gziT kulturuli adapturad evoluciis upasuxos bazas garemos kulturebis cvlilebebs. daswavlis kulturulma evoluciam ganapiroba iaraRebis warmoebis warmateba, soflis meurneobis gaumjobeseba da industriisa da teqnologiebis ganviTareba da daxvewa. SeveguoT k

ulturuli garemo evolucia saSualebas cvlilebebs. gvaZlevs Zalian swrafad pirobebi s personaluri kompiuteris gamoyenebis Segueba, magaliTad, bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganviTarda. miuxedavad amisa, kulturuli evolucia ver iarsebebs genotipis gareSe,

79 romelic kodirebs daswavlisa da abstraqtuli azrovnebis unars. kultura – xelovnebis, literaturis, musikis, samecniero codnisa da filantropiuli aqtivobebis CaTvliT – S esaZloa mxolod adamianis genotipis potencialis gamo. adamianis genotipis cvaleba doba Tqven naxeT, rom adamianis evoluciis mag. dros upiratesoba da saziaro da biologiur potencials eniWwboda: bipedalizmi azrovnebisa metyvelebis unari. magram am saziaro potencialSic rCeba adgili sagrZnobi variaci ebisaTvis. Tqvenma ded-mamam gadmogcaT mxolod nawili imisa, rac maT mSoblebisgan , bebia-babuisagan da Tqveni ojaxis yvela sxva wina Taobisagan hqondaT mirebuli, ramac Sedegad mogvca Tqveni ganviTarebis unikaluri biologiuri gegma. memkvidreo biTobis (winaprebis fizikuri da fsiqologiuri niSan-Tvisebebis miRebas) meqanizmi s Semswavlel mecnierebas genetika ewodeba. genetikis safuZvlebi Tqveni yoveli ujredis birTvSi moTavsebulia mJava) genetikuri masala, romelsac dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis ewodeba. dnm organizebulia umcires nawilakebad, genebad genebis zusti raodenoba adamianis genomSi genebad. (genTa erToblioba) dRemde araa cnobili; asaxeleben ricxvs 30 000-dan 150 000-mde (Pennisi, 2000). genebi Seicaven cilebis sinTezisaTvis saWiro instruqciebs. es cilebi aregulireben sxeulSi mimdinare Zalas da bevr sxva qceviT Tvisebas. genebi moTavsebulia struqturebze, romelTac fiziologiur procesebs da ganapirobeben fenotipis eqspresias: _ sxeulis formas, fizikur qromosomebi ewodeba. Casaxvis momentSi Tqven iRebT mSoblebisagan 46 qromosomas – 23-s dedisgan da 23-s mamisgan. yoveli qromosoma aTasobiT gens Seicavs – spermisa da kvercxujredis Serwy ma Sedegad gvaZlevs genTa mravali milioni SesaZlo kombinaciidan mxolod erTs. sas qeso qromosomebi Seicaven informacias mamrisa Tu mdedris fizikuri ganviTarebis S esaxeb. Tqven iRebT X qromosomas dedisgan da X an Y qromosomas ganviTarebas, mam isgan. xolo XX XY kombinacia kombinacia ganapirobebs – mamrobiTi mdedrobiTi Tvisebebis Tvisebebis ganviTarebas. • memkvidreobiToba – niSan-Tvisebebis biologiuri gadacema mSoblebidan STamomavlobaze . • genetika – mecniereba winaprebisgan miRebuli fizikuri da fsiqologiuri Tvisebebis

memkvidreobiTobis Sesaxeb. • dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava) - genetikuri inform aciis gadacemis fizikuri baza. • geni – memkvidreobiTobis fizikuri erTeuli; qromosom ebis patara ubani, romelic pasuxismgebelia Tvisebebis gadacemaze.

80 miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqvens dedmamiSvilebTan Tqven daaxloebiT genTa 50% saerTo gaqvT, genTa Tqveni kombinacia absoluturad unikaluria, Tuki Tqven ar gyavT erTkv ercxiani tyupi. genebs Soris sxvaoba aris erT-erTi mizezi, Tu ratom gansxvavdebi T Tqven fizikurad da qceviTac Tqveni Zmebisa da debisagan. sxva mizezi ki isaa, rom Tqven ar cxovrobT absoluturad identur garemoSi. fsiqologiis mniSvnelovani mi zania, zemoqmedebis am or wyaros Soris wonasworobis (balansis) gageba. genebi da qceva Cven vnaxeT, rom evoluciurma procesma am SesaZlo fenotipSi. gaxada adamianis qce vis genotipSi garemosTan uamravi qmnis cvalebadobis cvalebadobas arseboba; adami anTa genotipTa urTierTqmedeba adamianTa genetikis sferoSi mkvlevrebi Tanabrad iyeneben genetikisa da fsiqologiis meTodeb s, raTa Seiswavlon mizezobrivi urTierTkavSiri niSan-TvisebaTa memkvidreobiTobasa da qcevas Soris (Maccoby, 2000; Plomin & Rende, 1991; Plomin et al., 1994). qceviTi genetikis logikis Sesaswavlad Cven unda aRvweroT saocari aRmoCena: _ Tqveni subieqturi kargad yofnis – bednierebis, romelsac Tqven Tqveni c xovrebis ganmavlobaSi ganicdiT – safuZvels, SesaZloa, genetikuri komponenti gansaz Rvravdes. saidan viciT bednierebis memkvidreobiToba bednierebis genetikuri kompo nentis Sesaswavlad mkvlevrebma gamoiyenes qceviTi genetikis klasikuri meTodi. ma T Seiswavles monozigoturi (genetikurad identuri) (MZ) da dizigoturi (e.w. fraternuli, anu sibsebis msgavsi ) (DZ) tyupebis mier sakuTari bednierebis Sefaseba. tyupebis

81 bednierebis done fasdeboda specialuri kiTxvariT, romelSic iyo aseTi tipis kiTxve bic, magaliTad, „sxvebTan SedarebiT, ramdenad bednieri xarT?“. mkvlevrebma Seiswavle s MZ da DZ pasuxebis ori seria, rodesac respondentebi Sesabamisad 20 da 30 wlisa iyvnen. maT Caatares e.w. jvaredini ana lizi (suraTi 3.2): _ 30 wlis respondentis gamonaTqvami Seadares misi tyupiscalis arsebobda tyupebSi gamonaTqvams DZ 20 wlis asakSi. pasuxebs gamoirkva, Soris. r om TiTqmis rodesac ar MZ korelacia pasuxebis tyupebis maSin 80%-is korelacia jvaredini analizis Sedegad dadasturda. mecnierebis warmodgeniT, es maRali korelacia SeiZleba aixsnas mxolod im daSvebiT, rom bednierebas genetikuri komponenti aqvs (Lykken & Tellegen, 199 6). arsebobs korelacia? 20 wlis „A“ tyupis bednierebis done 30 wlis „A“ tyupis bednierebis done „B“ tyupis bednierebis done „B“ tyupis bednierebis done sur. 3.2. bednierebis genetikuri safuZvlis Semswavleli cdis sqema mecnierebma Seiswavles korelacia erTi tyupis bednierebis doneebs Soris 20 da 30 wlis asakSi. xom ar gagikvirdaT, rom bednierebasac ki SesaZloa Zlieri genetikuri komponenti h qondes? Tqven, albaT, fiqrobT, rom bednierebas garemo ufro metad gansazRvravs. T qven romantiuli urTierToba gaqvT? ramdenad rTulia Tqveni swavlis procesi? romeli a Tqveni cxovrebis mTavari winaaRmdegobebi? mkvlevrebs miaCniaT, rom garemos ase Ti movlenebi iwvevs dabadebis dros miRebuli „bednierebis saSualo donis“ garkveul var iaciebs. analogiisaTvis. gaixseneT rogor muSaobs Termostati. davuSvaT, Tqven tem peratura daayeneT 20°C-ze; garemo garkveulad Secvlis am temperaturas, magram saSua lo maCvenebeli igive darCeba. bednierebis sakiTxis kvlevam aCvena, rom yovel Cvenga ns aqvs bednierebis donis raRac sawyisi maCvenebeli (analogiiT, mag., 10°C, 20°C, an 30°C), romelic narCundeba mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi

82 mimdinare movlenebis miuxedavad. magram aucilebelia, rom amas geni (an genebi) g ansazRvravdes? gaixseneT wignis meore Tavidan: _ „korelacia ar aris mizezobrioba“. g amocdilebam gamovlena. genomis SesaZloa, gansazRvros da aqvT rom individis genet ikurad qcevis sxva aspeqtebma, gviCvenebs, rom an rom ganpirobebuli magaliTi bednierebis identuri dizigoturi gavlena tyupebis elementebs bednierebaze. davuSvaT, Tqveni genetikuri memkvidreoba gansazRvravs, Tu rogor afasebT Tqven momxdar movlenebs – r om Tqveni da an Zma genetikurad ganwyobilia ufro metad daiTrgunos umniSvnelo pro blemebisagan. Tqven, SesaZloa, ufro bednieri iyoT, magram genetika gansazRvravs, Tavis saSualo Tu rogor axdenT Tqven samyaros interpretacias, bednierebaSi, pozitiuri da an, romelic, SesaZloa, mxriv, ganapirobebs gansxvavebebs balanss keTildReoba genebs warmoadgens Soris negatiuri emociebis gamomwvev (Hamer, 1996). rogori axsnac ar unda moiZebnos, erTi ram cxadia: mSoblebisagan miRebuli genebi ufro farTo gavlenas axdenen Tqvenze, vidre mxolod Tvalis ferisa Tu Tqveni simaRl is gansazRvraa. daimaxsovreT, rom genebSi Tqveni bedis kodi araa Cadebuli. is ro m Tqven maRali xarT, ar niSnavs, rom kalaTburTi unda iTamaSoT; is, rom Tqven qal i xarT, ar niSnavs, rom rom aucileblad eqspresia bavSvebi unda gaaCinoT. yovelTv is konteqstSia gaxsovdeT,

genotipis mxolod garkveul SesaZlebeli. fizikuri zoma, magaliTad, ganpirobebulia genetikuri masaliTa da kve bis racioniT erToblivad. fizikuri Zala rogorc mamakacebSi, ise qalebSi, SesaZloa , ganviTarebul iqnes specialuri savarjiSoebis meSveobiT. inteleqtualuri ganviTar eba ganpirobebulia rogorc genetikuri potencialiT, ise aRzrdis pirobebiT. verc marto genebi da verc marto garemo ver g ansazRvravs, vin xarT Tqven da ra pirovnebad CamoyalibdebiT. adamianis qcevis ge netikaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba individualuri gansxvavebebis warmoSobis Seswavlas eTmoba: _ individualuri genetikuri masalis r a faqtorebi gansazRvraven Tqveni azrovnebisa da qcevis maneras? sociobiologebi c diloben am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas qcevis farTo modiT speqtris fonze. es sfero Seiswavlis socialur qcevas da adamianebisa da sxva cxov elebis socialuri sistemebis evoluciur safuZvlebs. bednierebaSi ufro meti vigulis xmoT. Cven mxolod qceviTi genetikis kvleva aRvwereT, Seiswavlis, romelic magram bednierebis rogor sferoSi aixsnas individualur evoluciuri gansxvavebebs perspeqt ividan SeiZleba

83 adamianis saxeobis zogadi unari bednierebis gancdisa? basi (2000) uSvebs, rom ad amianTa garemoebebs miuxedavad bednierebaSi Soris imisa, garkveuli SezRudvebia „Ta namedrove (gv. 15). da Zvel arsebuli rom Seusabamobebis“ mcire gamo magaliTad, konteqstSi adamianebi zomis jgufebis ganviTardnen, bevri dRes did urbanul garemoSi cxovrobs, sadac didi raodenobiT uc xoebiT aris garemoculi. Cven aRar SegvrCa mWidro kavSirebi individTa im jgufebTa n, romelTanac saarsebo sivrces viyofT; kavSirebi, romlebic gvexmareba bednieri c xovrebis gancdaSi. ra SeiZleba gakeTdes? miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqven ar SegiZlia T ukan daabrunoT am cvlilebebis gamomwvevi kulturuli evolucia, Tqven SegiZliaT a rsebuli viTarebis kompensireba Tqvens ojaxTan da megobrebTan mWidro kavSirebis damyarebiT (Buss, 2 000). Sejameba saxeobebi gadarCevis warmoiqmneba Sedegad, da icvleba drois ganmavlobaS i unars bunebrivi sxvadasxva Soris romelic warmoadgens organizmis da intensivobiT gamravldes fenotipuri Tvisebebisa garemos urTierTqmedebis gamo. adamianis evoluciaSi ori umTavresi Segueba iyo bipedalizmi da encefalizacia. metyvelebis ganviTarebam SesaZlo gaxada swrafi kulturuli evol ucia. adamianis qceviTi genetikis mkvlevrebi Seiswavlian kavSirs memkvidreobiT m iRebul genebsa da qcevas Soris. sociobiologebi iyeneben evoluciur midgomas saxeobebis socialuri qcevis gagebisaTvis. biologia da qceva modiT, axla Cveni yuradReba mivapyroT adamianis genotipis mniSvnelovan produqts: im biologi ur sistemebs, romelTa meSveobiTac azrovnebisa da qcevis rols mTel speqtrs vaxorc ielebT. sistemebi bevrad ufro adre darvinis tvinis mogzaurobamde, mecnierebi, fi losofosebi da sxvebi msjelobdnen, Tu ra asruleben biologiuri yoveldRiur cxovreba Si. Seswavlis istoriaSi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi figura iyo rene dekarti (1596-1650 ), romelmac SemogvTavaza imdroisaTvis Zalzed radikaluri idea: _ adamianis sxeuli aris „cxoveluri manqana“, romelic SeiZleba mecnierulad SeviswavloT –empiriuli dakvirv ebis gziT bunebrivi kanonebis aRmoCenios meSveobiT. dekarti Tvlida, rom adamiani s qmedeba aris meqanikuri refleqsi

84 garemos mxridan stimulaciis sapasuxod. man ivarauda, rom fizikuri energia aagzne bs grZnobis organos. stimulirebis Semdeg grZnobis organo gadascems tvins agzneba s „cxoveluri sulis“ meSveobiT; tvini, Tavis mxriv, gadascems cxovelur suls kunTebis Sesabamis jgufs, romlebic moZraobiT refleqsur pasuxs axorcieleben. refleqsis dek artiseul cnebas mecnieruli dasabuTeba ar hqonda 1906 wlamde, rodesac ser Carlz S eringtonma aRmoaCina, rom refleqsebis safuZvels warmoadgenen pirdapiri kavSirebi sensorul da motorul nervul boWkoebs Soris zurgis tvinis doneze. Seringtonma wam oayena idea, rom nervuli sistema rogorc amagznebel (nervuli aqtivobis gaZliereba ), ise Semakavebel (nervuli aqtivobis Semcireba) procesebs moicavs. me-20 saukun is dasawyisamde mecnierebma araferi icodnen nervuli sistemis struqturuli erTeuli s, neironis Sesaxeb. santiago ramon kaxali iyo pirveli, vinc aRmoaCina fizikuri zRvari mezobel neironebs Soris da ganaviTara Teoria neironebs Soris informaciis gadacemis Sesaxeb. ormocdaaTi wlis Semdeg, eleqtronuli mikros kopis gamoyenebam daadastura misi ideebi. 1948 wels donald hebma ivarauda, rom t vini ara mxolod nervuli qsovilis masaa, aramed integrirebuli struqturebis, e.w. „u jreduli ansamblebis“ erTobliobaa, romlebic specifikur funqciebs asruleben. dekarti s Semdeg moxseniebuli mkvlevrebi Tavs neiromecnierebs uwodeben. dRes, neiromecni ereba kvlevis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro swrafad ganviTarebadi sferoa. mniSvnelovani aRmoCenebi gamaognebeli regularobiT xdeba. neiromecnierebis Sesaxeb Cveni saubar i daiwyeba im teqnikuri meTodebis aRweriT, romlebac mkvlevrebi axali aRmoCenebis aTvis iyeneben. Semdeg gavecnobiT nervuli sistemis zogad struqturas, romelsac tv inis ufro detaluri Seswavla mosdevs. dabolos, Cven gavecnobiT endokrinuli sistem is moqmedebas – meore makontrolebeli biologiuri sistema, romelic nervul sistemasTa n erTad muSaobs. • neiromecniereba – moZRvreba nervuli sistemisa da qcevaze misi gavlenis Sesaxeb. movusminoT tvins neiromecnierebi cdiloben sxvadasxva meTodebis meSveobiT Seiswav lon tvinis muSaoba – dawyebuli operaciebiT did, TvalisaTvis dasanax struqturebze damTavrebuli ujredebiT, romelTa danaxva mxolod Zlieri

85 mikroskopis qveSaa SesaZlebeli. mkvlevrebis mier gamoyenebul teqnikas analizis garkveuli done Seesabameba. aq Cven ganvixilavT yvelaze ufro xSirad gam oyenebad meTodebs, romlebic Tavis tvinis ubnebis funqciebisa Tu qcevis gansazRvr isaTvisaa saWiro. intervencia tvinSi mravali kvleviTi meTodi neiromecnierebaSi gulisxmobs tvinSi pirdapir intervencia s. es meTodebi istoriul sawyiss fineas geijis SemTxvevidan iReben, romliTac Cven wignis es Tavi daviwyeT. geijis Tavis tvinis dazianebis Semdeg qcevis dramatulma cvlilebebma eqimebs afiqrebina, rom tvini wa rmoadgens racionaluri qcevisa da pirovnuli Tvisebebis safuZvels. TiTqmis imave p eriodSi, rodesac geiji travmis Semdeg mdgomareobidan gamodioda, pol broka swavlobda tvinis rols metyvelebaSi. misi pirveli kvleva am sferoSi warmoadgenda adamianis autofsias, romelsac Searqves „tan“ im erTaderTi sityv is mixedviT, romlis warmoTqmac mas SeeZlo. brokam naxa, rom „tanis“ tvinis Sublis ma rcxena ubani Zlier dazianebuli iyo. am aRmoCenam ubiZga brokas Seeswavla im paci entebis tvini, romelTac metyvelebis moSliloba hqondaT. yvela SemTxvevaSi broka p oulobda msgavs dazianebas Tanamedrove tvinis igive ubanSi, kvlavac romelsac cdil oben exla ipovon brokas are ewodeba. qcevis mkvlevrebi Sesabamisoba cvlilebebsa da tvinis dazianebas Soris. SemTxveviT dazianebuli tvinis SeswavlaSi garkveul problemas warmoadgens is, rom mecnierebs ar SeuZliaT Tavad gansazRvron dazianebis ubani da zoma. tvinis safuZvliani Seswavlisa da qceviT Tu kognitur funqciebs Soris kavSi rebis dadgenis mizniT mecnierebs sWirdebaT meTodebi, romlebic maT tvinis daziane buli qsovilis zusti specifikaciis saSualebas miscems. mkvlevrebma ganaviTares me Todebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SesaZloa zustad gansazRvruli dazianebebis gamowveva . maT SeuZliaT, magaliTad, tvinis gansazRvruli ubnebis mocileba, am ubnebis neironuli kavSirebis gadaWra, a n am ubnebis dazianeba sicxis, sicivisa Tu eleqtrobis gamoyenebiT. rogorc, albaT , mixvdiT, tvinis eqsperimentuli dazianeba mxolod sacdel cxovelebze, umkacres Se icvala, da ara adamianebze, eqvemdebareba). mecnierebma xorcieldeba tvinis Seada res (gaixseneT gageba Cveni diskusia wignis meore TavSi, rom aseTi tipis cxoveluri eqsperimentebis eTika amJamad kont rols rodesac Cveneuli da radikalurad cxovelebze Seiswavles dazianebiTi cdebis Sedegebi adamianebis klinikuri monacemebis Sedegebs.

86 garkveul pirobebSi mecnierebs SeuZliaT tvinis funqciebis Seswavla misi ubnebis p irdapiri stimulaciis meSveobiT. magaliTad, 50-ian wlebSi, valter hesi iyo tvinis Rrma struqturebis eleqtruli stimulaciis pioneri. man Canerga eleqtrodebi Tavisu flad moZravi katis tvinSi. Rilakze TiTis daWeriT mas SeeZlo Canergil eleqtrodSi eleqtruli muxtis gamowveva. hesma daaxloebiT 500 kataze detalurad Seiswavla tvin is 4500 ubnis eleqtruli stimulaciis Sedegebi da aRmoaCina, rom eleqtrodis lokali zaciis mixedviT SesaZlebeli iyo Rilakze TiTis daWeriT Zilis, sqesobrivi aqtivobi s, SiSisa Tu SfoTvis gamowveva an, Sesabamisad, gamorTva. magaliTad, tvinis gansazRvruli regionebis eleqtruli stimulacia iwvevda mSvidi katebis agresiulobas . • • brokas are – Tavis tvinis ubani, romelic azrebs metyvelebasa da/an JestebSi gardaq mnis. dazianeba – tvinis qsovilis daSaveba. tvinis aqtivobis registracia da warmosaxva sxva neiromecnierebi tvinis tvinis funqciebis aqtivobis kartirebas axdenen gareS e stimulaciaze eleqtruli eleqtrodebiT registraciis meSveobiT. tvinis eleqtruli aqtivoba SesaZloa sxvadasxva sizustiT iqnes Seswavli li. yvelaze ufro specifikur doneze mkvlevrebi tvinSi ultramgrZnobiare mikroeleqt rodebs aTavseben misi calkeuli ujredebis eleqtruli aqtivobis Caweris mizniT. ase Ti registracia garemo naTels hfens individualuri sapasuxod. neironis aqtivobis cvlilebebs stimulaciaze adamianebisaTvis mecnierebi xSirad iyeneben sxva tipis eleqtrodebs. maT Tavis ze dapirze aTavseben didi, integrirebuli eleqtruli aqtivobis registraciis mizniT. a m eleqtrodebiT iwereba eleqtroencefalograma (eeg), anu tvinis aqtivobis gaZliere buli Canaweri. eeg-s iyeneben fsiqologiur aqtivobasa da tvinis pasuxebs Soris ka vSiris dasadgenad. magaliTad, erT eqsperimentSi pacients warmoudgenen saxeebis s erias da sTxoven maT damaxsovrebas. eeg-ze aRiniSneba am dros tvinis specifikuri aqtivoba (Sommer et al., 1995). yvelaze ufro SesaniSnavia is teqnikuri meTodebi, romlebic Tavdapirvelad neiroqirurgebisaTvis iyo SemuSavebuli insultisa Tu sxva daavadebeb is mkurnalobaSi daxmarebis mizniT. es mowyobilobebi cocxal, aqtiur tvins aCveneb en invaziuri procesebis gareSe, rac qsovilis dazianebis

87 risks mniSvnelovnad misi amcirebs. Tu tvinis warmosaxva Zalian imedismomcemi SeswavlisaTvis meTodia normaluri paTologiuri funqciebis (Barinaga, 1997; Posner, 1993). pozitronul-emisiuri tomografiis (anu PET-skani) gamoyenebis dros cdis pirs Seuyvanen radiaqtiur (magram ara mavne) substanciebs, romlebic tvins aRweven da garkveuli Camweri ujredebis am mier STainTqmebian. af iqsireben Tavis gareT moTavsebuli xelsawyoebi dros radiaqtiurad moniSnul ujredebs, romlebic sxvadasxva kognitiuri Tu qceviTi aqtivobis drosaa aq tiuri. es infromacia gadaecema kompiuters, romelSidac tvinis dinamiuri ruqa dgeb a da romelic uCvenebs, Tu sad mimdinareobs fiziologiuri aqtivobis sxvadasxva tipi. magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia (MRI) iy enebs magnitur velebs da radiotalRebs tvinis SigniT energiis pulsebis warmoqmnisaTvis. radganac pulsebi s xvadasxva sixSiriTaa dayenebuli, zogi atomi magnituri velis paralelurad vibrireb as ganTavsdeba. rodesac magniuri pulsi iTiSeba, atomebi gamo. (rezonirebas) iwye ben sawyis mdgomareobaSi dabrunebis specialuri radio iWers am signalebs da gadaaqvs informacia kompiuterSi, romelic meSveobiT gviCvenebs sxvadasxva atomebis lokalizacias tvinSi. suraTis mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT tvinis struqturebis

dakavSireba fiziologiur procesebTan. MRI anatomiuri detalebis warmosaxvisTvisaa gamosadegi; PET-skani ufro detalur informacias gvawvdis funqciis Sesaxeb. arsebobs axali meT odi, e.w. funqciuri mrt, anu fMRI, romelic iTavsebs orive meTodis upiratesobas t vinSi sisxlis mimoqcevis magnituri cvlilebebis registraciis meSveobiT. fMRI saSu alebas iZleva ufro zustad SeviswavloT struqtura da funqcia. mkvlevrebi iyeneben fMRI-s iseTi kognitiuri funqciebis Seswavlisas, rogoricaa: _ yuradReba, aRqma, metyveleba da mexsiereba (Cabeza & Nyberg, 2000). • • eleqtroencefalograma (eeg) – tvinis eleqtruli aqtivobis registracia. PET-skani – tvi nis suraTebi, romlebic sxvadasxva kognitiuri Tu qceviTi aqtivobis dros cocxali • t vinis aqtivobas uCveneben ujredebis mier STanTqmuli radioaqtivobis dafiqsirebis meSveobiT. magnitur(MRI) – tvinis suraTebis magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia ( ) ma gnitur velebsa da radiotalRebs iyenebs. Seqmnis meTodi, romelic

88 300 welze metma ganvlo mas Semdeg, rac dekartma daiwyo tvinis Seswavla; 100 weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac brokam daadgina, rom tvinis garkveuli ubnebi specifikur funqciebs asruleben. am aRmoCenebis Semdeg kulturulma evoluciam saSualeba misca mkvlevrebs wignis am gamoiyenon Tavis teqnologia nawili tvinis tvinis saidumloeb ebis Sesaswavlad. darCenili saidumloebebs eZRvneba. nervuli sistema nervuli ujredisagan, sxeulSia sistema ga bneuli. Sedgeba da nervuli miliardobiT nervuli sistema iyofa specializebuli roml ebic or mTavar nervuli mTels _ neironisgan boWkoebisagan, nawilad: centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) da periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns). cns Sedge ba Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan, xolo pns – im neironebisagan, romlebic qmnian nerv ebs da akavSireben cns-s sxeulTan. suraTi 3.3 warmoadgens kavSirs cns-sa da pns-s Soris. • • • magni funqciuri magnitur rezonansuli tomografia ( tomografia (fMRI) – meTodi, rome lic aerTianebs PET ) skanisa da mrt-s upiratesobebs da aRricxavs tvinis sisxlis mimoqcevis magnitur cvilebebs. centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) – nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan Sedgeba. nervuli periferiuli nervul i sistema (pns) – nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic spinaluri da kranialuri nervebi sagan Sedgeba, romelTa meSveobiTac xorcieldeba kavSiri cns-sa da sensorul recept orebs, kunTebsa da jirkvlebs Soris. cns-is amocanaa sxeulis yvela funqciis integrireba da koordinireba, Semosuli ner vuli informaciis gadamuSaveba da sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilebSi pasuxebis gagzavna. cns iRebs da agzavnis nervul informacias zurgis tv inis (nervuli mili, romelic Tavis tvins pns-Tan akavSirebs) saSualebiT. Tavad es nervuli mili moTavsebulia xerxemlis arxSi. spinaluri nervebi gamodis zurgis tvi nidan xerxemlis malTa wyvilebs Soris da ukavSirdeba mTel sxeulSi gabneul sensoru l receptorebs, kunTebsa da jirkvlebs. zurgis tvini aregulirebs kontrolSi sxeulis Tavis marcxena araa da marjvena mag., nawilebis aqtivobas da pasuxismgebelia im martivi, swrafi refleqsebis ganxorcielebaze, romelTa tvini CarTuli.

89 organizms, romlis zurgisa da Tavis tvinebi gancalkevebulia, SeuZlia mtkivneul ga maRizianebelze sapasuxod kiduris ganrideba. miuxedavad imisa, rom intaqturi Tavi s tvini Cveulebriv pirobebSi informirebuli iqneboda am qmedebis Sesaxeb, organiz ms am reaqciis ganxorcieleba misi Carevis gareSec SeuZlia. zurgis tvinis nervebi s dazianeba iwvevs sxeulisa da qveda kidurebis damblas, rogorc es naCvenebia paraplegiur pacientebSi. damblis gavrcel eba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra doneze moxda zurgis tvinis dazianeba: zeda segmen tebis dazianeba ufro farTo damblas iwvevs. miuxedavad Tavisi mmarTvelobiTi funqc iisa, cns-s ar aqvs uSualo kontaqti gare samyarosTan. es pns-is funqciaa, miawodos mas informacia sensoruli receptorebis saSualebiT, magaliTad, Tvalebisa da yurebidan da aseve gaataros cn s-is brZanebebi kunTebisa da sxeulis sxva organoebisaken. pns ZiriTadad boWkoTa ori tipisagan Sedgeba. somaturi nervuli sistema aregulirebs sxeulis ConCxis kunT ebis moqmedebas. mag. warmoidgineT rom beWdavT werils. Tqveni Tu ra TiTebis Tqva T, moZraoba Tavis kompiuteris roca tvini klaviaturaze Tqven iRebT brZanebas regu lirdeba somaturi nervuli sistemis Tqveni meSveobiT. gadawyvetilebas, agzavnis TiTebisaken, daaWiron Sesabamis Rilaks. amavdroulad TiTebidan Tavis tvinSi ukuka vSiris saSualebiT igzavneba informacia maTi moZraobisa da poziciis Sesaxeb. Tuki Tqven araswor Rilaks daaWireT TiTi, somaturi nervuli sistema atyobinebs amis Se saxeb Tavis tvins, romelic Sesabamis koreqcias ganaxorcielebs da Tqven myisierad waSliT Secdomas da daaWerT TiTs swor Rilaks. pns-is meore nawilia avtonomiuri n ervuli sistema (ans), romelic ZiriTad sasicocxlo procesebs awesrigebs. es sistem a 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi muSaobs, aregulirebs ra sxeulis iseT funqciebs, romlebi c Cveulebriv nebiT kontrols ar eqvemdebareba, mag. sunTqva, saWmlis moneleba da agzneba. ans maSinac muSaobs, rodesac Tqven gZinavT; is uzrunvelyofs sasicocxlo funqciebis ganxorcielebas anesTeziisa da xangrZlivi komis drosac. • • somaturi nervuli sistema – periferiuli nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic akavSirebs centralur nervul sistemas kansa da ConCxis kunTebTan. avtonomiuri nervuli siste ma (ans) – periferiuli nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic akavSirebs centralur nervu l sistemas gluv da gulis kunTebTan da jirkvlebTan da aregulirebs sxeulis uneblie motorul pasuxebs.

90 nervuli sistema centraluri nervuli sistema (Tavisa da zurgis tvini) periferiuli nervuli sistema (nervuli qsovili Tavisa da zurgis tvinis farglebs ga reT) somaturi nervuli sistema (sensoruli da motoruli nervebi, nebiTi) avtonomiuri nervuli sistema (Sinagani sistemebi, uneblie) simpaTikuri nawili parasimpaTikuri nawili sur. 3.3. adamianis nervuli sistemis ierarqiuli agebuleba centraluri nervuli sistema Sedgeba Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan. periferiuli nervuli sistema funqciis mixedviT or nawilad iyofa: _ somaturi nervu li sistema akontrolebs nebiT moZraobebs, xolo avtonomiuri nervuli sistema – Sida p rocesebs. avtonomiuri nervuli sistema aseve or nawilad iyofa: _ simpaTikuri nerv uli sistema aregulirebs qcevas kritikul, daZabul situaciebSi, xolo parasimpaTiku ri sistema akontrolebs qcevas Cveulebriv pirobebSi. avtonomiuri nervuli sistema aregulirebs ori tipis reaqciebs: _ organizmis reaqciebs safrTxeze da organizmis cxovelqmedebas Cveulebriv pirobebSi . am funqciebis ganxorcielebisaTvis avtonomiuri nervuli sistema kidev or nawilad iyofa: _ simpaTikuri da parasimpaTikuri nawilebi. es ganyofilebebi nawili paras impaTikuri mdgomareobaSi. amzadebs tvins urTierTsawinaaRmdego organizmis sxeulis Sida sistema ki funqciebs reaqciebs funqciebs SeiZleba asruleben. daZabul ganxi lul wydeba, simpaTikuri situaciebSi, mSvid rogorc Sida da iqnes, aregulirebs akontrolebs simpaTikuri daZabuli mdgomareobebis momgvarebeli – safrTxis, an stresis dros is „brZolisaTvis“. ma tulobs. saWmlis moneleba sisxli organoebidan guliscemis kunTebisaken sixSire naw ildeba, Jangbadis mowodeba gavlis Zlierdeba safrTxis

Semdeg erTveba

91 parasimpaTikuri sistema, raTa ganmuxtos procesebi da organizmi wynardeba. saWmli s moneleba aRdgeba, guliscema wynardeba, da sunTqva ufro mSviddeba. parasimpaTik uri mdgomareobis nawili pasuxismgebelia rogoricaa organizmis danaxarjis Cveulebr ivi gabaTileba, koordinirebaze, ZalTa vizualuri sistemis dacva (cremlisa da gugis Seviwroebis meSveobiT) da sxeulis en ergiis xangrZlivi Senaxva. simpaTikuri da parasimpaTikuri sistemebis gansxvavebuli funqciebi meoTxe suraTzea (3.7) asaxuli. (7 sur. 3.4 (7 ). avtonomiuri nervuli sistema parasimpaTikuri nervuli sistema, romelic organizmis yoveldRiur Sida reaqciebsa d a qcevas aregulirebs, marcxena mxarezea gamosaxuli; simpaTikuri nervuli sistema, romelic igive funqciebs stresis dros axorcielebs, naCvenebia marjvena mxareze. miaqcieT yuradReba imas, rom simpaTikuri nervuli sistema zurgis tvinis siaxloves nervuli kvanZebis erTobliobas, e.w. simpaTikur vels qmnis. Tavis tvinis struqturebi da maTi funqciebi Tavis tvini centraluri nervuli sistem is yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani nawilia. adamianis Tavis tvini sami urTierTdakavSi rebuli Srisagan Sedgeba. yvelaze ufro Rrmad regionSi, romelsac tvinis Rero ewode ba, moTavsebulia iseT avtonomiur procesTa maregulirebeli centrebi, rogoricaa gul iscema, sunTqva, ylapva da saWmlis moneleba. centralur Sres qmnis limburi sistem a, romelic CarTulia motivaciis, emociisa da mexsierebis procesebis ganxorcielebasa da kontrolSi. am or regions gars ekvris cerebrumi – didi tvini. tv inis swored es nawili ganagebs adamianis gonebas. didi tvini, da misi gare Sre, qerqi (korteqsi) axdens sensoruli informaciis integrirebas, koordinacias uwevs m oZraobas da axorcielebs abstraqtul azrovnebasa da msjelobas (suraTi 3.5 3.8) axl a ufro guldasmiT gavecnoT Tavis tvinis am sami ganyofilebis funqciebs. daviwyoT tvinis ReroTi, TalamusiTa da naTxemiT. sur. 3.5. Tavis trvinis struqturebi Tavis tvinis ZiriTadi urTierTdakavSirebuli nawilebia tvinis Rero, naTxemi, limbu ri sistema da didi tvinis qerqi. tvinis Rero, Talamusi da naTxemi

92 tvinis Rero yvela xerxemlian cxovels gaaCnia. misi struqturebi aregulirebs sxeulis Sinagan mdgomareobas (suraTi 3.6 3.9). zurgis tvinis zeda sa zRvarze moTavsebuli mogrZo tvini warmoadgens sunTqvis, sisxlis wnevisa aRmavali da guliscemis da tvinidan centrs. radganac es procesebi boWkoebi sicocxlisaTvis mogrZo tvinSi aucilebelia, mogrZo tvinis dazianeba SeiZleba fataluri iyos. sxeul idan daRmavali nervuli jvaredindeba, rac imas niSnavs, rom sxeulis marcxena nawilis kontrols tvinis mar jvena mxare axorcielebs da piriqiT, sxeulis marjvena nawili tvinis marcxena nawi lTanaa dakavSirebuli. sur. 3.6. tvinis Rero, Talamusi da naTxemi es struqturebi ZiriTadi sasicocxlo procesebis regulaciaSia CarTuli: _ sunTqva, p ulsi, agzneba, moZraoba, wonasworoba da sensoruli informaciis pirveladi gadamuSa veba. uSualod mogrZo tvinis Tavze moTavsebulia xidi, romelic agzavnis informacias tvin is Reros sxva struqturebSi da naTxemSi (misi saxeli swored am funqcias ukavSirde ba). retikuluri (badebrivi) formacia warmoadgens nervebis xSir qsels, romelic tvinis Reros darajis funqcias asrulebs. is ganapirobebs didi tvinis qerqis mzaobas, miiRos axali stimulacia da Zilis drosac inarCunebs sifxizlis garkveul dones (Kinomura et al., 1996). am ubnis seriozuli dazianeba komas iwvevs. retikuluri formaciis grZeli b oWkoebi Talamuss ukavSirdeba, romelsac Semosuli sensoruli informacia didi tvinis qerqis Sesabamis ubanSi gadaaqvs, sadac es informacia muSavdeba. magaliTad, Talamusi gadascems informaci as Tvalebidan mxedvelobis kortikalur ubans. neiromecnierTaTvis didi xania cnobil ia, rom naTxemi, romelic tvinis RerosTanaa dakavSirebuli da tvinis fuZesTan mdeb areobs, koordinirebas uwevs sxeulis moZraobas, akontrolebs pozas da xels uwyobs wonasworobis SenarCunebas. naTxemis dazianeba iwvevs moZraobis Cveuli ritmis dar Rvevas, is arakoordinirebuli da wyvetili xdeba. bolo drois gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom naTxemi aseve mniSvnelovania daswavlisaTvis anu is xels uwyobs sxeulis moZraobis kontrolis swavlas (Baringa, 1996; Raymond et al., 1996). limburi sistema limburi sistema akontrolebs motivirebul qcevas, emociur mdgomareobasa da mexsier ebas. is aseve aregulirebs sxeulis temperaturas, sisxlis wnevas

93 da sisxlSi Saqris dones da, aseve, axorcielebs sxva Sinagan funqciaTa kontrols. limburi sistema Sedgeba sami struqturisagan: _ hipokampi,

amigdala (nuSisebri kompleqsi) da hipoTalamusi (suraTi 3.7 3.10). • • • • • • simpaTikuri sistema – avtonomiuri nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic sagangaSo si ciaSi energiis mobilizacias axorcielebs. parasimpaTikuri sistema – avtonomiuri ner vuli sistemis nawili, romelic yoveldRiur funqciebs asrulebs da inaxavs sxeulis e nergias. tvinis Rero – Tavis tvinis struqtura, romelic aregulirebs sxeulis ZiriTad sasicocxlo funqciebs. mogrZo tvini – tvinis Reros ubani, romelic akontrolebs sunT qvas, sifxizles da guliscemas. xidi – tvinis Reros ubani, romelic akavSirebs zurgisa da Tavis tvins, aseve Tavis tvinis sxvadasxva nawilebs. retikuluri formacia – tvinis Reros ubani, romelic gansazRvravs Tavis tvinis mzaobas miiRos sensoruli informacia da pasuxis mgebelia cnobierebis SenarCunebasa da gamofxizlebaze. sur. 3.7. limburi sistema limburi sistemis struqturebi mxolod ZuZumwovrebSia warmodgenili; isini monawileo ben motivaciuri qcevis, emociuri mdgomareobisa da mexsierebis procesebis regulac iaSi. hipokampi, romelic limburi sistemis yvelaze ufro didi struqturaa, mniSvnelovan r ols TamaSobs eqsplicituri mexsierebis procesebSi (Eichenbaum, 1999; Squire, 1992) – mexsierebis, romelic Tqvens cnobierebaSi aisaxeba (ix. Tavi 8). arsebobs uamravi klinikuri monacemi, romelic am Sexeduleb as adasturebs, kerZod fsiqologiis istoriaSi, albaT, yvelaze ufro cnobili pacient is, h.m-is istoria. saidan viciT hipokampis dazianebis zogierTi Sedegi 27 wlis a sakSi h.m.-s Cautarda operacia epilefsiuri Setevebis sixSiris Semcirebis mizniT. operaciis dros mas hipokampi amokveTes. Sedegad, h.m.-s SeeZlo mxolod Soreuli w arsulis gaxseneba. man dakarga axali informaciis Senaxvisa da misi grZelvadian m exsierebaSi gadatanis unari. operaciidan

94 didi xnis Semdegac ki pacients egona, rom jer kidev 1953 weli iyo, weliwadi, rod esac mas operacia Cautarda. hipokampis dazianebam, meore mxriv, ar gamoiwvia imp licituri mexsierebis darRveva, anu h.m-s SenarCunebuli hqonda axali unar-Cvevebi s gamomuSavebis unari, romlebic cnobierebasTan ar iyo dakavSirebuli. e.i., hipok ampis dazianebis Semdeg Tqven SeinarCunebT axali amocanebis gadawyvetis unars, magram ar geqnebaT amis damaxsovrebis SesaZlebloba (ix. Tavi 8). nuSisebri SeiZleba kom pleqsi monawileobs emociebis kontrolSi (Cven da emociuri mexsierebis formirebaSi. makontrolebeli funqciis gamo, am ubnis dazianebam agres iuli pirebis dawynareba gamoiwvios ganvixilavT fsiqoqirurgias me-16 TavSi). garda amisa, nuSisebri kompleqsis dazianebis Sedega d ikargeba saxis emociuri gamometyvelebis amocnobis unari (Adolphs et al., 1994) . im pirebSi, romlebsac mkvlevrebi rols nuSisebri kompleqsi aqvT rom dazianebuli , kompleqsi SiSisa da yvelaze ufro metad daqveiTebulia uaryofiTi emociebis, gansakuTrebiT ki, SiSis ga moxatuleba. varaudoben, TamaSobdes nuSisebri mier SesaZloa gansakuTrebul adamianebis safrTxis amocnobis unarSi (Adolphs et al., 1999). hipoTalamusi tvinis erT-erTi y velaze ufro patara zomis struqturaa, TumcaRa umniSvnelovanes rols TamaSobs Tqven s yoveldRiur aqtivobebSi. is Sedgeba mravali birTvisagan _ neironTa patara grove bi, romlebic motivaciur qcevaSi CarTul fiziologiur procesebs aregulirebs (kveba, temperaturis regulireba da sqesobrivi qceva). hipoTalamusi inarCunebs sxeulis Sida aris mudmivobas, anu homeostazs. rodesac sxeulis energiis rezervebi dabalia, hipoTalamusi erTveba organizmis stimulaciaSi, raTa man sakvebi ipovos da Wamos. rodesac sxeulis temperatura klebulobs, hipoTalamusi iwvevs sisxlZarRvTa SekumSvas, an mokle uneblie moZraobebs – TrTolas. hipoTalamusi aseve aregulirebs endokrinuli sistemis moqmedebas. didi tvini adamianebSi didi tvini faravs tvinis darCenil nawils da misi masis or mesameds q mnis. misi funqciaa didi tvinis tvinis umaRlesi gare fena, kognituri romelic da emociuri funqciebis regulireba. miliardobiT neironebisgan Sedgeba da daaxloebiT 2,5 mm sisqis Sres qmnis, iwodeba didi tvini s qerqad didi tvini aseve iyofa or, TiTqmis simetriul naxevrad, qerqad. cerebral ur hemisferoebad (Cven hemisferoebs am Tavis momdevno nawilSi

95 ganvixilavT). ori hemisfero dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan nervuli boWkoebis msxvili masiT, romelsac korZiani sxeuli ewodeba. es kavSiri hemisferoebs Soris informac iis gacvlas emsaxureba. • Talamusi – Tavis tvinis nawili, romelic sensorul informacias gadascems didi tvinis qerqs. • naTxemi – Tavis tvinis nawili, romelic ukavSirdeba tvinis Reros da akontro lebs motorul koordinacias, pozas da wonasworobas, aseve sxeulis moZraobis kontro lis daswavlis unars. • limburi sistema – Tavis tvinis regioni, romelic aregulirebs e mociur qcevas, ZiriTad motivaciur survilebs da mexsierebas, aseve mTavar fiziolo giur funqciebs. • hipokampi – limburi sistemis nawili, romelic konkretuli mexsierebi s CamoyalibebaSi monawileobs. • nuSisebri kompleqsi – limburi sistemis nawili, romelic akontrolebs em ocias, agresiasa da emociuri mexsierebis formirebas. neiromecnierebma moniSnes orive hemisfero, gamoiyenes ra ori mniSvnelovani orientiri. erTi Rrmuli, romelsac centraluri Rari ewodeba, yofs yov el hemisferos vertikalurad da meore, msgavsi Rrmuli, romelsac lateraluri naprali ewodeba, yofs TiToeul hemisferos horizontalurad (suraTi gamovyoT 3.8 3.11). tvi nis es vertikaluri ubani, da anu horizontaluri wili, dayofa gvexmareba oTxi TiToeul naxevarsferoSi. frontaluri (Sublis) wili romelic CarTulia motorul kontrolsa da Sublis) wili, kog nitur qmedebaSi, rogoricaa dagegmva, gadawyvetilebis miReba da miznebis dasaxva, moTavsebulia lateraluri napralis zemoT da centraluri Raris win. am ubnis dazian eba iwvevs adamianis individualobis Secvlas. es swored is ubani iyo, romlis dazi anebamac fines geijis dramatuli cvlileba gamoiwvia (Damasio et al., 1994). parietaluri (Txemis) wili pasuxismgebelia iseT i SegrZnebebis kontrolze, rogoricaa Sexeba, tkivili da temperatura da moTavsebul ia uSualod centraluri Raris ukan. ocipitaluri (kefis) wili, wili vizualuri infor maciis bolo samizne, Tavis ukana nawilSia moTavsebuli. temporaluri (safeTqlis) w ili, romelic pasuxismgebelia smenis ganxorciele-baze, moTavsebulia lateraluri na pralis qvemoT, TiToeuli hemisferos gverdiT zedapirze. Secdoma iqneboda imis mtki ceba, rom romelime wili ama Tu im specifiur funqcias marto akontrolebs. tvinis s trquturebi TavianT movaleobas

96 erToblivad axorcieleben, muSaoben erTad, rogorc integrirebuli erTeuli, ise, rogo rc simfoniuri orkestri. rodesac Tqven recxavT WurWels, angariSobT, an saubrobT megobarTan, Tqveni tvini muSaobs, rogorc erTiani sxeuli, TiToeuli wili sxvebTan tvinis TanamSromlobs. wilSi im miuxedavad ubnebis amisa, neiromecnierebs SeuZliaT oTx gansazRvra, romlebic iseTi specifikuri funqciebis ganxorcielebisTvisaa aucilebeli, rogoricaa mxedveloba, smena, metyveleba da mexsiereba. maTi dazianebis SemTxvevaSi es fun qciebic ziandeba, an sruliad ikargeba. sur. 3.8. qerqi didi tvinis qerqis TiToeul hemisferoze oTxi wilia. TiToeuli wili asrulebs sxvada sxva sensorul da motorul funqciebs. • hipoTalamusi – tvinis struqtura, romelic aregulirebs motivaciur qcevas (rogoricaa kveba da daleva) da homeostazs. • homeostazi – sxeulis Sida aris mudmivoba. • didi tvi ni – tvinis nawili, romelic umaRles kognitur da emociur funqciebs aregulirebs. • qerqi – didi tvinis gare zedapiri. • hemisferoebi – didi tvinis ori naxev ari, romlebic korZiani sxeuliTaa dakavSirebuli. • korZiani sxeuli – nervul boWkoTa e rToblioba, romelic tvinis or hemisferos akavSirebs. • Sublis wili – tvinis ubani, romelic gverdiTi napralis zemoT da central uri Raris winaa moTavsebuli; monawileobs motorul kontrolSi da kognitiur qmedebeb Si. sxeulis 600-ze meti nebiTi kunTis qmedeba kontroldeba motoruli qerqiT, romelic S ublis wilSi uSualod centraluri Raris winaa moTavsebuli. gaixseneT, rom tvinis er Ti mxridan wamosuli brZanebebi sxeulis meore mxarisTvisaa gamiznuli. garda amisa , sxeulis qveda ubnebSi moTavsebuli kunTebi – mag., fexis TiTebi - kontroldeba mot oruli qerqis yvelaze ufro zemo nawilis neironebiT. sxeulis zeda nawilis kunTebi, rogoricaa yeli, kontroldeba motoruli qerqis qveda nawilis neironebiT. rogorc 3. 9 (3.12) suraTze xedavT, sxeulis zeda nawili bevrad ufro detalur motorul instruq ciebs iRebs, vidre qveda. realurad, motoruli qerqis ori udidesi ubani xelis TiTe bTanaa dakavSirebuli – gansakuTrebiT cerasTan – da im kunTebTan, romlebic metyvelebi s procesSia CarTuli. qerqis ubnebis sidide

97 im mniSvnelobis maCvenebelia, romelic adamianis xeliT manipulirebisa da metyvele bis unars gaaCnia. • Txemis wili – tvinis ubani Sublis wilis ukan da lateraluri napralis zemoT; Seicavs somatosensorul qerqs. • kefis wili – tvinis yvelaze ufro ukana nawili; moicavs pirv elad mxedvelobiT qerqs. • safeTqlis wili – tvinis ubani, romelic lateraluri napralis qvemoTaa moTavsebuli; Seicavs smenis qerqs. • motoruli moZraobebs. qerqi – didi tvi nis qerqis ubani, romelic akontrolebs sxeulis nebiT somatosensoruli qerqi uSualod centraluri Raris ukanaa moTavsebuli marcxena da ma rjvena Txemis wilebSi. tvinis am ubanSi gadamuSavdeba informacia temperaturis, Sexebis, sxeulis pozisa da tkivilis Sesaxeb. motoruli q erqis msgavsad, sensoruli qerqis zeda nawili sxeulis qveda nawils ukavSirdeba, x olo qveda nawili dakavSirebulia zedasTan. sensoruli qerqis didi nawili dakavSire bulia tuCebTan, enasTan, cera da saCvenebel TiTebTan – anu sxeulis im nawilebTan, romlebic yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovan sensorul informacias atareben centrisken. ase ve, motoruli qerqis msgavsad, somatosensoruli qerqis marjvena nawili dakavSirebu lia sxeulis marcxena mxaresTan, xolo marcxena mxare _ marjvena nawilTan. sur. 3. 9. motoruli da somatosensoruli qerqi sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilebi gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan mgrZnobelobiT garemo s timulaciisadmi da tvinis kontrolisadmi. mgrZnobeloba sxeulis garkveul nawilSi da mokidebulia qerqis im ubnis zomaze, romelic sxeulis am konkretul nawils akontrol ebs. am suraTze adamianis sxeulis nawilebi qerqis Sesabamisi makontrolebeli ubne bis zomebis mixedviTaa warmodgenili. rac ufro didi zomisaa suraTze gamosaxuli sx eulis nawili, miT ufro maRalia misi mgrZnobeloba garemo stimulaciisadmi da miT u fro Zlieria tvinis kontroli mis moZraobaze. smeniTi informacia muSavdeba smeniT qerqSi, romelic ori safeTqlis wiliTaa warmod genili. auditoruli qerqi TiToeul hemisferoSi iRebs informacias orive yuridan. auditoruli qerqis erTi ubani metyvelebis ganxorcieleb aSi monawileobs, xolo meore ubani – metyvelebis gagebaSi. vizualuri informacia muS avdeba tvinis ukana nawilSi, vizualur qerqSi, romelic kefis wilSia moTavsebuli. aq udidesi nawili eTmoba informacias,

98 romelic baduras centraluri ubnebidan modis, im adgilidan, romelic Tvalis ukana z edapirzea ganlagebuli da sadac yvelaze ufro detaluri mxedvelobiTi informacia aRi qmeba. • • • somatosensoruli qerqi – Txemis wilis nawili, sadac sxeulis sxvadasxva ubnebidan miRebuli sensoruli informacia muSavdeba. smeniTi qerqi – safeTqlis wilis nawili, s adac miiReba da muSavdeba smeniTi informacia. mxedvelobis qerqi – kefis wilis nawi li, sadac mxedvelobiTi informaciis gadamuSaveba mimdinareobs. qerqis yvela ubani araa CarTuli sensoruli informaciis gadamuSavebasa da kunTebis aTvis brZanebebis gacemaSi. sinamdvileSi, qerqis udidesi nawili CarTulia infroma ciis interpretaciisa da integraciis procesebSi. iseTi procesebi, asociaciur rogo ricaa qerqSi. dagegmva da gadawyvetilebis miReba, ubnebi qerqis sxvadasxva xorci eldeba nawilebSia asociaciuri gabneuli (erTi regioni 3.9 suraTzea moniSnuli). asociaciuri qerqi gaZlevT sxvada sxva modalobis sensoruli informaciis kombinirebis saSualebas, raTa garemos stimu lebis Sesabamisi sapasuxo reaqciebi daigegmos. • asociaciuri qerqi – qerqis nawili, sadac umaRlesi nervuli procesebi xorcieldeba. rogor muSaoben ra tvinis xdeba es sxvadasxva tvinSi, ubnebi erTad? warmoidgineT sityvas

magaliTisaTvis, Tqvens rodesac daweril kiTxulobT (suraTi 3.10 3.13). davuSvaT, Tqveni fsiqologiis maswavlebeli gaZlevT qaRaldis furcels, romelzedac sityva Sokoladi weria da gTxovT xmamaRla verbalur w armoTqvaT qcevas es sityva. biologiuri dayofda. procesebi, pirvel romlebic am qm edebaSia CarTuli, saocrad natifi da kompleqsuria. neiromecnieri Tqvens ramodenim e etapad rigSi, vizualuri stimuli (dawerili sityva Sokoladi) aRiqmeba nervuli uj redebis mier Sokoladi Tvalis baduraSi, romlebic nervul impulsebs Talamusis gavli T vizualur korteqsSi agzavnian. vizualuri qerqidan nervuli impulsebi gadaigzavne ba safeTqlis wilis ukana ubanSi (angularuli xveuli), sadac sityvis vizualuri kodireba mis akustikur kodirebas unda Seedaros. dadgindeba Tu ara Sesa bamisi akustikuri kodireba, is gadaecema ubans auditorul qerqSi, romelsac vernik es are ewodeba, sadac xdeba misi dekodireba da interpretacia: _ „ah! Sokoladi! ar vityodi uars.“ nervuli impulsebi mere

99 egzavneba brokas centrs, romelic Tavis mxriv agzavnis informacias motorul qerqSi, rac tuCebis, enisa da xorxis stimulacias iwvevs sityva Sokoladis warmosaTqmelad. sur. 3.10. rogor vambobT wakiTxul sityvas informacias dawerili sityvis Sesaxeb nervuli impulsebi Talamusis gavliT atareben Tvalis baduradan qerqis mxedvelobiTi asociaciuri ubnebisaken. vizualuri qerqi a gzavnis nervul impulsebs safeTqlis wilis ukana nawilSi, angularul xveulSi, sadac xdeba sityvis vizualuri kodis (asoebis forma da ganlageba) Sedareba mis akustik ur kodTan (JReradoba). Sesabamisi akustikuri kodis povnis Semdeg is gadaecema sm eniT qerqSi e.w. vernikes ares, sadac xdeba am informaciis dekodireba da interpr etireba. nervuli impulsebi egzavneba brokas ares, romelic Tavis mxriv agzavnis i nformacias motorul qerqSi. motoruli qerqi uzrunvelyofs sityvis warmoTqmas tuCebi s, enisa da xorxis sinqronuli gaaqtivebis meSveobiT. es sakmaod didi mentaluri Zalisxmevaa mxolod erTi sityvis warmoTqmisaTvis. axla ki warmoidgineT, ra xdeba tvinSi, rodesac Tqven xmamaRla k iTxulobT wigns, an, Tundac, reklamas. yvelaze ufro gasaocari ki isaa, rom Tqveni tvini TiTqmis Zaldautaneblad da Zalian efeqturad umklavdeba am amocanas, Targmn is ra qaRaldze arsebul aTasobiT niSans nervul kodad, gadascems informacias tvini s sxvadasxva ubnebs mimdinare amocanebis Sesaxeb, dabolos, am sityvebis gamoTqmi s saSualebas gaZlevT. Cven ukve ganvixileT nervuli sistemis yvelaze mniSvnelovan i struqturebi. rodesac Cven daviwyeT saubari did tvinze, aRvniSneT, rom cerebral uri struqtura ori hemisferoTia warmodgenili. qcevebis farTo speqtrSi naxevarsfer oebi gansxvavebul funqciebSi monawileoben. davubrundeT am gansxvavebebs Tqveni t vinis hemisferoebs Soris. hemisferoTa lateralizacia ra informaciam aiZula mecnie rebi efiqraT, rom arsebobs garkveuli gansxvaveba Tavis tvinis hemisferoTa funqci ebs Soris? gaixseneT, rodesac pol brokam tanis autofsia Caatara, man tvinis dazi aneba marcxena naxevarsferoSi aRmoaCina. momdevno gamokvlevebSi brokam naxa, rom sxva pacientebSic, romelTac metyvelebis msgavsi darRveva hqondaT (daavadeba, ro melsac dRes brokas afazias uwodeben), dazianeba marcxena naxevarsferoSi

100 iyo lokalizebuli. igive ubnebis dazianeba tvinis marjvena hemisferoSi msgavs efe qts ar iwvevda. ra daskvna SeiZleba gamovitanoT? hemisferoTa Soris gansxvavebebi s Seswavlis Sansi pirvelad epilefsiis qirurgiuli wesiT mkurnalobis dros gaCnda. mkurnalobis es meTodi gulisxmobs korZiani sxeulis (daaxloebiT 200 milioni nervul i boWkos erToblioba, romelic hemisferoTa Soris informaciis gacvlas emsaxureba) g adaWras (suraTi 3.11 3.14). qirurgiuli Carevis mizania, xeli SeuSalos epilefsiis Tanamdev agresiul eleqtrul aqtivobas, gavrceldes orive hemisferoze. operacia, rogorc wesi, warmatebulia da pacientebis qcevac ZiriTadad ucvleli rCeba. pacientebs, romlebmac es operacia gadaitanes, xSirad uwodeben pa cientebs „gayofili tviniT“. 3.11. sur. 3.11. korZiani sxeuli korZiani sxeuli warmoadgens nervuli boWkoebis erTobliobas, romelic erTmaneTTan a kavSirebs didi tvinis or hemisferos. korZiani sxeulis gadaWra azianebs hemosfero Ta Soris komunikacias. gancalkevebuli hemisferoebis SesaZleblobaTa Semowmebis mizniT rojer sperim (1968 ) da maikl gazanigam (1970) SeimuSaves iseTi meTodika, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZ lo iyo vizualuri informaciis wardgineba TiToeuli hemisferosaTvis cal-calke. sper is da gazanigas meTodika emyareboda vizualuri sistemis anatomiis Taviseburebebs (suraTi 3.12 3.15). yovel TvalSi, marjvena mxedvelobiTi velidan miRebuli informa cia marcxena hemisferoSi xvdeba da, piriqiT, informacia marcxena mxedvelobiTi ve lidan gadaecema marjvena hemisferos. rogorc wesi, orive hemisferos Soris informa ciis gacvla radganac Zalian am swrafad warmoebs korZiani korZiani sxeuli sxeulis gadaWrili meSveobiT. iyo, magram, da pacientebSi marcxena marjvena mxedvelobiT velebSi arsebuli informacia Sesabamisad mxolod marjvena da marcxena hemisferoebs gadaecemoda (suraTi 3.13 3.16). radganac adamianTa umravle sobaSi metyvelebas marcxena hemisfero akontrolebs, mas SeuZlia mkvlevaebs „elaparakos“ maSin, roca marjvena hemisfero am s aSualebas moklebulia. komunikacia marjvena hemisferosTan miRweul iqna manualuri amocanebis Sesrulebis gziT.: es amocanebi nivTebis identifikacias, SeTavsebas, a n maTgan jgufebis Sedgenas gulisxmobda da maTi gadawyveta sityvebis gamoyenebas ar saWiroebda. ganixileT „gayofili tvinis“ mqone pacientis SemTxveva, romelic marcxe na hemisferos iyenebs misi

101 marcxena xelis mier Catarebuli qmedebebis aRsawerad maSin, rodesac marcxena xels marjvena hemisfero akontrolebs. saidan viciT hemisferoebi moqmedeb aSi marjvena hemisferos– hemisferos qaTmis fexis warudgines Tovliani cdis peizaJi, pirs mis xolo win marcxena arsebuli gamosaxuleba. obieqtebidan am ori suraTis Sesabamisi nivTebi unda SeerCia. marjvena xeliT man miuTiTa qaTmis Tavze, xolo marcxena xeliT – Tovlis niCabze. pacienti ambobda, rom niCabi saWiroa qaTmis narCenebis (da ara Tovlis) gasawmendad. radganac tvinis ma rcxena nawilma korZiani sxeulis gadaWris gamo ar icoda, Tu ras xedavda marjvena naxevarsfero, mas unda aexsna, Tu ratom uTiTebda marcxena xeli niCabze, rodesac marcxena hemisfero qaTmis fexs xedavda. marcxena hemisferos kogniturma sistemam SeimuSava Teoria, romelsac unda gaemarTlebina sxeulis sxva nawilebis moqmedeba ( Gazzaniga, 1985). sur. 3.12. mxedvelobiTi informaciis nervuli gza mxedvelobiTi informaciis nervuli gza, romelic TiToeuli Tvalis Sua zedapiridan ar iwyeba, jvaredinad gadadis tvinis erTi mxridan meoreze korZiani sxeulis meSveob iT. mxedvelobiTi informacia Tvalis gare ubnidan jvaredindeba. korZiani sxeulis g adaWra xels uSlis mxedvelobis marjvena velSi warmodgenili informaciis gadacemas marjvena hemisferoSi, xolo mxedvelobis marcxena velSi warmodgenili informacia ve r aRwevs marcxena hemisferos. sur. 3.13. Tvalisa da xelis koordinacia Tvalisa da xelis koordinacia normaluria, Tu pacienti „gayofili tviniT“ iyenebs marcx ena xels im obieqtis sapovnelad, romelic mis marcxena mxedvelobiT velSia moqceul i, radganac orive procesis ganxorcielebas marjvena hemisfero akontrolebs. magram , rodesac Tqven sTxovT pacients, gamoiyenos marjvena xeli im obieqtis asaRebad, romelic mis marcxena mxedvelobiT velSia moqceuli, mas amis gakeTeba ar SeuZlia, radganac sensoruli informacia marjvena xelidan marcxena hemisferos veRar aRwevs gadaWrili kavSiris gamo. am SemTxvevaSi cdis piri msxlis magier Wiqas iRebs. zemoaRwerilis meSveobiTac Cven garda, viciT, arsebobs rom mravali sxva meTodi, r omelTa adamianTa umravlesobaSi metyvelebasTan

102 dakavSirebuli funqciebi lateralizebulia marcxena hemisferoSi. funqcia lateralize bulad iTvleba, Tu mis ganxorcielebaSi Tavis tvinis mxolod erTi hemisfero TamaSob s wamyvan rols. metyveleba (enis gamoyenebis unari), albaT, yvelaze ufro metad r om lateralizebulia memarjveneebis funqciaTa Soris. 5 neiromecnierebma procentsa da aRmoaCines, caciebis 15 mxolod daaxloebiT procentSi metyvelebas marjvena hemisfero akontrolebs, xolo caciebis 15 procentSi metyveleba orive hemisferoTi regulirdeba (Rasmussen & Milner, 1977). adamianTa umravlesobaSi, Sesabamisad, metyveleba ma rcxena hemisferos funqcias warmoadgens. Sedegad, marcxena naxevarsferos dazianeba iwvevs metyvelebis moSlas. sainteresoa, rom yrumunjTa en is gamoyenebisas (romelic xelis TiTebis poziciisa da moZraobis mixedviT gadmosce ms azrs), marcxena hemisferos dazianeba aseve ase iwvevs rom, darRvevebs (Corina, 1999; Hickok et al., 1996; Poizner et al., 1991). lateralizebulia ara metyveleba, rogorc aseTi, aramed rogorc vokaluri, ise manual uri Jestebis warmoqmnis unari, romlebic komunikacias ganaxorcieleben. ar unda gegonoT, rom marcxena hemisfero „ukeTesia“, vidre marjvena. mkvlevrebma uCvenes, rom orive hemisferos erTi da igive amocanis amoxsnis gansx vavebuli „stili“ aqvs. marcxena hemisfero ufro analitikuria da is informacias nabijnabij amuSavebs; marjvena hemisfero ki ufro holisturia da is informacias mTliana d aRiqvams. orive hemisferos (misTvis damaxasiaTebeli muSaobis stiliT) kombinire buli qmedeba ganapirobebs Cveni aRqmis srulyofilebas. magaliTad, Tqven ar gagikv irdebaT imis gageba, rom marcxena hemisfero, romelic mcire detalebs yuradRebas a qcevs, wamyvan rols TamaSobs problemaTa didi nawilis gadaWraSi. amavdroulad, mar jvena hemisferos roli win iwevs, rodesac problemis gadaWras SemoqmedebiTi midgom a sWirdeba – marjvena hemisfero gexmarebaT mexsierebis mobilizebaSi (Bowen & Beema n, 1998). miuxedavad imisa, rom mecnierebs SeuZliaT darwmunebiT ganasxvavon, Tu romeli funqciebia lateralizebuli „saSualo“ tvinSi, gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnes indivi dualuri gansxvaveba: orive _ gansxvavebebi. caciebSi SesaZloa rodesac metyvelebi s marjvena sxva lateralizaciaze vsaubrobdiT, Cven aseve vaxseneT tvinis funqciaTa pirveli indivi dualuri hemisfero, an metyvelebas hemisfero erTdroulad akontrolebdes. gansxvavebebi, romlebic Tavis tvinis funqciaTa lateralizaciis dros unda

103 ganvixiloT, sqesiTaa ganpirobebuli. arsebobs zogadi gansxvavebebi mamakacebisa da qalebis tvinis funqciebis principebSi (Breedlove, 1994; Kimura, 1999). Tanamedrove meTodebis saSualebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda dagvenaxa sxvaoba mamakacebis da qalebis tvinSi sxvadasxva amocanebis gadaWrisas. magaliTa d, funqciuri mrt-s saSualebiT Seiswavlidnen mamakacTa da qalTa tvinis aqtivobebs Soris gansxvavebebs, rodesac cdis pirebs enis mosmenisas unda gamoetanaT daskvn ebi (eriTmeba erTmaneTs tani da kani?). mamakacebSi ZiriTadi aqtivoba marcxena h emisferoSi iyo lokalizebuli maSin, rodesac qalebSi am amocanis amoxsnaSi orive h emisfero TiTqmis Tanabrad monawileobda (Shaywitz et al., 1995). aseTi Sedegebi kidev erTxel gvabrunebs sak iTxebTan, romlebic bunebisa da aRzrdis Tanafardobas exeba. ibadebian mamakacebi da qalebi ukve gansxvavebuli Sedegia? tviniT, Semdgom Tu es modifikacia am kiTxv as cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis wlebSi neiromecnierTa xelT arsebuli teqnikis gamoyenebiT pasuxi unda gaeces. Cven ganvi xileT nervuli sistemis bevri mniSvnelovani struqtura. axla ki ganvixiloT endokri nuli sistema, romelic nervul sistemasTan erTad sxeulis funqciebs aregulirebs. endokrinuli sistema adamianis genotipi gansazRvravs meore Zalzed specifiur mareg ulirebel sistemas – endokrinul sistemas, raTa nervuli sistemis muSaoba Seavsos. endokrinuli sistema jirkvlebis erTobliobas warmoadgens, romlebic gamoimuSaveben da sisxlSi gamoyofen qimiur mesenjerebs – hormonebs (suraTi 3.14 3. 17). hormonebi periodebSi Zlier da gavlenas zogierTi axdenen organizmis yoveldRi ur dros. cxovelqmedebaze, TumcaRa isini gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania sicocxlis garkveul g ansakuTrebuli situaciis hormonebi gavlenas axdenen sxeulis zrdaze; isini gansazR vraven da xels uwyoben pirveladi da meoradi sasqeso niSnebis ganviTarebas; gavle nas axdenen sifxizlesa da yuradRebaze; warmoadgenen ganwyobisa da xasiaTis Secvlis s afuZvels; aregulireben metabolizms da sxeulis energetikul danaxarjebs. uwyobs en dokrinuli sistema uzrunvelyofs seqsualuri organizmis agznebis gadarCenas, exmareba ra mis brZolas infeqciisa da daavadebaTa winaaRmdeg. is xels saxeobebis gadarCenas maTi regulirebis, reproduqciuli ujredebis warmoqmnis, meZuZur dedebS

i rZis gamomuSavebis

104 meSveobiT. gadarCebiT. ase rom, efeqturi endokrinuli sistemis gareSe Tqven ver sur. 3.14. qalisa da mamakacis endokrinuli jirkvlebi hipofizi marjvniv aris warmodgenili; es mTavari jirkvalia, romelic marcxena mxar es naCvenebi jirkvlebis moqmedebas aregulirebs. hipofizi, Tavis mxriv, kontrolde ba hipoTalamusidan, romelic limburi sistemis mniSvnelovani nawilia. endokrinuli jirkvlebi pasuxoben sisxlSi qimiuri nivTierebebis doneze an maTi sti mulireba sxva hormonebisa Tu Tavis tvinidan momavali nervuli impulsebis receptor ebi mier xdeba. amis Sedegad hormonebi qimiuri gamoiyofa regulaciis sisxlSi da gadaadgildeba moSorebuli samizne ujredebisken, romelTac specifikuri gaaCniaT. ho rmonebi programiT gaTvaliswinebul zemoqmedebas mxolod sxeulis genetikurad gansazRvrul adgilebSi ga moavlenen. sxvadasxva, magram specifikur organoebsa Tu qsovilebze gavleniT hormo nebi aregulireben uamrav bioqimiur process, amis gamo maT „sicocxlis mesenjerebi“ ew odebaT (Carpo, 1985). es mravalmxrivi sakomunikacio sistema akontrolebs organizm Si nela, mudmivad mimdinare procesebs, rogoricaa sisxlSi Saqris donis gansazRvra , kalciumis Semcveloba, naxSirwylebis metabolozmi, da sxeulis zrda. magram ra xd eba krizis dros? endokrinuli sistema gamoyofs sisxlSi hormon adrenalins; adrenal ini energias matebs sxeuls ise, rom mas unari Seswevs swrafad moaxdinos reagireb a safrTxeze. rogorc adre ukve aRvniSneT, tvinis struqtura, hipoTalamusi, warmoad gens gadamrTvel ubans endokrinulsa da centralur nervul sistemebs Soris. hipoTala musis specializebuli ujredebi iReben informacias tvinis sxva ubnebidan, romlebic mas ubrZaneben gamoyon sxvadasxva hormonebi hipofizSi, riTac isini astimulirebe n, an akaveben sxva hormonebis sekrecias. hormonebi sxeulis sxvadasxva ubnebSi g amomuSavdeba. es „qarxnebi“ sxvadasxva hormonebs awarmoebs, romlebic sxeulis sxvadas xva funqciebs aregulireben, rogorc es 3.1 cxrilSia warmodgenili. axla ki yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani procesebi ganvixiloT.

105 • endokrinuli sistema – jirkvlebis qseli, romlebic gamoimuSaveben da sisxlSi gamoyof en hormonebs. • hormonebi – qimiuri mesenjerebi, romlebic gamomuSavdeba endokrinuli jirkvlebis mier, aregulireben metabolizms, da gavlenas axdenen sxulis zrdaze, xa siaTsa da sasqeso niSanTvisebebze. hipofizs xSirad „mTavar jirkvals“ uwodeben, radganac is 10 sxvadasxva saxis hormons gamoimuSavebs, romlebic yvela sxva endokrinuli jirkvlis sekretorul muSaobaze mis i gavlenas siWarbe axdenen, aseve aq sinTezirdeba mamakacebSi zrdis hormonebi. zrdis hormonis ararseboba iwvevs sxeulis zrdis Seferxebas – qondriskaco bas. sekreciis iwvevs gigantizms. hipofizis sinTezs, produqtebi aaqtiveben saTesleebSi testosteronis romelic Tavis mxriv spermis gamomuSavebas astimulirebs. hipofizi aseve monawileo bs mamakacebis meoradi sasqeso niSnebis CamoyalibebaSi, rogoricaa sxeulis Tmis s afarvelis ganviTareba, xmis Secvla da fizikuri simwife. testosteronma gaZliereba . warmoebas. SesaZloa gamoiwvios agresiisa da seqsualuri ltolvis estrogenis auci lebeli qalebSi, estrogeni hipofizis im hormonebi astimulireben reaqciebis hormonaluri jaWvuri komponentia, romlebic ovulaciasa da qalis nayofierebas gansazRvraven. Casaxvis s awinaaRmdego zogierTi preparatis moqmedeba emyareba hipofizis specialuri aqtivob is daTrgunvas, romelic hormonebis gamomuSavebas da ganawilebas procesi. Sejameba Sejameba neiromecniereba cdilobs pasuxi gasces saukunovan kiTxvas, Tu rogoria k avSiri tvinsa da qcevas Soris. neiromecnierebi uamrav meTods mimarTaven tvinis f unqciebis ukeT Seswavlis mizniT. isini swavloben pacientebs tvinis dazianebebiT, iwveven tvinis gansazRvruli ubnebis dazianebas, astimulireben tvinis regionebs, iweren tvinis aqtivobas da kompiuteruli teqnikis akontrolebs, amiT ki saboloo j amSi irRveva ovulaciis daxmarebiT qmnian tvinis gamosaxulebebs misi muSaobis procesSi. • • hipofizi – moTavsebulia tvinSi, gamoimuSavebs zrdis hormonebs da gavlenas axdens s xva endokrinuli jirkvlebis mier hormonebis sekreciaze. testosteroni – mamakacTa sa sqeso hormoni, romelic saTesleebSi gamomuSavdeba da astimulirebs spermis produqcias; aseve pasuxismgebelia mamakacTa meoradi sasqeso niSanTvisebebis Camoyalibebaze. • estrogeni – qalTa sasqeso hormoni, romelic sakver cxeebSi gamomuSavdeba da pasuxismgebelia ovulaciis procesze, aseve qalebis repro duqciuli struqturebis ganviTarebasa da meoradi sasqeso niSnebis Camoyalibebaze.

106 nervuli sistema iyofa centralur da periferiul nawilebad. centraluri nervuli sist ema Sedgeba Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan; periferiuli nervuli sistema Sedgeba som aturi da avtonomiuri nervuli sistemebisagan. Tavis tvini SeiZleba daiyos tvinis Rerod, limbur sistemad da did tvinad. tvinis Rero aregulirebs ZiriTad sasicocxlo funqciebs, rogoricaa sunTqva, sxeulis guliscema moZraobas da da saWmlis gavlena s moneleba. axdens naTxemi daswavlis koordinirebas zogierT uwevs procesze. limburi sistema mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs motivaciis, emociebisa da mexsierebis procesebSi. didi tvini pasuxismgebelia metyvelebisa da azrovnebis umaRles funqciebze. cxrili 3.1. mTavari endokrinuli jirkvlebi da maT mier gamomuSavebuli hormonebis funqciebi jirkvali hipoTalamusi wina hipofizi reg ulirebadi funqciebi hipofizis hormonebis gamoyofa saTesleebi da sakvercxeebi rZi s gamomuSaveba metabolizmi reaqcia stresze ukana hipofizi wylis konservacia rZis gamoyofa saSvilosnos SekumSva farisebri jirkvali metabolozmi zrda da ganviTareb a paraTireoiduli jirkvali nawlavi pankreasi Tirkmelzeda jirkvali kalciumis done saWmlis moneleba glukozis metabolizmi „brZolisa da gaqcevis“ pasuxebi metabolizmi sq esobrivi ltolva qalebSi sakvercxe qalebis sasqeso niSnebis ganviTareba

107 kvercxujredis warmoqmna saTesle mamakacis sasqeso niSnebis ganviTareba spermis g amomuSaveba sqesobrivi ltolva mamakacebSi kvlevam uCvena, rom didi tvinis ori he misfero sxvadasxva rols TamaSobs yoveldRiuri funqciebis SesrulebaSi. magaliTad, adamianTa umravlesobaSi marcxena hemisfero metyvelebas akontrolebs. zogadad, mar jvena hemisfero informacias ufro holisturad aRiqvams, marcxena ki ufro analitiku ria. ori hemisferos funqciaTa Sesaxeb zogadi daskvnebis gakeTebisas unda gvaxsovdes individualuri da, maT Soris, sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi. endokrinuli si stema aris jirkvalTa qseli, romelic gamoimuSavebs hormonebs sasicocxlo procesebi s regulirebisaTvis. fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: _ miRwevebi tvinis funqciebis loka lizaciis sferoSi daafiqsireT TvalebiT nivTebi Tqvens garSemo, iqneb xe, romelic fanjaraSi Cans, an kompiuteri Tqvens magidaze. axla ki daxuWeT Tvalebi da Seecad eT warmoidginoT igive obieqtebi. ra xdeba Tqvens tvinSi am ori qmedebis CarTuli dros? orive ramdenad procesSi, SesaZlebelia, romlebic rom tvinis da igive ubnebi iyos aRqmasa vizualur warmosaxvas gulisxmobs? teqnologiurma progresma SesaZlo gaxada neiromecnierTaTvis am sainter eso kiTxvas zusti pasuxi gascen. rogorc Tqven naxavT wignis me-4 TavSi, mecniere bma did warmatebebs miaRwies mxedvelobis nervuli safuZvelebis SeswavlaSi. maT Se uZliaT Tvali miadevnon vizualuri informaciis transformacias Tvalebis baduradan k efis wilis vizualur qerqamde. rogor unda gansazRvron mecnierebma, CarTulia Tu ar a vizualuri qerqis erTi da igive ubnebi, rodesac adamiani axorcielebs vizualuri warmosaxvis da ara vizualuri aRqmis process? mkvlevarTa jgufma stiven koslinis x elmZRvanelobiT (Kosslyn et al., 1999) gamoiyena romelic ori Cven meTodi: ukve _ pet (pozitronul-emisiuri da ganmeorebiTi tomografia) skani, warmogidgineT, transkranialuri magnituri stimulacia (rTMS), romelic sruliad axali teqnologiaa da sul ramodenime kvlevaTa wlis am winaT iqna cdis gamoyenebuli pirebs sTxovdnen adamianTa kognit ur oTxi neiromecnierebaSi. seriaSi, daemaxsovraT kvadratuli gamosaxuleba da mere warmoed ginaT isini daxuWuli TvalebiT.

108 cdis pirTa amocana iyo, pasuxi gaecaT kiTxvebze sxvadasxva gamosaxulebaSi obieqt is zolebis fardobiTi siganis Sesaxeb. es amocana ise iyo SemuSavebuli, rom cdis pirebs aucileblad unda warmoedginaT vizualuri gamosaxuleb a. pet gamokvlevaSi monawileTa tvini Seswavlili iyo amocanis gadawyvetis momentS i. skanma uCvena, rom aqtiuri iyo vizualuri qerqis is ubnebi, romlebic mxedvelob iTi stimulaciis drosac aqtiuri iqneboda. magram gaixseneT wignis meore Tavidan, rom korelacia ar aris mizezobrioba: is, r om orive amocanis dros aqtiuria tvinis igive ubnebi ar niSnavs, rom erTi da igiv e funqcia sruldeba. am etapze ki ki erTveba rTMS, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZloa u fro zusti daskvnebis gakeTeba. es axali teqnika iyenebs magnituri stimulaciis pu lsebs droebiTi, Seqcevadi „dazianebebis“ warmoqmnisaTvis. qsovilis faqtobrivi dazian ebis gareSe SesaZloa tvinis regionebis inaqtivacia. ra xdeba zolebis Sedarebisas , rodesac rTMS gamoyenebis Sedegad cdis pirebs „uzianebdnen“ pirvelad vizualur qerqs ? iseve rogorc Ria TvalebiT mxedvelobiTi aRqmisas, vizualuri warmosaxva seriozulad ferxdeba. es ki saSualebas gvaZlevs da vaskvnaT, rom pirveladi vizualuri qerqi CarTulia vizualuri warmosaxvis procesSi. gagakvirvaT ganawilebis am monacemebma? Tqven ra kiTxvebi gaqvT tvinSi funqcieb is axali Sesaxeb? radganac mecnierebi agrZeleben muSaobas teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT, didia imis albaToba, rom Tqvens kiTxvebsac male gaece ma zusti pasuxebi. nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi adreuli periodis fiziologTa erT-e rTi umTavresi amocana iyo nervuli sistemis muSaobis principebis gageba. Tanamedr ove neiromecnierebma mniSvnelovan progress miaRwies, magram isini agrZeleben muSaobas, rom am mravalw axnagovani problemis yvela nawili amoxsnan. wignis am qveTavSi Cveni mizania gav aanalizoT da gaverkveT, Tu rogor gadaecema Cveni grZnobaTa organoebis mier aRqmu li informacia sxeulis sxva nervuli impulsebis meSveobiT. Cven viwyebT erTeulis, neironis, niSan-Tvisebebis ganxilviT. neironi neironi aris specializebuli ujredi , romlis funqciaa miiRos, nawilebsa da sistemis tvins nervuli ZiriTadi gadaamuSavos da/an gadasces informacia sxva ujredebs sxeulis SigniT.

109 arsebobs sxvadasxva formis, zomis, qimiuri Semadgenlobisa da funqciis neironebi (ZuZumwovarTa Tavis tvinSi 200-ze meti sxvadasxva saxis neironia napovni), magra m yvelas aqvs saerTo ZiriTadi struqtura (suraTi 3.15 3.18). adamianis Tavis tvin Si neironTa raodenoba 100 miliardsa da 1 trilions Soris meryeobs. sur. 15. neiro nTa tipebi yuradReba xasiaTs. miaqcieT dendritebis gansxvavebul formasa da datotvis isrebiT naCvenebia informaciis moZraobis mimarTuleba. warmodgenilia interneironis ori tipi. rogorc wesi, neironebi iReben informacias erTi, da gadascemen mas meore boloTi. ujredis datotvil morCebs, romlebic Semomaval signalebs iReben, dendritebi ewodeb aT. dendritebis ZiriTadi funqciaa sensoruli receptorebidan an sxva ujredebidan s timulaciis miReba. ujredis sxeuli, anu soma, Seicavs birTvs da citoplazmas, roml ebic mis sicocxlisunarianobas gansazRvraven. somaSi xdeba dendritebis stimulacii s Sedegad (an zogierT SemTxvevaSi, uSualod sxva neironidan) miRebuli informaciis integrireba da misi gadacema erTi, wagrZelebuli boWkosaTvis, romelsac aqsoni ew odeba. Tavis mxriv, aqsoni gadascems informacias mTel Tavis sigrZeze, romelic, m ag. zurgis tvinSi SeiZleba erT metrs aRematebodes, xolo Tavis tvinSi – milimetrze naklebi iyos. aqsonis meore boloSi ganlagebulia balTa, kunTebisa informacias som is Semsxvilebuli, da sxva bolqvismagvari neirons stimulireba. mimarTulebiT struq tura, rogorc e.w. wesi, _ terminaluri jirkvlebis, neironebi romlis saSualebiTac neironebis erTi SeuZlia mimdebare mxolod gadascemen

dendritebidan (suraTi 3.16 3.19). • • • • • gavliT aqsonis gaswvriv terminaluri balTisaken neironi – nervuli sistemis ujredi, romelic specializebulia miiRos, gadaamuSavos da /an gadasces informacia sxva ujredebs. dend dendritebi – neironis datotvili morCeb i, romlebic Semosul informacias mimRebloben. soma – neironis ujredis sxeuli, romel ic birTvsa da citoplazmas Seicavs. aqsoni – neironis wagrZelebuli boWko, romlis ga swvrivac nervuli impulsebi vrceldeba somidan terminaluri balTisaken. terminaluri balTa balTa – bolqvismagvari struqtura aqsonis bolos, romelic neirotransmiteriT savse buStukebs Seicavs.

110 sur. 3.16. neironis mTavari struqturebi neironi nervul impulss dendritebis saSualebiT iRebs; Semdeg nervuli impulsi igza vneba aqsonis gaswvriv terminaluri balTisaken, sadac sxva neironebis stimulaciis aTvis neirotransmiterebis gamoyofa xdeba. arsebobs neironTa sami mTavari jgufi. sensoruli (mgrZnobiare) neironebi iReben i nformacias sensoruli receptorebidan da atareben mas centraluri nervuli sistemisa ken, receptoruli ujredebi Zalzed specializebulni da mgrZnobiareni poziciisadmi; centraluri neironTa • sensoruli informacias arian, magaliTad, sinaTlisadmi, bgerisadmi, atareben an sxeulis motoruli nervuli (mamoZravebeli) neironebi da informacias tvinis sistemidan kunTebisa jirkvlebisaken; romlebic ZiriTad masas interneironebi qmnian, gadascemen neironi – neironebi, romlebic sensorulidan motorul an sensoruli receptorebidan informacias sxva interneironebs. TiToeul motorul • centraluri nervuli sistemisaken atareben. neironze

tvinSi daaxloebiT 5 aTasi interneironi modis, romlebic tvinis ZiriTad muSa masas qmnian (Nauta & Feirtag, 1979). kunTebisaken da jirkvlebisaken atareben. • motoruli neironi – neironebi, romlebic informacias centraluri nervuli sistemidan sensoruli neironi – neironi, romelic sensoruli receptorebidan an •sensoruli internei roni – tvinis neironebi, romlebic informacias sensorulidan sxva interinformacias c entraluri nervuli sistemisken atarebs. motorul neironebs gadascemen. motoruli ne ironi _ neironi, romelic informacias centraluri nervuli sistemidan kunTebisken d a jirkvlebisken atarebs. interneironi _ tvinis neironi, romelic informacias sens orulidan sxva inter- an motorul neironebs gadascems. imis saCveneblad, siaxloves obieqtiT, zurgis Tu rogor muSaobs es sami tipis neironi erTad, • • ganvixiloT tkivilze ganridebis refleqsi (suraTi 3.17 3.20). rodesac kanis zedapi ris wvetiani saSualebiT aagznebs ganlagebuli isini tvinis neirons, agzavnian tki vilis receptorebi stimulirdeba neironebis sapasuxod sxeulis informacias sensorul i interneironi mxriv, aagznebs interneironebisaken. romelic, Tavis motorul Sesabamisi ubnis kunTs da ganaridebs mas mtkivneul gamaRizianebels. mxolod mas S emdeg, rac es neironuli aqtivoba ganxorcieldeba da sxeuli mocildeba mtkivneul ob ieqts, Tavis tvini iRebs informacias situaciis Sesaxeb. msgavs SemTxvevebSi, saf rTxes. rodesac cxadia, gadarCena incidentis swraf Sesaxeb reaqciebzea informacia damokidebuli, tkivilis SegrZneba Cndeba mxolod mas Semdeg, rac Tqven ukve fiziku rad upasuxeT

111 Seinaxeba tvinis mexsierebis sistemaSi ise, rom Semdeg jerze Tqven gaaridebT Tav s potenciurad mtkivneul obieqts manam, vidre is Tqven gatkenT. sur. 3.17. tkivil is ganridebis refleqsi am refleqsis ganxorcielebaSi mxolod sami neironi monawileobs: _ sensoruli, motoruli da interneironi. tvinis neironTa qselSi gabneulia maTze xuTjer Tu aTjer ufro meti raodenobis gliu ri ujredebi (glia). Tavad es sityva momdinareobs berZnulidan da webos niSnavs; saxelwodeba ukve miganiSnebT am ujredebis mTavar f unqciebze: _ isini neironebis sayrdens warmoadgenen. xerxemlianebSi glias bevri mniSvnelovani funqcia aqvs. pirveli funqcia ganviTarebis safexurze Cndeba. gliuri ujredebi exmarebian axalSobil neironebs ipovon maTi Ses abamisi lokalizacia tvinSi. meore funqciaa cxovelqmedeba. rodesac neironebi mrav ldeba ziandeba da da iRupeba, dazianebis ubanSi maT, da gliuri aseve, sxva ujred ebi SeuZliaT asufTavebs napralebSi ujredul narCenebs; neironTaSoris neirotransmiterebisa substanciebis STanTqma; mesame funqciaa izolacia. gliuri ujredebi zogierTi aqsonis irgvliv qmn ian saizolacio safarvels, romelsac mielinis garsi ewodeba. es cximovani siCqares ; sisxlTan gliuri uwyvet izolacia gliis erTad ujredebi, cximovan mniSvnelovnad f unqciaa zrdis daicvas nervuli tvinis signalis gadacemis neironebi meoTxe mgrZnob iare Semosuli romelTac Sres. toqsinuri nivTierebebisgan. ewodebaT, substanciebi specializebuli e.w. hematover astrocitebi uxsnadi

qmnian am encefalur bariers, romelic warmoadgens tvinis sisxlZarRvTa irgvliv cximSi barier s gadalaxaven, radganac mravali Sxami da sxva mavne nivTiereba cximSi ar ixsneba da, Sesabamisad, tvinSi SeRwevac ar SeuZliaT. dabolos, neiromecnierebi sul ufro xSirad fiqroben, rom glia gavlenas axdens neironTa Sori s komunikaciaze im ionTa koncentraciaze zemoqmedebis gziT, romlebic nervuli impu lsis gatarebas uzrunvelyofen. • glia – ujredi, romelic akavSirebs neironebs da aCqarebs nervul gadacemas, aSorebs dazianebul da daRupul neironebs, da xels uSlis sisxlSi arsebul toqsiur substanci ebs SeaRwion tvinSi. • amgznebi amgznebi „Sesavali“ – informacia, romelic neironSi aRwev s da iwvevs mis agznebas. moqmedebis potenciali

112 aqamde Cven vsaubrobdiT neironebze, romlebic „agzavnian informacias“ da „astimulireben“ erTimeores. movida dro, ufro detalurad aRvweroT eleqtoqimiuri signalebi, romelTac nervuli sistema iyenebs informaciis gadamuSave bisa da gadacemisaTvis. swored es signalebi warmoadgenen Tqveni codnis, grZnobeb is, survilebisa da Semoqmedebis safuZvels. yoveli neironis mier dasmuli ZiriTadi kiTxvaa: _ ganimuxtos Tu ara (anu, upasuxos Tu ara gamRizianebels)? maTi martiv ad rom da vTqvad, somis neironebi am gadawyvetilebas iReben dendtrirebisa mier m iRebuli informaciis kombinirebis Sedegad da imis gansazRvrisas, es signalebi maT „ganmuxtv as“ Tu „arganmuxtvas“ ubrZaneben. ufro detalurad ki, yoveli neironi iRebs amgznebi – ganimuxte! – da Semakavebeli – ar ganimuxto! – signalebis balan ss. neironebSi amgznebi impulsebi iwvevn moqmedebis potencials da neironi ganimuxteba. moqmedebis potencialis bioqimiuri safuZveli imis asaxsnelad, Tu rogor muSaobs moqmedebis potenciali, Cven unda aRvweroT Semo sul is bioqimiuri garemo, mTeli romelSic neironuli neironi arsebobs da iRebs inf ormacias. komunikacia xorcieldeba eleqtrulad damuxtuli nawilakebis, ionebis, nakadiT, romelic ganWolavs neironis m embranas – Txel „kans“, romelic ujredis SigTavss garemomcveli garemosagan gamoyofs. wa rmoidgineT, rom nervuli boWkoebi makaronia, romelic mariliani wyliTaa savse da marilian supSi dacuravs. rogorc supi, ise mak aronis SigniT arsebuli siTxe Seicavs ionebs – natriumis (Na+), qloris (Cl-), kalci umisa (Ca+) da kaliumis (K+) atomebs – romelTac rogorc dadebiTi (+), ise uaryofiTi (-) muxtebi gaaCniaT (suraTi 3.18 3.21). membrana, anu makaronis zedapiri, gada mwyvet rols TamaSobs orive siTxeSi ingredientebis Sesabamisi balansis SenarCuneb aSi. rodesac ujredi ar aris aqtiuri, anu imyofeba mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi, mis Sida areSi daaxloebiT aTjer ufro meti kaliumis ionia vidre gareT, xolo natriumis ionTa koncentracia piriqiT, gareT ufro metia. membrana ionebs da siTxe srulyofi li SemoaRwion „Catumbavs“ ujredis barieri araa, is amis saSualebas romelic aZlevs natriumis ujredis kaliums. SigniT SigniT. aRmosafxvrelad, bunebam Seqmna satransporto meqanizmebi membranis SigniT, „gamotum bavs“ muSaobis Sida natriums Sedegad am tumboTa warmatebuli rom ujredis uaryofiTadaa damuxtuli (70/1 000 volti) ujredgare sivrcesTan SedarebiT. es ki niSnavs, garemo polarizebulia. am polarizacias mosvenebis

113 potenciali ewodeba. is qmnis im eleqtroqimiur garemos, romelSic nervul ujreds Se uZlia moqmedebis potencialis warmoqmna. sur. 3.18. moqmedebis potencialis bioqim iuri safuZveli aqsonuri membrana gamoyofs siTxeebs, romlebic gansxvavdeba natriumisa da kaliumi s ionebis SemcvelobiT. gareSe are daaxloebiT aTjer ufro met natriumis ions Seica vs, vidre Sida. kaliumis ionebTan mimarTebaSi Tanafardoba sawinaaRmdegoa. membra nas cilovani arxebi ganWolavs, romlebic rogorc seleqtiuri arxebi ise moqmedeben, atareben ra an mxolod natriumis, an mxolod kaliumis ionebs. mosvenebul mdgomare obaSi, rodesac nervuli impulsi ar gadis, orive tipis arxi Caketilia da ionuri tu mbo inarCunebs ionur ganawilebas (Signidan Tuki gareT es „gamotumbavs“ natriumis ner vuli ionebs da „Catumbavs“ kaliumis ionebs). aqsonis Sida are uaryofiTadaa damuxtuli 70 milivoltis odenobiT. Zabva Semcirdeba impulsis moaxloebis gamo, natriumis ar xebi ixsneba da natriumis ionebi Semodis aqsonSi. odnav mogvianebiT, natriumis a rxebi ixureba, ixsneba kaliumis arxebi da kaliumis ionebi gamodis gareT. arxebis monacvleobiTi Caketva da gaxsna uzrunvelyofs nervuli impulsis gavrcelebas. nervuli ujredi iwyebs gadasvlas mosvenebis potencialidan moqmedebis potencialze amagznebeli Tu Semakavebeli informaciis sapasuxod. nebismieri tipis Semosul info rmacias SeuZlia Secvalos ionuri balansi membranis Sida da gare areebs Soris. es aseve iwvevs cvlilebebs ionuri arxebis funqciebSic – ujreduli membranis agznebadi nawilebi, romlebic SerCeviTad uzrunvelyofen zogierTi ionis moZraobas membranis g avliT. Semakavebeli informacia aiZulebs ionur arxebs ufro mZafrad imuSaon da Sei narCunon Sida aris uaryofiTi Sida muxti, areSi, rac rac mas daicavs neirons ganm uxtvisagan. ganimuxtos. amagznebeli impulsacia iwvevs ionuri arxebis gaxsnas da natriumis ionebi Semodis ujredis saSualebas aZlevs radganac natriumis ionebi dadebiTi muxtis matarebelia, maTi Semosvla iwvevs dade biTi da uaryofiTi muxtebis gadanawilebis Secvlas ujreduli membranis gaswvriv. mo qmedebis potenciali aRmocendeba maSin, rodesac amagznebeli impulsacia sakmarisad Zlieria SemakavebelTan SedarebiT da iwvevs mem branis depolarizacias natriumi –70 milivoltidan ujredSi, –55 raTa milivoltamde: es c vlileba sakmarisi gamoewvia. • • Semakavebeli „Sesavali“ – Semosuli informacia, romelic neirons ubrZanebs, ar ganimuxto s. moqmedebis potenciali – nervuli impulsi, romelic neironSi warmoiqmneba, aqsonis gaswvriv vrceldeba da iwvevs sinafsSi neirotransmiterebis gamoTavisuflebas. raodenobis Semovida

114 iwyeba Tu ara moqmedebis potencialis aRmoceneba, natriumi iCqaris ujredis Sida areSi. Sedegad, ujredis Sida are dadebiTad imuxteba, rac neironis s rul moqmedebis depolarizacias niSnavs. Semdgom dominos efeqti iwvevs gavrcelebas aqsonis gaswvriv; depolarizaciis potencialis mowinave ubani ki aqsonis mimdebare regionebSi natriumis arxebis gaxsnas ganapir obebs da ionebi Semodis ujredSi. am gziT – Tanamimdevruli depolarizaciiT – signali vrceldeba aqsonSi (suraTi 3.18 3.21). rogor ubrundeba nei roni mis sawyis mosvenebul mdgomareobas ganmuxtvis Semdeg? rodesac neironis Sida are dadebiTad imuxteba, natriumis arxebi ixureba kaliumis da ixsneba kaliumis a Radgens arxebi, neironis kaliumis uaryofiT ionebi muxts. gamodian maSin, gareT. gamosvla rodesac signali miaRwevs aqsonis bolos, ujredis is nawilebi, sadac moqmedebis potenciali warmoiqmna, ukve ubrundeba mosvenebul mdgomareobas da mzadaa momdevno stimulaci isaTvis. moqmedebis potencialis maxasiaTeblebi moqmedebis maxasiaTebels potencialis gansazRvravs. gavrcelebis moqmedebis potenc ialis bioqimiuri zoma ar buneba mraval sul an potenciali emorCileba kanons: arafris kanons _ moqmedebis aris damokidebuli stimulaciis intensivobaze, Tuki is gansazRvrul zRurbls aRwevs. miaRwevs Tu ara amagznebeli impulsi zRurbls, iwyeba potencialis generireba. Tuki gaRizian eba qvezRurblovania, potenciali ver aRmocendeba. sul an arafris kanonis damatebi Ti Sedegia is, rom moqmedebis potencialis zoma ar icvleba aqsonis mTel sigrZeze _ moqmedebis potenciali TviTgavrcelebadia, erTxel dawyebuls, mas ar sWirdeba gar eSe stimulacia. sxvadasxva gavrcelebis neironebis neironebSi siCqare aqsonebi aq sonis gaswvriv yvelaze moqmedebis ufro potencialis signali garsiT, gansxvavebulia. dafarulia swrafebSi mielinis

moZraobs 200 m/wm-Si siCqariT, yvelaze ufro nelSi ki – 10 sm/wm-Si. swrafi mWidrod Semoxveuli romelic, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, gliuri ujredebisgan Sedgeba da aqson i

115 emsgavseba simze acmul mokle milTa erTobliobas. milakebs Soris arsebul sivrces ranvies Seviwroveba ewodeba (suraTi 3.16). mielinis garsian neironebSi moqmedebis potenciali „xtunaobs“ erTi Seviwrovebidan meoreze, riTac zogav s aqsonis yvela ubanze ionuri arxebis gaxsna-daxurvisaTvis saWiro drosa da energ ias. mielinis garsis dazianeba iwvevs moqmedebis potencialis gavrcelebis Seneleb as da bevri problemis safuZveli xdeba. gafantuli sklerozi (MS) erT-erTi im saSin el daavadebaTagania, romelic aqsonebis demielinizaciiTaa gamowveuli. misTvis dam axasiaTebelia ormagi gamosaxulebis aRqma, kankali, da, sabolood, dambla. gafantu li sklerozis dros sxeulis specializebuli imunuri ujredebi Slian mielinizebuli neironebis garss da azianeben normalur sinafsur gadacemas (Joyce, 1990). • • • ionuri arxebi – nervuli ujredis membranis nawilebi, romlebic ionTa SerCeviT ganvladobas uzrunvelyofen. sul an arafris kanoni – moqmedebis potencialis zoma ar aris stimulaciis intensivobaze damokidebuli garkveuli zRurblis Semdeg. refraqter uli periodi – mosvenebis periodi, romlis ganmavlobaSic axali nervuli impulsi ver warmoiqmneba aqsonis segmentSi. mas mere, rac moqmedebis potenciali aqsonis garkveul ubans gaivlis, am segmentze yalibdeba e.w. refraqteruli periodi (suraTi 3.19 3.22). absoluturi refraqteruli periodis dros momdevno stimulacia, rac ar unda intensiuric iyos igi, ver iwvevs moqmedebis potencialis generirebas; SefardebiTi refraqteruli periodis dros neironi ganimuxteba mxolod normalurze ufro Zlieri impulsis sapasuxod. gicdiaT unitazis Carecxva, rodesac is wyliT ivseba? unitazSi unda arsebobdes wylis kritikuli done, rom mas Carecxvis saSualeba hqondes. amis msgavsad, imisaTvis rom neironma aRidginos axali da moqm edebis Tavidan potencialis aicilos generirebis unari, is unda „gadaimuxtos“ qvezRurblovani stimulacia. refraqteruli periodi uzrunvelyofs moqmedebis potencialis mxolod erTi mimarTulebi T gavrcelebas: _ mas ar SeuZlia ukan dabruneba, radganac aqsonis winamdebare seg mentebi refraqterul mdgomareobaSia. sur. 3.19. eleqtruli cvlilebebis droSi droSi ganawileba moqmedebis potencialis dros

natriumis ionebi, romlebic neironSi Semodis, depolarizaciis gziT iwveven mosvenebis mdgomareobaSi arsebuli mosvenebis msubuqad uaryofiTi

116 potencialis Secvlas msubuqad pozitiuriT. rodesac neironi depolarizebulia, masSi mokle refraqteruli periodi myardeba, romlis drosac momdev no stimulacias axali moqmedebis potencialis gamowveva ar SeuZlia. axali moqmedeb is potenciali SeiZleba aRmocendes mxolod maSin, rodesac aRdgeba ionuri balansi g are da Sida areebs Soris. sinafsuri gadacema sinafsuri rodesac aqsonuri potenciali daasrulebs mis mogzauro bas aqsonis gaswvriv da miaRwevs terminalur balTas, man unda gadasces informacia mezobel nei rons. magram neironebi erTmaneTs ar exeba. isini sinafsebs qmnian, patara sinafs uri napraliT presinafsur membranasa (informaciis gadamcemi neironis terminaluri balTa) da postsinafsur membranas (mimRebi neironis dendtritis an somis zedapiri) Soris. rodesac moqmedebis potenciali aRwevs terminalur balTas, is iwvevs moqmed ebaTa mTeli jaWvis gaaqtivebas, romelsac sinafsuri gadacema ewodeba da romelic warmoadgens informaciis gadacemas erTi neironidan meoreze sinafsuri napralis gavliT (suraTi 3.20 3.23). sinafsuri gadacema iwyeba, rodesac moqmedebis potenciali aqsonur daboloebaSi iwvevs patar a sferosebri buStukebis, sinafsuri vezikulebis, moZraobas aqsonuri daboloebis Si da membranisaken da masTan mimagrebas. yoveli vezikulis SigniT sxva neirotransmi teria neironebis moTavsebuli – bioqimiuri moqmedebis nivTiereba, romelic stimulire bas iwvevs. potenciali aseve iwvevs ionuri arxebis gaxsnas da kalciumis Semosvlas aqsonur ar sebuli daboloebaSi, rac sinafsuri vezikulebis gaskdomas da maTSi Semdeg neirotra nsmiteris membranas. gamoTavisuflebas sinafsuri ganapirobebs. amis neirotransmiteri Zalian swrafad gadadis sinafsur napralSi da aRwevs postsinafsur gadacemis dasrulebisaTvis, arsebul neirotransmiterebi ukavSirdeba postsinafsur membranaze receptorul molekulebs. sur. 3.20. sinafsuri gadacema moqmedebis potenciali presinafsur neironSi iwvevs neirotransmiterebis gamoTavisu flebas erTi da igive sinafsur neironis napralSi, SigniT risi gadalaxvis mravali Semdegac, isini astimulireben postsinafsur membranaSi arsebul receptorul molekul ebs. SeiZleba neirotransmiteri arsebobdes.

117 • • • sinafsi – or neirons Soris arsebuli naprali. sinafsuri gadacema – erTi neironidan me oreze informaciis gadacemis procesi sinafsuri napralis gaswvriv. neirotransmiter ebi – qimiuri mesenjerebi, romlebic neironebidan gamoiyofa, gaivlis sinafss, aRwev s meore neirons da mis stimulacias iwvevs. neirotransmiteri ukavSirdeba receptorul molekulas ori winapirobis Sesrulebis Sem deg. pirveli, sxva arc erTi neirotransmiteri, an qimiuri nivTiereba formas ar Se iZleba forma rogorc daukavSirdes unda ergeba ver receptorul klites. Tu molekulas ; romelime meore, piroba imas neirotransmiteris ise, Seesabamebodes receptoruli molekulis gasaRebi darRveulia, neirotransmiteri daukavSirdeba receptors, rac niSnavs, rom postsinafsuri membranis stimulireba SeuZlebeli iqneba. Tuki neirotr ansmiteri daukavSirda receptorul molekulas, mas SeuZlia mezobel neirons gadasces ra informacia funqcias, „ganmuxtvis“ an „arganmuxtvis“ Sordeba Sesaxeb. Seasrulebs Tavi s neirotransmiteri receptorul molekulas da ukan, sinafsur napralSi gadadis. aq is an iSleba enzimebis zemoqmed ebis receptorul Sedegad an ukuSeiwoveba aqsonuri daboloebis mier ganmeorebiTi ga moyenebis mizniT. molekulaze damokidebulebiT, neirotansmiters SeiZleba hqondes a mgznebi, an Semakavebeli efeqti. e.i. erTi da igive neirotransmiteri SeiZleba iy os amgznebi erTi sinafsisaTvis da Semakavebeli meorisaTvis. TiToeuli neironi amu Savebs miRebul informacias aTasidan aTi aTas axali neironTan erTad moqmedebis im isaTvis, rom swored gadawyvitos, am aTasobiT warmoqmnas Tu ara amgznebi da potenciali. Semakavebeli informaciis integracia aZlevs saSualebas moqmedebis potencials Seqmnas adamianis gamocdilebis safuZveli. Tqven albaT gsurT gaigoT, ratom ganvixilavT ase detalur ad nervul sistemas. es xom fsiqologiis kursia, romelic Seiswavlis qcevas, azrovnebasa da emociebs. sinamdvileSi, sinafsebi swored is biologiuri mediumia, romelTa meSveobiTac yvela es qmedeba xorcieldeba. Tuki Tqven SecvliT sinafsis no rmalur aqtivobas, Tqven cvliT adamianTa qcevas, maT azrovnebas da grZnobebs. sin afsis muSaobis principebis gagebam SesaZlebeli gaxada ukeT gagvego daswavlisa da mexsierebis meqanizmebi, da, zogadad, emociebi, sulieri fsiqologiuri aSlilobebi

, wamaldamokidebuleba,

118 janmrTelobis qimiuri formula. am TavSi miRebuli codna Tqven dagexmarebaT gaigoT mTeli wigni _ fsiqologia da cxovreba. neirotransmiterebi da maTi funqciebi tvinSi neirotransmiteris funqcias asrulebs 60-ze meti sxvadasxva qimiuri substancia. intensiurad Seswavlili neirotransmiterebi garkveul teqnikur kriteriumebs akmayofileben. TiToeuli maTgani gamomuSavdeba presinafsur aqsonur d aboloebaSi da gamoTavisufldeba, rodesac moqmedebis potenciali aRwevs am daboloeb as. neirotransmiteris arseboba sinafsur napralSi iwvevs postsinafsuri membranis biologiur pasuxs da, Tu misi gamoTavisufleba ar Sedga, Sesabamisi pasuxi ver gam oiwveva. imisaTvis, im rom Tqven SegeqmnaT warmodgena, Tu ra gavlenas axdenen sxvadasxva neirotransmiterebi qcevis regulaci aze, romlebic Cven gansaxilvelad yvelaze ufro gTavazobT neirotransmiterebs, nerv uli sistemis aseve miCneulia mniSvnelovnad warmatebuli yoveldRiuri funqcionirebisaTvis. mokle diskusia SesaZlebels gaxdis imis gagebas, Tu ra xdeba, rodesac neirotransmiterebis moqmed eba irRveva. acetilqolini acetilqolini sistemaSi. ZiriTadad darRvevas gvxvdeba rogorc daavadebis centralur , dros ise periferiul daavadeba, nervul romelic mexsierebis dazianeba. alchaimer is asakovan iwvevs (degeneratiuli pacientebSi gvxvdeba) pacientebSi neironebis acetilqolinis

sekretoruli acetilqolini aseve amgznebad moqmedebs nerv-kunTovan SeerTebaSi, sadac is kunTeb is SekumSvas iwvevs. mraval toqsins SeuZlia acetilqolinis sinafsuri moqmedebis S ecvla. magaliTad, botulinumis toqsini, romelic arasworad konservirebul acetilqol inis indielebis mier sakvebSi xSirad gamoyenebuli gvxvdeba, wamlavs sasunTq Sxam i, romliTac adamians, aferxebs ra kurare, isrebis amazoniis boloebs isini gamoTavisuflebas sistemaSi. wamlaven, iwvevs sasunTqi kunTebis damblas acetilqolinis receptorebis blokirebis gziT, xels uSlis ra neirotransmiteris normalur sinafsur aqtivobas. gaemi gaemi (gama-amino-erbos-mJava) Semakavebeli Tavis tvinSi yvelaze gaemi ufro farT od sinafsebis gavrcelebuli neirotransmiteria. tvinis daaxloebiT erT mesamedSi gamoiyeneba rogorc mesenjeri. gaem-mgrZnobiare

119 neironebi tvinis iseT regionebSia lokalizebuli, rogorebicaa Talamusi, hipoTalamu si da kefis wili. gaemi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs fsiqopaTologiis zogierT formaSi, akavebs ra neironul aqtivobas. rodesac am neiro transmiteris done klebulobs, adamianebSi es iwvevs damatebiT nervul aqtivobas, romelic SfoTvaSi gamoixateba (Paul et al., 1986). SfoTvebs xSi rad mkurnaloben benzodiazepinebis Semcveli wamlebiT, rogoric valiumi da qsanaqsi a, romlebic gaem dones zrdian (Ballenger, 1999). benzodiazepinebi pirdapir ar uk avSirdeba gaem receptorebs, samagierod isini xels uwyoben gaems Tavad ufro efeqt urad daukavSirdes postsinafsur receptorul molekulebs. dofamini, norepinefrini da serotonini kateqolaminebi warmoadgenen qimiuri substanciebis klass, romelic or mniSvnelovan neirotransmiters, dofaminsa da norepinefrins Seicavs. orive maTgani umniSvnelov anes rols TamaSobs iseT fsiqologiur daavadebebSi, rogoricaa guneba-ganwyobilebis aSlilobebi da Sizofrenia. norepinefrini CarTulia depresiis zogierT formaSi: wam lebi, romlebic tvinSi am neirotransmiteris donis momatebas uwyoben xels, xasiaTis gaumjobesebasa da depre siis Semsubuqebas iwveven. sawinaaRmdegod, normaze maRali dofaminis Semcveloba w amlebis nanaxia gamoyeneba, SizofreniiT romlebic daavadebulebSi. tvinSi rogorc d onis periodSi Tqven albaT ggoniaT, am daavadebis mkurnalobis erT-erTi SesaZlebloba iqneboda iseTi dofamini s adreul Semcirebas warmoiqmna gamoiwvevda. medikamentozuri mkurnalobis saintereso, magram naklebad saxarbielo problema. wamlis maRali dozebis gamoyeneb am Sizofreniis winaaRmdeg gamoiwvia parkinsonis daavadebis niSnebi – progresuli da fataluri daavadebis, romelic moZraobis darRvevebs iwvevs (parkinsonis daavadebis mizezia dofaminis masinTezirebeli neironebis gamo fitva). am monacemebma aiZuila mecnierebi daewyoT kvleva Sizofreniisa da parkins onis daavadebis medikamentozuri mkurnalobis gasaumjobeseblad. yvela neironi, rom elic serotonins gamoimuSavebs, moTavsebulia tvinis ReroSi, romelic agznebisa da mravali sxva avtonomiuri procesis regulaciaSia CarTuli. halucinogenuri nivTiereba LSD (lizerginis mJavas dieTilami di) moqmedebs serotoninerguli neironebis efeqtebis daTrgunvis gziT. es serotonin erguli neironebi Cveulebriv sxva neironTa Sekavebas iwveven, magram LCD-Ti gamow veuli Sekavebis nakleboba iwvevs cocxal da uCveulo emociebs, romelTagan zogi ram odenime saaTi grZeldeba. bevri

120 antidepresanti, mag. prozaki, aZlierebs serotoninis aqtivobas, xels uSlis ra mis mocilebas sinafsuri napralidan (Barondes, 1994). • neiromodulatori – substancia, romlic cvlis an amodulirebs postsinafsuri neironis a qtivobas. endorfinebi endorfinebi qimiur nivTierebaTa jgufia, romelTac Cveulebriv neiromodulatorebs uw odeben. neiromodulatori aris substancia, romelic cvlis an amodulirebs postsinafs uri morfinebi) neironis aqtivobas. rols endorfinebi TamaSoben (Semoklebulia endogenuri mniSvnelovan emociuri qcevisa (SfoTva, SiSi, daZabva, siamovneba) da tkivilis kontrolSi – opium isa da morfis msgavsi nivTierebebi tvinSi erTi da igive receptorebs ukavSirdeba. endorfinebs uwodeben „samoTxis gasaRebs“ maTi siamovnebis gamomwvevi Tvisebis gamo. gamokvleul iqna SesaZlebloba, rom endorfinebi nawilobr iv mainc pasuxismgebelia tkivilis Semamsubuqebel efeqtebze akupunqturisa da placebos dros (Fields & Levine, 1984; Murray, 1995; Watkins & M ayer, 1982). es testebi emyareba nivTiereba naloqsonis gamoyenebas, romelic morf inisa iwvevs, da endorfinebis receptorebis romelic blokirebas endorfinebis iwvev s. nebismieri dros tkivilgamayuCebeli procedura, gamoTavisuflebas ineqciis araefeqturia naloqsonis miRebisas. naloqsonis akupunqtura da placebo kargavs Tavis Zalas, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom swored endo rfinebi ganapirobebdnen maT zemoqmedebas. mecnierebma uCvenes, rom iseTi airebi, rogoricaa naxSirbadis monooqsidi da azotis oqsidi, moqmedeben rogorc neirotrans miterebi (Barinaga, 1993). am axali klasis warmomadgenlebi ar emorCilebian neiro transmiterebis moqmedebis tradiciulad Camoyalibebul principebs. magaliTad, Cvens mier aRweril neirotransmiterTagan gansxvavebiT, imis magier, rom daukavSirdnen receptorul molekulebs, es airadi transmiterebi pirdapir ganWolaven mimRebi ujred is gare membranas. am gasaocarma aRmoCenam unda dagarwmunoT, rom Tavis tvinSi je r kidev bevri saidumlo unda gaixsnas. wignis am TavSi Cven mokled ganvixileT is SesaniSnavi da araCveulebrivi samyaro, Tqveni tvini, romelic mxolod kilonaxevars iwonis. erTia, imis Secnoba, rom tvini akontrolebs qcevas da Tqven sulier proce sebs, magram meorea imis gageba, Tu rogor axorcielebs tvini yvela am funqcias. neiromecnierebi CarTulni arian am gasaocari problemis amoxsnaSi, rom

121 gaigon tvinis SigniT da garemosa da tvins Soris mimdinare procesebi. Tqven axla ukve gaqvT sabaziso codna, romelic dagexmarebaT damatebiTi codnis SeZenaSi. Seja meba neironTa ZiriTadi tipebia sensoruli, motoruli da interneironebi. Tavis tvin is gliuri neironTa umravlesoba interneironia, ganimuxteba romlebic amgznebi garS emortymulia da Semakavebeli ujredebiT. neironebi impulsebis Sesabamisi balansis miRebis sapasuxod. neironebi sul an arafris kanon is Sesabamisad agzavnian informacias moqmedebis potencialis saxiT aqsonis gaswvr iv. neirotransmiterebi Tavisufldeba sinafsur napralSi da gadascemen dakavSirebis mniSvnelovani informacias gziT. mezobeli neironis receptorul molekulasTan iseTi _ mravali sasicocxlo procesia damokidebuli rogorebicaa neirotransmiterebis moqmedebaze, acetilqolamini, dofamini da serotonini. fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: _ rogor gav lenas axdens cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba tvinze? wignis am Tavis wakiTxvisas, Tqve n axal informacias iZenT – niSnavs Tu ara es, rom Tqveni tvini icvleba? _ savaraud oa! studentebi, romlebic pirvelad tvinze. klasikuri cdebis seria, romelic mark r ozencvaigisa da misi kolegebis mier iqna Catarebuli, aCvenebs gansxvavebebs virT agvebs Soris, romlebic gamdidrebul da gaRaribebul garemoSi aRizardnen (Rosenzwei g, 1996, 1999b). gaRaribebul yoveldRiurad garemoSi virTagvebi marto iyvnen moTav sebuli periodis galiaSi; gamdidrebul garemoSi isini mozrdil galiaSi sxvebTan erT ad iyvnen da ecvlebodaT saTamaSoebi. garkveuli (ramodenime Sedian SexebaSi Tanam edrove neiromecnierebasTan, xSirad interesdebian, Tu rogor gavlenas axdens cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba maT kvira da Tve) Semdeg mecnierebma Seiswavles virTagvebis tvini. Sedegebi dramatul i iyo. gamdidrebul garemoSi gazrdili virTagvebis saSualo tvini ufro mZime da msx vili – pozitiuri atributebi - iyo, vidre gaRaribebul garemoSi gazrdili cxovelebisa . SesamCnevi sxvaoba miiRweoda maSinac ki, rodesac mzardi, Semdeg virTagvebi ara med gamdidrebul garemoSi mxolod ramodenime areSi es dRiT Tavsdebodnen. sxvaoba z rdasrul virTagvebSic aRiniSneboda, anu, ara marto zrdasruli virTagvebic gamdidre bul imisa, moTavsebis gamokvleva uCvenebdnen upiratesobas. miuxedavad rom

122 virTagvebze Catarda, cdis Sedegebis gadatana adamianebzec SeiZleba: mdidar garem os dadebiTi gavlena aqvs tvinis ganviTarebasa da muSaobaze. tvinis damasuraTebel i aRmoCena, teqnikiT SesaZlebelia Zalzed specifikuri Sedegad gansxvavebebis romlebic cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis Camoyalibda. musikosebma, romlebic violinoze ukraven, Zalian natifad unda akontr olon marcxena xelis TiTebi. Tuki Tqven daubrundebiT 3.9 suraTs, naxavT rom senso ruli qerqis didi nawili TiTebs eZRvneba. tvinis skanirebam uCvena, rom qerqis ub nebi, pasuxismgebeli marcxena xelis TiTebze, meviolineebSi ufro didia, vidre sakontrolo jgufSi (Elbert et al., 1995). es efeq ti araa nanaxi marjvena xelis TiTebisaTvis, romelTac ar aqvT aseTi mniSvnelovani datvirTva violinoze dakvrisas. marcxena TiTebis reprezentacia sensorul qerqSi yvelaze ufro didi iyo im musikosebSi, romelTac vio linoze dakvra bavSvobaSi, 12 wlis asakamde daiwyes. Tqven, tvinis albaT, ukve if iqreT imaze, rom Cven stresi cxovrebiseul manamde – gamocdilebas rogorc rodesac Se uZlia aseve uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdinos tvinis muSaobaze. gaixseneT struqtura, u Cvenes, hipokampi, rom romelic aRvwereT, gadamwyveti mecnierebma struqtura konkretuli qronikuli mexsierebis CamoyalibebisaTvis. mdgomareoba, organizmis fizikuri da fsiqologiuri resursebi maqsimaluradaa daZabuli (ix. Tavi 13) – iwvevs hipokampis neironTa dendritebis atrofias (McEwen, 1999; Sapolsky, 199 6). zogierTi pirobebSi meTodebis rogorc Tqven, albaT, ukve mixvdiT, Sedegia mexs ierebis stresis formis kargaven darRveva. magaliTad, virTagvebi unars qronikuli labirinTSi romlebic orientaciis tvins

(Conrad et al., 1996). amocanaa im cxovrebiseuli neiromecnierebis Tanamedrove mimarTulebebis mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi aRmoCena, gamocdilebisagan daicaven. aseTi kvlevis Sedegebi yvelasaTvis sasargeblo iqneba. sakvanZo sakiTxebi memkvidreobiToba da qceva • saxeobebi • adamianTa gamoiwvia. war moiqmneba da icvleba drois ganmavlobaSi bunebrivi gadarCevis Sedegad. evoluciaSi, or fexze siarulma da encefalizaciam mniSvnelovani Sedegebi, maT Soris metyvelebisa da kulturis ganviTareba,

123 • memkvidreobiTobis mTavari erTeuli genia. genebi gansazRvraven im gavlenis CarCoe bs, romelsac garemo faqtorebi iwvevs da romlebic fenotipis cvlilebiT gamoixateba . biologia da qceva • neiromecnierebi uamrav sxvadasxva meTods iyeneben, rom tvins a da qcevas Soris damokidebuleba tvinis tvinis gaarkvion: tvinis dazianebis da m qone pacientTa eleqtruli teqnikis Seswavla, stimulacia, garkveuli aqtivobis ubnebis dazianeba, tvinis registracia, kompiuteruli meSveobiT tvinis gamosaxulebis miReba. • Tavisa da zurgis tvini centralur nervul s istemas (cns) qmnian. • periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns) Sedgeba neironebisagan, romlebic cnssa da sxeuls akavSireben. pns Sedgeba somaturi nervuli sistemisagan, romelic ConCxis kunTebis moqmedebas aregulirebs, da avtonomiuri nervuli sistemi sagan (ans), romelic aregulirebs sasicocxlo procesebs. • Tavis tvini Sedgeba sami urTierTdakavSirebuli Srisagan: _ tvinis Rero, limburi sistema da didi tvini. • tvi nis Rero pasuxismgebelia sunTqvaze, saWmlis monelebasa da guliscemaze. • limburi sistema monawileobs grZelvadiani mexsierebis, agresiis, kve biT da sqesobriv qcevebSi. • didi tvini akontrolebs umaRles mentalur procesebs. • zo gi funqcia lateralizebulia Tavis tvinis erT romelime hemisferoSi. magaliTad, ada mianTa umravlesobaSi metyvelebas marcxena hemisfero akontrolebs. • miuxedavad imis a, rom orive hemisfero erTad muSaobs, maT funqcionirebis sxvadasxva tipi axasiaT ebT: _ marcxena hemisfero ufro analitikuria, marjvena ki – holisturi. • individualur i gansxvavebebis fonze zogadi daskvnebi SeiZleba Seicvalos. magaliTad, mamakaceb sa da qalebs lateralizaciis gansxvavebuli saxeebi axasiaTebT. • endokrinuli hormon ebs. • hormonebi xels uwyoben zrdas, pirveladi da meoradi sasqeso niSnebis ganviTa rebas, metabolizms, saWmlis monelebasa da agznebas. sistema gamoimuSavebs da sis xlis nakadSi gamoyofs

124 • hipoTalamusi akontrolebs endokrinul sistemas hipofizis stimulirebis gziT. nervul i sistema moqmedebaSi • neironi, nervuli sistemis ZiriTadi erTeuli, iRebs, amuSave bs da gadascems informacias sxva neironebs, jirkvlebsa da kunTebs. • neironebi gadasceme n informacias dendritebidan ujredis sxeulis (soma) gavliT aqsonis gaswvriv termi naluri balTisaken. • sensoruli neironebi iReben informacias specializebuli recepto ruli ujredebidan informacias gadascemen da agzavnian mas cns-ken. da motoruli ne ironebi agzavnian cns-dan informacias kunTebisa jirkvlebisaken. neironebidan sxva interneironebi motorul an sensoruli interneironebs. • rodesac impulsaciis sumacia miaRwevs gansazRvrul zRurbls, moqmed ebis potenciali igzavneba aqsonis gaswvriv aqsonuri daboloebisaken. • sul an arafr is kanons damorCilebuli moqmedebis potenciali aRmocendeba, rodesac gaxsnili ionuri arxebi ujredis membranis Sida da gare areeb s Soris ionTa ganvladobas uzrunvelyofs. • neirotransmiterebi molekulebs. • aagzneben Tu Seakaveben es neirotransmiterebi membranas, damokidebulia receptoruli moleku lis bunebaze. ZiriTadi cnebebi • • • • gamoTavisufldeba sinafsur napralSi. napralis gadalaxvis Semdeg isini uerTdeba postsinafsuri membranis receptorul adamianis qcevis genetika amagznebeli „Sesavali“ asociaciuri qerqi avtonomiuri (ans) aqsoni brokas are bunebrivi gadarCeva genebi genetika genotipi glia nervuli sis tema • • • • • • • neiromodulatori neironi neirotransmiterebi nuSisebri kompleqsi parasimpaTikuri s istema periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns) PET (pozitronul-emisiuri skani tomograf ia) • • • • • • • • • • • retikuluri formacia refraqteruli periodi safeTqlis wili sasqeso qromosomebi

125 • • • • • dazianeba dendritebi didi tvini didi tvinis qerqi dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJav a) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • sensoruli neironi simpaTikuri sistema sinafsi sinafsuri gadacema smeniTi qerqi s oma somatosensoruli qerqi somaturi nervuli sistema sociobiologia sul an arafris kanoni tvinis Rero tvinis hemisferoebi terminaluri balTa testosteroni fenotipi f unqciuri magnetur-rezonansuli tomografia (fMRI) Semakavebeli „Sesavali“ Sublis wili centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) xidi hipoTalamusi hipokampi hipofizi homeostazi hormonebi • • • • • • • • • • • eleqtroencefalograma (eeg) endokrinuli sistema estrogeni Talamusi Txemis wili in terneironi ionuri arxebi kefis wili korZiani sxeuli limburi sistema magnetur-rez onansuli tomografia (MRI) memkvidreobiToba mogrZo tvini mosvenebis potenciali mo toruli neironi motoruli qerqi moqmedebis potenciali mxedvelobis qerqi naTxemi ne iromecniereba Tavi 4. SegrZnebebi • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • samyaros sensoruli Semecneba – – fsiqofizika fizikuri movlenebidan fsiqikuri movlene bisaken • mxedvelobis sistema – – – adamianis Tvali guga da broli badura

126 – – – • Tavis tvinisaken mimavali nervuli gzebi ferTa SegrZneba vizualuri obieqtebis kom pleqsuri analizi fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: SeuZlia teqnologiasDdazianebuli mxedvelobis aRdgena? • smenis SegrZneba – – – bgeris fizika bgeris fsiqologiuri ganzomilebebi smenis fiziolog ia • sxva SegrZnebebi – – – – – ynosva gemos SegrZneba Sexeba da kanis SegrZnebebi wonasworobis a da kinesTetikuri SegrZnebebi tkivili • fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ratom iwvevs cxare saWmeli tkivils? • sakvanZo sakiTxebi – ZiriTadi cnebebi

127 jonaTan i. iyo mxatvari. man Tavisi warmatebuli SemoqmedebiTi karieris ganmavlob aSi Seqmna mravali abstraqtuli tilo, romelic warmoadgenda kaSkaSa, cocxali fereb is didebul sinTezs. samocdaxuTi wlis asakSi man sruliad dakarga ferTa SegrZnebis unari Tavis tvinis dazianebis gamo. roca is uyurebda Tavis namuSevrebs, xedavda yovelives mxolod rux, Sav da TeTr ferebSi; Tuki is adre aRiqvamda ferebs, romle bic misTvis Rrma pirovnuli asociaciebis matarebeli iyo, axla igi xedavda mxolod “u swormasworo” da “WuWyian“ laqebs. es ar exeboda mxolod mis Semoqmedebas. cvlilebebi mo xda mis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSic. magaliTad, man SezRuda Tavisi sakvebi meniu mxol od Savi da TeTri saWmelebiT _ Savi zeTisxili da TeTri brinji gamoiyureboda misTv is gacilebiT ufro jansaR, normalur sakvebad, vidre feradi sakvebi, romelsac is a xla aRiqvamda usiamovno rux ferebSi da eCveneboda ugemuri. miuxedavad yovelive a misa, jonaTan i.-is istoria arc ise tragikuli aRmoCnda. jonaTan droTa i.-is ganm avlobaSi igi es Seegua am mdgomareobas, misi scada gaegrZelebina Tavisi Semoqmed eba da daiwyo xatva Savi da TeTri saRebavebiT. Tayvanismcemlebma aRiqves, rogorc SemoqmedebiTi karieris axali da saintereso etapi. maT ar icodnen, rom mxatvruli mimarTulebis Secvla ganpirobebuli iyo Tavis tvinis dazianebiT. jonaTan i. mixvd a, rom misma ucabedma ferTa sibrmavem vizualuri samyaros axali aspeqtebi gadauSa la win: “Tumca, jonaTan i. ar uaryofda imas, rom bevri ram dakarga da garkveulwila d swuxda amis gamo, magram man igrZno, rom misi mxedveloba gaxda “uaRresad daxvewi li”, privilegirebuli, rom is uyurebs wminda formebis samyaros, romelsac ar uSlis x els feri.” (Sacks, 1995, p.38). amrigad, miuxedavad imisa, rom jonaTan i.-im dakar ga ferTa SegrZnebis unari, misma sensorulma sistemam uzrunvelyo is samyaros axal i versiiT, romelic mas SeeZlo aReqva da gadaeqcia xelovnebad. dagafiqraT jonaTan i.-is istoriam Tqvens sakuTar sensorul SesaZleblobebze? dainteresebulxarT odesme, Tu rogor axerxebs Tqveni Tavis tvini, romelic gamomwyvdeulia Tavis qalis bnel, mdumare sakanSi, gagancdev inoT van gogis naxatebis ferTa sisavse, rok-n-rolis swrafi melodiebi da riTmi, s azamTros macocxlebeli gemo cxel zafxulSi, bavSvis kocnis rbili Sexeba, an mindvr is yvavilebis surneli gazafxulze? am TavSi Cven vecdebiT avxsnaT, Tu rogor axerx ebs Cveni sxeuli da tvini gaerkves stimulaciis im nakadSi, romelic mudmivad aris Cvens garSemo _ danaxuli

128 obieqtebSi, mosmenili bgerebSi da sxva mravalSi. Tqven dainaxavT, Tu rogor aRgWu rvaT evoluciam Tqven unariT, aRmoaCenT, gamoavlinoT rom gancdis sxvadasxva Tqven ganzomilebebi. SegrZnebebs, romliTac dagajildovaT bunebam, Zalian rTuli meqanizmi aqvs. es Tavi exeba Cveni gancdis Z iriTad biologiur elementebs: SegrZneba aris procesi, roca sensoruli receptoris g aRizianeba dasabams aZlevs nervul impulsebs, rac iwvevs sxeulis SigniT Tu gareT arsebuli pirobebis gancdas, maT gacnobierebas. mexuTe Tavi ki exeba perceptul pr ocesebs, romelic dakavSirebulia aqtivobasTan. centraluri SeiZleba nervuli sistem is ufro maRali donis gancdis igi ganisazRvros, rogorc sensoruli identifikacia, interpretacia, integracia da klasifikacia. Semdegi Tavis bolos Tq ven gaigebT, Tu rogor axerxebs Tqveni Tavis tvini sxvadasxva informaciis gaerTia nebas, raTa mogawodoT samyaros erTi mTliani suraTis gancda. • SegrZneba (sensation ) _ procesi, roca sensoruli receptoris gaRizianeba dasabams aZlevs nervul impuls ebs, rac iwvevs sxeulis SigniT Tu gareT arsebuli pirobebis gancdas, maT gacnobie rebas. SegrZnebebis samyaroSi mogzaurobis dawyebamde, neba momeciT, yuradReba ga vamaxvilo SegrZnebaTa ormag funqciaze: esaa TviTgadarCena da grZnobadoba (Sensuality). Tqveni SegrZnebebi, rogorc gamafrTxilebeli signali, ise gexmarebaT, gibiZgebT swrafad imoqmedoT safrTxis winaaRmdeg da warmarTavs Tqvens moqmedebas, raTa ganicadoT TqvenTvis ufro misaRebi SegrZnebebi. garda amisa, Tq veni SegrZnebebi gansazRvravs Tqvens grZnobadobas. gZrnobadia adamiani, romelic _ gatacebulia SegrZnebebisagan Sexebis, miRebuli Tu siamovnebis roca gancdiT. grZnobadoba iwvevs swrafvas, miiRoT da isiamovnoT mravalferovani SegrZn ebebiT mxedvelobis, smeniTi, gemosa ynosvis. waikiTxavT am Tavs, Tqven SeZlebT i msjeloT imaze, Tu rogor gexmarebaT SegrZnebis meqanizmebis codna, raTa aRmoaCino T grZnobadobis janmrTeli survili da iswavloT, Tu rogor SeiZleba miiRoT siamovneb a bgerebis, ferebis, sunebis, gemos da Sexebis samyaroSi. samyaros sensoruli Sem ecneba gare samyaros gancda unda iyos zusti da Tavisufali Secdomebisagan. sxvagv arad Tqven ver SeZlebdiT gadarCenas; Tqven gWirdebaT: ikveboT, raTa

129 SeinarCunoT arseboba; TavSesafari, romelic dagicavT; sxva adamianebTan urTierTob a, raTa daikmayofiloT socialuri moTxovnilebani da safrTxis gacnobiereba, raTa da icvaT Tavi. am moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaTvis Tqven unda miiRoT sando infor macia samyaros Sesaxeb. cxovelTa yvela saxeobam ganaviTara informaciis Segrovebi s garkveuli saxis specialuri meqanizmebi. adamiani ki ar aris specializebuli mxo lod erT gansakuTrebul sensorul sferoze: Tqven ara gaqvT iseTive srulyofili mxedv eloba, rogorc, magaliTad, Sevardens, iseTive maxvili smena, rogorc Ramuras da is eTive ynosva, rogorc mRrRnelebs. magram adamianebi arian aRWurvilni sensoruli me qanizmiT, romelic aZlevs maT SesaZleblobas, gadaamuSavos Semomavali rTuli sensor uli signalebis farTo speqtri. sakiTxis mniSvnelovnebis gamo, sensoruli procesebi s Seswavla yovelTvis inarCunebda istoriis gansakuTrebul ganmavlobaSi. adgils fsi qologiuri (Wundt, mecnierebis 1907) mTeli roca vundti eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis safuZvlebs qmnida, man mecnierebas SesTavaza idea, romlis mixedviT, SegrZnebebi da grZnobebi elementaruli procesebia, romelTagan igeba ufro rTuli ga ncdebi. titCenerma (Titchener, 1898) es idea Seitana amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi da SegrZnebam centraluri adgili daikava mis introspeqciul kvlevebSi cnobierebis Sinaarsebis Sesaxeb. rogorc mogvianebiT vnaxavT, SegrZnebis adreul fsiqologiuri kvlevebSi, ZiriTadad, Seiswa vleboda garemoSi mimdinare movlenebsa da adamianTa mier am movlenebis gancdas Soris kavSirebi. fsiqofizika ramdenad Zlieri unda iyos saxanZ ro gangaSis xma qarxanaSi, raTa muSebma gaigonon is momuSave manqanebis xmaurSi? ramdenad kaSkaSa unda iyos sinaTlis gamafrTxilebeli signali pilotis sakontrolo panelze, raTa misi sikaSkaSe orjer aRematebodes sxva ganaTebuli obieqtebis sikaSkaSes? ramdeni Saqari gWirde baT Wiqa yavaSi, raTa is TqvenTvis gaxdes tkbili? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad Cven unda SegveZlos sensoruli gancdis intensivobis gazomva. es aris fsiqofizikis ZiriTadi amocana _ Seiswavlos kavSiri fizikur gamRizianeblebsa da qcevas an im fsiqikur gancdebs Soris, romelsac es s timuli aRZravs. fsiqofizika fsiqologiuri mecnierebis uZvelesi sferoa (Levine & Shefner, 1981). yvelaze mniSvnelovani figura fsiqofizi kis istoriaSi iyo germaneli fizikosi gustav fexneri (Gustav Fechner1801_1887). f exnerma Semoitana termini

130 fsiqofizika da Seqmna meTodika, romelic akavSirebda fizikuri gamRizianeblis intensivobas _ gazomils fizikur erTeulebSi _ sensoruli gancdis si didesTan _ gazomils fsiqologiur erTeulebSi (Fechner, 1860/1966). fexneris sinaTl is, teqnika aris erTnairi nebismieri Tu modalobis SexebiTi stimulisaTvis _ bgeriTi, ynosviTi, gemos gamRizianeblisaTvis: mkvlevarebi gansazRvraven SegrZnebis zRurblebs da qmnian fsiqofizikur skalebs, r omelic akavSirebs SegrZnebis intensivobas gamRizianeblis intensivobasTan. absoluturi zRurblebi da sensoruli adaptacia rogoria gamRizianeblis is umciresi, usustesi energia, romlis SemCnevac SeuZlia o rganizms?"? magaliTad, ramdenad susti SeiZleba iyos toni, raTa jer kidev SesaZle beli iyos misi gagoneba? es kiTxvebi exeba stimulaciis absolutur romelic zRurbls saWiroa _ fizikuri energiis im minimalur raodenobas, mkvlevarebi sensoruli ganc dis warmosaqmnelad. absoluturi zRurblis gazomvisas sTxoven yuradRebiT myof damkvirveblebs, Seasrulon mravali SemCnevis amocana, magaliTad, xdeba SeamCnion mkrTali Suqi bnel oTaxSi an Seecadon gaigonon Zalian susti bgera srul siCumeSi. cdaTa seriis ganma vlobaSi sxvadasxva intensivobis stimulebis gamoyeneba da TiToeul cdaSi damkvirve blebi aRniSnaven, SeamCnies Tu ara is. (Tuki Tqven rodesme SegifasebiaT Tqveni s menis simaxvile, maSasadame, Tqven monawileoba migiRiaT absoluturi zRurblis gans azRvris testSi). absoluturi fsiqometruli gamRizianeblis intensivobis zRurblis fu nqciis mqone Seswavlis saxiT: Sedegebi SeiZleba RerZze RerZze SevajamoT gadazomi lia _ aRebuli tipiuri horizontalur vertikalur SemCnevaTa intensivobebi, xolo gamRizianeblebis procenti. fsiqometruli funqcia naCvenebia suraTze 4.1-ze 4.1-ze. suraTi 4.1 absoluturi zRurblis gamoTvla radganac gamRizianebeli ar xdeba meyseulad SesamCne

vi garkveul wertilSi, absoluturi zRurbli ganisazRvreba, rogorc intensivoba, 100 rodesac gamRizianebeli SesamCnevi xdeba SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. SemCnevaTa pr ocenti (“diax “ pasuxebi) Teoriuli zRurblis mrudi miRebuli zRurblis mrudi absoluturi zRurbli (SemCnevaTa 50%) 0 50

131 (dabali) (maRali) stimulis intensivoba (pirobiTi erTeuli) sinaTlis procenti; Zalian susti gamRizianeblis pirobebSi _ SemCneva 100 aris 0 im xolo kaSkaSa gamRizianeblis pirobebSi procenti. SemTxvevaSi, rom yofiliyo erTaderTi, WeSmariti absoluturi zRurbli, mosalodneli i qneboda SemCnevaTa procentis gadaxra 0%-dan 100%-mde Zalian mkveTrad da grafikic gaswordeboda wertilSi, sadac miaRwevda zRurbls. magram es ar xdeba, sul mcire, ori mizezis gamo: damkvirveblebi, nawilobriv, yovelTvis icvlebian mcirediT, roca cdiloben gamRizianeblis SemCnevas (yuradRebis cvlilebis, daRlilobis da sxva miz ezebis gamo) da zogjer isini dadebiTad pasuxoben gamRizianeblis ararsebobis piro bebSic. (mcdari gangaSis saxe, romelsac signalis SemCnevis Teoriis aRwerisas mok led SevexebiT,). amrigad, fsiqometruli mrudi yovelTvis aris gluvi, S-formis mrudi, r omelSic aris monakveTi, sadac xdeba gadasvla sruli SeumCnevadobisagan gamRiziane blis drodadro SemCnevadobisaken da Semdgom sruli SemCnevadobisaken. radganac Ses amCnevi garkveuli nebismier intensivobis dros, gamRizianebeli ar xdeba aSkarad absoluturi zRurblis operacionaluri gansazRvreba iqneba Semdegnairi: es aris gamRizianeblis done, romelzedac xdeba s ensoruli signalis SemCneva SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. cxrilSi # 4.1 naCvenebia absol uturi zRurblis done ramdenime nacnobi bunebrivi gamRizianeblisaTvis. sxvadasxva sensoruli modalobis zRurblebi SeiZleba gaizomos analogiuri proceduriT, ubralod u nda Seicvalos gamRizianeblis ganzomileba. 4.1. movlenebisaTvis cxrili 4.1. miaxloebiTi zRurble bi nacnobi movlenebisaTvis sensoruli modaloba sinaTle bgera gemo SemCnevis zRurb li sanTlis ali, 48 km manZilze srul sibneleSi saaTis wikwiki srul siCumeSi 6 m m anZilze erTi Cais kovzi Saqari 9 l wyalze

132 ynosva Sexeba • fsiqofizika sunamos erTi wveTi gafantuli samoTaxiani binis mTel sivrceSi 1 santimetris simaR lidan loyaze daSvebuli futkris frTa (psychophysics) _ mecniereba fizikuri stimulaciisa da fsiqologiuri SegrZnebis Sesatyvisobis Sesaxeb. • absoluturi zRurbli (absolute thre shold) _ fizikuri energiis is minimaluri raodenoba, romelic is saWiroa sensoruli gancdis warmosaqmnelad; done, operacionalurad ganisazRvreba, rogorc gamRizianeb lis romelzedac xdeba sensoruli signalis SemCneva SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. • fsiqometruli funqcia (psychometric function) _ grafiki, romelic asaxavs gamRizianeblis SemCn evaTa procents (vertikalur RerZze) gamRizianeblis TiToeuli intensivobisaTvis (ho rizontalur RerZze). Tumca, SesaZlebelia SemCnevis absoluturi zRurblis gansazRvra , mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom Tqveni sensoruli sistema ufro mgrZnobiarea sensoru li sistemebi garemos iseTnairad cvlilebebisadmi, viTardebian, adaptaciis Tqven v idre xels procesis myari mdgomareobebisadmi. axali garemo sensoruli mzis kaSkaSa rom uwyoben signalebisadmi gaRizianebaze.1 SeCvevas magaliTad, saSualebiT. rom adaptacia aris sensoruli sistemebis mgrZnobiarobis daqveiTeba xangrZliv albaT Se giniSnavT, sinaTle Cans naklebad damabrmaveblad, roca Tqven garkveuli periodis g anmavlobaSi imyofebiT gareT. adaptaciis yvelaze sasurveli gamocdileba adamianebs aqvT ynosvis sferoSi: Tu Tqven SedixarT oTaxSi, sadac mZafri suni dga s, garkveuli drois Semdeg Tqveni ynosviTi sistema adaptirdeba da sunis SegrZneba c Semcirdeba. garemo, romelSic Tqven cxovrobT, yovelTvis savsea mravalferovani s ensoruli gamRizianeblebiT. adaptaciis meqanizmi Tqven gaZlevT saSualebas, SeamCn ioT da imoqmedoT ufro swrafad informaciis axali wyaros moTxovnebis Sesatyvisad. pasuxis sistematuri Secdoma da signalis SemCnevis Teoria Cvens mier zemoT ganxilul TavebSi Cven vgulisxmobdiT, rom yvela damkvirvebeli er Tnairia, magram absoluturi zRurblis gazomvaze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos, agreTv e, pasuxis sistematurma Secdomam _ sistematurma tendenciam, romlis drosac damkvi rvebeli reagirebs gansakuTrebuli gziT 1 adaptacia aris ara mxolod mgrZnobiarobis daqveiTeba, aramed misi momatebac sus ti intensivobis gamRizianeblis zemoqmedebis pirobebSi. (redaqtoris SeniSvna).

133 iseTi faqtorebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad, romlebic ar arian dakavSirebulni stimulis sensorul TvisebebTan. vTqvaT, Tqven monawileobas iRebT eqsperimentSi, romelSic gevalebaT SeamCnioT susti sinaTle. eqsperimentis pirvel seriaSi mkvlevari gaZlevT 5 dolars, Tuki Tqven sworad upasuxebT: “diax, aris sinaT le”. meore seriaSi, mkvlevari gaZlevT 5 dolars, Tuki sworad upasuxebT: 2 “ara, ar ar is sinaTle”. araswori TiToeul seriaSi Tqven jarimdebiT dolariT nebismieri pasuxisaTvis. SegiZliaT warmoidginoT dajildovebis es struqtura, rogor Seqmnis gadaxras pasuxis sistematu r SecdomaSi erTi seriidan meoreSi gadasvlisas? gana ar ityviT “diax”-s ufro xSirad p irvel seriaSi, vidre meoreSi, Tundac warmodgenili stimulebi erTnairi donis SemCn evadobiT xasiaTdebodnen? • sensoruli adaptacia (sensory adaptation) _ movlena, roc a receptoruli ujredebi kargaven TavianT Zalas, moaxdinon reagireba garkveuli periodis ganmavlo baSi ucvlel gamRizinebelze; is iZleva ufro swrafi reagirebis saSualebas informac iis axal wyaroze. • pasuxis romelic sistematuri Sedegia Secdoma (response bias) xa siaTis _ sistematuri tendencia, arasensoruli faqtorebis zemoqmedebisa damkvirvebelze da ganapirobebs garkveuli gziT reagirebas. signalis SemCnevis Teo ria aris sistemuri midgoma pasuxis sistematuri Secdomis problemisadmi (Green & S wets, 1966). signalis SemCnevis Teoria nacvlad mkacrad fokusirebisa sensorul procesebze, yuradRebas amaxvilebs Tavad ms jelobis procesze gamRizianeblis SemCnevis arsebobisa Teoria Tu ararsebobis or Se saxeb. maSin, roca klasikuri fsiqofizika axdens erTaderTi absoluturi zRurblis ga nsazRvras, signalis gansazRvravs gansxvavebul process sensorul deteqciaSi: (1) s awyisi sensoruli procesi, romelic asaxavs damkvirveblis mgrZnobiarobas gamRizian eblis siZlieris mimarT da (2) Semdgomi gadawyvetilebis miRebis damoukidebeli pro cesi, romelic asaxavs damkvirveblis pasuxis sistematur Secdomas. signalis modeli SemCnevis Teoria suraTze gvTavazobs 4.2 susti orive _ sensoruli da gadawyvetilebis procesebis erTdrouli Sefasebis proceduras. ZiriTadi mocemulia st imuli roca warmodgenilia isini cdaTa rom naxevarSi; meore naxevarSi stimuli saer Tod ar aris warmodgenili. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi damkvirveblebi pasuxoben “diax”, fiqro ben,

134 stimuli warmodgenilia da “ara”, roca isini fiqroben, rom stimuli ar aris. rogorc naC venebia naxatze, matrica A-ze, TiToeuli pasuxi daTvlilia rogorc warmatebuli damTxveva, pasuxis gamotoveba, mcdari gangaSi, an swori reaqc ia, imisda Sesabamisad, warmodgenili iyo Tu ara stimuli da pasuxobda Tu ara damk virvebeli sworad. damkvirvebeli, romelic qronikulad ambobda “diax”-s, iZleoda warmatebuli damTxvevebis did raodenobas da, agreTve, mcdari gangaSis did ricxvs, rogorc es naCvenebia matrica B-ze. is, vinc qronikulad ambobda “ara”-s, iZleoda rog orc warmatebuli damTxvevebis, aseve, mcdari gangaSis mcire raodenobas, rogorc es naCvenebia matrica C-ze. A. miRebuli pasuxi diax ara signal signal i ar i aris aris warmatebuli damTxveva pasuxis gamotoveba mcdari gangaSi swori pasuxi B. “diax” pasuxebisaken midrekili . diax ara signal signal i ar i aris aris 92% 8% 46% 54% C. “ara” pasuxebisaken midrekili diax ara signal signal i ar i aris aris 40% 60% 4% 96% sur. 4.2 signalis SemCnevis Teoria

135 matrica A gviCvenebs SesaZlo Sedegebs, roca subieqts ekiTxebian aris Tu ara mizn obrivi stimuli mocemul cdaSi. matricebi B da C - tipiur pasuxebs, roca subieqti midrekilia “diax” pasuxebisaken da “ara” pasuxebisaken. warmatebuli damTxvevebisa da mcdari gangaSis procentebze muSaobis procesSi mkvlevarebma gamoiyenes maTematikuri procedura, raTa gamoeTvalaT cal-ca lke damkvirveblis mgrZnobiarobisa da pasuxis sistematuri Secdomis maCveneblebi. es procedura SesaZleblobas iZleva davadginoT, aqvs Tu ara or damkvirvebels erTna iri mgrZnobiaroba miuxedavad didi gansxvavebisa pasuxebSi. sensoruli procesebis gamoyofiT pasuxis sistemuri Secdomisagan, signalis SemCnevis Teoriam saSualeba m isca eqsperimentators, ganesazRvra da ganecalkevebina sensoruli gamRizianeblisa da individis faqtoris roli erTmaneTisagan saboloo pasuxis Camoyalibebisas. • signa lis SemCnevis Teoria (signal detection theory _ SDT) aris statistikuri midgoma p asuxis sistematuri Secdomisadmi, romelmac saSualeba misca eqsperimentators, gane sazRvra da ganecalkevebina da individis faqtoris roli erTmaneTisagan. signalis S emCnevis Teoriis midgoma gvTavazobs gadawyvetilebis miRebis models, romelic SeiZ leba gamoyenebul iqnas gansxvavebul konteqstSic. Zalian xSirad gadawyvetilebani jildoebs da dasjas mosawyeni magaliTad, yoveli yoveli Tuki saRamo Sansi Tuki Cve ns yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi da da kinoSi, moicavs swori mcdari amiT gansxvavebul pa suxebisaTvis gangaSisaTvis. aicileT warmatebuli gamotovebuli uaryaviT (swori Tqv en damTxvevisa signalisa mipatiJeba Tu sensoruli procesebisa Tavidan uaryofa), gaanadgureT Tqveni arsebobis siyvarulis wagebis gaxangrZlivebis magaliTad, (signalis “aras” Tqma gamotoveba)? stimulis gadawyvetileba, albaT, ganpirobebuli iqneba prognozirebuli mogebisa da Sefardebi T. SemTxvevaSi (signalis gamotoveba) ufro Zvirad gvijdeba, vidre “diax” pasuxi stimu lis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi (mcdari gangaSi), amjobineben gaakeTon operacia im S emTxvevebSic “diax” pasuxebi CvenTvis ki, roca ar arian gaxdeba norma. qirurgebi xSi rad arian msgavs situaciaSi. isini, Cveulebriv, darwmunebulni, rom simsivne avTv isebiania da, amgvarad, riskaven imiT, rom maTi pasuxi mcdari gangaSi iqneba; ga motovebuli signali ki _ avTvisebianoba, SeiZleba sikvdilis mizezi gaxdes. sazoga dod, gadawyvetilebis miRebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos arsebuli faqtebi, TiTo euli tipis Secdomis

136 SefardebiTi Rirebuleba da TiToeuli swori gadawyvetilebis SefardebiTi mogeba. sig nalis SemCnevis Teoria warmoadgens mniSvnelovan instruments gadawyvetilebis miRe bis procesebis kvlevisas. sxvaobis zRurbli warmoidgineT, rom dagiqiravaT sasmelebis kompaniam, romelsac surs awarmoos SesamCnevad ufro tkbili kolas produqti, vidre arsebulia, magram daamato s rac SeiZleba naklebi Saqari (fulis ekonomiis mizniT). Tqven gTxoven gazomoT sx vaobis zRurbli, zRurbli umciresi fizikuri sxvaoba or gamRizianebels gansxvavebul ebi. gamRizianebelTa Soris, romlebic SeiZleba gansazRvrul Tqven iqnas, rogorc sxvaobis wyvili zRurblis da SeekiTxoT gasazomad Tqvens unda gamoiyenoT aris ori damkvirveblebs, gamRizianebeli erTnairi Tu isini gansxvavebulebi arian. sasmelis problemis SemTx vevaSi Tqven miawodebT damkvirveblebs or kolas TiToeul cdaSi, romelTagan erTi iqneba standartuli receftis da meore odnav ufro tkbili. TiToeuli wyvilisaTvis individma unda Tqvas: “igivea” an “gansxvavebulia”. m ravali aseTi cdis Semdeg Tqven daxazavT fsiqometruli funqciis grafiks, sadac abs cisaTa RerZze gadazomavT realur gansxvavebebs da ordinataTa RerZze _ mis funqcia s _ rogorc wertili, romelzedac gamRizianeblebi arian “gansxvavebulia” gacnobierebuli , pasuxebis procentebs. sxvaobis zRurbli operacionalurad ganisazRvreba rogorc gansxvavebulni SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. sxvaobis zRurblis sidide aris cnobi li rogorc odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba aris sxvaoba. nebism ieri ori SegrZnebis fsiqologiuri gansxvavebis sididis sazomi raodenobrivi erTeul i. 1834 wels ernest veberma (Weber), sxvaobis zRurblis pirvelma mkvlevarma, aRmo aCina mniSvnelovani damokidebuleba, romelic ilustrirebulia suraTze 4.3. davuSvaT , Tqven atarebT sxvaobis zRurblis gansazRvris eqsperiments, romelSic gamoyenebul ia 10 mm sigrZis swori xazi _ standartuli nimuSi. am eqspermentis Casatareblad T qven warudgenT cdis monawileebs or xazs, romelTagan erTi aris 10 mm standartuli sigrZisa da meoris sigrZe mcired gansxvavdeba standartulisagan. monawileTa amoca naa, upasuxon, aris Tu ara es ori xazi erTnairi sxvaobis xazs sigrZis Tu gansxva vdebian aris 11 erTmaneTisagan. 1 Tqven 10 dainaxavT, milimetris SemTxvevaTa rom zRurbli miaxloebiT milimetris milimetri. sigrZis 50%-Si, ganasxvaveben ukve 20 sigrZis xazisagan magram milimetris

sigrZis standartuli

137 xazisaTvis 1 milimetris namati ar aris sakmarisi. Tqven dagWirdebaT 2 milimetris damateba, raTa miiRoT odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba. 40 milimetri sigrZis standartul i xazis gamoyenebisas ki dagWirdebaT 4 gviCvenebs, rom milimetris izrdeba damateba. suraTi 4.3 odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba Tanabrad standartuli xazis sigrZis zrdasTan erTad. rac rCeba mudmivi orive grZel i da mokle xazebisaTvis, es aris namatis odenobis sxvaobas. Sefardeba magaliTad, xazis 1 sigrZesTan, mm=0.1; 2 romelic mm/20 qmnis es odnav SesamCnev mm/10 mm=0 .1. damokidebuleba Sejamebulia veberis kanonSi or stimuls Soris odnav SesamCnevi sxvaobis kanonSi: Sefardeba standartuli stimulis intensivobasTan aris konstanturi sidide. amrigad, rac ufro didia an ufro intensiuria standartuli stimuli, miT ufro didi namatia s aWiro odnav SesamCnevi sxvaobis misaRebad. sur. 4.3 odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba da veberis kanoni: rac ufro grZelia standartuli xazi, miT ufro didia is odenoba, romelic unda daama toT (∆L), raTa dainaxoT odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba. sxvaobis zRurbli aris sigrZis na mati, romelic SesamCnevia cdaTa 50 % SemTxevaSi, Tuki Cven am namats SevafardebT zrdadi stimulis sigrZesTan, proporcia darCeba igive _ 1/10 standartuli sigrZisa . es namati gadazomilia vertikalur RerZze, xolo standartuli xazis sigrZe horizon talurze. miRebuli damokidebuleba wrfivia, rac gamoixateba swori xaziT grafikze. Cven SegviZlia viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom ∆L iqneba 0.5, roca standartuli xazis sigr Ze aris 5 milimetri. La -Lb = ∆L A B odnav grZeli xazi xazis standartuli 11.0-10.0=1.0 sigrZe 16.5 -15.0 = 1.5 11 mm 16,5 mm 22 mm 27,5 mm 10 mm 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 22.0 –20.0 = 2.0 27.5 – 25.0 = 2.5

138 3 sxvaobis zRurbli (∆L) veberis kanoni 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 5 10 15 20 25 standartuli xazis sigrZe (Lb) milimetrebSi ∆ L / Lb=0,1 es kanoni marTebulia nebismieri sensoruli sistemisaTvis. formula veberis kanonisaTvis Semdegi saxis iqneba: ∆I/I=k, sadac I aris standartuli intens ivoba, ∆I ki aris namati, im sxvaobis odenoba, romelic qmnis odnav SesamCnevi sxva obas. veberma aRmoaCina, rom TiToeuli stimulis parametrisaTvis arsebobs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli proporcia. am formulaSi k aris proporcia, anu veberis konstanta stimulis TiToeuli parametrisaTvis. (yuradRebiT ganixileT suraTi 4.3, raTa darwmundeT, rom kargad gaigeT, Tu ra aris odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba, veberis kanoni, Tu rogor ari an isini dakavSirebulni erTmaneTTan). veberis kanoni sakmaod zustia, magram is m ainc ar aris universaluri. magaliTad, maSin, roca stimulis intensivoba xdeba Zal ian maRali. cxrilSi 4.2 Tqven xedavT, rom veberis konstantas aqvs gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebi mniSvneloba gansxvaveba. ase stimulis niSnavs imas, gansxvavebuli rom es cxrili ganzomilebisaTvis SeuZlia giCvenebT, rom _ umciresi umciresi SegiZ liaT adamians SeamCnios Tqven magaliTad, bgeraTa sixSire ufro meti sizustiT ganasxvavoT erTmaneTisagan, vidre sinaTlis in tensivobebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, ufro advilad SemCnevadia, vidre sunisa da gemos u mciresi gansxvavebani. sasmelebis kompanias dasWirdeboda SedarebiT ufro didi rao denobis Saqris damateba, raTa awarmoos ufro tkbili kola! cxrili 4.2. veberis ganzomilebebisaTvis konstantis mniSvnelobebi stimulTa

arCeuli

139 stimulis ganzomileba veberis konstanta (k) ) bgeris sixSire sinaTlis intensivoba sunis koncetracia dawolis intensivoba bgeris intensivoba gemos koncentracia 0.0 03 0.01 0.07 0.14 0.15 0.20 • sxvaobis zRurbli (difference threshold) _ umciresi fizikuri gansxvaveba or gamRi zianebels rogorc ganisazRvreba Soris, rogorc romelic wertili, jer kidev SeiZleba gacnobierdes, arian gansxvavebulebi; sxvaobis zRurbli operacionalurad romelzec gamRizianeblebi gacnobierebuli, rogorc vaoba (just noticeable ris, romlebic SeiZleba rom sxvaobis zRurblis ia. gansxvavebulni SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. • odnav SesamCnevi sx difference _ JND) _ umciresi gansxvaveba or SegrZnebas So miCneul iqnan gansxvavebulebad. • veberis kanoni amtkicebs, sidide standartuli gamRizianeblis intensivobis proporciul

fizikuri movlenebidan fsiqikuri movlenebisaken fsiqofizikis ganxilvam gagvacnobierebina SegrZnebis umniSvnelovanesi saidumlo: r ogor xdeba, rom fizikuri energia dasabams aZlevs specifikur fsiqologiur gancdas? magaliTad, rogor aRmocendeba sinaTlis talRis sxvadasxva sigrZisagan cisartyelas gancda? sanam ganvixilavT specifikur sensorul sferoebs, zedapirulad mimovixiloT informaciis gadasvla fizikuri movlenebidan _ sinaTlisa da bgeris talRebidan, rT uli qimiuri nivTierebebidan da sxva, fsiqikuri movlenebisaken _ sinaTlis, bgeris , gemosa da ynosvis SegrZnebebisaken. sensoruli fiziologia Seiswavlis fizikuri m ovlenebis nervul movlenebad gardaqmnis biologiur meqanizmebs. am sferos mizania, aRmoaCinos, Tu r a xdeba nervul doneze im movlenaTa jaWvSi, romelic ganlagebulia fizikuri energii dan sensorul gancdamde. erTi formis fizikuri energiis, magaliTad, sinaTlis gadaq cevas meore formad _ nervul impulsad, ewodeba transformacia.

140 radganac yvela tipis sensoruli informacia transformirdeba nervuli impulsebis ide ntur tipSi, Tqveni Tavis tvini ganasxvavebs sensorul informacias imis saSualebiT, rom Tavis tvinis qerqis calkeul zonebs miusadagebs TiToeul sensorul sferos. mkvlevarebi cdiloben TiToeuli am sensoruli sferosaTvis transformacia nervuli daadginon, Tu rogor sistemis xdeba fizikuri energiis romel ic eleqtroqimiur aqtivobaSi, warmoSobs Tvisobrivad (magaliTad, wiTeli _ mwvane) da raodenobrivad (xmamaRali _ Cumi) ganxvavebul SegrZnebebs. nebismieri sensoruli sistemis moqmedebas biZgs aZlevs garemo movlenis an gamRizi aneblis SemCneva. garemo gamRizianeblebis SemCneva xdeba specializirebuli sensoruli receptorebis saSualebiT. (magaliTisaTvis, ix. cxrili 4.3) sensoruli receptorebi gardaqmnian sensoruli gamRizianeblis fizikur energias ujredis signalebad, romelic SeiZleba gadamuSavebuli iqnas nervuli sistemis mier . ujredis signalebi awvdian informacias ufro maRali donis neironebs, romlebic bl okebidan. informaciis am etapze integrirebas neironebi axdenen agroveben sxvadas xva deteqtoruli informacias stimulis ZiriTadi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb, rogoricaa misi zoma, intensivo ba, forma da manZili. sensoruli sistemebis siRrmeSi informacia kombinirebulia uf ro rTul kodebSi da is gadaecema Tavis tvinis qerqis specifikur asociaciis ubnebs , romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian SegrZnebisa da procesebze. 4.3 Sejamebulia stimulebi da receptorebi TiToeuli cxrilSi SegrZnebisaTvis. 4.3. fundamenturi cxrili 4.3. adamianis sensoruli sistema: fundamenturi Tvisebeb i SegrZneba mxedveloba stimulebi sinaTlis talRebi sensor uli organo Tvali recept ori Cxirebi da kolbebi SegrZneba ferebi, obieqtebi, teqstura, moZraoba, siRrme x mauri, toni Sexeba, tkivili, siTbo, sicive smena Sexebis SegrZnebebi bgeriTi talRebi eqsternaluri kontaqti yuri kani ynosva aqroladi cxviri ZiriTadi membranis bewviani ujredebi nervuli daboloebani kanSi (merke-lis diskeb i, rufinis sxeulebi) ynosvis suni (muskusi,

141 nivTierebebi gemo xsnadi nivTierebebi meqanikuri da gra-vitaciuli Zalebi sxeulis moZraoba ena organoebis bewviani epiTeliumi gemos bolqvebi wonasworob is SegrZneba kinesTeTiku riSegrZnebe bi Sinagan i yuri naxevarrkalovani arxebis bususebi da derefani nervuli boWkoebi kunTebSi, myesebS i kunTebi , myesebi, saxsreb i yvavilovani, damwvris, pitnis) gemo (tbili, mJave, mlaSe, mware) moZraoba sivrce Si, gravitaciuli miziduloba sxeulis nawilebis moZraoba da pozicia • sensoruli fiziologia (sensory physiology) Seiswavlis fizikuri movlenebis nervul movlenebad gadaqcevis biologiur meqanizmebs. • transformacia (transduction) Seiswa vlis erTi formis impulsebad. • sensoruli receptorebi (sensory receptors) _ special izirebuli ujredebi; isini gadaaqceven fizikur signalebs ujredis signalebad, roml ebic Semdeg gadamuSavdeba nervuli sistemis mier. Sejameba fsiqofizikis mkvlevare bi swavloben damokidebulebas fizikur movlenebsa da damkvirveblebis mier am movle nebis fsiqologiur gancdas Soris. fizikuri energiis gardaqmnas meore formad; magaliTad, sinaTlis transformirebas nervul damkvirveblis SegrZnebis absoluturi zRurbli damokidebulia stimulis Zalaze da gansazRvrul pirobebze, rogoricaa damkvirveblis sensoruli adaptaciis do ne _ absoluturi zRurblis definicia asaxavs misi moqmedebis cvalebadobas. signali s SemCnevis Teoria SemuSavda sensoruli procesebis gasamijnad pasuxebis sistematu ri Secdomisagan damkvirveblis moqmedebaSi. fsiqofizikis mklevarebi, agreTve, dai nteresebulni arian imiT, Tu ramdenad unda gaizardos an Semcirdes gamRizianeblis sidide, rom damkvirvebelma SesZlos gansxvavebis aRqma. veberis kanoni asaxavs fi zikuri stimulaciisa da damkvirveblis aRqmis cvlilebebs Soris damokidebulebebs. s ensoruli fiziologiis mizania, Seiswavlos, Tu ra gziT xdeba fizikuri movlenebis g adaqceva tvinSi mimdinare procesebad. mkvlevarebi, agreTve,

142 aRweren informaciis gadasvlas sensoruli receptorebidan qerqisaken. mxedvelobiTi sistema Tavis tvinis mxedveloba aris yvelaze rTuli, maRalganviTarebuli da mniSvnelovani SegrZneba cxo velebs, adamianisa romlebic da sxva moZrav arsebaTa umravlesobisaTvis. mxedvelob iT, im aqvT bunebam daajildova kargi uzarmazari evoluciuri upiratesobani. kargi mxedveloba maT exmarebaT, SeamCnion m sxverpli an mteri Sori manZilidan. mxedveloba SesaZleblobas aZlevs adamianebs, g aacnobieron fizikuri garemos cvalebadi Tvisebebi da Seusabamon mas TavianTi qcev a. mxedveloba aris yvelaze kargad Seswavlili sfero SegrZnebis modalobaTa Soris. adamianis Tvali Tvali aris fotoaparati Tavis tvinisaTvis, romelic asaxavs samyar os suraTs (ix. suraTi 4.4 fotoaparati uyurebs samyaros linzebis saSualebiT, . 4. 4). romelic axdens sinaTlis Sekrebas da fokusirebas. Tvali, aseve, krebs sinaTle s da axdens mis fokusirebas _ sinaTle Semodis rqovanaSi, Tvalis win mdebare gamW virvale amoburcul nawilSi. Semdeg is gaivlis wina sakans, romelic savsea siTxiT _ namiT. fotoaparatis fokusirebisas Tqven amoZravebT mis linzas obieqtis mimarTulebiT, an aSorebT mas. imisaTvis, rom Tval ma sinaTlis fokusireba moaxdinos, lobios marcvlis formis kristali _ Tvalis broli _ icvlis Tavis formas, wvrildeba, roca fokusireba xdeba moSorebul fokusirebisas . obieqtebze da msxvildeba Semomavali axlomdebare sinaTlis obieqtebze raodenobis fotoaparatSi gasakontroleblad Tqven cvliT linzis gaxsnis xarisxs. TvalSi ki irisis kunTuri di ski cvlis gugis sidides, ese igi im xvrelis sidides, romlis saSualebiTac sinaTle Semodis TvalSi. fotoaparatis ukana nawilSi aris fotomgrZnobiare firi, romelic a fiqsirebs linzaSi Semosuli sinaTlis variaciebs. analogiurad, TvalSi, sinaTle mog zaurobs minisebr sxeulSi, bolos ecema baduras _ Txel firfitas, romelic warmoadge ns Tvalis kaklis ukana kedels. rogorc naxeT, fotoaparatisa da Tvalis Tvisebebi Z alian emsgavseba erTmaneTs. detalurad. axla ganvixiloT mxedvelobiTi procesis kom ponentebi ufro Tvalis guga da broli

143 Tvalis guga ixsneba irisSi, romelSic gadis sinaTle. irisi aiZulebs gugas, gafarT ovdes an SeikumSos, raTa gaakontrolos Tvalis kaklisaken mimavali sinaTlis raoden oba. sinaTle, romelic gaivlis gugas, brolis mier fokusirdeba gansakuTrebiT badur aze; broli atrialebs is aRqmul icvlis obieqtebs. axlo igi da mniSvnelovania, rad ganac fokuss Sorsmdebare sagnebisaTvis. wamwamovan kunTebs SeuZliaT, Secvalon brolis sisqe da , aqedan gamomdinare, misi optikuri Tvisebebic. am process ewodeba akomodacia. a damianebs normaluri akomodaciiT SeuZliaT Tvalis fokusireba sakmod did diapazonSi _ dawyebuli 7,5 sm manZilidan ise Sors, sanamdec SeuZliaT obieqtebis danaxva. T umca, uamrav adamians awuxebs akomodaciasTan akomodaciis dakavSirebuli problemebi. magaliTad, axlomxedvelebs diapazoni gadaxrili aqvT ufro axlos maTken da amis Sedegad maT ar SeuZliaT karga d fokusireba Sorsmdebare sagnebze; Sorsmxedvelebs akomodaciis diapazoni gadaxril i aqvT maTgan Sors da amitom maT ar SeuZliaT normalurad fokusireba axlomdebare o bieqtebze. asakTan erTad, agreTve, izrdeba akomodaciis problemebic. broli aRar a ris iseTive sufTa, gamWvirvale da amozneqili, rogorc adre. asakis zrdasTan erTad broli xdeba ufro mkvrivi, gaumWvirvale, muqi da brtyeli, is kargavs Tavis elast iurobas. am cvlilebebis Sedegad brols aRar SeuZlia sakmarisad SekumSva, raTa dai naxos axlomdebare sagnebi. ormocdaxuT wels gadacilebul adamianebisaTvis is uaxlo esi wertili, romelzedac SeuZliaT kargad fokusireba, progresulad Sordeba sur. 4.4 maT. rqovana, guga da broli axdens sinaTlis fokusirebas baduraze. nervuli signalebi b aduridan gadaecema Tavis tvins optikuri nervis saSualebiT. badura Tqven uyurebT TvalebiT, magram xedavT Tavis tvinis saSualebiT. Tvali krebs sinaT les, axdens mis fokusirebas da dasabams aZlevs Tavis tvinisaken mimaval nervul s ignals. amrigad, Tvalis yvelaze mniSvnelovani funqciaa gare samyaros Sesaxeb inf ormaciis sinaTlis talRidan nervul impulsad gardaqmna. es xdeba baduraze, Tvalis ukana mxareze. mikroskopis qveS Tqven SegiZliaT dainaxoT, rom baduras aqvs sxvad asxva tipis neironebisagan Semdgari ramdenime maRalorganizebuli Sre.

144 sinaTlis energiis ZiriTadi gardaqmna nervul impulsad xdeba baduraze Cxirebisa da kolbebis _ sinaTlis mimarT mgrZnobiare receptorebis saSualebiT. es fotoreceptorebi unikalurad arian ganlagebulni vizualur sistemaSi, kargad naTdebian gare samyarodan da emijnebian nervuli procesebis Sida samyaros . vinaidan Tqven zogjer giwevT TiTqmis sibneleSi muSaoba da zogjer ki kaSkaSa ga naTebis pirobebSi, bunebam uzrunvelgyoT sinaTlis gardaqmnis ori gziT, CxirebiTa da kolbebiT. (ix. suraTi 4.5). 120 milioni wvrili Cxiri moqmedebs saukeTesod sus ti ganaTebis pirobebSi. 7 milioni samuSaod. • akomodacia (accommodation) _ procesi , romlis saSualebiTac wamwamovani kunTebi cvlianEBTvalis brolis sisqes, rac saSu alebas aZlevs, Secvalos fokusi axlo da Sori obieqtebisaTvis. • badura (retina) _ T valis ukan mdebare Sre, romelic Seicavs msxvili kolba aris specializebuli naTel, ferad garemoSi fotoreceptorebs da gardaqmnis sinaTlis energias nervul reaqciaSi. • fotoreceptoreb i (photoreceptors) _ baduraze mdebare sinaTlisadmi mgrZnobiare receptoruli ujredebi. Tqven SegiZliaT SeigrZnoT gansxvaveba Cxirebis a da kolbebis muSaobaSi yovelTvis, roca daZinebis win CaaqrobT xolme Suqs. Tqven , albaT, bevrjer SeginiSnavT, ganaTebis process _ rom Tavidan bevrs verafers xni s xedavT Semdeg darCenili Tqveni mkrTali pirobebSi, Tvalis Sedegad magram cota mxedvelobis ganaTebis mgrZnobiaroba kvlav umjobesdeba. Tqven ganicdiT sibnelisadmi adaptaciis mgrZnobi arobis sinaTlidan gradualur TiTqmis gaumjobesebas cvlilebis sibnelisaken. sibnel isadmi adaptaciis mizezia Cxirebis amoqmedeba. isini xdebian ufro mgrZnobiareni, vidre kolbebi. drois gasvlis Semdeg Cxirebi reagireben ufro nakleb sinaTleze, vidre ko lbebi. 4.5. sur. 4.5. retinaluri gzebi es diagrama warmodgenilia tradiciuli da Zalian gamartivebuli saxiT. is gviCveneb s gzebs, romelic sinaTle akavSirebs gaivlis nervuli samive ujredebis Sres, sanam sam Sres retinaSi. Semomavali miaRwevs receptorebs, romlebic ganlagebulni arian Tvalis kaklis ukana mxareze da mimarTul ni arian sinaTlis wyaros sapirispiro mxares. aRsaniSnavia, rom bipolaruli ujrede bi kreben impulsebs erTze meti receptoruli ujredidan

145 da agzavnian Sedegebs gangliozuri Tvals ujredebisaken. optikuri am ujredebidan saSualebiT ki da nervuli impulsebi stoveben nervis miemarTebian Semdegi gadamrTveli punqtisaken. baduris centrTan axlos aris patara ubani, romelsac uwodeben foveas. is Seicavs m xolod mWidrod ganlagebul kolbebs. iq ar aris Cxirebi. es adgili gansakuTrebiT mg rZnobiarea ferebis mimarT, aseve, yvelaze ufro zustad uzrunvelyofs sivrciTi deta lebis SemCnevas. baduris sxva ujredebi arian pasuxismgebelni im informaciis inte graciaze, romlesac iReben Cxirebidan da kolbebidan. bipolaruli ujredebi aris ner vuli ujredebi, romlebic axdenen nervuli impulsebis kombinirebas mravali receptor idan da agzavnian Sedegebs gangliozur ujredebSi. TiToeuli gangliozuri ujredi Sem deg axdens impulsebis integrirebas erTi an ufro meti bipolaruli ujredidan erT ga nmuxtvaSi. centraluri foveis kolbebi agzavnian TavianT impulsebs gangliozuri ujr edebisaken maSin, roca baduris periferiaze mdebare Cxirebi da kolbebi erwymian b ipolarul da gangliozur ujredebs. gangliozuri ujredebis aqsonebi qmnian optikuri nervs, romelic atarebs vizualur informacias Tvalidan Tavis tvinisaken. horizonta luri ujredebi da amakrinuli ujredebi axdens informaciis integrirebas baduris gas wvriv. am ujredebis funqcia ufro metad gamoixateba ara signalebis gagzavnaSi Tav is tvinisaken, aramed ujredebs Soris kavSiris sxva damyarebaSi. bipolarul horizo ntaluri da ujredebi akavSireben bipolarul sxva receptorebs erTmaneTTan, amakrinuli ujredebi ki aerTeben ujeredebs ujredebTan ga ngliozur gangliozur ujredebTan. ujredebs baduris anatomiur agebulebaSi aris erTi saintereso ucnauri adgili, sadac optikur i nervi gamodis. am adgils ewodeba optikuri diski, anu brma wertili. igi srulebiT ar Seicavs receptorul ujredebs. miuxedavad amisa, Cven ver vamCnevT am xarvezs, Tuki specialur pirobebs ar SevqmniT amisaTvis. es xdeba ori mizezis gamo: pirvel rigSi, orive Tvalis brma wertilebi iseTnirad aria n ganlagebulni, rom TiToeuli Tvalis receptorebi imis registracias axdenen, rac g amorCa meore Tvals. meore mizezi isaa, rom Tavis tvini “avsebs” am adgils Sesatyvisi sensoruli informaciiT garSemo myofi areebidan. imisaTvis, rom aRmoaCinoT brma w ertili, Tqven unda SexedoT suraTs 4.6 Semdegi pirobis dacviT: daikaveT es wigni daaxloebiT gaSlili mklavis

146 sigrZeze, daxuWeT Tqveni marjvena Tvali, moaxdineT fiqsireba bankis figuraze Tqveni marcxena TvaliT da nel-nela miitaneT wigni Tqvensken Zalian axlo s. rodesac dolaris niSani iqneba Tqvens brma wertilze, is gaqreba, magram Tqven ver SeamCnevT xarvezs Tqveni mxedvelobis velSi. Tqveni vizualuri sistema Seavseb s cariel adgils TeTri foniT, romelic gars akravs am adgils. ase rom, Tqven “dainax avT” mxolod siTeTres, romelic realurad iq ar aris da ver dainaxavT Tqvens fuls, ro melic moaTavseT bankSi, sanam dakargavdiT mas! brma wertilis meore demonstraciis aTvis SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT igive procedura da moaxdinoT fokusireba jvarze, romel ic mocemulia suraTze 4.6-ze. Tuki Tqven miitanT wigns axlos TvalebTan, dainaxavT rom wyvetili 4.6 xaz i gamTlianda. 4.6. sur. 4.6. ipoveT Tqveni brma wertili imisaTvis rom ipovoT Tqveni brma wertili, daikaveT es wigni daaxloebiT gaSlili m klavis sigrZeze, daxuWeT Tqveni marjvena Tvali, moaxdineT fiqsireba bankis figur aze Tqveni marcxena TvaliT da nel-nela miitaneT wigni Tqvensken Zalian axlos. ro desac dolaris niSani iqneba Tqvens brma wertilze, is gaqreba, magram Tqven ver S eamCnevT xarvezs Tqveni mxedvelobis velSi. analogiurad, Tuki Tqven gamoiyenebT i give proceduras da moaxdenT Tvalis fiqsacias plus niSanze, xazi gamTliandeba maS in, roca xarvezi iqneba Tqvens brma wertilze. orive SemTxvevaSi vizualuri sistem a avsebs cariel adgils TeTri foniT, romelic gars akravs am adgils. ase rom, Tqve n “dainaxavT” mxolod siTeTres, romelic realurad iq ar aris. Tavis tvinisken mimavali nervuli gzebi nervuli vizualuri informaciis saboloo daniSnulebis adgili aris Tavis tvinis kefis wilis is adgili, romelic cnobilia, rogorc ZiriTadi mxedvelobis qerqi. miuxedavad amisa , informaciis umetesi nawili, romelic tovebs baduras, gaivlis Tavis tvinis sxva regionebs, sanam miaRwevs mxedvelobis qerqs. modiT, gavyveT im gzas, romelsac gaivlis vizualuri informacia (Van Essen et al., 1992). gangliozuri ujredebis milionobiT aqsoni, romelic axdens TiToeuli optikur i nervis formirebas, miemarTebian erTad mxedvelobis jvaredinSi (qiazmaSi), romel ic formiT mogvagonebs berZnul aso χ (romeli

gamoiTqmis, rogor

 

 
“xi”). aqsonebi TiToeul optikur nervSi iyofian or

147 konad mxedvelobis jvaredinTan. boWkoebis naxevari TiToeuli baduridan rCeba sxeul is im mxareze, romlidana isini modian, xolo TiToeuli Tvalis Sida mxridan wamosu li aqsonebi gadakveTen erTmaneTs da agrZeleben TavianT gzas Tavis tvinis ukana n awilisaken (ix. suraTi 4.7). ix. saidan vi iT mxedvelobiTi funq iebis dayofa don s 14 wlis asakidan awuxebda mwvave, xangrZlivi Tavis tkivilebi da hqonda sensoru li xasiaTis sirTuleebi mar xena vizualur velSi. ro a is iyo 34 wlis, gadawyvita donis gaekeTebina Tavis opera ia, romlis man drosa mTlianad radgan neiroqirurgebi amoWridnen marjvena kefis wilis patara nawils. qirurgebi mudmivad dakarga mkurnalobdnen mxedveloba misi tkivilebs, velis magram vizualuri mar xen a nawilSi, amokveTili nawili Sei avda pirvelad mxedvelobiT qerqs. magaliTad, ro a ganaTebul laqas uCveneben fiqsa iis wertilis mar xniv (fiqsa iis wertili _ esaa entralur i wertili, romelzeda sTxoven dis pirs Tvalebis fokusirebas), igi, ubralod, ver a nobierebs mis arsebobas. fsiqologebma mdebareobs saSualebiT. sTxoves dons wer tili SesaniSnavi main iyo. savaraudod xelis donma amoe no, iseve Tu sad TiTis z ustad ganaTebuli Sedegebi mar xena saCvenebeli TiTqmis gansazRvra ganaTebuli laqis mdebareoba mis “brma” mar xena mxedvelobis velSi, rogor axerxebda amas “saR” marjvena vizualur velSi. Semdgomma eqsperimentebma, agreTve, a Cvena, rom mas SeeZlo gamoe no mis brma velSi naCvenebi xazi iyo vertikaluri Tu horizontaluri da naCvenebi figura iyo X Tu O. testis ganmavlobaSi doni sruliad v er a nobierebda laqebis, xazebis da figurebis arsebobas. is amtki ebda, rom ubra lod savaraudod ambobda. ro a dons uCvenes testirebis video Canaweri, is gao ebul i iyo imiT, rom uTiTebda ganaTebul laqaze, romelsa ver xedavda. (Weiskrantz et al., 1974). boWkoebis am or konas, romeli Sei avs aqsonebs orive Tvalidan, ukve axla am adgilidan ewodeba optikuri traqtebi. optikuri traqtebi agzavnis informa ias ujredebis ori blokisaken tvinSi. mkvlevarebi mxars uWeren Teorias, romlis T anaxmada vizualuri analizi iyofa or gzad: pirvelis funq iaa xatebis amo noba _ Tu rogor gamoiyurebian obieqtebi da meoris adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra _ Tu sad arian obieqtebi (Rao et al., 1997; Wilson et

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

148 al., 1993). vizualuri funq iebis dayofa ufro dramatulad gamoiyureba, ro a indivi debi kargaven mxedvelobiTi qerqis nawils travmis an qirurgiuli Carevis Sedegad. ganixileT Semdegi SemTxveva: donis “mxedvelobas”, Sesabamisad, uwodes brma mxedvelob a. misi q eva xor ieldeboda vizualurad miRebuli informa iis Sedegad, Tum a, is v er a nobierebda obieqtis arsebobas. msgavsi Sedegebi iyo miRebuli testebSi sxva pa ientebTan mxedvelobiTi qerqis analogiuri darRvevebiT. es movlena adasturebs i m faqts, rom is qerqqveSa struqturebi, romlebi rCeba xeluxlebeli dazianebuli Tavis tvinis qerqis pirobebSi, uzrunvelyofs vizualuri analizis iseT dones, romeli Seesabameba am amo anebs, magram ga nobie rebis gareSe. Tum a, es daskvna sakamaTo rCeba, radgan Tavis tvinis mier vizualu ri informa iis kodirebisaTvis gamoyenebuli uamravi gza arsebobs. (Gazzaniga et al., 1994; Weiskrantz, 1995). rogori ar unda iyos nervu li meqanizmebi, es movlena adasturebs, rom mxedvelobis zusti funq ionireba SeiZl eba ganxor ieldes nobierebis gareSe . • vizualuri qerqi (visual ortex) _ kefis w ilis nawili, romelSi xdeba vizualuri informa iis gadamuSaveba. • optikuri nervi ( opti nerve) _ gangliozuri ujredebis aqsonebi, romlebi atareben informa ias Tva lidan tvinisaken. Tqven ukve ganixileT, Tu rogor nawildeba is informa ia, romeli miemarTeba Tvalebidan Tavis tvinisaken. me nierebma kvlava bevri ram unda Sei swavlon: arsebobs da vizualuri qerqis daaxloebiT am al., 30 anatomiuri Soris qve ganyofileba komunika iis sxvadasxva Sesaxeb Teoriebi (Hilgetag et qveganyofilebe bs 1996). axla saxeebis davubrundeT vizualuri samyaros alkeul aspeqtebs. adamianis vizualuri sistemis erTerTi yvela ze sao ari Tavisebureba is aris, rom Cvens mier formis, feris, mdebareobis da si Rrmis gan da dafuZnebulia erTi da igive sensoruli informa iis gadamuSavebaze sxv adasxva gziT. rogor xdeba es transforma iebi, romlebi SesaZleblobas gaZlevT, dainaxoT vizualuri samyaros es gansxvavebuli Taviseburebani? 4.7. sur. 4.7. adamianis vizualuri sistemis gzebi diagrama gviCvenebs, rom vizualuri velidan Semosuli sinaTle airekleba orive badu raze da gviCvenebs marSruts, romliTa nervuli Setyobineba baduridan gadaigzavneb a TiToeuli hemisferos orive vizualur entrSi.

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

149 feris SegrZneba fizikur obieqtebs aqvT sao ari Tviseba _ isini SeiZleba davxatoT sxvadasxva feris saRebavebiT. Tqven Zalian xSirad migiRiaT STabeWdilebebi kaSka Sad Seferili obieqtebisagan _ mwvane naZvis xeebisagan, meJolias lurji kver xebi sagan, magram ferebis naTel gan das safuZvlad udevs am obieqtebisagan Tqvens sensorul re eptorebze sinaTlis sxivebis asaxva. erTerTi pi rveli, vin ganixila es sakiTxi jer kidev 1671 wels, iyo isaak niutoni: sxivebi (sinaTlis) sworad rom vTqvaT, ar aris Seferili. maTSi araferia, garda en ergiisa da ama Tu im feris SegrZnebis aRmo enebis unarisa. aseve, bgera, iqneba es zaris, musikaluri simis Tu sxva ram mJReri sxeulis, araferia, garda rxevadi m oZraobisa da haerSi araferia, garda obieqtidan gavr elebuli moZraobisa, …. . . ase rom, obieqtis ferebi araferia, garda unarisa, aireklos ama Tu im saxis sxivebi ufro farTod, vidre danarCeni . . ferebi aRmo endeba maSin, ro a Tavis tvini amuSavebs informa ias, romeli kodire bulia sinaTlis wyaroSi. fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi SeuZlia Tu ara teqnologias dazi anebuli mxedvelobis aRdgena? 1999 wlis dekemberSi ramdenime sainforma io saagent o iuwyeboda, rom stiv uanderi, romeli TiTqmis dabadebidan iyo brma, imedovnebda , rom Caitarebda eqsperimentul qirurgiul pro eduras, romeli aRadgenda mis mxedv elobas. pro eduras atarebdnen ventai lui, mark humaiuni (Wentai Lui, ( Mark Huma yun) da mkvlevarTa maTi jgufis sxva wevrebi (Lui et al., 2001). am ) pro eduraSi patara mikropro esori pirdapir ukavSirdeboda baduras da vlida kolbebisa gamo. da Cxirebis funq ias, uanderi romeli Zalian ar funq ionirebda drois daavadebis samwuxarod, xangrZlivi ganmavlobaSi iyo brma da is ar iyo kargi kandidati am pro edurisaTvis. Tum a, es teqnika imeds aZlevda maT, visa vizualuri sistemis jaWvis didi nawili jer kide v dauzianebeli hqondaT. brma adamianTa umravlesobis dabrmavebis mizezi gaxda maT baduraze mdebare re eptoruli ujredebis _ kolbebisa da Cxirebis kvdoma _ degenera iuli daavadeba (uanderis sibrmave gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom inkubatorSi, romeli is ganaTavses dabadebis Semdeg, miwodebuli iqna zedmeti raodenobis Jang badi). maSina ki, ro a sensoruli re eptorebi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

150 wyveten TavianT arsebobas, vizualuri gzebis sxva ujredebi, rogori aa bipolaruli da gangliozuri ujredebi, ganagrZoben arsebobas. baduris struqturis mo emulobisas (ix. suraTi 4.5), es ujredebi xelmisawvdomia pirdapiri eleqtruli stimula iisaTv is. mikropro esori, konstruirebuli luis, hiumainisa da maTi kolegebis mier, zust ad amas akeTebda: igi axdenda eleqtrul stimula ias, romeli agzavnida Semomaval signals arafunq ionirebadi kolbebisa da Cxirebis na vlad. mTlian sistemas, romel i nobilia, rogor mraval-elementiani xelovnuri retinaluri mikropro esori (multiple-unit artifi ial retinal hipset MA RC), aqvs ramdenime komponenti, romeli funq ionirebs rogor Tvalis kaklis gareT, ase ve, SigniT. magaliTad, miniaturuli video-kamera iWers gamosaxulebas garemodan. es gamosaxuleba muSavdeba da igzavneba mikropro esorisa ken, romeli qirurgiulad aris implantirebuli baduraze Tvalis ukana mxares. es mi kropro esori stimulirebas ukeTebs gangliozur ujredebs badeSi da funq ionirebs ms gavsad televizoris Tu kompiuteris ekranisa: TiToeuli elements am simravlisa _ Ti Toeul piqsels _ SeuZlia miiRos na risferi feris sxvadasxva elferi, raTa uzrunvel yos mxedvelobiTi SegrZnebebis farTo diapazoni. rogor Tqven SegiZliaT Tavad daas kvnaT, aRniSnuli mikropro esori ar aRadgens mxedvelobas srulyofilad, iseTnairad, rogor es nagulisxmebi iyo statiaSi stiv uanderis Sesaxeb. informa iis is raode noba, romelsa uzrunveloyofs es xelsawyo aris sakmaod SezRuduli imasTan Sedarebi T, SeeZloT arsebobs doneze, martivi imedi, rom rasa Tqven Cveulebriv iRebT da f ormebis aRadgens sakuTar Tqveni uamravi kolbebidan da Cxirebidan. miuxedavad amisa, am eqsperimentis mona wileebs identifi ireba. mxedvelobas gamosaxulebebisa rom es mikropro esori SesZleben imoZraon iseT adamianebi garemoSi da gaarCion didi zomis SriftiT dabeWdili teqsti. uamravi adamianisaTvis mTel msoflioSi, romelsa daavadebis gamo dazianebuli aqvs Cxirebi da kolbebi, M ARS msgavsi teqnologiebis ganviTarebam SeiZleba SeunarCunos mxedveloba. Web site : www.e e.n su.edu/er/erl_eye.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

151 talRis sigrZe da feri sinaTle, romelsa Tqven xedavT, aris mxolod patara nawili fizikuri ganzomilebisa , romelsa ewodeba eleqtromagnituri speqtri. (ix. suraTi 4.8). Tqveni vizualur s istema ar aris aRWurvili saTanadod imisaTvis, rom dainaxos sxva tipis talRebi sp eqtrSi, rogori aa, magaliTad, X sxivebi, mikrotalRebi da radio talRebi. fizikuri Tviseba, romeli ganasxvavebs eleqromagnituri energiis tipebs, maT Soris sinaTl isa , aris talRis

nanometramde. garkveuli fizikuri talRebis sxivebidan aRmo endeba garkveuli feris gan da _ magaliTad, iisferi-lurji ufro mokle sigrZia ni talRebisagan speqtris erT boloSi da wiTeli-narinjisferi _ ufro grZelis sigrZi s talRebisagan speqtris meore boloSi. amrigad, sinaTle ferebSi; aris aRwerili ar sebobs fizikurad mxolod talRis Tqvens sigrZis terminebSi sistemaSi, da ara fereb i sensorul rogor talRis sigrZeTa interpreta ia. sur. 4.8. eleqtromagnituri speqtri 4.8. vizualur sistemas SeuZlia SeigrZnos talRis sigrZis mxolod m ire diapazoni eleqtr omagnitur speqtrSi. Tqven SeigrZnobT talRis sigrZis im diapazons, romeli naxatz e gadidebulad aris mo emuli, rogor ferebs iisferidan wiTlisaken. feris gan da xasiaTdeba sami ZiriTadi TvisebiT: feris toni, simaZRre da sikaSkaS e. Tvisobriv feris toni aris Tviseba, romeli gulisxmobs sinaTlis feris gan das. martiv sinaTleSi, romeli Sei avs mxolod erTi talRis sigrZes (rogori aa, magaliTad, lazeris gamosxiveba), feris tonis fsiqolog iuri gan da Seesabameba pirdapir sinaTlis talRis sigrZis fizikur ganzomilebas. suraTi 4.9 gviCvenebs, Tu rogor aris ferTa tonebi ganlageb uli erTmaneTis ferTa wreSi. arian is ferebi, romlebi es aRiqmebian, rogor asax avs msgavsni, mosazRvre ferebi. Tanamimdevroba speqtrSi ferebis Tanamimdevrobas. simaZRre aris feris SegrZnebis Tviseba, romeli gamoxatavs imas, Tu ramdenad wmindaa feri. Seurevel ferebs aqvs yvelaze meti s imaZRre; Sereul, arasufTa, pastelur ferebs aqvT simaZRris saSualo raodenoba; rux fers aqvs nulovani simaZRre. sikaSkaSe aris feris

 

sigrZe, manZili ori uaxloesi talRis qims Soris. xiluli sinaTlis talRis sigrZe ga izomeba nanometrebSi (metris memiliarde nawilSi). is, rasa Tqven xedavT, rogor sinaTles, aris talRis sigrZis diapazoni sinaTlis 400-dan 700

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

   

 

 

 

 

152 Tviseba, romeli

gulisxmobs sinaTlis intensivobas. TeTr fers aqvs yvelaze meti sikaSkaSe; Savs _ yvelaze naklebi. ro a vaanalizebT ferTa SegrZnebi s am Tvisebebs, aRsaniSnavia erTi garemoeba: adamianebs SeuZliaT vizualurad gana sxvavon erTmaneTisagan daaxloebiT 7 milioni sxvadasxva feri! miuxedavad amisa, a damianTa umravlesobas ar SeuZlia ferTa garkveul kategorias miakuTvnos maTi didi nawili. modiT, avxsnaT ramdenime movlena ferTa gan dis Tqveni yoveldRiuri gamo d ilebidan. Tqven, albaT, i iT isaak niutonis aRmoCenis Sesaxeb, rom mzis sinaTle krebs yvela sigrZis sinaTlis talRas: Tqven SegiZliaT gaimeoroT niutonis da prizmis gamoyenebiT da daSaloT mzis sxivi ferTa srul isa rtyelad. prizmis saSualebiT Tqven gaigebT, rom sxvadasxva sigrZis talRaTa swori kombina ia warmoqmnis TeTr fers. sxvadasxva sigrZis talRaT a Serwymas ewodeba damatebiT ferTa Sereva. kidev erTxel SexedeT suraTs 4.9. • feri s toni (hue) _ feris Tviseba, romeli gulisxmobs sinaTlis feris Tvisobriv gan da s. • simaZRre (saturation) _ feris Tviseba, romeli gamoxatavs imas, Tu ramdenad w mindaa feri. • sikaSkaSe (brightness) intensivobas. _ feris Tviseba, romeli gulis xmobs sinaTlis 4.9. sur. 4.9. ferTa wre ferebi arian ganlagebuli maTi msgavsebis mixedviT. Sema vsebeli ferebi arian ganlagebuli erTmaneTis mopiradapire mxareze. Semavsebeli ferebis Sereva wa rmoqnis neitralur rux an TeTr sinaTles entrSi. ri xvebi TiToeuli feris tonis ga swvriv miuTiTebs speqtraluri ferebis talRis sigrZis mniSvnelobaze, im ferebisa, romlebi moTavsebuli arian mxedvelobiTi araspeqtraluri feris mgrZnobelobis diapa zonSi. yviTel-mwvane toni miiReba mokle da grZeli sigrZis speqtraluri talRis sigrZeTa SereviT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

153 mwvane lurj-mwvane 560 beli) 573 (wiTlis Semavse494 TeTri 480 470 lurji molu rjo iisferi mowiTalo iisferi (mwvanis Semavsebeli) wiTeli 521 yviTeli yviTel-nar injis feri (lurjis Semavsebeli) 580 607 mwvanelurji 490 narinjisferi talRis sigrZeebs, romlebi

indigo-lurji (yviTlis Semavsebeli) mopirdapire araspeqtraluri ferebi mxareebzea ganlagebuli ewodeba Semavsebeli ferebi isini Serevisas qmnian TeTri feris ferebi . SegrZnebas. gindaT Tavad darwmundeT Semavsebeli ferebis arsebobaSi? ganixileT suraTi 4.10. mwvane-yviTeli-Savi droSa mog emT Tqven negatiuri Tanamimdevari kvalis gan das (Tanamimdevar kvals ewodeba negatiuri, radgan is aris sawyisi feris sapirispiro). am movlenas Cven avxsniT feradi mxedvelobis Teoriebis ganxilvisas, ro a Tqven daJinebiT daa qerdebiT raime fers sakmaod didx ans, Tqveni re eptorebis arasrul gadaRlamde da Semdeg mzeras gadaitanT TeTr zeda pirze, Tqven dainaxavT sawyisi feris Semavsebel fers. • Semavsebeli ferebi ( omple mentary olours) _ ferebi, romlebi mdebareoben Semavsebeli erTmaneTis mopirdapi re mxareze ferTa wreze; ro a aditurad erevian erTmaneT,s qmnian TeTri sinaTlis S egrZnebas. Tqven, albaT, ferTa SeginiSnavT gan disas. Tanmimdevari Tum a, Tqveni kvali Tqvens didi yoveldRiur nawili ar xovrebaSi

gan debis warmoiqmneba Semavsebeli ferebidan. Tqven, SesaZloa, dro da dro erTobiT naxatSi feradi fanqrebisa da saRebavebis kombinirebiT. feri, romelsa xedavT, ro a uyure bT feradi fanqrebiT daxatul raime obieqts an sxva ferad zedapirs, aris sinaTlis talRis sigrZe, romeli ar aris STanTqmuli zedapiris mier. miuxedavad imisa, rom yviTeli saRebavi gamoiyureba umetes SemTxvevaSi yviTlad, zogierTi sigrZis talRa ar airekleba, ra qmnis mwvane feris SegrZnebas. mwvanis analogiurad, SegrZnebas . lurji saRebavi da saSualebas lurji ferebi aZlevs arian garkveuli sigrZis talRebs ar iqnas areklili, ra qmnis lurjisa da otaodeni ro a yviTeli kombinirebuli, yviTeli STanTqavs lurjs da lurji STanTqavs yviTels _ da

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

ferTa wris

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

154 erTaderTi feri, romeli darCeba STaunTqmeli movlenas ewodeba _ gamoiyureba mwvaned! am substraq iuli (substra tive) ferTa Sereva2. darCenili talRis sigrZe _ STaunTqmeli talRis sigrZe aris arekvlili da swored is aZlevs fer ebis narevs im fers, romelsa Tqven aRiqvamT. sur. 4.10. sur. 4.10. negatiuri op tikuri kvali mzera daafiqsireT mwvane-Sav-yviTeli droSis entrSi sul ota 30 wamis ganmavloba Si. Semdeg mzera gadaitaneT TeTri qaRaldze da daafiqsireT is fur lis entrSi an kedelze. CaatareT es da megobrebze. zogierTi es kanoni ar vr eldeba im adamianebze, romlebi dabadebuli arian feris SegrZnebis garkveuli anomaliiT. ferTa sibrmave aris ferebis garCevisYnawilobrivi an sruli uunaroba. mwvane, wiTeli da Savi feris droSaze Tvalebis fiqsirebisas T qven ar gagiCndebaT negatiuri optikuri kvali, Tuki gaqvT ferTa sibrmave. ferTa s ibrmave, Cveulebriv, memkvidreobiT gadae ema. es defeqti dakavSirebulia X qromos omas genTan. radgan mamaka ebs aqvT mxolod erTi X qromosoma, maT ufro meti Sansi aqvT, gamouvlindeT es re esiuli Tavisebureba, vidre qalebs. qalebs defeqturi ge ni orive X qromosomaze unda hqondeT, rom gamouvlindeT ferTa sibrmave. kavkasiel mamaka Ta 8% 1999). yvelaze xSiria nawilobriv ferTa sibrmavis is saxe, ro a adam ians uWirs mwvane da wiTeli ferebis garCeva, gansakuTrebiT, Tu isini susti simaZ Rrisa arian. ufro iSviaTad gvxvdeba xalxi, romeli urevs erTmaneTSi yviTel da lu rj ferebs. yvelaze iSviaTi ki aris sruli ferTa sibrmavis SemTxvevebi, ro a adami ani saerTod ver arCevs ferebs da xedavs mxolod sinaTlis xarisxis sxvadasxva vari a ias. (mister i.-s SemTxveva, romeli naxsenebi iyo am Tavis dasawyisSi, sakmao d uCveuloa, radgan misi sruli ferTa sibrmave gamowveuli iyo Tavis tvinis daziane biT 65 wlis asakSi). imis gasagebad, gaqvT Tu ara raime defeqti ferTa SegrZnebaS i, SexedeT suraTs 4.11. Tuki Tqven dainaxavT ifrebs 1-s da 5-s am wertilebis er TobliobaSi, Tqveni feradi mxedveloba, albaT, normaluria. Tuki Tqven dainaxavT ki dev raimes, Tqven, albaT, gaxasiaTebT, sul ota, ferTa nawilobrivi sibrmave. (Ca utareT es testi sxvebsa _ kerZod imaT, viszeda i iT, rom axasiaTebsFferTa sibr mave da Tqven gaigebT, ras xedaven isini am testSi). axla vnaxoT, Tu rogor xsnia n me nierebi ferTa aRqmis iseT faqtebs, rogori aa Semavsebeli ferebi da ferTa si brmave. 2 da qalTa 0.5% naklebs axasiaTebT ferTa sibrmave (Coren et al., qarTul fsiqologiur literaturaSi naxsenebia, rogor ferTa Serevis meore kanoni (r ed.SeniSvna)

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

155 ferTa SegrZnebis Teoriebi ferTa SegrZnebis pirveli me nieruli Teoria SemoTavazeb uli iyo ser tomas iungis (Sir Thomas Young) mier 1800 wels. is amtki ebda, rom a rsebobs feris SemgrZnebi sami tipis re eptori normaluri mxedvelobis mqone adamia nis TvalSi, romeli warmoqmnis fsiqologiurad pirvelad SegrZnebebs: wiTels, mwvan esa da lurjs. yvela danarCeni feri, misi azriT, iyo miRebuli am sami pirveladi f erisagan, rogor Semavsebeli ferebis an ori mosazRvre feris kombina iis Sedegi. iungis Teoria SemdgomSi gaumjobesda da gafarToebuli herman von helmhol is (Hermann von Helmholtz) mier da gaxda nobili , rogor iung-helmhol is triqromatuli Teoria.3 triqromatuli Teoria sakmaod damaj ereblad xsnida adamianis ferTa SegrZnebebs da ferTa sibrmavesa (am Teoriis Tana xmad, ferTa sibrmavis SemTxvevaSi adamianebs aqvT mxolod erTi an ori tipis re ep torebi). Tum a, sxva movlenebi ar aixsneba aseve kargad am Teoriis mier. ratom w armoqmnis erTi feris mimarT adapta ia negatiur Tanamimdevar kvals? ratom aqvT na wilobrivi ferTa sibrmavis mqone adamianebs sirTuleebi yovelTvis ferTa wyvilebis garCevisas: wiTlisa da mwvanis, lurjisa da yviTlis? • triqromatuli SemgrZnebi Teor iis (tri hromati theory) sami tipi, Tanaxmad, arsebobs feris re eptorebis romlebi

warmoqmnian pirveladi ferebis _ wiTlis, mwvanis da lurji ferebis SegrZnebas. 4.11. sur. 4.11. ferTa si brmavis testi pirovneba, romelsa ar SeuZlia wiTeli da mwvane ferebis gansxvaveba, ver SeZlebs figuraSi damaluli ifrebis identifi irebas. ras xedavT? Tuki Tqven xedavT ri xv 17-s wertilebis simravleSi, Tqveni ferTa SegrZneba, 17albaT, normaluria. am kiTxvebze pasuxis ga ema gaxda qvakuTxedi ferTa SegrZnebis meore TeoriisaTvis , romeli SemoTavazebuli iyo evald heringis (Ewald Hering) mier 1800-iani wlebis bolos. misi sawinaaRmdego pro esis Teoriis Tanaxmad, nebismieri feris SegrZneba miiReba sami ZiriTadi sistemisagan, romelTagan TiToeuli Sei avs or sawinaaRmdeg o elements: wiTeli mwvanis sapirispirod, lurji yviTlis sapirispirod da Savi (ar erTi feri) TeTris (yvela feri) sapirispirod. heringi fiqrobda, rom ferebi warmo qmnian maTi Semavsebeli 3

qarTul fsiqologiur literaturaSi moxseniebulia, rogor "sami komponentis Teoria” (r ed.SeniSvna)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

156 feris mqone Tanamimdevar kvals, ro a am sistemis erTi elementi gadaiRleba (xangr Zlivi stimula iis pirobebSi) da, amrigad, gaizrdeba misi oponenturi elementis Se fardebiTi wvlili. heringis TeoriaSi ferTa sibrmavis tipebi qmnian wyvilebs, radg an ferTa SegrZnebis sistema realurad aris Seqmnili sapirispiro wyvilebisagan da ara erTi pirveladi ferisagan. mravali wliis manZilze kamaTobdnen me nierebi am T eoriebis Rirsebis Sesaxeb. sabolood, maT aRiares, rom es Teoriebi ar ewinaaRmdeg ebian realurad erTmaneTs. isini ubralod aRweren pro esis or sxvadasxva etaps, ro meli Seesabameba suq esiur fiziologiur struqturebs mxedvelobiT sistemaSi (Hurvi h & Jameson, 1974). Cven axla vi iT, rom marTla arsebobs sami tipis kolbebi, Tum a, am kolbebidan TiToeuli reagirebs garkveuli sigrZis talRebi s diapazonze, main arsebobs talRis is sigrZe, romlis mimarTa TiToeuli maTgani yvelaze metad aris mgrZnobiare. saidan vi iT kolbebi upiratesobas aniWeben garkv uli talRis sigrZes mxedvelobiTi maimuni makakas pro esebis kolbis mkvlevarebma g anaviTares iqna teqnika, romlis minis saSualebiTa xdeba alkeuli kolbebis eleqtruli aqtivobis analizi. ujredebi “gamowo vil” spe ialuri milidan, romlis diametri iyo adamianis Tmis Reris diametris 1/25-ze naklebi. sx vadasxva sigrZis sinaTlis talRas anaTebdnen milSi, eleqtruli signalis Zalas, rom elsa gamoasxivebda kolbis ujredebi jer zrdidnen da Semdeg zomavdnen. am teqniki s gamoyenebiT mkvlevarebma aRmoaCines, rom zogierTi ujredi reagirebs yvelaze kar gad 435 nanometris (nm) sigrZis talRis diapazonSi (“lurji” ujredebi), zogi _ 535 nan ometris (“mwvane” ujredebi) da zogi ki 570 nanometris (“wiTeli” ujredebi) sigrZis talRis diapazonSi (Baylor, 1987). am tipis kolbebis reaq ia eTanxmeba iungisa da helmh ol is hipoTezas, rom ferTa SegrZneba efuZneba sami tipis mxedvelobiTi re eptoreb s. adamianebs, romlebTa axasiaTebT ferTa sibrmave, aqvT erTi an meti am tipis re e ptoruli kolbebis defeqti. Cven, agreTve, vi iT, rom retinaluri gangliozuri ujred ebi axdens am sami tipis kolbebidan pro esebis gamomavali Teoriis signalis Tanax mad.(De kombinirebas Valois & heringis 1968) sawinaaRmdego Ja obs, sawinaaRmedego pro esebis Teoriis Tanamedrove versiiT, romelsa

mxars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

157 uWers leo harviCi da doroti jamesoni (Leo Hurvi h da Dorothea Jameson, 1974), fe rTa TiToeuli wyvilis ori wevri moqmedebs erTmaneTis sapirispirod (arian oponente bi), nervuli Sekavebis pro esis saSualebiT. zogierTi gangliozuri ujredi iRebs aRmgzneb signals sinaTlidan, romeli Cans wiTlad da Sek avebis signals im sinaTlidan, romeli Cans mwvaned. sistemis sxva ujredebs aqvT aRgznebisa da Sekavebis pro esebis sapirispiro wesrigi. gangliozuri ujredebis es ori tipi erTad qmnis wiTel-mwvane oponenturi sistemis fiziologiur baziss. sxva gangliozuri ujredebi qmnian lurj/yviTel oponentur sistemas. sistema TeTri/Savi monawileobs Tqvens mier fereb is simaZRrisa da sinaTlis xarisxis aRqmaSi. vizualuri obieqtebis kompleqsuri ana lizi samyaros ferebis aRqma aris mxolod m ire nawili im kompleqsuri amo anisa, romeli dgas Tqveni vizualuri sistemis winaSe. Tuki Tqven gindaT daiW iroT fexburTis burTi an Tavi aaridoT krazanebis budes, Tqven unda SeamCnioT am o bieqtebis ier-saxe an forma, maTi siRmre an daSoreba da maTi moZraoba sivr eSi. Tqveni vizualuri sistema moi avs ramdenime gan alkevebul da damoukidebel qvesistemas, romeli aanalizebs erTi da igive reti naluri xatis sxvadasxva aspeqtebs. neironebis alkeul jgufebs aqvT unikaluri Tvi sebebi, dasabami mis es feris, formis, kontrastis, moZraobisa da teqsturis aRqmas (Livingstone & Hubel, 1988; Vinjie& Gallant, 2000 ). Tum a, Tqveni aRqma, saboloo jamSi, warmoadgens erTian vizualur suraTs, Tqven s mier misi danaxva ganpirobebulia uamravi nervuli gzebiT Tqvens vizualur sistem aSi, romlebi normalur pirobebSi uaRresad faqizadaa koordinirebuli. (Merigan & M aunsell, 1993) Tqven SeiZleba gaigoT, Tu rogor mimdinareobs rTuli vizualuri analizi erTi faqtis magaliTze: vizualuri nervuli gzebis TiToul doneze ujredebi n awilebze. reagireben magaliTad, seleqtiurad vizualuri velis mxolod spe ifiur Cven aRvniSneT adre, rom TiToeuli retinaluri gangliozuri ujredi aerTianebs mravali re eptoruli ujredidan miRebul informa ias. ujredis re eptoruli veli es aris adgili vizualur velSi, saidana is iRebs stimu la ias. retinaluri gangliozuri ujredebis re eptoruli veli aris ori tipis (ix. su raTi 4.12 A da B nawilebi): (1) is ujredebi, romelTa stimula ia velis entrSi aR agznebs ujreds da stimula ia mis garSemo mdebare nawilebSi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

158 iwvevs masSi Sekavebis pro ess; (2) Sekavebis pro esiT

ujredebi sapirispiro organiza iiT _ aRgznebis pro esiT periferiaze. ganglioizuri ujredebi reagireben stimula iis sxvaobaze mis entrsa da periferias Soris. isini yvelaze metad aRigznebian stimulebis kontrastiT; on- entris mqone ujredebi yvelaze Zlierad ganimuxtebian naTel laqaze, romelsa aqvs bneli sazRvre bi, xolo off- entris mqone ujredebi ganimuxtebian energiulad bnel laqaze, romelsa aqvs naTeli sazRvrebi. erTnairi g anaTeba ki iwvevs entrisa da periferiis aqtivobis gabaTilebas da ujredi ar aris iseTnairad aRgznebuli, rogor es xdeba naTeli laqis SemTxvevaSi. sur. 4.12 gang liozuri da qerquli ujredebis re eptoruli velebi ujredis re eptoruli veli aris vizualuri velis are, romlidana is iRebs stimula i as. baduris gangliozuri ujredebis re eptoruli velebi aris wriuli formis (A, B); mxedvelobiTi qerqis umartivesi ujredebi garkveuli mimarTulebiT aris wagrZelebuli (C, D, E, F). orive SemTxvevaSi, is adgili, sada sinaTle aRagznebs ujreds, aRn iSnulia plus niSniT da sada iwvevs Sekavebis pro ess, aRniSnulia minus niSniT. amasTanav,e stimuli, romeli yvelaze metad aRagznebs ujreds aris is, romelSi ar eebi, sada sinaTle aRmgznebia (aRniSnulia “+” niSniT), aris ganaTebuli, xolo areebi , sada sinaTle iwvevda Sekavebis pro ess (aRniSnulia “_” niSniT), sibneleSi. aris A C E • sawinaaRmdego pro esebis Teoriis (opponent-pro ess theory) Tanaxmad, nebismieri feris SegrZneba miiReba sami sistemisagan, romelTagan TiToeuli Sei avs or “oponent ur” elements: (wiTeli mwvanis sapirispirod, lurji yviTlis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

entrSi da

 

 

 

   

 

159 sapirispirod da Savi TeTris sapirispirod). • re eptoruli veli (re eptive field) _ adgili mxedvelobiT velSi, saidana mo emuli gangliozuri ujredi iRebs informa ias . Tqven axla gae aniT vizualuri informa iis gadamuSavebis Taviseburebebs re epto ruli da gangliozuri ujredebis doneze. magram ra xdeba vizualuri sistemis ufro ma Ral doneebze? pirveli naSromi am sferoSi Sesrulebuli iyo devid hiubelisa da tors ten vizelis (David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel) _ sensoruli pro esebis fiziologebis m ier. maT moipoves nobelis premia 1981 wels re eptoruli velebis ujredebis Seswavl isaTvis mxedvelobiT qerqSi. vizelma da hiubelma moaxerxes katis mxedvelobiT qerq is alkeuli ujredebis ganmuxtvis registra ia, romlebi reagirebdnen moZrav laqebsa da zolebz e vizualur velSi. ro a hiubelma da vizelma agegmes am qerquli ujredebis re eptor uli velebi, maT aRmoaCines ujredebis organiza ia, romlebi ufro zustad reagirebd nen garkveul vizualur stimula iaze (Hubel & Wiesel, 1962, 1979). erTi tipis qerq uli ujredebi, martivi ujredebi yvelaze Zlierad reagirebdnen gansazRvruli, maTTvi s “gamorCeuli” orienta iis mqone sinaTlis zolebze (ix. suraTi 4.12). kompleqsur ujre debs, agreTve, hqondaT arCeuli erTi, maTTvis “gamorCeuli” orienta ia, magram isini, aseve, irCevdnen moZraobis garkveul mimarTulebasa . hiperkopleqsuri ujredebi ki spe ializebulni iyvnen gansazRvruli orienta iisa da sigrZis mqone moZrav zolebze an moZrav kuTxeebze. ujredebi agzavnian gansxvavebuli saxis informa ias Tavis t vinis ufro maRali donis mxedvelobiT entrebSi, ra maqsimalurad exmareba tvins o bieqtebis nobaSi. am nawilSi Cven gavamaxvileTG yuradReba vizualuri sistemis re aq iaze garemodan miRebul gaRizianebaze. mexuTe TavSi Cven davinaxavT, rom adami anTa aRqma Zalian xSirad warmoadgens garemodan miRebuli informa iis _ sinaTlis t alRebis, romeli aRwevs Tvals _ da informa iis Sida wyaros kombina ias _ odnas, romeli ukve Senaxulia tvinSi. axla ganvixiloT bgeraTa samyaro. Sejameba adamianis fokusirdeba Tvali Tvalis funq ionirebs brolis mier fotoaparat is baduraze. msgavsad: sinaTle xdeba swored baduraze sinaTlis energiis ZiridaTi gardaqmna nervul aqtivobad. baduraze mdebare

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

160 re eptorebi – Cxirebi funq ionireben susti ganaTebis pirobebSi, kolbebi ki spe ial izdebian naTel, ferad garemoSi samuSaod da sivr iTi detalebis garCevaSi. badurid an miRebuli informa ia agrZelebs gzas Tavis tvinisaken gadamuSavebis doneebis mT eli seriis gavliT, romelTa saSualebiT xdeba informa iis seleq ia obieqtebis iden tifika iisa da maTi mdebareobis gansazRvris mizniT. brma mxvedvelobis fenomenma daadastura vizualuri analizis ga nsxvavebuli tipebis arseboba. feris aRqma ganpirobebulia sinaTlis talRis sxvadas xva sigrZiT da mas axasiaTebs sami ZiriTadi Tviseba: feris toni, simaZRre da sik aSkaSe. sxvadasxva sigrZis talRis kombina ia qmnis gansxvavebuli feris SegrZnebas ferTa Serevis niutonis kanonebis Tanaxmad. ferTa sibrmave sxvadasxva xarisxisaa; iSviaTia sruli ferTa sibrmave. feradi mxedvelobis mkvlevarebi mxars uWeren rogor triqromatul Teorias, aseve, oponent-pro esualur Teorias. vizualur sistemas aqvs sami tipis kolbebi, romlebi upiratesobas aniWeben gansxvavebuli t alRis sigrZeebs. es sami tipis kolbebi erTiandebian informa iis gadamuSavebis uf ro maRal doneze da dasabams aZleven oponentpro esualur fenomens. vizualuri anali zis zogierTi saxe efuZneba gangliozuri ujredebis re eptorul velebs, zogi ki spe ializa ias _ obieqtTa _ ufro maRali donis ujredebis mier arCeul mdebareobis, ori enta iis da moZraobis mimarTulebis mixedviT. smena Tqven mier samyaros gan disas smena da mxedveloba a srulebis erTmaneTis Semavsebel funq iebs. Tqven xSirad gesmiT stimulebi, sanam d ainaxavT maT, gansakuTrebiT, Tuki isini Tqvens ukan mdebareoben an arian gaumWir vale obieqtebis, magaliTad, kedlebis miRma. Tum a, mxedveloba aris ufro srulyofi li saSualeba im obieqtis identifi irebisaTvis, romlebi erTxel main moxvdnen mxedvelobis velSi, vidre sm ena, Cven xSirad mxolod imitom vxedavT obieqtebs, rom Cvenma yurebma miuTiTes Tv alebs swori mimarTuleba. smeniTi pro esebis ganxilvas daviwyebT im fizikuri ener giis saxeebis ganxilviT, romeli aRwevs Cvens yurebamde. bgeris fizika

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

161 SemohkariT warmoqmnis obieqtebis wnevis es taSi. daustvineT. daakakuneT fanqriT isaa, magidaze. rom isini ratom iwveven haers, moqmedebebi rxevis bgerebs? amis energia mizezi rxevas. gadae ema garemos, Cveulebriv, rogor ki rxevadi obieqtebi ubiZgeben garemos molekulebs. amiT gamowveuli m ire vlilebebi vr eldeba rxevadi obieqtidan garemoSi sinusoiduri talRebis erTobliobis saxiT, romeli moZraobs 335 metri wamSi siCqariT. (ix. suraTi 4.13). bgera ar SeiZleba gaCndes srul vakuumSi (maga liTad, kosmosur sivr eSi), radgan iq ar aris haeris molekulebi, romelTa aamoZra vebda rxevadi obieqtebi. sinusoidur talRas aqvs ori ZiriTadi fizikuri Tviseba, r omeli gansazRvravs mis JReradobas: sixSire da amplituda. sixSire izomeba rxevaT a im raodenobiT, romelsa asrulebs talRa drois mo emul SualedSi. rxeva, rogor m iTiTebulia suraTze 4.13, aris manZili mar xnidan marjvniv erTi talRis pikidan mo mdevno talRis pikamde. bgeris sixSire, Cveulebriv, gamoisaxeba her ebSi (h ), ro meli zomavs rxevaTa raodenobas erT wamSi. amplituda zomavs bgeriTi talRis siZlieris fizikur Tvisebas _ simaRles pikidan dadablebamde. amplituda ganisazRvreba bgeris wnevis an energiis erTeuleb Si. fsiqologiuri ganzomilebani fsiqologiuri sixSirisa da amplitudis fizikuri Tvi sebebi dasabams aZlevs bgeris sam ZiriTad ganzomilebas (Tvisebas) 4: bgeris tonis simaRle, siZliere da tembri. axla detalurad ganvixiloT es movlenebi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

haeris haeris SekumSva gafarToeba amlituda erTi ikl dro 4.13. sinusoiduri sur. 4.13. sinusoiduri talRis warmodgena sinusoiduri talRis ori ZiriTadi Tviseba aris sixSire _ rxevaTa raodenoba drois f iqsirebul erTeulSi da misi amplituda _ rxevis vertikaluri diapazoni. bgeris toni s simaRle 4 mTargmnelis SeniSvna

 

162 bgeris tonis simaRle ganisazRvreba bgeriTi talRis rxevis sixSiriT; maRali sixSir eebi warmoqmnian maRal tonebs, dabali sixSireebi ki _ dabal tonebs. sufTa5tonebi s mimarT adamianis mgrZnobiaroba valebadobs diapazonSi 20 her is sixSiridan 20 000 her is sixSiremde. 20 her ze dabali sixSi reebi adamianma SeiZleba SeigrZnos, rogor vibra ia ufro Sexebis saSualebiT, vid re bgeris saSualebiT. Tqven advilad warmoidgenT, Tu ramdenad didia es diapazoni, Tuki gaiTvaliswinebT, rom fortepianos 88 klaviSi fa ravs mxolod 30 her idan 4.000 her amde sixSiris diapazons. rogor gaxsovT fsiqof izikidan, kavSiri sixSiresa (fizikur realobas) da bgeriT tons (fsiqologiur efeqt s) Soris ar aris wrfivi. sixSiris skalis dabal maCveneblebisas sixSiris zrda mxo lod ramdenime her iT iwvevs bgeriTi tonis SesamCnev vlilebas, xolo sixSiris ska lis maRal maCveneblebis SemRxvevaSi, Tqven ga ilebiT metad unda gazardoT sixSire , raTa SeamCnioT gansxvaveba sixSireSi. magaliTad, fortepianos ori yvelaze dabal i noti erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba mxolod 1.6 her iT, maSin ro a ori yvelaze maR ali noti gansxvavdeba 235 her iT. es aris odnav SesamCnevi sxvaobis kidev erTi m agaliTi fsiqofizikaSi. bgeris siZliere bgeris siZliere anu fizikuri intensivoba ganisazRvreba misi amplitudiT. didi amp litudis bgeriTi talRebi gani deba, rogor xmamaRali da m ire amplitudisa ki _ xm adabali. adamianis smeniTi sistema mgrZnobiarea fizikuri intensivobebis uzarmaza ri diapazonis mimarT. • bgeris tonis simaRle (pit h) _ Tviseba, romeli ZiriTadad ganisazRvreba bgeriTi talRis rxevis sixSiriT. • bgeris siZliere (loudness) _ bgeri s per eftuli Tviseba, romeli gamoxatavs bgeriTi talRis amplitudas; didi amplitudis bgeriTi talRa saerTod gani deba rogor xmamaRali, xolo m ire amplitudis bgeriTi talRa gani deba rogor xma dabali. majis saaTis wikwikis xma, romeli gvesmis daaxloebiT es aris 6 metris s istemis gaigonoT manZilidan, absoluturi mdebareobs zRurbli. intensivobis Tuki is qveda zRvarze. ufro mgrZnobiarea, SeiZleba sisxlis moZraobis xma Tqvens yurebSi. intensivobis zeda zRvarze mdebared ki Sei Zleba ganvixiloT reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavis xma, romeli mifrinavs 5 sufTa tonebs, agreTve, uwodeben martiv tonebs an wminda tonebs (mTargmn. SeniSvn a)

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

163 daaxloebiT tkivilsa 90 ki metris simaRleze. yurebSi. es xma imdenad wnevis Zlieri fizikuri iqneba, rom gamoiwvevs bgeris erTeulebis terminebSi, reaq iuli TviTmfrinavi warmoqmnis bgeriT talRas, romeli miliardjer ufro Zlieria, vidre saaTis wikwiki. radgan smeniTi diapazoni Zalian didia, bgeri s fizikuri intensivobis diapazoni, Cveulebriv, gamoixateba ufro SefardebiTi, vid re absoluturi odenobis erTeulebSi. bgeris wneva _ misi amplitudis donis maCveneb eli, ra iwvevs xmamaRlobis gan das _ izomeba erTeulebSi, romelTa ewodeba de ibalebi (db). suraTze 4.14 naCvenebia zogierTi tipiuri bunebrivi bgeris inten sivobis sidide de ibalebSi da bgeris wnevis Sesatyvis erTeulebSi (dini/sm2) Seda rebisaTvis. rogor xedavT, or bgeras, romeli 20 de ibaliT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, aqvT bgeris wnevis Sefardeba 10/1 propor iiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom 90 de ibalze xmamaRalma bgerebma SeiZleba gamoiwvios smenis dakargva. es damokid ebulia maTi eqspozi iis xangrZlivobaze. tembri bgeris tembri asaxavs rTuli bgeris talRis komponentebs. tembri aris is, ra gana sxvavebs, magaliTad, fortepianos xmas fleitis xmisagan. fizikuri stimulebis m ir e raodenoba, magaliTad, kamertoni gamos ems sufTa tons, romeli Sedgeba erTi sin usoiduri talRisagan. sufTa tons aqvs mxolod erTi sixSire da erTi amplituda. bger aTa umetesoba realur xovrebaSi ar arian sufTa toni. isini arian kompleqsuri tal Rebi, romlebi Sei aven sixSirisa da amplitudis garkveul kombina ias. suraTze 4. 15 naCvenebia rTuli talRebis formebi, romeli Seesatyviseba ramdenime na nob bge ras. sur. 4.14 na nobi bgerebis doneebi de ibelebSi naxazze naCvenebia bgeraTa diapazoni de ibalebSi, romelzeda reagirebs adamianis smeniTi aparati absoluturi zRurblidan raketis gafrenis xmamde. de ibalebi gamoT vlilia bgeris wnevis saSualebiT, romeli aris bgeriTi talRis amplitudis donis ma Cvenebeli da zogadad Seesatyviseba imas, rasa adamiani gani dis, rogor bgeris xmamaRlobas. .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

164

de ibalebis done (db) 180 → raketis afrenis xma (daaxloebiT 45 metris simaRleze) → → → 1 60 → → → → 2000. 140 →reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavis xma (24 metris simaRleze) → tkivilis zRurbli 00. 120 →xmamaRali Weqa-quxili, rok-jgufi → →orZraviani TviTmfrinavi → 20. 100 →metros mat areblis vagonSi → →smenis dakargva xangrZlivi stimula iis pirobebSi → 2. 80 →xmaurian ma nqanaSi → →uxmauro manqanaSi → 0.2 60 →Cveulebrivi saubari → →Cveulebrivi ofisi → 0.02 40 → ro ofisi → →wynari oTaxi → 0.002 20 →xmadabali CurCuli (1.5 metris manZilze) → → → 0.0002. enis absoluturi zRurbli (1000 her is tonisaTvis) saTvis (pirveli oqtava) yvela sixSires, romeli realurad warmodgenilia am notSi da maT amplitudebs. • bgeris wnevis done (dini/sm2) grafiki suraTze 4.15 gviCvenebs bgeraTa speqtrs fortepianos nota “si”tembri (timbre) _ smeniTi SegrZnebis Tviseba, romeli Tules.

kompleqsur tonSi, rogori aa magaliTad, nota “si”, yvelaze dabali sixSire (daaxloebiT 256 h ) pasuxismgebelia im tonze, romeli Tqven gesmiT. mas uwodeben ZiriTad tons, ufro maRali sixSiris tonebs ki harmonikebs, an obertonebs, maTi sixSire ramdenjerme aRemateb a ZiriTad rxevis sixSires. sruli bgera, romeli Tqven gesmiT, aris warmoqmnili ZiriTadi bg erebisa da harmonikebis erToblivi moqmedebis Sedegad, rogor naCvenebia speqtrSi . Tuki am sixSiris sufTa tonebi da intensivobebi erTmaneTs daemateba, amis Sedeg ad Tqven gaigonebT bgeras, romeli JRers iseTnairad, rogor nota “si” fortepianoze. bgerebs, romelTa Tqven uwodebT xmaurs, ara aqvs ZiriTadi sixSireebisa da harmon ikebis naTeli, martivi struqtura. xmauri Sei avs mraval sixSires, romeli ar ari s sistematikurad dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan. magaliTad, sta ionaruli xmauri, rome li Tqven gesmiT radiosadgurebs Soris, Sei avs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

asaxavs bgeriTi talRis sir

165 yvela smenadi sixSiris energias; Tqven mas aRiqvamT ise, TiTqos ar hqondes simaR le, radgan mas ara aqvs ZiriTadi sixSire. smenis fiziologia axla Tqven ukve fizi kuri es gaqvT garkveuli informa ia axla bgeraTa fsiqologiuri Tu rogor gan debis safuZvlebis smeniTi Sesaxeb. sistemis ganvixiloT, aRmo endeba gan debi fiziologiuri aqtivobisagan. pirvel rigSi, vnaxoT, Tu rogor muSaobs yuri. Semdeg Cven ganvixilavT zogierT Teo rias smeniT sistemaSi bgeriTi tonis simaRlis kodirebisa da bgerebis lokaliza iis Sesaxeb. fleita afeTqeba nota si klarneti adamianis xma nota amplituda dro si-s bgeriTi speqtri sixSire 1.0 0.5

 

 

 

 

 

166 0 6000 sur. 4.15 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 es naxazi gviCvenebs na nobi bgerebis talRis formebsa da bgeris speqtrs pianinos nota “si”-saTvis. ZiriTadi talRis sigrZe aris nawarmoebi ZiriTadi sixSirisagan, am SemTxvevaSi, 256 her i, magram pianinos simebi, agreTve, vibrirebs ufro maRal si xSireebze (romeli nobilia, rogor obertonebi anu harmonikebi). isini qmnian k bilanebs talRis nimuSze. es damatebiTi sixSireebi aris identifi irebuli bgeriT s peqtrSi. sistema smenis sistema Tqven ukve i iT, rom sensoruli pro esebi axdens eqsternal uri energiis formebis gardaqmnas nervul gavr elebuli talRebi unda impulsebad. im isaTvis, rom gaigonoT, gardaiqmnas unda moxdes ZiriTadi energiis oTxi transforma ia. ix. suraTi 4.16 (1) haerSi 4.16: siTxis talRebad, romeli

moTavsebulia yuris lokokinaSi, (2) siTxis talRebi Semdeg iwveven ZiriTadi membra nis meqanikur rxevas, (3) es rxevebi gardaiqmneba eleqtrul impulsebad da (4) imp ulsebi gadaigzavneba smeniT qerqSi. TiToeuli es transforma ia ganvixiloT ufro de talurad. pirveli transforma iisas haeris rxevadi molekulebi Sedian yurebSi (ix. suraTi 4.16). zogierTi bgera Sedis pirdapir yuris gareTa sasmen milSi da zogi ki _ gareTa yuridan anu niJaridan arekvlis Semdeg. bgeriTi talRa mogzaurobs sasmeni milis gaswriv gareTa yuris gavliT, sanam ar miaRwevs milis bo los. aq is ejaxeba Txel membranas, romelsa uwodeben dafis apks. bgeriTi talRis wnevis vlilebebs mohyavs dafis apki moZraobaSi. dafis apki gadas ems rxevas gar e yuridan Sua yurSi, RruSi, romeli Sei avs sam um iresi zomis Zvals adamianis s xeulSi: CaquCs, grdemls da uzangs. es Zvlebi ayalibeben meqanikur jaWvs, romeli gadas ems rxevas da axdens mis kon entrirebas dafis apkidan smenis ZiriTadi org anosaken _ lokokinasaken, romeli moTavsebulia Sida yurSi. meore transforma iisa s, romeli xdeba lokokinaSi, haerSi

gavr elebuli talRebi gadaiq eva “zRvis talRebad”. lokokina aris siTxiT gavsebuli spi ralurad daxveuli mili, mas aqvs membrana, romeli nobilia ZiriTadi sigrZis memb ranis gaswvriv. saxeliT. ro a is ganTavsebulia uzangi, mis Sua nawilSi mTeli ova lur irxeva romeli

mdebareobs sarkmelTan, lokokinas fuZesTan axlos, lokokinaSi mdebare siTxe iwvevs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

   

 

     

 

167 ZiriTadi membranis talRisebr moZraobas (rogor zemoT iyo naxsenebi, “zRvis talRebs”). energiis mesame gardaqmnisas ZiriTadi membranis talRisebri moZraob a arxevs masTan dakavSirebul patara bewvian ujredebs. bewviani ujredebi aris smeni Ti sistemis re eptoruli ujredebi. bewviani ujredebis rxeva iwvevs nervuli dabolo ebebis stimulirebas da axdens ZiriTadi membranis meqanikuri rxevebis gardaqmnas nervul aqtivobaSi. sabolood, energiis meoTxe gardaqmnisas, boWkoebis konaSi gama vali nervuli impulsebi toveben lokokinas. es boWkoebi warmoadgenen smenis nervs. isin i xvdebian Tavis tvinis fuZeSi mdebare lokokinas birTvebs. msgavsad vizualur sis temaSi nervebis gadakveTisa, erTi yuridan momavali gaRizianeba gadae ema Tavis t vinis orive nawils. smeniTi signalebi gaivlian sxva birTvebis mTel rigs da miaRweven smeniT qerqs, romeli mdebareobs Tavis tvinis n axevarsferoebis sxva nawilebi, romeli safeTqlis wilSi. am gamosaxulia suraTze s ignalebis 4.16, maRali donis sxva gadamuSaveba iwyeba smeniT qerqSi. (rogor Tqv en momavalSi naxavT, yuris monawileoben SegrZnebebis aRmo enebaSi). 4.16. sur. 4 .16. adamianis yuris agebuleba bgeriTi talRebi miemarTeba gareT yuris anu niJaris saSualebiT, gareTa sasmeni mi lis gavliT da iwvevs dafis apkis rxevas. am rxevas moqmedebaSi mohyavs Sua yuris patara Zvlebi _ CaquCi, grdemli da uzangi. meqanikuri rxevebi gadae ema ovaluri sarkmlis saSualebiT lokokinas. maT moZraobaSi mohyavT mis RruSi arsebuli siTxe. patara bewviani ujredebi ganlagebuli arian ZiriTadi membranis axdenen gaswvriv maTTan lokokinaSi uSualod da irxevian siTxis nervuli moZraobaze, riTa dakavSire buli daboloebebis stimulirebas. amis Semdeg meqanikuri energia gardaiqmneba nervul en ergiaSi da egzavneba tvins smeniTi nervis saSualebiT. es oTxi gardaqmna xdeba srulyofilad momuSave smeniT sistemaSi. milionobiT adamians aqvs darRvevebi smeniTi sistemaSi. arsebobs smeniTi darRveve bis ori zogadi tipi, an meti komponentis TiToeuli gamowveulia smeniTi sistemis e rTi naklebad Sua seriozuli Zvlebi dazianebaa ar siyrue, defeqtiT. xSirad romeli dakavSirebulia haeris rxevebis gamtarobasTan lokokinisaken. am tipis daz ianebis dros yuris funq ionirebs Sesabamisad. am defeqtis gamosworeba SesaZlebel ia mikroqirurgiuli gziT xelovnuri grdemlisa da uzangis CasmiT. ufro seriozuli ti pis dazianebaa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

168 nervuli siyrue, defeqti im nervul meqanizmebSi, romeli warmoqmnis nervul impulsebs yurSi an gadaaqvs isini smeniT qerqSi. smeniTi qerqis dazianeba, agreT ve, warmoqmnis nervul siyrues. • lokokina ( o hlea) _ smenis ZiriTadi organo; siTxiT gavsebuli spiralurad daxveul i mili, romeli moTavsebulia Sida yurSi. • ZiriTadi membrana (basilar membrane) mdebareobs lokokinaSi, ro a is modis moZrob aSi, iwvevs bewviani ujredebis stimulirebas, (aRizinaebs maT) romlebi warmoqmni an smeniTi gaRizianebis nervul efeqtebs. • smenis nervi (auditory nerve) atarebs impulss lokokinidan tvinSi mdebare lokokin is birTvebSi. • smeniTi qerqi (auditory ortex) _ safeTqlis wilis are, romeli iRebs da amuSaveb s smeniT informa ias. • adgilis Teoria (pla e theory) amtki ebs, rom sxvadasxva sixSiris toni qmnis aqti va iis maqsimums ZiriTadi membranis sxvadasxva adgilebSi, amis Sedegad bgeriTi t onis simaRle SeiZleba kodirebuli iyos im adgilis mixedviT, romlis aqtiva ia mox da. • sixSiris Teoria (frequen y theory) amtki ebs, rom toni warmoqmnis im siCqaris rx evas ZiriTad membranaSi, romeli ekvivalenturia misi sixSirisa, amis Sedegad, bg eriTi tonis simaRle SeiZleba kodirebuli iyos nervuli reaq iis sixSiriT. bgeriTi tonis aRqmis Teoriebi arsebobs ori gansxvavebuli Teoria, romeli xsnis Tu rogor xdeba smeniT sistemaSi bgeriTi talRis gardaqmna bgeriTi tonis SegrZnebad: adgilis Teoria da sixSiris Teoria. adgilis Teoria Tavidan SemoTavazebuli iyo fon herman helmhol is (Hermann von Helmholtz) mier 1800 wels da Semdeg georg von be

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kesis (Georg von Bekesy) mier iqna modifi irebuli, gadamuSavebuli da Semowmebuli . man am kvlevisaTvis 1961 wels aiRo nobelis premia. adgilis Teoria efuZneba im faqts, rom ZiriTadi membrana moZraobs, ro a bgeriTi talRa Semodis Sida yurSi. sx vadasxva sixSire iwvevs ZiriTadi membranis gaswvriv garkveuli adgilis moZraobas sarkmelebi amoZravebas. iwveven arian maRali sixSiris fuZesTan, dabali tonebi sa da sixSiris yvelaze ovaluri tonebi did da talRur mrgvali did lokokinis ganlageb ulni. yvelaze

   

 

169 talRur moZraobas iwveven ZiriTadi membranis mopirdapire boloSi. amrigad, adgilis Teoria amtiki ebs, rom bgeriTi tonis simaRlis aRqma damokidebulia ZiriTadi membranis im garkveul adgilze, romeli yvelaze metad Rizi andeba. meore Teoria, sixSiris Teoria bgeriTi tonis simaRles xsnis ZiriTadi Teor ia, membranis rxevis siswrafiT. es Teoria varaudobs, rom 100 her is sixSiris bge riTi talRa iwvevs ZiriTadi membranis rxevas 100-jer wamSi. sixSiris Teoria, agre Tve, amtiki ebs, imave rom ZiriTadi ase membranis rxevebi iwveven aris neironebis ganmuxtvas siCqariT, rom, ganmuxtvis siCqare bgeriTi tonis simaRlis nervuli kodi. erTi problema, romeli am dros Cndeba, isaa , rom individualur neironebs ar SeuZliaT im siswrafiT ganmuxtva, rom warmoadginon maRali bgerebi, radgan ar erT maTgans ar SeuZlia ga nmuxtva ufro meti siCqariT, vidre 1000-jer wamSi. amis gamo, erT neirons ar SeuZ lia ganasxvavos 1000 her ze meti sixSiris bgerebi, rasa Cveni smeniTi sistema r ogor sakmaod kargad axerxebs. es SezRudva ramdenime SeiZleba neirons daiZlios e .w. zalpis prin ipiT, romeli xsnis imas, Tu ra xdeba maRal sixSireebze. naCvene bia suraTze 4.17, kombinirebuli moqmedebiT, anu zalpSi, SeuZlia ganimuxtos im si xSireze, romeli Seesabameba 2000 h , 3000h da a.S. sixSiris tonebs. (Wever, 19 49). 4.17. sur. 4.17. zalpis prin ipi smeniTi struqtura, nervuli ra ujredebis jamur koleqtiur maSina

aqtivobas ki, ro a aqvs igive Semosul bgeriT talRas, TiToeul

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

alkeul boWkos SeiZleba ar hqondes sakmarisad swrafi ganmuxtva, rom Tan axldes b geriTi talRis struqturas. bgeriTi talRis signali boWko a boWko b boWko

 

 

boWko d boWko e

170 koleqtiuri smeniTi reaq ia

mxolod bgeraTa aspeqtebisaTvis. iTvleba, rom sixSiris Teoria kargad xsnis 5000 her ze dabali si xSireebis kodirebas. maRali sixSireebisaTvis neironebs ar SeuZliaT ganimuxton ise swrafad da zustad, rom moaxerxon signalis k odireba adeqvaturad, zalpSi ki. adgilis Teoria ufro warmatebulad xsnis bgeriTi tonis simaRlis aRqmas 1000-her ze ufro maRali sixSire ebisaTvis. 1000 her ze ufro dabali sixSireebisaTvis ZiriTadi membrana irxeva imdenad farTod, rom mas ar SeuZlia uzrunvelyos signalis gansxvav eba nervuli re eptorebisaTvis, romelTaTvis ZiriTadi membranis rxeva aris bgeriTi tonis simaRlis gansxvavebis saSualeba. 1000 her idan 5000 her amde sixSiris dia pazonSi orive meqanizmi muSaobs. rTuli sensoruli amo ana iyofa or sistemas Soris , isini erTad gvTavazoben ufro maRal sensorul sizustes, vidre es SeeZlo, uzrunve leyo mxolod erT sistemas. Cven Semdeg davinaxavT, rom adamiani flobs, agreTve, o r SeTanxmebul nervul sistemas, romeli exmareba mas garemoSi bgeraTa lokaliza ii s amo anis gadawyvetaSi. • zalpis sixSires, neironi prin ipi (volley prin iple) _ esaa sixSiris Teoriis ganvr oba, romeli amtiki ebs, rom ro a bgeriTi talRis sixSire aRemateba im romliTa xteba alkeul erTad, neirons SeuZlia ganmuxtva, ramdenime tonis rogor

ganimu

jgufi, Semosuli bgeris simaRlis Sesatyvisi sixSiriT. bgeraTa lokaliza ia delfinebi da Ramurebi ar iyene ben mxedvelobas obieqtTa adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisas Rrma wylis Tu mRvimis si

 

rogor ferTa SegrZnebis triqromatuli da sawinaaRmdego pro esebis Teoriebi, warma tebiT ufro aseve, adgilisa da sixSiris tonis Teoriebi , simaRlis ufro orive gan dis sargeblobs sxvadasxva

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

       

 

bneleSi. amis na vlad, isini sargebloben eqoloka iiT _ isini agzavnian maRali si xSiris bgerebs, romlebi aireklebian obieqtebis mier, riTa qmnian ukukavSirs da iZlevian informa ias obieqtebamde manZilis, maTi adgilmdebareobis, zomebis, teq sturis da moZraobis saSualebiT Sesaxeb. erT-erTi saxeobis Ramuras romlebi SeuZl ia arian eqoloka iis ganasxvavos obieqtiebi,

 

 

 

 

 

   

171 daSorebulni erTmaneTisagan mxolod 0.3 milimetriT (Simmons et al., 1998). Tum a, adamians ar gaaCnia es spe ialuri unari, is main iyenebs bgerebs obieqtebis maS in, ro a gamoyenebiT: misaRwevad adgilmdebareobis maTi im danaxva drois gansazRv risaTvis gaZnelebulia. es SefasebiT, im bgerebis sivr eSi, xerxdeba romeli gans akuTrebiT ori meqanizmis bgeris saWiroa SedarebiTi yurTan da TiToeul intensivobis SedarebiTi

sWirdeba Semomaval bgeriT signals TiToeul marjvena magaliTad, bgera, romeli

lokalizdeba miaRwevs marjvena yurs ufro adre, vidre mar xenas (ix. wertili B suraTze 4.18). 4.18 smeniTi sistemis neironebi spe ializebulni arian am gansxvavebis SemCnevaze . Tavis tvini iyenebs am gansxvavebas droSi, raTa gaakeTos sivr eSi bgeris SesaZ lo lokaliza iis zusti Sefaseba. meore meqanizmi efuZneba im prin ips, rom bgeras aqvs odnav ufro didi intensivoba im yurSi, romelsa is pirvelad miaRwevs, radga n adamianis Tavi TviTon qmnis bgeriT Crdils, romeli asustebs signals. intensivo bis es gansxvaveba damokidebulia im bgeriTi tonis talRis sigrZis SedarebiT zomaz e, romeli aRwevs adamianis Tavs. grZeli talRebi anu dabali sixSiris tonebi, faq tiurad, intensivobis araviTar gansxvavebas ar gviCveneben maSin, ro a mokle talR ebis, maRali sixSiris tonebis intensivobebis gansxvaveba savsebiT gazomvadia. im adamianis tvinSi aris ujredebi, gansxvavebis romlebi SemCnevaze, spe ializdebian signalebis intensivobebis romeli aRmo endeba or yurSi. 4.18. sur. 4.18. droiTi Seusabamoba da bgeris loka liza ia bgeraTa sivr eSi lokaliza iis gansazRvris mizniT Tavis tvini iyenebs gansxvaveba

 

SefasebiT, romlebi aRweven TiToeul yurTan (Middlebrooks &Green, 1991; Phillips, 1993). pirveli erTmaneTs, misaRwevad. meqanizmi ra Sei avs neironebs, romlebi adareben im droebs yurTan mxares,

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

s droSi, romelsa andomebs bgera TiToeul yurTan misaRwevad. magram ra xdeba maSin, ro a bgeris wyaro Tanabrad aris daSorebuli orive yuridan, maSin xom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes ar droSi da ar intensivobaSi gansxvaveba? swored aseTi situa iaa gamosaxuli suraTze 4.18. bgera , romeli vr eldeba A wertilidan, Tanabrad aris daSorebuli orive yuridan. daxuWu li TvalebiT SeuZlebeli iqneba misi lokaliza iis zusti gansazRvra. ase rom, Tqven unda SemoabrunoT Tavi da yurebis mdebareoba

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

172 Se valoT ise, rom daarRvioT simetria, es SesaZlebels gaxdis miiRoT bgeris lokali za iis gansazRvrisaTvis au ilebeli informa ia. Sejameba bgeriTi talRis sixSirisa da amplitudis kombina ia dasabams aZlevs bgeriTi tonis simaRlis, siZlierisa da tembris aRqmas. smeniTi informa ia gani dis ramdenime transforma ias yuridan Tav is tvinisaken mimaval gzaze: bgeriTi talRa gardaiqmneba siTxis talRebad, siTxis talRebi warmoqmnian nervul reaq ias. bgeriTi tonis simaRlis aRqma axsnilia ori m eqanizmis kombina iiT: adgilis Teoria amtki ebs, rom sxvadasxva simaRlis mqone b gera warmoSobs ZiriTadi membranis gansxvavebuli adgilebis moZraobas; sixSiris Te oria amtki ebs, rom bgeriTi tonis sxvadasxva simaRle iwvevs ZiriTadi membranis m isTvis Sesatyvisi siCqariT rxevas. bgeris lokaliza ia moi avs, sul ota, or gan sxvavebul pro ess: Tavis tvinSi aris ujredebi, romlebi amCneven gansxvavebas dr oSi, ra sWirdeba bgeras TiToeul yurTan misaRwevad da gansxvavebas intensivobaSi , romelsa aRiqvams TiToeuli yuri. sxva SegrZnebebi Cven yvelaze didi dro davuTm eT mxedvelobisa da smeniTi pro esebis ganxilvas, radgan es sakiTxebi yvelaze uke T aris Seswavlili me nierTa mier. magram sxva SegrZnebebi aseve, mniSvnelovan r ols asruleben Cven adamianis mokled TviTgadarCenis da, garemos dauflebis unarSi. ganvixilavT sxva SegrZnebebs. ynosva Tqven, albaT, SegiZliaT warmoidginoT situa ia, ro a bednieri iqnebodiT ynosvis SegrZnebis dakargviT: gyoliaT rodisme ZaRli, romelsa waugia skunsTan brZola? magram Tavidan rom avi iloT skunsis sunis gan da, Cven, agreTve, unda davkargoT vardis surnelis, xeli popkornis, zRvidan

momavali sunis SegrZnebis unari. suni _ kargi Tu udi _ pirvelad Tavis arsebobas gvatyobinebs re eptoris ilebTan urTierTqmedebisas, romeli mdebareobs ynosvis bususebis membranaze. (ix. suraTi 4.19 mas SeuZlia miiRos 4.19). nivTierebis mxo lod rva molekula, raTa dasabami mis es erT-erTs am nervuli impulsebidan, magram, sul ota, 40 nervuli daboloeba unda iyos stimulirebuli, raTa SeigrZnoT nivTiere bis suni. es nervuli impulsebi agzavnian sunis Sesaxeb informa ias ynosvis bolqv Si, romeli ganlagebulia bolqvSi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

173 re eptorebis zemoT da Sublis wilis qvemoT. ynosviTi pro esi iwyeba qimiuri nivTi erebis SesvliT ynosviTi neironebis ionur arxebSi, es ki, rogor naxsenebi iyo me same TavSi, iwvevs moqmedi poten ialis aRmo enebas (Restrepo et al., 1990). ynos vis SegrZneba aris erT-erTi im m ire funq iaTagani nervul sistemaSi, romeli ari s TviTganaxlebadi: ro a Tqveni ynosvis re eptorebi daberdebian da mokvdebian, maT vlis axali ujredebi, romeli ayalibebs axal kavS irebs ynosvis bolqvTan (Farman, 1992). sur. 4.19. ynosvis re eptorebi sur. 4.19. xviris garemoSi • RruSi arsebuli mdebare ynosvis re eptoruli qimiuri nivTierebebiT. isini ujredebi Riziandebian agzavnian informa ias ynosvis bolqvisaken tvinSi. ynosvis bolqvi (olfa tory bulb) _ entri, sada ynosvis re eptorebi agzavnian Ta vianT signalebs, romeli ganlagebulia zustad Tavis tvinis qerqis Sublis wilis qv eviT. • feromenebi organizmebi (pheromones) mo emuli _ qimiuri saxeobis signalebi, sxva romelsa

gamohyofen urTierTobis wevrebTan dasamyareblad; xSirad funq ionireben, rogor distanturi seqsualuri mimzidvelebi. ynosva, rogor Cans, ganviTarda, rogor sistema, romeli emsaxureboda sakvebis aRmoCenasa da adgilmdebareobis gansazRvras (Mon rieff, 1951). Zalian bevri saxeo bisaTvis ynosva, agreTve, gamoiyeneboda safrTxis poten iuri wyaros aRmosaCenad. is am funq ias kargad asrulebda, radgan organizmebi ar unda Sesuliyvnen pirdapir kontaqtSi sxva organizmebTan, raTa daeynosaT isini. garda amisa, ynosva SeiZleb a iyos aqtiuri komunika iis mZlavri forma. zogierTi signalebis saxeobis saxeobis xovelebi da erTmaneTTan am kontaqtSi Sedian qimiuri gamoyofiTa farglebSi, aRmoCeniT. qimiur signalebs feromenebs safrTxis, magaliTad,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

uwodeben. feromenebi aris qimiuri nivTierebebi, romlebi gamoiyeneba erTi rogor da seqsualuri sakvebi mgrZnobelobis, signalebi. teritoriuli sazRvrebisa wyaros

sxvadasxva saxeobis mwerTa mamri gamohyofs feromenebs, riTa atyobinebs mdedrebs , rom is mzadaa SewyvilebisaTvis. (Farine et al., 1996; Min kley et al., 1991).

 

   

 

174 ynosvis virTxebs, SegrZnebis mwerebsa da mniSvneloba sxva bevr i vleba o xal saxeobaTa arsebas, Soris. visTvisa ZaRlebs, ynosva umniSvnelovanesia TviTgadarCenisaTvis, aqvs ga ilebiT maxvili ynosva, vidre adam ians. maTi Tavis tvinis SedarebiT didi nawili emsaxureba ynosvis SegrZnebas. ada mianebi ynosvas, rogor Cans, ZiriTadad, iyeneben gemosTan kavSirSi, raTa ipovon da airCion sakvebi, magram arsebobs zogierTi faqtebi, rom adamianebi gamoyofen da SeigrZnoben feromenebis msgavs nivTierebebs (Ja ob&M Clinto k, 2000). amas g vafiqrebinebs, magaliTad, is faqti, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi axlo megobrebis menst rualuri ikli qalTa saerTo sa xovrebelSi iwyebs sinqroniza ias (M Clinto k, 1971; Stern & M Clinto k, 1998) . es sinqroniza ia aixsneba qimiuri signalebiT, romlis SegrZneba xdeba ynosvis saSualebiT (Cutler et al., 1986; Preti et al., 1986). me nierebi, agreTve, amtki eben, rom ynosva SeiZleba garkveul rols TamaSobdes seqsualuri aqtivobisadmi ada mianis mzaobaSi. albaT, gagao aT ynosvis SegrZnebis mniSvnelobam adamianis seqsu alur xovrebaSi. saidan vi iT asrulebs Tu ara ynosva raime rols adamianis seqsua lur aqtivobaSi? kvlevaSi monawileobas iRebda 289 qali. maT unda SeefasebinaT androstenonis, ka is oflis ZiriTadi komponentis suni. qalebis umetesoba suns afa sebda, rogor “arasasiamovnos” an “aramimzidvels”. gamonaklisi am zogadi kanonzomierebid an iyvnen qalebi, visa hqondaT ovula ia. maTi Sefasebebi sunis mimarT iyo ufro neitraluri. ra daskvna SeiZleba gavakeToT? mkvlevarebi varaudoben, rom qalebi, visa hqondaT ovula ia da amitoma dafexmZimebis ufro didi Sansi _ naklebad savaraudoa, rom winaaRmdegobas gauwev en mamaka Ta seqsualur ini iativas, mxolod maTi arasasiamovno bunebrivi sunis ga mo. (Grammer, 1993) gemos SegrZneba sakvebisa da Rvinis gurmanebs aqvT kargad ga nviTarebuli unari, SeamCnion odnavi gansxvaveba gemoSi, Tum a, maTi umetesoba am isaTvis iyenebs realurad ynosvas sakvebi da ara gemos SegrZnebas. ro a Tqven Tqv eni WamT, ynosvisa da gemos SegrZnebebi mWidrod TanamSromloben erTmaneTTan. ro a ga iebuli xarT, ugemuri geCvenebaT, radgan xviris Sesasvlelebi

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

   

175 blokirebulia darwmundeT erTnairi magaliTad, da dakarguli xvirze magram da gaqvT ynosva. Tqven Tavad ipovoT SegiZliaT gansxvaveba Soris, saerTo romeli amaSi: xelwaWerilma gansxvavebuli um zogierTi See adeT sunis naWrebs teqsturis, vaSlisa mqone sakvebs im kartofilis Soris. azriT, sa xovrebelSi m xovrebi studentis saxelganTqmuli iyo Tavisi udi sakvebiT, xvirsa obis gakeTeba Wamis dros saWmel s ukargavs gemos, ris Sedegada yvela kerZs erTnairi gemo aqvs, ra bevrad ukeTe sia, vidre maTi sakuTari gemo! Tqveni enis zedapiri dafarulia gemos dvrilebiT, r omeli aniWebs mas uswormasworo iers. am dvrilebis didi nawili Sei avs gemos re eptoruli ujredebis jgufebs, romelsa uwodeben gemos bolqvebs (ix. suraTi 4.20). 4.20 gemos re eptoris erTi ujredis Canaweri gviCvenebs, rom individualuri re ept oruli ujredebi yvelaze kargad reagireben gemos oTxi Tvisebidan erT-erTze: tkbilz e, mJaveze, mwaresa da mlaSeze (Frank & Nowlis, 1989). gasul wlebSi mkvlevarebma aRmoaCines gemos mexuTe, ZiriTadi Tvisebis re eptorebi, umami (umami) (Chaudhar i et al., 2000). umami aris natriumis glutamati (MGS), romelsa xSirad umateben aziur saWmelebs da bunebrivad gvxvdeba ilebiT mdidar sakvebSi, rogori aa xor i, zRvis produqtebi da Zveli yveli. Tum a, am xuTi Tvisebis re eptoruli ujredebi m ired reagireben sxva gemoze , “saukeTeso” reaq ia yvelaze sworad asaxavs Tvisebas. rogor Cans, gemos am ZiriTadi klasebisTvis gardaqmnis sistemebi erTmaneTisgan d amoukideblad arsebobs (Bartoshuk &Beau hamp, 1994). gemos SegrZnebis re eptorebi SeiZleba daziandnen alkoholis, sigaretis bolis, mJavis Sedegad. sabednierod, ge mos SegrZnebis re eptorebi i vleba ramdenime dReSi erTxel _ ufro xSirada , vidre ynosvis re eptorebi. marTla , gemos SegrZnebis unariaonobiT sistema dazianebis sxva mimarT yvelaze didi winaaRmdegobis gamoirCeva, SegrZnebebTan SedarebiT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zalian iSviaTia SemTxvevebi, rom vinmem srulebiT, samudamod dakargos gemos SegrZ neba (Bartoshuk, 1990). 4.20. sur. 4.20. gemos re eptorebi nawili A gviCvenebs d vrilebis ganawilebas enis zeda mxareze. nawili B gviCvenebs erT dvrils, romeli naxatze isea gadidebuli, rom Cans alkeu li gemos bolqvebi. nawili C gviCvenebs gadidebulad erT-erT gemos bolqvs. erTSexe bisa da kanis SegrZnebebi

 

 

 

176 kani SesaniSnavad adaptirebadi organoa. garda zedapiris dazianebisagan, gamoSrob isagan, imisa, rom is gi avT gexmarebaT temperaturis regula iaSi, is Sei avs nervul daboloebebs, romlebi warmoSoben wnevis, siTbosa da si ivis SegZnebebs. am SegrZnebebs ewodebaT kanis SegrZnebebi SegrZnebebi. ra dgana Tqven didi raodenobiT sensorul informa ias iRebT Tqveni kanis saSualebiT, gansxvavebuli tipis tipis mravali (ix. re eptoruli suraTi 4..21). sxvadasxva uj redi naxatze tipis funq ionirebs gamosaxuli sxeulis zedapirTan axlos TiToeuli re eptori reagirebs kontaqtze kanTan (Sekular & Blake, 1994). meisneris sxeulebi yvelaze kargad reag ireben maSin, ro a raime exaxuneba kans, xolo merkelis diskebi yvelaze metad ari an aqtiurebi maSin, ro a raime patara obieqti awveba kans. Tqven, albaT, gagikvi rdebaT, ro a gaigebT, rom siTbosa da si ivis SegrZnebebisaTvis gansxvavebuli re eptorebi arsebobs. Tqven ar gaqvT erTi re eptori, romeli moqmedebs Termometris msgavsad, Tqveni Tavis tvini axdens siT bosa da si ivis alkeuli signalebis integrirebas, raTa akontrolos garemos temperaturuli vlilebebi. 4.21. SegrZnebaTa sur. 4.21. kanis SegrZnebaTa re eptorebi ramdenime sxvadasxva tipis re eptori aris pasuxismgebeli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     

 

         

kanis SegrZnebaTa gan daze, rogori aa Sexebis, siTbosa da si ivis SegrZnebebi. magaliT ad, meisneris sxeulebi yvelaze kargad reagireben raime obieqtis gaxaxunebaze kan is mimarT, merkelis diskebi yvelaze aqtiurni arian patara obieqtebis kanze dawol is mimarT. kanis mgrZnobiaroba wnevisadmi Zalian farTo diapazonSi i vleba sxeulis sxvadasxv a ubanze. magaliTad, Tqven 10-jer ufro zustad gansazRvravT stimulis lokaliza ias Tqveni TiTebis wverebze, vidre zurgze. sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilis mgrZnobiarobi s gansxvavebuloba ganpirobebulia nervuli daboloebebis simWidroviT garkveul ubneb Si da, agreTve, sensoruli qerqis didi farTobiT, romeli maT Seesatyviseba. mesam e TavSi Tqven naxeT, rom mgrZnobiaroba udidesia iq, sada es yvelaze metad gWird ebaT _ saxeze, enasa da xelebze. zusti sensoruli ukukavSiri sxeulis am nawilebid an uzrunvelyofs Wamis, laparakis da aRqmis pro esebis efeqtur mimdinareobas. kanis mgrZnobelobis erTi aspeqti asrulebs entralur rols adamianur urTierTobebSi: esaa Sexeba. Sexebis saSualebiT Tqven gadas emT sxvebs Tqvens survils, miiRoT an gas eT simSvide, mxardaWera, siyvaruli da vneba. Sexeb is adgils didi mniSvneloba aqvs erotiuli an seqsualuri SegrZnebis

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

177 aRmo enebaSi. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiare adgilebs erogenuli zonebi ewodeba. sxva mgrZnobiare erotiuli adgilebis aRgznebis poten ia li damokidebulia • interindividuluri daswavlil gansxvavebulobiT da xasiaTdeba. is aso ia iebze sensoruli re eptorebis kon entra iaze mo emul adgilze. kanis SegrZnebebs ( utaneous senses) miekuTvneba wnevis, siTbosa da si ivis SegrZnebebi. • erogenuli zonebi ( (erogeneous zones) _ ares kanis zedapiris adgilebi, ) romlebi gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiareni arian gaRizianebisadmi da seqsualur warmoSoben ero tiul da seqsualur SegrZnebebs. Sexeba SeiZleba garkveul rols TamaSobdes TviTgada rCenis pro esSi. magaliTad, naadrevad dabadebuli bavSvebi, romelTa

saavadmyofoSi ufro utardebodaT yoveldRiuri masaJi 45 wuTis ganmavlobaSi, ga ilebiT viTardebodnen swrafad izrdebodnen da viTardebodnen gonebrivada Tavis TanatolebT an SedarebiT, virTxebze romelTa Catarebuli zrdis ar utardebodaT da masaJebi rom (Field & S hanberg, 1990). ). energiuli zrdis stimula ia ferments _ kvleva hormonebs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

gviCvenebs, aTavisuflebs aaqtiurebs (ODC - onithine de arboxylase) Tavis tvinsa da sxva sasi o xlo dekarboqsilazas ( organoebSi. ayavdaT sakontrolo berdebodnen is naSierebi, ufro romlebi si o xli s iyvnen SedarebiT, tvinis pirvel wlebSi xSirad xelSi, janmrTelebi xovelebTan n ela, maTi mTeli xovrebis manZilze. naSierebi didxans jgufis ufro stimulirebuli ujredebi ufro gamoirCeodnen gamoirCeodnen stresisadmi ufro meti winaaRmdegobis gawevis unariT, isini Tavis (Meany et al., inarCunebda si o xlisunarianobas da hqondaT ukeTesi mexsiereba ( 1998). aqedan gamomdinare, praqtikuli rekomenda ia aseTia: SeexeT xSirad rekomen da ia ). imaT, viszeda zrunavT da sxvebi waaxaliseT, rom Tqven Segexon xSirad – es ara marto siamovnebas mogvgvriT, aramed gaaumjobesebs rogor Tqvens, (Montag ue, 1986). agreTve, maT janmrTelobasa ( , SegrZnebebi wonasworobis da kinesteTi kuri SegrZnebebi wonasworobis da kinesteTikuri SegrZnebebi TqvenTvis SeiZleba u nobi ki iyos, radgan maT ara aqvT re eptorebi, romelTa danaxva SeiZleba, rogor magaliTad, Tvalebis, yurebis an xviris. wonasworobis SegrZneba gvaZlevs SegrZ nebas. sivr eSi am Cveni sxeulis, gansakuTrebiT, re eptorebi, Tavis orienta iis bususebi, informa ias gvawodeben patara

 

     

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

178 romelni mdebareoben Sida yurSi _ siTxiT savse parkuWebsa da arxebSi. es bususeb i ixreba, ro a siTxe moZraobs da awveba maT, es ki maSin xdeba, ro a Tavs swrafa d amoZravebT. parkuWi da tiki gatyobinebT informa ias sworxazovani moZraobis aCqarebisa da Senelebis Sesaxeb (ix. suraTi 4.16) sami 4. 16). arxi, romelTa naxevarrkalovan arxebs uwodeben, erTmaneTis mimarT marTi kuT xiTaa ganlagebulni, ra saSualebas gvaZlevs miviRoT informa ia nebismieri mimarTulebiT moZraobis Sesaxeb _ Tu rogor moZraobs Tavi, ro a Cven vt rialdebiT, ro a vaqnevT mas an gverdze gadavxriT. adamianebi, vin dakarga wonas worobis SegrZneba ubeduri SemTxvevebisa Tu avadmyofobis gamo, arian sakmod dezor ientirebulni, xSirad e emian, axasiaTebT Tavbruxveva. miuxedavad amisa, aseTi adamianebis umravlesoba, bolos d a bolos, axerxebs am naklis kompensirebas imiT, rom ufro metad eyrdnoba vizualur informa ias. gulis reva moZraobisas aRmo endeba maSin, ro a vizualuri sistemida n momavali signalebi konfliqtSi moZrav Sedis transportSi xolo vestibularuli isaa, rom aparatidan wamosul signalebTan. modis uZravi kiTxvisas adamianebs xSirad uCndebaT gulis revis SegrZneba. amis mizezi vizualur i signalebi obieqtidan, vestibularuli SegrZnebebi moZravi obieqtidan. mZRolebs iSviaTad emarTebaT es ava dmyofoba, radgan isini xedaven da grZnoben kideva moZraobas. • wonasworobis SegrZneba (vestibular sense) informa ias gvawvdis Cveni sxeulis ori enta iis Sesaxeb sivr eSi. • kinesTetikuri SegrZneba SegrZneba (kinestheti sense) informa ias gvawvdis Cveni sxeulisa da misi nawilebis moZraobisa da mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. rasa ar unda ake TebdeT, idgeT vertikalurad, xatavdeT Tu varjiSobdeT, Tqvens tvins sWirdeba zusti informa ia Tqveni sxeulis pozi iisa Tu misi nawilebis sivr iTi mimarTebisa da m oZraobis Sesaxeb. kinesTetikuri SegrZneba uzrunvelyofs mudmiv sensorul ukukavSirs sxeulis motoruli aqtivobis Ses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

axeb. amis gareSe Tqven ver SeZlebdiT nebismieri moZraobebis didi nawilis koordi nirebas. Tqven gaqvT kinesTetikuri informa iis ori wyaro: re eptorebi, romlebi mdebareoben saxsrebSi da re eptorebi, romlebi mdebareoben kunTebsa da myesebSi. romeli saxsrebSi Tan mdebare re eptorebi reagireben pozi ias im da daWimulobaz e, daWimulobis da myesebSi axlavs rasa kidurebis sxvadasxva vlilebebze,

iwvevs saxsrebis moZraobebi. kunTebsa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

179 mdebare re eptorebi reagireben im daZabulobis vlilebebze, romeli Tan axlavs ku nTebis SekumSvasa da gafarToebas. Tavis tvini xSirad axdens Sexebis kinesTetikur i SegrZnebidan SegrZnebebidan miRebul miRebuli informa iis integrirebas informa iasTan. Tavis tvins ar SeuZlia, magaliTad, im signalebis srulyofili gaazreba, romeli mo dis TiToeuli TiTidan, Tuki mas ar e odineba zustad TiTebis mdebareoba erTmaneTis mimarT. warmoidgineT, rom agrovebT raRa sagnebs daxuWuli TvalebiT. Sexebis Seg rZneba gaZlevT saSualebas, mixvdeT, aris Tu ara aRebuli obieqti qva, magram kine sTetikuri SegrZneba giqmniT warmodgenas mis sidideze. tkivili zemoT Cven ganvixi leT Sexebis SegrZnebis garkveuli aspeqtebi. Tqven i iT, rom fizikuri kontaqtis g arkveuli formebi iwveven tkivils. tkivili aris organizmis reaq ia mavne zemoqmed ebis mqone gamRizianeblebiT stimula iaze, romeli aris sakmaod intensiuri, raTa gamoiwvios qsovilis dazianeba an Seuqmnas mas safrTxe. xarT Tu ara Tqven srulebi T kmayofili aseTi kargad ganviTarebuli tkivilis SegrZnebiT? Tqveni pasuxi, albaT , iqneba ”ki da ara ”. “kis” SemTxvevaSi Tqveni tkivilis SegrZneba aris mniSvnelovani T qveni gadarCenisaTvis. adamianebi, visa dabadebidan dakarguli aqvT tkivilis Seg rZnebis unari, xSirad iReben sxeulis sxvadasxva dazianebebs, romelTa Tavidan a i leba SesaZlebeli iqneboda, Tuki Tavis tvini SeZlebda maT gafrTxilebas mosalodnel i safrTxis Sesaxeb (Larner et al., 1994). maTi magaliTi gasagebs xdis tkivilis S egrZnebis, rogor da vis signalis mniSvnelobas _ igi gafrTxilebT poten iuri zian is Sesaxeb. “aras” upasuxebT, radgan zogjer aris momentebi, ro a Tqven bednieri iqnebodiT, rom SegZlebodaT tkivilis S egrZnebis gamorTva. 50 milionze meti adamiani aSS-Si itanjeba mudmivi, qronikuli tkiviliT. samedi ino xarjebi tkivilis gasayuCeblad da dakarguli samuSao dReebi Sefasebulia 70 miliard dolarad weliwadSi (Turk, 1994). rogor Cans, uwyveti, qro nikuli tkivili xSirad iwvevs mwvave depresias da mizezia imisa, rom aseTi tkivil ebis mqone adamianebi uaryofiTad afaseben TavianT xovrebas (Banks & Kerns, 1996). gasagebia, rom me n ierebs ainteresebT tkivilis SegrZnebis gamomwvevi meqanizmebis Seswavla, raTa da euflon misi Sem irebis teqnikas. tkivilis meqanizmebi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

180 TiTqmis yvela

ibadeba ama Tu im tipis tkivilis da viTi sistemiT, romeli iwvevs avtomaturad garkvuli stimulebisagan gaq evis refleqss. ro a stimulis intensivoba miaRwevs zeda zRurbls, organizmi pasuxobs gaq eviT, ra Tqma unda, Tuki SeuZlia. garda amisa, is swrafad swavlobs tkivilis gamomwvevi s timulebis identifi irebas da SeZlebisadagvarad Tavidan i ilebs maT. arsebobs ori saxis tkivilis SegrZneba: no i efturi da nevropaTiuri. nevropaTiuri no i efturi tkivili aris uaryofiTi SegrZ neba, romelsa iwvevs mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gamRizianebeli. magaliTad, es ari s SegrZneba, romeli gagiCndebaT xel qurasTan Sexebis SemTxvevaSi. kanSi mdebar e spe ialuri nervuli daboloeba agzavnis tkivilis Setyobinebas Tqveni xelidan zev iT, zurgis tvinis gavliT Tavis tvinisaken. xelis ukan gamoweviT SegiZliaT am tip is tkivili SewyvitoT. nevropaTiuri tkivili gamowveulia nervebis aranormaluri gadaWarbebuli funq ionirebiT. igi aRmo endeba dazianebuli an daavad ebuli nervebidan, risi mizezi aa magaliTad, ubeduri SemTxveva an kibo. medikamen tebs da mkurnalobis sxva saSualebebs, romlebi awynareben nervebs, SeuZliaT Seam subuqon aseTi tipis tkivilebi. me nierebma daiwyes im spe ifikuri re eptorebis g ansazRvra, romlebi reagireben tkivilis gamomwvev stimulebze. maT aRmoaCines, ro m zogierTi re eptorebi reagireben mxolod temperaturaze, zogierTi _ qimiur nivTierebebze, sxvebi ki _ meqanikur stimulebze. arseboben re eptorebi, romlebi reagireben tkivilis gamomwvevi stimulebis kombina iaze. tkivilis boWkoebis qsel i qmnis SesaniSnav bades, romeli faravs mTel sxeuls. periferiuli nervuli boWkoe bi agzavnian tkivilis signalebs entralur nervul sistemaSi ori gziT: swrafi gamt arunariaonobis nervuli boWkoebiT, romlebi dafarulni arian mieliniT da neli, ufr o patara nervuli boWkoebiT, mielinis safarvelis gareSe. zurgis tvinTan dawyebuli impulsebi gadae ema Talamuss da Semdeg Tavis tvinis qerqs, sada xdeba tkivilis lokaliza iisa da intensivobis gansazRvra, dazianebis mniSvnelovnebis Sefaseba d a samoqmedo gegmis formulireba. tkivilis fsiqologia emo iuri reaq iebi, konteqst ualuri faqtorebi da situa iis interpreta ia SeiZleba iseTive mniSvnelovan rols a srulebdes tkivilis gan daSi, rogor realuri fizikuri stimuli (Pri e, 2000; Turk, gan daSi 1994). fsiqologiuri pro esebis mniSvnelobas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

xoveli

tkivilis naTlad

181 gviCvenebs Semdegi ori ukiduresi SemTxveva: erTi, ro a aris tkivili, magram ar a rsebobs misi tkivili, gamomwvevi fizikuri stimuli didi intensivobis da meore, ro a ar aris gamomwvevi stimulis miuxedavad tkivilis arsebobisa. magaliTad, im adamianTa 10 %-ze meti, visa amputirebuli aqvs kidure bi, uCivian mwave da qronikul tkivilebs im kidurSi, romeli maT aRar aqvT _ fant omuri kiduris fenomeni (Melza k, 1992). amis sapirispirod, zogierT individs, rom eli monawileobs religiur ritualebSi, SeuZlia tkivilis SegrZnebis blokireba tkiv ilis gamomwvevi intensiuri stimula iis pirobebSi , rogori aa, magaliTad, xel na kverCxlebze siaruli an nemsiT sxeulis gaxvreta. • tkivili (pain) _ organizmis reaq ia mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gamRizianeblebis st imula iaze, romeli aris sakmaod intensiuri, raTa gamoiwvios qsovilis dazianeba an Seuqmnas mas safrTxe. • no i efturi tkivili (no i eptive pain) gamowveulia mavne zemoqmedebis mqone eqst ernaluri stimuliT; kanSi arsebuli spe ializebuli nervuli daboloebebi agzavnian t kivilis Sesaxeb Setyobinebas kanidan zurgis tvinis gavliT Tavis tvinSi. • nevropatiuri tkivili (neuropathi pain) gamowveulia nervebis aranormaluri an zed metad aqtiuri funq ionirebiT; is nervebis dazianebis an daavadebis mizezia. • fantomuri kiduris fenomeni (phantom limb phenomenon) mwvave da qronikuli tkivili s SegrZneba im kidurSi, romeli amputirebulia. saerTod, tkivilis SegrZnebaze did i gavlenas axdens konteqsti da reagirebis SeZenili Cvevebi. radgan tkivili aris fsiqologiuri reaq iebis erT-erT i saxe, is SeiZleba Sei valos iseTi mkurnalobis Sedegad, romeli iyenebs zemoqme debas fsiqikur pro esebze, rogori aa hipnozi, Rrma relaqsa ia, yuradRebis gadatana. magaliTad, anesTeziis gareSe mSobiarobis mosamz adebeli lamazes (Lamaze) meTodi dilobs Seam iros samSobiaro tkivilebi ramdenime aseTi meTodis kombina iiT. lamazes sunTqviTi varjiSebi exmar eba relaqsa iaSi da yuradReba gadaaqvs tkivilis adgilidan. yuradRebis gadatanis, sasiamovno warmodgenebis, Setyobinebebis gamoyeneba qmnis rbil, sasargeblo Semx vedr stimula ias da so ialuri mxardaWera meuRlisa Tu megobrisagan _ yvelaferi er Tad aZlevs momaval dedas am mtkivneul situa iaze kontrolis Zlier gan das.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

182 • karibWis kontrolis rogor kari, uSlis Teoria (gate- ontrol theory) exeba tkivilis Sem irebas, xels tkivilis gavr eleba s da misi zogierTi romeli xdeba maSin, ro a zurgis tvinis garkveuli ujredebi moqmedebs

signalis blokirebas axdens da zogierTs ki agzavnis Tavis tvinSi. fsiqologia Cvens xovrebaSi: ratom iwvevs xare saWmeli tkivils? gqoniaT odesme aseTi gamo dileba? Tqven miirTmevT romelime Zalian xare kerZs Cinur an tailandu r restoranSi da SemTxveviT CakbiCeT Zalze xare wiwaka. am momentSi is siamovneb a, romelsa iRebT sakvebisagan, gadaiq eva Zlier tkivilad. Tuki aseT ram odesme SegmTxveviaT, Tqven i iT, rom gemos sferoSi arsebobs kavSiri mas Soris, ra gani WebT siamovnebas da ra ganiWebT tkivils. ganvixiloT es damokidebuleba. fiziolog iurad advilia avxsnaT, Tu ratom iwvevs xare wiwaka tkivils. Tqvens enaze arsebu li gemos bolqvebi dakavSirebulia no i efturi igive qimiurma mdebare boWkoebi tkivilis boWkoebTan (Bartoshuk, 1993). nivTierebam re eptorebi, SeiZleba aseve, gaaRizianos Zalian masTan amrigad, erTi da gemos mdebare rogor axlos bolqvebSi tkivilis (Caterina et al., 2000). xare wiwakis SemTxvevaSi, es nivTierebaa kafsa ini. Tu ki Tqven gsurT isiamovnoT xare sakvebiT, Tqven unda See adoT sakvebSi SeinarCun oT am nivTierebis saWiro kon entra ia, ise, rom man ufro metad gaaRizianos Tqven i gemos re eptorebi, vidre tkivilis re eptorebi. Tqven, albaT, gainteresebT rato m gansxvavdebian adamianebi xare sakvebis mimarT damokidebulebis mixedviT erTma neTisagan? maT ukvirT xolme, ro a maT megobrebs SeuZliaT an ar SeuZliaT xare sa kvebis Wama. kvlav mivmarToT ori fiziologias, adamianis enis raTa avxsnaT es gan sxvaveba. Bartoshuk). naxatze Tqven naCvenebia fotosuraTebi (Linda SegiZliaT dainaxoT, rom erT-erT maTgans aqvs ga ilebiT bevri gemos bolqvebi, vid re meores. ra ufro metia gemos bolqvebi, miT ufro metia tkivilis adamianebi, re eptorebi . visa bevri amitom gemos ufro didia aqvs, imis albaToba, Zlier rom i s bolqvebi ufro tkivils gani dian kafsa inisagan. im individebs, romelTa bevri gemos bolqvebi aqvT, daa

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

rqves superdegustatorebi (Bartoshuk, 1993), xolo maT, visa ufro m ire raodenebi T aqvT es re eptorebi _ nondegustatorebi. individTa es ori jgufi ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan mravali gemos SegrZnebebis

 

 

 

183 mixedviT _ Tqven SeiZleba ar i odeT xarT Tqven superdegustatori, nondegustatori garkveuli gemos Tu raRa Sualeduri. gansxvaveba Cndeba mxolod mimarT sxvaoba qimiuri nivTierebebis, simWidrovis magaliTad, kafsa inis mgrZnobiarobaSi. bolqvebis mixedviT interindividualuri aRmoCnda genetikuri (Bartoshuk et al., 1994). qalebi ufro xSirad arian super deg ustatorebi, mgrZnobiareni damaxasiaTebelia yovelTvis ufro vidre arian ka ebi. mw are superdegustatorebi, qimiuri didi nivTierebebis umravlesobisaTvis. ekisreboda saerTod, mimarT, radgana ufro es ki qals sawamlavTa meti pasuxismgebloba STamomavlobis gazrdasa da kvebaSi evolu iis manZilze, im qalebis bavSvebs, romlebsa meti gemo s mgrZnobiareoba axasiaTebda, gadarCenis ufro meti am Sansi hqondaT. radgana

degustatoris statusi genetikuria, aspeqtSi gansxvaveba ukve patara bavSvebSi SeimCneva (Anliken et al., 1991). xuTidan Svi d wlamde superdegustatori bavSvebi upiratesobas aniWeben rZes yvelTan SedarebiT da piriqiT _ nondegustatorebi _ yvels rZesTan SedarebiT. ratom? superdegustatore bi rZes aRiqvamen, rogor ufro tbils da yvels _ rogor ufro mwares vidre nondegu statorebi. amrigad, genetikuri gansxvavebebi magram, gvexmareba avxsnaT, Tu rato m aqvs kerZs, zogierT romelma bavSvs ase gamoxatuli gemos Taviseburebani. modiT davubrundeT restornis gamoiwvia tkivilis SegrZneba. Tqven, albaT, SegimCneviaT, rom tkivilis SegrZneba TandaTan qreba. am mxriv, pirSi ganlagebuli tkivilis re eptorebi moqmedebs sxva sensoruli re eptorebis msgavsad: droTa ganmavlobaSi Tqven adaptir debiT mudmivi stimula iis mimarT. es, albaT, Zalian kargia, rom sensoruli pro es ebs aqvT tkivilis Semsubuqebis funq ia da mas gvTavazoben xolme saWiro momentSi . rogor gavlenas axdens tkivilis SegrZnebaze fsiqologiuri konteqtsi? erT-erTi Te oria, romeli exeba tkivilis Sem irebis gzebs, nobilia karibWis kontrolis Teoriis saxeliT ( Ronald Mezla k, 1973, 1980). am Teoriis mix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

edviT, zurgis tvinis ujredebi moqmedeben rogor nevrologiuri kari, romeli xels uSlis tkivilis zogierT signals, SeaRwios Tavis tvinSi da mis blokirebas axdens, zogierTs signals ki _ atarebs. tvinisaken, Tavis raTa tvini man da kanis an re e ptorebi agzavnian zurgis gaaRos daketos es kari. Tavis tvinidan swored daRmavali es signali uzrunvelyofs

 

 

 

184 fsiqologiur melzakma konteqsts, 1999) romeli axlavs Tan tkivils. gasul _ wlebSi tkivilis (Melza k, warmoadgina ganaxlebuli Teoria neiromatri uli Teoria, romeli xsnis im faqtebs, rom adamianebi xSirad gani dian tkivils Zalian m ire intensivobis an ararsebuli fizikuri gamRizianeblis pirobebSi: am SemTxvevaSi tkivilis gan da mxolod tvinSi aris aRmo enebuli. Tu rogor aRiqvamT tkivils, Tu ras eubnebiT mis Sesaxeb sxvebs, Tu rogo r reagirebT tkivilgamayuCeblebze, asaxavs ufro Tqven fsiqologiur mdgomareobas, v idre tkivilis gamomwvevi gamRizianeblis intensivobas. is, rasa Tqven aRiqvamT, SeiZleba iyos sakmaod gansxvavebuli da zogjer srulebiTa damoukidebeli imasagan, Tu ras SeigrZnobT _ rogor naxavT amas mexuTe TavSi, romeli eZRvneba aRqmis fs iqologias. Sejameba ynosvis SegrZnebis nervuli impulsebi aRmo endeba maSin, ro a haerSi arsebuli qimiuri nivTiereba kontaqtSi Seva ynosvis bususebTan. ynosva di d rols asrulebs seqsualuri q evis regula iasa da sxva mniSvnelovani funq iebis g anxor ielebaSi. ynosvisa da gemos sistemebi SeTanxmebulad moqmedebs sakvebi prod uqtebis umravlesobis SegrZnebisas. gemo warmoadgens Sesatyvisi gemos bolqvebis r eaq iebis nazavs sitkboze, simJaveze, simwaresa da simlaSeze. Tqven SegiZliaT ga ni adoT wnevis, siTbosa da si ivis SegrZnebebi kanSi moTavsebuli re eptoruli ujr edebis saSualebiT. Sexeba mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs komunika iasa da gadarCenis pro esSi. wonasworobis SegrZneba uzrunvelyofs kinesTetikuri Tqveni SegrZneba Ta visa da sxeulis orienta ias sxvadaxva sivr eSi. nawilebis pasuxismgebelia sxeuli s pozi iaze da gexmarebaT nebismieri moZraobebis koordinirebaSi. Tqven gani diT da no i eftur nevropaTiur tkivils tkivils mavne _ stimulis nervebis zemoqmedebis a ranormaluri SemTxvevaSi funq ionirebis dros. fsiqologiuri konteqsti, nawilobriv, gansazRvravs tkivilis g an dis intensivobas. sakvanZo sakiTxebi samyaros sensoruli Seme neba

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

185 • imis gamo, rom sensoruli pro esebi mniSvnelovan rols asruleben Cvens mier samyar os Seme nebaSi, me nierebi fsiqologiis ganviTarebis adreul etapebze swavlobdnen SegrZnebebs. • fsiqofizika swavlobs fizikur gamRizianebelze fsiqologiur reaq ias. me nierebi zo maven absolutursa da sxvaobis zRurblebs. • signalis aRmoCena saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevarebs gamoyon erTmaneTisagan SegrZnebi s simaxvile da pasuxis sistematuri Se doma. fsiqofizikis mkvlevarebma gansazRvre s kavSiri gamRizianeblis fizikur intensivobasa saSualebiT. da fsiqologiur efeqts Soris maTematikuri funq iis • • • SegrZneba gamRizianeblis fizikur energias nervul kodad gardaqmnis. me nierebi d iloben Seiswavlon informa iis dinebis pro esi sensoruli re eptorebidan Tavis tvi nis qerqisaken. mxedvelobiTi sistema • baduraze mdebare fotore eptorebi, romelTa

uwodeben kolbebsa da Cxirebs, gardaqmnian sinaTlis energias nervul impulsSi. • baduris gangliozuri ujredebi axdenen re eptorebidan da bipolaruli ujredebidan mo mavali signalis integrirebas. maTi aqsonebi warmoqmnian optikur nervebs, romlebi xvdebian erTmaneTs mxedvelobis jvaredinTan. vizualuri informa ia aris ganawile buli tvinis sxvadasxva ubnebSi, sada muSavdeba vizualuri garemos sxvadasxva asp eqtebi, rogori aa sagnebis garegnuli saxe da maTi mdebareoba. sinaTlis talRis si grZe warmoadgens gamRizianebels ferTa • • SegrZnebisaTvis. • • feris SegrZnebebi gansxvavdeba toniT, simaZRriTa da sikaSkaSiT. ferTa SegrZnebis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

Teoriebi aerTianebs sami feris SemgrZnebi re eptoris triqromatul Teorias da saw inaaRmdego pro esebis Teorias, romeli eyrdnoba sawinaaRmdego elementebis kompoz i ias. • gamRizianeblis TvisebaTa aRmoCena xdeba baduris ujredebisa da ufro maRali donis vizualuri entrebis moqmedebiT. smena • smenis SegrZneba warmoiqmneba bgeriTi talRiT, romelsa da sirTule.

 

 

 

 

 

 

gaaCna sixSire, amplituda

186 • lokokinaSi bgeriTi talRebi transformirdebian siTxis moZraobaSi, romeli amoZravebs ZiriTad membranas. ZiriTadi membranis bewvebi nervul impulseb s gadas emen smeniT qerqs. • adgilis Teoria saukeTesod xsnis maRali sixSireebis kodirebas, sixSiris Teoria ki saukeTesod xsnis dabali sixSireebis kodirebas. • bgeris warmoSobis mimarTulebis gansazRvrisaTvis moqmedebs ori tipis nervuli meqa nizmi _ bgeraTa intensivobisa da im drois SedarebisaTvis, romeli dasWirdeba bge riT signals TiToeul yurTan misaRwevad. sxva SegrZnebebi ynosvisa da gemos SegrZn ebebi reagireben nivTierebaTa qimiur Tvisebebze da moqmedeben erTad, ro a adamia ni eZebs da irCevs sakvebs. • • ynosva sruldeba sunisadmi mgrZnobiare ujredebiT, romlebi ganlagebulni arian xv iris RruSi. • gemos re eptorebi aris gemos bolqvebi, romlebi moTavsebuli arian gemos dvrilebS i, ZiriTadad enaze. Sexebis SegrZneba gulisxmobs dawolisa da temperaturul SegrZn ebebs. wonasworobis kinesTetikuri SegrZneba SegrZneba gaZlevT gaZlevT informa ia s informa ias sxeulis sxeulis moZraobis nawilebis • • mimarTulebisa da siswrafis Sesaxeb. • mdebareobis Sesaxeb da gexmarebaT moZraobis koordinirebaSi. • tkivili aris organizmis da viTi reaq ia poten iurad mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gam Rizianebelze. tkivilis gamomwvevi fiziologiuri reaq ia moi avs da sensorul nervu l reaq ias tkivilis romlebi • gamRizianeblis mxareze

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

impulsebs, moZraoben Tavis tvinsa da zurgis tvins Soris. • tkivili aris nawilobriv fsiqologiuri reaq ia . is SeiZleba Sei valos mkurnalobiT , romeli aq ents akeTebs fsiqikur pro esebze da gadaaqvs yuradReba. ZiriTadi n ebebi • absoluturi zRurbli akomoda ia amakrinuli ujredebi • sensoruli re eptorebi sensoruli fiziologia sibnelisadmi adapta ia • • • •

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

187 • • adgilis Teoria badura bgeris siZliere bgeris tonis simaRle bipolaruli ujredebi • • signalis SemCnevis Teoria sikaSkaSe feris toni sixSiris Teoria smeniTi nervi sme niTi sxvaobis zRurbli tembri tkivili transforma ia triqromatuli Teoria fantomuri kiduris fenomeni feris simaZRre feromonebi fovea fotore eptorebi fsiqometruli f unq ia fsiqofizika ynosvis bolqvi SegrZneba Semavsebeli ferebi Cxirebi ZiriTadi membrana wonasworobis SegrZneba qerqi • • • • • • • gangliozuri ujredebi erogenuli zonebi absoluturi zRurbli veberis kanoni zalpis p rin ipi kanis SegrZnebebi karibWis kontrolis Teoria kinesTetikuri SegrZneba kolb ebi lokokina mxedvelobis qerqi nevropatiuri no i efturi tkivili odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba optikuri nervi pasuxis sistematuri Se doma re eptoruli veli sawinaaRmde go pro esebis Teoria sensoruli adapta ia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • tkivili

 

 

     

 

 

 

   

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Tavi 5. aRqma • SegrZneba, organizeba, identifika ia da noba – proqsimaluri da dist aluri stimulebi – realoba, orazrovneba da iluziebi – aRqmis Semswavleli midgomebi • fs iqologia XXI saukuneSi: - virtualuri realoba • yuradRebis pro esebi – seleq iuri (Se rCeviTi) yuradReba – yuradReba da sagnebi garemoSi • aRqmis organiza iis pro esebi – f igura, foni da dasrulebuloba (Sevsebuloba) – per eptuli dajgufebis prin ipebi – sivr iTi da droiTi integra ia – moZraobis aRqma – siRrmis aRqma – aRqmis konstantoba • fsiqo logia Cvens xovrebaSi: - rogor iWerT mfrinav burTs • identifika ia da noba – aRmav ali da daRmavali pro esebi – sagnebis noba – molodinis da konteqstis gavlena – bolo g akveTili • sakvanZo sakiTxebi – ZiriTadi nebebi

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 ganvixiloT kulturidan kengis iyo. kengs SemTxveva, mTeli romeli

ekvatoruli tropikul afrikis tyeebSi fijmis hqonda xSir gatarebuli. erT dRes mas SesaZlebloba mie a, pirvelad emogzaura manqaniT gaSlil velze anTropolog kolin tarbulTan (Colin Tutnbull) erTad. mogvianebiT tarnbelma a Rwera kengis reaq iebi. kengma gadaxeda velebs da im adgils, sada ramdenime milis moSorebiT asiode bizo ni Zovda. man mkiTxa, ra mwerebi iyvnen isini, razeda vupasuxe, rom isini bizon ebi iyvnen, Tana misTvis nobil tyis bizonebze orjer ufro didebi. kengma xmamaR la gai ina da miTxra, rom es sisulele aRar meTqva da kvlav igive kiTxva damisva. mere, radgan sakmaod Wkvian kompanionad ar mimiCnia, TavisTvis laparakobda da dilobda, bizonebi sxvadasxva WianWvelebisa da xoWoebisaTvis miemsgavsebina, roml ebi mas manamde enaxa. amasobaSi manqanaSi CavsxediT da im adgilisaken daveSviT , sada xovelebi Zovdnen. kengi akvirdeboda, ufro da ufro rogor diddebodnen isi ni da, Tum a, yvela fijmelis msgavsad, Tavada guladi iyo, main CemTan axlos ga dmojda da Caibutbuta, rom es raRa jadoqroba iyo. . . . bolos, ro a kengi mixvda , rom xovelebi marTla bizonebi iynen, ukve aRar eSinoda, Tum a, kvlav afiqrebda , ratom iyvnen isini ase patarebi, an marTla patarebi iyvnen da u eb gaizardnen, Tu es yvelaferi raRa oini iyo (Turnbull 1961, gv.305). kengis ambavi sakmaod naTlad gviCvenebs gamo dilebis gavlenas aRqmaze. radgan ke ngma xovreba tropikul tyeebSi gaatara, mas ar hqonda saTanado odna, raTa dauyo vnebliv moexdina sensoruli informa iis _ Sori manZiliT daSorebuli obieqtebidan T valebSi areklili sinaTlis _ interpreta ia. am TavSi SeiswavliT, rogor moqmedebs odna adamianis SesaZleblobebsa da aRqmaze. Mme-4 TavSi vnaxeT, rom garemo savse a sinaTlisa da bgeris talRebiT. Tum a, miuxedavad amisa, maTi saxiT main ar gan i diT samyaros. Tqven sinaTlis talRas ki ar `xedavT”, aramed _ plakats kedelze, bg eris talRa ki ar `gesmiT”, aramed musika _ iqve arsebuli radiodan. SegrZnebiT iwye ba sinamdvilis uSualo asaxva, magram kidev meti raRa sxvaa saWiro, rom stimuli azriani da saintereso gaxdes da, ra mTavaria, saSualeba moge eT, efeqtu rad upasuxoT mas. aRqma aris im pro esebis erToblioba, romlebi sensorul xatSi a wesrigeben informa ias da am informa iis, rogor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

xovreba

 

 

 

 

3 garesinamdviliT uzrunvelyofs warmoqmnilis, interpreta iis gan das umaRles uzrunvelyofen. dones, ra es pro esebi gvaZlevs, saSualebas warmatebiT gaverkveT garemoSi. SegrZnebasa da aRqmas Soris kavSiris ukeT gagebis mizniT gTavazobT martiv, TvalsaCino magaliTs. daiWireT xeli saxis win, ra SeiZ leba Sors. Semdeg is nela miuaxloveT saxes. saxesTan miaxlovebisas xeli sul ufro da ufro met vizualur vels faravs. Sedegad, SeiZleba veRar dainaxoT plakati xeli s ukan, gviCvenebs SegrZnebebs kedelze. rogor faravs xeli plakats? xeli gadidda Tu plakati dapataravda? Tqveni pasuxi iqneba - `ra Tqma unda, ara!~ es magaliTi da aRqmas Soris gansxvavebas. xeli imitom faravs plakats, radgan saxesTan miaxlo ebisas is SedarebiT did gamosaxulebas qmnis baduraze. es aRqmis pro esebia, romlebi , baduraze miRebuli gamosaxulebis zomebis vlilebis miuxedav ad, saSualebas gaZlevT gaigoT, rom xelis da plakatis realuri zomebi ar i vleba. • aRqma (Per eption) _ da pro esebi, am romlebi rogor sensorul xatSi awesrigebeninforma ias imforma iis, samganzomilebiani garesinamdviliT warmoqmnilis, gan das uzrunvelyofen. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRqma SegrZnebas aZlevs azrs. per eptuli pro esebi mniSvnelobas iReben mudmivad valeb adi, xSirad qaoturi Semavali sensoruli informa iidan (input) da mas stabiluri, mowesrigebuli per eptuli xatebis saxiT a wesrigeben. per eptuli xati aris is, ra aRqmulia (fenomenologiuri an gan diTi), aRqmis pro esis Sedegi. is fizikuri sagani an re eptorSi sagnis xati ki ar aris , aramed per eptuli aqtivobis fsiqologiuri Sedegia. amrigad, xelis aRqma, retina luri radgan gamosaxulebis interpreta ia zomebis u vleli vlilebis per eptuli miu xedavad, aqtivobiT u vleli rCeba, mimdinarobs. umetesad, aRqma da SegrZneba imdenad Zaldautaneblad, uwyvetad da av tomaturad xdeba, rom mas TavisTavad pro esad miviCnevT. samyaro aseTi aSkara Zal dautaneblobiT. Cveni mizania, am ganvixilavT TavSi gaga noT pro esebi, romlebi saSualebas gvaZleven, saTanadod avxsnaT Tavda pirvelad per eptul pro esebs vizualur sferoSi. SegrZneba, organizeba, identifi i reba da noba termini movlenebis aRqma, misi wvdomis farTo zogad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

mniSvnelobiT, pro ess, raTa niSnavs garemoSi sagnebis da SevigrZnoT isini, gavigoT, movaxdinoT identifika ia, mivakuTvnoT raime kategorias da movemzadoT maTze

 

 

4 reagirebisaTvis. aRqmis pro esebis ukeT gagebis mizniT maT sam safexurad yofen SegrZneba, per eptuli organiza ia da identifika ia/sagnebis noba. rogor me-4 TavSi vnaxeT, SegrZneba niSnavs nervul kodebSi fizikuri energiis gardaqmnas, romelsa tvini a nobierebs. magaliTad, SegrZnebiT viRebT vi zualuri velis Sesaxeb bazisur mona emebs. baduris ujredebi imgvarad arian mowyob ilni, rom gaarCion sagnis konturebi da kontrastebi, Tum a, mxolod sustad reagire ben u vlel, mudmiv Semdegi stimulirebaze safexuria, (gaRizianebaze). sagnis tvin is Sinagani qerqis ujredebi sawyis niSnebs retinis Semavali informa iidan iReben. per eptuli organiza ia rodesa gamosaxuleba formirdeba da yalibdeba garegani stimulis aRqma; Sinagani gamosaxul eba gvawvdis samyaros zedapirul monaxazs. mxedvelobis SemTxvevaSi per eptuli pro esebiT xdeba obieqtis savaraudo zomis, formis, moZraobis, daSorebis da orienta iis Sefaseba. es Sefasebebi efuZneba goniT gaTvlas, romeli adamianis warsul od nas mo emul grZnobad realobasa da stimulTan aerTianebs, misi (stimulis) per eptu li Sinaarsis farglebSi. aRqmisas xdeba sagnis per eptSi iseTi martivi sensoruli niSnebis sinTezi (integra ia da kombina ia), rogori aa sagnis feri, konturebi, x azebi. saganis amo noba

Semdgom xdeba. es fsiqikuri aqtivobebi xdeba swrafad da mizanmimarTulad, ga nobi erebis gareSe. Aam or safexurs Soris gansxvavebis ufro naTlad gasagebad ganvixil oT doqtor riCardsis avadmyofobis SemTxveva, romlis tvinis dazianebam per eptuli pro esebi daamaxinja, Tum a SegrZneba u vleli darCa. • per eptuli organ iza ia (Per eptual organization) _ pro esebi, romlebi sensorul informa ias aerT ianeben, raTa aRqmas mis en TvalsaCino saxe vizualur velSi. saidan vi iT SegrZne bis da per eptuli organiza iis darRveva doqtori riCardsi iyo ganaTlebuli da didi gamo dilebis mqone fsiqologi. samwuxarod, mas tvinis dazianeba hqonda, romelma vizualuri gan dis Se vla gamoiwvia. rogor Cans, ar dazianda tvinis metyvelebis entrebi, ase rom, mas SeeZlo sakmaod naTlad rom aRewera vTqvaT, Tavisi tvinis sakmaod dazianebam uCveulo imoqmeda vizualuri sensoruli gamo dileba. mokled mona emebis sworad gaerTianebis unarze. magaliTad, doqtor riCardsi aRwerda, rom Tu igi xedavda rTul (kompleqsur) obieqts, rogori aa adamiani da mis

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

5 vizualur velSi axlomaxlo kidev ramdenime adamiani iyo, igi zogjer adamianis nawi lebs gan alkevebulad mas, aseve, xedavda, uWirda romlebi erTi da ar imave erTia ndebodnen movlenis xmisa erT da gamosaxulebaSi. gamosaxulebis gaerTianeba. rodesa vinme mReroda, mas SeiZleba daenaxa piris moZ raoba da gaegona xma, magram ise, TiTqos xma dublirdeboda araswori CanaweriT, ra ime u xo filmSi. movlenis nawilebi rom erTianobaSi daenaxa, doqtor riCardss sWir deboda raime Cveulebrivi faqtori, romeli `webos~ msgavsad imoqmedebda. magaliTa d, Tu danawevrebuli adamianis yvela nawili erTi mimarTulebiT imoZravebda, roCard si aRiqvamda. nawilebs Tum a, kvlav gaerTianebulad, `webos~ dasrulebuli SeiZleba adamianis raime saxiT per eptul zogjer absurduli konfigura ia Seeqmna. doqtor riCardsi erTnairi feris obieqtebs, rogori aa, magal iTad, banani, limoni, kanaris Citi, gaerTianebulad dainaxavda maSina ki, Tu isi ni sivr eSi gan alkevebulni iqnebodnen. brboSi adamianebi Serwymulad moeCvenebod a, Tu isini erTnairi feris tansa melSi iqnebodnen gamowyobilni. doqtor riCardsi garemos danawevrebulad, frangmentulad da u naurad gani dida, ra absoluturad gansxvavdeboda normaluri gan disagan (Mar el, 1983). problema doqtor riCardsis TvalebSi ar iyo, ar stimulis niSnebis analizis unarSi – igi zustad xedavda sagnis nawilebs da Tvisebebs. misi problema sinTezSi iyo, anu mas ar SeeZlo sensoruli informa iis nawilebis ise gae rTianeba, rom mxedvelobis velSi alkeuli movlena erTianad, TvalsaCinod aReqva. doqtor riCardsis SemTxveva naTels xdis aRqmasa da SegrZnebis pro esebs Soris gansxvavebas. is, aseve, giCvenebT, rom sensoruli analizi da pe r eptuli organiza ia uwyvetad mimdinareobs, miuxedavad imisa, rom ver a nobiereb T maT moqmedebas. identifika ia monetebad, da noba am klasifika iaSi an mesame safexuria, adamianebi naTesavad rodesa SeiZleba an rokper eptul xats mniSvneloba eZleva. mrgvali sagnebi `gadaiq eva~ burTebad, saaTeb ad, forToxlebad an ka ad, mTvareebad. an mtrad, identifi irdnen qalad megobrad varskvlavad. am etapze per eptuli SekiTxva - `ras hgavs es sagani?~ i vleba iden tifika iis SekiTxviT: - `ra aris sagani?~ dabolos, nobis SekiTxviT: -`ra aris s agnis funq ia?~ imisTvis, rom raimes identifika ia movaxdinoT, vi noT da gavarkv ioT, ra ewodeba mas, anda rogor SeiZleba vireagiroT masze, maRali donis kognitur i pro esebia saWiro, romlis mimdinareobaze gavlenas axdens

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

6 Cveni Teoriebi, mexsiereba, Rirebulebebi, rwmenebi, obieqtTan dakavSirebuli atit udebi. amrigad, mokled mimovixileT informa iis gadamuSavebis safexurebi, romlebi per eptuli samyaros azriani gagebis saSualebas gvaZleven. radgan me-4 Tavi Seg rZnebebs Seexeboda, am TavSi met yuradRebas davuTmobT aRqmis aspeqtebs dasawyisS i fizikuri energiis sawyisi transforma iis rom realurad Semdeg. yoveldRiur daxve wil xovrebaSi aRqma

sruliad Zaldautaneblad mimdinareobs. Semdegi qveTavis dagarwmunoT, sakmaod Seve debiT, informa iis gadamuSavebas asrulebT, did gonebriv samuSaos, raTa sabolood `siadvi lis~ am iluziamde mixvideT. proqsimaluri da distaluri stimulebi warmoidgineT, ro m Tqven xarT sur.5.1.a-ze gamosaxuli pirovneba, romeli sur.5.1.aoTaxs akvirdeba moxerxebuli skamidan. oTaxSi moTavsebuli sagnebidan areklili sinaTlis nawili Tv alebamde aRwevs da Tvalis baduraze qmnis gamosaxulebebs. suraTi 5.1.b gviCvenebs , Tu ras davinaxavdiT oTaxSi yofnisas mar xena TvaliT (marjvniv CanaWdevi aris T qveni xviri, qvemo kideze ki _ xeli da muxli). ramdenad Seesabameba retinaluri igi Seqmna? erT-erTi Zalze mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba maT Soris isaa, rom baduraz e miRebuli gamosaxuleba am gamosaxuleba garemos, romelma organzomilebiania gansxvavebas mo emuli bevri obieqtebis maSin, Sedegi ro a mohyveba. Tavad garemo miRebuli samganzomilebiania. SevadaroT sur. magaliTTad, 5.1.a-ze formebi baduraze gamosaxulebebis formebs (sur. 5.1.g). magidas, noxs, fanjaras da suraTs realur s ur. samyaroSi yvelas marTkuTxa forma aqvs, magram retinaluri gmosaxulebebidan mx olod - fanjras. suraTis xati aris trape ia, magidis Tavis xati aris arawesieri o TxkuTxa figura da xaliCis xati, faqtobrivad, aris sami gan alkevebuli regioni o ze meti gansxvavebuli aspeqtiT! da, kvlav, Cveni Tavdapirveli per eptuli Tavsate xi: - rogor aRviqvamT yvela am obieqts, rogor erTian, standartul marTkuTxa form is sagnebs? situa ia aq otaTi ufro rTulia. Tqven, albaT, SeniSnavT, rom bevri r am, rasa oTaxSi aRiqvamT, ar aris mo emuli retinalur gamosaxulebebSi.

magaliTad, Tqven aRiqvamT vertikalur zRvars or kedels Soris, romeli mTels iatak s mihyveba, magram zRvris retinaluri gamosaxuleba magidis TavTan wydeba. aseve, retinalur gamosaxulebaze noxis nawilebi magidiTaa dafaruli, Tum a, miuxedavad am isa, Tqven noxs aRiqvamT, rogor erTian, daunawevrebel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

7 marTkuTxeds. faqtobrivad, rodesa ganixilavT yvela gansxvavebas garemos obieqteb sa da baduraze maT Sesabamis gamosaxulebebs Soris, SeiZleba gagikvirdeT, rom Tqven samyaros amdagvarad aRiqvamT. samyaroSi fizikur sagansa d a baduraze mis optikur gamosaxulebas Soris gansxvaveba imdenad didia da mniSvnel ovani, rom fsiqologebi maT aRqmis or gansxvavebul stimulad miiCneven. rogor es sur. 5.2 5.2-zea mo emuli, garemoSi mo emul fizikur sagans ewodeba distaluri sti muli stimuli (damkvirveblidan daSorebuli), xolo baduraze mis optikur gamosaxuleb as _ proqsimaluri stimuli (damkvirvebelTan axlos). • identifika ia da noba (Ident ifi ation and re ognition) azris mi emis gzebi. • distaluri stimuli ( (Distal stim ulus) _ proqsimaluri stimulisagan anu baduraze optikuri gamosaxulebisagan gansxv avebiT, aRqmis pro esSi samyaroSi mo emuli fizikuri sagani. • proqsimaluri gamosax uleba. Cveni msjelobis ZiriTadi azri ufro mkafiod SeiZleba Semdegnairad stimuli (Proximal stimulus) _ distaluri stimulisagan anu _ per eptuli xatisaTvis samyaroSi fizikuri sagnisagan gansxvavebiT, baduraze miRebuli optikuri CamovayaliboT: - risi aRqma gvsurs, aris distaluri stimuli – garemoSi mo emuli `r ealuri ~ sagani, xolo stimuli, romlidana informa ia unda miviRoT, aris proqsima luri stimuli – baduraze miRebuli sagnis gamosaxuleba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRqmis ZiriTadi amo anaa proqsimalur stimulSi mo emuli informa iidan distaluri stimulis gansazRvra. es exeba aRqmis sxvadasxva modalobas: - smenas, Sexebas, gemos da a .S. aRqma moi avs pro esebs, romlebi iyeneben proqsimaluri stimulebis informa i as, raTa mogvawodon informa ia safexurs, ganvixiloT suraTi. distaluri stimulis T visebebze. sur. 5.1-ze 5.1gamosaxuli es trape ias; erT-erTi suraTi misi zeda obi eqti, da qveda kedelze baduris kideebi rom vnaxoT, distaluri da proqsimaluri stimulebi rogor ergebian aRqmis 3 dakidebu li sensorul safexurze Seesabameba gamosaxulebaze organzomilebian marjvniv erTmaneTs uaxlovdebian da marjvena da mar xena kideebi sxvadasxva sigrZ isaa. es proqsimaluri stimulia. per eptuli organiza iis safexurze am trape ias x edavT, rogor samganzomilebian sivr eSi gadaxril marTkuTxeds. mis zeda da qveda kideebs aRiqvamT, rogor paralelurs, romlebi marjvna mxares daxrilebi arian, ma rjvena da mar xena kideebs ki tolad. per eptuli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

vizualuri aRqmis mTavari amo anaa proqsimaluri stimulidan (sagnisagan Seqmnili r etinaluri gamosaxuleba) moaxdinos distaluri stimulis (garemoSi arsebuli realuri sagani) interpreta ia da identifika ia. sur. 5.2. Ddistaluri da proqsimaluri stimulebi distaluri proqsimaluri stimuli ki aris garemoSi aqtivobis arsebuli forma, fizikuri romeli

stimuli, distaluri sensoruli stimuliTaa gansazRvruli. rogor suraTzea naCvenebi, proqsimaluri stimuli SeiZleb a hgavdes distalur stimuls, magram isini gansxvavebuli movlenebi arian. sur. 5.3. SegrZnebis, per eptuli organiza iis da identifika ia/ nobis safexurebi diagrama gviCvenebs axdenen pro esebs, SegrZnebis, romlebi

Semosuli informa iis da, transforma ias per eptuli organiza iis identifika ia/ nobis safexurebze. arqmis aRmavali pro esebi (qvemodan zemoT) maS in erTvebian, rodesa Semosuli sensoruli informa iidan per eptuli gamosaxuleba y alibdeba. daRmavali pro esebi (zemodan qvemoT) im SemTxvevaSi moqmedeben, rodesa per eptul gamosaxulebaze gavlenas axdens warsuli odna, motiva ia da fsiqikuri funq ionirebis sxva aspeqtebi. realoba, orazrovneba, iluziebi aRqmis funq ia ganvsazRvreT, rogor proqsimaluri

 

pro esebi qmnis hipoTezebs distaluri stimulis fizikuri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. Semde g ukve saWiroa stimulis identifika ia. nobis etapze am marTkuTxa obieqtSi amoi nobT suraTs. suraTze 5.3 mo emulia blok-sqema, romeli am movlenebis Tanmimdevro bas gviCvenebs. pro esebi, romelTa informa ia erTi safexuridan meoreze gadaaqvT , blokebs Soris isrebiTaa gamosaxuli. am TavSi ganvixilavT yvela interaq ias, ro meli naxazzea mo emuli. sur. 5.1. retinaluri gamosaxulebebis interpreta ia

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

     

 

stimulidan distaluri stimulis identifika ia. am funq iis Sesabamisi per eptuli m eqanizmebis ga nobamde, ganvixiloT garemoSi mo emuli stimulebis is aspeqtebi, ro mlebi aRqmas kompleqsurs xdian. esenia: _ orazrovani stimulebi da iluziebi. orazrovneba

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 aRqmis ZiriTadi amo anaa samyaroze zusti warmodgenis Seqmna. swori reaq ia garem oSi sagnebisa da movlebis zust aRqmazea damokidebuli. magaliTad, xeze moZravi ar seba vefxvia? - es yovelTvis advili gasarkvevi ar aris. daakvirdiT TeTr da Sav l aqebs sur. 5.4-ze. ra figuraa 5.4-ze es? See adeT stimuli figura gamoyoT fonidan da dainaxoT mimavali dalmatineli. ZaRli Zneli dasanaxia, radgan is ereva fons d a konturebi gamokveTili ar aris (SeniSvna: - ZaRli naxatis marjvniv aris, Tavi entrisaken aqvs mimarTuli). es stimuli orazrovania, radgan kritikuli informa ia aklia, misi nawilebi uCveulodaa ganlagebuli da Cveuli struqtura ar Cans. orazrovneba aRqmis gagebisTvis mniSvnel ovani alkeuli nebaa. is gviCvenebs, rom sensorul safexurze mo emuli da xati Se iZleba mravalnairad interpretirdes aRqmisa identifika iis safexurebze. sur. 5.4. orazrovani suraTi ras xedavT suraTze? See adeT dainaxoT mimavali dalmatineli. sur. 5.55.5-ze mo emulia orazrovani figurebis sami magaliTi. daakvirdiT TiToeuli TiToeul maTganis ornairad interpreta iaa SesaZlebeli. gamosaxulebas, sanam ar dainaxavT or alternatiul figuras. aseve, SevniSnavT, rom mas Semdeg, ra orive figuras dainaxavT, orazrovani figuris yurebisas am altern ativebs Sena vlebiT (xan erTs, xan meores) aRiqvamT. orazrovani figurebis es per eptuli labiloba (arastabiloba) maTi erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelov ani maxasiaTebelia. larnaki Tu profilebi nekeris kubi: zemoT Tu qvemoT ixvi Tu k urdReli sur. 5.5. per eptuli orazrovneba TiToeuli erTdroulad nimuSis gan da orgvari ar interpreta iaa SesaZlebeli, rogor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

magram orives es SegiZliaT. amCnevT, ena vlebian SesaZleblobebi erTmaneTs? larkani/profilebi per eptuli da nekeris kubi am orazrovani erTi da figurebis igi ve nimuSebia Tqven organiza iis safexurze. figurebs orgvarad aRiqvamT. larkani/profilebi SeiZleba dainaxoT, rogor Savi fonis entrS i moTavsebuli TeTri sagani, an ori Savi sagani maT Soris gamyofi

 

 

 

 

 

10 TeTri sivr iT. nekeris kubi SeiZleba dainaxoT, rogor samganzomilebiani arieli kubi an Tqvengan qvemoT da mar xniv kuTxiT an Tqvengan zemoT marjvniv kuTxiT. x adia, da imave kubsa da larnaki/profilebTan xatiT arian orazrovani Tum a alternativebi erTi stimuli gamowveulni, stimulebis orazrovnebas samganzomilebian sivr eSi wyoba ganapirobebs. kurdReli/i xvi figura aris figurebis spe ifikuri orazrovnebis nimuSi nobis etapze. orive vinaidan SemTxvevaSi is erTi da igive fizikur figurad aRiqmeba. Tum a, figura Sereuli tipis informa ias moi avs, SesaZlo alternativebis gamoyofa da kla sifika ia • orazrovani mis orazrovnebas iwvevs. (Ambiguity) _ per eptuli obieqti, romelsa gamosaxuleba SeiZleba erTze meti interpreta ia hqondes. bevrma gamoCenilma mxatvarma gamoiyen a saSualeba aRqmis Tavis orazrovneba, namuSevrebSi. rogor mniSvnelovani salvador kompleqsur dalis SemoqmedebiTi magaliTad, mona marketi volteris uCinari biustiT. es namuSevari gviCvenebs. suraTis mTeli nawili radikalurad orazrovnebas gansxavevebulad unda interpretirdes, raTa davinaxoT frangi filosofosis volteris `dafaruli~ biusti. TeTri a qveda TaRis qveS volteris Subli da Tmaa. ori qalbato nis kabis TeTri nawili _ misi loyebi, xviri da nikapia. rogor ki dainaxavT vol teris biusts s. dalis am suraTze, veRar SeZlebT suraTs SexedoT imis odnis gareS e, Tu sadaa frangi filosofosis figura damaluli. normaluri orazrovnebis aRqmis da erT-erTi yvelaze naTeli fundamenturi Tvisebaa garemos raTa gaurkvevlobis interpreta iiT Se vla, Tavdajerebuli moqmedeba SevZloT. vlilebebiTa da aramdgradobiT savse samyaroSi p er eptuli sistema unda akmayofilebdes mdgradobis da stabilobis miRwevis moTxovni lebas. sur. 5.6. orazrovneba xelovnebaSi salvador dalis am naxats ewodeba mona m arketi volteris uCinari biustiT. xedavT volters? dali erT-erTi im Tanamedrove mx atvarTagania, romlebma Tavis namuSevrebSi orazrovneba gamoiyenes. iluziebi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 orazrovani ramdenime stimulebi per eptul amoi non sistemebs erTi rTul amo anas figura. uyeneben SesaZleblobidan unikaluri orazrovani stimulebis interpreta iis siswore an sim dare amaxinjebs da vlis, Tqven iluzias gani diT. Ceveulebriv kontqstzea damokidebuli. rodesa per eptuli sistema stimulis struqturas mkveTrad sityva `iluzia~-s igive fuZe aqvs, ra `Seusabamo~-s, `uazro~-s, `sasa ilo~-s (l udi rous). orive warmodgeba laTinuri sityvidan illudere, ra naSnavs da invas, m asxarad agdebas. erTnair iluziebs gani dian adamianTa umetesoba erTsa da imave p er eptul situa iaSi, sensoruli sistemis msgavsi fiziologiis da samyaroSi sagnebi s msgavsad gan dis gamo (rogor VI TavSi vnaxavT, iluziebi gansxvavdeba per eptu li halu ina iebisagan: damaxinjeba, ra halu ina ia uCveulo aris aragavr elebuli an fsiqikuri adamianis fizikuri mdgomareobiTaa gamowveuli). ganvixiloT sur. 5.7-ze warmodgenili klasikuri iluziebi, Tum a, CvenTvis ufro advilia, vizualuri iluziebis ganxilva; iluziebi a rsebobs sxva iseT sensorul modalobebSi , rogori aa: - smena (Bregman 1981; Saber i 1966; Shepard & Jordan,1984) da gemo (Todrank & Bartoslu, 1991). mas Semdeg, r a 1854-55 wels j.opelma (J.J.Oppel) iluziebis pirveli me nieruli analizi gamoaqveyna, aTasobiT statia daiwera iluziebze bunebaSi, Segr ZnebebSi, aRqmasa da xelovnebaSi. opelis mokrZalebuli wvlili iluziebis SeswavlaS i iyo xazebis ubralo rigi, romeli ufro grZeli Canda, ro a segmentebad iyo dayof ili (varianti a), vidre maSin, ro a mxolod bolo xazebi iyo mo emuli (varianti b) . (a) a. gamoiyeneT saxazavi, kiTxvebze pasuxis gasa emad b. romeli yuTia standartuli yuTis toli? romeli ufro didia an patara? gazomeT, ra Ta aRmoaCinoT iluzoruli efeqti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

     

   

 

sur. 5.7. xuTi savarjiSo iluzia TiToeuli nimuSi gviCvenebs aRqmis iluziebis gamomwvev pirobebs. mkvlevrebi xSira d iyeneben iluziebs TavianTi Teoriebis Sesamowmeblad. es Teoriebi xsnian, per ep tul sistemebSi, romlebi , Cveulebriv, sakmaod zustad muSaoben, gansakuTrebul Sem TxvevaSi rogor warmoiqmneba iluziebi. opelma Tavis naSroms geometriuli optikuri iluziebis Seswavla uwoda. iluziebi miu TiTebs per eptul xatsa da realobas Soris gansxvavebaze. maT SeiZleba gviCvenon a bstraqtuli kon eptualuri gansxvaveba SegrZnebebs,

 

 

 

 

12 per eptul organiza ias da identifika ias Soris da dagvexmaron garkveuli fundamen turi Tvisebebis gagebaSi. mkvlevrebi xSirad igoneben axal iluziebs an iyeneben Z vels, aRqmis raTa per eptuli gadamuSavebis mniSvnelovani Taviseburebebi gviCvenon. ganvixiloT miul er-laieris iluziis sxvadasxva versia, romeli sur. 5.8-zea mo emuli. versia a pi rvelad fran miuler-laierma (Muller-Lyer) 1889 wels ganixila naSromSi optikuri iluziebis Sesaxeb. Semdegi versiebi miulerma da misma kolegebm a 1900 wlamde Seqmnes. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi monakveTebis sigrZe (an b versiaSi ku Txeebis wveroebs Soris manZili) Tanabaria. adamianebs xSirad ukvirT es faqti, Tq ven ki gadasamowmeblad SegiZliaT gazomoT. imis miuxedavad, rom es iluzia sakmaod didi xnis winaa aRmoCenili da mkvlevrebma mravaljer s ades axsna, misi warmoSo bis Sesaxeb Teoriebi i vleba (Green & Nelson 1997). misi simtki e, ra ufro didi sigrZis iluziis advilad SeqmnaSi gamoixateba, vizualuri gadamuSavebis sferoSi T eoretikosebs axal problemebs uqmnis. es magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom iluziebi ubralo d u nauroba ar im aris. isini fsiqologiuri mkvlevrebs TeoriebisaTvis iluziebi mn iSvnelovan ki ar mona emebs iZlevian. amrigad, mxolod ainteresebT, aramed garemoebebis Seswavla , romlebSi aRqma samyaroze zust informa ias iZleva.

dasabamidan

entrSia gamovlena

moTavsebuli. gasagebia, qristefore kolumbis da sxva zRvaosnebis mxridan, rom uareyoT dedamiwis sibrtyeli s aSkara iluzia da misi erT-erTi kidisaken gae uraT. aseve, ro a savse mTvare a zea, geCvenebaT, rom sada ar unda waxvideT is Tan mogyvebaT, Tum a, i iT, rom e s ase ara aris. ese iluziaa, romlsa Tqven Tvalebsa da mTvares Soris arsebuli u didesi manZili iwvevs. saqme imaSia, rom mTvaridan areklili sinaTlis sxivebi mid ixarT. adamianebs SeuZliaT iluziebis kontroli sasurveli efeqtebis misaRwevad. ar qiteqtorebi da interieris dizainrebi aRqmis prin ipebs iyeneben sivr eSi sagnebi s Sesaqmnelad, romlebi maT realur zomebze ufro didad an m ired gamoiyurebian. m ire zomis bina ufro farTod gamoCndeba, Tu mas naTeli Tqveni moZraobis mimarTule bis mimarT ZiriTadad Tu sad paraleluri da perpendikularuli rCeba, mniSvneloba ara aqvs,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iluziebi iluziebi Casvlas~ avT mzis

yoveldRiur xovrebaSi Cveni xovrebis ganuyreli nawilia. ganvixiloT Cveni planeta dedamiwis ` yoveldRiuri Tum a, i iT, albaT gamo dileba. rom mze ratom Tqven iyo xed udidesi mzis `amosvlas~ sistemis simama is da

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

   

13 ferebiT SeRebaven, avejiT ar gadatvirTaven da patara dabal taxtebs, skamebs da m agidebs kedlis gaswvriv ki ar ganalageben, aramed - oTaxis entrSi. a. S. S. nas aSi (nasa), sivr iT programebSi momuSave fsiqologebma aRqmaze garemos gavlena ga moikvlies, raTa kosmosuri xomaldis Sida sivr e ise moewyoT, rom sasiamovno da s enaze. sensoruli am Tvisebebi zogi hqonoda. ufro dekora iebisa sasurvelia, vidre da ganaTebis Cven, reJisorebi kinosa da Teatralur xelovnebaSi ganzrax qmnian iluziebs filmsa iluzie bidan sxvebi. Cveulebriv, mogvwons kargad mowyobili garemo. mkvlevrebi swored im itom ikvleven iluziebs, rom ukeT axsnan aRqmis moqmedebis kanonzomiereba. iluzie bi ki, Tavis mxriv, gvarwmuneben, rom per eptuli sistemebiT yovelTvis srulyofila d ver miiReba proqsimaluri stimulidan distaluri stimuli. • iluzia (Illusion) _ stimulis paternis gan da, romeli aSkarad m daria, Tum a, ig ives gani dian sxva adamianebi igive per eptul garemoSi. miulersur. 5.8. miuler -laieris iluziis varia iebi miuler-laieris iluziis yvela mo emuli varia ia 1900 wlamde Seiqmna. aRiqvamT sig rZeebs Soris gansxvavebas TiToeul SemTxvevaSi? aRqmis mkvlevrebma iluziebis axsn a Teoriebis SeqmniT s ades. fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi virtualuri realoba ai, saukunis dasawyisis teleSouebisa da filmebisTvis tipuri siuJeti: - qali da mamaka i personaJebi xvdebian kimpiut eriT Seqmnil virtualur samyaroSi, rasa dramatuli Sedegebi mosdevs. magaliTad, ` matri aSi“, (Tu filmi ar gaqvT nanaxi, azri ara aqvs Semdegi winadadebis wakiTxvas ) mTavari personaJi aRmoaCens, rom yvelaferi, mier ra `realurad“ detalurad miaCni a, sinamdvileSi superkompiuterebis Seqmnili damuSavebuli planetas. virtualuri sabednierod, realobaa uwyinaria: da es superkompiuterebi akontroleben CvenTvis xelmisawvdomi virtualuri realobis versiebi, jerjerobiT sakmaod Cven sak maod iolad SegviZlia virtualuri garemosgan Tavis daRweva atraq ionebsa da gasarT ob entrebSi. virtualuri realobis gan dis xarisxis realobis kvlevebidan gaumjobe seba sistemis Semqmnelebi miRebuli xSirad Se domaSi damokidebulia Sesayvani per eptuli axali mkvlevrebis pro esebis samyaros unarze, Seqmnan per eptuli axali sa Sualebebi. virtualuri mniSvnelovani gan debSi diloben, odna

sruliad

xovel

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

14 gadmoitanon. mravali virtualuri realobis sistemis mizani monawileTaTvis virtualu r samyaroSi yofnis ambavSi gan dis aris Seqmnaa. yofna ramdenime ganzomilebaze mdidar an ganisazRvreba, interaq iul virtualur maT Soris monawilis CarTva so ialurad aRqmis wesi, (Lombard & Ditton, 1997), yofnis SegrZneba, Tum a, rogor

TvalsazrisiT, damokidebulia samyaroSi virtualur samyaroSi CaZirvaze, ra per eptulad realurad aRiqmeba. bolo wlebSi mk vlevrebma daiwyes im per eptuli informa iis sistematuri Seswavla, romeli kargad saWiroa SeuZlia virtualur adamians samyaroSi TiTqmis srulyofilad sxvadasxva yof nis uzrunvelsayofad. yofnis Sesafaseblad mkvlevrebi xSirad zomaven, ramdenad amo ani s Sesruleba per eptuli konfigura iis mqone virtualur samyaroSi (Nash et al. , 2000; Ni hols et al., 200 0). ganvixiloT proeqti, romelSi ikvlies vizualuri gamosaxulebis zemoqmedeba simulatorSi manqanis marTvis unarze. am amo anas mkvlevrebma uwodes gzis savali nawilis SenarCuneba (lane keeping ) (Kappe et al., 1999). monawileebi ukeT inarCunebdnen gzis saval nawils, rodesa ekrani per eptuli gada muSavebisaTvis gavixsenoT, rom saintereso realur samyaroseul mona emebs iRebT iZ leoda. rogor realuri samyaros gan disas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

informa ias yuradRebis

periferiidan. sainteresoa, rogor xdeba es aRmoaCines, rom monawileebi ukeT mkvlevrebma inarCunebdnen gzis saval nawils, rodesa ekrani periferiul informa ias iZleoda, Tum a, ar iyo saWiro, rom es periferiuli informa ia, realuri samyaros gan dis an alogiurad, Zalze detaluri yofiliyo. es aRmoCenebi vizualuri ekranebis dizainisTv is mniSvnelovan informa ias iZleva. am tipis eqsperimenti gvarwmunebs, rom mxolo d vizualuri velis entri saWiroebs Zlier detaliza ias. periferiuli informa ia mn iSvnelovania, magram misi Sevseba SeiZleba globaluri vizualuri struqturiT. ueWve lia, daarwmunon rom ramdenime weliwadSi virtualuri samyaro kidev ufro mimzidveli gaxdeba: - mkvlevrebsa da gamomgoneblebs ukeT e odinebaT, rogor Tqveni per eptu li sistemebi kompiuteriT Seqmnili samyaros `realurobaSi”. Web sites • WWW.hitl.washington.ed/proje ts/knowlege-base/onthenet.html, (veb gverdi, romeli

virtualur realobaze moi avs • WWW.vrs.org.uk mona emebs) (virtualuri sazogadoebis veb gverdi)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

entridan, ise _ virtualur samyaroSi?

 

 

 

15 midgomebi aRqmis Semswavleli midgomebi Tqven ukve gae aniT aRqmis ramdenime arse biT kiTxs: - rogor aRadgens per eptuli sistema informa ias garemos struqturis Se saxeb? rogor xdeba per eptuli orazrovnebis problemis gadaWra? ratom Cndeba iluzi ebi? am kiTxvebze pasuxis ga emamde, saWiroa ukeT gaverkveT im TeoriebiSi, romelTa mniS vnelovani adgili ukaviaT aRqmis kvlevaSi. am Teoriebs Soris arsebuli gansxvavebe bis danaxva SesaZlebelia me-3 sada saubaria TavSi, Tandayolilis genotipi. (nativizmis) da SeZenilis (empirizmis) urTierTgamijvnaze. sakiTxi ase dgas: - ra raodenobis sawyisi SesaZleblobebis mat arebelia Tqveni rogor nativistma, SeiZleba amtki oT, rom samyaroSi garkveuli tipis Sinagani odniT an tvinis struqturebiT SedixarT, romel i samyaros interpreta iaSi gexmarebaT? an rogor empiristma, SeiZleba amtki oT, rom samyaroSi SedixarT, rogor sufTa dafa, mzad imisaTvis rom SeiswavloT per ep tuli samyaro?. Tanamedrove Teoritikosebis umravlesoba Tanxmdeba imaze, rom da Se Zenilis samyaros gan disTvis mniSvnelovania vnaxavT, rom isini ver Tandayolilisa Tanxmdebian am kombina ia, Tum a, kombina iis balansze. helmhol is klasikuri Teoria 1866 wels herman fon helmhol i (Hermann von Helmholtz) aRqmaSi gamo dilebis anu SeZenilis mniSvnelovnebis pozi ias i avda. misi Teoriis mixedviT, nervul sistema ze moqmedi, xSirad orazrovani fsiqikur stimulebis eniWeba. interpreta iisas gare mos Sesaxeb gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba pro esebs warsulSi miRebuli odnis safuZvelze tyeSi moulodnelad damkvirvebeli qmnis hipoTezebs, anu miiCnevT, varaudebs imis Taobaze, Tu rogoria esa Tu is sagani sinamdvileSi. magaliTad, dan axul oTxfexa arsebas, albaT, ZaRlad ufro vidre _ mglad. amdenad, aRqma induq iur i kerZo xatidan daskvnis es gakeTeba sagnebis xati romelsa SeiZleba konkretuli pro esia –konkretuli, savaraudo an movlenebis zogad es klasze, pro esi miekuTvneba . radgan nobierebis monawileobis gareSe mimdinareobs, helmhol ma mas ara nobieri daskvna (un ons ious inferen e) uwoda. es daskvniTi pro esi, Cveulebriv, zustad muSaobs , Tum a, SeiZleba per eptuli iluziebi warmoiqmnas, rodesa uCveulo garemoeba erT i da igive stimulis mravalnairi interpreta iis saSualebas iZleva, an rodesa axl is na vlad Zveli da na nobi gziT xdeba interpreta ia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

16 helmhol is Teoria aRqmas or etapad yofs. pirvel, analitikur etapze grZnobis anal izs; organoebi meore, da fundamenturi SegrZnebebis xdeba da am maTi doneze axden en samyaros saxiT. sinTezis, sinTezireba safexurze obieqtebis sensoruli Tvisebebis elementebis aRqmis gaerTianeba helmhol is Teoriis mixedviT, Cven SegrZnebebis interpreta ias garemodan miRebuli gamo dilebis warmoadgens safuZvelze Cveni vaxdenT. (aRqmis) Cveni interpreta ie bi, informirebul faqtobrivad, varaudebs. per ep iis Sesaxeb geStaltmidgoma geStaltfsiqologia, geStaltfsiqologia romeli XX saukunis II naxevarSi germaniaSi Camoyalibda, did yuradRebas uTmobda per eptul gamo dilebaSi Tandayolili struqtur ebis rols. geStaltfsiqologiis gamoCenili warmomadgenlebi: - kurt kofka (Kurt Kof fka, 1935), volfgang keleri (Wolfgang Kohler, 1947) da maqs verThaimeri (Max Wertheimer, 1923) amtki ebdnen, rom fsiqologiuri fenomenis gage ba mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, Tu mas organizebul, struqturul mTlianobad miviCnevT an da ar davanawevrebT primitiul, martiv per eptul elementebad. germanuli termini geStalti miaxloebiT `formas~, `mTlians~, `konfigu ra ias~ `arss~ niSnavs. geStaltistebma uaryves fsiqologiaSi arsebuli atomisturi Tvalsazrisi. isini amtki ebdnen, rom mTeli ga ilebiT metia, vidre misi nawilebis ubralo meqanikuri jami. magaliTad, ro a musikas vusmenT, mTlian melodias aRviqv amT, miuxedavad imisa, rom is alkeuli bgerebisagan Sedgeba. geStaltfsiqologiis mixedviT, samyaros holsturi aRqmis Camo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

yalibeba ganpirobebulia Tavis tvinis qerqis (korteqsi) funq ionirebis Tavisebure biT. informa ias, umartivesi Cven rom da CvenTvis es Cveuli gziT imitom vawesrig ebT sensorul organizebis da Semomavali sensoruli gzaa, informa iis tvinis yvelaze ekonomiuri struqturidan fiziologiidan gamomdinare (Semdeg qveTavSi ganvixilavT geStaltistebis mier SemoT avazebul, per eptuli organiza iis magaliTebs). gibsonis ekologiuri optika jeims jeims gibsonma (James Gibson, 1966, 1979) da elinor gibsonma (Eleanor Gibs on) aRqmis Zalze mniSvnelovani midgoma SemogvTavazes. gibsoni aRqmas orgnizmis struq turis Sedegad ki ar miiCnevda, aramed fiqrobda, rom misi ukeT gageba uSualo gare mos (anu misi ekologiis) analiziT iyo SesaZlebeli. erT-erTi avtoris TqmiT, gibso nis midgoma aseTi iyo: - `ar ikiTxoT, ra aris Tqvens

 

 

 

 

 

17 TavSi, ikiTxeT _ ris SigniTaa Tqveni Tavi~ (Ma e, 1977). gibsonis ekologiuri opt ikis Teoria garegani stimulebis Tvisebebs ufro met yuradRebas aq evda, vidre im meqanizmebs, romliTa am stimulebis aRqma xdeba. es midgoma radikalurad gansxvav deboda manamde arsebuli yvela Teoriisgan. gibsonis

ganesazRvra garemos Sesaxeb is informa ia, romeli xelmisawvdomi iqneboda moZrav i damkvirveblis imaze, rom TvalisaTvis. per eptuli gibsonis sistemebi mimdevari ganuviTardaT Teoritikosebi organizmebs, Tanxmdebian romlebi rTul da valebad garemoSi aqtiurebi iyvnen _ moipovebdnen sakvebs, wyal s, mewyvilesa da TavSesafars (Gibson, 1979; Greeno, 1994; Nakayama, 1994). • ara n obieri daskvna (Un ons ious inferen e) _ helmhol is termini, romeli ga nobiereb is gareSe • geStaltfsiqologia amtki ebs, rom mimdinare aRqmas aRniSnavs. (Gestalt psy hology) _ fsiqologiuri gageba skola, romeli aris fsiqologiuri fenomenis mxolod maSin SesaZlebeli, Tu mas organizebul, struqturul mTlianobad miviCnevT da ar davanawev rebT promitiul, martiv, per eptul elementebad. • Eekologiuri optikis Teoria (Theor y of e ologi al opti s) _ aRqmis Teoria, romeli xazs usvams sastimulo informa iis mravalferovnebas da aRqmas garemos aqt iur gamokvlevad miiCnevs. gibsonis mixedviT, kiTxvaze - `rogor swavlob garemos?’’ pa suxi sakmaod advilia. Tqven garemodan pirdapir iRebT informa ias sensoruli infor ma iis invariantuli anu stabiluri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi araa saWiro per eptuli daskvnis maRali donis sistemebis hipoTeturi konstruqtebis Seqmna _ aR qma pirdapir, uSualod xdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom garemoSi arsebuli TiToeuli sa gnis retinaluri zoma da forma i vleba damkvirveblidan sagnis daSorebulobisa da x edvis kuTxis mixedviT, vlilebebi SemTxveviTi ar aris. meti , es vlilebebi sist ematuria da sagnidan areklili sinaTlis ZiriTadi Tvisebebi ar i vleba (invariantu lia) aRqmis kuTxisa da daSorebis aseTi vlilebis pirobebSi ki. vizualuri sistem a isea mowyobili, rom amCnevs am invariantulobas. adamianebi iseT garemoSi viTar debodnen, sada swored invariantobis aRqmas hqonda sasi o xlo mniSvneloba.

 

 

kon ef iaSi aRqma gagebulia, rogor garemos aqtiuri gamokvleva. rodesa damkvirv ebeli garemoSi moZraobs, i vleba drosa da sivr eSi. baduraze ekologiuri stimula iis optikis paterni mudmivad dilobda, Teoria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

 

18 amrigad, Tqven ukve gae aniT im Teoriebs, romlebi mkvlevrebma per eptuli pro es ebis asaxsnelad Seqmnes. am pro esebis ga nobamde ganvixiloT, rogor xdeba samyar oSi xelmisawvdomi informa iis m ire nawilis SerCeva da misTvis yuradRebis mipyro ba. Sejameba aRqmis amo anaa mTliani pro esi SeiZleba sam safexurad arsebuli dai yos: SegrZneba, obieqtis) (obieqtis per eptuli organiza ia distaluri da identifika ia da identifika ia/ noba. vizualuri aRqmis ZiriTadi (garemoSi realuri proqsimaluri stimulidan stimulis interpreta ia, retinaluri gamosaxulebidan) miRebuli informa iis safuZvelze. orazrovan figurebs mxolod erTi interpreta ia aqvs sensorul doneze, mravali SesaZlo interpreta ia ki organiza iis da identifika iis doneze. iluziebi SezRudvebs uqmnian per eptuli pro esebis Sesaxeb Teoriebs. aRqmis Teoriebi, Cveu lebriv, Tanxmdebian imaze, rom per eptuli unari Tandayolili da SeZenili pro eseb is Sedegia, Tum a, ver Tanxmdebian maT Soris balansze. helmhol i xazs usvamda ga mo dilebis mniSvnelovnebas da varaudobda, rom aRqmis didi nawili ara nobier dask vnas efuZneboda. geStaltmidgoma aRniSnavda, rom per eptuli gamo dileba ganxilul unda yofiliyo, rogor mTeli da aRqmaSi Tandayolili pro esebis rols uWerda mxars; jeims gibsoniseuli informa ias. midgoma ki xazs usvamda damkvirveblis, rogor a qtiuri subieqtis rols da did mniSvnelobas aniWebda garemodan wamosul invariantul yuradRebis pro esebi See adeT, Tqvens irgvliv aRmoaCinoT aTi ram, romeli am mom entamde ar SegimCneviaT. yuradRebiT SeamCnieT laqa kedelze? aRmovaCenT, saaTis r om wikwiki? aTasobiT Tu garemos Zalze davakvirdebiT, sagania irgvliv, romlisTvisa yuradRebis miq eva SeiZleboda. zogadad, ra metad mivaq evT yuradRe bas sagns Tu movlenas, metis aRqmasa da gagebas SevZlebT masze. amitom aris yura dReba aRmis Seswavlisas mniSvnelovani Tema. yuradRebis fokusi gansazRvravs, ra t ipis informa ia iqneba yvelaze xelmisawvdomi per eptuli

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 pro esebisavis. rogor qvemoT vnaxavT, mkvlevrebi See adnen gaerkviaT, Tu garemo dan momdinare ra tipis stimulebs eq eva Cveni yuradReba da ra wvlili Seaqvs yura dRebas stimulebis gan daSi. Tavdapirvelad ganvixilavT, rogor funq ionirebs yurad Reba seleq iurad, raTa garemoSi garkveul sagnebsa da movlenebs meti mniSvnelovne ba mianiWos. • yuradReba (Attention) _ xelmisawvdomi per eptuli informa iis romeli me nawilze nobierebis fokusireba. • mizniT marTuli seleq ia (Goal-dire ted sele t ion) _ gansazRvravs imas, Tu adamianebi ratom irCeven Semomavali sensoruli infor ma iis raRa nawils Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis. SerCeva adamianis miznebidan gam omdinare xdeba. • stimuliT gamowveuli yuradRebis mipyroba (Stimulus-driven apture ) _ gansazRvravs imas, Tu adamianebi ratom irCeven sensoruli Semomavali informa iis raRa nawils Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis; xdeba maSin, rodesa stimulebis niS nebi (sagnebi garemoSi) avtomaturad ipyroben yuradRebas, adamianis kerZo miznebi sgan damoukideblad. seleq iuri (SerCeviTi) yuradReba am qveTavis dasawyisSi gTxo veT, yuradReba migeq iaT ramdenime sagnisaTvis, romlebi manamde ar SegimCneviaT . es eqsperimenti gviCvenebs yuradRebis mniSvnelovan funq ias, ra Semavali sensoruli masalis garkveuli nawilis SerCevaS i gamoixateba; es nawili Semdeg gadamuSavdeba. vnaxoT, rogor virCevT, samyaros r omel nawils (subset) mivaq ioT yuradReba da ra Sedegi mosdevs am gadawyvetilebas CvenTvis iolad xelmisawvdomi informa iis TvalsazrisiT. yuradRebis faqtorebi rog or virCevT sagnebs, romlebi Cveni yuradRebis entrSi eq evian? am kiTxvaze pasu xs ori komponenti aqvs. maT mizniT marTul seleq ias (goal-dere ted) da stimuliT gamowveul yuradRebis mipyrobas (stimulus-driven apture) uwodeben6 (Jantis, 1993 ). mizniT marTuli SerCevisas Tqveni miznebidan gamomdinare irCevT, Tu romel obie qts miaq ioT yuradReba. xadia, rom SegiZliaT eqspli iturad airCioT alkeuli obi eqtebi Sesaswavlad. stimuliT gamowveuli SerCeva maSin xdeba, rodesa stimulis _ garemoSi arsebuli obieqtebis _ maxasiaTeblebi TavisTad, avtomaturad iq even yura dRebas Tqveni, rogor damkvirveblis, miznebisagan damoukideblad. stimuliT gamowv eul SerCeva iqneba, magaliTad, Tu 6 qarTul fsiqologiaSi: aRqmis subieqturi da obieqturi faqtorebi (redaqtoris SeniSv na)

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 saWesTan mjdomi SuqniSanze _ gaCerdebiT wiTeli da o nebebSi mwvaneze waxvalT; _ SuqniSnis moulodneli

vlileba

Suqidan gansakuTrebuli kon entra iis gareSe miiq evs Tqvens yuradRebas. sainteresoa, ra kavSiria am or pro ess Soris. kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom garkveul pirobebSi main , stimuliT gamowv euli yuradReba Warbobs mizniT marTul seleq ias. saidan vi iT pro esebs Soris kon kuren ia, romlebi yuradRebis fokusirebasa gansazRvraven mkvlevrebma Seqmnes vizualuri ekranebi, romlebi mizniT marTul SerCevasa da stim uliT gamowveul yuradRebas konkuren iul pirobebSi ayenebdnen (Theeuwes et al., 1998). rogor 5.9 suraTis a nawilzea mo emuli, eqsperimentis T iToeuli sinjis dasawyisSi dis pirebs uCvenebdnen vizualur ekrans, romelzeda mo emuli iyo 6 na risferi wre SigniT Cawerili ifriT 8. erTi wamis Semdeg ekrani i vleboda. seriebis meore naxevarSi, rogor b nawilzea mo emuli, erTi wris garda yvela wre amo ana iyo, SeexedaT darCenili wiTeli feris gaxda. dis pirebis wrisT vis da eTqvaT, masSi na risferi Cveulebrivi ewera, Tu Sebrunebuli. dis pirebi am amo anis Sesrulebisas mizniT marTul SerCevas iyenebdnen. maT ganzrax, mizanmimarTulad gadahqondaT yuradReba darCenil na risfer wreze. axla ganvixiloT 5.9 suraTis g nawili. am SemTxvevaSi, romeli debis meore naxevars warmoadgens, vizualur mwkrivs axali elementi daema ta _ wiTeli wre. axali obieqtebi im saxis stimulebs miekuTvneba, romlebi , Cveul ebriv, stimuliT gamowveul SerCevas iwveven. Cveulebriv pirobebSi mosalodneli iqn eboda, rom dis pirebi mzeras am axal obieqtze gadaitandnen, Tum a, am konkretul eqsperimentSi maT es ar moeTxovebodaT. maT isev sTxovdnen, daefiqsirebinaT mxol od erTi na risferi wris Sinaarsi. Dda ra xdeboda? dis pirebi ar aq evdnen yurad Rebas wiTel wres? faqtobrivad, umetes SemTxvevaSi axali obieqti avtomaturad iq e vda dis pirTa yuradRebas, miuxedavad imisa, rom is sruliad ar Seesabameboda miz ans. es fenomeni SeiZleba stimuliT gamowveul SerCevad miviCnioT, radgan is aRmqm elis miznebis sapirispirod moqmedebs. xadia, monawileebi ukeT Seasrulebdnen amo anas, Tu yuradRebas ar miaq evdnen wiTel wres, magram maTi ignorireba SeuZlebel ia (miuxedavad imisa, rom monawileebs TiTqmis yovelTvis eqsperimentatoris mier m aTTvis dasaxul

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

       

21 urCevniaT, ra SeiZleba kargad Seasrulon mkvlevris mier dasaxuli amo ana). mniSv nelovani zogadi daskvna isaa, rom Cveni per eptuli sistema isea mowyobili, rom yuradReba avtomaturad eq eva garemoSi gamoCenil axal sagnebs (Yan tis & Jonides, 1996). yuradRebis sur. 5.9. yuradRebis gamomwvevi pro esebi am eqsperimentis TiToeuli seriis dasawyisSi, dis pirebi uyurebdnen ekrans, rome lze gamosaxuli iyo eqvsi na risfer wre (nawili a). rodesa ekrani i vleboda, d is pirebis amo ana iyo, eTqvaT, darCenil na risfer wreSi rogori iyo Cawerili. seriis naxevarSi ekranze ar iyo axali obieqtebi (nawili b), meore naxevarSi ki _ iyo (nawili g). miuxedavad imisa, rom dis pirebis amo ana iyo erTi na risferi wrisTvis yuradRebis miq eva, axali obieqti gamoCenisTanave avtomaturad ipyrobda maT yuradRebas. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informa ia Tu eweva Tqven SerCeviTad miRma miaq ieT d arCenil yuradReba per eptuli ekranis romelime usmenT nawils, sakuTari miznebidan an stimulis Tvisebebidan gamomdinare, ra bedi yuradR ebis informa ias? warmoidgineT, rom leq ias, Tqvengan orive mxares ki adamianebi saubroben. rogor SeZlebT mihyveT leq iis Sinaarss? ra gesmiT saubridan? SeiZleb a rame iseTs mokraT yuri romelime saubris SinaarsSi, ra leq iidan Tqveni yuradR ebis gadana vlebas gamoiwvevs? am kiTxvebiT pirvelad ronald broudbenTi (Ronald B rodbent, 1958) dainteresda. igi tvins sakomunika io arxs _ telefonis xazs an kom piuteris kavSirebs _ adarebda, romeli aqtiurad gadaamuSavebs da gadas ems infor ma ias. broudbenTis Teoriis mixedviT, tvins, rogor sakomunika io arxs, informa iis sruli gadamuSavebis SezRuduli SesaZlebloba aqvs. amis gamo saWiroa, rom yura dRebam nobierebaSi informa iis mka rad gadasvla. nakads, daareguliros yuradReba Semavali sensoruli informa iis Semavali aviwroebs kognitur da sistemaSi filtravs garkveul nawils danarCen informa ias

gvaqvs. gamoiyenes meTodi. eqsperimentSi monawileebs ukeTiaT yursasmenebi,

 

 

 

Semdeg safexurze uSvebs. m Semomavali informa iis amowmeblad situa ia, maT mravali am xovrebiseuli wyaro

yuradRebis filtris Teoria (filter theory) amtki ebs, ro seleq ia misi mniSvnelobis wvdomamde xdeba. Teoriis Ses mkvlevrebma laboratoriaSi informa iis mosmenis Seqmnes amisaTvis sada Semomavali dixotomiuri filtris realuri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

     

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

romelSi

erTdroulad

 

22 usmenen or Caweril informa ias. TiToeul yurSi gansxvavebuli informa ia miewodeba T. mxolod monawileebs eZlevaT da instruq ia, ar eqsperimentators meore yurSi gad as en miwodebul informa iis erT-erTi am Setyobineba pro eduras mousminon informa ias. uwodeben yuradRebamiq euli daCrdilvas (shadowing the attended mesasge) (ix. suraTi 5.10 ix. 5.10). filtris Teoriis mosazreba eWvqveS dadga, rodesa aRmoCnda, rom zogierTi msmeneli ixseneb da iseT rom momentebs, romelTa gaxsenebasa masala ver SeZlebda, 1953). yuradRebas mTlianad gaefiltra ignorirebuli (Cherry, sanimuSod ganvixiloT sakuTari saxelis magaliTi. adamianebi xSirad amboben, rom y uri mokres sakuTar saxels xmaurian oTaxSi maSina ki, ro a isini sxva saubarSi i yvnen CarTulni. amas koqteilis wveulebis fenomens ( o ktail party phenomenon) uw odeben. • diqotomiuri mosmena (Di hoti listening) - eqsperimentuli meTodi, rodesa gansxvavebuli audialuri stimuli miewodeba TiToeul yurs. • yuradRebamdeli gadamuSav eba (Preattentive pro essing) - sensoruli informa iis gadamuSaveba, romeli yura dRebas spe ifikur obieqtze mimarTavs. 5.10. sur. 5.10. diqotomiuri mosmenis amo ana dis piri erTdroulad ismens sxvadasxva ifrebs TiToeul yurSi: - 2 (mar xena), 7 (marjvena), 6 (mar xena), 9 (marjvena), 1 (mar xena), 5 (marjvena). igi mosmenil s ambobs swor rigad – 261 da 795. xolo, rodesa sTxoven, mousminos mxolod marjvena yurSi miwodebul masalas, dis piri ambobs mxolod 795-s. saidan vi iT gvWirdeba Tu ara yuradReba sakuTari saxelis `gasagonad”? dis pirebi erTdroulad sityvebis zustad ismendnen ori adamianis maT xmas, romlebi yuradReba garkveul erTmar vliani maqsimalurad mwkrivs kiTxulobdnen. sTxovdnen, mieq iaT mxolod marjvena yurSi miwodebuli informa iisaTvis da sityvebi gaemeoreb

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

inaT. eqsperimentis mimdinareobis momentSi TiToeul monawiles (sakontrolo jgufis garda) sxva sityvebTan erTad ekiTxeboda Tavisi saxeli im yurSi, romelSi mowodebu li informa iisTvisa yuradReba ar unda mieq iaT. sainteresoa, gaigones Tu ar maT sakuTari saxelebi? dis pirTa daaxloebiT 1/3-ma (34%-ma), romelsa saxels ukiTx avdnen, gaigona sakuTari saxeli. Tum a maT ver gaigones ver erTi sxva saxeli is eve, rogor sakontrolo jgufis dis pirebma (romelTa saxelebs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

23 ar ukiTxavdnen). garda amisa, damCrilavi qmedebis (shadowing perfoman e) gamo, m onawileebi, romlebma sakuTari saxeli gaigones (da mxolod es jgufi), saxelis gag onebis Semdeg maSinve ferxdebodnen (Wood & Cowan, 1995a). es Sedegebi gviCvenebs , rom rom main sakuTari xdeba saxeli au ileblobiT arxis ar iq evs yuradRebas, vinaidan msmenelTa 2/3-ma ver gaigona is. miuxedevad amisa, Sedegebi naTlad gviCvenebs, ignorirebuli garkveulwilad gaazrebuli analizi – sxva SemTxvevaSi msmenelTa 1/3 verasodes miaq evda yuradRebas sakuTar saxels. aseTi tipis eqsperimentis safuZvelze mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom yuradRebis miRma darCenili ara, rom informa ia nobierebis garkveulwilad sazRvr ebs main gadamuSavdeba, (Woods & Cowan magram 1995). imdenad miaRwios informa ia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi miiq evs yuradRebas, Tu yuradRebis miRma darCen ili informa iis maxasiaTeblebi sakmarisad gamodiferen irebuli iqneba magaliTad, Tu es iqneba msmenelis saxeli, (yuradRebasa da nobierebas Soris kavSirs me-6 Ta vSi davubrundebiT). zogadi prin ipi isaa, rom yuradRebis miRma darCenili informa iis arsebobis Sesaxeb araferi vi iT. amrigad, gasagebia, ratoma aris saxifaTo y uradRebis gadana vleba mo emul momentSi aqtualuri amo anidan an miznidan. Tu yur adRebas ver miaq evT garkveul informa ias, magaliTad, moismenT mas! axla vnaxoT, ra roli ekisreba yuradRebas garemoSi sagnebis moZebnasa da maT sworad identifi irebaSi. yuradReba da sagnebi garemoSi yuradRebis konkretuli erT-erTi obieqtebis ZiriTadi moZebna. funq iaa am xmaurian vizualur sakmaod garemoSi martivi profes oris leq ias, masala TavisTvis darCeba da Tqven ver meqanizmis sanaxavad eqsperimentis Catareba SeiZleba. dadeT wigni erTi wuTiT da See adeT: • moZebnoT ra me wiTeli. axla s adeT, ipovoT rame alisferi; • moZebnoT rame oTxkuTxedi. axla s a deT, ipovoT rame mrgvali; • moZebnoT rame lurji, Semdeg s adeT, ipovoT rame, ra m rgvali iqneba da lurji . TiToeul SemTxvevaSi risi povna ufro gagiZneldaT? mkvle vrebi irwmunebian, rom alisfris povna ufro advilia, vidre wiTlis (Treisman & Gor mi an, 1988); oTxkuTxedis ufro advilia, vidre _ mrgvalis (Kim & Cave, 195-) da r ames erTi niSniT gansazRvruls ufro advilia, vidre ori _ niSniT gansazRvrulis

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

24 (Treisman & Sato, 1990). rogor fiqrobT, ratoma aris ase? Tqven es-esaa gae aniT yuradRebamdeli gadamuSavebis (preattentive pro essing) zogierT maxasiaTebels, ra gansxvavdeba gadamuSavebis im pro esebisagan, romlebi yuradRebas saWiroeben. mi uxedavad imisa, rom nobieri mexsiereba da sagnebis noba yuradRebas saWiroebs, informa iis sakmaod rTuli gadamuSaveba yuradRebisa da nobierebis gareSe xdeba (Kubovy et al., 1999). gadamuSavebis am adreul etaps y uradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba ewodeba, radgan is Semomaval sensorul masalaze yuradR ebis moqmedebs. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSavebis saSualebiT advilad vpoulobT mxolod erTi niSniT gamorCeul sagnebs (Treisman & Sato, 1990; Wolfe, 1992). SexedeT 5.11 suraTis a nawils. SegiZliaT, ipovoT TeTri `T”? esa aris oTaxSi, Tqvens irgvliv, l urji obieqtebis povnis msgavsi amo ana. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba saSualebas g aZlevT, pralelurad gadasinjoT garemo erTi alkeuli gamorCeuli niSnis mixedviT. e s niSnavs, rom Tqven SegiZliaT erTdroulad gadasinjoT ekranis mTeli zedapiri. am paraleluri gadasinjvis Sedegad yuradReba erT saTanado obieqtze kon entrirdeba, T um a, yuradReba miaq ieT, rom yvela alkeuli niSani Tanabrad gamorCeuli ar aris. bevri adamianisaTvis kvadratis povna ufro advilia, vidre _ wris, albaT, imitom, rom marTkuTxedis kuTxeebi gamokveTilia (Kim & Cave, 1995). adamianebis umetesob a ufro advilad poulobs ZiriTadi ferisgan gansxvavebul albaT, fers, imitom, rogor , rom aseTi magaliTad, feri alisferi gansxvavedeba wiTlisagan, gansxvavebulia m iq evamde, sensoruli re eptorebidan tvinSi SesvlisTanave, garemos normisagan (Treisman & Gormi an, 1988 ). alkeul niSnebs Soris aSkara ga nsxvavebis miuxedavad, main gagiWirdebaT maTi kombina iebis aRmoCena. ganvixilo T 5.11 suraTis b nawili. kidev erTxel s adeT TeTri T-s povna. ar geCvenebaT, rom es ufro Znelia? am SemTxvevaSi yuradRebis sistema ar aris aRWurvili imisaTvis, rom paraleluri gadasinjvisas (Zebnisas) TeTri T TeTri L-gan gamoyos. Tqven kvlav SegiZliaT gamo iyenoT paraleluri gadasinjvis SesaZlebloba da ugulvelyoT yvela Savi T, magram Se mdeg mogiwevT yvela TeTri simbolos saTiTaod an seriulad gadasinjva. es gamo dile ba gansxvavdeba garemoSi erTdroulad wiTeli da wriuli sagnis povnis gamo dilebisg an. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba saSualebas gaZlevT, swrafad ipovoT wiTeli feris an mrgvali formis sagnebi; igi garemos marTuli gadasinjvis saSualebas iZleva (Wo lfe, 1994; Wolfe & Gan arz, 1996). am TvalsazrisiT, Tqven main gWirdebaT TiToeu l saganaze

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

25 individualurad yuradRebis miq eva, raTa gansazRvroT, Seesabameba Tu ara is ori n iSnis kombina ias_ wiTelsa da mrgvals. mkvlevrebi ganasxvaveben paralelur da ser iul Zebnas imis gansazRvriT, Tu ramdenad Znelia samiznes povna, romeli yuradReb is gamfantvebis (distra tors) raodenobis funq ias warmoadgens. davuSvaT, gTxovT, moZebnoT ekranze TeTr T xuTi Savi T-s garemo vaSi (rogor 5.11 suraTis g nawilS ia) da 34 Savi T-s garemo vaSi (rogor a nawilSia). radgan Tqven am ori amo anis Sesruleba paralelulad SegiZliaT, TiToeul SemTxvevaSi TeTri T-s povnas daaxloebi T erTnairi dro dasWirdeba. meore mxriv, rodesa am suraTze b nawilidan d nawilze gadaxvalT, igrZnobT, rom d nawilSi ufro advilad poulobT TeTr Ts. Tqven TiToeuli TeTri elementisaTvis seriulad yuradRebis miq eva giwevT, ase rom, TiToeuli TeTr i elementi, romelsa uyurebT (sanam sasurvels ipoviT) damatebiT dros garTmevT. m kvlevrebs SeuZliaT am logikis gamoyeneba per eptuli samyaros sxva iseTi aspeqteb is aRmosaCenad, romlebi SeiZleba yuradRebamdel gadamuSavebas

mqone) daxmarebas gvTavazobs. axla ukve SegviZlia martivi niSnebis gadamuSavebid an mTliani sagnebisa da garemos aRqmis ganxilvaze gadavideT. sur. 5.11. yuradReb a da vizualuri Zebna (a) ipoveT erTi gamorCeuli niSniT gansxavvebuli sagani, Seg iZliaT gamoiyenoT paraleluri Zebna (gadasinjva); (b) ipoveT sagani niSnebis erTo bliobis mixedviT, unda gamoiyenoT seriuli Zebna. (g) vinaidan paraleluri Zebna g amoiyeneba, moZebnas erTnairi dro sWirdeba yuradRebis gamfantvelebis raodenobis miuxedvad. (d) seriul Zebnaze yuradRebis gamfantavelebis raodenoba axdens gavlen as. d nawilSi Zebna ufro swrafad xdeba, vidre _ b-Si.

 

saWiroebdnen. ganvixiloT 5.12 suraTis A nawili: - See adeT, ipovoT yviTeli da Sa vi sagnebi. b nawilSi See adeT, ipovoT yviTeli saxli lurji fanjrebiT. meore amo ana ufro advili ar iyo vidre pirveli? davalebis Sesrulebze nakleb gavlenas axden en yuradRebis damatebiTi gamfantvelebi (extre distra tors), rodesa ori feri Car Tulia sagnis nawilebsa da mTlianSi (Wolfe et al., 1994). am saxis magaliTebi sag nebis sapovnelad gvarwmunebs, rom yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba garemoSi SedarebiT daxvewil (kargad damuSavebuli meqanizmis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

26 Sejameba garemoSi stimulebs SerCeviTad (seleq iurad) aq evT yuradRebas mizniT ma rTuli seleq iis gamo an imitom, rom stimulebidan raRa iq evs Tqvens yuradRebas, esaa stimuliT gamowveuli SerCeva. yuradRebis filtris Teoriis mixedviT, tvins Se zRuduli SesaZleblobebi aqvs. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informa ia iSviaTad nob ierdeba. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba saSualebas gaZlevT, garemoSi ipovoT sagnebi , romlebi SeiZleba erTi gamorCeuli niSniT identifi irdnen. sur. 5.12. orferiani sagnis moZebna (a) (b) (g) moZebneT yviTeli da lurji sagani. moZebneT yviTeli s axli lurji fanjrebiT. moZebna Zalian mouxerxebelia, rodesa sagnis ori nawilis o ri

miRebuli organizeba. TvalebTan moZravi kaleidoskopi aerTianebs geqnebodaT. Tanmimdevruli da mbrunavi ferebis daukavSirebeli nawilebis romlebi sensorul informa ias organ iza iis aRqmis misaRebad, per eptuli pro esebs, pro esebi ewodeba. Cven ukve vi iT, rom rasa adamiani aseTi per eptuli gadamuSa vebis Sedegad gani dis, per epti (aRqmis xati) ewodeba. magaliTad, 5.13 suraTze mo emuli organzomilebiani geometriuli III– kompozi iis per eptuli xati, albaT, sam diagonalur rigad ganlagebuli figurebia, romelTagan I rigi kvadratebisgan Sedgeb a, II – isrebisgan da rombebisgan. amaSi TiTqos araferia u nauri, Tum a, rogor wi na TavSi aRvniSneT, aRqmis yvela es, erTi SexedviT, TavisTavadi pro esi daxvewili, natifi gadamuSavebiT aris gaadvilebuli. mravali organiza iuli pro esi, romelsa am qve TavSi ganvixilavT, pirvelad geStaltistebma aRweres. isini amtki ebdnen, rom aRqm a damokidebulia organiza iis kanonebze, anu im martiv prin ipebze, aRviqvamT. ro melTa saSualebiTa sagnis formebs an gamosaxulebebs

 

feris erTobliobaa mosaZebni. (d) moZebna ufro advilia, rodesa mTeli sagnis feri s da misi erT-erTi nawilis feris erTobliobaa mosaZebni. aRqmis organiza iis pro esebi warmoidgineT ramdenad uwesrigo iqneboda milioni retinaluri re eptoridan sa myaro, rom ar SegvZleboda informa iis Tavmoyra da

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

27 figura, foni da dasrulebuloba (Sevsebuloba) ratom aRviqvamT 5.13 suraTs CvenTvis Cveuli gziT? am gamosaxulebis aRqmisas organaza iuli pro esi mas figurad da fon ad yofs. figura Cans, rogor sagnismagvar win wamoweul are, xolo foni _ rogor s ivr e, romelze figura devs. 5.13 suraTze muq adgilebs, albaT, figurad aRiqvamT, naTel adgils _ fonad. Tum a, es stimuli SeiZleba sxvagvarada dainaxoT figurisa da fonis Sena vlebiT, rogor amas orazrovani larnaki/profilebis SemTxvevaSi akeTebdiT. amisaTvis, See adeT, dainaxoT TeTri sivr e, rogor didi T eTri fur eli, foni moCans. organzomilebiani sur. 5.13. organzomilebiani geometri uli figuris per epti rogoria am geometriuli figuris Tqveni per epti? figuris fon idan win wamoweulad danaxvis tenden ia Zalze Zlieria. romelzeda ganlagebuli 9 a moWrili figuridan Savi faqtobrivad, es maSina xdeba, rodesa figura realurad ar arsebobs! 5.14 suraTis pirvel gamosaxulebaSi Tqven, albaT, xedavT naZvis xes fonze, romeli TeTr zedap irze mo emul ramdenime Sav wres warmoadgens. Tum a, SevniSnavT, rom aq aranairi naZvis xe arsebobs. figura Sedgeba mxolod 3 gan alkavebuli Savi figurisa da xaze bisagan. Tqven iluzorulad xedavT win wamoweul TeTr samkuTxeds, radgan Savi gamos axulebebis kideebi isea ganlagebuli, rom mTliani TeTri samkuTxedi geCvenebaT. 5. 14 suraTis meore gamosaxuleba qmnis erTi dasrulebuli samkuTxedis iluzias, romeli meores adevs, Tum a, realurad ar erTi arsebobs. am magaliTSi, rogor Cans, fi gura-fonis organiza iis sami donea: - TeTri naZvis xe, Savi wreebi da ufro farTo TeTri zedapiri am yvelafris ukan. aRvniSnavT, rom stimulSi TeTr ares Tqven per eptulad yofT or gansxvavebul regionad: TeTr samkuTxedad da TeTr fonad. am gayofi s adgilze aRiqvamT konturebs. iluzorul konturebs isini realurad arseboben ara di stalur stimulSi, aramed _ mxolod Tqvens subieqtur gamo dilebaSi. iluzoruli kontu rebi pirvelad 1900 wels aRweres, magram yvela saidumlo jer main ar aris amoxsni li (Lesher, 1995). • figura (Figure)- fonisagan gansxvavebuli, sagnismagvari win w amoweuli are vizualur velSi. • foni (Ground)- sivr e vizualur velSi, romelzeda fi gura devs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

28 am suraTebze TeTri samkuTxedis aRqma kidev erT mZlavr organiza iul pro ess– dasrul ebulobas daumTavrebel (Sevsebulobas) figurebs _ gviCvenebs. dasrulebuloba dasrul ebulad (Sevsebuloba) damTavrebulad, (Sevsebulad) gvanaxebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom stimulSi mxolod kuTxeebia mo emuli , Cveni per eptuli sistema avsebs kuTxeebs Soris arsebul sivr es (qmnis kontureb s), ra figuras dasrulebul naZvis xed aq evs. dasrulebulobis pro esis saSualebiT SesaZlebelia stimulebis dasrulebulad, balansirebulad da simetriulad aRqma, maSina ki, rodesa saxezea g ansvla, disbalansi da asimetria. romlebi sur. 5.14. subieqturi konturebi, romle bi kuTxeebs avseben xedavT am suraTze gamosaxul naZvis xes da or erTmaneTze dad ebul samkuTxeds? samkuTxedebi rom ararealuria amaSi darwmundebiT, Tu or kuTxes era T iTebiT dafaravT. subieqturi konturebis SeqmniT, per eptuli organizebis pro esebi stimulSi figurasa da fons gamoyofs. per eptuli dajgufebis prin ipebi 5.13 suraT ze mo emuli gamosaxuleba Tqven aRiqviT 9 figurad, romlebi rigebadaa dajgufebuli . TiToeuli maTgani agebulia diagonaluri xazebis gaswvriv ganlagebuli 3 identuri gamosaxulebisagan. rogor ajgufebs vizualuri sistema am obieqtebs da ra faqtorebi gansazRvraven mas? dajgufebis sakiTxi pirvelad farTod geStaltfsiqologma maqs ve rThaimerma (1923) Seiswavla. verThaimeri damkvirveblebs uCvenebda martivi geomet riuli figurebis wyebas. vlida ra alkeul faqtors da akvirdeboda, rogor moqmedeb da is figuraTa struqturis aRqmaze, verThaimerma SeZlo dajgufebis wesebis Camoaya libeba. suraT 5.15-ze mo emulia ramdenime wesis ilustra ia.A a nawilSi mo emulia Tanabrad daSorebuli wreebis mwkrivebi, romlebi SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad dajgu fdes. Tqven SeiZleba erTnairi warmatebiT dainaxoT am wreebis svetebi an rigebi. Tum a, rodesa intervali m irediT i vleba ise, rom wreebs Soris horizontaluri es b intervali vertikalur Tqven xedavT. intervalze naklebia (rogor nawilzea mo em uli), wreebs erTmniSvnelovnad horizontalur mwkrivebad organizebul rodesa intervalebis vlilebisas vertikaluri intervali ufro naklebia (rogor d n awilzea mo emuli), Tqven wreebs vertikalur svetebad ganlagebulad aRiqvamT. es 3 saxis dajgufeba verThaimeris siaxlovis kanonis

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

29 ilustra ias warmoadgens. rodesa sxva danarCeni pirobebi u vlelia, erTmaneTTan yvelaze axlos ganlagebuli elementebi (yvelaze proqsimalurebi) erTad jgufdeba. geStaltistebma aseTi Sedegebi imiT axsnes, rom mTliani stimulis patern i garkveulad gansazRvravs misi nawilebis ganlagebas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, mTliani per epti gansxvavdeba misi nawilebis ubralo meqanikuri jamisgan. 5.15 su raTis d nawilSi, intervalis na vlad, feri i vleboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom wreeb s Soris intervali Tanabaria, vizualuri sistema avtomaturad ganalagebs stimuls ri gebad, ferebis msgavsebis gamo. e nawilSi wreebs svetebad ganlagebulad xedavT, msgavsi zomebis gamo, v nawilSi ki _ rigebad ganla gebulad, formisa da orienta iis msgavsebis gamo. dajgufebis es efeqtebi SeiZleba gaerTiandes msgavsebis kanoniT ra imaSi gamoixateba, rom sxva kanoniT, Tanabar pirobebSi, msgavsi elementebi erTad jgufdeba. rodesa vizualur velSi elementebi moZraoben, erTnairi mimarTulebiT moZraoba elementebis dajgufebas iwvevs. saerTo bedis kanonis mixedviT, sxva bedis Tanabar pirobebSi, erTnairi mimarTulebiTa da tempiT moZravi elementebi erTad jgufdeba. Tu z nawilSi yvela svetis wertili zev iT imoZravebda, gamosaxulebebs Tqven svetebad daajgufebdiT, moZraobis mimarTuleb is msgavsebis gamo. igive efeqtia baletis SemTxvevaSi, rodesa ramdenime mo ekva ve sxvebisagan gansxvavebulad moZraobs. gavixsenoT doqtor riCardsis SemTxveva: s agani mis vizualur velSi sworad organizdeboda, rodesa igi moZraobda, rogor erT i mTliani. misi SemTxveva naTels xdis saerTo bedis mZlavr organiza iul gavlenas. sur. 5.15. dajgufebis fenomeni TiToeul mwkrivs, b nawilidan z-mde, garkveuli sa xiT dajgufebulad aRviqvamT, geStaltis dajgufebis sxvadasxva prin ipebidan gamomd inare. sivr iTi da droiTi integra ia geStaltis yvela wesi, romeli aqamde ganvix ileT, dagarwmunebdaT, rom aRqma, umeteswilad, warmoadgens samyaros `sworad~ gaer Tianebul nawilebs., Tum a, xSirad Tqven ar SegiZliaT aRiqvaT mTliani movlena Tva lis erTi SevlebiT an fiqsa iiT (gaixseneT saubari yuradRebis Sesaxeb). rasa mo emul momentSi aRiqvamT, xSirad aris yvela mimarTulebiT ganvr obili, Tvaluwvdenel i vizualuri samyarodan miRebuli SezRuduli, SemWidroebuli STabeWdileba. garemoze sruli warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad, sivr iTi da droiTi

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30 integra iaa saWiro, anu, Tqven unda SekriboT sivr is sxvadasxva adgilidan fiqsir ebuli informa ia drois sxvadasxva momentSi. SeiZleba gagikvirdeT, magram vizualu ri sistema ar qmnis (`Tavs ar iwuxebs”) TiToeuli momentis zustad amsaxvel, Tanamim devrul, integrirebul suraTs. mkvlevrebi irwmunebian, rom garemoze TiToeuli fiqsa iiT vizualur mexsierebaSi ar inaxeba zusti, m iredi detalebi (Carlson-Radvansky & Irwin, 1995 ; Irwin, 1991, Simons, 2000). faqtobrivad, damkvirveblebi xandaxan ver afiqsireb en, rodis i vleba mTliani obieqti erTi fiqsa iidan meore fiqsa iaze. saidan vi i T ra dainaxeT axlaxan eqsperimentis erT-erT seriaSi dis pirebi ori wamis ganmav lobaSi uyurebdnen suraTze 5 na nobi obieqtis mwkrivs. daaxloebiT 4 wm-is Semdeg isini uyurebdnen meore mwkrivs. seriebis naxevarSi meore mwkrivi pirvelis identu ri iyo. seriebis meore naxevarSi, rogor es 5.16 suraTis a nawilzea mo emuli, me ore rigi pirvelisgan sami variantidan erT-erTi saxiT gansxvavedeboda: - erTi sag ani Tvisobrivad i vleboda (magaliTad, pirvel mwkrivSi stepleri Sei vala gasaRebi T), orma saganma Sei vala mdebareoba da sagnebis mTeli wyeba axali konfigura iiT ganlagda. dis pirebs unda eTqvaT, rigebi iseTive iyo Tu gansxvavebuli. Tqven S eiZleba ifiqroT, rom es ioli amo anaa. rogor SeiZleba ver SeniSnoT, rom stepleri gasaxsneliT Sei vala? miuxedavad amisa, rogor naCvenebia 5.16 suraTis b nawilz e, aRmoCnda, rom identurobisa da gadana vlebis vlilebebis SemTxevaSi amo nobis maCvenebeli Zalze dabali iyo. dis pirebi ver ` xedavdnen“ mTel rig Zalze aSkara vlilebebs (S imons, 1996). bevr adamians ao ebs aseTi Sedegi. warmoudgenelia, rom Cven inform a iis gadamuSavebis imdenad mwir resurss vflobT situa iis detalebis Sesanaxad, r om ver ki SevniSneT, rogor Sei vala stepleri gasaxsneliT. pasuxi, nawilobriv, SeiZleba is iyos, rom samyaro Tavad aris, zogadad, informa iis mudmi vi, stabiluri wyaro (O Regan, 1992). ubralod, ar aris saWiro iseTi informa iis d amaxsovreba, romeli mudmivad xelmisawvdomia garemoSi; amitom ar mogvepoveba pr o esebi, romelebi , Cveulebriv, amis saSualebas mogv emda. erT-erTi informa ias saintereso SeiZleba Sedegi, mohyves, romeli iluziebia, sxvadasxva romelTa fiqs a iidan `SeuZlebel~ miRebul sagnebs uwodeben, (5.17 suraTze mo emuli obieqtebi). magaliTad, sagnis kuTxeebisa da

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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31 gverdebis TiToeuli fiqsa ia samganzomilebiani samkuTxedis interpreta ias iwvevs (gamosaxuleba a), gaerTianebas, rogorRa nawilebi gadaiq eva Tum a, rodesa dil obT mis erT mTlianobaSi kargad ver ergeba d erTmaneTs (gamosaxuleba per eptuli b ). g gamosaxulebas ori ganStoeba aqvs, romeli , sanam kargad ar daakvirdebiT, samkbil ad; gamosaxulebaze kibe dausruleblad adis da Camodis. sur. 5.16.

vlilebis SeumCnevloba

(a) eqsperimentis monawileebs ekiTxebodnen, meore gamosaxuleba pirvelis msgavsi iyo Tu gansxvavebuli. b) ro a gamosaxulebaze sagani i vleboda an ori sagani akld eboda, dis pirebi xSirad ver afiqsirebdnen vlilebebs. isini TiTqmis yovelTvis sworad mxolod maSin miuTiTebdnen, ro a mTliani konfigura ia i vleboda. moZraobis aRqma aRqmis erT-erTi saxeoba, romeli samyarodan miRebuli sxvadasxva, swrafad valebadi STabeWdilebebis urTierTSedarebas saWiroebs, moZraobis aRqmaa. ganvixiloT 5.18 suraTze mo emuli ori gamosaxuleba. davuSvaT, es individi idga, sanam Tqven uaxlovdebodiT mas. Tqvens baduraze miRebuli misi gamosaxulebis zoma miaxlovebasTan erTad izrdeba. retinaluri gamosaxulebis zrdis xarisxi individTan miaxloebis temps giCvenebT (Gibson, 1979). axla, davuSvaT, Tqven garda yvela sxv a sagani moZraobs. moZraobis aRqma, formisa da orienta iis aRqmis msgavsad, xSir ad aTvlis sistemazea damokidebuli. Tu Tqven dajdebiT Cabnelebul oTaxSi da mzeras daafiqsirebT sinaTlis umoZrao laqaze, romeli ganaTebul, win da ukan Zalian nel a moZrav oTxkuTxedzea moTavsebuli, Tqven umoZrao oTxkuTxedze win da ukan moZrav wertils aRiqvamT. es iluzia, romelsa moCvenebiTi moZraoba (indu ed motion) moZr aoba ewodeba, maSina xdeba, rodesa mzeras sakmaod uZravad afiqsirebT wertilze. moZraobis deteqtori ujredebi saerTod ar aRigzneba uZravi wertiliT, Tum a sakmao d mZlavrad Riziandeba oTxkuTxedis moZravi xazebiT. imisaTvis, rom wertili moZrav ad dainaxoT, saWiroa per eptuli organiza iis umaRlesi done, romelze rogor wert ili Cans, da misi nagulisxmevi moZraoba oTxkuTxedis tenden ia, aTvlis didi, sist emaSi aRiqmeba. vizualur sistemas axasiaTebs Zlieri SemosazRvruli figura aiRos a Tvlis sistemad masSi mo emuli SedarebiT patara figurisaTvis. Tqven, albaT, odni s gareSe bevrjer geqnebaT gan dili

       

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

32 moCvenebiTi moZraoba. xSirad gveCveneba, rom mTvare (romeli TiTqmis uZravia) mo Zraobs RrublebSi maSin, ro a, faqtobrivad, Rrublebi moZraoben. mTvaris irgvliv T avmoyrili Rrublebi iseve qmnian mTvaris moCvenebiTi moZraobis iluzias, rogor oT xkuTxedi _ wertilis moZraobisas (Ro k, 1983; 1986). yofilxarT odesme matarebelSi, romeli Zalian nela iwyebs moZraobas? ar mogCveneb iaT, TiTqos sadguris baqanze filebi an Tqven gverdiT gaCerebuli matarebeli sawin aaRmdego mimarTulebiT moZraobs? moZraobis kidev erT iluzias, romeli moZraobis a RqmaSi umaRlesi donis organiza iuli pro esebis CarTulobas adasturebs, aSkara/Tva lsaCino moZraobas (apparent motion) uwodeben. aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi for maa Φ fenomeni (phi phenomenon). es fenomeni maSin SeiniSneba, rodesac vizualuri velis sxvadasxva adgilze sinaTlis ori uZravi laqa monacvloebiT inTeba da qreba daaxloebiT 4-5-jer wamSi tempiT. igive efeqtia gare sareklamo niSnebsa da diskoganaTebis ekranebze. sinaTlis Senacvlebis am SedarebiT dabali tempis miu xedavad, gveCveneba, rom erTi sinaTle win da ukan moZraobs or pozicias Soris. tr aeqtoria, romelic erT wertils meoresTan aerTebs, SeiZleba mravalgvarad warmovidg inoT. Tumca, adamiani, Cveulebriv, xedavs umartives traeqtorias _ or wertils Soris swor xazs (Gutting& Proffitt, 1982; She pard, 1984). unda aRiniSnos, rom pirdapiri xazis es principi Tavsmoxveulia, rode sac damkvirvebels monacvleobiT uCveneben moZravi adamianis sxvadasxva gamosaxule bas; Semdeg vizualuri sistema Tavad aRadgens adamianis normaluri biologiuri moZr aobis traeqtorias (Shiffar, 1994; Stevens et al., 2000). • moCvenebiTi moZraoba (I nduced motion) uZravad. • aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraoba (Apparent motion) _ moZraobis iluzia, rodesac erTi an meti wertilis uwyveti anTeba-Caqroba erT moZrav wertila d aRiqmeba. aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi formaa Φ fenomeni • Φ fenomeni (Phi phenomenon) _ aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi forma, ( _ iluzia, rodesac moZrav aTvliT sistemaSi uZravi wertili moZravad gveCveneba, Tavad aTvlis sistema ki _ moZraobis iluzia, rodesac erTi an meti uZravi sinaTle, romelic uwyvetad qreba da inTeba, erT moZrav sinaTled aRiqmeba. sur. 5.17. SeuZlebeli figurebi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33 rodesac am obieqtebs uyurebT, TiToeuli calkeuli fiqsacia garwmunebT, rom is samg anzomilebiani figuraa. mxolod, Tu ecdebiT sxvadasxva fiqsaciebis gaerTianebas, m aSin aRmoaCenT, rom isini SeuZlebeli sagnebia. sur. 5.18. kaci, romelic gaixlovdebaT stimulTan miaxloebasTan erTad izrdeba misi gamosaxulebis zoma Tqvens baduraze. siRrmis aRqma aqamde mxolod sibrtyeze mocemul organzomilebian paternebs ganvixil avdiT, yoveldRiuri aRqma ki sagnebs samganzomilebian sivrceSi moicavs. samive sivrciTi ganzomilebis aRqmas sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvs CvenTvis, raTa mivuaxlo vdeT sasurvel obieqtebs, magaliTad, saintereso adamianebs an karg sakvebs da Tav i avaridoT imas, rac saSiSia, magaliTad, manqaniT swrafad siaruls an waqceul roi als. sivrcis aRqma saWiroebs zust informacias rogorc siRrmeze (manZili Cvengan o bieqtamde), ise _ mimarTulebaze. smena gvexmareba mimarTulebis gansazRvraSi, mag ram _ ara siRrmis gansazRvraSi. siRrmis aRqmis ganxilvisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom vizualuri sistema iyenebs retinalur gamosaxulebas, romelsac mxolod ori ganz omileba aqvs _ vertikaluri da horizontaluri. imis saCveneblad, Tu ra problemas q mnis suraTi. organzomilebiani badura samganzomilebiani aRqmisas, ganvixiloT 5.19 suraTi rodesac sinaTle aRizianebs baduras a wertilSi, Cven ar viciT, is a1 poziciidan ecema, Tu a2-dan faqtobrivad is SeiZleba dacemuliyo A wrfeze arsebuli nebismieri wertilidan, radgan sinaTle am wrfis yvela wertilidan erTsa da imave retinalur ujredze aisaxeba. aseve, B wrfis yvela wertili erTsa da imave retinalu r wertilze _ b wertilze _ proeqcirdeba. metic, monakveTi, romelic A wrfis nebism ier wertils B wrfis nebismier wertilTan aerTebs (magaliTad, Seqmnis. monakveTi S edegad, a1b2 an a2b1), baduraze erTi da igive gamosaxulebas baduraze miRebuli gamosaxuleba siRrmis TvalsazrisiT orazrovania: is SeiZleba warmoqmniliyo sxvadasxva manZiliT daSorebu li nebismieri obieqtisgan. 5.5 suraTze gamosaxuli nekeris kubis ori SesaZlo xedi , aseve, siRrmis TvalsazrisiT, orazrovnebis Sedegia. is faqti, rom garkveulma pi robebma SeiZleba aRqmis orazrovneba gamoiwvion, gviCvenebs, rom siRrmis aRsaqmel ad saWiroa Semomavali sensoruli masalis interpretacia da rom es interpretacia zo gjer SeiZleba mcdari iyos (TqvenTvis es gasagebi iqneba, Tu erTxel mainc

34 mogiqneviaT Cogani burTisTvis da mxolod haerisTvis mogixvedrebiaT). siRrmis inte rpretacia manZilis Sesaxeb informaciis mraval wyaros eyrdnoba (maT xSirad siRrmis maniSneblebsac uwodeben), romelTa Sorisaa binokularul moZraobis maniSneblebi da piqtoruli (gamosaxulebis) maniSneblebi, maniSneblebi. sur. 5.19. siRrmis orazrovneba A wrfis nebismieri wertili baduraze erTi da igive a wertilze proeqcirdeba. B wrfis nebismieri wertili baduraze b wertils qmnis. aseve, A da B wrfeebis SemaerTebeli nebismieri monakveTi identur gamosaxulebas Seqmnis baduraze. am suraTidan SeiZleba davinaxoT, ratom iqmneba siRrmis orazrov neba: - sxvadasxva manZiliT daSorebuli sagnebi erTnair retinalur gamosaxulebebs qmnian. binokularuli da moZraobis maniSneblebi odesme dainteresebulxarT, ratom gaqvT ori Tvali da ara erTi? meore Tvals saTadar igoze meti funqcia aqvs _ is siRrmis Sesaxeb saukeTeso, fasdaudebel informacias gvawvdis. binokularuli siRrmis Sesaxeb informacia ori wy arodan miiReba: - retinaluri disparati (disparaty) da konvergencia. vinaidan Tva lebi daaxloebiT 5-6 santimetriT odnav aris erTmaneTisagan suraTs daxuWeT horizon talurad iReben. amaSi daSorebuli, isini samyaros Semdegi gansxvavebul jer dasarwmuneblad, scadeT eqsperimenti.

marcxena Tvali da gaaxileT marjvena, raTa ori saCvenebeli TiTi patara daSorebul sagans gausworoT. erTi TiTi daikaveT mklavis sigrZeze, meore _ saxesTan daaxkloe biT 30 sm–is daSorebiT; axla daxuWeT marjvena Tvali da gaaxileT marcxena, Tan gana grZeT daSorebul saganze fiqsacia. ra mouvida TiTebis pozicias? meore TvaliT ver xedavT TiTebs daSorebul obieqtze gasworebulad, radgan is odnav gansxvavebul sura Ts iRebs. Tvalebis baduraze miRebuli gamosaxulebebis horizontalur poziciebs Sori s Seusabamobas retinaluri disparati ewodeba. is siRrmis Sesaxeb gvawvdis informa cias, radgan Seusabamobis anu gansxvavebis odenoba Cvensa da obieqts Soris manZi lzea damokidebuli (ix. sur. 5.20). magaliTad, rodesac Tvali daxuWeT, ufro axlos myofi TiTi daSorda mklavis sigrZeze gaCerebul TiTs. • retinalu ri disparati (Retinal disparity) _ Tvalebis baduraze gamosaxulebebis horizontalu r poziciebs Soris Seusabamoba.

35 • konvergencia ( onvergencia (Convergence) _ saganze fiqsaciisas Tvalebi SigniT, e rTmaneTisken Sebruneba. sur. 5.20. retinaluri disparati retinaluri disparati or sagans Soris siRrmeSi daSorebasTan izrdeba. erTad rodesac orive TvaliT iyurebiT, Tqvens mier danaxul saganTa umravlesoba Tvalebis baduris sxvadasxva adgils aRizianebs. Tu erTi da igive obieqtis orive baduraze m iRebul gamosaxulebebs Soris Seusabamoba sakmaod mcirea, vizualur sistema maT erT i obieqtis siRrmiT aRqmaSi aerTianebs (Tumca, Tu Tvalebis gadakveTisas ori gamos axuleba Zalian gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan, realurad gaorebul gamosaxulebas daina xavT). Tu davfiqrdebiT, mivxvdebiT, rom Cveni vizualuri sistema sruliad gasaocar adarebs rames maT akeTes: iRebs or Sesabamisi gansxvavebul retinalur gamosaxule bas, erTmaneTs nawilebis horizontaluri wanacvlebis dasadgenad (binokularuli disparati) da qmnis sagnis erTian percepcias siRrmeSi. faqtobrivad, (mesame ganzomilebad) aRiqvams. siRrmeze sxva binokularul informacias konvergencia iZleva. obieqtze fiqsaciisas Tvalebi, garkveulwilad, SigniT brundeba (ix. sur. 5.22). rodesac Zalian axlos _ saxesTan ramdenime santimetrze _ daSorebul sagans vuyurebT, Tvalebi erTmaneTisk en sakmaod unda Sebrundes, raTa orive TvalSi vizualuri sistema or gamosaxulebas Soris Seusabamobas samganzomilebiani samyaros siRrmed dafiqsirdes erTi da igive gamosaxuleba. Tqven realurad SegiZliaT Tvalebis konver genciis naxva, Tu daakvirdebiT megobars, romelic koncentrirdeba jer daSorebul sa ganze da Semdeg - ramdenime santimetriT daSorebulze. Tvalis kunTebidan miRebul i nformacias tvini siRrmeze daskvnis gasakeTeblad iyenebs, Tumca, Tvalebis kunTebi dan konvergenciaze miRebuli informacia siRrmis aRsaqmelad daaxloebiT 3.5 metrzea mxolod gamosadegi. rodesac ufro did manZilze daSorebul sagans uWvretT, kuTxuri gansxvaveba TiTqmis SeumCnevelia, radgan am dros Tvalebi TiTqmis paralelur mdgom areobaSia. sur. 5.21. siRrmis konvergenciuli maniSneblebi rodesac sagani TqvenTan axlosaa, Tvalebi metad unda Sebrundes, vidre Zalian daSo rebuli sagnis SemTxvevaSi. tvini iyenebs Tvalebis kunTebidan miRebul informacias , raTa konvergencia siRrmis maniSneblad gamoiyenos.

36 imis sailustraciod, Tu rogor gvawvdis moZraoba (kidev erTi wyaro) SemTxvevis msgavsad, axlac siRrmeze informacias, vcadoT Semdegi: - wina daxuWeT erTi Tvali da ori saCvenebeli TiTi gausworeT daSorebul sagans. Semdeg Ta vi gadawieT gverdze, amasTan, SeinarCuneT obieqtze fiqsacia da TiTebis uZravi po zicia. Tavis moZraobisas TiTebsac moZravad xedavT, magram axlos myofi TiTi ufro Sors inacvlebs da swrafad, vidre _ daSorebuli TiTi. fiqsirebuli obieqti ki saerT od ar moZraobs. siRrmeze informaciis am wyaros fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi (re lative motion parallax) ewodeba. moZraobis paralaqsi imitom gvawvdis siRrmeze in formacias, rom moZraobisas sagnebis fardobiTi daSoreba gansazRvravs maTi retinal uri gamosaxulebebis moZraobis odenoba da mimarTulebas. Semdeg, manqaniT mgzavrob isas SegiZliaT fanjaridan moZraobis paralaqss daakvirdeT. moZravi manqanidan daS orebuli sagnebi ufro uZravad mogerCvenebaT, vidre _ SedarebiT axlos myofni. piqtoruli (gamosaxulebis) maniSneblebi davuSvaT, faqtobrivad, piqtoruli aRmoCenili xedavT mxolod erTi TvaliT. erTi SeZl ebdiT radgan siRrmis am isini arian. aRqmas? wyaroebs naxatebSi mxatvrebi, siRrmeze informacia TvaliTac ewodebaT, miiReba. (gamosaxulebis) siRrmis maniSneblebi Sesaxeb informaciis matareblebi romlebic samganzomilebian gamosaxulebebs qmnian (organzomilebian qaRaldze an til oze), daxelovnebulni arian piqtoruli maniSneblebis gamoyenebaSi. gadafarva (inte rposition) an okluzia (occlusion) Tavs iCens maSin, rodesac gaumWvirvale obieqti faravs meore obieqtis nawils (sur. 5.22). gadafarviT viRebT informacias, rom gadafaruli sagani ufro Sorsaa, vidre _ gadamfaravi. gadamfarav i Crdilebs, zedapiri, rac aseve, axdens sinaTlis blokirebas wyarod da warmoqmnis iqnes siRrmeze informaciis damatebiTi damatebiT sami wyaro SeiZleba gamoyenebuli. piqtoruli informaciis ukavSirdeba meTodebs, romliTac sinaTle samga

nzomilebiani samyarodan organzomilebiani baduris zedapirze teqsturis ZiriTad pro ecirdeba. gradientebi. princips: esenia: da fardobiTi sidide, magram wrfivi sina Tlis sxvadasxva perspeqtiva, proeqciis manZiliT fardobiTi sidide eyrdnoba erTi igive zomis, daSorebuli sagnebi gansxvavebul gamosaxulebebs qmnian baduraze. uaxloesi sagani qmnis yvelaze did gamosaxulebas, yvelaze daSorebuli ki _ yvelaze mcires. am wess sididisa da manZilis urTierTmimarTebis wesi ewodeba. rogorc

37 5.23 suraTidan Cans, Tu erTnairi obieqtebis mwkrivs uyurebT, yvelaze patara obie qtebs yvelaze daSorebulad aRiqvamT. • fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi ( fardobiTi (R elative motion parallax) _ siRrmeze informaciis ) wyaro, rodesac damkvirveblidan sagnebis fardobiTi daSoreba gansazRvravs Sesabamisi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis moZraobis odenobas da mimarTulebas. wrfivi manZilis perspeqtivac siRrmis maniSnebelia, damokidebuli. grZeli romelic, rodesac aseve, sididisa da urTierTmimarTebazea mixedviT, paraleluri mTel xazebi (gansazRvrebis Tanabrad arian ragind xazebi, romlebic sigrZeze daSorebuli erTmaneTisgan) siRrmisken midian, retinalur gamosaxulebaSi horizontis wertilisken ixrebian da erTdebian (ix. sur. 5.24 5.24) . am mniSvnelovani faqtis gamoxatvis meTodi pirvelad, klasikuri epoqis Semdeg, r enesansis epoqis italielma mxatvrebma xelaxla 1425 wels aRmoaCines, riTac siRrmi s srulad gamoxatva SeZles (Vasari, 1568; 1967). am aRmoCenamde isini iyenebdnen gadafarvas, Crdilebs da fardobiT sidides, magram ar SeeZloT realisturi scenebis gamoxatva, sadac obieqtebi sxvadasxva siRrmeSi iqneboda ganlagebuli. vizualuri s istemis mier konvergirebuli xazebis interpretacia ponzos iluzias qmnis (rac, ase ve, naCvenebia 5.24 suraTze). zeda xazi ufro grZeli Cans, vinaidan konvergirebul i gverdebi, wrfivi perspeqtivis mixedviT, siRrmeSi gadaxril paralelur xazebad aR

iqmeba (interpretirdeba). amitom siRrmeSi mimavali zeda xazi Tqven ufro daSorebu li geCvenebaT da Sesabamisad, grZelic. baduraze erTnair gamosaxulebebs warmoqmni s ori obieqti, Tu SedarebiT daSorebuli obieqti ufro didi zomis iqneboda, vidre _ axlos myofi. teqsturis gradientebic siRrmis maniSneblebs iZleva, radgan zedapir is siRrmeSi ganvrcobasTan erTad izrdeba teqsturis simkvrivec. 5.25 suraTze gamos axuli xorblis yana teqsturis siRrmis maniSneblis magaliTia. es SeiZleba sididisa da manZilis urTierTmimarTebis kidev erT gamovlinebad miviCnioT. am magaliTSi, e rTeulebi, romlebic teqsturas qmnian, miT ufro mcirdebian, rac ufro Sors gadadian siRrmeSi, vizualuri sistema ki am Semcirebul marcvlebs samganzomilebian sivrceS i ufro daSorebulad gvawvdis. gibsons (Gibson, 1966, 1979) miaCnda, rom teqsturis a da siRrmis urTierTmimarTeba perceptul garemoSi arsebuli erT-erTi mudmivaa. sur . 5.22. siRrmis maniSneblebi

38 ra vizualuri maniSneblebiT askvniT rom es qali gisosebis ukanaa? TqvenTvis, alba T, ukve naTelia, rom siRrmis aRqmisaTvis informaciis mravali wyaro arsebobs. nor maluri mxedvelobis pirobebSi, am wyaroebidan miRebuli informacia garemos erT mTl ian, TvalsaCino gamosaxulebaSi erTiandeba. Tqven aRiqvamT siRrmes da ara siRrmis proqsimalur stimulSi mocemul, sxvadasxva maniSnebels. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT , vizualuri sistema avtomaturad, cnobierebisgan damoukideblad iyenebs sivrcis is eT maniSneblebs, rogoricaa: - diferencialuri moZraoba, gadafarva da fardobiTibiT i sidide, rTuli gaTvlis sawarmoeblad, rac samganzomilebian garemoSi siRrmis aRqm as uzrunvelyofs. rogorc sur. 5.23. fardobiTi sidide, rogorc siRrmis maniSnebeli axlos myofi sagnebi ufro did gamosaxulebas qmnian baduraze; amitom, rodesac erTn airi sagnebis rigs uyurebT, SedarebiT patara sagnebs ufro Sors myofad aRiqvamT, vidre SedarebiT dids. aRqmis konstantoba vizualuri aRqmis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Tvisebis gamosavlen ad, gTxovT, gamoiyenoT es saxelmZRvanelo. dadeT saxelmZRvanelo magidaze da Tavi ramdenime santimetris manZilze miuaxloeT mas. Semdeg aswieT Tavi da daubrundiT k iTxvis normalur mdgomareobas. xom ver SeniSneT wignis zomis cvlileba, miuxedavad imisa, rom axlo manZilidan is baduris ufro did nawils aRizianebda, vidre Sori m anZilidan? axla wigni vertikalurad daiWireT da Tavi saaTis isris mimarTulebiT am oZraveT. am dros baduraze wignis gamosaxuleba saaTis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT brunavs, Tumca, mas kvlav vertikalurad aRiqvamT. zogadad, SegrZnebis receptorebS i stimulaciis cvlilebis miuxedavad, Tqven samyaros xedavT, rogorc ucvlels, mdgra ds da stabilurs. fsiqologebi am fenomens aRqmis (perceptul) konstantobas uwodebe n. uxeSad rom vTqvaT, Tqven perceptul) aRiqvamT distaluri mudmivad stimulebis, i cvleba. mudmivi da Cveulebriv, romlebic mdgrad Tavisa Tvisebebs da aqvs aRqmas, garemos da araproqsimaluri moZraobisas arsebuli stimulebis Tvisebebs, Tvalebis s amyaroSi sinaTlis sasicocxlo stabiluri mniSvneloba Tvisebebis obieqtebis paternebis Tvisebebis im uTvalavi variaciis miuxedavad, romelic Tvalebis stimuli rebas axdens. aRqmis umTavresi amocanaa, ucvleli

39 (invariantuli) Tvisebebis aRmoCena, maTi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis variaciebis miuxedavad. axla vnaxvT, rogor xdeba es sididis, formisa da orientac iis SemTxvevaSi. sididis da formis konstantoba ra gansazRvravs sagnis sididis aRqmas? sagnis realur sidides, nawilobriv baduraz e misi Sesatyvisi gamosaxulebis sididis safuZvelze aRviqvamT. Tumca, wigniT Cata rebuli eqsperimenti gviCvenebs, rom baduraze gamosaxulebis zoma damokidebulia da Sorebaze. maniSnebliT rogorc wignis realur sidideze, ise _ Tvalidan mis rogorc v iRebT. iciT, sagnis daSorebaze sididis informacias siRrmis sxvadasxva sistema am aRsaqmelad Sesaxeb vizualuri informacias aerTianebs xatis sididis retinalur informaciasTan. sagnis sidide, Cveulebriv, distaluri stimulis zomas Seesabameba. sididis konstan toba niSnavs sagnis realuri sididis aRqmis unars, baduraze misi gamosaxulebis cv lilebisda miuxedavad. Tu sagnis sidide manZilis maniSneblebis gaTvaliswinebiT aR iqmeba, maSin manZilze zusti informacia arqonis SemTxvevaSi, mas yovelTvis damax injebulad aRviqvamT. erT-erTi aseTi iluzia xdeba eimsis oTaxSi, romelic 5.26 sur aTzea mocemuli. Tavis 120 sm simaRlis gogonasTan, tania zimbardosTan SedarebiT, 180 sm simaRlis Tqveni avtori Zalze dabali Cans oTaxis marcxena kuTxeSi, Tumca, uCveulod maRalia marjvena kuTxeSi. am iluziis mizezi isaa, rom Tqven oTaxs oTxku Txedad aRiqvamT, romelsac Tqvengan Tanabari manZiliT daSorebuli ori ukana kuTxe aqvs. amdenad, tanias realur simaRles orive SemTxvevaSi baduraze gamosaxulebis k onsistenturad aRiqvamT. realurad tania ar aris Tanabari manZiliT daSorebuli, rad gan eimsis oTaxi gonebamaxvilur iluzias qmni; is gveCveneba marTkuTxa formis oTa xad, sinamdvileSi ki agebulia aramarTkuTxa zedapirebiT, romlebic siRrmesa da sim aRleSi araTanabari zomis kuTxeebs qmnian, kuTxeSi rogorc myofi es fotos Tanmxleb adamianis naxazzea retinaluri mocemuli. oTaxis marjvena didi nebismieri gamosaxuleba ufro iqneba, radgan igi orjer ufro axlos iqneba damkvirvebelTan, vidre oTaxis marcxen a kuTxeSi myofi adamiani. (iluziis misaRebad ekrans erTi TvaliT unda SexedoT saW

vretidan. suraTi 5.26 swored aqedan aris gadaRebuli. Tu Tqven oTaxis yurebisas m is irgvliv imoZravebT, vizualuri sistema zust informacias miiRebs oTaxis uCveulo struqturaze.) • perceptuli konstantoba (Perceptual constancy) _ sagnis xatis ucvl elad darCena,

40 retinaluri gamosaxulebis cvlilebis miuxedavad. kidev warsuli erTi saSualeba, rom liTac perceptuli saxlis, sistema xis, an sagnis ZaRlis realur formis sidideze gvawvdis informacias, msgavsi formis obieqtebis sididis Sesaxeb codnis gamoyenebaa. magaliTad, aRqmisTanave, warmodgena geqmnebaT TiToeuli maTganis zomaze, Tumca, SeiZleba arc ki icodeT, ra manZili gaSorebT maTTan. rodesac warsuli gamocdileba Zalze daSore bul nacnob obieqtebze ver gawvdiT informacias, sididis konstantoba SeiZleba dairRves. am problemas waawydebiT, rodesac adamianebs caTam bjenis saxuravidan gadaxedavT da isini WianWvelebad mogeCvenebaT. swored es gamo cdileba udevs safuZvlad am Tavis dasawyisSi mocemul ambavs kengis Sesaxeb. Segax senebT, rom kengma, romelmac mTeli cxovreba xSir tyeebSi gaatara, ver aRiqva moS orebiT mobalaxe bizonebis gamosaxulebebi. ucnob perceptul garemoSi kengi Tavdapi rvelad Seecada, misTvis ucxo aRqma cnobili konteqstisTvis moergo da ivarauda, ro m pawawina daSorebuli wertilebi mwerebi iyo. vinaidan mas ar hqonda Sori manZili dan bizonebis aRqmis warsuli gamocdileba, ar hqonda sididis konstantobis safuZve lic da radgan swrafad moZravi manqana cxovelebs uaxlovdeboda da retinaluri gamos axulebebi TandaTan diddeboda, kengi ganicdida SemaSfoTebel iluzias, rom cxovelebi zomaSi i cvlebodnen. Cven SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi kengi, tarbulis mi scemda. formis sworad konstantoba aRiqvamT mWidrod ukavSirdeba formas sididis ma Sinac konstantobas. ki, rodesac Tqven sagani obieqtis realur msgavsad, SeZlebda bizonebis danaxvas. miRebuli codna mas sensoruli gamocdilebis saTanado perceptuli interpretaciis SesaZleblobas Sebrunebulia da Tavad obieqtisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebuli saxis retinalur gamos axulebas qmnis. magaliTad, daxrili oTxkuTxedi baduraze trapeciis formis gamosaxulebas qmnis, daxrili wre _ elifsis formis gamosaxulebas (ix. sur. 5.27). miuxedavad amisa, Tqven zustad aRiqvamT maT formebs _ sivrceSi daxril wr es an oTxkuTxeds. sistemas rodesac obieqtis siRrmeze realuri swori formis inform aciaa gansazRvra xelmisawvdomi, • vizualur Tqvengan obieqtis sxvadasxva nawilebis daSorebis gaTvaliswinebiTac SeuZlia. sidi dis konstantoba (Size constancy)_ sagnis realuri sididis aRqma, misi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis cvlilebis miuxedavad. sur. 5.26. eimsis oTaxi

41 eimsis oTaxi isea agebuli, rom erTi TvaliT saWvretidan xdeba misi dakvirveba; fotoebic am moxerxebuli adgilidanaa gadaRebuli. eimsis oTaxi agebuli a aramarTkuTxa zedapirebiT, romlebic araTanabar kuTxeebs qmnian siRrmesa da sima RleSi. saWvretidan dakvirvebisas vizualuri sistema mas Cveulebriv oTaxad aRiqvam s da tania da filip zimbardoebis simaRleebis uCveulo aRqmas iwvevs. fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi rogor iWerT mfrinav burTs odesme gqoniaT aseTi gamoc dileba: Tqven dgaxarT Sors marcxena mindorze, gesmiT Cognis dartymis xma da xeda vT beisbolis burTs, romelic Tqvenken mofrinavs? saidan iciT, Tu saiT unda gaiqce T burTis dasaWerad? Tu Tavad arasodes giTamaSiaT autfildze, jer kidev gaqvT saSu aleba, gaocdeT romelime moTamaSis STambeWdavi TamaSiT. sainteresoa, rogor xvdeba igi saWiro adgilas saWiro dros? agdebuli burTis daWeris situacias aRqmis mkvlev rebi, sruliad samarTlianad, rTul percepciaTa rigs miakuTvneben: - `burTis moaxlo ebis paterni moicavs yvela ZiriTad sivrciTi mdebareobas da siRrmis maniSnebels, romlis gaTvaliswineba ar xdeba traeqtoriis bolo monakveTamde” (McBeath et al., 199 5, gv.569). mkvlevrebis daakavSirebda amis miuxedavad, iyo adamianebi sakmaod Se qmna, da kargad iWeren burTebs. amocana iseTi Teoriis romelic erTmaneTTan siadviles gamoTvlebiT miRebul sirTulesa praqtikul (gavixsenoT, rom Tavis dasawyisSi miznad davsaxeT, agvexsna, Tu rogor qmnis perc eptuli procesebi siadvilis iluzias). ra tipis vizualuri maniSneblebis safuZvelze ikvlevT gzas burTisaken? mkvlevrebma gamoyves invariantuli maniSneblebis 2 tipi , romelsac moZravi burTi warmoqmnis (ix. zemoT: invariantobis ganxilva gibsonis

midgomaSi). mkvlevarTa erT jgufi irwmuneba, rom moTamaSeebi sirbilis dros im gza s irCeven, romelzec vertikalur ganzomilebaSi burTis moZraobis vizualuri aRqma ko nsistenturi rCeba (Dannemiller et al, 1996). mkvlevarTa meore jgufis mixedviT ki , moTamaSeebi irCeven gzas, romelic sirbilis dros im kuTxis SenarCunebis saSuale bas aZlevs, romliTac burTi fonTan mimarTebSi konsistenturad moZraobs (McBeath et al, 1995, 1996). rogor xdeba am Teoriebis Se mowmeba? rogorc wesi, mkvlevrebi videokameriT iweren, rogor iWeren moTamaSeebi m aT mier gaSvebuli burTebs. kvlevis Semdegi etapia moTamaSeebis

42 moqmedebisTvis maTematikuri funqciebis morgeba, raTa vnaxoT, burTis frenis vizua luri aRqmis ra aspeqtebis konsatantobis SenarCunebas cdilobdnen isini (Tqven, al baT axla gixariaT, rom realur cxovrebaSi am amocanis gadasaWrelad ar gWirdebaT a Rqmis perceptuli problemis maTematikis gageba). mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom moTa maSeebis umetesoba burTis daWeras or fazad yofs (Jacobs et al, 1996; McBeath, 19 96); I faza axlaxans ganvixileT _ swrafad gaqceva saWiro adgilas mosaxvedrad; II fazaze moTamaSeebi aneleben moZraobas da SeiZleba saerTod gaCerdnen kidec. Tama Sis II fazaSi adgilmdebareobisa da siRrmis maniSneblebi erTveba, radgan burTi sw rafad uaxlovdeba xelTaTmans. rodesac moTamaSes burTi ukve xelTaTmanSi aqvs, moqm edeba xSirad jer kidev ar aris damTavrebuli: man rac SeiZleba swrafad unda Seagd os burTi ukan infildze, rom mowinaaRmdegem qula ar miiRos da ar dawinaurdes. amr igad, moTamaSeebi xSirad asruleben burTis daWeris kompleqsur moqmedebas da, amav e dros, yuradRebas aqceven garemos mniSvnelovan aspeqtebs. SegiZliaT, cota xniT mowydeT swavlas da burTiT iTamaSoT? es aRqmis am specifikuri dagexmarebaT. probl emis Sesaxeb sakuTari Sexedulebebis CamoyalibebaSi

43 orientaciis konstantoba Tu wignis yurebisas aRqma, Tavs gverdze maTi gadaxriT, aris orientaciis yuris ga remoc gadaxrilad ar mogeCvenebaT. orientaciiis orientaciis miRebul orientaciis konstantoba konstantoba eyrdnoba Sida sayaroSi sagnebis realuri miuxedavad. sistemidan baduraze cvlilebis vestibularuli Tavis informacias (ganxilulia meoTxe TavSi) daxrilobaze. vestibularuli sistemidan miRebuli informaciisa da retinaluri orientaciis kombini rebiT, Cveni vizualuri sistema, Cveulebriv, garemoSi arsebuli obieqtis zust aRqm as ayalibebs. nacnob garemoSi iZleva. warsuli Tumca, Tu gamocdileba Tqven SeiZle ba realur orientaciaze rTuli damatebiT da ucnobi rodesac informacias figurebis gagiWirdeT amocnoba, isini uCveulo orientaciiTaa mocemuli. figura rTulia da sxvadasxva nawilebisagan Sedgeba, orientaciis aRsaqmelad TiToeu li nawilis mimarTuleba cal-calke unda moawesrigoT (Rock, 1986). ase rom, sanam e rT nawils saTanado mimarTulebiT abrunebT, danarCen nawilebs jer kidev moubrunebl ad aRiqvamT. SexedeT popvarskvlavis madonas or Semobrunebul fotosuraTs. Tqven, a lbaT, amCnevT, rom erTi-erTi maTgani odnav aris Secvlili pirsa da TvalebTan, mag ram suraTebi sakmaod gavs erTmaneTs. axla wigni SemoabruneT da kvlav SexedeT fot osuraTebs. igive fotosuraTebi absoluturad gansxvavebulad gamoiyureba. erTze isev

madonaa, meoreze ki _ amazrzeni monstria, romelic sakuTar dedasac ar eyvareboda ! Tqven ver SeniSneT es aSkara gansxvaveba wignis amobrunebamde, SesaZloa imitom rom ver SeZeliT saxis yvela nawilis erTdroulad amobruneba. amobrunebuli samyaro s sworad danaxvas da saxeebis uCveuli orientaciaSi aRqmas wlebis manZilze percep tuli treiningi sWirdeba. sur. 5.27. formis konstantoba monetis brunvisas misi xa ti icvleba- gadaiqceva elifsad, Semdeg TandTan viwrovdeba da Txel marTkuTxeds em sgavseba, Semdeg kvlav elifsad gadaiqceva da dasasrul - wred. am cvlilebebisdami uxedavad, igi yovelTvis mrgval monetad aRiqmeba. feris konstantoba ganvixiloT suraTi 5.29. rodesac suraTze gamosaxul aguris kedels uyurebT, zog agurs ufro muq wiTlad da zogs Ria wiTlad ki ar aRiqvamT, aramed

44 aRiqvamT kedels, romelSic yvela aguri erTnairi ferisaa da zogierTi maTgani Crdil Sia moqceuli (Goldstein, 1959). esaa feris konstantobis magaliTi: - feris konsta ntoba aris ganaTebis xarisxis cvalebad pirobebSi obieqtebis siTeTris, siruxis an siSavis ucvlelad aRqmis tendencia. adre sakmaod ganxiluli xSirad yvela sxva kon stantobis msgavsad, feris konstantobac davuSvaT, ganvicdiT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. magaliTad, gacviaT TeTri maisuri da bneli oTaxidan naTel mzis SuqiT ganaTebul quCaSi gadixa rT. mzis sinaTleze maisuridan gacilebiT meti sinaTle airekleba Tqven Tvalebze, v idre _ bnel oTaxSi, Tumca, orive SemTxvevaSi is TiTqmis erTnairad naTlad geCvene baT. aq, faqtobrivad, feris konstantoba moqmedebs, radgan sagnidan areklili sina Tlis procentuli raodenoba daaxloebiT igive rCeba, sinaTlis absoluturi odenoba ki icvleba. naTeli TeTri maisuri ireklavs arsebuli sinaTlis 80-90%-s, Savi jinsi – d aaxloebiT 5%-s, amitom, rodesac maT erTi da igive situaciaSi vxedavT, maisuri yo velTvis ufro naTeli Cans, vidre jinsi. amrigad, am qveTavSi ganvixileT mTeli rig i organizaciuli procesebi, romlebic aRqmis procesSi monawileoben. am Tavis bolo qveTavSi ganvixilavT identi fikaciisa da cnobis procesebs, romlebic mniSvnelobas aZleven garemos sagnebsa da movlenebs. • formis konstantoba (Shape constancy) _ • orientaciis/mimarTulebis sagn ebis • feris realuri sagnebis realuri formis aRqmis unari retinaluri gamosaxulebis zomebis cvlilebis miuxedavad. konstantoba aRqmis (Orien tation constancy) unari, retinaluri _ samyaroSi mimarTulebis gamosaxulebis mimarTulebis cvlilebis miuxedavad. konstantoba (Lightness constancy) siTeTris, _ ganaTebis an siSavis xarisxis cvalebad aRqmis pirobebSi tendencia. obieqtebis siruxis ucvlelad sur. 5.28. 90 gradusiT Semobrunebuli afrikis kontinenti cnobT Semobrunebul afrik is kontinents? xSirad, sakmaod Znelia naklebad nacnobi figurebi uCveulo orientac iaSi icnoT. Sejameba figuris konturebis fonis aRqmas win aRqmis tendencia imdena d Zlieria, rom iluzorul dajgufebis iwvevs. geStaltfisqologebma perceptuli

45 ramdenime principi Camoayalibes, maT Soris, siaxlovis, msgavsebis da msgavsi bed is principebi. perceptuli procesebi samyarodan axal informacias yoveli calkeuli fiqsaciiT iReben. baduris stimulaciis paterni moZraobis maniSneblebs iZleva. siR rmis aRqma informaciis mravali konvergenciuli wyarodan yalibdeba. binokularuli disparati da konvergencia siRrmis binokularuli maniSneblebia, romel Tac Tvalebis horizontaluri mdgomareoba iwvevs. fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi sag nebis fardobiT daSorebulobaze iZleva informacias. mxatvrebi iyeneben iseT da piq torul teqsturis maniSneblebs, gradientebi, rogoricaa: raTa gadafarva, wrfivi perspeqtiva organzomilebian naxatebze samganzomilebiani gamosaxuleba Seqmnan. zomis konstantobas aRviqvamT daSorebis m aniSneblebisa da nacnobi sagnebis sididis Sesaxeb warsuli codnis gamoyenebiT; fo rmis konstantobas xels uwyobs siRrmis Sesaxeb informacia. orientaciis konstantob a efuZneba vestibularul SegrZnebebsa da sagnis realuri orientaciis Sesaxeb warsu l codnas; feris konstantobas imitom arsebobs, rom nebismieri ganaTebis pirobebSi sagnebi maTze dacemuli ireklaven. sur. 5.29. feris konstantoba feris konstantob a gexmarebaT imis gagebaSi, ratom aRiqvamT kedels erTanairi agurebiT agebuls. id entifikacia da cnoba aqamde aRwerili _ perceptuli procesebi sivrceSi am distalur i stimulis zomis, fizikuri formis, mainc ar sinaTlis met-naklebad erTi da igive procentul raodenobas Tvisebebis miviCnioT. samganzomilebian amisa, sagnebis poziciis, teqsturisa da feris _ Sesaxeb sakmaod zusti informaciis wyarod SeiZleba miuxedav ad mxolod imformaciis safuZvelze gecodinebodaT, ra sagnebTan gaqvT saqme, an ginaxavT Tu ara isini odesme; garemo s imitom aRiqvamT nacnobad, rom SegiZliaT adre nanaxi sagnebis cnoba da identifi kacia. geWamaT, ra ase rom ar iyos, ras Tqveni gamocdileba an daemsgavseboda age TvalaT ucxo dro. planetaze mogzaurobas, sadac yvelaferi ucxo iqneboda: - ar gecodinebodaT, ra dag exuraT Tavze, gasclodiT rogor identifikacia da cnoba perceptul xats mniSvnelobas, sazriss aZleven. aRmavali da daRmavali procesebi

46 sagnis identifikaciisas, amJamad nanaxi unda SeadaroT warsulSi miRebul, Senaxul codnas. sensoruli monacemebis da garemodan miRebas aRmavali da tvinSi gadagzavnas amorCevisa (extraction) analizisaTvis gadamuSaveba fizikur (`qvemodan-zemoT”) ewodeba. aRmavali gadamuSaveba empiriul realobas efuZneba qvemo danda informaciis mcire nawilebs Seexeba; is stimulis konkretul niSnebs abstraqt ul xatebad gardaqmnis. am tipis gadamuSavebas monacemebiT aRZrul gadamuSavebasac (data driven processing) uwodeben, radgan identifikaciis sawyis wertils garemodan miRebuli monacemebi warmoadgens. bevr SemTxvevaSi, perc eptuli identifikaciis gasaioleblad, SesaZlebelia ukve xelT arsebuli informaciis gamoyeneba. magaliTad, zooparkSi namdvilad icnobT zogierTi saxeobis cxovels. iq metad geqnebaT vefxvis naxvis molodini, vidre Tqveni saxlis ukana ezoSi. rodesac molodinebi gavlenas axdens aRqmaze, fenomens daRmavali gadamuSaveba daRmaval (` zemodan-qvemoT”) (`zemodangadamuSavebisas ewodeba. daRmaval gadamuSavebas samyaros aRqmaSi Semoaqvs warsuli gamocdileba, codna, motivebi da kulturuli foni. umaRlesi fsiqikuri funqcionireba gavlenas axedns sagnebisa da movlenebis gagebaze. daRmavali proces ebs konceptualurad (anu cnebebis doneze, an hipoTeziT) aRZrul gadamuSavebasac uwodeben, radgan mexsierebaSi Senaxuli cnebebi gavlenas axdens sensoruli monacemebis interpretaciaze. daRmavali procesebis mniSvnelovnebis Cven eba SeiZleba naxatebiT, romelTac `drudlebi” (droodles) ewodeba (Price, 1953, 1980) . dasaxelebebis gareSe es naxatebi yovelgvar azrs moklebulia; Tumca, rogorc ki m oxdeba maTi identificireba, advilad davinaxavT maTSi Cadebul azrsac (ix. sur. 5. 30). aRmavali da daRmavali procesebis ukeT garCevis mizniT, metyvelebis aRqmas m ivubrundeT. Tqven uTuod geqnebodaT SemTxveva, rodesac gicdiaT saubris gagrZeleba Zalian xmaurian wveulebaze. aseT situaciaSi Tqvens mier warmoTqmuli yvela sityva erTmniSvnelovnad ver aRwevs mosaubris yuramde. Tqveni n aTqvamis nawils uTuod dafaravs Caxveleba, xmauriani musika da sicili. miuxedavad amisa, adamianebi iSviTad acnobiereben, rom isini fizikur signalebs xarvezebiT iReben. am fenomens fonemuri rekonstruqcia ewodeba (Warren, 1970). rogorc me-11

TavSi vnaxavT, fonema aris bgeris minimaluri, Sinaarsiani erTeuli enaSi. fonemur i rekonstruqcia xdeba maSin, rodesac Sesavsebad. adamianebi daRmaval xSirad gada muSavebas iyeneben gamotovili fonemebis msmenelebs uWirT gansazRvra, maT xmauriT nawilobrivad dafaruli sityvebi esmiT, Tu

47 sityvebi esmiT xmaurTan erTad, romelic zed edeba mTel signals, Tumca, ar faravs mas. (Droodles) sur. 5.30. `drudlebi” ( es ra cxovelebia? xedavT a gamosaxulebaSi Cits, romelmac mozrdili Wiayela daiWer a, b-Si ki _ Jirafis kisers? es orive suraTi SeiZleba TqvenTvis raRac Zalian nac nobis gamosaxulebad miviCnioT, Tumca, maT, rogorc wesi, ver cnobT saidentifikaci o informaciis arqonis gamo, Tumca sakmarisia am informaciis mowodeba, rom iolad amoicnoT isini. • aRmavali gadamuSaveba (Bottom-up processing) _ garemoSi xelmisawvdom sensorul in formaciaze dafuZnebuli perceptuli analizi. analizis Sedegebi aRmavali gziT Sedar ebiT abstraqtul reprezentaciebisken miemarTeba. • daRmavali gadamuSaveba (Top-down processing) _ perceptuli procesebi, rodesac adamianis warsuli gamocdileba, codna, molodinebi, motivacia da konteqsti gavlena s axdens aRqmuli obieqtis interpretaciasa da klasifikaciaze. davuSvaT, xmaurian wveulebaze Tqveni megobris naTqvami ise wydeba, rom Tqven yuramde mxolod aRwevs: `saxlSi unda wavide (xmauri)aRli myavs gasaseirnebeli~ Tu xmauri faravs bgera `Z~-s, mosalodnelia, ifiqroT, rom marTlac srulad gaigoneT sityva `ZaRli~. sainteresoa, ratom? Cven gvaqvs calkeuli bgereb i, romlebic sityvebs qmnian da Tavad sityvebi. roca bgerebi /a/, /R/, /l/ da /i/ Sedian am sistemaSi, isini aRmavali gziT, sityvis doneze, gvawvdian SeiZleboda konteqsti informacias. eTqva gexmarebaT, amis safuZvelze Semdeg ukve versiebidan gviyalibdeba daRmavali `ZaRli~ versiebi, Tu ra – am megobars. procesebi SearCioT, erTveba rogorc arsebuli frazisTvis yvelaze Sesaferisi sityva. vinaidan es yvelaferi sakmaod swrafad xdeb a _ savaraudo sityvebis aRmavali identifikacia da yvelaze albaTuri swori variant is daRmavali SerCeva – Tqven veRar igebT, rom bgera `Z~ gamotovebulia. perceptuli sistema garwmunebT, rom sityva dasrulebuli iyo (Samuel , 1997). Semdgom, xmaurian garemoSi moxvedrisas, kmayofili iqnebiT, rom perceptu li procesebi ase efeqturad avseben bgerebs! informaciis gadamuSavebis daRmavali procesebis bolo magaliTad ganvixiloT 5.32 su raTze gamosaxuli adamianebi. Tu maTi popularoba xanmokle ar iyo, Tqven SeZlebT maT cnobas. magram aseTebi arian isini realurad? - albaT, ara, uki dures SemTxvevebSi, saukeTeso wlebSi mainc. am karikaturebis identifikaciis unar i mowmobs, rom samyaros aRqma mxolod sensoruli receptorebidan Semosul

48 aRmaval informaciaze ar aris damokidebuli. Tqveni codnis _ daRmavali informaciisa da danaxulis _ aRmavali informaciis gaerTianebis unari am karikatur ebSi edi merfisa da hilari klintonis cnobis saSualebas gaZlevT. faqtobrivad, kvl eva gviCvenebs, rom karikaturebis amocnoba ufro advilia, vidre cnobili adamianeb is ufro `zusti~ gamoxatulebebisa, radgan karikaturebSi is maxasiaTeblebia gamokveTili, romlebic adamians gamorCeuls xdis (Mauro & Kubovy, 1992; Rhodes et al., 1997). sur. 5.32. rogor cnobT am cnobil adamianebs cnobT TiToeul maTgans? am adamianebi s saxeebis nacnobobis safuZvelze – daRmavali gadamuSaveba- am karikaturebSi `realu ri~adamianebs amoicnobT. sagnebis cnoba metyvelebis aRqmis magaliTidan SeiZleba gadavideT zogad midgomaze, romelic mkvlevrebma sagnis cnobis aRmaval procesebSi Semoitanes. maT gamoyves sa fexurebi, cnobisaTvis romelTac iyeneben. perceptuli enis sistemebi mTliani perce ptuli aRqmis xatis SemTxvevaSi, metyvelebisas procesebi, calkeuli sityvebis amosacnobad, aerTianebs bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobebis Sesaxeb gare modan miRebul informacias. ra erTeulebiT agebT samyaroSi arsebuli obieqtebis rep rezentaciebs? magaliTad, rogor wyvetT, rom nacrisferi ucnauri formis, saSualo zo mis bewviani arseba namdvilad kataa? savaraudod, Tqven gaqvT katis mexsierebiTi xati. identifikaciis procesi gulisxmobs perceptSi mocemuli informaciis es Sedare bas katis mexsierebiT variantia, xatTan, magram rogor sagnebis xorcieldeba Sedar eba? erT-erTi rom sxvadasxva mexsierebiTi xatebi moicaven sagnis Semadgenel komponentebs da informacias am komponentebis urTierTkavSirze (Marr & Mishihara, 1978). irvin bidermanis mixedvi T (Irvin Biederman, 1987; Hummel & Biederman, 1992), yvela obieqti SeiZleba Sedg ebodes geometriuli ionebis anu geonebisagan. geonebi ar aris formebis didi an

SemTxveviTi erToblioba. bidermani irwmuneboda, rom yoveli 36 geonis erTianoba Se mdegi wesiT SeiZleba ganisazRvros: - TiToeuli samganzomilebiani geoni qmnis orga nzomilebiani wesi saSualebas baduris unda stimulaciis gvaZlevdes, unikalur pater ns. es unikalurobis sensoruli stimulaciis paternidan mivxvdeT, ra sagania garemoSi mocemuli. 5.33 suraTze naCvenebia, Tu r ogor aris SesaZlebeli standartuli nawilebisgan obieqtebis ageba. mkvlevrebma aCv enes, rom aseT nawilebs realuri mniSvneloba aqvT sagnis cnobisaTvis. amisaTvis i sini cdis pirebs uCvenebdnen danawevrebuli sagnebis

49 suraTebs, sadac srulad iyo, an ar iyo mocemuli Semadgeneli nawilebi (Biederman, 1987; Biederman & Cooper, 1991). 5.34 suraTis pirvel svetSi mocemuli a Cveulebrivi sagnebis konturebi. Sua svetSi igive obieqtebi xarvezebiT aris moc emuli, rac jer kidev iZleva nawilebis cnobis da maTi urTierTkavSiris gagebis saS ualebas. marjvena svetSi xarvezebi xels gviSlis komponentebisa da maT Soris kavS iris saxiT rom aRmoCenaSi. gveTanxmebiT, cnoba rom mesame svetSi mxolod monaxazi s mocemuli obieqtis obieqtebis cnoba yvelaze Znelia? kontrasti gvarwmunebs, SezRuduli informaciiTac SesaZlebelia (fonemebis aRdgenis msgavsad), magram mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu informacia aucil ebel komponentebs Seicavs. miuxedavad amisa, mxolod komponentebis amocnoba yovel Tvis ver iqneba sakmarisi obieqtis sacnobad (Hayward & Williams, 2000; Tarr, 1994). erT-erTi siZ nele, rogorc es 5.35 suraTzea mocemuli, isaa, rom obieqtebs xSirad sruliad gansx vavebuli persepeqtivebidan xedavT. sagnis Semadgeneli nawilebi SeiZleba sruliad gansxvavebulad Candes sxvadasxva perspeqtividan. am siZnelis dasaZlevad calkeuli ZiriTadi perspeqtivisaTvis unda SeinaxoT calkeuli mexsierebi Ti xatebi, romelTac standartuli sagnebis ganxilvisas gamoiyenebT (Tarr & Pinker, 1989). rodesac garemoSi romelime obieqts xedavT, SeiZleba gonebaSi perceptis tr ansformireba mogiwioT, raTa gaarkvioT, zustad Seesabameba Tu ara is romelime am xats. amrigad, nacrisfer, ucnauri formis, saSualo zomis bewvian cxovelSi rom kat a amoicnoT, is unda amoicnoT, rogorc garkveuli rakursiT mocemuli geonebis Sesaty visi kombinacia. komponentebis sur. 5.33. cnoba komponentebis safuZvelze suraTze mocemulia samganzomilebiani obieqtebis Semadgeneli nawilebi da maTi gaerTianebi s nimuSebi. figuris zeda naxevarSi mocemuli obieqtebi sxvadasxva zomis cilindreb iTaa agebuli; figuris qveda naxevarSi ki, ramdenime sxvadasxva nawilis gaerTiane biT, nacnobi obieqtebia agebuli. sur. 5.34. nawilebis gavlena obieqtis cnobaze S ua svetSi vizualuri informaciis xarvezebi nawilebs ar azianebs, marjvena svetSi cnoba? 5.35. sur. 5.35. erTi d aigive obieqti sxvadasxva perspeqtividan ki - azi anebs. gveTanxmebiT, rom Sua svetSi ufro advilia obieqtebis

50 sxvadasxva perspeqtividan Tqven sagnis sxvadasxva nawilebs xedavT.Mam sirTulis d asaZlevad Tqven rTuli figuris mraval xats inaxavT mexsierebaSi. molodinis da kon teqstis gavlena nacrisfer, saSualo zomis, ucnauri formis bewvian arsebas ufro ad vilad icnobT, Tu mas Cveul adgilas, Tqven saxlSi naxavT. es aRqmis daRmavali asp eqtia: - molodinebma SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinon aRqmaze da danaxulis interpretac iaze. odesme, SemTxveviT, droa saWiro maT sacnobad am ginaxavT nacnobi adamianeb i moulodnel situaciaSi da xandaxan arc ki xarT adgilze, magaliTad, sxva qalaqSi, an sxva socialur jgufSi? gacilebiT meti darwmunebuli, rom Nnamdvilad isini arian. saqme is ki ar aris, rom isini gansxva vebulad gamoiyurebian, aramed konteqstia sxva _ Tqven ar eliT maT am situaciaSi. sivrciTi da droiTi konteqsti, romelSic sagnebi amoicnoba, mniSvnelovan informac iul wyaros warmoadgens. konteqstidan gamomdinare, Tqven geqmnebaT molodini, Tu r a obieqtebis naxvaa mosalodneli, an moulodneli irgvliv. sur. 5.36a. axalgazrda l amazi qali perceptuli organizacia damokidebulia rogorc molodinze, ise _ sagnis x ilvad Tvisebebze. sagnis cnoba aris konstruqciuli interpretaciis procesi: identi fikacia SeiZleba Seicvalos imis mixedviT, rac ukve iciT, Tu sad xarT da ras xedavT irgvliv. waikiTxeT Semdegi sityvebi: THE CAT sworia? axla isev Sex edeT TiToeuli sityvis Sua asos. es ori aso zustad erTnairia, Tumca, pirvels aRiq vamT rogorc H-s da meores, rogorc A-s, ratom? naTelia, rom aRqmaze gavlena moaxd ina inglisuri sityvebis codnam. konteqsti, romelsac qmnis T_E, metad SesaZlebels xdis H-s da naklebad SesaZlebels _ A-s maSin, roca C_T konteqstisTvis sawinaaRmdegoa swori. mkvlevreb ma araerTxel daasabuTes aRqmaze konteqstisa da molodinis gavlena setis SeswavliT . seti (set) aris stimulis garkveuli saxiT aRqmis da masze () reagirebis droebiT i da mzaoba. arsebobs sami tipis aris seti: mza, motoruli, pasuxis raTa fsiqolog iuri gasacemad perceptuli. morbenali motoruli seti swrafi mzaoba. varjiSobs motoruli setis daxvewaze, sastarto gasrolis xmaze rac SeiZleba swrafad gamovides sastarto blokidan. fsiqol ogiuri seti aris mzaoba, ganixiloT iseTi situacia, rogoricaa amocanis gadaWra, a n TamaSi, daswavlili wesebis, instruqciebis, molodinebis, an

51 Cvevebis daxmarebiT. fsiqologiurma setma SeiZleba Tavidan agvaridos amocanis gad awyveta, roca Zveli wesebi ver ergeba axal situacias. amas me-9 TavSi vnaxavT, p roblemis gadawyvetis procesis Seswavlisas. perceptuli seti aris mocemul konteqst Si garkveuli stimulis SeniSvnisTvis mzaoba. magaliTad, axalbeda dedisaTvis es Se iZleba bavSvis tirilis gageba iyos. xSirad seti gvaiZulebs, SevcvaloT orazrovani stimulis interpretacia. SexedeT sityvaTa am or rigs: bebia, babua, da, Zma, deda, ma?a ana, sofo, nino, Tea, nata, ma?a waikiTxeT CamonaTvali? ra sityva mogividaT TavSi TiToeul SemTxve vaSi `ma?a~-s wakiTxvisas? Tu Tqven `mama~ da `maia/maka~ gaifiqreT, es imitom m oxda, rom sityvaTa CamonaTvaliT SegimuSavdaT seti, romelmac sityvebis Zebnisas g arkveuli mimarTulebiT warmarTa Tqveni mexsiereba. saxeldebam SeiZleba Seqmnas ko nteqsti, romelic orazrovani figurisTvis perceptul sets iZleva. Tqven ukve naxeT, azrs moklebuli `dudlebi~ (doodle)s rogor gadaiqca azrian obieqtebad. yuradRebiT SexedeT qalis gamosaxulebas 5.36.a suraTis wina gverdze. Tqvenma megobarma (da ara Tqven) naxos suraTi 5.36b am gverdze. Semdeg erTad SexedeT 5.36g suraTs. ras xedavs TiToeuli Tqvengani? iqonia Tu ara raime gavlena wina gverdebze mocemuli saxeldebuli orazrovani gamosaxulebebis naxvam am gamosaxulebis aRqmaze? Tqven Se giZliaT, eqsperimenti sxvebze gaimeoroT da naxoT, iRebT Tu ara igive Sedegebs. i misaTvis, rom konteqstma aRqmaze moaxdinos gavlena, saWiroa: - mexsiereba ise iy os organizebuli, rom konkretul situaciebTan dakavSirebuli informacia saWiro dros xdebodes xelmisawvdomi. sxva sityvebiT, saTanado (an arasaTanado) molodinebis C amosayalibeblad Tqven unda SegeZloT mexsierebaSi Senaxuli codnis gamoyeneba. zog jer `mexsierebiTac” iseve xedavT, rogorc TvalebiT. me-8 TavSi ganvixilavT mexsiere bis Tvisebebs, romlebic SesaZlebels xdis aRqmaze konteqstis gavlenas. sur. 5.36b . xandazmuli qalbatoni bolo gakveTilebi am TavSi naswavlis Sesajameblad, yuradRe biT SexedeT 5.3 suraTs. Tqven ukve gaqvT mTeli sqemis gasagebad saWiro codna. 5. 3 suraTis ganxilva, aseve, dagarwmunebT, rom mniSvnelovani daskvna, romelic aRqmis Seswavlidan unda

52 miiRoT, isaa, rom mastimulirebeli movlenis sapasuxo perceptuli gamocdileba pirov nebis, rogorc mTelis, reaqcias warmoadgens. sensoruli receptorebis gaRizianebiT miRebuli informaciis garda, saboloo aRqma damokidebulia imaze, Tu vin xarT, visT an erTad xarT, ra gindaT, ras eliT da ra Rirebulebebi gaqvT. aRmqmeli xSirad asr ulebs or gansxvavebul rols, romelic SeiZleba SevadaroT moTamaSe, sensorul azartu l aRmqmeli masalas TamaSsa da interieris niZlavi dizains. rom rogorc azartuli Se maval mowadinebulia, warsuli dados, da mocemul gamocdilebisa personaluri Teoriebis terminebiT gaigebs. rogorc mgznebare, sakuTar saqmeze Seyvarebuli interieris diz aineri, aRmqmeli mudmivad cdilobs stimulebis ise organizebas, rom isini ukeT moe rgon situacias da metad urTierTdakavSirebulad gamoiyurebodnen. araTavsebadi da m ouwesrigebeli xatebi ukuigdeba da naTeli, sufTa da Tanmimdevruli xazebiT Canacvldeba. aRqmis procesi rom mTlianad aRmavali yofiliyo , Tqven erT, aq da amJamad mocemul konkretul realobas iqnebodiT mijaWvuli.…SegeZle bodaT Tqveni gancdebis fiqsireba, magram ver gadaitandiT maT momavalSi, verc samyaros dainaxa vdiT gansxvavebulad sxvadasxva situaciaSi, perceptuli gadamuSaveba mxolod daRmav ali procesi rom yofiliyo, Tqven daikargebodiT sakuTari molodinebisa da imedebis, fantaziis samyaroSi. am or ukiduresobas Soris saTanado balansiT miiRweva aRqmis ZiriTadi mizani: samyaros iseTi gancda, romelic optimalurad emsaxureba adamiani s, rogorc biologiuri da socialuri arsebis (romelic moZraobs da egueba socialur d a fizikur garemos) moTxovnilebebs. • seti (Set) _ stimulis aRqmis da masze garkveuli saxiT reagirebis droebiTi mzaoba. sur. 5.36g. axla ras xedavT? Sejameba identifikacia da cnoba m oicavs aRmaval da daRmaval procesebs, romlebic erToblivi moqmedebiT samyaros naT el, TvalsaCino gagebas uzrunvelyofen. sagnis amocnoba iwyeba sagnis Semadgenel nawilebad, anu geonebad dayofiT. obieqtis amosacnobad nawilebis codna xSirad rakursis, anu xedvis kuTxis codnasac saWiroebs. sivrciTi da droiTi konteqsti, romelSic sagania

53 mocemuli, ayalibebs molodins; is gavlenas axdens sagnis cnobis unarze. mkvlevrebma aRqmaze konteqstis gavlena setis efeqtebis SeswavliT daasabuTes. sak vanZo sakiTxebi SegrZneba, organizeba, identificireba da cnoba • perceptuli sistemebi ubralod ki ar iReben gare samyaroze informacias, aramed aqtiurad axdenen mis intepretaciasa da organizacias. • aRqma samsafexuriani procesia. is Sedgeba SegrZnebis, perceptuli organizaciisa da identifikacia-cnobis safexurebisgan. • gadamuSavebis sensorul safexurze fizikuri energia gardaiqmneba nervul energiad da sensorul gancdad. • organizaciis safexurze da perceptuli procesebi SegrZnebebs TvalsaCino dardeba xatebad aerTianebs da sagnebis da paternebis aRqmas ganapirobebs. • identifikaciisa

cnobis safexurze sagnebis perceptebi mexsierebiT xatebs, raTa isini amovicnoT rogorc nacnobi da azriani sagnebi. • aRqmis amocanaa distaluri (eqsternaluri) stimulis gansazRvra proqsimaluri (sensoruli) stimuliT mowodebuli informaciidan. • orazrovneba iqmneba maSin, rodesac SesaZlebelia erTi da igive sensoruli informaciis sxvadasxva perceptebSi (xatebSi) organizeba. • perceptuli iluziebis Sesaxeb codnam SeiZleba SezRudos Cveulebrivi perceptuli procesebi. yuradRebis procesebi • yuradReba aris Semavali sensoruli informaciis nawilis SerCevisa da danarCenis ignorirebis unari. • pirovnuli miznebi da garemoSi arsebuli sagnebis Tvisebebi gansazRvraven Cveni yuradRebis mimarTulebas. •

yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia Zalze mcired moqmedebs mimdinare yuradReba mdeli gadamuSaveba vizualuri garemos efeqturad gadasinjvis gamocdilebaze. • saSualebas iZleva. organizaciuli procesebi aRqmaSi • organizaciuli procesebi sensoruli monacemebis Sesabamis aRqmis xatebs qmnian. • es procesebi perceptebs fonidan win wamoweul figurebad aerTianebs.

54 • TqvenTvis damaxasiaTebelia dausrulebeli figurebis dasrulebulad danaxvisa da calkeuli obieqtebis msgavsebis mixedviT dajgufebis tendencia. • TqvenTvis damaxasiaTebelia tendencia _ aq da amJamad mocemuli sivrciTi da droiTi konteqstidan gamomdinare moaxdinoT sagnis nawilebis organizeba da interpr etireba. • Tqven, aseve, gaxasiaTebT realuri sensoruli stimulis miuxedavad, aTvlis sistemis uZravad da masSi mocemuli nawilebis moZravad aRqmis tendencia • baduris organzomilebiani informaciis samganzomilebiani siRrmis aRqmad gardasaqmnelad vizualuri sistema iyenebs iseT informacias, rogoricaa: obieqtis z oma da obieqtamde manZili. • Tqven gaxasiaTebT obieqtebis zomis, formis, orientaciisa da feris mixedviT ucvlelad aRqmis tendenciiT. identifikacia da cnoba • perceptuli gadamuSavebis bolo safexurze, rodesac xdeba obieqtis identifikacia da cnoba, percepti mniSvnelobas iZens aRmavali da daRmavali gadamu Savebis erToblivi moqmedebiT. • konteqstma, molodinebma, perceptulma masalam SeiZleba gansazRvros

dausrulebeli orazrovani monacemebis erTi mimarTulebiT amocnoba, meore, Tanabrad SesaZleblis, nacvlad. • amgvarad, aRqma eyrdnoba rogorc warsul codnas da molodins, aseve _ sensorul stimuls. ZiriTadi cnebebi aracnobieri daskvna. aRmavali gadamuSaveba aRqma aRqmis konstan toba aSkara moZraoba konvergencia daRmavali gadamuSaveba dasrulebuloba (Sevsebul oba) distaluri stimuli diqotomiuri mosmena ekologiuri optikis Teoria Φ fenomeni fi gura foni formis konstantoba ganaTebis konstantoba geStalt-fsiqologia identifika cia da cnoba iluzia iluzoruli konturebi marTuli gadasinjva mizanmimarTuli SerCev a moCvenebiTi moZraoba msgavsebis kanoni

55 msgavsi bedis kanoni orazrovneba orientaciis konstantoba perceptuli organizeba p roqsimaluri stimuli retinaluri disparati fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi seti siax lovis kanoni stimuliT aRZruli seleqcia yuradReba yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba sid idis konstantoba

Tavi 6. goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi • cnobierebis Sinaarsi gacnobiereba da cnobiereba cnobierebis xelmisawvdomoba cnobierebis Sinaarsebis k vleva • cnobierebis funqciebi cnobierebis gamoyeneba cnobierebis funqciebis kvleva Cvens cxovrebaSi: rodis uya libdebaT bavSvebs • fsiqologia cnobiereba? • Zili da sizmari cirkaduli riTmebi Zilis cikli ratom Zili? Zilis darRvevebi sizmari: gonebis Teat ri • fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: 24/7 cxovrebis stili da Zili cnobierebis Secvlili mdgo mareobebi • dakvirvebadi sizmrebi hipnozi meditacia halucinaciebi religiuri eqstazi cnobiere bis Semcvleli nivTierebebi • sakvanZo sakiTxebi ZiriTadi cnebebi

2 ganvixiloT N. N-is SemTxveva _ axalgazrda kanadeli mamakaci, romelsac avtokatast rofis Sedegad Tavis tvini dauzianda. fsiqolog endel tulvingis (Endel Tulving, 19 85) aRweris mixedviT, N. N-ma am travmis Sedegad mravali iseTi gamocdilebis miRe bis unari dakarga, rasac qvemoT aRvwerT da cnobierebas vuwodebT. magaliTad, miux edavad imisa, rom N. N-ma „mcire ram icis Tavisi warsulidan, vTqvaT, romel wels ga davida misi ojaxi amJamindel sacxovrebel adgilas; im skolebis saxelebi, romlebSi c swavlobda anda sad atarebda zafxuls skolis periodSi, mas ar SeuZlia gaixsenos romelime konkretuli movlena Tavisi warsulidan.“ (gv. 4). tulvingi wers: N.N-s ar hqonda problemebi qronologiur drosTan dakavSirebiT. is kargad erkveoda drois erTeulebsa da maT Soris arsebul mimarTebebSi. zedmiwevniT SeeZlo qronologiuri drois grafikulad gamosaxva, Tumca, drois Sesaxeb abstraqtuli codnis sruliad sapirispirod, ukiduresad darRveuli saqmianobis hqonda Sesaxeb su bieqturi drois is cnobiereba. pasuxobda, rodesac rom ar wina icoda. dRis Tu ekiT xebodnen, hkiTxavdnen, ras apirebda SemdgomSi an ras gaakeTebda xval, misi pasuxi igive iy o _ man ar icoda... rodesac sxvadasxva SemTxvevebSi sTxovdnen NN. N-s, aRewera is „sicariele“, romelic mis gonebaSi isadgurebda „xvalis“ Sesaxeb fiqrisas, is ambobda, rom es „Zilismagvari mdgomareobaa“ anda „didi sicarielea“. Tu sTxovdnen anal ogiis terminebiT aRewera es mdgomareoba, igi ambobda, rom „es hgavs situacias, rod esac cariel oTaxSi moxvedril adamians oTaxSi ararsebuli skamis povnas sTxoven”. sx va SemTxvevaSi is ambobda, rom „es tbis SuagulSi curvas hgavs, sadac araferia irgv liv xelCasaWidi.“ rodesac guSindeli saqmianobis Sesaxeb fiqrisas gonebaSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis aRweras sTxovdnen, is ambobda, rom „raRacnairi sicarielea“. N.N amas m Svidad da uSfoTvelad akvirdeba yovelgvari emociis gareSe. mxolod maSin, rodesac ekiTxebodnen ratom ar ukvirs, rom „iq araferia“, rodesac is

3 fiqrobs guSindelsa Tu xvalindelze is amJRavnebda aJitacias da sustad aRmoxdeboda gaocebis SeZaxili. mcireodeni, xanmokle SegiZliaT Tqveni Tavi warmoidginoT N.N -is adgilze, rodesac sakuTari warsulisa a n momavlis Sesaxeb fiqrs cdilobT da mxolod „sicarieles“ awydebiT? modiT, erTi wuTiT ifiqreT raime erT-erT mniSvnelovan movlenaze Tqveni warsulidan; axla dafiqrdiT, Tu ra SeiZleba moxdes xval an zeg? saidan modis warsulis es mogonebebi an warmod genebi momavlis Sesaxeb? miuxedavad imisa, rom Cvens tvinSi didi informacia inax eba, naklebad albaTuria, rom es azrebi iseve mogvdiodes „gonebaSi“, TiTqosda visxdeT da teqsts vkiTxulobdeT. metic, Tavs ukeTesad vigrZnobT, Tu vityviT, rom azrebi Cveni cnobierebidan da tvinis iseTi ubnebidan momdinareobs, romelic manamde ar i yo cnobieri. magram mainc ibadeba kiTxva: mainc rogor mogvdis garkveuli azrebi T avSi (gonebaSi)? ganvixilavT ki realurad sxvadasxva mogonebebs an momavlis varia ntebs? sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, cnobierad vaxorcielebT arCevans? Tu azrebi garkveuli aracnobieri operaciebis meSveobiT rogorRac Cndebia n Cvens cnobierebaSi? ra SesaZleblobebi gagvaCnia Cven, romelic N.N-ma ase tragi kulad dakarga? Tu yuradRebiT davakvirdebiT, ras warmoadgens normaluri individisa Tvis azrebis Camoyalibebis martivi aqti, intuiturad ukve Segveqmneba warmodgena am meeqvse Tavis ZiriTadi Temebis Sesaxeb. am TavSi SevecdebiT vupasuxoT Semdeg kiTxvebs: _ ra aris Cveulebrivi gacnobiereba? ra ganapirobebs Cveni ara cnobierebis Sinaarsebs? risTvis gvWirdeba cnobiereba? SeuZliaT Tu realuri zegavlenis moxdena aracnobier fsiqikur movlenebs Cvens azrebze, emociebs a da qcevaze? rogor icvleba cnobiereba dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi da rogor SegviZlia mizanmimarTulad vcvaloT Cveni cnobierebis mdgomareoba? imedis momcemi fsiqologi , aseve, dainteresdeba, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli gonebis aspeqtebis mecnieruli Seswavla, rogor xdeba Sinaganis gareT gamotana da, piriqiT, sazogadoebrivis piro vnulad qceva (internalizacia) da rogor aris SesaZlebeli subieqturi gamocdilebis zedmiwevniTi gazomva? Cven analizs cnobierebis Sinaarsebisa da funqciebis ganxil viT daviwyebT, amasTan, yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT adamianis gonebaze. SevecdebiT dagexmaroT filosofosTa, fsiqologTa da neiromecnierebebisTvis uZvelesi problemis gagebaSi: _ ra damokidebuleba arsebobs Tavis tvinsa da gonebas Soris. Semdeg gad avinacvlebT im regularul cvlilebebze, romelsac ganvicdiT ocnebis, fantaziis, Zil isa da sizmrebis dros. dabolos, vnaxavT, Tu rogor icvleba

4 cnobiereba hipnozis, meditaciis, religiuri zemoqmedebis Sedegad cnobierebis Sina arsi ritualebisa da narkotikebis Tavdapirvelad unda aRiniSnos, rom termini „cnobiereba“ orazrovania. is SeiZleba gamo viyenoT rogorc gonebis zogadi mdgomareobis, vambobT, rom ise misi specifikuri Si naarsebis aRsaniSnad: zogjer „cnobier“ anu mdgomareobaSi viyaviT „aracnobieris“ sapirispirod (magaliTad, anesTeziis an Zilis dr os); sxva SemTxvevaSi vambobT, rom cnobier mdgomareobaSi varT vacnobierebT konkretul informacias an moqmedebas. aq naTlad Cans garkveuli Tanmimdevroba _ imisaTvis, rom vacnobierebdeT raime konkretul informacias, cnobi er mdgomareobaSi unda vimyofebodeT. am TavSi, rodesac visaubrebT cnobierebis Sinaarsebze, mxedvelobaSi gveqneba is informacia, romelsac vacnobierebT, romlis Sesaxebac viciT. gacnobiereba da cnobiereba adreul fsiqolog iur kvlevaTa nawili cnobierebis Sinaarsebs eZRvneboda. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi T andaTanobiT daSorda ra fsiqologia filosofias, is Camoyalibda, rogorc cnobierebis , gonebis Sesaxeb mecniereba. vundti da titCeneri sakvlevad, introspeqciis uilia m jemsi meTods ki iyenebdnen cnobieri fsiqikis nakadis Sinaarsebis kvleviT iyo sakuTari cnobierebis dakavebuli (ix. Tavi 1). faqtobrivad, misi klasikuri naSromis _ „fsiqologia“ (1892w. ) pirvel gverdze jemsi fsiqologias ganmartavs, rogorc „mecnierebas cnobierebis, rogorc aseTis, mdgomareobebis aRwerisa da axsnis Sesaxeb.“ Cveulebrivi fxizeli cnobiereba moicavs Cvens aRqmebs, azrebs, grZnobebs, warmodg enebsa da survilebs mocemul momentSi anu mTel mentalur aqtivobas, razec vaxdenT yuradRebis koncentracias. Cven vacnobierebT Tavad moqmedebas, romelsac vaxorciel ebT da im faqtsac, rom vaxorcielebT am qmedebas. xandaxan imasac vacnobierebT, r om sxvebi akvirdebian, afaseben da reagireben Cvens mier ganxorcielebul qcevebze . sakuTari Tavis SegrZneba modis

gamocdilebidan, romelsac privilegirebuli „Sinagani“ poziciidan sakuTar Tavze dakvirv ebiT viRebT. es sxvadasxvagvari gonebrivi aqtivobebi, erTad aRebuli, qmnian cnob ierebis Sinaarss _ yvela am gamocdilebas cnobierad aRviqvamT drois garkveul mome ntSi (Natsouias, 1998). axla ufro zustad SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT cnobierebis sami sxvadasxva done. isini pirobiTad Seesatyviseba: (1) bazisuri done _ Sinagani da garegani

5 samyaros cnobiereba; (2) meore done _ imis asaxva, gaazreba, rasac vacnobierebT da (3) mesame, umaRlesi done _ sakuTari Tavis, rogorc cnobieri, moazrovne indivi dis, gacnobiereba. bazisur doneze cnobiereba warmoadgens imis gacnobierebas, rom Cven aRviqvamT da vreagirebT xelmisawvdom perceptul informaciaze. am doneze Cve n vacnobierebT saaTis wikwiks da SimSilis odnav SesamCnev SegrZnebas. meore done ze cnobiereba simbolur codnas eyrdnoba, romelic obieqtebiT gvanTavisuflebs maTi aryofnis realur obieqtebsa da mimdinare axali movlenebze formebi da mijaWvulobis gan. am doneze SegviZlia vimsjeloT da movaxdinoT manipulireba pirobebSi, warmovi saxoT gamoviyenoT ukve nacnobi formebi an paternebi, davgegmoT/SevqmnaT utopiebi. cnob ierebis umaRlesi donea TviTcnobiereba Semecneba, (gacnobiereba) imisa, TviTcnobi ereba, rom pirovnulad gancdil movlenebs avtobiografiuli xasiaTi aqvs. TviTcnobiereba gvaZlevs pirovnuli istoriisa da identurobis SegrZnebas. cnobiereb is am doneze, Tu Cvens gamocdilebaSi samyaro arsebobs, rogorc naTeli, Tanmimdevr uli amis da prognozirebadi molodinebi, qmedebiT riTac da da ram, es maSin TandaT anobiT aRgvWuravs axdens. Tavis darCa gviyalibdeba awmyoSi gavixsenoT dazianebis Sesatyvisi molodinebi saukeTeso N.N-is Sedegad mimdinare momavlis saubari, dagegmvas romelic gareSe SemTxveva, TiTqmis daviwyeT mTlianad TviTcnobierebis (tulvingi, 1985). mas ar gaaCnda rogorc pirovnuli drois perspeqtiva, ise _ droSi ganfenili sakuTari avtobiografiis cnobiereba. cnobierebis xelmisawvdomoba Cven ganvsazRvreT informaciis zogadi tipebi, romelic SesaZloa gancobierdes garkveul adgilze da garkveul droSi, magram ra ganapirobebs imas, Tu ra cnobierdeba swored am momentSi? magaliTad, am wuTSi acnobierebT Tu ara Tqven s sunTqvas? albaT, ara. sunTqvis kontroli aracnobieri

procesebis nawilia. fiqrobT Tu ara Tqvens bolo Svebulebaze an „hamletis“ avtorze? albaT, isev ara. aseTi azrebis kontroli winarecnobieri mexsierebis nawi lia. acnobierebT Tu ara iseT fonur xmaurebs, rogoricaa saaTis wikwiki, transport is moZraobis xma an naTuris zuzuni? sakmaod rTuli iqneba am yvelafris gacnobiere ba (aRqma) da Tan sruli koncentraciis SenarCuneba am Tavis Sinaarsze. yvela es s timuli yuradRebis miRma darCenili informaciis nawilia. dabolos, arsebobs aracnobieri romelic informacia, aseT SesaZlebels romelic xdis Znelad xelmisawvdomia magaliTad, cnobieri aRqmisaTvis, wesebi, informacias miekuTvneba, winadadebis gramatikuli

6 mniSvnelobis gagebas. axla cal-calke ganvixiloT cnobierebis TiToeuli tipi. aracnobieri procesebi es aris mTeli rigi aracnobieri sxeulebrivi aqtiobebisa, romlebic Zalze iSviaTad Tu iWreba cnobierebaSi. aracnobieri procesebis muSaobis magaliTia sisxlis wnevis regulacia. maTze nervuli yovelgvari sistema adevnebs ra Tvalyurs garkveul fiziologiur informacias, uwyvetad Sesabamisad reagirebs afiqsirebs mimdinare cvlilebebs da gacnobierebis gareSe. SemTxvevebSi, zogierTi Cveulebrivi aracnobieri aqtivoba SeiZleba cnobieri gaxdes . magaliTad, SeiZleba amisa, miznad nervuli davisaxoT sistema sunTqvis mraval cn obieri gakontroleba. miuxedavad mniSvnelovan funqcias uzrunvelyofs cnobierebis yovelgvari procesis gareSe. winarecnobieri mexsiereba mogonebebi, romlebic mxolod mas Semdeg xdeba cnobierebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi, rac raRac warmarTavs Cvens yuradRebas maTze, winarecnobieri mogonebebis saxeliT ari s cnobili. mogonebebi uzarmazari moculobis mqone informaciasTan erTad inaxeba, r ogoricaa, magaliTad, enebis, sportis an geografiis zogadi codna da mogonebebi pi rovnulad gancdili movlenebis Sesaxeb. winarecnobieri mexsiereba SeumCnevlad arse bobs Cvens gonebaSi manam, sanam ar Seiqmneba maTi cnobierad arsebobis saWiroebi s situacia (rogorc maSin, rodesac mniSvnelovani warsuli movlenis mogoneba gTxove T). mexsierebis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT visaubrebT VIII TavSi. • cnobiereba (Consciousness) _ Sinagani movlenebisa da garemos pirobebis cnobierad aRqmis mdgomareoba (gacnobiereba) • TviTcnobiereba (Self-awareness) _ cnobierebis umaRlesi done, pirovnulad gancdili movlenebis avtobiografiuli xasiaTis Semecneba. • aracnobieri (Nonconscioes) _ inf ormacia, romelic, Cveulebriv, xelmiuwvdomelia cnobierebisaTvis an mexsierebisaTv is. • winarecnobieri mexsiereba (Preconscious memories) _ mexsiereba, romelic moce mul momentSi ar aris cnobieri, magram cnobierdeba aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia

7 nebismier mocemul momentSi uricxvi raodenobis stimuliT varT garSemortymulni. rogorc V TavSi iTqva, Cven mxolod maT mcire nawilze SegviZlia y uradRebis fokusireba. raze movaxdenT fokusirebas da, amasTanave, romeli mogonebe bi gacocxldeba, mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli imaze, Tu ra gvaqvs cnobierebaSi . Tumca, xandaxan ar SeiniSneba xvdeba da am iseTi informaciis fokusSi. aracnobieri reprezentacia, TqvenTvis romelic yuradRebis dros gavixsenoT magaliTi V Tavidan: xmaurian wveulebaze cdilobT yuradRebis koncentrir ebas mimzidvel TariRze uyuradRebod stovebT iqve mimdinare saubars manam, sanam T qvens saxels ar mohkravT yurs. moulodnelad aRmoaCenT, rom rogorRac, gaucnobiereb lad usmendiT am saubars da xmaurSi gaarCieT kidec garkveuli konkretuli signali (Wood & Cowan, 19 95a). aracnobieri Cven, Cveulebisamebr, vafiqsirebT aracnobieri informaciis arsebobas, rodesac ver vxsniT zogierT qcevas cnobieri Zalebis moqmedebiT qcevis mimdinareob is momentSi. aracnobieri Zalebis Sesaxeb pirveli Teoria zigmund froids ekuTvnis, romlis Tanaxmadac, garkveuli cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba _ travmuli mogonebebi da tabuirebuli survilebi _ imdenad SiSis momgvrelia, rom specifikuri mentaluri pro cesebi (romelTac XIV TavSi ganvixilavT), permanentulad devnian maT cnobierebidan. froidis mixedviT, rodesac originaluri, TavianT miuRebeli da ideebi da motivebi gandevnilia anu cnobierebis farglebs miRmaa, azrebTan inarCuneben Zalas

asocirebuli Zlieri gancdebi isev axdenen qcevaze. aracnobieris zegavlenas froidiseuli „aRmoCena“ ewinaaRmdegeba dasavluri azris xangrZliv tradicias. ingliseli filosofos lokis (1690/1975) gonebis Sesaxeb dawerili klasikuri naSromis „esse ada mianis umravlesoba sakuTari Semecnebis miiCnevda, gonebis Sesaxeb“ rom yvela _ gam oqveynebis Semdeg, arsebebis moazrovneTa racionaluri aqtivobaze damaxasiaTebelia xelmisawvdomoba. froidis pirveladi hipoTeza aracnobieri mentaluri procesebis arsebobis Sesaxeb Se uracxmyofelad da aRmaSfoTeblad iTvleboda mis TanamedroveTa Soris (Dennett, 1987) . (Cven kvlav davubrundebiT froidis ideebs XIV TavSi, rodesac visaubrebT pirovne bis unikalurobis Sesaxeb.) dResdReobiT informaciisa da mravali fsiqologi iyenebs termins ufro aracnobieri sasurveli im da procesebis aRsaniSnad, romelic misaRebia, vidre azrebi, romelic, froidis Tanaxmad, gandevnas eqvemdebareba.

8 magaliTad, mravali enobrivi procesi aracnobier 7 procesebs eyrdnoba. ganvixiloT winadadeba (Vu et al., 2000): She investigated bark. rogor movaxdenT am winadadebis interpretirebas? warmovidgenT qals, romelic ZaRls akvirdeba Tu qa ls, romelic xes aTvalierebs? vinaidan sityva bark orazrovania da winadadebis kon teqsti didad ver gvexmareba, Cven mxolod SegviZlia vivaraudoT, Tu risi Tqma undoda avtors. axla ganvixiloT igive winadadeba ufro fa rTo konteqstSi: The botanist looked for a fungus. She investigated bark.8 amCnev T, rom winadadebis gageba ufro gaadvilda am konteqstSi? Tu gaiolda, es imitom, r om Cvenma aracnobierma enobrivma procesebma gamoiyena damatebiTi konteqsti da Za lze swrafad gaakeTa arCevani sityva bark-is or mniSvnelobas Soris. am magaliTiT kargad Cans, rom cnobieri donis miRma moqmedi procesebi xSirad axdenen gavlenas Cvens qcevaze _ am SemTxvevaSi, amis ilustraciaa is simsubuqe, romliTac mivediT winadadebis swor gagebamde. amgvarad, Cven TandaTanobiT gadavinacvleT cnobierebis Sinaarsis ganxilvidan cnobierebis funqcie bis ganxilvaze. sanam detalurad ganvixilavT am sakiTxs, mokled aRvwerT or gzas, romliTac SesaZlebelia cnobierebis Sinaarsis Seswavla. • xmamaRla fiqris oqmebi (Th ink-aloud protocols) _ angariSi, romelic iqmneba Tavad cdis pirTa mier da aRwere n mentalur procesebsa da strategiebs, romelTac isini mimarTaven davalebis Sesrul ebisas • gamocdilebidan gamocdilebidan eqsperimentuli Sinaarsebis nimuSebis cdis S erCevis pirebs meTodi (Experience-sampling signalis method) _ meTodi, romelic exmareba mkvlevrebs cnobierebis tipuri aRweraSi; evalebaT miRebisTanave daafiqsiron TavianTi azrebi da grZnobebi. cnobierebis Sinaarsebis kvleva cnobier ebis meTodologia, meTodis axali Seswavlis romlis versiaa: mizniT mkvlevrebs Sesa Zlebeli monawileebs unda xdeba SeemuSavebinaT Rrma piraduli rigi saSualebiTac eq

sperimentis gamocdilebis gazomva. erTi meTodi vundtisa da titCeneris introspeqciis eZlevaT m Teli davalebebi da moeTxovebaT xmamaRla msjeloba da laparaki am davalebaTa Sesrulebis procesSi. isini SesaZleblobis farglebSi maqsimalurad 7 bark inglisuri sityva, romelsac ori mniSvneloba aqvs: (1) yefa da (2) merqani. vinaidan qarTulad am sityvas ori sxvadasxva mniSvneloba Seesabameba, SeuZlebeli iyo am etapze winadadebis Targmna. amitom mizanSewonilad miviCnieT originaluri variantis motana. 8 botanikosi aTvalierebda xavss, is ikvlevda xis merqans.

9 detalurad aRweren davalebis Sesrulebisas TavSi mosuli azrebis Tanmimdevrobas. cdis pirTa angariSebi, e.w. xmamaRla fiqris oqmebi gamoiyeneba o qmebi, mentaluri strategiebisa da codnis reprezentaciebis dokumentirebisaTvis, r omelTac davalebis monawileebi aRqmasa da davalebis Sesrulebisas masTan gamklaveb as iyeneben. es oqmebi, aseve, ganxsvavebebis Soris arsebuli dafiqsirebis saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). gamocdilebid an nimuSebis SerCevis meTodSi monawileebi aRWurvilni arian mowyobilobiT, romliTa c iReben signals imis Sesaxeb, Tu rodis unda daiwyon angariSis keTeba TavianTi a zrebisa da grZnobebis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, erT-erT SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva cdis pi rebs eleqtronul SerCeuli peijerebs aZleven. radiogadamcemi peijeris SemTxveviT drois SualedebSi axdens aqtivizacias dReSi erTxel an ufro xSirad. rodesac modis peijeris signali, cdis p irebs, evalebaT iseT kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, rogoricaa, magaliTad, _ „ramdenad a xerxebdiT koncentrirebas?“ am gziT mkvlevrebi axerxeben cdis pirTa azrebis, cnobir ebisa da yuradRebis koncentrirebis mimarTulebebis yoveldRiuri, Cveuli paternebis Sesaxeb Canawerebis mopovebas (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).

10 saidan viciT ras fiqroben mozardebi? gaixseneT Tqveni mozardobis periodi. ra Tem ebi ikavebdnen, ZiriTadad, Tqvens cnobierebas? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad mkv levarTa jgufma 218 moswavle eleqtronuli peijerebiT aRWurva, romelic SemTxveviT s ignalebs iZleoda azrebisa da grZnoebebis aRweris dasawyisis maniSneblad (Richard et al., 1998). moswavleTa gamocdilebidan nimuSi sul orjer SeirCa oTxi wlis manZ ilze. pirveli periodi iyo V-dan VIII klasis CaTvliT, meore _ IX-dan XII klasis C aTvliT. eqsperimentis Sinaarsis aseTi gegma asakis matebasTan erTad mozardTa iZl eoda. cnobierebis cvlilebebis dafiqsirebis saSualebas mkvlevrebs gansakuTrebiT ainteresebdaT wyvilSi urTierTobebi mozardobis periodSi, megobrebis amitom Sesaxeb. detalurad kvlevis ikvlevdnen,Tu ras fiqrobdnen mozar debi erTad Sedegebis Tanaxmad, asakis matebasTan azrebi, ZiriTadad, sapirispiro sqeszea mimarTuli. Tu 5-6 klaselebis mxolod 1% fi qrobs sapirispiro sqesze, merve klasSi es ricxvi 5.8%-mde izrdeba. kvlevaSi, ase ve, saintereso gansxvavebebi dafiqsirda gogonebsa da vaJebs Soris: Tu peijeris signalis miRebis momentSi ar imyofebodnen megobrebis wreSi, g ogonebTan ufro meti iyo orive sqesis megobrebze fiqris albaToba, vidre vaJebTan. mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom sqesTa Soris es gansxvavebebi miuTiTebs da prognozir ebs im faqts, rom qalebi mozrdil asakSi mets iReben interpersonaluri urTierTobeb idan. am magaliTidan kargad Cans, Tu rogor SeuZliaT mkvlevrebs gamocdilebiT SerC evis meTodis gamoyeneba cnobierebis calkeuli tipuri Sinaarsebis gasaerTianeblad. Sejameba cnobiereba SeiZleba sam doneze ganisazRvros: Sinagani da garegani samyaros gacnobiereba, imis gaazrebis SesaZlebloba, rasac vacnobiere bT (aRviqvamT) da sakuTari Tavis, rogorc cnobieri, rogoricaa, moazrovne arsebis gancda. romelic mravali inaxeba saidanac sxeulebrivi aracnobieria. mexsierebaSi; procesi, Cven es magaliTad, sunTqva, Cveulebriv, vflobT ukanaskneli uzarmazar ki informacias, winarecnobiers warmoadgens, moTxovnisTanave SeiZleba gadavides saWiro informacia cnobierSi. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia aris garemoSi arsebul stimulTa didi raodenoba, romelsac cn obierad ar vaqcevT yuradRebas. Tu froidi aracnobiers

11 gandevnil mogonebebTan akavSirebda, Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi afarToeben aracnobieris cnebas da masSi informaciisa da procesebis mraval saxeobas moiazreb en. fsiqologebi cnobierebis Sinaarsis Sesaswavlad iyeneben iseT teqnikebs, rogor icaa xmamaRali fiqris oqmebi da gamocdilebiT SerCevis meTodi. cnobierebis funqci ebi rodesac vsvamT kiTxvas cnobierebis funqciebis Sesaxeb, vcdilobT gavigoT, Tu risTvis gvWirdeba miniSnebas momavlis cnobiereba _ ras matebs is Cvens adamianur gamocdilebas? am Tavis dasawyisSi ganxiluli N.N-is SemTxveva ramdenime mniSvnelo van warsulisa aspeqtebi da iZleva gancdis dasmuli gareSe icvleba. kiTxvis N.N-is am pasuxis cxovrebis qveTavSi mimarTulebiT. mniSvnelovani srulad ubralod sicarieliT ufro ganvixilavT cnobierebis mniSvnelovnebis sakiTxs adamianis gadarCenisa da socialu ri funqcionirebisaTvis. cnobierebis gamoyeneba adamianis goneba, cnobiereba evoluciur garemoSi yvelaze m trulad winaprebis ganwyobil adamianis ukiduresi ZalasTan _ sxva adamianebTan Widilsa da SejibrSi gamoiwrTo. SesaZloa, ganviTarda , rogorc adamianTa sociobilurobis Sedegi, rac, savaraudod, mtaceblebisgan jgufuri Tavdacvisa da resursebis ufro efeqturad mopovebis ZiriTad saSualebas warmoadgenda. Tumca, m Widro jgufuri cxovreba axal moTxovnebs qmnis rogorc TanamSromlobis, ise konkuren ciisaTvis. bunebrivi gadarCeva swyalobda maT, vinc azrovnebda, gegmavda da warmo

isaxavda alternatiul realobebs, rac naTesaobis erTad Sekvrisa da mtrebze gamarjv ebis winapirobas qmnida. isini, visac ufro adaptirebuli goneba aRmoaCnda da vinc Seqmna sametyvelo ena da Sromis iaraRebi, gamarjvebulni gamovidnen gadarCenisaT vis brZolaSi da moipoves udidesi jildo _ gadarCnen, SeinarCunes sicocxle da, sabednierod, is Cve namdec moitanes (Donald, 1995; Mcphail, 1998). vinaidan cnobierebam evolucia gan icada, ar unda gagvikvirdes, rom is uzrunvelyofs saxeobis gadarCenisTvis saWiro mTel rig funqciebs (Baars, 1997; Baars & McGovern, 1994; Cheney & Seyfarth, 1990 ; Ornstein, 1991). cnobiereba, aseve,

12 mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs pirovnuli da saerTo kulturuli realobebis SeqmnaSi. gadarCenaSi daxmareba biologiuri isaxavda TvalsazrisiT, savaraudod, cnobierebis ganviTareba garemodan momdinare informaciis miRebasa miznad da am individisaTvis informaciaze dayrdnobiT moqmedebis saukeTeso da maqsimalurad efeqturi gegmis Sed genaSi daxmarebas. Cveulebisamebr, Cven informaciuli gadatvirTvis safrTxis winaS e vdgavarT. uiliam jemsi aRwerda informaciis did raodenobas, romelic SegrZnebis receptorebs ejaxeba, rogorc yvela mxridan momdinare „mozuzune, mzardi qaosi“. gvarkv evs ra stimulTa mravalferovnebaSi, cnobiereba garemosTan adaptaciaSi gvexmareba. amas is sami sxvadasxva gziT axorcielebs: pirveli. yuradRebis cnobierebis cnobi ereba centrSi es amcirebs Semaval stimulTa nakads SemCneuli da moxvedrili stimul ebis gamoricxavs raodenobis imwuTieri SezRudviT. miznebisa da SemzRudavi funqcia amocanebisaTvis Seusabamo informaciis did nawils. yvelaferi, rac fasdeba, rogorc „Seusabamo“, gadaiqceva fonur xmaurad da ignorirdeba, cnobieri aRqma ki „relevantur“ ga mRizianeblebze anu im signalebze fokusirdeba, romelTac viRebT da vpasuxobT. meor e. cnobiereba axorcielebs seleqciuri (SerCeviTi) Senaxvis funqcias. mas Semdeg, rac mTeli Semavali sensoruli masala gadamuSavdeba perceptul doneze da gardaiqmne ba romelTa ufro mcire raodenobis da cnobad maTze paternebad da kategoriebad, cno biereba saSualebas gvaZlevs stimulebi, analizi, interpretacia SevarCioT da Sevin axoT is reagireba gvsurs momavalSi. cnobiereba movlenaTa da pirovnuli saWiroebisTvis Sesatyvisi da araSes atyvisi gamocdilebis klasificirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs zogierTi maTganis arCevi Ta da zogierTis ignorirebiT. mesame. ganxilva cnobierebis da mesame funqciaa SeC ereba, alternativebis warsul gaazreba, codnaze sxvadasxva SesaZlo Sedegebis warm osaxva dayrdnobiT. es damgegmarebeli anu aRmasrulebeli makontrolirebeli funqcia Zlieri gareSe survilebis SimSilis daTrgunvis SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs, rodesac isini ewin aaRmdegebian moralur, eTikur an praqtikul miznebs. SegrZnebis gaCenisTanave, Ses aZloa, am saxis cnobierebis pirvelive danaxuli sakvebi, magaliTad, vaSli moviparoT. gvaZlevs ra cnobiereba farTo droiT perspeqt ivas, romelSic unda ganxorcieldes potenciuri qceva, Cven SegviZlia

13 warsulisa da momavlis abstraqtuli reprezentaciebis yovelive moxmoba zemoT mimdinare Tqmulidan gadawyvetilebebze gavlenis mosaxdenad. gamomdinare, cnobiereba cxovrebis cvalebadi moTxovnebis sapasuxod moqnili, adekv aturi reaqciebis ganxorcielebis did SesaZleblobas iZleva. realobis pirovnuli da kulturuli konstruqtebi ar arsebobs ori adamiani, Cveneul romelic unikalur situaciis sruliad romelic erT nair zogad interpretacias mogvcemda. realobis personaluri konstruqti warmoadgens mimdinare situaciebis interpretacias, codnas, warsuli gamocdilebis mogonebebs, awmyo moTxo vnebs, Rirebulebebs, rwmenebsa momdinare da momavlis miznebs eyrdnoba. sxvebisga n TiToeuli pirovneba garemodan stimulTa garkveul, gansxvavebul maxasiaTeblebs uTmobs yuradRebas, radganac realobis misi pirovnuli konstruqti unikaluri, Semosu li masalis SeCevis Sedegad aris warmoqmnili. pirovnuli konstruqti SedarebiT stab iluria, Cveni rodesac realobis „me“-s gancda droSi uwyvetobas iZens. realobis pirovnul konstruqtTa Soris individualuri gansxvavebeb i ufro didia im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac adamianebi izrdebian gansxvavebul kulturebS i, cxovroben erTi kulturis farglebSi gansxvavebul garemoSi an gansxvavebuli amoc anebi dgas maT winaSe; da, piriqiT, vinaidan mocemuli kulturis adamianebi mraval msgavs gamocdilebas floben, maT xSirad realobis amsaxveli msgavsi konstruqtebi uyalibdebaT. realobis kulturuli konstruqtebi warmoadgens samyaros Sesaxeb mosazr ebaTa erTobliobas, romelsac iziarebs mocemuli jgufis wevrTa umravlesoba. rodesac sazogadoebis wevri kulturuli konstruqtis Sesatyvis realobis pirovnul konstruqts aviTarebs, mas iRebs kultura da, amave dros, is Tavad xdeba kulturuli konstruqt i. realobis cnobieri konstruqtebis urTierTmiRebas SeTanxmebul mtkicebulebas uwod eben. • konceptualuri mtkicebuleba (Consensual validation) _

realobaze cnobieri Sexedulebebis urTierT miRebaa. saidan viciT SeTanxmebuli mtkicebulebis funqcia germanel moqalaqeebs aCerebdnen quCaSi, an uSualod damkrZalavi biuros win, an misgan daaxloebiT 100 metris manZi lze. mkvlevrebi varaudobdnen, rom

14 damkrZalavi biuros TvalTaxedvis areSi yofna adamianebSi maTi sasrulobis (mokvdao bis) gancdas gaamZafrebda da Sedegad ufro metad aiZulebda maT SeTanxmebul mtkice bulebaSi eZebnaT komforti. rodesac adamianebi imyofebian mdgomareobaSi, romelsac mkvlevrebi „egzistencialur terors“ uwodeben, Teoriis mixedviT, adamianebs saerTo, s ayovelTao kulturuli rwmenebi da ganwyobebi aerTianebT. am mtkicebis Sedegi isaa, rom damkrZavali biuros xedvis pirobebi individebs maTi ganwyobebis kulturuli normebisadmi ufro miaxloebulad aRqmisken ubiZgebda. am kvlevaSi cdis pirebs sTxo vdnen SeefasebinaT, Tu sxva gaiziarebdnen maT mosazrebebs germaneli moqalaqeebi ramdenad politikis Secvlis Sesaxeb. saemigracio umciresobaSi myofi individebi konsensusis TavianT Sefasebas 10%-ze metiT zrdidne n, rodesac isini uSualod damkrZalavi biuros win imyofebodnen, vidre am dawesebul ebidan 100 metrze daSorebulni (Pyszczynski et al., 1996). kvlevis es Sedegebi adasturebs im daSvebas, rom individebs SeTanxmebuli mtkicebu leba maT cnobierebaSi mokvdaobis/sakuTari sasrulobis grZnobebis SeWris pirobebSi ufro metad esaWiroebaT. kulturul rwmenebTan da ganwyobebTan cnobieri Tanxmobis miReba amsubuqebs am grZnobebs. cnobierebis funqciebis kvleva cnobierebis mraval i funqcia moicavs implicitur Sedarebebs, romelic aracnobieri rCeba. amitom mravali cnobieri procesi xSirad zemoqmedebs an Tavad g anicdis aracnobieri procesebis zemoqmedebas. cnobierebis funqciebis Sesaswavlad mkvlevrebs xSirad ainteresebT cnobierisa da aracnobieris mier qcevaze ganxorciel ebul zegavlenaTa Soris gansxvavebebi. maT mravali meTodi Seqmnes imis saCvenebla d, Tu rogor zemoqmedeben aracnobieri procesebi cnobier qcevaze (Nelson, 1996; Westen, 1998). magaliTad, mkvlevrebi iyeneben lab oratoriulad gamowveuli predispoziciis Sedegad bgeraTa gadanacvlebis meTods _ SLIP (Spoonerisms of Labor atory-Induced Predisposition-laboratoriulad spunerizmi _ metyvelebaSi garkveuli gamowveuli winaswari mzaobis imis gansasazRvrad, Tu rogor moqmedebs aracnobieri Zalebi wamocdenebis albaTobaz e (Baars et al., 1992). saSualebas amgvarad, SLIP procedura bgeraTa sityvaTa eqsperimentators wamocdenebis gamowvevis aZlevs iseTi paternebis molodinebis SemuSavebiT. wyvilebis seriis warmoTqmis Semdeg, rogoricaa ball doze, bell dark da bean deck,

15 cdis pirma SesaZloa darn boze-is nacvlad SecdomiT barn door warmoTqvas. eqsperim enti Sedegad amocanisgan damoukidebeli saxiT situaciuri cvladebis Secvlis an bge ris garkveuli cvlilebis albaTobaze cnobieri aracnobieri zemoqmedebebis Sefasebis saSualebas iZleva. magaliTad, cdis pirebSi ufro albaTuri iyo daeSvaT Secdoma bad shock (shad bock-is nacvlad), rodesac maT sjerodaT, rom eqsperimentis dros xandaxan mtkivneul eleqtrul Soks miiRebdnen (Mo tley & Baars, 1979). aseve, mamakac cdis pirebSi meti iyo SecdomiT good lags-is (lood gegs-is nacvlad) warmoTqmis albaToba, rodesac maTTan mimzidveli garegnobis eqsperimentatori qali muSaobda. es Sedegebi wamocdenebis formirebaSi aracnobier is wvlilze miuTiTebs. cnobier da aracnobier procesebs Soris urTierTmimarTebis sa kvlevi meore gzaa maTi dapirispireba (Jecoby et al., 1999). ganvixiloT kvleva, r omelSic iqmneba aseTi dapirispireba. esmiT _ 6 5 19 28 11 17 41 12 . . . faza 1: cdis pirebi xmamaRla kiTxuloben kompiuterze warmodgenil ucnob saxelTa sias; ama ve dros cdiloben mosmenil ricxvTa siaSi sami wyvili ricxvi aRmoaCinon. faza 2: c dis pirebs moeTxovebaT saxelTa CamonaTvali miakuTvnon cnobil an ucnob saxelebs. „a drian mari“ sur. 6.1. aracnobieri mogonebebis zegavlena saxelis cnobilad aRqmaze maT eubnebian, rom manamde wakiTxuli yvela saxeli ucnobia. amrigad, Tu maT axsov T, rom saxeli iyo CamonaTvalSi, ityvian, rom is ucnobia: Tu maT „saxeli „adrian mari“ CamonaTvalidan maxsovs; is ucnobi saxelia.“

16 cnobierad axsovT saxeli, maT ecodinebaT, rom is ver iqneba cnobili. rodesac isin i cnobilad miiCneven siaSi arsebul saxels es imitom xdeba, rom aracnobieri mexsi ereba mas nacnobs xdis. cdis pirebs xSirad surT Tqvan, rom saxeli cnobilia da am iT met yvelebs aracnobieri mogonebebis gavlenaze. „saxeli „adrian mari“ mecnoba, Tumca , ar maxsovs CamonaTvalidan. is nacnobi saxeli unda iyos.“ saidan viciT cnobieri da aracnobieri procesebi erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdegod ganvixi loT naxatze warmodgenili eqsperimenti: am situaciaSi cdis pirebs moeTxovebaT mia kuTvnon saxeli „adrian mari“ cnobilTa an ucnobTa kategorias. eZlevaT pirebi arCevani s gakeTebamde isini xmamaRla kiTxuloben saxelTa cdis mier grZel sias (sadac „adrian maric“ aris naxsenebi) situaciaSi, romelSic ar saxelebze w aradgenen srulad Tavian koncentrirebis maT saSualeba. rodesac rom maT daskvnebs, afrTxileben, wakiTxuli siidan aravin iyo cnobili pirovneba. amgvarad, Tu saxeli siidan nacnob i aRmoCndeboda, isini iZulebulni iqnebodnen is ucnobad CaeTvalaT. axla warmovidg inoT, rom cdis pirebi miadgnen saxels „adrian mari“. Tu maT SeuZliaT am saxelis Sesa xeb cnobieri mogonebis povna, maT ecodinebaT, rom is warmodgenil siaSi imyofebod a da, amgvarad, ityvian, rom „adrian mari“ ar aris cnobili. Tu isini ver aRmoaCenen cnobier mogonebas, maT savaraudod eqnebaT zogadi grZnoba imisa, rom „sadRac gaugon iaT es saxeli adre“ da ityvian, rom „adrian mari“ cnobili saxelia. es fenomeni cnobier s („Tqvi ara!“) da aracnobier (Tqvi diax!) procesebs Soris dapirispirebaa. faqtobriv ad, cdis pirebi metad midrekilni arian Tqvan, rom „adrian mari“ cnobili personaa da amiT naTels xdian, rom

17 aracnobieri mexsiereba gavlenas axdens maT msjelobaze (Jacoby et al., 1989). fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: rodis uyalibdebaT bavSvebs cnobiereba? didad albaTu ria, rom cxovrebis garkveul etapze axalSobilisaTvis, an Zalian patara bavSvisaTv is SegexedaT da dainteresebuliyaviT: „netav, ra xdeba mis TavSi?“ xSirad es kiTxva g ardaiqmneba cnobierebis Sesaxeb sakiTxad: rodis iwyebs bavSvi sakuTari Tavis, ro gorc aseTis, gacnobierebas? mkvlevrebi fiqroben, rom bavSvebi Tavdapirvelad iZen en subieqtur „me“-s da mxolod amis Semdeg _ obieqtur „me“-s (Lewis, 1991; 1999). bavSveb i maSin iZenen subieqtur „me“-s anu subieqtur TviTcnobierebas, rodesac sxvebisgan. m aTTvis bavSvs naTeli aqvs xdeba, rom isini imisa, gamocalkevebulni gare samyaro arian aqcios SesaZlebloba rom cnobieri dakvirvebis obieqtad. bavSvebi maSin iZenen obieqtur „me“-s anu obieqtur Tv iTcnobierebas, rodesac maT eZlevaT saSualeba imisa, rom TavianTi cnobiereba mimarTon sakuTar Tavze anu rodesac SeuZliaT sakuTari Tavis cnobieri analizis obieqtad qceva. bavSvebs SeuZliaT gaiazron, rom „ician, rom ician“ an „axsovT, rom axsovT“. bavSvebis mier obieqturi TviTcnobierebis SeZenis Sesaxeb klasi kuri kvleva eyrdnoba sarkesTan qcevas. mkvlevrebs ainteresebdaT: rodis iwyebs ba vSvi mixvedras, rom sarkeSi asaxuli gamosaxuleba TviTon aris? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad mkvlevrebi sTxovdnen dedebs, rom TavianTi SvilebisaTvis cxvirz e waesvaT pomada ise, rom bavSvebs ar scodnodaT amis Sesaxeb; es iyo laqiani cxviris testi (nose dot test). bavSvebi sakmaod adreul asakSi amCneven sarkis zogierT Tvisebas. magaliTad, eqvs Tvemde bavSvebi cdiloben miswvdnen da S eexen sarkeSi asaxuli gamosaxulebis nawilebs, Tumca, mxolod 18 Tvis Semdeg bavSv ebi ikideben xels cxvirze, rodesac cxvirze laqa aqvT (Bertenthal & ischer, 1978 ). naTelia, rom am asakamde bavSvebi ar fiqroben (nebismieri formiT): „es me var s arkeSi; ra ucnauri wiTeli niSani maqvs cxvirze?“ maSinac ki, roca bavSvebi warmate biT asruleben laqiani cxviris tests,

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18 mainc ar aqvT bolomde „me“-s Camoyalibebuli gancda. maT jer kidev ar aqvT Camoyalibe buli drois komponentis mqone obieqturi „me“-s Sesaxeb idea anu sakuTar Tavze, rogorc warsulSi, awmyosa da momavalSi uwyvetad arsebulze fiqris unari. laqiani cxviris procedurasTan adaptaciis Seswavla mkvlevrebs „me“-s droSi ganfenilobis kvlevis saSu alebas aZlevs (Povinelli et al., 1996). am kvlevaSi videofirze iRebdnen 30-42 Tv is bavSvebs, rodesac eqsperimentatori Cumad awepebda Tmebze webovan qaRalds. zog ierT bavSvs pirdapir eTerSi aCvenebdnen danarCenebi TavianT ki sam Tavebs wuTian i webovanaTi: Sualedis maT Semdeg SeeZloT daenaxaT TavianTi isini webovanqaRaldi ani Tma im saqmianobis procesSi, riTic iyvnen dakavebulni. uyurebdnen Canawers: naxulobdnen sakuTar Tavs Tmaze webovani qaRaldiT uaxloesi warsulidan. pirvel jgu fSi bavSvebis orma mesamedma moikida Tavze xeli maSin, rodesac meore jgufSi mxol od erTma mesamedma gaakeTa es. faqtobrivad, mxolod 4 wlis asakis Semdeg bavSvebi axerxeben, rom naxon uaxloesi warsulis Canaweri da daiWiron kavSiri Tmis webova n qaRaldTan. rogorc Cans, bavSvebisTvis sakmaod rTulia awmyoSi mimdinare movleni s Sesaxeb daskvnebis gakeTeba warsulis, Tundac uaxloesi warsulis, reprezentacieb ze dayrdnobiT. gagakvirvaT Sedegebi am Sedegebma? Tu Tu yofilxarT realuria 2-3 w lis bavSvTan erTad, da, gecodinebaT, rom man mSvenivrad icis, vin aris da ras ak eTebs. kvlevis aCvenebs, ramdenad bavSvebisTvis daswavla Sesabamisad, ramdenad marTlac rTulia Cveni, mozrdilebis cnobiereba. Sejameba cnobiereba gadarCenaSi gvexmareba imiT, rom: _ amcirebs Semomavali stim ulebis nakads; gansazRvravs, Tu romeli stimuli unda iqnes Senaxuli da SesaZlo Se degebis gaTvaliswinebiT iZleva moqmedebebis dagegmvis saSualebas. cnobiereba, as eve, adamianis realobis pirovnul da kulturul konstruqtebs Soris amyarebs mimarTe bas. ikvleven ra cnobierebis funqciebs, mkvlevrebi xSirad qmnian paradigmebs cno bier da aracnobier procesebs Soris urTierTobebis Sesafaseblad da sakvlevad. Zili da sizmrebi TiTqmis yoveldRe Tqven ganicdiT cnobierebis Rrma cvlilebebs: _ rode sac gadawyvetT, rom Tqveni dRe dasrulda, Tqven ganewyobiT ZilisaTvis da sanam gZ inavT, ueWvelad xedavT sizmrebs. cxovrebis mesameds ZilSi vatarebT,

19 rodesac kunTebi „paralizebulia“, tvini ki sxvadasxva aqtivobebiT aris dakavebuli. am nawils Zil-RviZilis zogadi biologiuri ritmis ganxilviT daviwyebT. Semdeg ufro detalurad visaubrebT Zilis fsiqologiaze. bolos ganvixilavT ZilTan S ewyvilebul ZiriTad gonebriv aqtivobas _ sizmars da SevecdebiT gavarkvioT, Tu ra rols asrulebs sizmari adamianis fsiqologiaSi. cirkaduli ritmebi yvela cocxali arseba ganicdis dRe-Ramis bunebriv i ritmis zemoqmedebas. Cveni sxeuli sinqronizdeba sxeulis drois ciklTan, romelic cirkaduli ritmis da hormonaluri aqtivoba Sinagani saaTis saxeliT aris cnobili: _ sisxlis wneva, metaboluri procesebi, gulis cemis sixSire , mixedviT temperatura icvleba (Moore-Ede et al., 1982). Cveulebisamebr, zustad ar SuadRisiT emTxveva es aqtivobebi, umeteswilad, dRis aRweven cxovelqmedebis _ garegani „tempis piks da ganmavlobaSi, arsebuli yovelgvari maqsimalurad mcirdebian RamiT Zilis dros. kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom organizmSi saaT i saaTs kedelze: Sinaganma saaTis miniSnebebis gareSe, adamianis momcemma“ daamkvidra 24.18- saaTiani cikli (Czeisler et al., 1999). mzis amosvla yoveldRiu rad gvexmareba 24- saaTian ciklTan SeguebaSi. mzis sinaTlis Sesaxeb informacias TvaliT viRebT, magram cirkaduli ritmis maregulirebeli receptori ar aris igive, r omelic samyaros danaxvis SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs: _ cxovelebi Cxirebisa da kolbebis gareSec (ix. Tavi 4) grZnoben sinaTles, rac maT cirkaduli ritmis SenarCunebis saSualebas aZlevs ( reedman et al., 1999). • cirkaduli ritmi ( Circadian rhythm) _ organizmis aqtivobis Sinagani saaTiT determinirebuli mdgradi paterni, romelic, Cveulebisamebr, 24 an 25 saaTs grZeldeba. biologiur da garemo s saaTebs Soris gansvlis gamomwvevi cvlilebebi moqmedebs imaze, Tu rogor vigrZnobT Tavs da rogor moviqceviT (Moore-Ede, 1993). aseTi gansvlebis warmoqmnis yvelaze dramatuli magaliTebi xangrZlivi mogzaurobebi

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s dros xdeba. rodesac adamianebi gadafrindebian 9 sxvadasxva drois sartyelSi, maT SeiZleba ganicadon e.w. Jet lag anu daerRveT dReRamuri ritm i; es aris mdgomareoba, romelsac axlavs gadaRliloba, dauZleveli Zilianoba da Sed egad Zil-RviZilis uCveulo ganrigi. Jet lag Tavs iCens, 9 dReRamuri ritmis darRveva ramdenime droiTi sartylis swrafad gadakveTis, magali Tad, gadafrenis Sedegad.

20 radganac Sinagani cirkaduli ritmi vardeba Cveuli droiTi garemos fazidan (Redfern et al., 1994). magaliTad, Cveni sxeuli ambobs, rom Ramis 2 saaTia da, Sesabamis ad, yvelaze mravali fsiqologiuri rodesac parametris mixedviT dro funqcionirebis Cvengan SuadRis pasiuri periodia, adgilobrivi Sesabamis aqtivobas moiTxovs. Jet lag, pilotTa gansakuTrebuli problemaa, mniSvne lovan rols asrulebs pilotTa mier daSvebul SecdomebSi, romelic ubeduri SemTxveveb is mizezi xdeba (Coleman, 1986). ra cvladebi zemoqmedeben da Jet lag-ze? yvelaze droiT mniSvnelovani sartyelTa cvladia raodenoba. mogzaurobis mimarTuleba gadakveTil aRmosavleTisken mogzauroba met Jet lag-s qmnis, vidre dasavleTisken, radganac Cv eni biologiuri rogorc saaTi amas ufro yofna iolad ufro SeiZleba advilia, gaxangr Zlivdes, iTxovs adre vidre vidre Semcirdes, aRmosavleTisken mogzauroba (RviZilis daZineba). mdgomareobaSi xangrZlivad rodesac janmrTeli moxaliseebi gadaafrines evropidan aSS-Si da ukan, Cveuli qceve bis aRdgena dasavleTis mimarTulebiT mogzaurobis Semdeg oridan oTx dRemde gaxda S esaZlebeli maSin, roca aRmosavleTisken mogzaurobis Semdeg amas 9 dRe dasWirda (K lein & Wegmann, 1974). Zilis cikli cirkaduli ritmis erTi mesamedi qceviT uZraoba s eTmoba, romelsac Zils vuwodebT. bevri ram, rac Zilis Sesaxeb aris cnobili, tvi nis eleqtrul aqtivobas ukavSirdeba. Zilis kvlevaSi meTodologiuri gardatexa 1937 wels moxda, rodesac gamoiyenes teqnologia, romelic mZinare adamianis Tavis tvini s eleqtruli aqtivobis eleqtroencefalogramis (eeg) saxiT Caweris saSualebas iZleo da. eeg uzrunvelyofs Zilisa da RviZilis periodebSi adamianis Tavis tvinis aqtivo bis cvlilebebis obieqtur da mimdinare gazomvas. eeg-s saSualebiT mkvlevrebma aRm oaCines, rom Tavis tvinis talRebi icvleba Zilis ganmavlobaSi da es cvla sistemat ur, Tanmimdevrul da prognozirebad xasiaTs atarebs (Loomis et al., 1937). Zilis s feroSi Semdegi mniSvnelovani aRmoCena iyo Tvalebis swrafi moZraobis (REM – rapid e ye movement) dafiqsireba, romelic garkveuli intervalebiT periodulad iCens Tavs Z ilis ganmavlobaSi (Aserinsky & Kleitman, 1953). Tvalebis swrafi periods, rodesac moZraobis rom gareSe da mZinare Zils NREM adamians ar aReniSneba NREM) REM-i, (non-REM anu Zili uwodeben. funqciebs mogvianebiT vnaxavT, REM

mniSvnelovan asruleben Ramis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi aqtivobisaTvis _ sizmrisaTvis.

21 axla Tvali gavadevnoT Cveni Tavis tvinis aqtivobas Ramis ganmavlobaSi. rogorc ki dasaZineblad mzadebas daviwyebT, eeg daafiqsirebs, rom Tavis tvinis talRebis si xSirea daaxloebiT 14 cikli wamSi (cw/herci). rodesac komfortulad movewyobiT sawo lSi da movdundebiT, Tavis tvinis talRebi Senelebas daiwyebs 8-12 cw/herci -mde. rodesac CagveZineba, iwyeba Zilis cikli, romlis TiToeuli faza gansxvavebul eeg-s paterns aCvenebs. pirvel fazaze eeg 3-dan 7 cw/hercamde Tavis tvinis talRebs aC venebs. meore fazis manZilze miRebuli eeg-s Zilis RerZs uwodeben, rodesac eleqtr uli aqtivoba wuTSi 1216 cw/hercia. Zilis Semdeg or fazaze (faza 3 da 4) gadavdiv arT relaqsirebuli Zilis Zalian Rrma mdgomareobaSi anu Zalze Rrmad gvZinavs. Tavi s tvinis talRebi neldeba 1-2 cw/hercamde, mcirdeba, aseve, sunTqvisa da guliscem is sixSire. bolo fazaze isev matulobs Tavis tvinis eleqtruli aqtivoba da eeg-s C anaweri 1 da 2 fazebis Canawers emsgavseba. swored am fazaze aqvs adgili REM Zil s da vxedavT sizmars (ix. suraTi 6.2). (vinaidan REM Zilis dros Cawerili eeg mRv iZari adamiani Canawers hgavs, REM Zils paradoqsalur Zilsac uwodeben). • Tvalebis swrafi moZraoba (Rapid eye movement – REM) _ im fazis qceviTi gamovlineba , romlis drosac mZinare adamiani sizmrismagvar gonebriv aqtivobas axorcielebs. • Z ili Tvalebis swrafi moZraobis gareSe (Non-REM anu NREM sleep) _ periodi, rodesac mZinare adamianTan ar fiqsirdeba Tvalebis swrafi moZraoba; xasiaTdeba REM ZilTa n SedarebiT naklebi sizmrisebri aqtivobiT. Zilis pirveli oTxi fazis gavlas, rome lic mTlianobaSi NREM Zils qmnis, daaxloebiT 90 wT sWirdeba, REM Zili ki daaxloeb iT 10 wT-s grZeldeba. Ramis Zilis ganmavlobaSi am 100 wT-ian cikls 4-6-jer gavdi varT (ix. suraTi 6.3). TiToeul ciklSi Rrma ZilisTvis (3 da 4 fazebisTvis) gankuT vnili dro mcirdeba, xolo REM Zilze daxarjuli dro izrdeba. bolo ciklSi ukve TiTqm is 1 sT-s vuTmobT REM Zils. mTlianobaSi Zilis 75-80% NREM Zils eTmoba, 20-25% ki _ REM Zils. yvelas ar sZinavs erTnairi xangrZlivobiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom adamianebisaTvis arsebobs Zilis genetikurad ganpirobebuli saWiroeba, Zilis realu ri raodenoba, romelsac iRebs TiToeuli individi, cnobieri qmedebebis mniSvnelovan zegavlenas ganicdis. adamianebi aqtiurad akontroleben Zilis xangrZlivobas sxvad asxva saSualebebiT, rogoricaa gvian daZineba an

22 maRviZaris gamoyeneba. Zilis xangrZlivobas, aseve, akontrolebs cirkaduli ritmi; amitom aris, rom daZinebis dro (anu rodis viZinebT) gavlenas axdens Zilis xangrZ livobaze. NREM da REM Zilis adekvaturi, sakmarisi raodenobis miReba mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, rodesac standartirebuli gvaqvs daZinebisa da gaRviZebis dro m Teli kviris manZilze, dasvenebis dReebis CaTvliT. am SemTxvevaSi metia albaToba imisa, rom sawolSi gatarebuli dro uaxlovdeba Cveni cirkaduli ritmis Zilis fazas. Cveni interesis Semdgomi sagania Zilis paternis is TvalSi sacemi cvlilebebi, ro melsac adgili aqvs individis cxovrebis manZilze (ix. suraTi 6.4). am qveyanaze c xovrebas dReSi 16 sT-iani ZiliT viwyebT, romlis TiTqmis naxevars REM ZilSi vatar ebT. 50 wlis asakSi SeiZleba mxolod 6 sT eZinos adamians da mTeli am drois mxolo s 20% eTmobodes REM Zils. axalgazrdebs, Cveulebriv, 7-8 sT sZinavs, romelSic 20% REM Zils ukavia. ratom Zili? adamianebsa da cxovelebSi Zilis fazebis Tanmimdevr uli ganviTareba gvafiqrebinebs, rom arsebobs Zilis evoluciuri safuZveli da biologiuri saWiroeba. adamianebi sakmaod kargad funqcionireben, rodesac 7-8 sT sZinavT Ramis ganmavlo baSi (Harrison & Horne, 1996). ratom sZinavT adamianebs amdeni da ra funqciebs e msaxureba NREM da REM Zilis saxeobebi? NREM Zilis ori umTavresi funqcia SeiZleba iyos Senaxva (konservacia) da aRdgena. Zili cxovelebs gakveuli drois ganmavlobaSi energiis dazogvis, Senaxvis saSualebas aZlevs, rodesac ar aris sakvebis mopovebis, wyvilis povnis a n Sromis aucilebloba (Allison & Cicchetti, 1976; Cartwtright, 1982; Webb, 1974). meore mxriv, Zili ramdenime gziT aRdgenis SesaZleblobas aZlevs sxeuls. Zilis dr os sinTezirdeba dRis ganmavlobaSi daxarjuli neirotransmiterebisa da neiromodulat orebis saWiro raodenoba, postsinafsur receptorebs ki mgrZnobelobis optimalur doneze dabrunebis saSualeba eZleva (Porkka-Heiskanen et al., 1997; Rainnie et al., 1994). kvlevis Sedegebi, aseve, mowmobs, rom Tavis tv inis energiis wyaro xelaxla ivseba NREM Zilis dros (Benington & Heller, 1995). T u Ramis ganmavlobaSi ganvicdiT REM Zilis deprivacias, Semdeg Rames CveulebrivTan SedarebiT xangrZlivi REM Zili gveqneba, vinaidan REM Zilic emsaxureba garkveul aucilebel funqciebs. mTel rig saintereso, Tumca, jerjerobiT arasrulad warmodgenil sargebels REM Zils miakuTvneben (Moffitt et al. , 1993). magaliTad, rogorc Cans, Cvilobis periodSi REM Zili pasuxs agebs

23 nervul daboloebebsa da kunTebs Soris Tvalebis moZraobis uzrunvelsayofad saWiro k avSiris Camoyalibebaze. REM Zili qmnis Tavis tvinis iseT funqcionalur daswavlisaTvis. struqturebs, REM Zilma, romlebic aseve, aucilebelia garkveuli motoruli roli Cvevebis SeiZleba Seasrulos ganwyobilebisa da emociebis SenarCunebaSi. garda amisa, is SeiZleba saWiro iyos mogonebebis Senaxvisa da mimdinare gamocdilebis ukve arsebul mogonebebTan da ganwyobebTan TanxmobaSi moyvanisaTvis (Cartwright, 1978; Dement, 1976). fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mkvlevrebi fiqroben, rom REM Zili aucilebelia NREM Zilis Semdeg Tavis tvinis balansis aRdgenisaTvis: NREM ZilisTvi s damaxasiaTebeli Tavis tvinis aqtivobis Cveulma tipma SeiZleba Secvalos Tavis t vinis balansi imgvarad, rom aucilebeli gaxdes normasTan dabruneba REM Zilis meSv eobiT (Benington & heller, 1994) Zilis darRvevebi mSvenieria, rodesac yovelTvis SegviZlia RamiT kargad daZineba. samwuxarod, mravali adamiani itanjeba Zilis dar RvevebiT, rac seriozulad moqmedebs maT pirad cxovrebasa da samsaxureobriv saqmia nobaze. darRveul Zils socialuri Sedegebic SeiZleba hqondes. adamianebi, romelTa samuSao ganrigi RamiT gadaadgilebas saWiroebs, mTeli kviris ganmavlobaSi erTxel mainc Tvlemen samuSao adgilze. msoflioSi zogierTi ubeduri imitom SemTxveva moxda, rom ver _ Three Mile Island, yvelaze seriozuli industriuli Cernobili, gamo Bhopal-i da Exxon Valdez gansacdeli _ gvian saRamos saaTebSi moxda. ambobdnen, rom es SemTxvevebi Zilis S easrula ukmarisobis Tavisi pasuxismgebelma vinaidan Zilis personalma darRvevebi optimalurad funqcia. mniSvelovania mravali studentis cxovrebaSic, aq maTzec visaubrebT. teqstis kiTxv isas gaxsovdeT, rom Zilis darRveva varirebs siRrmis, simwvavis mixedviT; Sesabam isad, darRvevebis mizezic varirebs biologiur Tu fsiqologiur Zalebs Soris. insomnia rodesac xarisxiT, adamianebi isini ukmayofiloni arian TavianTi Zilis odenobiT an insomniisgan itanjebian. saTanadod daZinebaSi qronikuli warumatebloba xasiaTdeba swrafad ver daZinebiT, Zilis ganmavlobaSi xSiri adgomeb iT an diliT adre gaRviZebiT. ukanasknel gamokiTxvaSi 18 da meti wlis mozrdilebis 58% aRniSnavs, rom bolo wlis manZilze yoveli kviris ganmavlobaSi ramdenime RamiT an ufro xSirad ganucdia insomnia (National Sleep

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oundation, 2000).

insomnia kompleqsuri darRvevaa, romelsac fsiqologiuri, garemo pirobebis da mravali biologiuri faqtori ganapirobebs (Spielman & Glovinsk y, 1997). laboratoriul realuri pirobebSi xarisxi insomniis da mqone individebis mniSvnelovnad Seswavlisas maTi Zilis raodenoba icvleboda, normaluri Zilidan darRveulamde. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom insomniis mqone mravali individi, romelic uZilobas uCioda, realurad Zilis sruliad normalu r fiziologiur paterns avlenda, Tumca, es mdgomareoba subieqturad insomniad aRiqm eboda da aRiwereboda. aseve, kuriozulia aRmoCena, rom Zilis darRvevis mqone zogi erTi adamiani ar uCivis insomnias (Trinder, 1988). amgvari gansvla imisa Sedegia , Tu adamianebi rogor sxvadasxvagvarad axdenen fxizeli Zilis interpretirebas, ma galiTad, SeiZleba mocemul adamians fxizeli Zili adrindelTan SedarebiT ufro xSiri da stresuli eCvenebodes da ar axsovdes Rrmad rom eZina. narkolefsia narkolefsia Zilis darRvevaa, romelic dRis ganmavlobaSi perioduli ZiliT xasiaTdeb a (Aldrich, 1992). is xSirad katapleqsiasTan10 kombinaciaSi iCens Tavs, ris Sede gadac adamiani moulodnelad ZilSi. Zirs REM ecema. ZilSi narkoleptikebi aseTi swr afi TiTqmis daZinebisTanave gadadian REM gadasvla maT ganacdevinebs da cnobierad aRaqmevinebs sizmris naTel, mkafio xateb s, zogjer ki _ SemaSinebel halucinaciebs. narkolefsia 2000-dan mxolod erT adamia nTan gvxvdeba. vinaidan narkolefsia gavrcelebulia ojaxebSi, mecnierebi askvnian, rom daavadebas genetikuri safuZveli aqvs (Mignot, 1998). su rT ra uecrad Zilad mivardnis gamo uxerxulobisaTvis Tavis arideba, narkolefsia xS irad uaryofiT socialur da fsiqologiur gavlenas axdens daavadebul individebze (Br oughton & Broughton, 1994). narkoleptikisTvis gamosavals warmoadgens Tavisi daavadebis bunebis garkveva da socialuri mxardaWer is jgufSi Sesvla. Zilis apnoe

Zilis apnoe aris zeda sasunTq gzebTan dakavSirebuli Zilis darRveva, rodesac adam iani Zilis dros wyvets sunTqvas. rodesac es xdeba, sisxlSi mcirdeba Jangbadis ra odenoba da gamomuSavdeba damxmare (sasignalo) hormonebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, aiZulebs adamians, rom gaiRviZos da ganaaxlos sunTq va. miuxedavad imisa, rom umravlesobasTan iSviaTad gvxvdeba apnoes aseTi 10 katapleqsia _ kunTebis sisuste an kunTebze kontrolis dakargva, rac emociur aR gznebas (rogoricaa: _ sicili, risxva, SiSi, gaoceba an SimSili) axlavs Tan.

25 Ramis epizodebi, Zilis apnoeTi daavadebul zogierT adamianTan asamde aseTi cikli meordeba yoveli Ramis ganmavlobaSi. apnoes epizodi zogjer aSinebs mZinare adamia ns, Tumca, xSirad es epizodi imdenad xanmoklea, rom igi ver akavSirebs moWarbebu l Zilianobas am epizodebTan (Orr, 1997). magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT cnobili fsiqo logis SemTxveva, romelsac gamouvleneli Zilis apnoes Sedegad ar SeeZlo RviZilis m dgomareobaSi yofiliyo leqciebisa da mecnieruli Sexvedrebis dros. rodesac mas meu Rlem acnoba Ramis darRveuli qcevis Sesaxeb, man mimarTa Zilis darRvevebis klinik as, sadac warmatebiT imkurnala da gadairCina kariera (Zimbardo, personal communi cation, 1991). sxva analogiur SemTxvevebSi adamianebi kargaven samuSaos, megobrebs da zogjer meuRlee bsac ki, radganac maTi qceva dRis ganmavlobaSi Zalze darRveulia Ramis periodis d arRvevis gamo. Zilis dros apnoe xSiria naadrevad dabadebul/dRenaklul axalSobileb Sic, romlebic xandaxan sunTqvis ganaxlebisaTvis fizikur stimulirebas saWiroeben. srulad Camoyalibebuli sasunTqi sistemis arqonis gamo aseT Cvilebs in tensiuri Terapiis ganyofilebaSi monitorze aerTeben imdeni xniT, ramden xansac gr Zeldeba problemebi. dRis Zilianoba aSS-s Zilis darRvevebis centrebSi mosul pacientTa umravlesoba dRis ganmavlobaSi moWarbebul Zilianobas uCivis. aSS-Si 1154 mozrdilidan 43% miuTiTebs, rom yovelTv iurad ramdenime dRe, an ufro xangrZlivi periodi, imdenad eZinebaT, rom irRveva m aTi Cveuli dRis aqtivobebi; 20% miuTiTebs, rom dRis Zilianoba ramdenime dRis an yovelkvireulad negatiuri movlenaa maTi dRis saqmianobebisaTvis (National Sleep oundation, 2000). moWarbebuli Zilianoba iwvevs sifrTxilis dakargvas, reaqciis dr ois gazrdas da motoruli da •insomnia (Insomnia) _ normalurad daZinebis qronikuli u unaroba; simptomebSi Sedis sirTuleebi daZinebisas, xSiri gaRviZeba, gaRviZebis S emdeg CaZinebis unaris arqona, diliT adre gaRviZeba. •narkolefsia (Narcolepsy) _ Z ilis darRveva, romelic xasiaTdeba dRis ganmavlobaSi daZinebis dauZleveli moTxovnilebiT. •Zilis apnoe (Sleep apnea) _ zeda sasunTq gzebTan dakavSirebuli Zilis darRveva, rac aiZulebs adamians, rom Zilis dros sunTqva Sewyvitos. •dRis Zilianoba (Daytime sleepiness) _ moWarbebuli Zilianoba dRis aqtivobebis dros; Zilis darRv evis centrebSi misul pacientTa ZiriTadi Civili.

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26 kognituri amocanebis Sesrulebis xarisxis gauaresebas. adreul kvlevebSi moWarbebu li Zilianobis mqone pacientTa TiTqmis naxevari aRniSnavda, rom xvdebodnen avtosa gzao SemTxvevebSi, xolo naxevarze mets samuSaoze hqonda ubeduri SemTxveva, zog S emTxvevaSi seriozulic ki (Roth et al., 1989). Zilis deprivaciis darRvevis Sesaxe b dokumenturi filmis Sleep Alert-is momzadebisas fsiqologi jeims maasi aRniSnavda, rom „arseboben adamianebi, romlebic romlebic periodebiT. erTxel zombebis maasis msgavsad rom dadian“ (Maas, 1998). pe riodSi man ikvlia pilotebi, xanmokle 30%-mde samuSaos moWarbebul pacientebs aRniSnavdnen, muSaobis Tvlemdnen mixedviT, damamTavrebeli klasebis moswavleTa iZinebs gakveTilze. individebis sak maris garkveuli cxovrebis Ramis Zils. aqvs xarisxis stili Tumca, da aseT an mainc Zilianoba mosalodnelia, Taviseburebani Zilianobas rodesac xels uSlis xSirad fiziologiuri safuZveli samedicino daxmareba esaWiroebaT (White & Mitler, 1997). sizmari: gonebis Teatri Cveni cxovrebis yoveli Cveulebrivi Ramis ganmavlobaSi sizmrebis rTul samyaroSi vxvdebiT. fizikosebisa dResdReobiT sizmris da Tu sizmrebi erT dros mxolod winasw armetyvelebis, warmoadgenda, mimarTulebaa. daiwyo, sadac fsiqoanalitikosebis kvl evebis interesis sferos mecnieruli erT-erTi mniSvnelovani kvlevaTa umravlesoba Zilis laboratoriebSi eqsperimentatorebs SeeZloT Tvali edevnebinaT da CaeweraT mZinare adamianis REM d a NREM Zilis periodebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom individebi ufro met sizmrebs yvebo dnen, Tu REM periodSi aRviZebdnen maT, gaRviZebulTa 80%-Si NREM Zilis drosac aqv

s adgili sizmrebs - amas mowmobs am periodSi gaRviZebulTa 54% ( oulkes, 1962). NREM mdgomareobasTan dakavSirebuli sizmrebi na klebad xasiaTdeba emociuri CarTulobis mqone SinaarsebiT. maTSi Warbobs sensoruli xatebiT naklebad datvirTuli dRis azrebi. Tumca, NREM Zilis sizmrebis raodenoba izrdeba/matulobs Zilis darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi da janmrTel mZinare adamianTan gviani dilis saaTebSi (Kondo et al., 1989). imis gam o, rom sizmari aseT mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs adamianebis fsiqikur cxovrebaSi, faqtobrivad, yvela kultura mivida erT kiTxvamde: _ aqvs Tu ara am sizmrebs raim e mniSvneloba? umravles SemTxvevaSi pasuxia „diax, aqvs“. amitomac kulturaTa umravle sobaSi arsebobs rwmena, rom ase Tu

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27 ise sizmrebs mniSvnelovani pirovnuli da kulturuli mniSvneloba aqvs. axla ganvixi lavT sizmrebisaTvis mniSvnelobis miniWebis zogierT gzas. fsiqologia XXI saukuneS i: 24/7 cxovrebis stili da Zili aTi an oci wlis win mcire ram iyo, rac SeiZlebod a gekeTebina SuaRamis Semdeg. saSiano davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg moswavleebsa d a studentebs unda amoerCiaT: _ televizorisTvis eyurebinaT Tu daeZinaT. amis sapi rispirod, XX saukunis bolo aTwleulma moitana intenretis arseboba da masTan erTad 24/7-iani stimulaciis uzrunvelyofa. dRisa da Ramis nebismier momentSi Cven Segv iZlia vimogzauroT an visaubroT (Chat oTaxebSi) internetis saSualebiT. Cven Segvi Zlia vasrulebdeT Ramis vaxSams berlinSi, koneqtikutSi (aSS) da vesaubrebodeT vin mes, vinc miirTmevs adreul sauzmes berlinSi, germaniaSi. internetis gafarToeba S eiZleba davaxasiaToT, rogorc Zilisadmi adamianebis ambivalenturi (ormagi) _ siyv aruli-siZulvilis _ damokidebuleba. adamianebs uyvarT Zili, radganac dasvenebuleb i kargad grZnoben Tavs (xolo roca eZinebaT _ saSinlad). rogorc vnaxavT am TavSi, Cvens sxeuls efeqturad funqcionirebisaTvis Zili sWirdeba. TumcaRa, adamianebs s ZulT Zili, radganac uamravi sasiamovno ram arsebobs, romliTac SeuZliaT dakavdnen RviZilis mdgomareobaSi. interneti mniSvnelovnad zrdis sasiamovno saqmianobebis raodenobas. wignis avtorebi mzad arian aRiaron, rom qselSi mogzaurobis Sewyvetas mizanimimarTulad erCiaT uZilod yofna. mravali mkvlevris azriT, internetis qseli 24/7 arsebobas mxolod auaresebs. isini wlebis manZilze SfoTavdnen imis gamo, ro m mozardebsa da kolejis studentebs ar eZinaT sakmarisi drois manZilze (Dement & Vaughan, 1999; Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998). miuxedavad imisa, rom eqspertebis Tan axmad, nebismier admaians esaWiroeba 8 saaTiani Zili, Zilis nacionaluri sazogado ebis mier 2000 wels Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Sedegad gamoirkva, rom 18-dan 29 wlam de asakis adamianebSi saSualo maCvenebeli arasodes Tanxvdeba am standarts. kviri s dReebis manZilze am asakis individTa Zilis saSualo xangrZlivobaa 6,8 saaTi; da svenebis dReebSi, kviris bolos es maCvenebeli 7,8 saaTamde izrdeba. ueWvelia, ro m kolejis studentTa umravlesoba gamocdebTan da sakurso naSormebis dawerasTan dakavSirebuli stresis gamo kargavs Zils (Mutphy & Archer, 1996). Tumca, gamokiTxvaSi monawile 18-29 wlis asakis adamianTa 55% daeTanxma de bulebas: _ „xSirad mRviZavs gvianobamde, radganac vuyureb televizors, an var internetSi.“ Tqvenc eTanxmebiT amas?

28 Cven ar vcdilobT, uari gaTqmevinoT internetis moxmarebaze. Cven mxolod gTavazobT dakvirvebis Sedegebs, romlis Tanaxmadac, axal teqnologiebs xSirad uZilobis axal i mizezebi sdevs Tan. uZilobas mravali seriozuli Sedegi mohyveba: _ zogierTi maT gania dabali niSnebi, problemebi samsaxurSi da avtosagzao romelic SemTxvevebi. T avis metic, mecnierebs SeuZliaT iseTi abebis Seqmna, Zilisgan Sekavebis saSualeb as mogvcems, Tumca, veraferi gaaqrobs Zilis saWiroebas. Tqven unda gansazRvroT, Tu ra pirovnuli nabijebi unda gadadgaT, rom XXI saukune TqvenTvisac ar iqces uZilobis saukuned. veb gverdebi: www.sleepfoundation.org, Zilis nacionaluri sazogadoebis gverdi. www.stanford.ed u/~dement, es gverdi Seqmnilia Zilis kvlevis pioneris uiliam dementis mier, rome lic gvTavazobs didi raodenobiT Zilis Sesaxeb ZiriTad informaciasa da kavSirebs. sizmrebis froidiseuli analizi Tanamedrove dasavlur kulturaSi yvelaze cnobili Teoria sizmrebis Sesaxeb zigmund froids ekuTvnis. froidi sizmrebs „warmaval fsiqozsa“ da „yovelRameul s igiJes“ uwodebda. aseve is sizmrebs „aracnobierisken mimaval samefo gzad“ miiCnevda. s izmrebis analizi fsiqoanalizis qvakuTxedad aris warmodgenili froidis mis klasiku r sizmris naSromSi Sinaarsi „sizmrebis Zlieri, es interpretacia“ (1900). mixedviT, a racnobieri, sizmarSi gandevnili SeniRbuli, survilebis simboluri gamoxatulebaa. survilebi dafaruli saxiT gveZleva, radganac maT ukan iseTi akrZaluli survilebi imaleba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, sapirispiro sqesis mSoblisadmi seqsualuri ltolva. sizmarSi ori dinamikuri Zala moqmedebs; esenia survili da cenzura anu dacva sur vilisagan. cenzura axorcielebs dafaruli mniSvnelobis anu latenturi latenturi (fa ruli) Sinaarsis gardasaxvas sizmris manifestirebul (xilul) Sinaarsad; Sinaarsad es ukanaskneli ki damaxinjebis procesis Sedegad im saxis sizmrad yalibdeba, proc ess romelsac xedavs mZinare adamiani. uwodebs. Sinaarsis xiluli damaxinjebis am froidi sizmris muSaobas ufro Sinaarsi realuri istoriis misaRebi versiaa; faruli Sinaarsi ki socialurad an pirovnulad miuRebeli gareSe. • faruli Sinaarsi (Latent content) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi sizmri s variantia, Tumca, realisturia yovelgvari damaxinjebis

29 dafaruli azri. • xiluli (manifestirebuli) Sinaarsi (Manifest content) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi sizmris Sinaarsis zedapiruli mxare, romelic mowodebulia sizm ris realuri mniSvnelobis SesaniRbad. • sizmris muSaoba (Dream work) _ froidiseul s izmrebis analizSi procesi, romliTac Sinagani cenzura sizmris farul Sinaarss xilu l Sinaarsad gardaqmnis. froidis mixedviT, sizmris interpretacia ukumimarTulebiT muSaobas moiTxovs xiluli Sinaarsidan faruli Sinaarsisken. fsiqoanalitikosisaTvis, romelic sizmrebis analizs pacientis problemebis xdis da im garkvevisa pacientis dacviTi da froids da maTi mkurnalobisaTvis survilebs, warmoqmnil am iyenebs, sizmrebi S eWidul iyenebs naTels SiSebsa aracnobier meqanizmebis Soris rom miaCnda, survilebTan romelTac Taviseburebebs, pacienti survilebsa SiSebs fsiqikur konfliqtTan gasamklaveblad. sizmarSi warmodgenili simboloebi da metaforebi orgvar _ idiosinkrezul _ calkeuli individebisTvis specifikur _ da universalur _ mravali maTgani seqsualuri xasiaT is mqone _ mniSvnelobas atarebs: yuTebi, CanTebi, skivrebi, karadebi da Rumelebi, aseve, carieli, CaRrmavebuli sagnebi, gemebi da nebismieri saxis transporti ganasaxierebs saSvil osnos. sizmarSi oTaxebi, Cveulebriv, qalis simboloa; Tu sizmarSi maTSi Semavali da gamavali sxvadasxva gzac aris warmodgenili, maSin interpretacia naklebad iwve vs eWvs... sizamarSi sadac oTaxebis mTel rigs gavivliT, bordeli an haremia warmo dgenili... didad albaTuria, rom yoelgvari rTuli manqanuri danadgari da aparatura sizmarSi genitaliebis simbolizaciaa (da, rogorc wesi, mamakacis genitaliebis).. . ( reud, 1900/1965, pp.389-391) sizmrebis adamianis interpretaciis zogad froidiseuli Teorias Teoria sizmris miuxedavad simbolikas imisa, rom

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fsiqologiis ukavSirebs. mkvlevrebma ver moipoves sizmris faruli da xiluli Sinaarsis Sesaxeb am Teoriis d amadasturebeli empiriuli monacemebi, sizmrebis fsiqologiuri mniSvnelovnebis xazgasmam mimarTuleba misca sizmris Sinaarsis Tanamedrove kvleve bs (Domhoff, 1996; isher & Greenberg, 1987). sizmrebis interpretaciisadmi aradasavluri midgoma

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30 dasavlur kulturaSi adamianTa umravlesoba arasodes fiqrobs seriozulad sizmrebis d awyebamde; Sesaxeb mraval fsiqologiis aradasavlur fakultetze kulturaSi nawilia m oxvedramde ki, (Lewis, an Terapiis sizmrebis 1987). piriqiT, 1995; interpretacia kulturis ganuyofeli Tedlock, ganvixiloT ekvadoris arCuris tomis indielTa yoveldRiuri cxovreba (Schlitz, 1997, p.2): sxva Cveulebrivi dReebis msgavsad, (soflis) mamakacebi patara wreSi sxdebian... isini wina Ramis sizmrebs uyvebian erTmaneTs. sizmrebis gaziarebis es yoveldRiur i rituali arsebiTia arCuris tomis cxovrebisaTvis. maT swamT, rom TiToeuli sizmar i ara mxolod sizmris mnaxvelisaTvis, aramed mTeli tomisTvis aris mniSvnelovani. individualuri gamocdileba koleqtivis moqmedebas emsaxureba. aseTi dilis Sekrebebze TiToeuli individi Tavis sizmars hyveba, danarCenebi ki Ta vianT interpretacias sTavazoben im imediT, rom miaRweven SeTanxmebas, konsensuss sizmris mniSvnelobis gagebaSi. rwmena imis Sesaxeb, rom individi sizmars „mTeli t omisTvis“ xedavs, ewinaaRmdegeba froidis mier SemoTavazebul mosazrebas, rom sizmari individis aracnobierisken mimavali „samefo g zaa“. bevr kulturaSi miRebulia, rom adamianTa garkveuli jgufi sizmrebis interpretaciis gansakuTrebul Zalasa da unars flobs. magaliTisTvis maias indieleb i SeiZleba ganvixiloT, romlebic meqsikis, gvatemalas, belazisa da gondurasis Sam anebs romelic am sxvadasxva rolisaTvis nawilebSi maSin cxovroben. maias maT kult uraSi esizmrebaT arCeuli Samanebis RvTaeba, funqciaa sizmrebis interpretacia. faqtobrivad, maias zogierT sub-jgufSi irCeven, rodesac am SamanTa mowodebas amcnobs maT. axlad Samanebidan momdinareobs religiuri ritualebis Sesaxeb instruqciebic, romlebic maT, Tavis mxr iv, sizmris xilvebidan iReben. miuxedavad imisa, rom Samanebi da sxva religiuri figurebi floben sizmrebis interpretaciisTvis saWiro codnas, Cveulebrivi, rigiTi adamianebic hyvebian da ganixilaven sizmrebs. sizmris mnaxvelebs, Cveulebriv, Su aRamisas aRviZeben meuRleebi; zogierT tomSi dedebi diliT ekiTxebian Svilebs omis sizmrebis Sesaxeb. iqcnen Cvens droSi maias tomis adamianebi samoqalaqo msxverplad sakuTar miwaze;

mravali adamiani daiRupa an devnilad iqca. anTropolog barbara Tedlokis mixedviT, „sizmrebi sa da xilvebisadmi momatebulma yuradRebam SeaZlebina maT, rom

31 SeenarCunebinaT kavSiri winaprebTan da wminda miwa, romelzec cxovrobdnen“ (Tedlock ,1992, p.471). mraval iseT aradasavlur kulturul jgufSi, sadac pativiscemiT epyro bian sizmrebs, droiTi perspeqtiva arsebiTad gansxvavebulad moiazreba. froidis Te oria sizmris interpretaciisas warsulze, bavSvobis gamocdilebasa da gandevnil sur vilebzea orientirebuli; mraval sxva kulturaSi ki sizmari momavlis winaswarmetyve lebad iTvleba (Basso, 1987). magaliTad, eTiopiisa da sudanis sazRvarTan arsebuli regionis _ ingesanas maRlobis (Ingessana Hills) xalxSi dResaswaulebis TariRebis SerCeva sizmriseuli xilvebis safuZvelze xdeba. religiuri adgilebis mflobelebs m aTi mamebi da sxva winaprebi ecxadebaT sizmrebSi da amcnoben, rom „dResaswaulis ga mocxadebis droa.“ sxva jgufebi sizmris simboloebsa da maT mniSvnelobaTa Soris kult urulad ganpirobebul sistemebs floben. ganvixiloT centraluri braziliis kapolos to mis indielTa interpretaciebi (Jedrej, 1995, p.104): Tu gvesizmreba, rom cecxlSi viwviT, mogvianebiT raime veluri arseba gvikbens, magaliTad, oboba an mkbenari m weri. rodesac sizmarSi qalebTan gvaqvs seqsi, cxadSi Cven Zalze warmatebulad viTevzave bT. rodesac biWi ganmartoebulia da mas esizmreba, rom xeze micocavs, an meores e sizmreba grZeli gza, isini didxans icocxleben. es aseve marTali iqneba maSinac r odesac gvesizmreba, rom tyeSi farTo mdinareze gadavdivarT. daakvirdiT, rom TiToeuli am interpretaciaTagani momavlisken iyureba. sizmris int erpretaciisas momavalze orientireba mdidari kulturuli tradiciis mniSvnelovani ko mponentia. sizmris Sinaarsis fiziologiuri Teoriebi sizmrebis interpretaciisadmi dasavluri Tu aradasavluri midgomis amosaval wertils warmoadgens is faqti, rom sizmari Seicavs informacias, romelsac realuri Rirebuleba aqvs calkeuli pirovnebisTvis Tu eTnikuri jgufisaTvis. es mos azreba eWvqveS dgeba biologiuri safuZvlis mqone TeoriebSi. gavixsenoT, rom zogierTi mkvlevari Tvlis, rom arsebobs REM Zilis fizi ologiuri saWiroeba, raTa Tavis tvini Tavdapirvel mdgomareobas daubrundes NREM Zi lis dros momxdari cvlilebebis Semdeg (Benington & heller, 1994). aris Tu ara siz mari mxolod Tavis tvinis sxva aqtivobebis gverdiTi movlena, romelsac ar gaaCnia TavisTavadi mniSvneloba? ganvixiloT j. alan hobsonisa da robert makqarlis (Allan Hobsob & Robert McCarley, 1977; Hobson, 1988)

32 mier SemoTavazebuli aqtivacia-sinTezis modeli. am modelis mixedviT, nervuli sign ali warmoiqmneba tvinis ReroSi da axdens Tavis tvinis qerqis ubnebis stimulireba s. es eleqtruli ganmuxtva avtomaturad xorcieldeba daaxloebiT yovel 90 wuTSi erTx el da 30 wT-is ganmavlobaSi inarCunebs aqtivobas, riTac aixsneba REM da NREM Zil is ciklebis monacvleoba. es ganmuxtvebi aaqtiurebs winatvinsa da qerqis mimdebar e ubnebs da, aqedan gamomdinare, acocxlebs mogonebebsa da individis warsul gamoc dilebasTan asocirebul faqtebs. hobsonisa da makqarlis TvalsazrisiT, ar arsebobs araviTari logikuri kavSirebi, Sinagani mniSvnelobebi da koherentuli paternebi am eleqtruli „signalebis“ SemTxveviT amofrqvevebs Soris. mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom s izmrebi SemTxveviTi signalebis am Sedegia kvlevebis ganxiluli ewinaaRmdegeba adamianis dRis sizmrebis Sinaarsis kvlevebs (Domhoff, 1999). ganixsenoT mixedviT, pirvel rigSi, sizmris Sinaarsi didi raodenobiT moicavs mZinare problem ebs. magaliTisTvis zemoT kvleva, romelSic naCvenebi iyo igive da sapirispiro sqesis megobrebis Sesaxeb va Jebisa da gogonebis azrebs Soris ganxsvavebebi (Richards et al., 1998). msgavsi sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi gamoavlina 9-15 wlis mozardTa sizmrebis Seswavlamac (St rauch & Lederpogen, 1999). sxva tipis Sedegebmac eWvqveS daayena mosazreba sizmr ebis, mozrdil rogorc asakSi mxolod SemTxveviTi sizmrebis signalebis Sedegebis, S esaxeb: _ individis Sinaarsebi TiTqmis ucvleli rCeba. sizmrebis eqsperti uiliam domhofi (William Domhoff, 1999, p. 207) fiqrobs, rom „mo zrdilebSi wlebisa da aTwleulebis manZilze sizmrebis Sinaarsebis ucvleloba ar See sabameba Teorias, romelic sizmars Tavis tvinis qerqis saukeTeso reaqciad miiCnev s, romelic Tan sdevs tvinis Rerodan momdinare SemTxveviTi stimulebis mier period ul dabombvas.“ Cven, albaT, Tavad unda vzidoT Cveni sizmrebis tvirTi _ SevecadoT g aRviZebisTanave yoveldRiurad CaviweroT sizmrebi da vnaxoT, Tu ramdenad ukavSirde ba isini dRis sazrunavs da ramdenad icvleba Tu ar icvleba maTi Sinaarsebi droTa ganmavlobaSi. sizmrebis kidev erTi saintereso aspeqti: drodadro mravali adamiani sgan gvsmenia, rom bevri mniSvnelovani problemis gadawyveta Tu saintereso axali ideebi sizmarSi mouvidaT TavSi (Shepard, 1978). gTavazobT mxolod ramdenime magal iTs: _ frederik kilule gvamcnobs, rom benzinis qimiuri struqtura sizmarSi naxa: gvelismagvarma molukulurma jaWvma uecrad piri Caavlo sakuTar kuds da gaCnda rgol i. elas houm naxa sizmari: mas Seuties Subebma, romelTac wamaxvilebul mxares nax vreti hqondaT. am sizmarma ubiZga mas, rom

33 daesrulebina sakeravi manqanis gamogoneba. iseTi kompozitorebi, rogorebic iyvnen mocarti da Sumani, aRniSnavdnen, rom mniSvnelovani musikaluri ideebi sizmrebSi mosdiodaT. Ramis koSmarebi Tu sizmari gvaSinebs imiT, rom umweoni vxdebiT, an situacia Cvens kontrols aRar eqvemdebareba, SerCevaSi, maSin Ramis Tqven Ramis iwerdnen koSmari dagsizmrebiaT. 220 adamianTa Ramis umravlesobisaTvis Semdgar koSmarebi SedarebiT iSviaTia. studentisgan romlebic sizmrebs, yoveldRiurad koSmarebis saSualo sixSire (orkviriani periodis mixedviT) iyo daaxloebiT 24 erTi wlis manZilze (Wood & Bootzin, 1990). Tumca, zogierTi adamiani gacilebiT xSirad xedavs Ramis koSmars, zogjer yovel RamiTac ki. bavSvebSi, magal iTad, ufro metia Ramis koSmarebis gamovlenis albaToba, vidre mozrdilebSi (Mindell, 1997). garda amisa, adamianebs, romelTac iseTi travmuli ga mocdileba aqvT, rogoricaa gaupatiureba an omi, SesaZloa ganmeorebadi koSmarebi h qondeT, rac maT gadatanili travmuli movlenis zogierTi aspeqtis gacocxlebas aiZul ebs. kolejis studentebTan, romelTac san-franciskos didi miwisZvra hqondaT gadata nili, orjer meti iyo Ramis koSmarebis arsebobis albaToba, vidre sakontrolo jgufi s studentebTan, romelTac ar hqondaT aseTi gamocdileba. amasTan, cxadia, rom koSm arebis umravlesoba miwisZvris damangrevel Sedegebs Seexeboda (Wood et al., 1992) . Ramis koSmarebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT Zilis, rogorc cnobierebis yoveldRiuri cvil ilebis, zeda zRvari. qvemoT visaubrebT im garemoebebze, romelSic individi mizanm imarTulad cdilobs yoveldRiuri gamocidilebis farglebis miRma gasvlas. Sejameba ci rkaduli ritmi gulisxmobs biologiuri saaTis muSaobas. Tavis tvinis aqtivobis pate rnebi mniSvnelovnad icvleba Ramis Zilis manZilze, rasac Tan axlavs dilasTan miax loebul yovel axal ciklSi REM Zilis procentuli momateba (NREM Zilis odenobis kleb is sapirispirod). adamianisTvis sakmarisi Zilisa da REM da NREM Zilis Tanafardob a asakisa da cxovrebis pirobebis mixedviT icvleba. adamiani Zili emsaxureba Zili s Senaxvisa iseTi da aRdgenis funqciebs. rogorebicaa milionobiT

itanjeba darRvevebisgan, insomnia, narkolefsia, Zilis apnoe da dRis Zilianoba. mraval kulturaSi swamT siz mris Sinaarsis mniSvnelovnebis. sizmrebis interpretaciis yvelaze cnobili dasavlu ri Teoria zigmund froids ekuTvnis. sizmrebis

34 interpretacia miRebulia, informaciis rom Zalze gavrcelebulia simboloebi zogierTi aradasavlur misi mnaxvelis kulturebSi, momavlis sadac Sesaxeb rom sizmris matarebelia. fiziologi mkvlevari fiqrobs, sizmris Sinaarsi Tavis tvinis SemTxveviTi signalebidan momdinareobs, magram am m osazrebas ewinaaRmdegeba sizmris Sinaarsebis analizis kvlevebi. Ramis koSmarebs gansakuTrebiT SemaSinebel sizmrebs uwodeben. cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi nebismier Cveulebrivi SesaZlebeli cnobierebis kulturaSi cvlilebebi. xdeba Secvli l adamianebs maT ar akmayofilebT garkveuli fxizeli teqnikebi, miRma aseTi cnobie rebis romliTac gasvla da praqtika miReba; Cven ganaviTares nacnobi cnobierebis mdgomareobebis mdgomareobebSi gadasvla. zogierTi individualuria, gamocdilebis rogoricaa, Cveuli magaliTad, rekreaciuli preparatebis zogierTi ki, rogoricaa garkveuli religiuri praqtika, warmoadgens cnobieri sazRvr ebidan gasvlis jgufur mcdelobas. mimovixilavT iseT sxvadasxva gamocdilebas, romelSic cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomar eobebi mTeli rigi procedurebiT miiRweva. dakvirvebadi sizmrebi aris rodesac Tu a ra SesaZlebeli, sizmars? rom vacnobierebdeT, rom sizmars vxedavT, momxreebi

vxedavT dakvirvebadi sizmrebis Teoriis gvaCveneben, rom cnobierebis SenarCuneba sizmris xedvis procesSi swavlebadi da r egularuli praqtikiT gavarjiSebadi unaria, romelic mZinare adamians sizmris mimar Tulebis kontrolis saSualebas aZlevs (Gackenbach & LaBerge, 1988; LaBerge & DeGar cia, 2000). saidan viciT dakvirvebadi sizmrebis eqsperimentuli realoba stefan la bergma da misma kolegebma ganaviTares meTodologia, romelic dakvirvebadi sizmrebi s realobis gadamowmebis saSualebas iZleva. demonstracia eyrdnoba winmswreb kvlevas, romelmac aCvena, rom REM Zilis zogierTi Tvalebis moZraoba Tanxvdeba mZinare adamianis mzeris moxsenebul mimarTulebas. a qedan gamomdinare, mkvlevrebi sTxovdnen dakvirvebadi sizmrebis gamocdilebis mqon e adamianebs, rom ganexorcielebinaT Tvalebis nebismieri (gaazrebuli, mizanmimarT uli) moZraobebis calkeuli paternebi, rodesac isini

35 gaacnobierebdnen, signalebi rom sizmars Zilis xedavdnen. dagegmili Tvalebis da amiT moZraobis xdeboda Cndeboda imisa, REM rom deteqtoris CanawerebSi demonstrireba eqsperimentis monawileni marTlac dakvirvebad sizmrebs xedavdnen REM Zilis periodSi (LaBerge et al., 1981). dakvirvebadi sizmrebis gamowvevis mravali meTodi arsebobs. magaliTad, dakvirveba di sizmrebis zogierT kvlevaSi mZinare adamianebs ukeTeben specialur saTvales, romelSic REM Zilis dafiqsirebisas wiTeli sinaTle inTeba. cdi s dawyebamde monawileebma iswavles, rom wiTeli sinaTlis gamoCenisas unda gaacnobieron, rom sizmars xedaven (LaBerge & Levitan, 1995). ac nobiereben ra, rom sizmars xedaven da, amasTanave, isev sZinavT, cdis pirebi dak virvebadi sizmrebis mdgomareobaSi gadadian, romelSic SeuZliaT TavianTi sizmrebis gakontroleba, maTi Sinaarsebis warmarTva pirovnuli miznebis Sesabamisad da TavianTi mimdinare survilebis Sesabamisad sizmris dasruleba. dakv irvebadi sizmris naxvis SesaZlebloba matulobs, Tu mZinare adamians sjera, rom Se saZlebelia aseTi sizmrebi da regularulad mkvlevari, radganac iyenebs maT gamomwvev teqnikas (LaBerge & Rheingold, 1990). ganmtkiceba xarisxs da jansaRi axdens iseTi qcevaa, rogoricaa, es zrdis

magaliTad, stefan labergi, amtkicebs, rom sizmrebis „arakontrolirebad“ movlenebze ko ntrolis TviTdarwmunebulobis individisaTvis dadebiTi gamocdilebis generirebas. Tumca, zogierTi Terapevti, romelic sizmrebis analizs p acientis problemebis ukeT gagebis mizniT iyenebs, ewinaaRmdegeba aseT procedureb s, radgan es procedurebi arRvevs sizmris bunebriv mimdinareobas. hipnozi sazogadoebaSi garcelebulia azri, rom hipnotiziori mZlavr Zalas flobs mis nebayoflobiT hipnozis Tu uneblie ra monawileebze. aris hipnozi, ramdenad ra marTebulia es mosazreba Sesaxeb? mniSvnelovani niSnebiT xasiaTdeba da rogoria misi sasargeblo/validuri hipnozi hipnos-idan, berZnul miTologiaSi Zilis Tumca, Zili aranairad ar monawileobs hipnozSi, rmad relaqsirebuli adamianebi garegnulad Zilis (Tu adamians marTlac sZinavs, maSin is fsiqologiuri gamoyeneba? termini RmerTis saxelidan, momdinareobs. Tu ar CavTvliT imas, rom zogjer R magvar mdgomareobaSi imyofebian.

36 ar reagirebs hipnozze). ufro zustad Tu ganvsazRvravT, hipnozi aris cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareoba, romelic xasiaTdeba zogierTi adamianis gansakuT rebuli unariT _ moaxdinos STagonebaze reagireba, rasac Tan axlavs aRqmis, mexsie rebis, motivaciisa da TviTkontrolis gancdis cvlilebebi (Orne, 1980). imyofebian ra hipnotur mdgomareobaSi, monawileebi momatebuli STagonebadobiT xasiaTdebian hipnotizioris STagonebis mimarT _ isini xSirad grZno ben, rom maTi qceva yovelgvari ganzraxvisa da cnobieri Zalisxmevis gareSe xorcie ldeba (Hilgard, 1968). • dakvirvebadi sizmrebi (Lucid dreaming) _ Teoria, romlis T anaxmadac, sizmris xedvis procesis cnobieri aRqma daswavladi unaria, romelic iZl eva sizmris mimarTulebisa da Sinaarsis kontrolis saSualebas. • hipnozi (Hypnosis) _ cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareoba, romelic xasiaTdeba Rrma modunebiT (relaqsaci iT), STagonebisadmi mimReblobiT da aRqmis, mexsierebis, motivaciisa da TviT-kont rolis cvlilebebiT. mkvlevrebi xSirad ver aRweven Tanxmobas hipnozis dros moqmedi fsiqologiuri meqanizmebis Taobaze (Kirsch & Lynn, 1995, 1998). zogierTi adreuli Teoriis mixedviT, hipnozis zemoqmedebis qveS myofi individebi transis mdgomareobaSi gadadian, romelic didad gansxvavdeba fxizeli cnobierebis mdgomareo bisgan. sxva Teoriebis Tanaxmad, hipnozi sxva araferia, Tu ara momatebuli motiva cia. arsebobs Teoriebi, romelTa azriT hipnozi socialuri roluri TamaSis nairsaxeo ba, placebo reaqciis saxeobaa hipnotizioris mowonebis dasamsaxureblad (ix. Tavi 2). faqtobrivad, mkvlevrebma gamoricxes mosa zreba imis Sesaxeb, rom hipnozi gansakuTrebul, transismagvar cvlilebebs iwvevs c nobierebaSi. Tumca, vinaidan individebs hipnoturi zegavlenis gareSec SeuZliaT hi pnoturi mdgomareobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qceviTi paternebis ganxorcieleba, naTe li xdeba, rom hipnozs motivaciuri an placebo procesebis garda sxva damatebiTi ef eqtebic gaaCnia. hipnoturi stimulaciisa da hipnobilurobis ganxilvis Semdeg aRvwe rT mis zogierT efeqts.

hipnoturi stimulacia da hipnobiluroba hipnozi hipnoturi da stimulaciiT monawileebs da (hypnotic mxolod induction) iwyeba. es aris mosamzadebel aqtivobaTa erToblioba, romelsac minimumamde dahyavs garegani gamRiz ianeblebi amaxvilebinebs gansakuTrebul SeTavazebul rom isini emzadebian. stimule bze cnobierebis mosamzadebeli yuradRebas mdgomareobaSi STaagonebs, gadasasvlelad

37 aqtivobebi gulisxmobs garkveuli gamocdilebis warmodgenas an movlenebisa da reaqc iebis vizualizacias. ganmeorebadi praqtikis SemTxvevaSi mosamzadebeli procedurebi daswavlili signalis funqcias iZens, Sesabamisad, monaw ileebi swrafad gadadian hipnotur mdgomareobaSi. STagonebis tipuri procedurebi zo gierTi moicavs Rrma relaqsaciis mdgomareobis SeTavazebas, Tumca adamiani iseTi aqtiuri, qmediTi stimulaciiTac hipnotizirdeba, rogoricaa velosipediT siarulis warmodgena (Banyai & Hilgard, 1976). • hipnobilurob a (Hypnotizability) _ aCvenebs, Tu ra xarisxiT eqvemdebareba mocemuli individi s tandartul hipnotur STagonebas. hipnozis scenuri warmodgenebi gviqmnian STabeWdil ebas, rom hipnozis Zala hipnotiziorisgan momdinareobs, Tumca, hipnozis erTaderTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria monawilis unari Tu „niWi“ imisa, rom hipnozs daeqvemdebar os. hipnobiluroba gviCvenebs, Tu ra xarisxiT eqvemdebareba individi hipnoturi reaqciebis gansxvavebaTa suraTi 6.5 gancdis farTo standartul speqtri, instruqcie bs. arsebobs individualur totalur STagonebadobis sruli arqonidan STagonebadobamde. gviCvenebs kolejis studentTa procentul ganawilebas hipnobilurobis xarisxis mixedviT, rodesac maT pirvelad gaiares hipnoturi stimula ciis testi. ras niSnavs am skalaze „maRali“ an „Zalian maRali“ maCvenebeli? testis dasru lebis Semdeg hipnotiziori iZleoda posthipnotur instruqciaTa serias, romelic TiTo euli individis qcevas Seexeboda. rodesac hipnotiziori eubneboda, rom maTi gaSlil i xelebi rkinis naWrad iqceoda, Zalze hipnotizirebuli individebi ver axerxebdnen xelebis moxras. Sesabamisi instruqciis SemTxvevaSi maT SeeZloT xeli gaeqniaT ar arsebuli mwerisaTvis. aseve, Zalze hipnotizirebul individebs ar SeeZloT „ara“-s niSn ad Tavis gaqneva, Tu hipnotiziori eubneboda, rom maT aRar SeeZloT amis gakeTeba. hipnobilurobis „dabali“ maCveneblis mqone studentebi TiTqmis ar avlendnen msgavs re aqciebs. hipnobiluroba SedarebiT stabiluri maxasiaTebelia. mozrdilebSi es maCvenebeli, faqtobrivad, ucvleli rCeba 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva dros Cat arebuli gazomvebis dros (Morgan et al., 1974). kolejSi hipnobilurobis testirebaS i Cautarda monawile 50 cdis pirs da (qalebi da kacebi) 25 wlis Semdeg ganmeorebi Ti testireba miRebuli Sedegebi mniSvnelovnad korelirebda bavSvebi (koeficientiT 0.71) adrindel monacemebTan (Piccione et al., 1989). STagonebadni arian, vidre mozrdilebi; hipnoturi ufro

38 STagonebadoba maqsimums aRwevs mozardobis periodSi da Semdeg mcirdeba. arsebobs garkveuli monacemebi hipnobilurobis genetikuri determinantebis Sesaxeb., kerZod, identuri tyupebis maCveneblebi ufro uaxlovdeba erTmaneTs, vidre araidenturi tyu pebis (Morgan et al., 1970). is ar miuxedavad arc imisa, erT rom iseT hipnobiluroba SedarebiT stabiluria, korelirebs pirovnul maxasiaTebelTan, rogoricaa mimndobloba an konformuloba ( romm & Shor, 1 979; Kirch & Lynn, 1995). mdgomareobaSi metic, hipnobiluroba moiazrebs hipnotur mTlianad CarTvis unikalur kognitur unars. hipnozis efeqtebi hipnobilurobis gazomvis proceduris aRwerisas saubari gvqonda zogierT standartul efeqtze: hipnoturi zemoqmedebis qveS hipnozis individebi reagireben motoruli SesaZleblobebisa (magaliTad, maT xelebs ver xridnen) da perc eptuli gamocdilebis (magaliTad, maT eCvenebodaT buzebi) Sesaxeb miTiTebebze. Tum ca, rogor unda davrwmundeT, momdinareobs xSirad rom da es ar qcevebi aris hipnoz is monawilis gansakuTrebuli kiTxvaze SesaZleblobebidan gasacemad Zlieri survili, rom daimsaxuros hipnotizioris mowoneba? am mniSvnelovan pasuxis mkvlevrebi atareben eqsperimentebs, romelSic erTmaneTs adareben da upirispireben namdvilad hipnotizirebul individebs a da simuliantebs.

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39 saidan viciT hipnozi metia, vidre simulacia eqsperimentSi studentTa ori jgufi mo nawileobda. erTi jgufi realurad iqna hipnotizirebuli. meore jgufs hipnozis simul irebis instruqcia misces: pirveli eqsperimentatoris instruqciis Tanaxmad, maT un da moetyuebinaT meore eqsperimentatori da daerwmunebinaT igi, rom marTlac hipnot ozirebulni iyvnen. amis Semdeg orive jgufs waredgina tonebis seriebi da moeTxova am tonebis simaRlis Sefaseba. eqsperimentis mniSvenlovani nawili iyo moTxovnis instruqcia, romelSic cdis pirebs eubnebodnen, Tu ra unda ganecadaT (Reed et al., 1996, p.143). isini, visac erT jerze metad waredgina toni, midrekilni iyvnen hipnotur mdgomare obaSi darCenisken, rac mniSvnelovnad amcirebs maT mier gagonili bgeris intensivo bas. dabrundebiT Tqven, da albaT, am bolo mcire cdaze bgeras isev hipnotur mdgom areobaSi rom is amitom Zalze gaigonebT. savaraudoa, saerTodac ver gaigonoT. Tu hipnozis yvela efeqts eqsperimentatoris moTxovnebis Sesabamisad individis moq medebis survils mivawerT, unda movelodeT, rom hipnotizirebuli da simulianti mona wileebi msgavsad unda asrulebdnen moTxovnebs, realurad ki ase ar xdeba. namdvila d hipnotizirebuli individebi gamocdilebaTa farTo speqtrs aRweren: isini TavianT realur gamocdilebasTan miaxloebul gancdebs ufro hyvebian, vidre imas, Tu risi ga gonebac surs maTi azriT eqsperimentators ( Reed et al., 1996) am SemTxvevaSi sim uliantebi arasworad varaudoben, rom rac unda ganecadaT, realuri hipnozi ra iyo. aseTi tipis eqsperimentebidan wvlili Seaqvs naTeli hipnozs xdeba, Tu konkretulad gamocdilebaSi. damoukidebeli adamianis hipnozis erT-erTi Rirebuleba, romelzec ar kamaToben, tkivilis Semcirebis unaria (hipnoturi analgezia). Cveni goneba winaswari ganWvretiTa da SiSiT aZlierebs tki vilis stimulebs; am fsiqologiuri efeqtis Semcireba hipnoziT aris SesaZlebeli (Ch aves, 1999). miiRweva: sxeulis gakeTebulad) tkivilis mtkivneuli an mTliani kontr oli sxvadasxva nawilis sxeulisgan hipnoturi (xis an STagonebiT araorganulad plastikatisgan gancalkevebulad warmodgena, gonebis ganTavisufleba sxeulisgan da drois sxvadasxvagvarad damaxinj eba. adamianebs maSinac ki SeuZliaT tkivilis gakontroleba, rodesac yvela azri da warmodgena gandevnilia cnobierebidan (Hargadon et al., 1995). hipnozi gansakuTr ebiT Rirebulia qirurgiuli pacientebisaTvis, romelTanac

40 SeuZlebelia sruli anesTeziis miRweva, dedisTvis fiziologiuri mSobiarobis dros da simsivniani pacientebisTvis, romlebic daavadebasTan da mis mkurnalobasTan dakavSirebul tkivilTan gamklavebas swavloben. TviT-hipnozi (autoh ipnozi) tkivilis kontrolisadmi saukeTeso midgomaa, radganac pacients tkivilis ga moCenisTanave SeuZlia kontrolis gaZliereba. erT-erT kvlevaSi ikvlies metastazuri simsivnis mqone 86 qali, romlebic tkivils TviThipnoziT akontrolebdnen. aRmoCnda , rom maTTan tkivili orjer naklebi iyo, vidre sakontrolo jgufSi (Spiegel et al., 1989). mkvlevrebi tkivilis Semcirebis faqtebiT aCveneben, rom hipnozis efeqtebi scildeba monawileTa eqsperimentatoris an Tavad maTi molodinebis tkivilis Sesabamisad moqcevis survils. Zalze hipnotizirebad individebTan Semcireba hipnoturi STagonebiT ufro efeqturad miiRweva, vidre tkivilis Semamcire beli sxva teqnikebiT (Miller & Bowers, 1993). saidan viciT hipnozi amcirebs tkivils moxaliseebs tkivilis Camouyalibes kunTebis autaneli sam tkivili. individebis (1) mier Zalze amtanoba eqsperimentTa seriaSi izomeboda: mamotivirebeli instruqciebiT; (2) hipnoturi analgeziis gamowveviT da (3) placebo kafsulis gadaylapviT, romelic cdis pirebs eZleodaT, rogorc tkivilis momxsneli. (1) da (2) seriebs Soris gansxvaveba hipnozis im efeqtis Sefasebis saSualebas iZ leoda, romelic cdis piris mier instruqciaTa kargad Sesrulebis survilisgan damouk ideblad miiRweoda. (2) da (3) seriebs Soris icoda gansxvaveba Tu romel imis cdis demonstrirebis pirebs saSualebas miRebuli iZleoda, placebo rom hipnozi da placebo efeqtze metia. eqsperimentatorma, romelic atarebda testirebas, ar hqonda T kafsula arasworad egona, rom yvela hipnoturi analgeziis qveS iyo. aRmoCnda, rom 24 cdis piridan naxevari cdis pirebisa Zalzed hipnobilurebi iyvnen, danarCen naxevars ki dabali maCvenebeli hqonda hipnobilurobis skalaze. placebo abebi mniSvnelovanwil ad amcirebda tkivils yvela monawilesTan, miuxedavad motivaciuri instruqciebis xa risxisagan damoukideblad. amasTan, hipnozis molodini tkivilis Sesamcireblad, ase ve, yvela monawilesTan

41 iZleoda mniSvnelovan efeqts – placebo molodinis efeqti. Tumca, Zalze hipnobilur mo nawileebSi tkivilis amtanoba hipnoturi analgeziis gamowvevis periodSi gacilebiT meti iyo, vidre naklebad hipnobilurebTan da vidre sxva nebismier danarCen mdgoma reobaSi _ hipnozi ar iyo mxolod placebo (McGlashan et al., 1978). dabolos erTi S eniSvna hipnozis Sesaxeb: _ hipnozis Zala ar momdinareobs hipnotizioris gansakuT rebuli SesaZleblobidan Tu unaridan; es mxolod im pirovnebis an pirovnebaTa hipno bilurobis Sedegia, romelic hipnoturi zemoqmedebis qveS imyofeba. hipnozSi yofna ar niSnavs pirovnuli kontrolis dakargvas; faqtobrivad, hipnozSi yofnis gamocdile ba individs kontrolis gavarjiSebis SeiZleba scenaze axali gzebis daswavlis saSua lebas aZlevs _ SevadaroT, sanaxaobas, romelic sadac wvrTnis adamianebi hipnotizi ori romelic qmedebebs mwvrTnels gaTamaSebul subieqts, ucnaur axorcielebs qcevas. es yvelaferi kargad unda gvaxsovdes, rodesac vuyurebT axorcieleben hipnoturi zemoqmedebis qveS. scenis hipnotiziori imiT qmnis cocxal sanaxaobas, rom egzgibicionisturi maxasiaTeblebis mqone adamianebs sxvebis hipno zi TandaswrebiT arasodes warmoadgens iseT ar qcevebs axorcielebinebs, mkvlevrebi sa da rasac adamianTa cnobierebis umravlesoba gaakeTebda. TerapevtebisaTvis teqnikas, romliTac SesaZlebelia SesaZleblobebis gamokvleva da modificireba. meditacia aRmosavluri mravali religi a da tradiciuli fsiqologiuri mimdinareoba muSaobs cnobierebis gamocalkevebaze yo veldRiuri, aqtualuri safiqralebisgan. isini cdiloben mentalur da spiritualur „me“-ze Sinagani fokusirebis miRwevas. meditacia warmoadgens cnobierebis Secvlis formas , romelic mowodebulia Rrma simSvidis mdgomareobis miRwevis saSualebiT sakuTari T avis Sesaxeb codnisa da subieqturi keTildReobis, kargad yofnis gaRrmavebisTvis. meditaciis dros pirovneba SeiZleba fokusirdebodes da iwesrigebdes sunTqvas, iReb des garkveul pozebs (iogas pozebi), minimumamde dahyavdes garegani stimulacia, a xdendes specifikuri mentaluri xatebis generirebas an aTavisuflebdes gonebas yovelgvari azrisagan. • meditacia (Meditatio n) _ cnobierebis Secvlis forma, romelic mowodebulia TviTcnobierebis Semcirebis s aSualebiT sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb codnisa da

42 TviTSegrZnebis gaumjobesebisaTvis. • halucinacia (Hallucinations) _ mcdari aRqma, romelic Cndeba obieqturi gamRizianeblis ararsebobis pirobebSi. garkveulwilad sakamaTod rCeba meditaciis g azomvadi efeqtebi. kritikosTa TvalsazrisiT, „TvaldaxuWul“ TiTqmis ar arsebobs fsiqol ogiuri da sxvaoba normalur konkretul modunebul mdgomareobasa meditaciis procedurebs Soris (Holmes, 1984). Tumca, meditaciis damcvelebi amtkiceben, rom m editaciis realuri anu fiziologia SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc mSvidi sifxizle meditacia, minimaluri sxeulebrivi aRgznebis, magram maqsimaluri cnobierebis mdgomareoba (Dillbeck & Orme-Johnson, 1987; Morrell, 1986). amrigad, sul mcire, Seamcirebs SfoTvas, gansakuTrebiT maTTan, visac stresul garemoSi uwevs funqcionireba (Anderson et al., 1999; Shapiro et al., 199 8). Tumca, meditaciuri praqtikis mizani gacilebiT metia, vidre Tavis droebiTi da Rweva daZabulobisgan. meditaciis praqtikosebis Tanaxmad, rodesac aseT praqtikas regularuli xasiaTi aqvs, meditaciis zogierT formas xelewifeba cnobierebis gaZlie reba, gaciskrovnebis miRwevaSi daxmarebis gaweva imiT, rom individs saSualeba mi sces nacnobi sagnebis axleburad danaxvisa da aZlevs aRqmisa da azrovnebis ganTav isuflebis SesaZleblobas avtomaturi, kargad daswavlili paternebis akrZalvebisgan. zogierTi mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom meditaciis regularuli praqtika afarToebs gonebi s farglebs dasavluri fsiqologiis mier aRiarebuli sazRvrebs miRma da mis Sedegad SesaZlebelia gazomvadi inteleqtisa (IQ; ix. Tavi 10) da kognituri unarebis (Cran son et al., 1991) maCveneblis zrda. meditaciis wamyvani budisti maswavlebeli naT hani (Nhat Hanh) (1991) gvirCevs, gavacnobieroT sakuTari sunTqva, ubralod davak virdeT Cvens irgvliv arsebul garemos da davgegmoT yoveldRiuri moqmedebebi, rac f siqologiuri wonasworobisken maval gzaze dagvayenebs. halucinaciebi uCveulo pirob ebSi SesaZloa adgili hqondes cnobierebis damaxinjebas, rodesac individi xedavs an esmis is, rac awmyoSi realurad/obieqturad ar aris moc emuli. halucinacia aris naTeli aRqma, romelic Cndeba obieqturi stimulaciis arars ebobis pirobebSi; es aris individis Secvlili realobis mentaluri konstruqcia. hal ucinaciebi gansxvavdeba iluziebisgan, romelic realuri stimulis perceptuli damaxi njebaa. ganvixiloT suraTi 6.6. am naxatze adamianTa umravlesoba samkuTxeds xedav s, Tumca, is „realurad“ ar

43 aris gamosaxuli, Tumca, am faqts halucinacias ver vuwodebT, radganac, rogorc avx seniT imiT, mexuTe Tu TavSi, samkuTxedi rom is ar Cvens aris mier samyaros aRqmi s normaluri procesebis Sedegad „Cndeba“. Cven ver gavaqrobT am iluzorul samkuTxeds gan sxvavebiT, gavixsenebT, realuri. iluziisgan ar halucinaciebi individualuri gamoc dilebaa, romelsac iziareben igive situaciaSi moxvedrili sxva adamianebi. zogierTi halucinacia xanm oklea; Tu pirovneba sakuTari TavisTvis halucinaciis ararealurobis swrafad dafiqs irebas gancda SeZlebs savaraudod realobasTan dasruldeba. misi Tumca, dapirispire biT, zog SemTxvevebSi da es halucinaciuli individebi ver axerxeben halucinaciebis „realurobis“ daZlevas halucinaciebi maT cxovrebaze zemoqmedeben (Siegel, 1992). halucinaciebs xels uwy obs momatebuli agznebadoba, intensiuri saWiroebis mdgomareoba an SemaSinebeli az rebis gandevnis uunaroba. isini maSinac Cndeba, rodesac tvini uCveulo, iSviaTi g amRizianeblis zemoqmedebas ganicdis, magaliTad, maRali sicxis, epilefsiuri gulyris an Sakikis dros; aseve, mZime gone brivi aSlilobis mqone pacientebTan, romelnic ise reagireben Sinagan mentalur mov lenebze, TiTqos isini garegani sensoruli gamRizianeblebi iyos. xSirad halucinaci ebs iseTi fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebic iwvevs, rogoricaa LSD da peioti, da, aseve, halucinaciebi axlavs alkoholze uaris Tqmas mwvave alkoholizmis SemTxvevebSi (as eT halucinaciebs delirium tremens-s uwodeben, DTs). am qimiurad gamowveuli haluc inaciebis arsebobas tvinze nivTierebaTa pirdapiri zemoqmedeba uwyobs xels. zogie rT kulturul da religiur garemoSi halucinaciebi sasurveli da mniSvnelovani movlen aa (Siegel, 1992). am pirobebSi halucinaciebi mistikur xilvad, gamocxadebad aRiqmeba, rac maT mnaxvels gansakuTrebul statuss aniWebs. a mgvarad, sxvadasxva garemo pirobebSi spiritualur ZalebTan aSkara kontaqtis erTi da igive mkafio aRqma SeiZleba ganixilebodes, rogorc rogorc sulieri avadmyofobis an rogorc gansakuTrebuli niWis maniSnebeli. xSirad aseTi go nebrivi statusis Sefaseba Tanabrad aris damokidebuli damkvirveblis Sefasebaze, ise Tavad perceptuli gamocdilebis Sinaarsze. religiuri eqstazi meditacia, gamocdilebis (1902) locva, marxva da spiritualuri warmoadgen s komunikacia unikalur religiuri gaZlierebas, intensifikacias emsaxureba. gamocdileba uiliam jemsisaTvis fsiqologiur religiuri

44 gamocdilebas, romelic xasiaTdeba movlenebis erTaderTobisa da dakavSirebulobis, gamocdilebis realurobisa da mkafioobis gancdiT, da komunikacii s gamocdilebis unaris arqoniT, mravali sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, mTliani xasiaT iT. adamianisaTvis religiuri gamocdileba namdvilad ar warmoadgens maTi Cveulebrivi cnobierebis nawils. TiTqmis ar moiZebn eba apalaCias wminda aCrdilis (Holy Ghost) tomis xalxis religiur gamocdilebaze u fro Zlieri religiuri gamocdileba. maTi rwmenebi da qcevebi cnobierebis unikalur formas qmnis, romelic maT ganakuTrebuli qcevebis ganxorcielebis saSualebas aZlev s. RvTismsaxurebisas maT Sxamiani gvelebi da cecli uWiravT xelSi, svamen striqni nis sawamlavs. am qcevebisTvis mosamzadeblad usmenen grZel qadagebebs da monawil eoben xmamaRal, yuradRebis mimzidvel simRerebsa da velur trialsa da cekvebSi: enTuziazmi SeiZleba Zaladobis zRvars miuaxlovdes... wevrebi Wylopineben da irxev ian da glosolaliis (lingvistur Sinaarss moklebuli xelovnurad Seqmnili ena) gaurk vevel, eqstazur „axal enaze“ metyvelebaze gadadian... maTi xelebi erTmniSvnelovnad civia, ceclis xelSi daWeris Semdegac ki. es situacia SesaZloa Tanxvdebodes sxva religiur kulturebSi arsebuli transuli mdgoma reobebis kvlevebis monacemebs. es mexsierebis arqoniT, TiTqmis sensoruli gvelebi sa amneziiTac da SeiZleba xelSi aixsnas, mWerTa ris sailustraciod mohyavT mkvlev rebs cecxlis magaliTebi (Watterlond, 1983, pp.53, 55) gvelis xelSi damWerTa religiuri jgufis wevrebis fsiqologiurma kvlevam aCvena, ro m isini kargad adaptirebuli, gawonasworebuli adamianebi arian, romelebic jgufSi yofniT Zlier fsiqologiur da socialuri mxardaWeras iReben. „sulis momaswaveblebis” ri tualSi monawileoba „maTTvis personaluri jildos tolfasia, romelsac maTi cxovrebis v erc erTi aspeqti ver gautoldeba“ (Watterlond, 1983). cnobierebis cnobierebis cvlilebis gamomwvevi nivTi erebebi adamianebi antikuri xanidan iyenebdnen sxvadasxva nivTierebebs realobis aRqmis Sesacvlelad. arsebobs arqeologiuri monacemebi, rom aSS-is samxreTdasavleTsa da meqsikaSi 10 000 wlis manZilze uwyvetad iyenebdnen „Rrma Zilis marcv lebs“ (sophora seed) anu meskalis11 marcvals. antikuri actekebi ludSi azavebdnen m eskalis marcvlebs. antikuri xanidan moyolebuli, CrdiloeT da 11 erTgvari narkotiki.

45 samxreT amerikis mcxovreblebis ritualebis nawils Seadgenda Teonanaqtalis, fsiloc ibis sokos gadaylapva, romelic „RmerTebis sxeulis“ saxeliTac aris cnobili. am sokos mcire dozebi naTel halucinaciebs iwvevs. dasavlur asocirdeba, kulturebSi vidre n arkotikebi garTobasTan, dasvenebasTan adamianebi ufro mTel jgufur sakralur ritua lebTan. msoflioSi iReben narkotikebs, raTa modundnen, gaumklavdnen stresebs, Tavi aarido n welze aRwerda arsebuli meti xnis realobis win usiamovnebebs, jemsi – komfortulad romlis igrZnon Cven Tavi ukve socialur situaciebSi an ganicadon cnobierebis Sec vlili mdgomareobebi. as uiliam Semcvlel citirebac mis mier ramodenimejer movaxdineT, rogorc amerikaSi fsiqologiis damfuZneblis – cnobierebis nivTierebebze Catarebul eqsperimentebs. azotis oqsidis SesunTqvis Semdeg jemsi a RniSnavda, rom „am mdgomareobis siRrmeSia da umniSvnelovanesi amavdroulad momentia Zlieri metafizikuri goneba iluminaciis myisierad da moWarbebuli aRmagznebeli Se grZneba. WeSmariteba TiTqmis uxilavi movlenebis Riaa dakvirvebisaTvis. TvalSisacemi sisxartiT wvdeba arsebulis yvela logikur mimarTebas da amis analogi ar moiZebneba cnobierebis normalur cnobierebaSi; ver gavavlebT 1882, p.186). pa ralels amgvarad, normaluri cnobierebis funqcionirebasTan“ jemsis interesi (James, Seswavlisadmi cnobierebis TviT-gamowveuli Secvlili mdgomareobis kvlevamde gafarTovda. cnobierebis Secvlis mizniT nivTiereb ebis gamoyenebis popularizacia aldos haqslis (Aldos Huxley, 1954) publikaciis _ „a Rqmis karibWis“ gamoqveynebis Semdeg daiwyo. haqsli sakuTar cnobierebaze meskalini T eqsperimentirebda. misi wignis gamosvlidan ramdenime aTwleulis Semdeg, 1998 we ls Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT, romelSic 12 wlidan zemoT asakis da axloebiT 25 500 moqalaqe monawileobda, aSS-is moqalaqeTa 6,2% aRniSnavda, rom uk anaskneli erTi wlis manZilze miRebuli hqonda erTi an meti akrZaluli nivTiereba ( Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration _ SAMHSA, 1999). sixSi re gacilebiT maRali iyo gviani mozardobis asakSi: 16-17 wlis mozardebis 16,4% da 18-20 wlis mozardebis 19,9% aRniSnavda narkotikebis romelime tipis moxmarebas. garda amisa, SerCevis 51,7% gamokiTxvamde erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi xandaxan iRebda alkohols, 27,7% ki _ eweoda sigarets. es monacemebi xsnis imas, Tu ratom dgas a ucileblobiT mecnierTa dRis wesrigSi narkotikebis gamoyenebis mizezebisa da Sedeg ebis kvleva. damokidebuleba da miCveva

46 fsiqoaqtiuri fsiqoaqtiuri droebiTi blokirebas nivTierebebi qimiuri naerTebia, romelic cnobieri da aRqmis qcevaze. tvinis gunebaSecvliT an zegavlenas axdens axdenen. mentalur amiT procesebsa xvdebian ra tvinSi, ejaWvebian sinafsis receptorebs da garkveuli reaqciebis stim ulirebas sistemas, da safuZvlianad cvlian sakomunikacio ganwyobilebasa zemoqmede ben mocemuli aRqmaze, mexsierebaze, qcevaze. nivTierebebis gaxangrZlivebuli gamoyenebis Sedegad viTardeba tolerantoba, anu imave efeqtis misaRwevad ufro da ufro meti doza xdeba saWiro (tolerantobis zogierT fsiqologiur safuZvelze VII Tav Si visaubrebT). tolerantobas Tan sdevs fiziologiuri damokidebuleba, damokidebule ba procesi, romlis drosac organizmi eCveva da damokidebuli xdeba mocemul nivTier ebaze, nawilobriv imitom, rom narkotikis xSiri arsebobiT, SemcvelobiT gamoifiteb a neirotransmiterebi. tolerantobisa da damokidebulobis tragikuli Sedegia miCveva . miCveva adamians, romelic miCveulia mocemul nivTierebaze, organizmSi esaWiroeb a narkotiki da Tu nivTiereba ar aris damangreveli, mtkivneuli simptomebiT (kanka li, oflianoba, gulisreva da alkoholis ar arsebobis zogierT SemTxvevaSi ki sikvdi li) itanjeba. • fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi (Psychoactive drugs) _ qimiuri naerTebi, romelic cnobi eri aRqmis droebiTi SecvliT zegavlenas axdens mentalur procesebsa da qcevaze. • tolerantoba tolerantoba (Tolerance) _ situacia,

romelic nivTierebis xangrZlivi gamoyenebis Sedegad iqmneba, rodesac igive efeqtis misaRwevad individs ufro da u fri meti doza sWirdeba. • fiziologiuri damokidebuleba (Psysiological dependence) _ procesi, rodesac organi zmi eCveva da damokidebuli xdeba mocemul nivTierebaze • miCveva (Addiction) _ mdgomareoba, rodesac organizmi iTxovs narkotiks, raTa funq cionireba SeZlos, mis aryofnaze yovelgvari fizikuri da fsiqologiuri reaqciebis g areSe; xSirad Tan sdevs tolerantobasa da damokidebulobas. • fsiqologiuri damokidebuleba (Psychological dependence) _ narkotikis fsiqologiuri saWiroeba an survili. Tu individi mocemuli nivTierebis gamoyenebas imdenad sasurvelad da sasiamovnod miiCnevs, rom viTardeba swrafva, Zlieri survili (miCvevis an miCvevi s gareSe), mdgomareobas fsiqologiur SeiZleba damokidebulebas uwodeben. mimarT fsiqologiuri damokidebuleba nebismieri nivTierebis ganviTardes. nivTierebaze damokidebulebis Sedegad adamianis cxovrebis stili

47 imdenad fokusirdeba narkotikis miRebis irgvliv, rom izRudeba an mcirdeba misi fu nqcionirebis SesaZlebloba. garda amisa, narkotikis miRebis yovedRiuri Cvevis Ses anarCuneblad an da danaxarjebis individs dasafarad xSirad ubiZgebs nivTierebaze prostituciisken damokidebul narkotikebiT qurdobisken, dResdReobiT yaCaRobisken, narkotikebze vaWrobisken. miCvevis Tanmxlebi yvelaze momakvdinebeli safrTxea hipodermuli nemsebis Tanaziar i moxmarebis Sedegad SidsiT sruliad daavadebis saSiSroeba; SeiZleba intravenuri gauziaron narkotikebis momxmareblebma gauazreblad organizmis siTxeebi imaTac visac es momakvdinebeli daavadeba aqvT. mozardebi str esorebTan emociuri stresebisgan Tavis daRwevisa da yoveldRiur Semdeg gasamklaveb lad akrZaluli nivTierebebis gamoyenebis xangrZlivi uaryofiTi SedegebiT itanjebian. fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebaTa saxeebi nivTierebaTa gavrcelebuli fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis nusxa mocemulia 6.1 cxrilSi (me16-e TavS i sxva tipis fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebebze visaubrebT, romlebic fsiqikuri aSlilobebis dasaZlevad gamoiyeneba). Cven mokled mimovixilavT, Tu rogo r aRwevs TiToeul klasSi Semavali nivTierebebi maTTvis damaxasiaTebel fiziologiur da fsiqologiur gavlenas; garda amisa, SevexebiT nivTierebebis borotad gamoyeneb is pirovnul da socialur Sedegebs. saidan viciT nivTierebebis borotad gamoyenebis Sedegebi mozardebis mier narkotikebis moxmarebis rvawliani kvleva 1976 wels daiwyo. gamokvlevaSi monawileobda damamTavrebeli klasis 1634 moswavle los anjele sidan. sruli yovelwliuri monacemebi Seikriba 739 monawileze. maT Soris 10%-ze naklebi regularulad an qronikulad moixmarda narkotikebs, 10%-ze nak lebs ki saerTod ar hqonda narkotikebTan aranairi Sexeba. miRebuli Sedegebis dayo fa oTx jgufad gaxda SesaZlebeli (Newcomb & Bentler, 1988; Stacy et al., 1991): n arkotikis yoveldRiuri moxmareba uaryofiTad moqmedebda pirovnul da socialur poten cials, adaptaciaze, zrdida arRvevda urTierTobebs, gareSe amcirebda da xels swavl is uwyobda kriminals Zaladobis dezorganizebul azrovnebas. Zlieri nivTierebebi, rogoricaa stimulatorebi da narko tikebi, zrdida

48 suiciduri da TviT-damangreveli azrebis sixSires da amcirebda socialur mxardaWera s, riTac xels uwyobda martoobas. nivTierebis efeqtebi icvleboda maTi tipisa da k ombinirebuli gamoyenebis Sesatyvisad. ase, magaliTad, kokaini zrdida konfrontaci as da asustebda axlo urTierTobebs, Tumca, fsiqologiuri da fizikuri janmrTelobisa Tvis yvelaze damangrevel efeqts Zlieri nivTierebebisa da sigaretis kombinacia iZ leoda. moulodneli iyo, rom mozardebTan, romlebic zomierad iRebdnen alkohols da s xvas arafers (aranair narkotiks), aRiniSneboda momatebuli socialuri integracia d a TviTpativiscema. es mozardebi Tavis TanatolebTan SedarebiT ukeTesad adaptirebu lni SeiZleba yofiliyvnen. cnobierebis yvelaze fundamentur cvlilebebs iwvevs nivT ierebebi, romlebic halucinogenebis an fsiqodelikebis saxeliT aris cnobili. es nivTierebebi cvlis rogorc garegani samyaros, ise Sinagani cnobierebis aRqmas. rogorc dasaxele bidan Cans, es nivTierebebi xSirad iwveven halucinaciebs da me-sa da arame-s Sor is sazRvrebis gaqrobas. oTxi yvelaze cnobili halucinogenia meskalini (miiReba kaqtusisgan), fsilocibini (miiReba sokosgan) da LSD da PCP (sinTezirdeba ekargeba laboratoriebSi). SegrZneba, grZnobs PCP, anu angelozis arsebuli mtveri, iwvevs gansakuTrebulad ucnaur disociaciur reaqciebs, romlis drosac adamians tkivilis ib neva Tavs. da garSemo sinamdvilisgan moqmedeben _ gamocalkevebulad tvinSi specif ikur halucinogenuri ubnebze, qimiur nivTierebebi receptorul neirotransmiterze serotoninze (Aghajanian & Marek, 1993). kanafi fsiqoaqtiuri efeqtis mqone mcenarea. misi aqtiuri ingredientia THC, romelic napovnia rogorc haSiSsa (mcenaris dafxvnili fisi) da, aseve, marixuanaSi (mcenaris gamxmari foTlebi da yvavilebi). THC-s SesunTqviT gamowveuli gancdebis buneba damokidebulia dozirebaze: mcire dozebi iwvevs msubuq , sasiamovno gabruebas, didi dozebi ki _ xangrZliv halucinogenur reaqciebs. regu laruli gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi aRiniSneba eiforia, kargad yofnis gancda, sivrcis a da drois aRqmis rRveva da, ra Tqma unda, sxeulidan gasvlis gancdebi. Tumca, ko nteqstidan gamomdinare, SesaZloa negatiur efeqtsac hqondes adgili _ SiSi, SfoTva da dabneuloba. mkvlevrebma wlebis manZilze icodnen, rom kanafinoidebi, marixuan

as aqtiuri qimiuri naerTebi, Semakaveblad moqmedebs tvinis specifikur receptoreb ze; es kanafinoiduri

49 receptorebi hipokampSi anu mexsierebaze pasuxismgebel Tavis tvinis ubnebSia ganl agebuli. mxolod bolo aTwleulSi iqna nakvlevi axlad aRmoCenili anandamidi _ neirotransmiteri, romelic, aseve, Semakavebel efeqts axdens igive receptorebze (Di Marzo et al., 1994; Staht, 1998). amitomac aRweven kanafinoideb i cnobierebis Semcvlel efeqts anandamidisadmi (tvinSi bunebrivad arsebuli nivTie rebisadmi) mgrZnobiare tvinis ubnebze. garda amisa, mecnierebma aRmoaCines, rom Sokoladi Seicavs nivTierebas, romelic tvinis mier anandamidis moxmarebaze gavlen as axdens Sokoladis (di Tomaso et al., 1996)! molekulebma SeiZleba Seakavos kanafinoiduri receptorebi an zemoqmedeba moaxdinos nervuli reaqciebis zomaze. es molekulebi ar aris aRmoCenili TeTr SokoladSi, riT ac SeiZleba avxsnaT is faqti, rom adamianebs ufro xSirad undebaT rZis Sokoladi d a Savi Sokoladi. opiatebi, rogoricaa heroini da morfini, Trgunavs fizikur mgrZnobelobasa da gamRizianeblebze efeqtia sapasuxo reaqciebs. heroinis _ intravenuri miRebis d a Tavdapirveli sxeulebrivi Seicavs siamovnebaSi gadaSveba yvela safiqralisa grZn oba moTxovnebis gacnobierebis adgils eiforiis romelic ikavebs. heroinis moxmareba xSirad iwvevs miCvevas. III TavSi aRvniSneT, rom tvini endorf inebs (endogenur morfinebs), mZlavr zegavlenas axdens guneba-ganwyobilebaze, tkivilsa da siamovnebis gancdaze. opiumisa da morf inis msgavsi narkotikebi tvinis igive receptorul ubnebs akavebs (Harrison et al. , 1998; Reisine, 1995). amrigad, opiatebi da marixuana (rogorc zemoT aRiniSna) i mitom aRweven maTTvis damaxasiaTebel efeqtebs, rom isini Seicaven iseT aqtiur ms gavsi komponentebs, qimiuri romelic tvinSi bunebrivad rodesac Semcvleli arsebuli nervuli nivTierebebis receptorebi tvins TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. cnobierebis xelovnulad stimulirdeba nivTierebebiT, kargavs faqiz balanss. cxrili 6.1. fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi: samedicino gamoyen eba, xangrZlivoba da damokidebuleba samedicino gamoyeneba efeqtis xangrZlivoba (

saaTebSi) damokidebuleba fsiqologiuri fiziologiuri dasaxeleba opiatebi (narkotikebi) morfini heroini tkivilgamayuCabeli kvlevis procesSi 3-6 3-6 maRali maRali maRali maRali

50 kodeini tkivilgamayuCebeli, xvelis aRmkveTi 3-6 zomieri zomieri haluciogeni LSD ara 8-12 ara ar aris cnobili veterinaruli anesTetiki ara 8-12 varirebs ar ar is cnobili ara ar aris cnobili ara qimioTerapiis Tanmxlebi gulisrevis aRmkveTi 4 -6 2-4 ar aris cnobili kanafi (marixuana) msubuqad zomieri ar aris cnobili ar ar is cnobili maRali PCP (penciklidini) meskalini (peioti) fsilocibini depresantebi barbituratebi (magaliTad, seqonali) benzodiazepini (magaliTad, vali umi) alkohol i sedatiuri, Zilis wamali, anesTetiki, antikonvulsanti SfoTvis Semamcirebeli, se datiuri, Zilis wamali, antikonvulsanti antiseptiki 1-16 zomierad maRali 4-8 msub uqad zomieri zomierad maRali msubuqad zomieri 1-5 zomieri zomieri stimulatorebi amfetamini hiperkinezia, narkolefsia, wonis kontroli ara 2-4 maRali maRali kokaini 1-2 maRali maRali nikotini nikotinis saReWi rezini mowevisTvis Tavis dasanebeblad wonis kontroli, stimulant i mwvave varirebs msubuqad maRali zomierad maRali zomieri kofeini 4-5 ar aris

51 respiratoruli sirTuleebisas, analgetiki cnobili depresantebSi alkoholi. daTrgunva am Sedis barbituratebi axasiaTebT centralur da, gansakuTrebiT da AaRsaniSnavia, aqtivobis impulsebis nivTierebebs gonebrivi fizikuri nervuli (Seneleba) nervul sistemaSi gadacemis Sekavebis an Semcirebis saSualebiT. depresantebis moqmedebis efeqti, n awilobriv, miiRweva sinafsebSi nervuli komunikaciisTvis xelis SewyobiT, sadac ga moiyeneba GABA neirotrasmiteri (Dehaney & Sah, 1999; Malizia & Nutt, 1995). GABA xSirad nervuli gadacemebis Semakaveblis funqcias asrulebs, riTac aixsneba depre santebis Semakavebeli efeqtebi. barbituratebi Zalze saxifaTo SeiZleba iyos. 15-w lian kvlevaSi gamovlinda, rom narkotikebis dozis gadametebis SemTxvevaTa daaxloebiT naxevari barbituratebze modioda (Howard, 1984 ). yvelaze xSirad daniSvnadi depresantebi, rogoricaa valiumi da qsanaqsi, mniSvn elovanwilad 1999). alkoholi iyo erT-erTi pirveli fsiqoaqtiuri nivTiereba, romeli c farTod gamoiyeneboda uxsovari droidan. misi gavlenis qveS myofi adamianebi xas iaTdeba miCvevis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobiT (Miller, sulelebi, xmaurianebi, megobrulebi da enawylianebi xdebian; zogierTi maTgani agr esiuli da moZalade xdeba, zogi ki iTrguneba da depresiul gancdebSi iZireba. mkvl evrebma dRemde ar ician, Tu konkretulad rogor moqmedebs alkoholi tvinze, Tumca, sxva depresantebis msgavsad, rogorc Cans, isic zemoqmedebs alkoholma alkoholTan GABA-s SeiZleba SeuZlia aqtivobaze gamoiwvios gamklaveba. (De Witte, 1996). rela qsacia didi mcire da dozis SemTxvevaSi reaqciebis xanmokle mozrdilTa alkoholi siswrafis mcired gaumjobeseba, Tumca, organizms mxolod mcire odenobis raodenobiT periodSi iwvevs centraluri nervuli sistemis gadatvirTvas. avtosagzao da ubeduri SemTxvevebi 6-jer ufro xSiria adamianebTan, romelTa sisxlSic 0,10% alkoholis Sem cveloba, vidre maTTan, visTanac es maCvenebeli 2-jer naklebia. alkoholuri intoqs ikaciis meore Sedegi, romelsac wvlili Seaqvs ubedur SemTxvevebSi, Tvalis gugebis

gafarToebaa, rasac Tan sdevs RamiT xedvis problemebi. rodesac sisxlSi alkoholis Semcveloba 0,15% aRwevs, adgili aqvs momatebul negatiur zemoqmedebas azrovnebaz e, mexsierebasa da gansjis unarze, rasac Tan axlavs emociuri arastabiluroba da m otoruli koordinaciis rRveva.

52 alkoholis moxmareba umTavresi socialuri problemaa aSS-Si. alkoholTan dakavSirebu li avtokatastrofebi 15-25 wlis adamianTa sikvdilianobis wamyvani mizezia. rodesa c smis raodenoba da sixSire zemoqmedebs samsaxurze, auaresebs socialur da ojaxur urTierTobebs da seriozul problemebs uqmnis janmrTelobas. aseTi viTarebis Sesaty visi diagnozia alkoholizmi. fizikuri damokidebuloba, tolerantoba da miCveva _ es yvelaferi xangrZlivi intensiuri smis fonze viTardeba. zogierTi individisTvis al koholizmi smaze uaris Tqmis unaris arqonasTan asocirdeba; zogierTisTvis ki, alko holizmi gamoixateba ramodenime Wiqis Semdeg smis SeCerebis unaris arqonaSi. 1998 wels Catarebuli gamokiTxvis monacemebis Tanaxmad, 18-25 wlis respodentTa 13,8%s aReniSneboda intensiuri sma, anu isini svamdnen 5 da met Wiqas erT jerze/dalev aze yovel xuT an met dReSi erTxel erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi (SAMHSA, 1999), Tumca, yvela asakis respodentTa saSualo maCvenebeli mamakacebTan (9,7%) gacilebiT maRali iyo, vidre qalebTan (2,4%). stimulatorebs, rogoricaa amfetamini da kokaini, aRgznebisa da eiforiis mdgomareobis gamowvevis mizniT iReben. stimulatorebi moqmedeben tvinSi iseTi nei rotrasmiterebis donis momatebiT, rogoricaa norepinefrini, serotonini da dopamini . magaliTad, stimulatorebi akaveben tvinSi im molekulebis moqmedebas, romelTac, Cveulebriv, dopamini gamohyavs sinafsebidan (Giros et al., 1996). kokainiT xangrZlivi sargebloba iwvevs cvlilebebs tvinis siamovnebis ganc daze pasuxismgebel sistemaSi (Gawin, 1991). stimulatorebis zemoqmedeba sam sxvad asxva efeqts iwvevs: _ momatebuli TviT-darwmunebuloba, moWarbebuli energia da hi peraqtiuroba da eiforiasTan miaxloebuli guneba-ganwyobileba. intensiuri rwmenebs momxmareblebi ganicdian SemaSinebel halucinaciebs moxmarebis Zalze da uviTardebaT rwmena imisa, rom sxvebi maTTvis tkivilis miyenebas cdiloben. am paranoidalur iluziebs ewodeben. kokainis eiforiul aRmafrenasa gareSe da Tanmxleb depresiul narkotikis crack-i, gansakuTrebul momxmareblebs, moxmarebis safrTxes rom Cavardnebs Soris arsebuli kontrasti qmnis. es garemoeba aiZulebs kokainis yovelg vari da dozebi. kontrolis kokainis gazardon sufTa sixSire yvelaze formaa gansakuTrebiT damangreveli quCis narkotiki, romelic swrafad abruebs da swrafadve kargavs moqmedebis Zalas. vinaidan mcire odenobiT da iafad iyideba, es nivTiere ba yovelTvis xelmisawvdomia Raribebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis; crack-i mraval soc ialur jgufs angrevs.

53 ori stimulatori, aris romelTac xSirad ar aRviqvamT fsiqoaqtiur sakuTari nivTierebebad, kofeini da nikotini. rogorc SeiZleba gamocdilebidan vicodeT, ori finjani magari yava an Cai sakmarisi raodenobis kofe ins Seicavs imisaTvis, rom Rrma zegavlena moaxdinos gulze, sisxlsa da cirkularul funqciebze da daZinebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi Segviqmnas. TambaqoSi aRmoC enili qimiuri naerTi nikotini amerikeli sakmarisad Samanebi Zlieri maRali stimulatoria, romelsac adgilobrivi koncentraciiT iyenebdnen mistikuri mdgomareobebisa da transis gamosawvevad; Tumc a, zogierTi Tanamedrove momxmareblisgan gansxvavebiT, maT icodnen, rom nikotini miCvevas iwvevs da did sifrTxiles iCendnen, Tu rodis unda yofiliyvnen misi gavle nis qveS. miCvevis gamomwvevi sxva nivTierebebis msgavsad, nikotini tvinSi buneb rivad gamomuSavebul qimiur naerTebs hgavs. kvlevebiT dadgenilia tvinis moqmedebi s is regionebi, romelic pasuxismgebelia nikotinsa da kokainze miCvevis ganviTare baze (Pich et al., 1997). nikotinSi Semavali qimiuri naerTebi im receptorebis st imulirebas axdens, romelic Tavs kargad gvagrZnobinebs raime kargis/sworad gakeTe bis Semdeg, rac gvagrZnobinebs, rom yvelaferi wesrigSia _ fenomeni, romelic xels uwyobs gadarCenas. samwuxarod, nikotini tvinis igive receptorebs aRizianebs, ro melic gvatyobinebs, rom yvelaferi kargadaa, roca veweviT, Tumca, realurad es ase ar aris. nikotinis mier janmrTelobaze uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba mTlianobaSi didad a Remateba yvela sxva fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebis zemoqmedebas erTad, heroinis, kokai nisa da alkoholis CaTvliT. sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis samsaxuris monacemebis Ta naxmad, weliwadSi 400 000 sikvdili sigaretis mizeziT xdeba. miuxedavad imisa, ro m moweva Seuqcevadi avadmyofobisa da sikvdilis mTavari mizezia, is legalizebulia reklamirebaze. 60 da mln yovelwliurad amerikeli jer milionebi kidev ixarjeba si garetis mowevis mwevelia, Tumca, sawinaaRmdego kampaniebi garkveul Sedegs aRwevs da mcirdeba mwevelTa saerTo raod enoba (SAMHSA, 1995). yovelwliurad 2,1 milioni adamiani iwyebs mowevas da maTi u

mravlesoba 18 welze naklebi asakisaa. es, nawilobriv, warmatebuli sareklamo kamp aniis Sedegi SeiZleba mozardTa iyos, romelic xSirad swored axalgazrdobazea mimarTuli: Soris mwevelTa raodenobis mniSvnelovani momateba mTeli rigi sareklamo kampaniebis Sedegad moxda (Pierce & Gilpin, 1995). es Tavi N.N-is SemTxvevis ganxilviT daviwyeT da SevecadeT mis gamocdilebasTan Segvedarebina warsulis mogonebisa da momavlis dagegmvis

54 Cveni unari. es magaliTi imis saCveneblad warmovadgineT, Tu rogor badebs Cvens m ier ganxorcielebuli sruliad Cveulebrivi aqtivobebi cnobierebis Sesaxeb zogierT s aintereso SekiTxvas: _ saidan modis Cveni azrebi? rogor Cndeba isini? sad inaxeb a es azrebi? axla ukve viciT zogierTi Teoria, romelic pasuxs gascems am kiTxvebs da viciT, rogor unda SevZloT am TeoriaTa gadamowmeba. Cven vnaxeT, rom cnobiere ba, saboloo jamSi, saSualebas gvaZlevs, rom gvqondes mTeli rigi gamocdilebisa, r ac adamianad gvaqcevs. aseve, ganvixileT cnobierebis ufro da ufro naklebad Cveul i gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi. gzebs? Cven davsviT kiTxva: _ ratom arian adamianebi ukmayofiloni mimdinare yoveldRiuri Cveuli cnobierebiT da ratom eZeben misi Secvlis mravalferovan Cveule briv, ZiriTadi fokusi arsebuli amocanebis moTxovnebsa da situaciebze gakeTda, Tu mca, Cveni cnobierebis realobidan gamomdinare SezRudvebsac vacnobierebT; aseve, vacnobierebT, rom SezRudulia Cveni gamocdilebis diapazoni da siRrme, rac arsebul i potencialis srulad gamovlenis SesaZleblobas gvarTmevs. drodadro, albaT, sevda Segvipyrobs Cveuli realobis farglebs miRma gaRwevis Zlieri survilis gamo da Cveu li usafrTxo stabilurobis nacvlad Tavisuflebis ganusazRvrelobas varCevT. Sejameba nebismieri kulturis warmomadgenlebi eZieben cnobierebis Secvlis saSualebebs. dakvirvebadi sizmrebis mqone adamianebi acnobiereben, rom sZinavT d a SeuZliaT sizmris dasasrulis kontrolireba. adamianebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeb ian imiT, rom Tu ramdenad eqvemdebarebian hipnozis zemoqmedebas. mkvlevrebi adar eben namdvilad hipnozirebuli adamianebisa da simuliantebis reaqciebs, raTa gaimi jnos hipnozis originaluri efeqti hipnotizioris gulis mosagebad ganxorcielebuli q cevebisagan. hipnotizmi gansakuTrebuli mZlavri teqnikaa tkivilis Sasamcireblad. rac adamianebs xSirad hipnozis aqvT „faruli qveS damkvirveblis“ gamocdileba, gulisxm obs zemoqmedebis yofnisas movlenebis farul, aracnobier aRqmas. meditaciiT kognituri perceptul zog ierTi rogorc SesaZlebelia cnobierebis cvlilebebisa da sxva tipis mkafio winsvlis ganxorcieleba. garegani halucinaciebi warmoadgens gamocdilebas adamiani gamRizianeblis ararsebobis romelic xSirad pirobebSi. ar aris flobs religiur gamocdilebas, gamoyeneba Cveulebrivi cnobierebis nawili. cnobierebis Secvlis mizniT nivTierebebis, eqstra ordinaluri saSualebebis, saxifaToa, radganac arsebobs albaToba miCvevis ganviTar ebis da zogjer sikvdilisac ki.

55 narkotikebi centralur nervul sistemaze neirotrasmiterebis stimulirebiT, daTrgunv iT an SecvliT zemoqmedeben. sakvanZo sakiTxebi cnobierebis Sinaarsi • cnobiereba warmoadgens; gonebis Sinaarsebis gacnobierebas, maT Sesaxeb codnas • arsebobs cnobierebis sami done: (1) samyaros bazisuri cnobiereba, (2) gaazreba imisa, Tu ras vacnobierebT da (3) TviTcnobiereba; • RviZili periodis cnobierebis Sinaarsi gansxvavdeba aracnobieri procesebisgan, winarecnobieri mexsierebisgan, yuradRebis miRma darCenili informa ciisgan, aracnobierisgan da cnobieri aRqmisgan; • sakvlevi teqnikebi, rogoricaa xmamaRla fiqris oqmebi da eqsperimentis SerCeva cn

obierebis Sinaarsis Sesaswavlad gamoiyeneba. cnobierebis funqciebi • cnobiereba gvexmareba gadarCenaSi da gvaZlevs realobis pirovnuli da kulturuli ko nstruqtebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobas; mkvlevrebi swavloben cnobier da aracnobier pr ocesebs Soris arsebul urTierTmimarTebas. Zili da sizmari • • • cirkaduli ritmi asaxavs biologiuri saaTis moqmedebas; Ramis Zilis ganmavlobaSi i cvleba Tavis tvinis aqtivobis paternebi. REM Zili xasiaTdeba Tvalebis swrafi moZ raobiT da Tanxvdeba mkafio sizmrebis periods. mTliani Zilis daaxloebiT 1/4 REM Z ilia 4-5 calkeuli periodis ganmavlobaSi; • Zilis raodenoba da REM da NREM Zilis Tanafardoba asakTan erTad icvleba; • REM da NREM Zili sxvadasxva funqciebs emsaxureba, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis CaTvliT; Zilis darRvevebi, rogoricaa insomnia, narkolefsia da Zilis apnoe • uaryofiT gavlenas axdens dRis manZilze adamianis funqcionirebis unarze. dRis Zil ianoba, aseve, farTod gavrcelebuli seriozuli problemaa; • froidi Tvlida, rom sizmrebis Sinaarsi aracnobieri masalaa, romelmac gaiara sizmr is cenzura;

56 • sxva kulturebSi sizmrebis interpretacia regularulad xdeba da amas gansakuTrebuli kulturuli Teoria rolis mqone adamianebi biologiur axorcieleben. warmomavlobaze interpretacia momavlis winaswarmetyvelebis funqcias emsaxureba. • sizmris zogierTi maTi wyaroebis amaxvilebs yuradRebas, Tumca, es Teoriebi srulad ar Tanxvdeba sizmris Sinaarsebs . mdgomareobebi cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi • dakvirvebadi sizmrebi aris gacnobiereba imisa, rom sizmars vxedavT da mimarTulia sizmris kontrolze. • hipnozi cnobierebis Secvlili mgdomareobaa, romelic xasiaTdeba STagonebaze reaqciis saxiT hipnotizirebuli adamianebis aRqmis, mexsierebis, moti vaciisa da TviTkontrolis SecvliT. • meditacia cvlis cnobier funqcionirebas ritualuri praqtikis saSualebiT, romelic g aregani sazrunavebidan Sinagan gamocdilebaze gadaanacvlebs yuradRebas. • halucinaciebi naTeli aRqmaa, romelic Cndeba obieqturi gamRizianeblebis ararsebob is pirobebSi. zogierT kulturul jgufSi adamianebi intensiur religiur gamocdilebas ganicdian. • • fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi,

cvlian ra nervuli sistemis aqtivobas, zemoqmedeben mentalur procesebze cnobierebis droebiTi SecvliT. • cnobierebis cvlilebebis gamomwvev fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebaTa ricxvSi Sedis: _ halu cinogenebi, opiatebi, depresantebi da stimulatorebi. ZiriTadi cnebebi • • • aracnobieri gamocdilebis SerCevis meTodi dakvirvebadi sizmrebi • • • faruli Sinaarsi fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi fsiqologiuri damokidebu leba • • dRis Zilianoba Tvalebis swrafi moZraobiT (REM) moZraobis Zili gareSe • • SeTanxmebuli validizacia cirkaduli ritmi cnobiereba winarecnobieri mexsiereba Zi li apnoe • Tvalebis swrafi Zili (NREM) TviTcnobiereba insomnia • • • • •

57 • • • • • meditacia midrekileba narkolefsia sizmris muSaoba tolerantoba Tavi 7. daswavla d a qceviTi analizi • • • • • xiluli Sinaarsi xmamaRla fiqris oqmi halucinaciebi hipnobiluroba hipnozi • daswavlis unaris kvleva ra aris daswavla? biheviorizmi da bihevioraluri analizi • klasikuri ganpirobebuloba: daswavlis winaswarganmwyobi faqtorebi pavlovis sakvirveli dakvirvebebi ganpirobebulobis procesi SeZenaze fokiusireba k lasikuri ganpirobebulobis gamoyeneba • operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavleba Sedegebis Sesaxeb efeqtis kanoni qcevis eqsperimentuli analizi ganpirobebulobis ganmtkiceba ganmam tkiceblis maxasiaTeblebi ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilebi Seipingi • • fsiqologia Tqvens cxovrebaSi: biologia da daswavla instinqtTa kompleqti gemos aversiiT daswavla • kognituri sferos gavlena daswavlaze cxovelTa kognicia dakvirvebiT swavla • sakvanZo sakiTxebi ZiriTadi cnebebi

58 Tavis wignSi “jadoqari lorenco” mwerali robert franklin lesli aRwers Tavgadasavals d aSavebuli cisferi Cxikvisa, lorencosi, romelic leslis ojaxis stumari gaxldaT. am epizodSi lorenco swavlobs iseT rames, rac SeiZleba bevri TqvenganisaTvis nacnob i iyos: rodesac lorencom miaRwia im asaks, romelsac Cven mozrdilobas veZaxiT, movawyveT didi dResaswauli da moviwvieT misi adamiani megobrebi, rasac erTma Cemma megobar ma Cxikvis bari micva (Bar Mitzvah) uwoda.sufra savse iyo lorencos sayvareli ker ZebiT, rasac davumateT sakramentuli Rvino, f unTuSa da Sebolili oraguli. wveuleb is bolos leam (leslis meuRlem) lorenco samzareuloSi Rvinis Wiqebis narCenebTan m iyuJuli aRmoaCina. mis Zaxilze yvela stumari saswrafod Secvivda samzareuloSi, ra Ta sakuTari TvaliT enaxa danis saxelurze mofarTxale Citi. misi mTvrali Wyipini k asetis Senelebuli CanaweriviT JRerda. ukan gaCoCebuli, igi TaviT Cavarda samzare ulos niJaraSi, romelic naxevrad savse iyo WurWlis sarecxi siTxiT. rodesac onkani s qveS meWira, man raRac “amoiluRluRa” da fexebis rtyma daiwyo. me igi linoliumis ia takze gadmovsvi, vinaidan ver mivcemdi mas imis uflebas, rom sveli frTebiT ecada gadmofrena. leam mas gzaze sarke daudo, raTa lorencos kargad daenaxa, Tu rogor gamoiyureboda. es is gamadidebeli sarke iyo, romelsac mamakacebi maSin iyeneben, rodesac ulvaSebs iWrian. Cvenma damwuxrebulma lorencom iribad gaxeda sarkes Tav isi damZimebuli quTuToebidan, waibarbaca da Senelebuli moZraobiT Zirs daemxo. ma s Semdeg, rac saswrafod galiaSi moaTavses, kidev ufro saSinlad gamoiyureboda. me ore dilas erTic ar daukvnesia. kidev erTxel, Cvenma TavgadasavlebiT aRsavse Citm a, praqtikuli gamocdileba SeiZina. veterinaris gamoZaxebisa Semrcxva, vinaidan m e da lea vuvlidiT nabaxusev frinvels. mas Semdeg, lorencom samudamod Seaqcia zur gi sasmels, miuxedavad dResaswaulebisa. man im sakvebzec ki uari Tqva, romelic R viniT mzaddeboda. misi TavSekaveba ar iyo absurduli. ratom erideba lorenco am sabediswero SemTxvevis Semdeg Rvinos? pasuxi, romelic s avaraudod gvafiqrdeba, isaa, rom man axali asociacia daiswavla – leslis sityvebiT, man ”praqtikuli codna SeiZina” - romelic man SeiZleba kidev araerTxel gamoiyenos cx ovrebis manZilze. dameTanxmebiT, STambeWdavia, rogor iswavla lorencom Wkua da da interesdebiT kidec, ra meqanizmiT moxda es: rogor aiTvisa lorencom es axali asoc iacia ase advilad? igive

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59 warmatebiT SegiZliaT sakuTar Tavs dausvaT SekiTxva: rogor euflebiT axal asociaci ebs? fsiqologebi didi xania, dainteresebulebi arian ganpirobebulobiT anu im meqa nizmebiT, romelTa saSualebiTac qceva da movlena dakavSirebulni arian erTmaneTTan . winamdebare TavSi ganixileba ganpirobebulobis ori ZiriTadi tipi: klasikuri gan pirobebuloba da operantuli ganpirobebuloba. TiToeuli maTgani wamoadgens organizm is gansxvavebul reaqciasa da informaciis gadamuSavebis formas. ganpirobebulobis TiToeuli formisaTvis aRvwerT ara marto ZiriTad meqanizmebs, romlebic mas marTave n laboratoriis pirobebSi, aramed mis gamoyenebis magaliTebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaS ic. magram sanam ganvixilavT ganpirobebulobis am formebs, ganvixiloT daswavlis f enomeni evoluciuri perspeqtividan. daswavla, umetesad, genetikuradaa CvenSi Cade buli, iseve, rogorc Cveni gamocdilebis sxva mravli aspeqti. adamianebi, iseve, r ogorc sxva organizmebi, memkvidreobiT iReben daswavlis unars. daswavlis unarebi gansxvavdeba genetikuri kodis mixedviT. iseT arsebebs, rogorebicaa qvewarmavlebi da amifibiebi, daswavlis unari garemosTan urTierTobiT unmtkicdebaT da swavloben kidec cotas. maTi gadarCena damokidebulia SedarebiT ucvlel garemoSi cxovrebaze, sadac maTi Tandayolili unarebiT, upasuxon garemos ama Tu im movlenas, isini an iReben imas, rac sWirdebaT an ganeridebian arasasurvels.. sxva cxovelebSi, adami anebis CaTvliT, genebs gacilebiT ufro mcire roli aqvT garemo-qcevis urTierTqmede bis ganpirobebaSi da gacilebiT elastiuri da vareabiluria daswavlasTan mimarTebaS i. am cxovelebs SeswevT unari daiswavlon imis mixedviT, Tu rogor icvleba garemo maTi qcevis, moqmedebis Sedegad . ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom genetikurad mxolod d aswavlis unars viRebT. rogor moxdeba am unaris realizacia, es genebze ukve aRara a damokidebuli. • ganpirobebuloba (conditioning) – gzebi, romliTac movlenebi, stimulebi da qceva aso cirdeba erTmaneTTan daswavlis unaris kvleva am kvlevis dasawyebad saWiroa, upirvelesad, ganvsazRvroT daswavlis cneba. ra aris daswavla? daswavla aris procesi, romlis Sedegadac viRe bT SedarebiT stabilur, mudmiv cvlilebas qcevaSi an qcevis potencialSi da damyare bulia gamocdilebaze. Tumca, am gansazRvebaSi gamoiyofa sami kritikuli nawili.

60 cvlileba qcevaSi an qceviT potencialSi potencialSi aSkaraa, rom daswavlis procesi maSin SeiZleba ganxorcielebulad CaiTvalos, rodesa c Sedegi gvaqvs saxeze – magaliTad, SegiZliaT manqanis marTva an mikrotalRovani Ru melis gamoyeneba. SeuZlebelia, davakvirdeT uSualod daswavlis process, radgan, Cv eulebriv, am procesiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi tvinSi ar Cans, magram daswavlis pro cesis arseboba aSkara xdeba qcevis ganmtkicebiT. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, xSirad qcevaSi ar vlindeba, rac naswavlia. xSirad, agreTve, adamians aqvs zogadi ganwy obebi – magaliTad, damokidebuleba Tanamedrove xelovnebisadmi an aRmosavluri filoso fiis codna, rac ar vlindeba gazomvad moqmedebebSi. aseT SemTxvevebSi, miRweulia potencia qceviTi cvlilebisaTvis, radgan naswavlia damokidebuleba da Rirebulebebi , rac gavlenas axdens im literaturis SerCevaze, rasac adamiani kiTxulobs, agreTv e, Tavisufali drois gatarebis formaze. esaa saxecvlili daswavlis magaliTi – sxvaob a imas, rac naswavlia da imas Soris, rac gamoixateba qcevaSi. SedarebiT mudmivi cvlileba imisaTvis, rom aRvweroT, rogorc naswavli, daswavlili, qceva an qceviTi potencial i unda iyos stabiluri, mudmivi sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad, Tu erTxel visw avleT curva, yvela SemTxvevaSi SevZlebT am codnis gamoyenebas, viqnebiT zRvaze T u sacurao auzze. aRsaniSnavia, rom stabiluri cvlileba araa yovelTvis mudmivi cvl ileba. magaliTad, SeiZleba gavxdeT sakmaod kargi badros mtyorcneli mocemuli droi saTvis, magram Tuki Tavs davanebebT am sports, gansazRvruli drois Semdeg SevniSn avT, rom ise kargad veRar vflobT mas, Tumca, xelaxla swavlis SemTxvevaSi igrZnob a is siadvile, romliTac daswavla xdeba, TiTqos codnis raRac nawili Senaxulia war suli gamocdilebis Sedegad. am konteqstSi, cvlileba SeiZleba iyos mudmivi. gamocdilebaze dafuZnebuli procesi daswavla mxolod gamocdilebiT SeiZleba. gamocdileba gulisxmobs informaciis miReba s (Sefasebas da transformacias) da reagirebas, rac gavlenas axdens garemoze. das wavla Sedgeba mexsierebis gakveTilebis Sedegad aRmocenebuli sapasuxo reaqciisaga n. naswavli qceva ar gulisxmobs cvlilebas fizikuri momwifebis, an tvinis ganviTa rebis SemTxvevaSi, organizmis asakis

61 matebasTan erTad, agreTve, avadmyofobis an tvinis dazianebis dros. zogierT xangr Zliv cvlilebas qcevaSi sWirdeba gamocdilebisa da momwifebis, mzadyofnis kombinac ia. magaliTad, warmovidginoT skala, romelzec asaxulia, ra asakSi iwyebs bavSvi t ualetis damoukideblad gamoyenebas. yovelgvari cda am Cvevis daswavlisa im asakam de, romelSic kanonzomieria am unaris SemuSaveba, amao iqneba, sanam bavSvi sakma risad ar ganviTardeba. fsiqologebi gansakuTrebiT dainteresebulebi arian imiT, Tu qcevis ra aspeqtebi SeiZleba Seicvalos da ra meqanizmebiT SeiZleba ganxorcielde s es cvlilebebi. • daswavla (Learning) _ ( gamocdilebaze damyarebuli procesi, romlis drosac SedarebiT mudmivad icvleba qceva an qceviTi potenciali. • daswavladaswavla-gamovlenis gansxvaveba gansxvaveba (Learning-Performance ( distinction) _ gansxvaveba imisa, Tu ra iyo daswavlili da ra gamomJRavnda qcevaSi. bioheviorizm i da bihevioraluri analizi Tanamedrove fsiqologiaSi daswavlis Teoriebis didi naw ili saTaves jon uotsonis (John Watson 1878 -1958) Sromebidan iRebs. uotsonma daa arsa fsiqologiuri skola, romelic cnobilia, rogorc biheviorizmi. daaxloebiT 50 wl is manZilze, amerikul fsiqologiaSi dominirebda bihevioristuli tradiciebi, romleb ic gamoxatuli iyo uotsonis 1919 wels gamosul wignSi „fsiqologia bihevioristis gadm osaxedidan“. uotsoni amtkicebda, rom introspeqcia – adamianebis verbaluri moxsenebeb i maTi gancdebis, xatebisa da SegrZnebebis Sesaxeb, ar iyo misaRebi saSualeba qc evis Sesaswavlad, radgan es zedmetad subieqturi meTodi iyo. rogor unda ganesazRv raT mecnierebs aseTi TviTdakvirvebebis sizuste? magram Tuki introspeqcia uaryofi lia, raRa rCeboda fsiqologiis sagani? uotsonis pasuxi am kiTxvaze iyo dakvirveba di qceva. uotsonis sityvebiT, „cnobierebis mdgomareobebi, egreT wodebuli spiritualizmis fenomeni, araa obieqturad gansazRvradi da am mizeziT verasodes ga xdeba monacemi mecnierebisaTvis“ (Watson, 1919, p.1). uotsonma, aseve, gansazRvra fsiqologiis ZiriTadi mizani, rogorc „qcevis kontroli da prognozi“ (Watson, 1913, p.1 58). skinerma (B. . Skinner 1904-1990) ufro ganavrco uotsonis ideebi. misi pozic ia cnobilia, rogorc radikaluri biheviorizmi. skinerma aRiara, rom evoluciis Sede gad yoveli saxeoba aRWurvilia qcevaTa gansazRvruli paternebiT. Tavis yvelaze pop ularul wignSi „Tavisuflebisa da Rirsebis miRma“ (1972) igi

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62 amtkicebs, rom am paternebis miRma arsebuli yvela saxis qceva ganxilul unda iqna s, rogorc daswavlis martivi formebi. skinerma wamoiwyo kvleva, romelic miiyvanda mas am poziciis formulirebamde. 1924 wels gamosuli uotsonis wignis _ ”biheviorizm is” _ wakiTxvis Semdeg skineri swavlas agrZelebs harvardSi. skineri eTanxmeba uots ons Sinagani mdgomareobebisa da fsiqikuri movlenebis ararsebobaSi. Tumca, skiner ma aqcenti ufro metad gaakeTa ara maTi, rogorc monacemebis, gamoyenebis SeuZlebl obaze, aramed maTi, rogorc qcevis gamomwvevi mizezebis ararsebobaze (Skinner, 19 90). sxva sityvebiT, igi Tvlis, rom fsiqikuri movlenebi, rogorebicaa azrovneba d a warmosaxva, ar iwveven qcevas. metic, isini, Tavis mxriv, ganixileba, agreTve, rogorc qcevis forma, romelic garemo stimuliTaa ganpirobebuli. magaliTad, vaSimS iloT mtredi 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, movaTavsoT mowyobilobaSi, sadac mas SeuZlia, niskartis patara diskze dakakunebiT moipovos sakvebi. aRmovaCenT, rom igi swore d ase akTebs. skineri am SemTxvevaSi daasabuTebda, rom mtedis qceva ganpirobebul ia garemo movlenebiT – SimSiliT da sakvebis, rogorc ganmamtkiceblis gamoyenebiT. S imSilis subieqturi gancda, romlis pirdapir Seswavla an gazomva ar SeiZleba, ar a ris am qcevis mizezi, es qceva mxolod deprivaciis Sedegia. amitom arafris mTqmel ia imis daskvna, rom mterdma SimSilis an sakvebis mopovebis surviliT daiwyo disk ze kakuni. imisaTvis, rom avxsnaT, ras akeTebs sinamdvileSi mtredi, ar aris saWi ro misi Sinagani fsiqologiuri mdgomareobis garkveva – saWiroa, ubralod, gavecnoT d aswavlis martiv principebs, romlebic saSualebas aZlevs mtreds, asociacia daamyar os qcevasa da jildos Soris. esaa skineris biheviorizmis sakvanZo wertili (Delpra to & Midgley, 1992) swored es Sexeduleba daedo safuZvlad bihevioralur analizs, f siqologiis im sferos, romelic aqcents daswavlisa da qcevis garmeo determinantebi s aRmoCenaze akeTebs (Grant Evans, 1994) sazogadod, bihevioraluri analizi cdilob s imis damtkicebas, rom adamianuri buneba SeiZleba SeviswavloT sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis meTodebisa da sferos gafarToebiT. amocana isaa, rom aRmoaCinon un iversaluri kanonzomierebebi, romlebic saerToa cxovelTa yvela saxeobisaTvis, adam ianebis CaTvliT. mkvlevarebi askvnian, rom daswavlis procesi yvela saxeobaSi gvx vdeba, ra Tqma unda, sxvadasxva formiT, magram SenarCunebuli ZiriTadi maxasiaTeb lebiT. amitom kvlevebi cxovelebze xSirad xvdeboda kritikis qarcecxlSi. daswavlis kompleqsuri formebi warmoadgens martivi procesebis kombinacias da ara

63 raRac gansxvavebul fenomens. bihevioraluri analizi cdilobs, aRmoaCinos is ZiriTa di principebi, romelTa mixedviT adamianis qceva icvleba gamocdilebaze pasuxad. Z iriTadi aqcenti ki keTdeba qcevasa da garemo movlenebs Soris da ara qcevasa da f sisikur movlenebs Soris. • bihevioraluri analizi (Behavioral Anayisis) _ fsiqologiis ganxra, romelic yuradR ebas daswavlisa da qcevis garemo determinantebze amaxvilebs. Sejameba daswavla aris procesi, romelic momdinareobs SedarebiT mdgradi qcevis an qceviTi potencialis cvlilebidan da emyareba gamocdilebas. qceviTi analizi amodi s votsonisa da skineris Teoriebidan da yuradRebas amaxvilebs daswavlisa da qcevi s garemo determinantebze. klasikuri ganpirobebuloba warmoidgineT, rom xarT kinoS i da uyurebT saSinelebaTa films. filmis gmiri daxurul kars uaxlovdeba, musika iZ abeba, Tqven ki giCndebaT survili, iyviroT “ar Sexvide!” amasobaSi aRmoaCenT, rom gu liscema aCqarebuli gaqvT, SeZleba gaiofloT kidec, magram ratom? raRacnairad Tqve nma sxeulma iswavla fiziologiuri reaqciis wamoSoba (guliscema), rodesac erTi gar emo movlena dakavSirebulia meoresTan (daZabuli musika saSiS vizualur efeqtTan). am tipis daswavla cnobilia, rogorc klasikuri ganpirobebuloba, daswavlis ZiriTadi froma, romelSic erTi stimuli an movlena gvamcnobs, winaswarmetyvelebs sxva stim ulis an movlenis gamovlenas. organizmi swavlobs axal asociacias or stimuls Soris – stimuls, romelic adre ar iwvevda reaqcias da meores Soris, romelmac gamoiwvia r eaqcia. rogorc naxavT, Tqven gaqvT Tandayolili unari sxartad daawyviloT movleneb i garemoSi asociaciis principiT da es qceviTI midrekilebaa. pavlovis pavlovis sa kvirveli dakvirvebebi klasikuri ganpirobebulobis pirvel radikalur kvlevas Tamama d SeiZleba ewodos fsiqologiis yvelaze cnobili saswauli. rus fiziologs, ivan pavl ovs (1849-1936) miznad ar dausaxavs klasikuri ganpirobebulobis, an sxva fiziolog uri fenomenis kvleva. klasikur ganpirobebulobas igi SemTxveviT waawyda, rodesac ikvlevda saWmlis momnelebel sistemas, risTvisac 1904 wels nobelis premia miiRo.

64 Ppavlovs gamiznuli hqonda, ekvlia gadamuSavebis procesi ZaRlebSi, maT jirkvlebsa da saWmlis momnelebel organoebSi milebis CadgmiT. am teqnikiT igi SeZlebda gamo yofili sekretis raodenobas gansazRvras da gaanalizebas. sekreciis gamosawvevad p avlovis asistenti ZaRls pirSi damuSavebul xorcs udebda. es prcedura meordeboda g ansazRruli raodenobiT, ris Semdegac pavlovma aRmoaCina, rom ZaRls nerwyvi gamoey ofoda manamde, sanam mis pirSi xorci moxvdeboda, ubraod saWmlis danaxvaze da asi stentis danaxvazec ki. metic, ZaRlma nerwyvis gamoyofa ukve misi nabijebis xmaze c daiwyo. aRmoCnda, rom nebismieri stimuli, romelic win uswrebda saWmlis miRebas sistematurad, iwveva nerwyvis gamoyofas. sruliad SemTxveviT, pavlovma aRmoaCina , rom daswavla Sedegia erTmaneTTan asocirebuli ori stimulisa. sabednierod, pavlo vi mecnieri iyo, amitom gaaCnda mecnieruli cnobismoyvareoba am fenomenis Sesaswa vlad. man arafrad CaTvala im drisaTvis udidesi fiziologis, ser Carlz Seringtonis rCeva, rom Tavi daenebebina am suleluri axirebisaTvis. pavlovma miatova Tavisi kvleva gadamuSavebis Sesaxeb da amiT samudamod Secvala fsiqologiuri azrovnebis m imarTuleba (Pavlov, 1928) mTeli darCenili sicocxlis manZilze igi agrZelebda im c vladebis Zebnas, romlebic gavlenas axdenen klasikurad ganpirobebul qcevaze. klas ikuri ganpirobebuloba, agreTve, iwodeba pavloviseul ganpirobebulobad, radgan gan pirobebulobis fenomeni swored mis aRmoCenad iTvleba. pavlovis mniSvnelovanma kvl eviTma gamocdilebam saSualeba misca mas, martivi strategiuli gegma aerCia, raTa ganepirobebina ZaRlebSi nerwyvis gamoyofa. eqsperimentebSi ZaRli moTavsebuli iyo sagangebo mowyobilobaSi, sadac regularuli intervalebiT is iRebda stimuls zaris saxiT, ris Semdegac ZaRls eZleoda garkveuli raodenobis sakvebi. aRsaniSnavia, ro m ZaRlisaTvis aranairi kavSiri ar arsebobda zarsa da sakvebs Soris. erTaderTi re aqcia zaris pirvel gagebaze saorientacio refleqsi iyo – ZaRlma yurebi dacqvita da Tavi miatriala xmis wyaros dasadgenad. Tumca, zarisa da sakvebis miwodebis ganme orebiTma dawyvilebam gamoiwvia saorientacio refleqsis Sewyveta da nerwyvis gamoy ofa. • klasikuri ganpirobebuloba ( (Classical Conditioning) – daswavlis tipi, romelS ic qceva (ganpirobebuli stimuli), reaqcia) Tavis gamowveulia mxriv, stimuliT (ga npirobebuli stimuli). romelic, ganmtkicebulia biologiurad mniSvnelovan stimulTan asociaciis gamo (ganupirobebeli

65 rasac pavlovi akvirdeboda Tavis adrindel kvlevebSi, ar iyo SemTxveviTi: es fenom eni SeiZleba kontrolirebuli pirobebiT yofiliyo gamowveuli. imis dasamtkiceblad, rom es zogadi efeqti iyo, pavlovma zaris garda gamoiyena mravalnairi stimuli, is eTi, rogoricaa naTura, eJvani, metronomi. klasikuri ganpirobebulobis birTvad ref leqsebi unda CaiTvalos. refleqsi aris dauswavleli pasuxi, reaqcia – magaliTad, ner wyvis gamoyofa, Tvalebis xamxami da misT. – es yvelaferi bunebrivadaa gamowveuli s pecifikuri stimuliT, romelic biologiurad aqtualuria organizmisaTvis. nebismier s timuls, romelic bunebrivad iwevvs refleqsur qcevas, ewodeba ganupirobebeli stimu li, radgan swavla araa stimulis kontrolisaTvis aucilebeli piroba. qceva, romelic gamowveulia ganupirobebeli stimuliT, aris ganupirobebeli qceva. tipiur klasikur ganpirobebulobis eqsperimentSi neitraluri stimuli, magaliTad, sinaTle, zari da a.S. romelsac, Cveulebriv, aranairi mniSvneloba ara aqvs refleqsuri qcevisaTvis, meordeba wyvilSi ganupirobebel stimulTan, ise rom ganupirobebeli stimuli mohyve ba neitralur stimuls. neitralur stimuls, magaliTad, zars, dawyvilebuls ganupirob ebel stimulTan, ewodeba ganpirobebuli stimuli, radgan misi Zala, gamoiwvios qcev a, damokideblia ganupirobebel stimulTan asociaciaze. ramdenime cdis Semdeg ganpi robebul stimuls mohyveba reaqcia, romelsac ewodeba ganpirobebuli reaqcia. Zalian reaqcia xSirad, ganpirobebuli reqcia msgavsia ganupirobebeli reaqciisa. magaliT ad, pavlovis ZaRlebisaTvis, orive reaqcia nerwyvis gamoyofa iyo. Tumca, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, ganpirobebuli reaqcia bevrad gansxvavdeba ganupirobebeli reaqciisag an: ganpirobebuli reaqcia warmoadgens nebismier pasuxs, rac, Tavis mxriv, faqtiu rad, aris daswavlis Sedegi. amgvarad, buneba uzrunvelgvyofs ganupirobebeli stimu li-reaqciiT, magram daswavla klasikuri ganpirobebulobis meSveobiT qmnis ganpirob ebuli stimuli-reaqciis kavSirs. • refleqsi (Reflex) _ specifikuri stimuliT gamowveuli dauswavleli pasuxi, romelsac biologiuri mniSvneloba aqvs organizmisaTvis. • ganupirobebeli pasuxs. stimuli (Unconditioned stimulus) _ klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, stimuli, romelic iwvevs ganupirobebel reaqcias, • ganupirobebeli reaqcia (Unconditioned

response) _ klasikur

66 ganpirobebulobaSi, ganupirobebli stimulis mier gamowveuli reaqcia winaswari varj iSisa an daswavlis gareSe. • ganpirobebuli stimuli (Conditioned stimulus) _ klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, aqamd e neitraluri stimuli, romelic iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias. • ganpirobebuli reaqcia (Conditioned response) _ klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, reaqc ia, romelic aRmocendeba aqamde neitraluri stimulis safuZvelze. es xdeba imis Sed egad, rom neitraluri stimuli Sewyvilebulia ganupirobebel stimulTan. • SeZena (Acquisition) _ klasikuri ganpirobebulobis eqsperimentis stadia, romlis d rosac ganpirobebuli reaqcia pirvlad aris gamowveuli ganpirobebuli stimuliT. ganp irobebulobis procesi rogor viRebT ganupirobebeli da ganpirobvebuli stimulebis da mTxveviT klasikuri ganpirobebulobis efeqts? ramdenad myifea daswavla? ramdenad myaria aso ciaciebi? am TavSi vupasuxebT im kiTxvebs, romlebic ibadeba cxovelTa saxeobebze Catarebuli sxvadasxva kvlevebis Sedegad. SeZena da Caqroba saerTod, ganupirobebeli da ganpirobebuli stimulebi ramdenjermeE unda dawyvildes, sanam ganpirobebuli stimuli gamoiwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias. ganupirobebeli da ganpirobebuli stimulebis sistematuri dawyvilebiT, ganpirobebuli reaqcia aRmocen deba mzardi sixSiriT da amitom SegviZlia, vTqvaT, rom organizmma SeiZina ganpiro bebuli reaqcia. klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi, iseve, rogroc kargi anegdotis moyoli s dros, dro Zalian mniSvnelovania. ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli stimulebi dro Si ukiduresad axlos unda gamovlindnen imisaTvis, rom organizmma isini dakavSireb ulad aRiqvas. (am wesis gamonakliss aRvwerT mogvianebiT sxva TavSi gemos aversii s daswavlasTan dakavSirebiT) mkvlevrebma SeimuSaves oTxi droiTi paterni or stimu ls Soris. yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli tipia Seferxebuli ganpirobebuloba, romelSi c jer Cndeba da narCundeba ganpirobebuli stimuli manam, sanam ar gamovlindeba ga nupirobebeli stimuli. kvalis ganpirobebulobaSi ganpirobebuli stimuli Sewyvetilia , sanam gamovlindeba ganupirobebeli stimuli. kvalSi igulisxmeba is gavlena, Tu n akvalevi, rac SeiZleba organizmze daetovebina ganpirobebul

67 stimuls. Tanxvedril ganpirobebulobaSi orive stimuli gamovlenilia erTdroulad. xol o droSi gadaweul ganpirobebulobaSi ganpirobebuli stimuli gamovlenilia ganupirobe belis Semdeg. ganpirobebuloba, Cveulebriv, yvelaze efeqturia Seferxebuli ganpiro bebulobis paradigmaSi anu mokle intervaliT or stimuls Soris. Tumca, zusti dro, r omelic saWiroa ganpirobebulobis aRmocenebisaTvis, damokidebulia ramdenime faqtor ze – magaliTad, ganpirobebuli stimulis intensivobasa da ganpirobebul reaqciaze. Se vCerdeT ganpirobebul reaqciaze. kunTuri reaqciebisaTvis, iseTebisaTvis, rogorica a Tvalebis xamxami, magaliTad, erTiwamiani an naklebi intrvalia saukeTeso. visce raluri reaqciebisaTvis, rogoricaa guliscema da nerwyvis gamoyofa, intervali SeiZ leba gaizardos 10-15 wamamde. ganpirobebuli SiSis aRmocenebisaTvis ki saWiroa ki dev ufro didi intervali, wamebi da zogjer wuTebic ki. ganpirobebuloba iSviaTad a Rmocendeba Tanxvedri an droSi gadaweuli procesebis dros. droSi gadaweuli ganpiro bebulobis aRmoceneba SeiZleba SevityoT ramdenime wyviluri gamovlinebis Semdeg. m agram igi maleve qreba, radgan cxoveli swavlobs, rom ganpirobebul stimuls mohyve ba ganupirobebeli stimuli. orive SemTxvevaSi ganpirobebuloba sustia, radgan ganp irobebuli stimuli ar niSnavs ganupirobeblis aRmocenebas. (winaswarmetyvelebisa d a SemTxveviTobis mniSvnelobas momdevno TavSi davubrundebiT) magram ra emarTeba g anpirobebul stimuls, (magaliTad, xma) romelic aRar winaswarmetyvelebs ganupirobe bel stimuls (saWmlis fxvnili). aseT garemoebaSi, ganpirobebuli reaqcia (nerwyvis gamoyofa) droTa ganmavlobaSi sustdeba da TandaTan saerTod aRar vlindeba. rodesa c ganpirobebuli reaqcia saerTod aRar vlindeba ganpirobebuli stimulis an ganupiro bebeli stimulis Semdeg, adgili aqvs Caqrobis process (ix. suraTi 7.3, nawili 2) ganpirobebuli reaqciebis mudmivoba araa organizmis qceviTi repertuaris ZiriTadi aspeqti. Tumca, ganpiroebulma reaqciam SeiZleba susti formiT Tavi Segvaxsenos, T uki ganpirobebuli stimuli marto aRmocenda. (ix. suraTi 7.3, nawili 3) pavlovi am movlenas swavlobda gansazRvruli drois Semdeg, ganupirobebeli stimulis eqpozicii s gareSe da mas spontanuri droebiTi aRmoceneba uwoda. rodesac sawyisi dawyvileba aRdgenilia, Caqrobis Semdeg, ganpirobebuli stimuli sagrZnoblad Zlierdeba. es ue cari daswavla dakavSirebulia im maragTan, romelic pirvelad daswavlam gamoiwvia d a amitom amjerad naklebi droa saWiro axali asociaciis asaTviseblad. ase rom, zog ierTma

68 eqsperimentulma asociaciam SeiZleba Caqrobis Semdegac Seaxsenos organizms Tavi. sxva sityvebiT, Caqrobam mxolod Seasusta daswavluli asociaciis gamovlena da ara saerTod amoSala mocemuli paterni. swored amitom unda gavmijnoT daswavla da gamov lenis xarisxi daswavlis sawyis ganmartebaSi. • Caqroba (Extinction) _ ganpirobebulobaSi, ganupirobebeli stimulis an ganmamtkice blis Sesusteba ar arsebobis Sedegad ganpirobebuli asociaciis • spontanuri aRdgena (Spontaneous recovery) _ Camqvrali ganpirobebuli reaqciis xelaxali gamovlena garkveuli periodis Semdeg. • generalizeba stimulis generalizeba (Stimulus generalization) _ ganpirobebuli sti mulis avtomaturi ganvrcoba yvela im msgavs stimulze, romelic ar yofila Sewyvileb uli ganupirobebel stimulTan. stimulis ganzogadeba (generalizacia) davuSvaT, rom ZaRlma iswavla: garkveuli sixSiris zaris xma niSnavs sakvebis miRe bas. specifikuria Tu ara ZaRlis reaqcia mxolod am stimulis mimarT? araa gasakvir i, rom am kiTxvis pasuxia „ara“. zogadad, radgan erTxel gansazRvrulma ganpirobebulma stimulma gamoiwvia gansazRvruli ganpirobebuli reaqcia, msgavsma stimulma SeiZle ba imave warmatebiT gamoiwvios msgavsi reaqcia. magaliTad, Tu ganpirobebuloba da kavSirebuli iyo maRali sixSiris mqone zarTan, dabali sixSirec gamoiwvevda ganpir obebul reaqcias. bavSvs, romelsac ukbens didi ZaRli, am SemTvevis Semdeg patara ZaRlebisac SeeSindeba. am avtomatur dawyvilebas iseTi stimulisa, romelic arasdro s yofila dakavSirebuli ganupirobebel reaqciasTan, ewodeba ganzogadeba. stimulis ganzogadeba rac ufro mimsgavsebulia mocemuli stimuli sawyis ganpirobebul stimulT an, miT ufro Zlieri iqneba reaqcia. rodesac reaqciis siZliere izomeba mocemul ga nzomilebaSi yoveli SemTxvevisaTvis, cxadi xdeba generalizaciis gradienti. (suraT i 7.5) sur. 7.5 stimulis ganzogadebis gradientebi saSualo mwvaneze ganpirobebulobis aRmocenebis Semdeg subieqti reagirebs msgavsi Tvisebis mqone stimulzec, rogorc es naCvenebia sqemis a nawilSi, sust generaliza ciaSi. magram rodesac subieqts miewodeba ferebis ufro farTo speqtri, reaqciebi m iT ufro sustdeba, rac ufro Sorsaa miwodebuli feri sawyisi stimulisagan. ganzogad ebis gradienti xdeba Zalian Zlieri, rogorc es

69 sqemisBb nawilSia mocemuli. eqsperimentators SeuZlia ganzogadebis gradientis Sec vla subieqtisTvis dikrimnaciuli wrTvnis Catarebis Semdeg. aseT SemTxvevaSi saSua lo mwvane stimuli dawyvildeboda ganupirobebel stimulTan. generalizaciis gradientis arsebobam Tavad unda gvikarnaxos klasikuri ganpirobebu lobis meqanizmi yoveldRiur gamocdilebaSi. radgan mniSvnelovani stimuli bunebaSi iSviaTad vlindeba zustad erTi da imave formiT, stimulis ganzogadebis faqtori afa rToebs daswavlis speqtrs sawyisi gamocidlebis miRmac. amgavrad, axali movlena Si eZleba aRqmuli iqnas, rogorc imave Sinaarsis an qceviTi mniSvnelobis mqone, miux edavad aSkara gansxvavebebisa. stimulis diskriminacia zogierT garmeoebaSi mniSvnelovania, rom reaqcia mxolod stimulis mcire raodenobaz e aRmocendes. magaliTad, organizmma ar unda gadatvirTos sakuTari Tavi imiT, rom yvelanairi cxovelisagan garbodes, romelic namdvil mtacebels waagavs. stimulis di skriminacia aris procesi, romlis drosac organizmi swavlobs, gansxvavebuli reaqci a moaxdinos erTi da imave saxis gansxvavebul stimulebze (magaliTad, gansxvaveba wyalsa da zeTs Soris) . organizmis mier stimulis diskrimnaciis daswavla SeiZleba eqsperimentuli procesiT, romlis drosac sxvadasxva intensivobis zaris SemTxvevaS i, mxolod, magaliTad, 1,200 herci sixSiris zars mohyveba ganupirobebeli stimuli, xolo sxvebi, meordebian amis gareSe. ganpirobebulobis pirvel etapze ganpirobebu li stimulis msgavsi stimuli warmoSobs msgavss reaqcias, Tumca, arc ise Zliers. d iskrimaniciis treningis gagrZelebasTan erTad reaqcia sxva msgavs stimulebze kleb ulobs. organizmi TandaTan swavlobs, romeli stimuli moaswavebs ganupirobebel stim uls da romeli _ ara. organizmisaTvis, imisaTvis, rom man qceva optimalurad, saWi ro drosa da adgilas gamoavlinos, unda arsebobdes balansi stimulis diskriminacias a da ganzogadebas Soris. ar aris saWiro, rom bevri dro daeTmos stimulis diskrimi nacias, amasobaSi, SesaZloa mtaceblis arseboba gamogvrCes da arc zedmeti reaqcia a saWiro, raTa yvela Crdili ar gvaSinebdes. klasikuri ganpirobebuloba organizms uzrunvelyofs meqanizmiT, romelic saSualebas aZlevs am ukanasknels, Sesabamisad r eagirebdes garemos struqturebze. (Garcia, 1990) • stimulis diskriminacia (stimulus discrimination) _ ganpirobebulobis procesi,

70 romlis drosac organizmi swavlobs imas, rom gansxvavebulad upasuxos gamRizianebel s (stimuls), romelic ganpirobebuli stimulisagan raime ganzomilebiT gansxvavdeba. SeZena am qveTavSi ufro vrclad ganvixilavT im pirobebs, romlebic saWiroa klasik uri ganpirobebulobisaTvis: aqamde Cven aRvwereT klasikurad ganpirobebuli reaqcie bis SeZena, Tumca ar agvicsnia es fenomeni. pavlovi Tvlida, rom klasikuri ganpir obebuloba Sedegia ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli stimulebis dawyvilebisa. misi azriT, Tu reaqcia klasikuradaa ganpirobebuli, ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli st imulebi droSi TiTqmis erTdroulad unda gamovlindnen anu adgili hqondes droSi Tanx vedras. Tumca, Tanamedrove kvlevebma erTgvarad Secvales es Sexeduleba. pirobiTi ganmtkiceba klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi dominanti 1960 wlamde pavlovis Teoria iyo. 1960 wels robert reskolam (Robert Rescorla 1966) Caatara erTob mravlismTqmeli eqsperimenti , romelSic ZaRli gamoiyena, rogorc cdis subieqti. reskorlas eqsperimentSi zari ( ganpiroebuli stimuli) emTxveoda Soks (ganupirobebeli stimuli), rac, Tu pavlovi s worad msjelobda, sakmarisi iqneboda klasikuri ganpirobebulobis aRmocenebisaTvis. saidan viciT klasikuri ganpirobebulobis mniSvneloba eqsperimentis pirvel fazaSi reskorla wrTvnida ZaRlebs _ gadamxtariyvnen barierze ise, rom aridebodnen masSi gamaval eleqtroSoks. Tu ZaRli ver SeZlebda gadaxtomas, iRebda eleqtroSoks. Tu g adaxtomas moaxerxebda, eleqtro Soks airidebda. ZaRlebis gadaxtomis sixSires resk orla iyenebda SiSis ganpirobebulobis gasazomad. rodesac ZaRlebma daiswavles bari erze xtoma, reskorlam isini or jgufad dayo da axali amocana dausaxa. SemTxveviT SerCevas ganupirobebeli stimuli (Soki) eZleoda spontanurad da ganpirobebuli stim ulisagan (zarisgan) damoukideblad. miuxedavad imisa, rom ganpirobebuli da ganupi robebeli stimulebi xSirad vlindebodnen droSi erTmaneTTan axlos an erTad, isini S emTxveviT, droebiT iyvnen

71 Tanxvedrilni - ganupirobebeli stimuli SeiZleba imave warmatebiT ganpirobebuli st imulis gareSec gamovleniliyo. xolo sakontrolo jgufisaTvis ganupirobebeli stimuli yovelTvis mohyveboda ganpirobebul stimuls. amgvarad, am jgufisTvis zari sando m omaswavebeli iyo eleqtroSokisa. wrTvnis Semdeg ZaRlebi kvlav moaTavses saeqsperi mento yuTebSi. zari, romelic Soks moaswavebda, axla periodulad rekavda. ZaRlebi SemTxveviTi SerCevidan (ganpirobebuli-ganupirobebeli kavSiri) xtebodnen meti six SiriT, vidre ZaRlebi meore SerCevidan. amgvarad, imis garda, rom ganpirobebuli s timuli droSi Tanxvedrili unda iyos ganupirobebelTan, is, agreTve, sandod unda mo aswavebdes ganupirobebel stimuls – es ori piroba aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom adgili hqondes klasikur ganpirobebulobas (Rescola, 1988) es aRmoCena sakmaod mniSvnelovania – cxovrebiseul situaciebSi, sadac daswavla exmareba adamians adapta ciaSi, stimuli gacilebiT ufro difuzuria, vidre laboratoriaSi. informatiuloba informatiuloba reskorlas kvlevam aCvena, rom pirobiTi ganmtkiceba gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs klas ikur ganpirobebulobaSi. leon kaminma (Leon Kamin, 1969) aCvena, rom ganpirobebul i stimuli SeiZleba iyos informatiuli. saidan viciT informatiulobasac aqvs mniSvn eloba kaminis kvlevaSi CarTuli iyo virTxebis 2 jgufi. eqsperimentuli jgufi pirve lad iwrTvneboda saxelurisTvis xelis daWeraSi zaris rekvis dros (ganpirobebuli st imuli) Sokis Tavidan asacileblad (ganupirobebeli stimuli). amis Semdeg eqsperime nts daemata kidev erTi ganpirobebuli stimuli – sinaTle. amjerad ganupirobebel stim uls ukve ori ganpirobebuli stimuli moaswavebda – zari da sinaTle. sakontrolo jgufS i vlindeboda mxolod zari-sinaTle-Sokis Tanxvedra. anu am jgufSi zari ar moaswave bda Soks. amis Semdeg kaminma Seamowma orive jgufSi SiSis ganpirobebuloba mxolod Suqze an mxolod zarze. Tu pirobiTi ganmtkiceba sakmarisia klasikuri ganpirobebu lobis asaxsnelad, maSin virTxebis orive jgufs erTnairad unda epauxa zarsa da Suq ze, magram eqsperimentuli virTxebi reagirebdnen mxolod zarze da ara _ sinaTleze,

72 roca sakontrolo jgufSi virTxebs erTnairi reaqcia hqondaT sinaTlesa da zarze. (Ka min, 1969) kaminma eqsperimentebis Sedegebi ganpirobebuli stimulis informatiulob is konteqstSi axsna. eqsperimentuli virTxebisaTvis zarTan dakavSirebulma gamocdi lebam aqtualoba daukarga zars, rogorc ganupirobebeli_stimulis momaswavebels. vir TxebisaTvis sinaTle SeiZleboda arc arsebuliyo, radgan is aranair damatebiT infor macias ar iZleoda. pirveli ganpirobebuli stimulis unars, Seamciros meores inform atiuloba, ewodeba blokireba. virTxebis sakontrolo jgufisaTvis zari da sinaTle er Tnairad informatiuli iyo, maT ar hqondaT warsuli gamocdileba dakavSirebuli romel ime maTganTan, amitom erTma ar Seamcira meores informatiuloba. informatiuloba xs nis, ratom vlindeba ganpirobebuloba yvelaze xSirad maSin, rodesac ganpirobebuli stimuli upirsipirdeba garemoSi arsebul sxva mraval stimuls. rac ufro intensiuria da konkretulia stimuli, miT ufro didia misi SemCnevis albaToba. Tu gindaT, rom kargi ganpirobebuloba miiRoT, unda warmoadginoT an Zlieri, ucxo stimuli ucnob garemoSi, an Zlieri, nac nobi stimuli ucxo situaciaSi (Kalat, 1974; Lubow et al., 1976). cxadi xdeba, rom klasikuri ganpirobebuloba bevrad ufro rTuli meqanizmia, vidre amas pavlovi warm oidgenda. neitraluri stimuli efeqtur ganpirobebul stimulad iqceva mxolod maSin, Tu is erTdroulad Tanxvedirli da, amasTan, informatiulia. modiT, axla yuradReba i m cxovrebiseul situaciaze mivmarToT, romelSic klasikuri ganpirobebuloba did rols asrulebs. • blokireba (Blocking) ) ( – fenomeni, romlis drosac organizmi ar daiswavlis axal stimuls, radgan axali stimuli warmodgenilia ukve arsebul efeqtur signalTan erTad. klasikuri ganpirobebulobis TvalsaCinoebebi klasikuri ganpirobebulobis codna gvex mareba, gavigoT yoveldRiuri qceva. magaliTad, ra roli aqvs mas emociebsa da upir atesobaTa miniWebaSi, sxvadasxva nivTierebebze dmaokidebulebaSi, dabolos, rogor SeiZleba klasikuri ganpirobebuloba gamoviyenoT imunologiuri funqciis gasamdidreb lad. emociebi da upiratesobebis miniWeba

73 gavixsenoT magaliTi saSinelebaTa filmis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi aracnobierad dav iswavleT asociacia SemaSinebel musikasa (ganpirobebeuli stimuli) da gansazRvrul movlenebs Soris (ganupirobebeli stimuli – movlenebi, romelbic refleqsur reaqciebs iwveven). Tu kargad CavuRrmavdebiT, aRmoCndeba, rom bevr movlenaze gvaqvs Zlieri emociuri reaqcia, ris mizezsac xSirad ver vxsniT. SeiZleba Tu ara, es klasikuri ganpirobebulobis Sedegi iyos? ganvixiloT situaciebi: (Rozin and allon, 1987; R ozin at all 1986) SeWamdiT Tu ara gaurkvevel sakvebs, romelsac ubralod ZaRlis sasqeso organos forma aqvs? dalevdiT Tu ara wylisa da Saqris xsnars, tuki Saqari Cayares im yuTidan romelsac SecdomiT ewera “Sxami”? dalevdiT Tu ara vaSlis wvens, romelSic ster ilizebuli tarakani tivtivebs? Tu yovel situaciaze upasuxebT „araviTar SemTxvevaSi“, es imas niSnavs, ro m klasikurma ganpirobebulobam iTamaSa Tavisi roli. klasikurad ganpirobebuli reaq cia: „es sazizRrobaa“ an „saxifaToa“, Sedegia aqamde miRebuli codnisa Tu gamocdilebisa. radgan klasikurad ganpirobebuli reaqcia araa cnobierad gaCenili azris Sedegi, Za lian Znelia igi cnobieri mizez-SedegobriobiT CavaqroT. erT-erTi yvelaze aqtiurad Seswavlili aspeqti klasikuri ganpirobebulobisa aris SiSis ganpirobebuloba. bihe viorizmis sawyis etapze jon uotsonma da misma kolegam rozalin rainerma daadastur es, rom SiSis reaqciebis umetesoba unda gavigoT, rogorc neitraluri stimulis dawy vileba raime SiSis momgvrelTan. am ideis dasamtkiceblad maT Caatares eqsperiment i patara albertze. saidan viciT patara albertis SeZenili SiSi uotsonma da rainer ma (1920) patara alberti daaSines patara TeTri virTxiT, romelic Tavidan Zalian m oswonda. maT TeTri virTxis gamoCena daawyviles aversiul ganupirobebel stimulTan – bavSvis uknidan momdinare xmaurTan, romelic gamowveuli iyo liTonis firfitaze Caq uCis dartymiT. SekrTomis ganupirobebeli reaqcia da emociuri distresi gaxda mizez i daswavlisa: alberti SiSiT reagirebda TeTri virTxis danaxvaze

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74 ukve 7 cdis Semdeg. emociuri ganpirobebuloba ganzogadda qceviT ganpirobebulobaSi , radgan albertma iswavla virTxisaTvis Tavis arideba, misgan gaqceva. amis Semde g bavSvis SiSi ganzogadda saerTod bewvian sagnebze – baWiaze, ZaRlze da santa klau sis niRabzec ki. albertis dedam, romelic meddad muSaobda imave hospitalSi, sadac eqsperimenti tardeboda, manamde waiyvana igi, vidre mas SiSs mouxsnidnen, amito m aravin icis, ra bedi ewia mas (Harris, 1962) axla cnobilia, rom ganpirobebuli SiSi Zalian gamZlea. drois gasvlasTan erTad adamians SeiZleba daaviwydes kidec, ratom vlindeba reaqcia. ganpirobebuli SiSi SeiZleba arsebobdes wlebis manZilze, maSinac ki, roca sawyisi ganupirobebeli stimuli aRarasodes aRmocenebula gamocdil ebaSi. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma daadastures, rom meore msoflio omidan 15 wlis gasv lis Semdeg veteran mezRvaurebs jer kidev hqondaT reaqcia „safrTxis niSanze“ – omis dro s mezRvaurebs sabrZolad uxmobda gongi – wuTSi 100-jer darekili zari. es gansakuTre buli smeniTi paterni, romelic Tavis droze sandod moaswavebda safrTxes, axlac agr Zelebs Zlieri emociebis gamowvevas veteranebSi (Edwards & Acker, 1962) sainteres oa, rom Tu Zlieri SiSia CarTuli, ganpirobebulobas SeiZleba adgili hqondes neitra luri stimulisa da ganupirobebeli stimulis mxolod erTxel dawyvilebiT. erTi travma tuli movlena SeiZleba ganapirobebdes fizikur, emociur da kognitur reaqciebs – es S eiZleba mTeli cxovreba gagrZeldes. magaliTad, erTi Cveni megobari mZime avariaSi moyva Weqa-quxilis dros. axla yovel jerze, rodesac is saWesTan zis da wvimdeba, mas ewyeba panikuri SiSi, im donemde, rom zogjer manqanasac aCerebs da elodeba, sanam wvima gadaiRebs. erTxel igi gadacocda manqanis ukana nawilSi da daemxo Zi rs, pirisaxiT qveviT, sanam wvima Sewydeboda. me-16 TavSi Cven vnaxavT, rom Tera pevtebma SeimuSaves mkurnalobis gzebi aseTi saxis SiSebisaTvis, romlebic TiTqos uaryofdnen klasikuri ganpirobebulobis efeqturobas. magram yovelive zemoT moTxrob ili ar niSnavs, rom mxolod uaryofiT reaqciebia klasikurad ganpirobebuli. piriqiT , bednierebisa da aRfrTovanebis reaqciebic SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc klasikura d ganpirobebuli. cxadia, rom reklamis Semqmnelebi swored klasikuri ganpirobebulo bis meqanizms eyrdnobian, rogorc dadebiT Zalas. magaliTad, isini amyareben asoci aciebs TavianT produqtsa da vnebas Soris (jinsebi, sunamoebi da misT). isini ime dovneben, rom maTi reklamebis verbaluri elementebi, magaliTad,

75 „seqsualuri“, adamianebisa Tu situaciebis aRsawerad, imoqmedeben, ganupirobebli stim ulisa da reaqciis gamosavlenad. maT gaTvlili aqvT, rom produqti TavisTavad iqcev a ganpirobebul stimulad, xolo misi yidvis procesi – ganpirobebul reaqciad. imisaTv is, rom moviZioT dadebiTi emociebis met magaliTebi, sakmarisia, davfiqrdeT im mo mentebze, rodis gvaqvs dadebiTi gancdebisa da emociebis mozRvaveba – magaliTad, ro ca xangrZlivi mogzaurobis Semdeg saxlSi vbrundebiT. nivTierebebze damokidebuleba ganvixiloT erTi SemTxveva: manhetenze ipoves kacis cxedari, romelsac mklavSi Car Cenili hqonda Sprici. sikvdilis mizezad narkotikis zedmeti doza daasaxeles, magr am aRmoCnda, rom es kaci regularulad iRebda gacilebiT ufro did dozebs, vidre man sikvdilis win miiRo. am SemTxvevam aaforiaqa mkvlevarebi – rogor SeiZleboda aseT dozas moekla organizmi, romelsac sakmaod didi mimRebloba hqonda am nivTierebis m imarT? pavlovma (1927) da mogvianebiT misma kolegam bikovma (1957) aRmoaCines, r om mimRebloba narkotikebis mimarT SeiZleba maSin ganviTardes, rodesac adamiani e lodeba wamlis farmakologiur moqmedebas. Tanmedrove mkvlevarma Sefard sigelma (Sh epard Siegel) daxvewa es ideebi. igi Tvlida, rom is garemo, romelSic gamoiyeneba wamali, aqcevs mas ganpirobebul stimulad im situaciisaTvis, romelSic organizmi ewinaaRmdegeba wamlis Cveul efeqts. wamlis miRebisas wamali (ganupirobebeli stim uli) iwvevs gansazRvrul fiziologiur reaqciebs, razec organizmi reagirebs sawinaa Rmdegod homeostazis damyarebis mizniT. (ixileT Tavi 3) swored esaa am SemTxvevaS i ganupirobebeli reaqcia. droTa ganmavlobaSi kompensatoruli reaqciac xdeba ganpi robebuli reaqcia. es niSnavs, rom garemoSi, romelic Cveulebriv, asocirebulia wam lis gamoyenebasTan (ganpirobebuli stimuli), organizmi fiziologiurad amzadebs Tav s (ganpirobebuli reaqcia) wamlis mosalodneli efeqtebisaTvis. mimRebloba Cndeba i mitom, rom individis mier moxmarebuli wamali metia kompensatorul reaqciaze, sana m daiwyeba raime saxis „dadebiTi“ efeqti. mzardi doza niSnavs, rom izrdeba kompensat oruli reaqciac. sigelma es ideebi gamoscada laboratoriaSi, gamoumuSava ra virTxe bs mimRebloba heroinis mimarT. saidan viciT narkotikul nivTierebebze damokidebul ebis ganpirobebulobis aspeqtebi

76 erT-erT kvlevaSi sigelma da misma kolegebma gamoiwvies virTxebSi heroinis ineqci is molodini – erT SemTxvevaSi (ganpirobebuli stimuli 1) da deqstrozis (tkbili Saqa ri) – meoreSi (ganpirobebuli stimuli 2) (Siegel et al., 1982) wrTvnis pirvel fazaS i yvela virTxas ganuviTarda mimRebloba heroinis mimarT. sakontrolo dRes yvela vi rTxam miiRo heroinis Cveulebrivze didi, TiTqmis orjer meti doza. virTxebis naxev ars heroini ukve miRebuli hqonda, xolo meore naxevars ganpirobebulobisaTvis eZle oda deqstrozi. ukanaskneli jgufidan mokvda orjer meti (64) virTxa, vidre pirveli dan (32). savaraudod, virTxebi, romlebic iRebdnen heroins, ufro momzadebulebi iy vnen am potenciurad saxifaTo situaciisaTvis, radgan konteqstma (ganpirobebuli st imuli-1) gamoiwvia iseTi fiziologiuri reaqcia (ganpirobebuli reaqcia-1) romelmac winaaRmdegoba gauwia wamlis tipiuri efeqti (Poulos & Cappell, 1991 imis gamosak vlevad, igive process SeiZleba Tu ara adgili hqondes adamianebSi, sigelma da mis ma kolegebma gamoikiTxes heroinze damokidebulni, romlebic araerTxel sikvdili pir as iyvnen misulni zedmeti dozis gamo. aTidan Svid SemTxvevaSi wamali miRebuli iy o axal da ucxo garemoSi. (Siegel, 1984) miuxedavad imisa, rom es aranair monacem ebs ar gvaZlevs, cxadi xdeba, rom doza, romlis mimarTac individs SemuSavebuli aq vs mimRebloba, SeiZleba zedmet, momakvidenebel dozad iqces ucxo garemoSi. es ana lizi gveubneba, rom manhetenze napovn kacs arasodes gaukeTebia wamali swored im adgilas, sadac igi ipoves. miuxedavad imisa, rom mocemuli kvleva exeboda heroins , klasikuri ganpirobebuloba mniSvnelovani komponentia sxvadasxva wamlis mimarT m imReblobis gazrdaSi (Goodison & Siegel, 1995; Poulos & Cappell, 1991; Siegel, 19 99). ase rom, igive sawyisebi, romelsac pavlovi swavlobda ZaRlebis, zarebis da n erwyvis gamoyofasTan dakavSirebiT, gvexmareba avxsnaT zogierTi meqanizmi adamian is narkotikul nivTierebebze damokidebulebisa. klasikuri ganpirobebulobis gamoyeneba klasikuri adreul 1980-ian wlebSi mkvlevrebma gaakeTes aRmoCena, rom daswavlis procesebma S eiZleba gavlena iqonios organizmis imunur sistemaze. istoriulad dadasturebuli iy o, rom imunulogiuri reaqciebi __ antisxeulebis swrafi gamomuSaveba, raTa SeebrZo los im substanciebs,

77 romlebic organizms vneben __ iyo. avtomaturi, biologiuri procesebi, romlebSic ar monawileobda centraluri nervuli sistema. eqsperimentebma ganpirobebulobaze daaa dastura, rom es daskvnebi mcdaria. saidan viciT klasikuri ganpirobebuloba da imu nologiuri funqcia robert aderma da nikolas kohenma (Robert Ader and Nicholas Coh en, 1981) virTxebs aswavles saxarinis (ganpirobebuli stimuli) asocireba ciklofos famidTan (ganupirobebeli stimuli), wamalTan, romelic asustebs imunur sistemas. s akontrolo jgufi iRebda mxolod saxarins. mogvianebiT, roca virTxebis orive jgufs misces saxarini, im virTxebSi, romlebSic saxarini ciklofosfamidis asociacias iwv evda, warmoiSva metad naklebi antisxeulebi ucxo ujredebis mimarT, vidre sakontro lo jgufis virTxebSi. amgvarad, daswavlili asociacia sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis , rom Seemcirebina imuniteti da virTxebi ufro mowyvladi gaexada sxvadasxva daava debebis mimarT. daswavlis efeqti imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom zogierTi virTxa mokvda mxolod saxarinis xsnaris dalevis Semdeg. aseTma Sedegebma SeiZleba advilad migvi yvanos im daskvnamde, rom saWiroa klasikuri ganpirobebulobis aRmofxvra imunuri s istemis SesanarCuneblad. kvlevis axalma sferom, fsiqoneiroimunulogiam Seiswavla aseTi tipis fsiqoneiroimunulogiam, Sedegebi da am kvlevaSi Sedis fsiqologia, cen traluri nervuli sistema da imunuri sistema (Ader & Cohen, 1993; Coe, 1999). am a xali dargis mizania, aRmoaCinos axali teqnika, romelic saSualebas miscems ganpir obebulobas, Secvalos is medikamenturi dozebi, romlebsac xSirad seriozuli gverdiT i movlenebi aqvT. aderma da misma kolegam antoni suxmanma, magaliTad, aRmoaCines , rom maRali wnevis mqone pacientebs, romlebsac mouxsnes wamlebi, magram mkurnal obdnen placeboTi, wneva ufro didxans SeunarCundaT normis farglebSi, vidre maT, r omlebic ar iRebdnen placebo abebs (Suchman & Ader, 1989) rogor SeeZlo inertul ab ebs moesna maRali wnevis problema? pasuxi viciT winamdebare Tavidan, romelic exe boda narkotikuli nivTierebis mimarT mimReblobas. warmoidgineT rutina, romelic vi Tardeba wamlis regularulad miRebis dros. wamlis miRebis es rituali SeiZleba aRvi qvaT, rogorc ganpirobebuli stimuli, romelic moaswavebs ganupirobebel stimuls – wam lis miRebas – mxolod Tavad am aqtma SeiZleba

78 Seamciros sisxlis wneva. amgvarad, placebo, romelic ubralod qmnis rituals, iwvev s sasargeblo organul reaqcias. • fsiqoneiroimunulogia (Psychoneuroimmunology)– kvlev is dargi, romelic – swavlobs interaqcias iseT fiziologiur procesebs Soris, rogoric aa reaqcia stresze da imunuri sistemis funqcionireba. imisaTvis, rom kvlevis Sed egi samkurnalo meTodad iqces, mkvlevarebi unda darwmundnen, rom wamlis uaryofiTi efeqtebic ar gamovlindeba ganpirobebulobis Sedegad. mkvlevrebs imedi aqvT, rom SeimuSaveben teqnikas, romelic ganavrcobs da gazrdis imunur reaqciebs klasikuri ganpirobebulobis meSveobiT. saidan viciT^ imunuri reaqciis ganpirobebuli gaumjob eseba mecnierebis jgufma Seqmna ganpirobebulobis situacia, romelSic saxarinis ge mo dawyvilda lisozimTan, nivTierebasTan, romelic iwevevs reaqcias virTxis imunur sistemaSi. am paradigmaSi saxarini asrulebda ganpirobebuli stimulis rols, xolo lisozimi – ganupirobebeli stimulisas. dawyvileba mxolod erTxel moxda. miuxedavad a misa, rodesac virTxebis erT jgufs misces wayali, gazavebuli saxariniT, magram li sozimis gareSe, maT organizmebs hqondaT iseTive Zlieri imunuri reaqcia, rogoric meore jgufs, romelsac mxolod lizosimi miewoda (Alvarez-Borda et al., 1995) es eq smperimenti TvalsaCinoebaa imisa, rom mxolod erTi epizodi, sadac ganpirobebuli s timuli asocirebuli iyo ganupirobebel stimulTan, sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisTvis, rom imunuri reaqcia mxolod ganpirobebul stimulze warmoSobiliyo. amgvarad, cxadi xde ba klasikuri ganpirobebulobis potencia imunuri sistemis gasaZliereblad. vidre “fsi qologia da cxovreba”-s waikiTxavdiT, albaT Zalian cota ram icodiT klasikuri ganpir obebulobis Sesaxeb, Tu ar CavTvliT bundovan warmodgenas pavlovsa da mis ZaRlebze . vimedovnebT, rom ukve sakmaod kargad gaecaniT daswavlis am saxeobas, raTa daaf asoT misi mniSvneloba Tqvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. Semdegi Cveni gansjis sagani iqneba daswavlis iseTi saxeoba, romlis Sesaxebac, savaraudod, meti gifiqriaT, v idre fsiqologiis kursis Seswavlas daiwyebdiT. Tu Tqven odesme mainc gifiqriaT im aze, Tu

79 rogor cvlis qcevas dajildoveba da dasja, ukve erTi nabijiT win xarT operantuli g anpirobebulobis sakiTxSi. Sejameba mas Semdeg, rac pavlovma SemTxveviT aRmoaCina klasikuri ganpirobebulobis ZiriTadi principebi, mTeli Tavisi darCenili kariera im specipikur cvladebs dauTmo, romlebic ganpirobebulobaze gavlenas axdenen. klas ikur ganpirobebulobaSi, ganupirobebeli stimuli iwvevs refleqsur qcevas, romelsac ganupirobebeli pasuxi, reaqcia ewodeba. (unconditioned response). manamde neitr aluri, ganpirobebuli stimulis ganupirobebl stimulTan Sewyvilebis Semdeg, ganpiro bebuli stimuli iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias. drois faqtors didi mniSvneloba aqvs ganpirobebuli reaqciis SeZanisaTvis. stimulis generalizacias maSin aqvs adgili, rodesac ganpirobebuli stimulis msgavsi gamRizianebeli iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqc ias. cxovelebis gawrTvna SesaZlebelia ise, rom maT gadalaxon generalizacia da Se sZlon Sesatyvisi da Seusatyvisi ganpirobebuli stimulis garCeva, gansxvaveba. kla sikurad ganpirobebuli reaqciebis SeZena damokidebulia ganpirobebul da ganupirobe bel stimulebs Soris kontingentursa da informatiul damokidebulebaze. cxovrebiseul i magaliTebi klasikuri ganpirobebulobisa gvxvdeba emociebis, narkotikul nivTiere bebisadmi mimReblobisa da fsiqoneiroimunologiis sferoebSi. operantuli ganpirobeb uloba: swavla Sedegebis mixedviT davbrundeT kinoTeatrSi: saSinelebaTa filmi damT avrda da Tqven gaWirvebiT adeqiT Tqveni adgilidan. megobari, romelTan erTadac uy ureT films, gekiTxebaT, rogor imoqmeda filmma. Tqven pasuxobT: „me viswavle, rom s aSinelebaTa filmze aRar unda wamovide“. albaT, marTali xarT, magram ra saxis daswa vlaa es? pasuxs kidev erTxel gadavyavarT meoce saukunis dasawyisSi. efeqtis kano ni daaxloebiT imave dros, roca pavlovi muSaobda ZaRlebTan klasikur ganpirobebulo baze, eduard Torndaiki (Edward L. Thorndike, 1898) akvirdeboda katebs, romlebsac unda epovaT gamosasvleli yuTi-labirinTebidan. Torndaikma male gamoqveyna kidec misi dakvirvebebis Sedegebi da daskvnebi. Tavdapirvelad katebi ibrZvian mxolod d atyvevebis winaaRmdeg, magram radgan erTxel maTma

80 romeliRac impulsurma moqmedebam gamoiwvia karis gaReba, „yvela warumatebeli da gam ousadegari impulsebi CaixSo da win wamowia mxolod isini, romelsac SeiZleba kateb i mieyvana sasurvel Sedegamde“ (Thorndike, 1898, p.13). ra iswavles Torndaikis kat ebma? Torndaikis analizis mixedviT, daswavla iyo asociacia situaciis stimulsa da reaqcias Soris, romelic iswavla cxovelma, anu stimuli-reaqcia kavSiri (S-R). am gvarad, katebma iswavles iseTi reaqciis gamovlena, (magaliTad, Rilakze an kvanZz e kawrva) romelic gansazvruli stimulis pirobebSi (datyveveba labirinTSi) miiyvan s maT sasurvel miznamde (momentaluri Tavisufleba). gaiTvaliswineT, rom S-R kavSi ris daswavla TandaTanobiT moxda da, amasTan, cdisa da Secdomis meTodiT. etapobri vad, is qcevebi, romelTac dadebiTi Sedegi hqonda, gaxSirda, isini TandaTan iqca dominantur reaqciebad, rodesac cxoveli kvlav xvdeboda labirinTSi. Torndaikma am kavSirs qcevasa da mis Sedegs Soris efeqtis kanoni uwoda: reaqcia damakmayofileb eli SedegiT iZens met albaTobas miznis miRwevisas, vidre is reaqcia, romelic ara sasurvel Sedegs iwvevs. qcevis eqsperimentuli analizi skinerma aiTvisa Torndaiki s Sexeduleba imis Taobaze, rom garemo Sedegebi Zlier efeqts axdens qcevaze. skin erma SeimuSava kvlevis programa, romlis mizanic iyo stimulis ganpirobebulobis si stematuri variaciebis migneba, im meqanizmisa, romelic ganapirobebs gansazRvruli qcevis did albaTobas sxvadsaxva garemo pirobebSi. bunebrivi monacemebi qcevis mecnierebaSi isaa, rom gansazRvruli qceva gamovlinde ba gansazRvrul dros. eqperimentuli analizi ikvlevs albaTobas sixSiris an reaqcii s xarisxis terminebiT... eqsperimentuli analizis amocanaa, aRmoaCinos yvela is c vladi, romelzec damokidebulia reaqciis sixSire (Skinner, 1966, pp. 213-214) skineris analizi ufro eqsperimentuli iyo, vidre Teo riuli – Teoretikosebi xelmZRvaneloben derivaciebiTa da winaswametyvelebebiT sakuTa ri Teoriebidan, magram iseTi empiristebi, rogoric skineri iyo, eyrdnobian mxolod realur, konkretul monacemebs. isini iwyeben eqperimentis konteqtSi monacemebis SegrovebiT da ar arian mijaWvulni romelime Teorias. imisaTvis, rom qceva eqsperi mentulad gaeanalizebina, skinerma ganaviTara operantuli ganpirobebulobis procedu ra. igi manipulirebda organizmis Qqcevis SedegiT imisaTvis, rom enaxa, ra efeqts miiRebda. operantulia

81 nebismieri qceva, romelic SemuSavebulia organizmis mier da SeiZleba daxasiaTdes im dakvirvebadi, konkretuli gavleniT, rasac axdens garemoze. sityva-sityviT, ope rantuli niSnavs garemoze gavlenas, misiT operirebas (Skinner, 1938) operantuli q ceva ar aRmocendeba gansazRvruli stimuliT, rogorc es klasikur ganpirobebulobaSia . mtredebi kenkaven, virTxebi eZeben sakvebs, bavSvebi tirian, zogi adamiani lap arakisas xelebs iyenebs, zogs ki ena ebmis. am qcevaTa albaToba momavalSi SeiZle ba gaizardos an Semcirdes im Sedegebis mixedviT, rac maT mohyveba. magaliTisaTvi s, Tu bavSvi RuRuniT aCqarebs sasurvel kontaqts mSoblebTan, samomavlod igi ufro mets iRuRunebs. operantuli ganpirobebuloba amgvarad cvlis sxvadasxva operantuli qcevis albaTobas imdenad, ramdenadac isini, faqtiurad, gvevlinebian garemo Sedeg ebis funqciebad. Tavisi axali eqsperimentuli analizis gasagrZeleblad, skinerma S eqmna aparati, romlis meSveobiTac is akontrolebda qcevis Sedegs. mis mier Seqmni li operantuli kabina gamosaxulia suraTze 7.11 da naCvenebia, agreTve, rogor funq cionirebs igi/is. rodesac virTxa gamoimuSavebs qcevis im meqanizms, romelic eqpe rimentators aqvs gansazrvruli, virTxa aWers Rilaks da sanacvlod iRebs sakvebs. e s meqanizmi saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevars, ikvlios is cvladebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen daswavlaze an dauswavlelobaze. magaliTad, Tuki Rilakis daWeriT virTxa mx olod im SemTxvevaSi miiRebs sakvebs, Tuki kabinas Semouvlis (Seipingis procesiT, romelsac mogvianebiT SevexebiT), virTxa swrafad iswavlis, rom Rilakis daWeramde kabinas unda Semouaros. bevr operantul eqsperimentSi did interess iwevevs is pe riodi, romlis manZilzec cxovels SeiZleba axsovdes gansazRvruli qcevis paterni. m kvlevrebma Caiweres paterni da misi yoveli gamovlena eqperimentis manZilze. es m eTologia saSualebas miscemda skiners, gaerkvia pirobiTi ganmtkicebis efeqti cxov elis qcevaze. pirobiTi ganmtkiceba pirobiTi ganmtkiceba aris myari kavSiri reaqc iasa da garemos im cvlilebas Soris, romelsac es reaqcia iwvevs. • efeqtis kanoni ( Law of effect) _ aris daswavlis ZiriTadi kanoni, romelis mixedviTac stimulis Zal a, gamoavlinos reaqcia, Zlierdeba, rodesac reaqcias mohyveba jildo da sustdeba, rodesac mas ar mohyveba jildo.

82 • operanruli ganpirobebuloba (Operant conditioning) _ aris daswavlis forma, romelS ic reaqciis albaToba icvleba Sedegebis mixedviT. • operantuli qceva (Operant Behav ior) _ aris organizmis gamovlena, romelic xasiaTdeba dakvirvebadobiT im gavlenis mixedviT, rasac igi garemoze axdens. • pirobiTi ganmtkiceba (Reinforcement contin gency) _ aris myari kavSiri reaqciasa da garemos im cvlilebebs Soris, romlebsac es reaqcia iwvevs. magaliTad , warmovidginoT eqsperimenti, romelSic mtredis mier firfitis kenkvas (reaqcia) m oyveba marcvlebis miwodeba (Sesabamisi cvlileba garemoSi). es myari kavSiri anu pirobiTi ganmtkiceba, Cveulebriv, iwvevs kenkvis intensivobis gazrdas. imisaTvis , rom gavzardoT mxolod kenkvis qcevis sixSire, marcvlebi unda mivawodoT mxolod k enkvis Semdeg. miwodeba unda moxdes mkacrad kenkvis gansazRvruli periodis Semdeg da ara Tavis mitrialebisa da daxris qcevebis Semdeg. skineris Sromaze dayrdnobi T Tanamedrove bihevioraluri analizi cdilobs, qceva axsnas pirobiTi gantkicebis k onteqstSi. modiT, ufro axlos gavecnoT imas, Tu ra iqna aRmoCenili am pirobiT gan mamtkiceblebTan dakavSirebiT. • ganmamtkicebeli (reinforcer) _ SeiZleba iyos nebis mieri stimuli, romelic zrdis mocemuli reaqciis sixSiris albaTobas. • dadebiTi ganm tkiceba (Positive reinforcement) – qcevas mohyveba sasargeblo dadebiTi stimuli, ra c zrdis qcevis sixSiris albaTobas. • uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba (Ngative reinforcement) – qcevas mohyveba aversiuli stimulis Camocileba, rac zrdis am qcevis sixSiris alb aTobas. • operantulobis Caqroba (Operant extinction) – rodesac qceva aRar moaswavebs operantulobis aranair Sedegs, igi brundeba gamovlenis im sixSireze, romelzec iy o operantul ganpirobebulobamde. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba davuSvaT, SegipyroT ideam, rom Tqveni virTxa galiaSi wreze arbeninoT. aseTi qcev is sixSiris gasazrdelad saWiro gaxdeboda ganmamtkiceblis gamoyeneba. ganmamtkice beli aris nebismieri stimuli, romelic myaradaa qcevasTan dakavSirebuli da zrdis am qcevis gamovlenis sixSires droTa ganmavlobaSi. dasja aris damsjelis miwodeba garkveul reaqciaze. ganmamtkiceblebi yovelTvis empiriuladaa gansazRvruli – im efeq tis mixedviT, romelsac is qcevis sixSiris albaTobaze axdens. Tu gadaxedavT

83 samyaros Tqvens irgvliv, aRmoaCenT stimulTa sam klass: 1. stimuli, romlis mimarT ac neitralurad xarT ganwyobili, 2. stimuli, romelic gizidavT da 3. stimuli, rome lic aversiulia, anu cdilobT, Tavi aaridoT maT. cxadia, rom am stimulTa klasebis Semadgenloba gansxvavebuli iqneba TiToeuli individisaTvis. is, Tu ra aris mimzid veli da ra aversiuli, individualuri organizmis qceviT ganisazRvreba. magaliTad, marwyvi. miuxedavad imisa, rom marwyvi saerTod gemrielad iTvleba, zogierTi mas s aWmelad uvargisad Tvlis. Tu aseT adamians SesTavazebT marwyvs, konkretul qcevaze pasuxad miiRebT principulad gansxvavebul Sedegs, vidre maSin, marwyvis moyvarul s rom SesTavazoT. rodesac qcevas moyveba sasargeblo stimulis miwodeba, am movlen as ewodeba ganmtkiceba. dadebiTi ganmtkiceba virTxa Semouvlis yuTs, Tuki am qcev is Sedegi iqneba sakvebis miwodeba. adamianebi kvlavac moyvebian anegdotebs, Tuk i amis Sedegad miiReben xalxis sicilsa da aRfrTovanebas, rac, Tavis mxriv, maT s iamovnebas aniWebs. rodesac qcevas moyveba aversiuli stimulis CamoSoreba, am mov lenas ewodeba uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba magaliTad, adamiani, romelsac marwyvi ar gan mtkiceba. uyvars, ganaxorcielebs qcevas, romelic mas aaridebs marwyvis Wamas. qo lgis gamoyeneba wvimis dros imisaTvis, rom ar davsveldeT, klasikuri magaliTia ua ryofiTi ganmtkicebis efeqtisa. am SemTxvevaSi aversiuli stimulia dasveleba. qolg is gamoyenebiT ki Cven Tavidan vicilebT aversiul stimuls. manqanis usafrTxoebis Rvedis signalic, erTgvarad, uaryofiTi ganmamtkiceblis funqcias asrulebs; misi da mamcirebeli, Semawuxebeli xmis gaCereba SeiZleba, Tu mZRoli Rveds gadaiWers. imi saTvis, rom cxadad gavarCioT erTmaneTisgan dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba, da vimaxsovroT Semdegi kanonzomiereba: orive – dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba zrdi s im reaqciis albaTobas, romelic win uswrebs maT. dadebiTi ganmtkiceba zrdis rea qciis albaTobas sasargeblo stimulis miwodebiT, xolo uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba akeTeb s imaves, oRond sapirispiro meqanizmiT, aversiuli stimulis CamocilebiT, Semcireb iT an SeferxebiT. gavixsenoT, rom klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi Tu ganupirobebeli s timuli aRar mogvewodeba, ganpirobebuli reaqcia TandaTan qreba. igive kanonzomier eba ZalaSia operantuli ganpirobebulobis SemTxvevaSi: Tu ganmamtkicebeli mcirdeba an saerTod Camocilebulia, adgili aqvs operantul Caqrobas Caqrobas. amgvarad, Tu ki qceva aRar iwvevs mosalodnel efeqtsa da Sedegs, is brundeba im doneze, romelz ec iyo operantul ganpirobebulobamde. sakuTar Tavzec

84 dakvirvebisas araa Zneli, aRmovaCinoT qcevebi, romlebic erTi periodi ganmtkicebu li iyo da Semdeg Caqra. Tu gqoniaT SemTxveva, rom telefonis aparatSi fulis Cagde bisas moneta gaWedila, ver gilaparakiaT da dagirtyamT avtomatisTvis? Tuki am dro s fuli Cavarda avtomatSi, Tqven sxva drosac gaimorebT imave qcevas, radgan man e rTxel Sedegi moitana. magram momavalSi, Tuki Tqveni cda uSedegod dasrulda, maSin es qceva Caqreba. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi dasja albaT, icnobT qcevis Caqrobis sxva teqnikasac – dasjas. damsjelia nebismieri stimu li, romelic droTan ganmavlobaSi amcirebs ama Tu im reaqcias. dasja aris damsjeli s miwodeba, rasac moyveba reaqcia. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi dasja iseve SegviZlia g anvsazRvroT, rogorc dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba. rodesac qcevas moyveba av ersiuli stimuli, movlenas ewodeba dadebiTi dasja (SegiZlia dadebiTi daimaxsovro, rogorc raRac, rac situacias emateba) magaliTad, cxeli Rumelis Sexeba iwvevs tki vils, rac „sjis“ masze adre aRmocenebul qcevas, amitom momavalSi nakleb savaraudoa, rom cxel Rumels xeliT SeexoT. rodesac qcevas moyveba sasargeblo, sasurveli stimu lis Camocileba, movlenas vuwodebT uaryofiT dasjas dasjas. (uaryofiTi SegiZlia da imaxsovro, rogorc raime, rac akldeba situacias). amgvarad, rodesac mSobeli sjis bavSvs imisTvis, rom man daartya patara Zmas, bavSvi swavlobs, rom meored Zmas a Rar unda daaryas. romeli dasja xsnis, ratom aRar gindaT saSinelebaTa filmis naxv a? miuxedavad imisa, rom dasja da ganmtkiceba Zalian axlos mdgomi cnebebia, isin i mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan. amaze, pirvel rigSi, is migvaniSn ebs, rom maT sxvadasxva terminebiT aRvniSnavT. gansazRvrebis mixedviT, dasja yov elTvis amcirebs qcevas, gantkiceba ki yovelTvis zrdis mas. magaliTad, zogierT ad amians awuxebs Tavis mwvave tkivili, Tu miiRo kofeinis Semcveli sasmeli. Tavis t kivili aris stimuli, romelic dadebiTad sjis yavis dalevis qcevas. Tumca, Tavis t kivilis dros xalxi xSirad mimarTavs wamlebs tkivilis Casaqrobad. wamlis efeqti a ris stimuli, romelic uaryofiTad ganamtkicebs wamlis miRebas. 7.12 suraTze mocemu lia, rogor gamoviyenoT qcevis Secvlis es oTxi meqanizmi cxovrebaSi. diskriminaciuli stimuli da ganzogadeba nakleb savaraudoa, qcevis albaTobis Secvla yovelTvis gvindodes an gvWirdebodes. SeiZleba qcevis albaTobis Secvla dagvWirdes konkretul

85 konteqstSi. magaliTad, xSirad gvinda, gavzardoT imis albaToba, rom bavSvi wynara d ijdeba saklaso oTaxSi gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi. konkretuli asociaciebiT dasjis an ganmtkicebis meSveobiT gansazRvruli stimuli, romelic win uswrebs reaqcias – dis kriminaciul stimuls – qmnis am qcevis konteqsts. organizmi swavlobs, rom raime sti mulis TandaswrebiT maT qcevas gansazRvruli efeqti aqvs garemoze. magaliTad, quCa Si mwvane Suqis anTebisas ganmtkicebulia quCis gadakveTa; magram rodesac anTia w iTeli, aseTi qceva SeiZleba daisajos – amas SeiZleba Sedegad moyves jarima an ubed uri SemTxveva. skinerma SeimuSava stimuli-qceva-Sedegi formula, rogorc sampirobi ani albaToba (contigency) da Tvlida, rom swored es formula xsnida adamianis qmed ebis did nawils (Skinner, 1953). cxrili 7.1 aRwers, rogor SeiZleba sampirobianma albaTobam axsnas sxvadasxva ramdenime tipis qceva. laboratoriul pirobebSi qcevi s SedegebiT manipulirebiT, diskriminaciuli stimulis miwodebiT, SegviZlia vakontr oloT qceva. magaliTad, mtreds SeiZleba mivawodoT sakvebi, diskis kenkvisas mxolo d mwvane Suqis da ara wiTeli Suqis anTebis SemTxvevaSi. mwvane Suqi am SemTxveva Si diskriminaciuli stimulia, romelic sazRvravs im SemTxvevas, roca mtredma unda akenkos, xolo wiTeli Suqi aris diskriminaciuli stimuli, romelic sazRvravs im Sem Txvevas, roca mtredma ar unda akenkos. organizmi swrafad swavlobs pirobebis garC evas, reagirebs regularulad mxolod erTi stimulze da ar reagirebs meoreze. sampir obiani albaTobis komponentebis kontroliT SegviZlia qceva konkretul konteqstSi Ca vsvaT. organizmi, agreTve, anzogadebs reaqcias Tuki sxva stimulzec, reaqcia rome lic ganmkicda diskriminatiuli stimulis msgavsia. erTxel diskriminaciuli stimuliT, msgavsi stimulic SeiZleba iqces diskrimnaciul stimulad da igive reaqcia gamoiwvios. magaliTad, mterdebi, romlebic gawrTvnes, rom diski mxolod mwvane Suqis SemTxvevaSi unda ekenkaT, mainc akenkaven gansxvavebuli ton is mwvane Suqis SemTxvevaSic. analogiurad, Cven vanzogadebT mwvanis sxvadasxva t onebs SuqniSanze. cxrili 7.1. sampirobiani albaToba: damokidebuleba diskriminaciul sampirobiani st imuls, qcevasa da Sedegs Soris diskrimi naciuli stimuli sasmeleb reaqcia monetis Sedegi sasmelis 1 dadebiTi ganmtkiceba:

86 2 3 4 5 efeqturi signalis TandaswrebiT is iwvevs sasurvel Sedegs _ reaqcia avtomati izrd eba uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba: aversiuli situaciidan gamosvla operantuli sicxe reaqc iiT. reaqcia izrdeba. Caqroba: jambazu operantuli reaqcia araa ganmtkicebuli. ri . reaqcia mcirdeba. qceva dadebiTi dasja: reaqcias mohyva aversiuli asanTis lam azi stimuli. reaqcia mcirdeba, ganidevneba yuTi uaryofiTi dasja: reaqcias mohyva sasurveli stimulis Camocileba. sadili reaqcia ganidevna. Cagdeba miReba maraoTi ganiaveba aravin amCnevs asanTiT TamaSi Wamaze uari sicxis arideba sixSire kleb. dawva aranairi deserti • damsjeli sixSires. (Punisher) – nebismieri stimuli, romelic amcirebs reaqciis • dadebiTi damsjeli (Positive Punisment) – qcevas moyveba aversiuli stimuli, romelic amcirebs qcevis albaTobas. • uaryofiT damsjeli (Negative Punishment) – qcevas moyve ba sasurveli stimulis Camocileba, riTac mcirdeba am qcevis albaToba. • diskriminaciuli stimuli (Discriminative Punishment) – stimuli, romelic moaswavebs • sampirobiani ganmtkiceba s, radgan konkretuli qceva dadebiTad iyo ganmtkicebuli. albaToba (Three Term Con ingency) – meqanizmi, romliTac organizmi swavlobs, rom konkretuli stimulis SemTxvevaSi misi qceva gavlenas moax dens garemoze. ganmtkicebis albaTobis gamoyeneba Tu mzad xarT, Tqveni codna ukve samuSaod gamoiyenoT, gaiTvaliswineT Semdegi rCev ebi: rogor gansazRvravdiT im qcevas, romelic gindaT, rom ganamtkicoT CaaqroT? amisaTvis mizanSi amoiReT specifikuri qceva, romlis an sixSiris Secvlac gindaT. rodesac ganmamtkiceblebi ar aris pirobiTi, maSin mas na klebi efeqti aqvs qcevaze. magaliTad, Tuki mSobeli kargi saqcielisTvis iseve aqe bs Svils, rogorc cudi saqcielisTvis, bavSvi ar iswavlis kargad moqcevas – Tumca, d adebiTi ganmtkicebis gamo SeZleba gaizardos sxva qcevebis sixSire (ra qcevebi Se iZleba iyos es?)

87 rogor unda gansazRvroT konteqsti, romelSic qceva adekvaturi an araadekvaturia? gvaxsovdes, rom iSviaTad gvinda qcevis yvela aspeqtisa da gamovlenis Secvla. gavixsenoT magaliTi, romelSic mSobels undoda bavSvis iqneb a sasurveli sasurveli qcevis reaqcia gazrda klasSi. am msgavs SemTxvevaSi stimul ze. unda Tu, ganvsazRvroT diskriminaciuli stimuli da vikvlioT, ramdenad farTod ganzogadebuli magaliTad, bavSvma iswavla klasSi wynarad jdoma, ganzogaddeba Tu ara es qceva sx va seriozul situaciebSic? gangimtkicebiaT Tu ara raime qceva SemTxveviT? davuSvaT, gsurT romelime qcevis Caqroba. sanam mimarTavT dasjis meqanizms, rogorc qcevis Semcire bis saSualebas (ufro dawvrilebiT „fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi“-s seqciaSi), unda Sea mowmoT, SegiZliaT Tu ara moZebnoT ganmamtkiceblebi am qcevisTvis. Tu SesZlebT, m oaxerxebT, rom am ganmamtkiceblebis SezRudviT, mocemuli qceva CaaqroT. warmoidgi neT, magaliTad, rom axalgazrda ymawvili avlens didi raodenobiT tantrums. hkiTxeT sakuTars Tavs: „me xom ar ganvamtkice es tantrumebi, rodesac zedmet yuradRebas va qcevdi mis kivils?“ Tu asea, tantrumis Semcireba ganmtkicebis SemcirebiT SegiZliaT . ukeTesia, Caqrobis kombinireba dadebiT ganmtkicebasTan. qceviTi analitikosebi askvnian, rom nebismieri qceva, r omelic ewinaaRmdegeba Caqrobas, jer kidev eqvemdebareba ganmtkicebas. nebismieri qceva, amtkiceben isini, rac unda ucnauri an sascilo qcevac unda iyos, SeiZleba avxsnaT ganmtkicebiT. magaliTad, fsiqikuri aSlilobebis simptomebi zogjer imitom narCuneba, rom adamiani iRebs yuradRebas, TanagrZnobas da Tavisufldeba Cveulebr ivi pasuxismgeblobebisgan, rac ganmtkicebaa da meti araferi. es meoradi sargebel i ganamtkicebs iracionalur da, zogjer, TviTdestruqciul qcevas. Tu SegimCneviaT, rogoraa ganmtkicebuli morcxvobis qceva, miuxedavad imisa, rom morcxv adamians su lac ar unda, iyos morcxvi. ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia, yovelTvis davadginoT, ra g anmamtkicebeli moqmedebs garemodan ama Tu im qcevaze. Tumca, rodesac qceva xdeba metad an naklebad albaTuri, SegiZliaT scadoT cotaodeni qceviTi analizis Catareb a. rekomendirebulia, rom rac SeiZleba met SemTxvevaSi, qcevis Sesacvlelad unda g amoviyenoT dadebiTi ganmtkiceba. vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba avamoqmedoT sxvadasxva s agnebi da aqtivobebi, rogorc ganmamtkiceblebi. ganmamtkicebelTa Tvisebebi

88 ganmamtkiceblebi operantuli ganpirobebulobis energiis brokerebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos — isini cvlian an inarCuneben qcevas. ganmamtkiceblebs bevri sa intereso da kompleqsuri Tviseba aqvT. isini SeiZleba daswavlil iqnen gamocdilebi s Sedegad da ar iyvnen biologiurad ganpirobebuli da, SesaZloa, mogvevlinon aqtiv obebad da ara raime sagnebad. zog SemTxvevaSi, Cveuli Zlieri ganmamtkicebeli, SesaZloa, ar aRmoCndes sakmarisi imisaTvis, raTa dominan turi qceva Seicvalos (aseT SemTxvevaSi vityviT, rom qcevis Sedegebi ar yofila re aluri ganmamtkiceblebi). • pirveladi • pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli ganmamtkicebeli (Pri mary reinforcer) _ biologiurad gansazRvruli ganmamtkicebela, rogoricaa saWmeli da wyali. ganmamtkicebeli (Condi tioned reinforcer) – klasikuri ganpirobebulobis mixedviT aris yofili neitraluri stimuli, romelic ganmamtkicebla d iqca. pirobiTi ganmamtkiceblebi roca am qveyanas moevlineT auracxeli pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli dagxvdaT, magaliT ad, wyali da saWmeli, romelTa ganmamtkicebluri Taviseburebani bunebiT iyo gansaz Rvruli. droTa ganmavlobaSi bunebrivi stimuli asocirda pirvelad ganmamtkicebelTan da axla, rogorc pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli ise ganmamtkicebeli, gvevlineba operan tuli reaqciebis dros. faqtiurad, adamianis qcevis umetes wilze gavlenas xSirad s xvadasxva tipis pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli axdens da iSviaTad _ biologiuri pirvela di ganmamtkicebeli. fuli, niSnebi, mxardaWeris gamomxatveli Rimili, oqrosferi va rskvlavebi da bevri sxva simbolo im pirobiT ganmamtkicebelTa ricxvSi Sedis, roml ebic Cvens qcevas gansazRvravs. faqtobrivad, nebismieri stimuli SeiZleba iqces p irobiT ganmamtkiceblad Tu is pirvelad stimuls dauwyvildeba. erT eqsperimentSi ga moyenebuli iyo da eqsperimentatorebma vinaidan maSin, daadgines, (1) roca rom pi robiTi pirveladi stimulis martivi Jetonebi cxovelTa swavlebis dros. maswavlebleb ma vidre pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli ufro martivi gamosayenebelia da gacilebiT efeqturicaa, ganmamtki cebeli. klasSi ramodenime nebismieri ganmamtkicebeli yovelTvisaa gamovlena, romelsac maswavlebeli akontrolebs, SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnas pirobi T ganmamtkiceblad; (2) swrafad SeiZleba maTi gacema; (3) isini advilad gadasatan ia; (4) maTi ganmtkicebis efeqti ufro swrafia, radgan is

89 damokidebulia ganmamtkiceblis miRebaze da ara biologiur ganpirobebulobaze, rogorc es pirveladi ganmamtkiceblis drosaa. zogierT narkologi ur dawesebulebaSi, dispanserSi, magaliTad, fsiqiatriul am saavadmyofoSi principe bs an Jetonebis ekonomika emyareba. sasurveli qcevebi (magaliTad, medikamentis miReba) kargad ganimarteba da roca es qceva gamovlindeba, Jetonis saxiT sazRauri gaicema momsaxure personalis mier. m ogvianebiT, es Jetonebi pacientma SeiZleba gadacvalos sxva tipis jildoze an rame sxva es privilegiaze sistema (Kazdin, 1994; Martin& pacientis gazrdis Pear,1999).ganmamtkicebelTa gansakuTrebiT efeqturia qcevis modificirebisTvis, Tavis movlis qcevis TvalsazrisiT. gansakuTrebiT mniSvn elovania TvalsazrisiT. fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi dausjeloba afuWebs bavSvs? gj eraT Tqven am Tu ara, rom ,,gauwkeplaoba Tqven bavSvs afuWebs’’ anu bavSvebi, mSobel Ta dasjis maTi pozitiuri socialuri urTierTobebis romlebic zogjer mainc ar gaiwkeplebian, sabolood gafuWdebian? Tu gamonaTqvamis g jeraT, emsgavsebiT 35%-ma amerikel umetesobisa. 991 amerikeli mSoblidan aRiara fizikuri (magaliTad, mityepva, Semortyma) gamoyeneba Tavis 1-2 wlis SvilebTan da 94% iyen ebda fizikur dasjas Tavis 3-4 wlis asakis bavSvebTan (Straus & Stewart;1999). mS obelTa sxva 449Kkacian jgufSi, 93% mSoblebisa TviTon isjebodnen bavSvobaSi fizikurad, 87% eTanxmeboda dasjis am formas (Buntain-Rickl efs at al;1994). Tven xedavT, rom mityepva sakmaod xSiri dasjis meTodia da adami anebi, ZiriTadad, iyeneben mas, rogorc dasjis formas, magram ra aris dasjis am f ormis Sedegi? mkvlevrebma daiwyes amaze pasuxis gacema im SeasZlo kavSiris Ziebi T, rac mSoblebis mier fizikuri dasjis gamoyenebasa da bavSvis agresiul qcevas So

ris iyo. xalxuri sibrZnis sawinaaRmdegod, bevri Teoritikosis azriT, Tu mSoblebi iyeneben fizikur agresias Svilebis winaaRmdeg, im SemTvevaSic ki, Tu is gamoiyen eba araSesatyvisi qcevis Sesacvlelad, agresia gvevlineba bavSvebisaTvis qcevis modelad, rac situaciurad sxva individeb is qcevis kontrolSi vlindeba. ase rom, savaraudod, bavSvebi sakuTari ufro mSoble bisgan vityviT swavloben fizikuri swavlis agresiis Sesaxeb gamoyenebas (Cven Tav Si mets modelirebiT mogvianebiT,

90 ,,dakvirvebiT swavla“). rogor gamovikvlioT es hipoTeza? erT-erT aRsazrdeli kvlevaS i, sadac indianisa mSoblebs da tenesis 273 sabavSvo kiTxvari baRis imis monawileobda, sTxoves SeevsoT Sesaxeb, Tu fizikuri dasjis ra formebs iyenebdnen sakuTari bavSvebTan mimarTebaS i (Strassberg et al;1994). aqcenti bavSvebis dedebze iyo gakeTebuli. bavSvebis 6 %-s hyavda dedebi, romlebic arasodes iyenebdnen fizikur dasjas. 68% bavSvebisa i tyipebodnen dedebis mier. danarCeni 26% ki ufro intensiurad isjeboda fizikurad, maTi dedebi maT an muStebiT urtyamdnen an mujlugunebs wakravdnen xolme. dedebis gamokiTxvidan 6 Tvis Semdeg, dakvirdnen am bavSvebis agresia urTierTobas TanatolebTan. mkvlevrebma daafiqsires bavSvebis Tanatolebis mimarT, magaliTad, roca isini brazdebodnen, dascinodnen da scemdnen Tanatolebs. TiToeuli bavSvi saaTobrivad iRebda qulas agresiuli qcevisaTvis. grafikze es kargad Cans. rogorc xedavT, rac ufro intensiu r dasjas axorcielebdnen mSoblebi, miT ufro agresiulebi iyvnen maTi Svilebi. es m onacemebi gvarwmunebs, rom bavSvebi agresiul qcevas TavianTi mSoblebisgan daiswa vlian. Tqven SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom es bavSvebi SeiZleba TavisTavad iyvnen agresiulebi. sxva kvleva gviCvenebs, rom es ase ar aris (Chess & Thomas; 1984). savaraudod, simarTlis marcvali, SesaZloa, im aSic iyos, rom ,,cudi’’ bavSvebi ufro xSirad imsaxureben fizikur dasjas. es kvleva c xadyofs, rom fizikuri dasja ar gvaZlevs sasurvel Sedegs da ver aswavlis ,,cud’’ bavS vebs imas, Tu rogor gaxdnen ukeTesebi (Mahoney et al; 2000). Tu Cven jer kidev v er dagarwmuneT, rom fizikuri dasja araswori strategiaa mSoblebis mxridan, modiT ganvixiloT kidev erTi kvlevis Sedegebi. analizi dafuZnebulia erT-erTi mizanmimar Tuli proeqtis monacemebze, romelic ikvlevda 6002 amerikul ojaxs, raTa SeeswavlaT maTi ojaxuri Zaladobis Sedegebi. am kvlevaSi mecnierebi dainteresebuli iyvnen ga rdatexis asakis bavSvebze ganxorcielebuli fizikuri dasjis gavleniT maT momaval c xovrebaze (Straus & Kantor; 1994). Sedegebi sakmaod dramatuli gamodga. mokled ro m vTqvaT, 50% aRiarebda, rom maT fizikurad sjidnen Tineijerobisas (58% _ biWi, 4 4% _ gogo). maT, visac sjidnen, mogvianebiT hqondaT problemebi. isini xvdebodnen Semdeg risk jgufebSi: depresia, suicidi, alkoholizmi, colebis sakuTari cema. ba vSvebis mkvlevrebma mimarT fizikuri rom Seuracxyofa, (kacebTan) daaskvnes,

91 ”nebismieri fizikuri dasjis gamoyenebis Sewyveta mniSvnelovan faqtorad gvevlineba Cven bavSvTa fizikuri Seuracxyofis, magaliTebiT depresiis, suicidis rom da alkoholizmis pirvelad prevenciaSi.“ (gv. 558) gvjera, konkretuli dagarwmuneT, bavS vebis gatyepva ar aris Sesatyvisi an efeqturi aRzrdis strategia. aRsaniSnavia, r om Cveni mizani ar aris nebismieri dasjis akrZalva. SesaZloa, arsebobdes situaci ebi, sadac bavSvis arasasurveli qcevis SemaCereblad mxolod dasja gvevlineba. kvl eva gviCvenebs, rom dasja unda iTvaliswinebdes Semdeg pirobebs (Walters & Grusec ; 1977). dasja unda iyos: • swrafi da xanmokle; • unda gamoiyenoT imwamsve, rogorc k i reaqcias aqvs adgili; • intensivoba unda iyos limitirebuli; • es unda iyos pasuxi specifikur arasasurvel qcevaze da arasodes _ pirovnul maxasiaTebelze; • limitirebu li unda iyos im situaciis Sesatyvisad, sadac reaqcias aqvs adgili; • Sedgebodes da sjisagan da ara _ fizikuri tkivilisagan. ufrTxildiT: sakmaod xSirad, mizezi, ris gamoc bevri mSobeli dasjas iyenebs, aris is, rom dauyovnebliv wydeba bavSvis ar asasurveli qceva. mSobeli aRwevs ra Tavis xanmokle mizans, imavdroulad, bavSvis myiseuli reaqcia ganamtkicebs mSoblis damsjelobiT qcevas (Grant & Evans; 1994), magram Sedegi aseTia: ,,xanmokle sargebeli, xangrZlivi tkivili’’. mSoblebma moTmineb a unda gamoiCinon da Tavi Seikavon xanmokle ganmtkicebisagan sakuTari Svilebis S oreuli interesebis gamo. saidan viciT pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeli SimpanzeebisTvis Simpanzeebs aswavles problemis gadawyveta, qiSmiSis, rogorc pirobiTi ganmamtkice blis gamoyenebiT. Semdeg qiSmiSi JetonebiT Caanacvles. rogorc ki Jetonebi gamoCn da, maimunebma moTminebiT daiwyes muSaoba sakuTari ,,fulis’’ mosapoveblad. maT mogvi anebiT SeeZloT, gadaecvalaT Jetonebi qiSmiSze (Cowles; 1937) savaraudo aqtivobebi, rogorc dadebiTi ganmamtkiceblebi

92 davuSvaT, rom Tqven gsurT bavSvs raRac gaakeTebinoT. Tqven ar gindaT, mas gadaux adoT an misceT oqros varskvlavi da amitom sTavazobT garigebas: ,,roca saSinao da valebas daasruleb, SegiZlia kompiuteruli TamaSi iTamaSo”. Tqvns mier gamoyenebuli ,,kompiuteruli TamaSi” mocemul situaciaSi premakis principad gvevlineba, romelic david premakma (David Premak) 1995 wels aRmoaCina. premakis mixedviT, ufro metad albaTuri aqtivoba (qceva, romelsac Cveul garemoSi gamovlenis meti albaToba aqvs), SesaZloa, gamoviyenoT naklebad albaTuri qcevis g anmamtkiceblad. Tavis sawyis kvlevaSi premakma aRmoaCina, rom wyliT deprivirebul ma virTxebma savarjiSo borblis datrialebis mizniT sirbili iswavles maSin, roca a m aqtivobas wylis daleva mohyveboda da, piriqiT, savarjiSoTi deprivirebuli virTx ebi zrdidnen wylis smis qcevas. premakis mixedviT, ganmamtkiceblad organizmisTvi s mniSvenelovani nebismieri qceva an aqtivoba SeiZleba mogvevlinos. premakis pri ncips xSirad gamoiyeneba, gansakuTrebiT instituciebis bavSvTa iseTi qcevis sixSi ris gasazrdelad, rogoricaa mSvidad jdoma da vinmes saubris mosmena. qvemoT aRwer ilia erTi klasikuri SemTxveva: saidan viciT bavSvebi imuSaveben imisaTvis, rom i TamaSon Caatares kvleva, romlis drosac klasSi gamoyofili iyo droiTi intervalebi, roca bavSvebi mSvidad uyurebdnen dafas da zogjer esmodaT zaris xma. zaris xmas mohyveboda instruqcia: ”gaiqeciT da iyvireT”.Mmoswavleebi dauyovnebliv w amoxtebodnen da darbodnen klasSi, yvirodnen da erTobodnen. ramodenime wuTSi Semd egi signali afrTxilebda maT, rom dabrunebuliyvnen Jetonebs TavianT adgilebze. mo gvianebiT — bavSvebs aZlevdnen dabali sixSiris qcevis maTemetikis mecadineobisTvis. bavSvebs Jetonebi saSualebas aZlevda, rom CarTuliyvnen Sedareb iT maRali aqtivobis qcevaSi, rogoricaa saTamaSoebiT TamaSi. am tipis proceduriT kontroli SesaniSnavad ganxorcielda ramodenime dReSi. (homme et al,1963). sxva ti pis saklaso programa, sadac maswavleblebis mier xSirad gamoiyeneboda dasja, cema da yvirili, Cavarda. axla xedavT, Tu rogor SeiZleba ga moiyenoT premakis principi dabali sixSiris qcevaSi bavSvebis CasarTavad. socialu rad aqtiuri bavSvisaTvis amxanagebTan TamaSi ganamtkicebs davalebis Sesrulebis naklebad sasiamovno

93 qcevas. morcxvi bavSvisTvis ki axali wignis wakiTxva SeiZleba gamoviyenoT sxva b avSvebTan TamaSis qcevis ganmamtkiceblad. nebismieri aqtivoba SeiZleba gamoyeneb ul iqnas ganmamtkiceblad da es zrdis imis albaTobas, rom miRweul iqneba im qcevi s sixSiris mateba, rac konkretul SemTxvevaSi naklebad albaTuria. ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilebi ra xdeba maSin, roca Tqven ar gindaT, rom Tqvens Sinau r cxovels ganumtkicoT raime konkretuli qceva? axalgazrda skiners mouwia Tavis la boratoriaSi erTi kviriT yofna ise rom, ar hqonda sakmarisi kvebiTi ganmamtkicebe li Tavisi mSromeli virTxebisaTvis. is ekonomis akeTebda da virTxebs saWmlis nate xebs raRac intervaliT aZlevda. miuxedavad imisa, Tu ramdenjer daaWerdnen isini T aTs Rilaks, met sakvebs veRar iRebdnen. aRmoCnda, rom virTxebi ufro metad reagir ebdnen am parcialur ganmamtkicebelTa formaze, vidre mudmivmoqmed ganmtkicebaze. da, rogor fiqrobT, ra mouvidaT cxovelebs, roca isini qcevis Caqrobis safrTxis winaSe aRmoC ndnen da meti saWmeli aRar iyo? is virTxebi, romelTa qcevac ufro iSviaTad ganmtk icdeboda, gacilebiT intensiurad aWerdnen GTaTs Rilaks, vidre isini, romlebsac ga nmamtkicebeli yovel jerze eZleodaT. skineri, raRac, Zalian mniSvnelovans miuaxlo vda. am parcialuri ganmamtkiceblis efeqturobam migviyvana kvlevamde ganmamtkiceb elTa gansxvavebuli intensivobiT miwodebis Sesaxeb. (ixileT suraTi 7.13) Tqven Tv iTon gangicdiaT ganmamtkiceblis gansxvavebuli efeqtis roli sakuTar cxovrebaSi. r oca Tqven xels swevT klasSi, maswavlebeli xan giZaxebT da xan _ ara. realur cxov rebaSi an laboratoriaSi ganmamtkicebeli SeiZleba miwodebul iqnes rogorc proporci uli ganmamtkiceblis forma — ramdenime konkretuli reaqciis Semdeg; an ganmamtkicebe li intervalebiT — roca ganmtkiceba drois raRac intervalis Semdeg gaicema. TiToeuli SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba adgili hqondes fiqsirebul an variabilur ganmtkicebas. axla Cven viciT parcialuri ganmamtkiceblis efeqtis Sesaxeb da aRmoCnda, rom parcialu rad ganmtkicebuli qceva metad gamZlea Caqrobis mimarT, vidre Tanmimdevrulad ganm tkicebuli (Bitterman, 1975). modiT vnaxoT, sxva ra saintereso aRmoCenebi gaakeTe s mkvlevarebma ganmamtkicebelTa sxvadasxva cxrilebTan dakavSirebiT.

94 fiqsirebuli proporciis (dozis) cxrilebi fiqsirebuli ganmamtkiceblis cxrilebSi ganmamtkicebeli gaicema mas Semdeg, rac or ganizmi gamoavlens reaqciaTa fiqsirebul odenobas. roca ganmtkicebas moyveba erTi reaqcia, cxrils ewodeba fiqsirebuli proporcia-1 (fp-1). (es aris namdvili Tanmi mdevrulad ganmtkicebis cxrili) roca ganmamtkicebeli mosdevs yovel 25-e reaqcias, cxrils ewodeba fp-25. fiqsirebuli proporciis cxrilebi iZleva reaqciis maRal xar isxs, radgan reaqciasa da ganmtkicebas Soris pirdapiri korelaciaa. __ mtreds Seu Zlia, garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi, imdeni sakvebi miiRos ramdenic unda, Tu sakm arisad xSirad akenkavs. rac ufro maRalia proporcia, miT metia pauza TiTouli ganm amtkiceblis Semdeg. ganmamtkiceblis misaRebad meti sapasuxo reaqciebis miRebis m oTxovniT proporciis Semcirebam, im SemTxvevaSi, roca cxoveli gawrTvnili da momza debuli ar aris amisaTvis, SeiZleba migviyvanos Caqrobamde. bevri adamiani gayidv ebis industriaSi fp cxrilebs mimarTavs: maT manamde unda gayidon saqonlis gansaz Rvruli raodenoba, vidre jamagirs aiRebdnen. variabiluri proporciis cxrili variabiluri proporciis cxrilSi winaswar gansazRvrulia reaqciaTa odenoba ganmamtk icebelTa Soris. vp-10 cxrili niSnavs, rom saSualod yovel 10 reaqcias moyveba gan mamtkicebeli., magram ganmtkicebas SeiZleba adgili hqondes mxolod erTi reaqciis an 20 reaqciis Semdeg. am tipis ganmtkicebiT ganmtkicebuli qceva sakmaod reziste ntulia Caqrobis mimarT. DdavuSvaT, Tqven mtredTan muSaoba daiwyeT vp-5 cxriliT d a Semdeg gadaxvediT vp-110-ze. mtredi akenkavs 12000 marcvals saaTSi da ase gagr Zeldeba saaTebis manZilze, ganmamtkicebelTa gareSec ki. azartuli TamaSebic Segvi Zli miviCnioT vp cxrilebis kontrols daqvemdebarebulad. am princips emyareba saTa maSo manqanebis principi _ masSi monetis Cagdebis Semdeg ar iciT, rodis miiRebT Sedegs, romelsac eliT da kvlav agdebT da agdebT monetebs. vp cxrili gtovebT gamo canis winaSe – rodis mova jildo — Tqven gjeraT, rom is Semdegi Tqveni reaqciis Tanda rTuli iqneba da ara ufro gvian (Rachlin, 1990) fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrili roca saqme gvaqvs fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrilTan ganmamtkicebeli cxrilTan, miew odeba pirveli reaqciis Semdeg, raRac fiqsirebuli drois gasvlis Semdeg.

95 fi-10 cxrilSi, magaliTad, roca subieqti iRebs gantmkicebas, unda daicados 10 wam i, sanam meore reaqcia ganmtkicdeba __ reaqciaTa raodenobisda miuxedavad. reaqci aTa koeficienti fi cxrilis qveS gamoisaxeba, rogorc (scalloped pattern). nebismi eri ganmtkicebuli pasuxis Semdeg, cxoveli iZleva Zalian umniSvnelo reaqcias. rod esac dajildovebis dro axlovdeba, cxoveli sul ufro da ufro aqtiurdeba. yovelTviur i gadasaxadebis qviTari adamianebs fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrilis gavlenis qveS aqcevs. cvalebadi intervalis cxrili cvalebaDintervalis cvalebaDintervalis cxrilSi saSualo intervali winaswar aris ga nsazRvruli. magaliTad, ci-20 cxrilSi ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba, saSualod, yovel 20 wamSi erTxel. es forma iwvevs saSualo siswrafiT, magram Zalian stabiluri qcev is formis Camoyalibebas. Caqroba am dros etapobrivi da Zalian nelia. erT SemTxve vaSi mtredma 18000-jer akenka pirveli 4 saaTis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg, rac ganm tkiceba Sewyda da 168 saaTi dasWirda am qcevis srul gaqrobas ( erster & Skiner, 1957). SegiZliaT CaTvaloT, rom ci-20 cxrili sakuTar Tavze gaqvT gamocdili, Tu gy oliaT leqtori, romelic araregularulad, moulodnelad gitarebdaT koloqviumebs. yove ldRe emzadebodiT momavali gakveTilisaTvis? • fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrili (fixed-interval schedule) – ganmamtkicebelTa cxrili, romelSic ganmamtkicebeli miewodeba fiqsirebuli drois gasvlidan pirvelive sapasu xo reaqciisas. • cvalebadi intervalis cxrili (vaiable-interval schedule) – ganmamtkicebelTa cxrili, cvaldi romelSic periodis ganmamtkicebeli gavlis Semdeg, miewodeba romlis pirvel ive saSualoc pasuxisas winaswar gansazRvrulia. • warmatebuli approximations) miaxloebebis – qceviTi mixedviT Seipingi (shaiping by im successive reaqciebs meTodi, romelic ganamtkicebs romlebic warmatebulad uaxlovdebian da maqsimalurad axlos arian sasurvel reaqcias Tan. formireba qcevis formireba (Seipingi) erT-erT eqsperimentSi Cven vilaparake T virTxebze, romlebic Rilaks aWerdnen saWmlis misaRebad. Rilakis daWera daswavli li qcevaa. Tu mas operantul kameraSi movaTavsebT, albaT, ar daaWers saxelurs TaT s

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96 spontanurad. virTxas naswavli aqvs Tavisi TaTebis sxvadasxva gziT gamoyeneba, ma gram saxeluri sxva dros arasodes Camouwevia. rogor vaswavloT virTxas qcevebi, ro mlebic, savaraudod iSviaTad vlindebian? Tqven moifiqreT ganmtkicebis gza, optima luri sakvebi, ganmamtkicebelTa cxrilic gaqvT (fp-1), rogor moviqceT axla? imisaT vis, rom Tqven aswavloT axali rTuli qceva, unda gamoiyenoT Seipingi warmatebuli miaxloebebis mixedviT. am dros Tqven ganamtkicebT nebismier qcevas, romelic warm atebulia da Tanac miaxloebuli saboloo mizanTan. es ase keTdeba. jer unda moaxdin oT virTxis saWmliT deprivireba erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi. deprivaciis gareSe saWmel ma SeiZleba ar imuSaos, rogorc ganmamtkicebelma. Semdeg Tqven sistematurad aTavs ebT sakvebs kabinis erT kuTxeSi ise, rom virTxa mas xedavdes. axla Tqven SegiZli aT daiwyoT Seipingi imiT, rom sakvebis miwodebis sixSire daukavSiroT virTxis spe cifikur qceviT reaqcias, magaliTad, karis saxelurTan misvlas. saWmeli virTxas mi ewodeba mxolod maSin, roca is ufro axlos midis karis saxelurTan. male ganmamtkic ebeli gaicema im SemTxvevaSi, Tu virTxa exeba saxelurs. sabolood ki man saWmlis misaRebad unda daaWiros saxelurs. am dros virTxa swavlobs, rom saxeluris Camowev a misTvis sakvebis momtania. ase rom, SeipingisTvis Tqven unda gansazRvroT progr esis etapebi samizne qcevis Sesatyvisad da gamoiyenoT diferencirebuli ganmtkiceb a TiToeuli etapis formirebisaTvis. axla ganvixiloT sxva SemTxveva, roca Seipingi gamoyenebul iqna patara autisti bavSvis cxovrebis pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad. s aidan viciT qcevis formireba autisti bavSvTan pacienti 3 wlis biWi iyo, romelsac dausves autizmis diagnozi. mas hqonda normaluri socialuri da verbaluri qcevis d eficiti. xSirad axorcielebda tantumebs da sakuTari Tavis damazianebel qcevebs. k ataraqtis operaciis Semdeg man uari Tqva saTvaleebis tarebaze, rac Zlier mniSven elovani iyo misi mxedvelobisaTvis. pirvelad mas eZleoda kanfeti saTamaSos Wyviti nis Semdeg. ase rom, saWmelTan asociaciis fonze es xma pirobiTi ganmtkiceba gaxd a. Semdeg treningi gagrZelda uSuSo saTvalis CarCoTi. Tavidan Wyvitini ismoda maS in, roca patara saTvalis CarCos xelSi iRebda, male es xma ismoda mas Semdeg, rac CarCo xelSi yovndeboda. da bolos, roca bavSvs ekeTa saTvale. nelnela biWi jildo vdebida maSin, roca mas TvalTan axlos miqonda CarCo. ramodenime

97 kviraSi bavSvma daiwyo CarCos Tavze wamocma da male sworad moirgo Tvalebze. tren ingis Semdeg etapze bavSvma iswavla saTvalis tareba dReSi 12 saaTis ganmavlobaSi . (Wolf at all 1964). axla davubrundeT Cvens virTxas. vTqvaT, Tqven mogindaT asw avloT virTxas galiaSi wreze sirbili. rogor gegmas ganaxorcielebdiT am SemTxvevaS i? ra SeiZleba iyos is miaxloebuli qceva saboloo mizanTan, romelsac Tqven dasawy isSi ganamtkicebdiT? SesaZloa, Tqven Tavidan ganamtkicoT saWiro mimarTulebiT Tav is mibrunebis qcevac ki. SemdegSi Tqven virTxas saWmeli im SemTxvevaSi unda misc eT Tu is mTel tans miabrunebs saWiro mimarTulebiT. ras gaakeTebdiT amis Semdeg? daswavlis ori forma ganvixileT — klasikuri ganpirobebuloba da operantuli ganpirobebuloba — romelTac yvelaze xSirad iyeneben daswavlisas cxoveleb Tan. cdebs mecnierebi axorcielebdnen ZaRlebze, katebze, virTxebze, mtredebze da aRsaniSnavia, rom adamianebic msgavs qcevas axorcieleben. saboloo jamSi, mkvleva rebi mividnen daskvnamde, rom daswavla bevr situaciaSi modificirdeba garkveuli s axeobis biologiuri da kognituri SesaZleblobebiT. exla Cven gadavalT im procesebi s ganxilvaze, romlebic daswavlis zogad kanonebs SemosazRvraven. Sejameba Torndai kisa da skineri mier aRmoCenili operantuli ganpirobebulobis meTodika marTavs org anizmis qcevis Sedegebs ise, rom imoqmedos Zireul qcevaze. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba zrdis qcevis gamovlenis albaTobas. ganmasxvavebel stimulze muSaoba amcirebs generalizacias samizne qcevis miRma. ganpirobebuli ganmamtkicebeli gaci lebiT did gavlenas axdens adamianis qcevaze, vidre pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli. pr emakis principi gvamcnobs, rom metad albaTi aqtivoba SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli naklebad albaTi aqtivobis gansamtkiceblad. ganmamtkicebelTa sxvadasxva cxrilebi reaqciaTa gansxvavebul paternebs gansazRvraven. Seipingi moiTxovs, rom samizne qcevasTan ganmtkicebuli. daswavla da biologia is Sexeduleba, rom daswavlis ZiriT ad principTa CamonaTvali msgavsia adamianebTan da cxovelebTan, pirvelad inglisel ma filosofosma david iumma warmatebulad miaxloveba diferencialurad iqnes

98 (David Hume) wamoayena 1748 wels. humma Tqva, rom „nebismieri Teoria, romliTac Cve n gagebis operaciebs vxsniT adamianSi, raRac damatebiT mniSvnelobas SeiZens, Tu vnaxavT, rom igive fenomeni msgavsad aixsneba yvela danarCen cxovelTanac“ (Hume, 1 748/1951, p.104). am Tvalsazrisis mimzidveli simartive kamaTis sagani gaxda, rod esac 1960ian wlebSi fsiqologebma aRmoaCines sxvadsxva kanonzomierebebi da SezRud vebi ganpirobebulobis ganzogadebasTan dakavSirebiT (Bailey & Bailey, 1993; Garci a, 1993; Todd & Morris, 1992-1993) mesame Tavidan Tqven ukve icnobT im ideas, ro m cxovelebis ganviTareba iyo pasuxi, reaqcia gadarCenis saWiroebaze. bevri sxvao ba saxeobebs Soris SeiZleba avxsnaT swored adaptaciiT. zustad aseTive evoluciuri perspeqtiviT vudgebiT daswavlis unars (Leger, 1992. biologiuri daswavlis biolog iuri iZuleba aris swored is SezRudva, rac saxeobas memkvidreobiT gadaecema. es i Zulebebi SeiZleba gamoenebuli iqnas cxovelTa sensorul, qceviT da kognitur unarTa mimarTebaSi. ganvixilavT kvlevis or sferos, romelic cxadyofs, rom qceva-garemo kavSiri organizmis genotipiTaa ganpirobebuli: instinqturi swrafva da gemos avers iiT swavla. instinqturi swrafva cxadia, ginaxavT cxovelebi, romlebic aTasgvar il eTebs akeTeben cirksa da televiziaSi. zogierTi cxoveli TamaSobs beisbols, ping-p ongs, zogi _ atarebs manqanas. wlebis manZilze keler brelandi da marion brelandi iyenebdnen operantuli ganpirobebulobis teqnikebs, rom gamoewrTvnaT aTasobiT sxv dasxva saxeobis cxoveli. brelandebs sjerodaT, rom zogadi principebi, romlebic la boratoriuli kvlevebidan gamomdinareobda, realuradac imuSavebda da nebismieri rea qcia an jildo niSnavda cxovelis kontrols laboratoriis gareT. Tumca, wrTvnis raRa c etapze zogierTi cxoveli iwyebda “cudad moqcevas”. magaliTad, enoti iwrTvneboda, ro m aeRo moneta, Caegdo yulabaSi da amiT gamoemuSavebina sakvebi. magram enoti maS inve ar iRebda monetas da ori monetis aRebis Semdeg ganpirobebuloba saerTod wyde boda anu enoti saerTod aRar iRebda monetebs. samagierod, is xeliT xexavda yvela monetas erTad, tenida yulabaSi da Semdeg iqidan iRebda. aris Tu ara es ucnauri? enotebs xSirad axasiaTebT xexvisa da recxvis qceva, rodesac maT sayvarel sakvebs moipoveben niJarebidan. amis msgavsad, rodesac Rorebs wrTvnidnen imisTvis, rom gamomuSavebuli monetebi did yulabaSi CaeyaraT, isini Zirs yridnen am monetebs, j er dingiT ynosavdnen da mere haerSi agdebdnen. isev ismis kiTxva,

99 unda CaiTvalos Tu ara cxovelis es qceva ucnaurad an sakvirvelad? Rorebi zustad a se iqcevian saWmlis mopovebisas, radgan qcevis es repertuari maT memkvidreobiT a qvT miRebuli. aseTma gamocdilebam daarwmuna brelandebi, rom miuxedavad imisa, ro m raRac etapamde cxovelebma daiswavles operantuli reaqciebi, daswavluli qceva is wrafvis instinqturi qcevisaken droTa ganmavlobaSi. am tendencias maT instinqturi swrafva uwodes (Breland & Breland, 1951, 1961). cxovelebis qceva ar aixsneba op erantuli principebiT, magram savsebiT gasagebi xdeba, Tuki am qcevas saxeobebisT vis damaxasiaTebeli memkvidruli qcevis paternebis konteqtsSi ganvixilavT. es ten dencia cvlis qcevas, romelic SemuSavebulia operantuli ganpirobebulobiT. cxovelTa swavlebis kvlevaTa umetesoba fokusirebuli iyo Sesatyvisad misawvdomi stimulebis aTvis winaswari ganxilvis safuZvelze SerCeul reaqciebze. brelandebis Teoria cxad yofs, rom SeuZlebelia daswavlis yvela aspeqtis gakontroleba. qcevebi SeiZleba me t-naklebad advilad Sesacvleli iyos, rogorc cxovelis Cveulebrivi, genetikurad dap rogramebuli reaqcia garemoze. ganpirobebuloba maSin iqneba efeqtiani, rodesac sa mizne reaqcia biologiurad aqtualuria cxovelisaTvis. magaliTad, ra cvlilebaa saWi ro imisTvis, rom Rorma moneta yulabaSi Caagdos? Tu es qceva dawyvilebuli iyo wyl is miwodebasTan, mowyurebuli Rori bevrad swrafad daiswavlis am rutinas. • daswavlis biologiuri iZuleba (Biological constraints on learning) – nebismieri lim iti organizmis daswavlis SesaZleblobaze, romelic gansazRvrulia erTi saxeobis ind ividebis memkvidruli sensorul-kognituri unarebiT. • instinqturi swrafva (Instinctual drift) _ daswavlili qcevis tendenci, droTa ganm avlobaSi instinqtur qmedebaSi gadavides. gemos aversiiT swavla am wignis avtoreb ma ramdenime aRiareba unda gaakeTon: erT-erT maTgans dResac szaravs Roris xorcisa da muxudos Wamis warmodgenaze, xolo meores zustad a seTive reaqcia aqvs popkornze. orive SemTxvevaSi, Cven mZimed avad gavxdiT zemoT CamoTvlili sakvebis miRebis Semdeg. Tumca, nakleb savaraudoa, rom Cven avad am sakvebis gamo gavxdiT, aseTi reaqcia mainc SemogvrCa. imisaTvis, rom avxsnaT es fenomeni, mivmarToT isev cxovelebs.

100 davuSvaT, Tqven gTxoves, SeimuSaoT strategia ucnobi nivTierebebis degustaciisaTv is. Tqven rom gqondeT virTxis qcevis memkvidruli paterni, am dros uaRresad frTxi lad iqnebodiT. rodesac isini awydebian axal sakvebs an surnels, isini Zalian frT xiloben da Zalian patara raodenobas iReben gasasinjad. Tuki es nivTiereba maT ar afers dauSavebs, Semdeg ubrundebian da miirTmeven. magram Tuki eqsperimentSi Cav rTavT iseT nivTierebas, romelic avad xdis virTxebs, maSin isini am nivTierebas a rasdros aRar miekarebian. am fenomens ewodeba gemos aversiiT swavla. am genetiku r unars, sakvebis gasinjvas da swavlas, romeli sakvebia usafrTxo da romelia toqs ikuri, didi Rirebuleba aqvs. gaixsneT Cxikvi lorenco. rogorc Cans, misTvis Rvini s gemo aversiuli gaxda mas Semdeg, rac man “simTvraleSi” gamoscada. gemos aversiiT d aswavla Zalze Zlieri meqanizmia. gansxvavebiT klasikuri ganpirobebulobis sxva as peqtebisagan, gemos aversiiT daswavla mxolod erTjeradi dawyvilebiT xdeba. wyvild eba ganpirobebuli stimuli (axali sakvebi/surneli) da misi Sedegi (ganupirobebli stimulis – elementis, romelic, faqtobrivad, iwvevs avadmyofobas – Sedegi). es debule ba WeSmariti rCeba didi droiTi intervalebis drosac (12 saaTi da meti, dro, romli s SualedSi virTxa iRebs nivTierebas da avad xdeba). sabolood, gansxvavebiT klasi kurad ganpirobebuli asociaciebisagan, romlebic sakmaod myifea, gemos aversiiT da swavla myari xdeba erTi gamocdilebis Semdegac. kidev erTxel, imisaTvis, rom gavi goT klasikuri ganpirobebulobis normaTa darRvevebi, unda gaiTvaliswinoT, is, Tu r aoden dramatulad moiTxoven es meqanizmebi gadarCenas. garsiam, jon garsiam fsiqo logma, romelmac pirvelad daafiqsira gemos aversiiT daswavla laboratoriaSi, da mi sma kolegam, robert kolingma, es fenomeni gamoiyenes imisaTvis, rom TvalsaCino g aexadaT cxovelebis mzadyofna konkretuli asociaciebis daswavlisaTvis. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom zogierTi ganpirobebuli stimuli-ganupirobebeli stimuli kombinaci ebi SeiZleba klasikurad iyos ganpirobebuli cxovelTa konkretul saxeobebSi. saidan viciT stimulisa da Sedegebis Tanxvedra garsiasa da kolingis eqsperimentis pirve l fazaSi virTxebi jer ecnobodnen situacias, romelSic milis alokva iwvevda sam ga npirobebul stimuls: saxariniT Sezavebul wyals, xmaurs da Zlier sinaTles. meore f azaSi, rodesac virTxebi mils lokavdnen, maTi naxevari iRebda mxolod

101 tkbil wyals, xolo meore naxevari – xmaurs, sinaTles da sufTa wyals. Semdeg orive j gufi daiyo: TiToeuli jgufis erTi naxevari moxvda eleqtruli Sokis zemoqmedebis qv eS, rac tkivils iwvevda da meore naxevari ki radiaciuli dasxivebis qveS, rac iwv evda avadmyofobasa da gulisrevas. wylis is raodenoba, romelic virTxebma pirvel f azaSi dalies, Seadares meore fazaSi daleuli wylis raodenobas. raodenoba sagrZnob lad mcirdeboda, rodesac surnelovani wyali asocirdeboda avadmyofobasTan (gemos av ersia) da rodesac xmauri da sinaTle asocirdeboda tkivilTan. Tumca, qcevaSi mxolo d patara cvlileba SeiniSneboda ori sxva pirobis SemTxvevaSi: rodesac surneli moa swavebda tkivils, an rodesac Zlieri sinaTle, xmauri da wyali moaswavebda avadmyo fobas (ix. suraTi 7.14) miRebuli Sedegebi cxadyofs, rom virTxebs aqvT Tandayolil i unari, asociacia daamyaron konkretul stimulsa da konkretul Sedegs Soris (Garci a & Koelling, 1966). ganpirobebulobis zogierTi aspeqti, aqedan gamomdinare, damo kidebulia ara marto stimulsa da qcevas Soris kavSirze, aramed imazec, Tu rogor d ispozicias avlens organizmi genetikurad am stimulis mimarT mocemul garemoSi (Bar ker et al., 1978). cxovelebs aqvT memkvidruli klasifikacia im stimulebisa, romel i SeiZleba moaswavebdes safrTxes da romeli – jildos. amitom eqperimentatorebi, rom elbic ecdebian am paternebis darRvevas, bevrs verafers miaRweven. mkvlevrebma ge mos aversiiT daswavlis meqanizmis praqtikaSi gadmotanac scades. imisaTvis, rom k oiotebma Sewyviton cxvris xocva, jon garsiam da misma kolegebma daawyves bekekis toqsikuri xorci, romelic gaxveuli iyo cxvris tyavSi. toqsikuri xorciT koiotebi daavadnen da ganuviTardaT zizRi bekekis xorcis mimarT. amis Semdeg cxvris danaxv aze isini Setevis magivrad ukan ixevdnen. • gemos aversiiT daswavla (Taste-aversio n learning) – daswavlis biologiuri kanonzomiereba, romelSic organizmi swavlobs ava dmyofobis gamomwvevi sakvebisagan Tavis aridebas. gemos aversiis erT-erTi yvelaz e seriozuli aspeqti Tavs iCens kiboTi daavadebul pacientebSi, romlebic veRar uZl eben Cveulebriv sakvebs qimioTerapiisa da misgan gamowveuli gulisrevis gamo.

102 saidan viciT mkerdis simsivnis mqone pacientebSi gemos arideba 22 qalisagan Semd garma jgufma, romelsac dasmuli hqonda mkerdis kibos diagnozi, gviambo sakuTari k vebiTi prioritetebis Sesaxeb qimioTerapiis rva kursis ganmavlobaSi, romelTa Sori sac Sualedi sami kvira iyo. qalebma CamoTvales yvelaferi, rasac Wamdnen 24 saaTi s manZilze Terapiamde da Terapiis Semdeg. isini ranJirebas ukeTebdnen sakvebsa d a sasmels 1-dan (Zalian armowoneba) 9-mde (Zalian mowoneba). mkvlevarebi aversii s gamovlenas maSin aRiarebdnen, Tuki sakvebis Sefaseba 4 quliT daecemoda. aRmoCn da, rom qalebis 46%-s ganuviTarda aversia, sul mcire, erTi sakvebis mimarT. Tumc a, aversiebi, romlebic Cndeboda Terapiis pirveli ori kviris ganmavlobaSi, xanmok le iyo. cxadi gaxda, rom virTxebisagan gansxvavebiT, pacientebi arCevdnen, rom g ulisreva Terapiis Sedegi iyo da ara sakvebisa, romlis Semdgomi gasinjvisas ganpi robebuli aversia qreboda (Jacobsen et al., 1993). imis garkveviT, rom aversia Se iZleba klasikurad iyos ganpirobebuli, mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT, SeimuSavon amis Sesam cirebeli saSualebebi (Berstein, 1991). magaliTad, kiboTi daavadebul bavSvebs sak vebi qimioTerapiamde miawodes. amasTan, miwodebuli kanfetebi an nayini iyo sruli ad specifikuri surneliT anu aversia swored am surnelis mimarT yalibdeboda. amgva rad, bavSvebs SeeZloT, kvlavac eWamaT sayvareli surnelis mqone kanfeti an nayini . mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines sxva aspeqtebic pacientebSi, rac klasikuradaa ganpirobe bli. bevr pacients gulisreva ewyeboda qimioTerapiis seansis dawyebamde. is garem o da ganwyoba, romelSic isini mkurnalobdnen, ganpirobebul stimulad iqca. (Tomoya su at all 1996) amgvari efeqtebis safuZvlebis gaanalizeba mkvlevarebs mkurnalobi s meTodikis SemuSavebis saSualebas aZlevs. kidec erTxel, ganpirobebulobaSi amgva ri gavlenis efeqtebis safuZvlebis codna mkvlevarebs saSualebas aZlevs, SeimuSaon amave efeqtebis sawinaaRmdego mkurnaloba. axla cxadi xdeba, ratom unda iyvnen T anamedrove qceviTi analitikosebi yuradRebiT reaqciis im tipebis mimarT, romelic ama Tu im saxeobisaTvis ufro Sesaferisia dasaswavlad. (Todd and Morris 1992) Tu Tqven gindaT moxuc ZaRls aswavloT xrikebi, mainc ver SecvliT mis genetikurad gan pirobebul qceviT potencials. Cveni disciplina ar aris srulyofili, ramdenadac jer ar

103 SevxebivarT daswavlis iseT formebs, romlebic umaRles kognitur procesebs moiTxovs . axla SevexoT, swored aseTi saxis daswavlas. Sejameba instinqturi swrafvis feno meni gulisxmobs, rom organizmebi limitirebulni arian im TvalsazrisiT, UTu ras da iswavlian saxeobidan gamomdinare instinqtTa gamo. gemos aversia imdenad Zlieria zogierT cxovelTTan, rom is permanentulad daiswavleba ganpirobebuli stimulisa da ganupirobebeli stimulis erTxelobrivi SewyvilebiTac ki. qimioTerapiaze myof adami anTa umetesoba ganicdis ganpirobebul gemos aversias. mkvlevarebi cdiloben gamoig onon klasikur ganpirobebulobaze dayrdnobili meTodebi, raTa Tavidan aicilon, an g aauqmon es aversiebi. kogniciis gavlena daswavlaze rogorc aRiniSna, qcevis Zalia n didi speqtri SeiZleba aixsnas, rogorc daswavlis martivi procesis Sedegi. Cndeb a kiTxva: arsebobs Tu ara daswavlis iseTi tipebi, romlebsac ufro kompleqsuri kog nituri unarebi sWirdebaT? kognicia aris nebismieri fsiqikuri aqtioba, romelic CarTulia codnis gadamuSavebisa da warmoCenis iseT procesebSi, rogoricaa azrovneba, mexsiereba, a Rqma da metyveleba. amitom axla ganvixilavT daswavlis iseT formebs, romlebic ar SeiZleba aixsnas mxolod klasikuri an operantuli ganpirobebulobiT. aqedan gamomdi nare, iTvleba, rom qceva, nawilobriv, kognituri procesebis Sedegia. cxovelTa kognicia am TavSi ganvixileT sakiTxebi, romlis mixedviTac saxeobebisaTv is specifikuri SezRudvebis garda, daswavlis kanonebi, virTxebze da mtredebze Cat arebuli kvlevebidan gamomdinare, kargad udgeba ZaRlebs, maimuneba da adamianebs. cxovelTa kogniciis mkvlevarebma daadgines, rom ara mxolod klasikuri da operantu li ganpirobebulobis ganzogadeba SeiZleba sxvadasxva sxeobebze (Wasserman 1993-19 94).Tavis evoluciis TeoriaSi Carlz darvinma ganacxada, rom kognituri unarebi izr deba da viTardeba cxovelTa fizikur formasTan erTad. amitom axla ganvixilavT cxov eluri daswavlis or, erTob STambeWdav tips, romelic miuTiTebs cxovelTa kognitur u narebze. kognituri rukebi

104 edvard tolmeni (Edward Tolman 1886-1959) iyo pirveli, vinc daiwyo kognituri proc esebis kvleva cxovelebSi sxvadasxva eqsperimentuli situaciebis gamogonebiT, roml ebSic meqanikuri, erTi-erTze asociaciebi ver axsnida cxovelis qcevas. daakvirdiT syraTs 7.15. tolmenma da misma studentebma aCvenes, rom rodesac labirinTSi blok irebulia Tavdapirveli biliki, virTxebi labirinTSi adreuli gamocdilebiT airCeven umokles gzas gamosvlisaTvis miuxedavad imisa, rom aranairi ganmtkiceba ar miuRia T (Tolman & Honzik, 1930). Tumca, virTxebi iqceodnen ise, TiTqos isini emorCileb odnen gansazRvrl kognitur rukas – labirinTis zedxeds, nacvlad imisa, rom brmad dae wyoT gamosavlis Zebna cdisa da Secdomis meTodiT (Edward Tolman 1948). tolmenis S edegebma aCvena, rom ganpirobebuloba Seicavs gacilebiT ufro mets, vidre ubralod asociaciur dawyvilebas. is moicavs daswavlas da Semdeg am daswavlili masalis war moCenas qceviT konteqstSi. tolmenis tradiciiT gagrZelebulma kvlevam gamoavlina s ivrcobrivi mexsierebis gasaocari unari CitebSi, futkrebSi, virTxebSi, sxva cxove lebsa da adamianebSic. (Tolman, 1948). kognituri rukis gasagebad yuraReba unda m ivaqcioT im funqciebs, romlebsac isini emsaxurebian: - cxovelebi sivrcobriv mexs ierebas iyeneben sakuTari garemos Tvisebebis amosacnobad. - maTTvis mniSvnelovan i samizne obieqtebis misagnebad. - garemoSi sakuTari rutinis dasagegmad. Tqven S egiZliaT dainaxoT kognituri ruqebis sxvadasxva funqcia frinvelTa sxvadasxva saxe obebSi. es frinvelebi inaxaven saWmels farTo arealze, magram unari aqvT, zustad miagnon saWmels, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi. klarkis TxilCita Cempionia saWmlis gadanaxvaSi. gvian zafxulSi es frinveli marxa vs 6.000 fiWvis Tesls amerikis samxreT dasavleT nawilis mTebSi. isni marcvals mo maval gazafxulze eZeben, maSin, rodesac damaluli sakvebi sWirdebaT bartyebisaTvi s. (Shettleworth, 1993, p.180). • cxovelTa kognicia (Animal cognition) eZeben – cxovelebis unarebis kognituri ganviT arebas SesaZleblobebi; • kognituri mkvlevarebi kognituri sxvadsxva saxeobebSi, saxeobebis ierarqiis mixedviT adamianamde. ruka (Cognitive map) – fizikuri sivrcis gonebrivi reprezentacia

105 Citebi ara mxolod dafrinaven erT gansazRvrul garemoSi da TuUgaumarTlaT, marcvleb s ar esevian, isini miwaSi flaven am marcvlebis nawils da gansazRvruli drois Sem deg 84% sizustiT brundebian am adgilze (Kamil & Balda, 1990). isini kargad arCev en im adgilebsac, sadac adre hqondaT marcvlebi, magram isini ukve carielia. Cite bis is saxeobebi, romlebic didad arian damokidebulni gadamalul sakvebze, qceviT maRla dganan maTTan yvelaze axlo mdgom saxeobebTanac ki. aranairi gansxaveba qce vis warmatebulobas Soris araa am saxeobisTvis, rodesac samalavis magivrad labora toriaSi sivrcobriv eqperimentSi monawileobs (Kamil et al., 1997). amasTan, gavix senoT, rom am Citebis qceva – samalavSi marcvlebis damalva araa ganmtkicebuli. isi ni mxolod im SemTxvevaSi miagneben gadamalul sakvebs, Tuki maTi kognituri ruka S enarCundeba. konceptualuri qceva kognituri rukebi, nawilobriv, exmareba cxovelebs garemoSi orientaciaSi, magram s xva ra kognitur procesebi unda hqondes cxovelebs, raTa TavianT, gansxvavebuli st imulebiT aRsavse garemocvaSi moaxerxon, sakuTari gamocdilebis sworad gamoyeneba da raSi unda iyenebdnen isini am procesebs? me-11 TavSi Cven aRvniSnavT, rom met yvelebis dawyebisas bavSvebisTvis erT-erT mTavar amocanad iTvleba axali cnebebisa da kategoriebis daswavla. magram aRmoCnda, rom bavSvebi ar arian erTaderTi arsebebi, romlebsac am amocanis daZleva SeuZliaT. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCin es, rom mtredebs aqvT kognituri unari, gamoiyenon konceptualuri gansxvavebebi. s aidan viciT mtredebi gansjian (gadawyvetilebebs iReben) kategorizaciis struqtura ze dayrdnobiT edvard vasermanma da misma kolegebma (1992) warmoudgines mtredebs adamianebis, yvavilebis, manqanebis da skamebis fotoebi. yoveli mtredisTvis oTxi cneba dayofili iyo or ufro did kategoriad (suraTi 7.16) magaliTad, erTi mtredi miiRebda sakvebs, Tuki niskarts daartyamda narinjisfer Rilaks adamianis an manqa nis Cvenebis Semdeg da wiTel Rilaks _ yvavilis an skamis Cvenebis Semdeg. mtrede bma iswavles adekvaturad reagireba da maTi 80% swori feris Rilaks urtyamda niska rts. wrTvnis meore fazaSi mtreds axali reaqcia unda SeemuSavebina ufro mcire kat egoriis TiToeuli suraTisTvis. amgvarad, mtreds unda

106 daertya mwvane RilakisTvis adamianis suraTis miwodebisas da TeTrze – skamis fotos Cvenebisas. amjeradac, mtredebis 80%-ma Tavi gaarTva amocanas. magram ra xdeba, rodesac miewodebaT yvavilis an manqanis suraTi da uwevT, airCion mwvane, an TeTr i Rilaki? maT ar aqvT ganmtkicebis aranairi gamocdileba, raTa SeakavSiron erTman eTTan es stimuli da reaqcia. ase rom, aseT martiv daswavlis procesebze dayrdnobi T, Cven ar SegviZlia viwinaswarmetyveloT mosalodneli qceva. Tqven rogor moiqceod iT aseT situaciaSi? eqspeimentis pirvel nawilSi Tven iswavlidiT, rom, magaliTad, skamebi da yvavilebi erTad unda iyvnen. meore nawilSi Tqven iswavlidiT, rom, ro desac ganaxeben yvavilis suraTs, Tqven masze oridan erT-erTi reaqciiT unda upasu xoT. rodesac warmogidgendnen sakms, savaraudod, im pasuxebis SerCevas ecdebodiT, romlebic kvavilis SemTxvevaSi gamodga. es swored is aris, rasac mtredebi akeTeb dnen. eqsperimentirebis 60-ida 70%-mde, mtredebis swored „kategoriul“ („category“ inform ation) informacias iyenebdnen, raTa gamoericxaT manamde ganumtkicebeli qceva Cve n ukve vnaxeT, rom generalizebas adgili aqvs klasikursa da operantul ganpirobebu lobaSi da damyarebulia stimulTa perceptul msgavsebaze. am eqsperimentSi, romelsac atarebdnen vasermani (Wasserman) da misi kolegebi, generalizeba ar moicavda perceptul msgavsebas; magaliTad, skamebi da y vavilebi arc Tu ise gvanan erTmaneTs. samagierod, generalizebis Ziri iyo kognituri msgavseba. momdevno kvlevebma SemogvTavazes azri imis Sesaxeb, rom mtredebs aqvT unari, abstraqtul doneze amoicnon msgavsi da gansxvavebuli; maT aq vT unari, mogvcen diferencialuri pasuxebi, rodesac testis erT, identuri elementT a jgufs (magaliTad, matareblis Zravis 16 msgavsi suraTi), vupirispirebT meore, s ruliad gansxvavebul elementebs (magaliTad, 16 gansxvavebuli suraTi). (Wassernan et al., 1995; Young et al., 1997). me-8 da me-9 Tavebi daeTmoba adamianTa kognit uri procesebis analizs. eqsperimentebma, romlebic am TavSi aRvwereT, albaT dagar wmunaT. rom impresiuli da gamosadegi koginituri procesebis mflobelemi ara marto adamianebi arian. vidre am Tavs SevajamebdeT, gadavideT momdevno saxis daswavlaz e, romelic agreTve kognituri procesebis monawileobas moiTxovs. dakvirvebiT daswavla

107 imisaTvis, rom gavecnoT am saxis daswavlas, gavixsenoT virTxebisa da adamianebis saWmlis gasinjvis meTodebi, gzebi. virTxebi, danamdvilebiT, gacilebiT dakvirveb ulni arian, vidre Tqven, Tumca es iqidan momdinareobs, rom isini moklebulni aria n sxva virTxebisagan daufasebeli informaciis miRebas. rodesac Tqven unda gasinjo T axali saWmeli, es TiTqmis yovelTvis gulisxmobs, rom Tqven amisaTvis sakmao saf uZveli gaqvT, vinaidan iciT, rom adamianTa umravlesobam isiamovna am saWmlis miR ebiT. Tqveni „saWmlis miRebis qcevis“ albaTobaze gavlenas axdens sxva individebisaTv is ganmtkicebis paternebis codna. es magaliTi asaxavs Tqvens SesaZleblobas, dais wavloT sxvaTa ganmtkicebisa da sxvaTa dajildoebis mixedviT. Sen Seni kognituri SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba SegiZlia, raTa daimaxsovro da gansajo sxvaTa gamocdil eba Seni qcevis Camosayalibeblad. rogorc wesi, socialur daswavlas umetesad adgil i aqvs iseT situaciebSi, sadac es daswavla ver iqneboda nakarnaxevi tradiciuli g anpirobebulobis Teoriis principebiT; es gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom individs, rom elic swavlobs, arc aqtiuri reaqci hqonia da arc aSkara ganmtkiceba miuRia. ubral od, mas Semdeg, rac individi dainaxavs sxvis mier warmoebul qcevas, romelic an g anmtkicda an ara, momavalSi amis Sesabamisad moiqceva. es aris dakvirvebiT daswa vla. dakvirvebiT daswavlaSi kognicia umetesad molodinebis saxiT erTveba. realura d, raime modelze, magaliTze dakvirvebis Semdeg Tqven fiqrobT: Tu zustad ise movi qcevi, rogorc igi, me analogiur ganmtkicebas davimsaxureb, an avirideb dasjas. u mcrosi bavSvi SesaZloa ukeT iqceodes, vidre misi ufrosi da, vinaidan bavSvi dis magaliTebze swavlobs. es SesaZlebloba, rom dakvirvebis safuZvelze viswavloT, uaR resad gamosadegaria. es forma daswavlisa saSualebas gaZlevT, rom SeimecnoT qceva Ta farTo, integrirebuli paternebi ise, rom Tavad ar mogiwioT cdisa da Secdomis x angrZlivi procesis gavla, manam, sanam gamoadiferencirebT mocemuli situaciisaTvi s swor da araswor pasuxebs, reaqciebs. Tqven daubrkoleblad sargeblobT sxvaTa Sec domebiTa da warmatebebiT. mkvlevarebma gviCvenes, rom dakvirvebiT daswavla mxolo d adamianTa xvedri ar aris. sxva saxeobebis warmomadgenlebs, mtredebs (Zentall e t al., 1996), zebra Tevzs (Hall & Suboski, 1995) da rvafexac ki ( iorito & Scott o, 1992) SeswevT unari Secvalon TavianTi qceva Tavisi saxeobis sxva warmomadgenl ebis magaliTis mixedviT. adamianis dakvirvebiT daswavlis klasikuri magaliTi demo nstrirebuli iyo albert banduras (Albert Bandura) laboratoriaSi. mas Semdeg, rac naxes,

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108 mozardebi rogor Cqmeten da urtyaven did plastikatis Tojinas, eqsperimentis monaw ile bavSvebi ufor midrekilni aRmoCndnen igive qcevebis momvalSi gameorebisaken, vidre sakontrolo jgufis bavSvebi, romelTac es agresiuli qceva ar unaxavT. (Bandu ra et al., 1963). am fenomenis mogvianebiT Seswavlam gviCvena, rom bavSvebi baZa vdnen iseT qcevebsac, romlebsac gadaRebuli kadrebis seriis saxiT awvdidnen, Tund ac gmirebi multifikaciuri yofiliyo. didad kiTxvas aRar badebs is, rom prosocialu ri (daxmareba) da antisocialuri (dazianeba) qcevebis umetesobas vswavlobT dakvir vebiT daswavlis meSveobiT; magram garemoSi arsebobs dakvirvebis uamravi modeli. ra cvladebi mniSvnelovani imisaTvis, rom gadavwyvitoT, Tu romeli modeli iqneba y velaze gavleniani CvenTvis. gamokvlevam Semdegi ZiriTadi daskvnebi gamoitana (Ba ldwin & Baldwin, 1973; Bandura, 1977). modelis dakvirvebadi qceva gansakuTrebiT gavleniania, rodesac: igi gvevlineba, rogorc ganmamtkicebeli Sedegis matarebeli modeli aRqmulia dadebi Tad, imsaxurebs mowonebasa da pativiscemas arsebobs msgavseba modelisa da damkvi rveblis Tvisebebs Soris. damkvirvebeli iRebs jildos modelis qcevaze yuradRebis m iqcevisaTvis. modelis qceva xiluli da TvalSisacemia – is cxadad gamoirCeva sxva mo delebs soris. damkvirveblis kompetenturobis xarisxzea damokidebuli qcevis wamowy eba.

aRmoCenaTa am siis gagebisaTvis, warmoidgineT sakuTari Tavi modelis situciaSi da naxavT, ra roli aqvs TiToeul erTeuls am siidan. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom uy urebT viRacas, vinc paraSutiT gadmoxtomas swavlobs. an gaixseneT, rogor SeiZleba vinmem iswavlos mafiis srulfasovan wevrad yofna mxolod sxvaTa dakvirvebiT. radg an xalxi ase efeqtianad swavlobs modelisagan, advili gasagebia televiziis didi n awili ratom muSaobs swored qceviT gavlenaze: axdens Tu ara gavlenas telemayurebl ebze is, rasac uyureben televizorSi jildosa da dasjis saxiT? gansakuTrebuli yura dReba mieqca mozardTa da bavSvTa qcevasa da televiziiT naCvenebi Zaladobis iseT faqtebs Soris kavSirs rogorebicaa __ mkvleloba, gaupatiureba, qurdoba, terorizmi da TviTmkvleloba . xels uwyobs Tu ara Zaladobis Cveneba Zaladobis imitacias? fs iqologiuri kvlevebis mixedviT, pasuxi am kiTxvaze dadebiTia zogierTi xalxisTvis, gansakuTrebiT SeerTebul StatebSi (Comstock & Scharer, 1999). kvlevis ramdenime aTwleulis Semdeg gamoikveTa sami saSualeba, romliTac televizia uaryofiT

109 gavlenas axdens mayureblis cxovrebaze (Smith & Donnerstein, 1998): pirvel rigSi, Zaladobis yureba zrdis agresiul qcevas. es asociacia gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan ia bavSvebisaTvis: agresiuli Cvevebis SeZena, Zaladobis adreul asakSi xilviT, Se iZleba gadaizardos antisocialur qcevaSi ufro gviandel asakSi. meorec, xdeba yove ldRiur cxovrebaSi Zaladobis gamovlenis araswori raodenobrivi Sefaseba. mayurebel i SeiZleba Seipyros SiSma, rom TviTonac ar gaxdes Zaladobis msxverpli sinamdvile Si. mesame, Zaladobis yurebam SeiZleba migviyvanos desensitizaciamde – emociur aSl ilobasa da distersamde. ganvixiloT disensitizaciis laboratoriuli magaliTi: saida n viciT media Zaladoba cxovrebiseuli agresiis mimarT tolerantulobas ayalibebs me oTxe da mexuTe kursis 42 studentidan TiToeuli Seiyvanes eqsperimentul oTaxSi, sa dac unda eyurebinaT ori videokasetidan erTerTisaTvis: Zaladobis scenebiani filmi „karates Svili“ da araagresiuli sportuli sanaxaoba 1984 wlis zafxulis olimpiadidan. am kasetebis yurebis Semdeg studentebi daajeres, rom axla isini naxavdnen namdv il ambebs, rac Cumad gadaRebuli iyo videoze da maxlobel oTaxSi paralelurad xdebo da. sinamdvileSi es iyo videoCanaweri, romelSic ori bavSvi (6 wlis) jer TamaSobs oTaxSi, xolo Semdeg nel-nela xdeba erTamneTis mimarT agresiuli. studentebs inst ruqciaSi neba darTes, moeZebnaT eqsperimentatori, Tuki SeSfoTdebodnen imiT, rasa c videoze uyurebdnen. studentebma, romlebsac „karates Svili“ hqondaT nanaxi, orjer u fro met xans uyures Canawers, sanam eqsperimentators dauZaxebdnen, vidre maT, vi nc olimpiur TamaSebs uyura. amgvarad, mkvlevrebma daaskvnes, rom Zaladobis scene bis yurebam gamoiwvia meti tolerantoba namdvili agresiis mimarT (Molitor & Hirsc h, 1994). Tqven SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom esaa laboratoriuli kvlevis mcire efeqti, m agram warmoidgineT mTeli im Zaladobis gavlena, risi yurebis saSualebac bavSvebs televiziiT aqvT. gaiTvaliswineT, rom bavSvebma SeiZleba, agreTve, iswavlon proso cialuri da damxmare qceva, Tuki amis magaliTs televiziiT uyureben (Rosenkoetter, 1999; Singer & Singer, 1990). seriozulad unda mivudgeT im azrs, rom bavSvebi sw avloben televiziidan imas, rasac uyureben. amitom mSobeli an momvleli unda zruna vdes bavSvisaTvis programebis SerCevaze.

110 dakvirvebiT swavlis analizi avlens or kanonzomierebas: qcevaze did gavlenas axde ns ganmtkiceba da, agreTve, adamianis kognituri SesaZleblobebi, romlebsac isini iyeneben qcevis Sesacvlelad. es midgoma qcevis kvlevaSi yvelaze mZlavri aRmoCnda (Bandura, 1986). me-16 TavSi Cven vnaxavT warmatebul Terapiirs programebs, roml ebic kognituri modifikaciidan gafarTovda da moicva naklebad Sesatyvisi (maladapt ive) qceviTi paternebi. modiT, es Tavi SevajamoT imiT, rom davubrundeT saSineleb aTa filmis naxvas. rogor SeiZleba qceviTma analizma axsnas Tqveni gamocdileba? T u Tqven filmze megobris rCevis gamo waxvediT, Tqven uneblie ganmtkicebas daemirC ileT. Tu kinoTeatrSi moxvdiT imitom, rom es Tqveni Cveuli rutinaa, aq kognituri rukis gavlenis efeqti SeimCneva. Tu SemaSinebelma musikam Tqven SegaSfoTaT da da gafiqraT gmirebis bedze, es klasikuri ganpirobebulobis efeqtia. magram Tu Tqveni mcdeloba, gesiamovnaT filmiT, damTavrda imiT, rom aRarasodes mogindebaT saSinel ebaTa filmis naxva, es dasjis Sedegia. mzad xarT kinoTeatrSi dasabruneblad? Seja meba mkvlevarebma daswavlis kognituri formebi aRmoaCines, romlebic klasikuri da operantuli ganpirobebulobiT ar aixsneba. kognituri rukebi cxovelebs moqmedebisa da gdarCenis saSualebas aZleven rTul garemoSi. mtredebs SuZliaT, daiswavlon konc eptualur gansxvavebebze dayrdnobiT gansxvavebis gakeTeba, rac perceptualur ganma nsxvaveblebze ar aris damokidebuli. qceviTi daswavlis Sedegebidan gamomdinare, a damianebi da cxovelebi swavloben axal qcevebs cxovrebiseul „sibrZneze“ dayrdnobiT. a damianebi prosocialur da antisocialur qcevebs modelirebiT daiswavlian. aseT SemTxvevaSi saSualo mwvane stimuli dawyvildeboda ganupirobebel stimulTan. s ur. 7.4 ganpirobebuli da ganupirobebeli stimulebis oTxi variacia droSi mkvlevarebi daakvirdnen oTx SesaZlo droiT ganawilebas ganpirobebul da ganupirobe bel stimulebs Soris. . ganpirobebuloba yvelaze efeqturia Seferxebul ganpirobebul obaSi ganpirobebul da ganupirobebel stimulebs Soris mcire intervaliT. sur. 7.7. reskorlas procedura albaTobis demonstrirebisaTvis

111 SemTxveveTi SerCevisaTvis 5-wamiani zarebi (ganpirobebuli stimuli) da 5wamiani S oki (ganupirobebeli stimuli) eqsperimentis manZilze SemTxveviT, spontanurad iyo miwodebuli. pirobiTi ganmtkicebis jgufis ZaRlebma gamoscades mxolod zarebi da So ki, romelic ukve mosalodneli iyo zaris Semdeg. mxolod am jgufis ZaRlebma iswavle s asociacia ganupirobebel da ganpirobebul stimulebs Soris. albaTobis sur. 7.7. reskorlas procedura albaTobis demonstrirebisaTvis SemTxveveTi SerCevisaTvis 5-wamiani zarebi (ganpirobebuli stimuli) da 5wamiani S oki (ganupirobebeli stimuli) eqsperimentis manZilze SemTxveviT, spontanurad iyo miwodebuli. pirobiTi ganmtkicebis jgufis ZaRlebma gamoscades mxolod zarebi da So ki, romelic ukve mosalodneli iyo zaris Semdeg. mxolod am jgufis ZaRlebma iswavle s asociacia ganupirobebel da ganpirobebul stimulebs Soris. sur. 7.8. pirobiTi ganmtkicebis roli klasikur ganpirobebulobaSi reskorlam aCvena, rom ZaRlebi, romlebic pirobiTi ganmamtkicebeliupirobo ganmamtkicebelis pirobebSi iwvrTnebodben anu pirobiTi ganmtkicebis kavSi riT, ufro metad xtebodnen (SiSi metad iyo ganpirobebuli), vidre is ZaRlebi, roml ebsac upirobo ganmamtkiceblis kavSiri qondaT. procedura sur. 7.9. kaminis procedura dablokvis efeqtisaTvis eqsperimentuli jgufis virTxebs jer unda epasuxaT zarze (ganp.st1). Semdeg maT un da epasuxaT zarsa (ganp.st.1) da sinaTleze (ganp.st2). virTxebs sakontrolo jgufS i unda epasuxaT mxolod sust Suqsa da zarze. roca Semowmda ganpirobebuloba mxolod zarze da mxolod sinaTleze, marto sakontrolo jgufis virTxebs hqondaT reaqcia ori ve stimulze. kaminis mixedviT, eqsperimentulma virTxebma imitom ar upasuxes sina Tles, rom is aranair axal informacias ar Seicavda ganupirobebe li stimulis gamov lenis Sesaxeb; zaris efeqtma dabloka sinaTlis efeqti. sur. 7.10 Torndaikis problemuri yuTi imisTvis, rom gamoaRwios yuTidan da moipovos sakvebi, Torndaikis katam unda Camo agdos simZime, ris Semdegac kari gaiReba. sur. 7.11 operantuli kabina sagangebo apartSi Rilakze daWera iwvevs sakvebis mowodebas virTxisTvis. sur. 7.12. operantuli ganpirobebuloba Tqvens cxovrebaSi

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112 gvinda mogceT SesaZlebloba, SeimuSaoT uaryofiTi da dadebiTi ganmtkicebis gamoyen ebiT sqema, iseve rogorc dadebiTi da uaryofiTi dasjisa. airCieT qceva: qceva (sa kuTari an sxvisi), romlis sixSiris gazrdac gsurT, an qceva romlis sixSiris Semci rebac gsurT. Tqveni moqmedebis gegma CawereT TiToeul ujredSi. mag, davuSvaT Sesa mcirebeli qcevaa Tqveni OoTaxis mezoblis gauTavebeli laparaki telefonze. I carie l ujredSi SegiZliaT CaweroT `yoveli saubrisTvis, romelic 2 wuTze naklebs gagrZel deba, mezobels kanfets mivcem.~ xolo IV cariel ujredSi _ telefonze ar-saubris qc evis gazrda, magram gaiTvaliswineT, rom realurad SeiZleba ver SesZloT imis ganxo rcieleba, rasac cariel ujredebSi CawerT. sasargeblo stimuli aversiuli stimuli mi wodeba dadebiTi ganmtkiceba (1) Camocileba dadebiTi dasja (2) uaryofiTi dasja (3) uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba (4) sur. 7.14. Tandayolili unarebi garsias da kolingis kvlevebma (1966) aCvena, rom virTxebs aqvT Tandayolili unari , gansazRvruli stimuli daakavSiron gansazRvrul SedegTan. virTxebi eridebodnen sa xarins, roca is avadmyofobas moaswavebda da ara Soks. da piriqiT – ferad wyals eri debodnen, radgan Soks moaswavebda da ar eridebodnen, rodesac mas avadmyofoba moh yveboda. sakvanZo sakiTxebi daswavlis unaris kvleva • daswavla damyarebul aris procesi, rom lis Sedegadac viRebT gamocdilebaze an qcevis SedarebiT stabilur, mudmiv cvlilebas qcevaSi potencialSi . • bihevioristebs sjeraT, rom Zalian bevri qceva SeiZleba axsnili iqn as martivi daswavlis procedurebiT.

113 • maT, aseve, sjeraT, rom daswavlis erTidaigive principebi amarTlebs yvela cocxal organizmTan mimarTebaSi. klasikuri ganpirobebuloba: daswavlis winaswarganmwyobi faqtorebi • klasikuri ganpirobebulobis axsnaSi pirveli wvlili pavlovma Seitana, ro melmac Tqva, rom ganupirobebeli stimuli (gs) iwvevs ganupirobebel reaqcias (gr). neitraluri stimuli romelic Sewyvilebulia ganupirobebel stimulTan gadaiqceva gan pirobebul stimulad, romelic TavisTavad iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias. • Caqrobas aq vs adgili, rodesac ganupirobebel stimuls ar moyveba ganpirobebuli stimuli. • stimulis generalizacia fenomenia, romlis drosac ganpirobe buli stimulis msgavsi stimuli iwvevs ganpirobebul reaqcias. • diskriminaciuli • imis aTvis, arsebobdes daswavla aviwroebs im ganpirobebuli stimulebis diapazons, romelzec organizmi reaqcias iZleva. rom ganjxorcieldes kavSiri klasik uri ganpirobebuloba da unda mudmivi ganpirobebul stimulsa ganupirobebel stimuls Soris. • klasikuri ganpirobebuloba xsnis mraval emociur reaqcias da narkot ikebis mimarT tolerantulobas. is aseve gamoyenebul iqna imunuri funqciis Sesacvlelad. operantuli ganpirobebuloba: swavleba Sedegebis Sesaxeb • Torndaikma • s kineris aCvena, rom qcevebi romlebic damakmayofilebel Sedegebs iZlevian, midrekili arian gameorebisken. qceviTi analizis midgoma fokusirebulia ganmamtkiceblis ganpirobebulobis manipulaciiT miRebuli qcevis Sedegebis dakvirvebaze. • qcevebi Zi riTadad yalibdeba dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkicebiT. naklebad albaTia maTi dade biTi da uaryofiTi dasjiT Camoyalibeba. • konteqstualurad gamarTlebuli qceva aixsne ba samterminiani ganpirobebulobiT – ganmasxvavebeli stimuli-qceva-qcevis Sedegi. • pirveladi ganmamtk icebeli aris stimuli, romelic funqcionirebs rogorc stimuli maSinac ki, roca orga nizms SeZenilia wina gamocdileba ar qonia. ganpirobebuli ganmamtkiceblebi pirvel ad ganmamtkiceblebTan asocirebis Sedegad. • SesaZlo aqtiobebi funqcionirebs rogorc dadebiTi ganmamtkiceb eli.

114 • is qceva, romelzec gavlena moaxdina ganmamtkiceblis cxrilebma, SeiZleba SenarCun des an Seicvalos da aseve gamovlindes intervalebiT an porciaporciobiT. • kompleqsu ri reaqciebi SesaZloa daiswavlos Seipingis saSualebiT. biologia da daswavla • mkvl evrebi • instinqtiT varaudoben, rom daswavlas SeiZleba xeli SeuSalos gansxvavebuli saxeobebisTvis damaxasiaTebelma Taviseburebebma. gamowveulma midre kilebam SeiZleba gadafaros SedegiganmamtkicebliT daswavla. • gamos aversiiT swavla gvamcnobs, rom saxeobebi genetik urad mzad arin sxvadasxva saxis asociaciebisTvis. kognituri sferos gavlena daswa vlaze • daswavlis zogierTi forma gacilebiT kompleqsur procedurebs moiazrebs, vidre klasikuri an operantuli ganpirobebuloba. • cxovelebs gaaCniaT kognituri ruqebi, r omlebic maT rTul garemoSi funqcionirebis saSualebas aZlevs. • konceptualuri qceva cxovelebs saSualebas aZlev s garemos struqturebis Sesaxeb informaciis ganzogadeba moaxdinon. • qcevaTa waxali seba da dasja SesaZlebelia. adamianebs da sxva cxovelebs SeuZliaT dakvirvebidan gamomdinare swavla. ZiriTadi cnebebi • bihevioraluri analizi • refleqsi • klasikuri ganpirobebuloba • ganpirobebuloba • ganupir obebeli stimuli • ganupirobebeli reaqcia • ganpirobebuli stimuli • ganpirobebuli reaqc ia • daswavlis biologiuri iZuleba • daswavla • daswavla-gamovlenis gansxvaveba • SeZena • Caqroba • spontanuri aRdgena • stimulis generalizeba • operantuli qceva • pirobiTi ganmtkiceba • ganmamtkicebeli • dadebiTi ganmtkiceba • uaryo fiTi ganmtkiceba • operantulobis Caqroba • damsjeli • dadebiTi damsjeli • uaryofiT damsj eli • diskriminaciuli stimuli • sampirobiani albaToba • pirveladi ganmamtkicebeli • piro biTi ganmamtkicebeli • fiqsirebuli intervalis cxrili • cvalebadi intervalis cxrili

115 • • • stimulis diskriminacia • blokireba fsiqoneiroimunulogia • efeqtis kanoni • operanruli ganpirobebuloba warmatebuli miaxloebebis mixedviT Seipingi • instinqturi swrafva • gemos aversiiT da swavla • cxovelTa kognicia • kognituri ruka Tavi 8. mexsiereba • ra aris mexsiereba − − − ebinghausi zomavs mexsierebas mexsierebis tipebi mexsierebis procesebis mimoxilv a • sensoruli mexsiereba − − xatiseburi mexsiereba eqo mexsiereba • xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa mexsiereba − − xanmokle mexsierebis moculobis SezRuduloba muSa mexsiereba • xangrZlivi mexsiereba − − − − − kodireba da aRdgena konteqsti da kodireba mogonebis mimniSneblebi kodirebis da m ogonebis procesebi daulagebeli (arastruqturirebuli) informaciis daxsomebis saSua lebebi − metamexsiereba • • fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi. rogor SeiZleba mexsierebis gamokvlevebi dagexmaroT gamocdebisTvis mzadebaSi xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi − − − mexsierebis struqturebi mexsierebis struqturebis gamoyeneba mogoneba, rogorc rek onstruqciuli procesi

116 • • fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: adamianis mexsiereba da kompiuteris mexsiereba mexsier ebis biologiuri aspeqtebi − − engramis ZiebaSi tvinis suraTi (skanireba) • sakvanZo sakiTxebi − ZiriTadi cnebebi

117 Tavis avtobiografias marlon brando iwyebs Tavisi cxovrebis yvelaze adreuli epizo dis gaxsenebiT: „rodesac Tvals vavleb Cemi cxovrebis ganvlil wlebs da vcdilob gavi xseno warsuli – naTlad araferi magondeba. Dda mainc, Cemi pirveli mogoneba im dros ukavSirdeba, rodesac sul pawawina viyavi, im asakSi, rodesac Tavis asaks bavSve bi verc acnobiereben. maxsovs, erTxel diliT, Tvalebi rom gavaxile, nacrisfer bin d bundSi mimovixede da mivxvdi, rom ermis (brandos momvlels) jer kidev eZina. ro gorRac Cavicvi da nabijnabij daviwye saxlis win kibeze Casvla _ yovel safexurze marcxena fexs vdgamdi da radgan sandlebis Sekvra ver movaxerxe, fratun fratuniT mivaRwie karis zRurbls. Camovjeqi 32 e quCis win mzeSi, kibis safexurze da daviw ye lodini. rogorc Cans, gazafxuli iyo, radgan Cveni saxlis win mdgom maRal xes y vavilebis, WriWinis frTebis msgavsi, bumbuli cvioda. uqaro amindi iyo, bumbuli h aerSi dafarfatebda da nel nela ecemoda miwaze. me kisermoRrecili Tvals da da pir daRebuli maT moZraobas miwaze daSvebamde vadevnebdi xeli mqonda gawvdili, raTa e rTi bumbuli mainc dameWira. magram isini ostaturad uvlidnen gverds Cems xels. ase mivacilebdi yove l bumbuls miwamde da mere isev axali saswaulis molodinSi zeviT mivapyrobdi xolme mzeras. Mmze ealerseboda Cems oqrosfer Tmebs. swored es molodini axali saswauli sa iyo yvelaze tkbili mogoneba Cemi cxovrebis 65 wlis manZilze. “ mexsierebis Sesaxeb am Tavis kiTxvis dawyebis win kargi iqneba, Tu gaixsenebT raime movlenas Tqveni cxovrebis yvelaze adreuli periodidan. rodis moxda igi? iseve naTlad gaxsovT es movlena, rogorc marlon brandos? Tqvens mogonebaze moaxdina Tu ara gavlena igive movlenis Sesaxeb sxvebis monaTxrobma? a xla warmoidgineT, ra moxdeboda, moulodnelad rom aRmogeCinaT, rom dakargeT mexsie reba da araferi gaxsovT warsulidan _ arc xalxi, romelTac icnobdiT da arc movlene bi, romelic Tavs gadagxdaT. ar gaxsovT, rogor gamoiyureba dedaTqveni, dagaviwyda T, ra xdeboda Tqvens dabadebis dReze, rodesac aTi wlis gaxdiT. Tqveni pirovnebid an warsulis amgvari amoSlis pirobebSi Tqveni raobac, Tqveni TviTidentobac daikar geba da ver ityviT, vin xarT, ras warmoadgenT. an davuSvaT, dakargeT axali STabe Wdilebebis dafiqsirebis unari. ra mouva Tqvens uaxles gamocdilebas? Tqven xom sa ubris gagrZelebasac ver SeZlebT da verc satelevizio gadacemis azrs gaigebT. yvel aferi sruliad ucnobad mogeCvenebaT, TiTqos yvelafers pirvelad xedavT

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118 da TiTqos arasodes adre araviTari azri ar gqoniaT TavSi. rogor fiqrobT, SesaZleb elia nebismieri moqmedebis ganxorcieleba mexsierebis gareSe? Tu am sakiTxis Sesa xeb adre arasodes gifiqriaT, es imas niSnavs, rom, rogorc Cans, Tqveni mexsiereb a Tavis funqcias mSvenivrad asrulebs da rom Tqven Tqvens mexsierebas iseve udgeb iT, rogorc zogierT sxeulebriv procesebs, magaliTad, sunTqvis an kuW nawlavis sis temebs, romelTa moqmedebac, normalur pirobebSi, Tqveni cnobieri Carevis gareSe m imdinareobs. magram aqac, iseve, rogorc kuWis tkivilis Tu alergiis SemTxvevaSi, Tqvens mexsierebas maSin aqcevT yuradRebas, Tu raRac arasworad xdeba, magaliTad, gaviwydebaT manqanis gasaRebi, mniSvnelovani TariRi, pasuxi gamomcdelis SekiTxv aze, romelic namdvilad iswavleT da icodiT. ra Tqma unda, es SemTxvevebi Zalian u siamovnod ganicdeba, magram isic unda gaacnobieroT, rom adamianis tvini saSualod informaciis 100 triolion bits itevs. mexsierebidan garkveuli informaciis amosat anad ki jer am uzarmazari moculobis gadaxedva unda moxdes. amitomac, ar unda gag ikvirdeT, rom zogjer pasuxis saWiroebisamebr swrafi amotana ver xerxdeba. Cveni mizania, am TavSi agixsnaT, Tu rogor ixsomebT amdens da ratom iviwyebT zogjer im as, rac icodiT. visaubrebT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi daxsomebasa da daviwyebaze. gae cnobiT fsiqologiis monacemebs mexsierebis sxvadasxava formebis arsebobis da muSa obis Sesaxeb. vimedovnebT, rom mexsierebis Sesaxeb mravalricxovani faqtiuri masa lis gacnobis Semdeg Tqven darwmundebiT, Tu raoden araCveulebrivi ram aris mexsie reba. dabolos: ramdenadac es Tavi mexsierebas exeba, modiT, Tqveni mexsiereba Ta vidanve CavrToT saqmeSi. Cven gvinda, rom Tqven daixsomoT ricxvi 37. gaakeTeT yv elaferi, rac saWiroa am ricxvis 37 is dasaxsomeblad. diax, es iqneba testi. ra a ris mexsiereba? mexsiereba aris informaciis Senaxvisa da aRdgenis unari. am TavS i mexsierebas ganvixilavT, rogorc informaciis gadamuSavebis erT erTi formas. mTe li Cveni yuradReba mimarTuli iqneba imaze, rom gaCvenoT, Tu rogor aRibeWdeba inf ormacia Cvens mexsierebaSi da rogor gvaviwydeba igi, (sxva sityvebiT, rogor Semo dis informacia mexsierebis sistemaSi da rogor gamodis am sistemidan). informacii s aRbeWvdisa da aRdgenis procesebis ganxilva SesaZleblobas mogcemT, daazustoT, T u ra aris mexsiereba. Cven daviwyebT 1885 .

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119 wels gamoqveynebuli pirveli mecnieruli gamokvleviT mexsierebis Sesaxeb. Semdeg k i ganvixilavT Tanamedrove mkvlevarTa mier gamoyofil mexsierebis gansxvavebul for mebs. ebinghausi zomavs mexsierebas ramdenad sworia Semdegi debuleba: „masala swra fad gvaviwydeba, Tu igi gaazrebuli da mimarTebaSi ar aris moyvanili sxva masalas Tan, xolo Semdeg ganmeorebebiT ar aris ganmtkicebuli“. sxva sityvebiT, Tu naCqarev ad daiswavli masalas, ramdenime dReSi am masalis didi nawili dagaviwydeba. es mn iSvnelovani da uaRresad aqtualuri dakvirveba ekuTvnis germanel fsiqologs herman ebinghauss romelmac daadgina amgvar kanonzomierebaTa ebinghauss, mTeli seria, ra mac, Tavis mxriv, ganapiroba mis mier mexsierebis axali mecnieruli mimarTulebis Seqmna. ebinghausis es dakvirvebebi damatebiTi sabuTi iyo mexsierebis Sesaswavla d empiriuli kvlevebis upiratesobis saCveneblad. magram amisTvis aucilebeli iyo a xali meTodologia, da ebinghausmac brwyinvaled gaarTva Tavi am amocanas. Seqmna m exsierebis kvlevis meTodebi. igi iyenebda uazro marcvlebs, romlebic ori Tanxmovn isa da SuaSi erTi xmovnisgan Sedgeboda, magaliTad, ceg an das. igi azrian marcvl ebTan SedarebiT, magaliTad, ZaR upiratesobas uazro marcvlebs aZlevda/aniWebda, r adgan Tvlida, rom amiT sufTa mexsierebis kvlevas SesZlebda, Tavisufals pirovnebi s adrindeli gamocdilebis gavlenebisa da asociaciebisgan. ebinghausi ara mxolod m kvlevari iyo, aramed cdis piric sakuTar eqsperimentebSi. igi Tavis Tavze atarebd a cdebs da Tavis Sedegebs TviTonve amowmebda (zomavda). dasaxsomebeli amocana ga nsxvavebuli sigrZis masalis daswavlaSi mdgomareobda. ebingausi ikvlevda uSualo m exsierebas, sadac amocanis daxsomeba masalis meqanikur ganmeorebaze iyo damokide buli. ebinghausi Tavis eqsperiments iwyebda uazro marcvlebisgan Sedgenili mwkriv is kiTxviT pirveli marcvlidan bolo marcvlamde (TiToeuli marcvlis kiTxva zustad d adgenili periodulobiT xeboda). am proceduras imeorebda manam, sanam mwkrivis igi ve TanamimdevrobiT aRdgenas SeZlebda. es ukanaskneli daswavlis kriteriumad iTvleboda. amis Semdeg xangrZlivi drois manZilze igi pirveli mwkrivisgan gansxvavebuli marcvlebisgan Sedgenil mwkrivebs swavlobda. bo los ebinghausi isev Tavdapirvel mwkrivs ubrundeboda da zomavda ganmeorebebis im raodenobas, romelic saWiro iyo am mwkrivis uSecdomo (igive TanmimdevrobiT) aRdge nisaTvis. Tu mwkrivis aRdgenas naklebi ganmeoreba sWirdeboda, vidre Tavidan dasa swavlad iyo saWiro, iTvleboda,

120 rom informacia Senaxuli iyo da swored amis gamo dasWirda xelmeored daswavlas nak lebi dro. saidan viciT ebingausis daviwyebis mrudi Tu ebinghauss Tavidan 12 ganm eoreba sWirdeboda mwkrivis dasaswavlad, xolo 9 ganmeoreba _ mravali dRis Semdeg xelmeored dasaswavlad, ekonomiis koeficienti 25% iqneboda. (12 ganmeorebas gamok lebuli 9 = 3 anu 25%). am proceduris gamoyenebiT ebinghausi zomavda gansxvavebul droiT SualedSi mexsierebaSi Senaxuli informaciis raodenobas. mrudi, romelic man miiRo, gamosaxulia 8.1 suraTze rogorc xedavT, masalis swraf daviwyebas adgili a qvs daswavlis Semdeg pirvel dReebSi, xolo Semdeg daviwyebis tempi TandaTan klebu lobs. ebinghausis mrudi tipuria uSualo mexsierebaze Catarebuli yvela eqsperiment uli monacemisTvis. sur. 8.1. ebinghausis daviwyebis mrudi mrudze gamosaxulia uazro marcvalTa daxsomebis raodenoba individTa mier ekonomiis meTodis gamoyenebiT 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi. mrudi swrafad eSveba qveviT da Semdeg daaxloebiT erT doneze Cerdeba. • mexsiereba (Memory) _ informaciis kodirebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis fsiqikuri unari. ebingausis gavleniT, fsiqologebi ramdenime aTeuli wlis manZilze Seiswavlidnen uazro marcvalTa daxsomebis da mogonebis procesebs. mexsierebis am , SeZlebisdagvarad, sufTa formis Seswavlisas mkvlevrebi imedovnebdnen, rom ipovi dnen im ZiriTad, bazisur principebs, romelTa daxmarebiTac mexsierebis ufro rTuli procesebis axsna iqneboda SesaZlebeli. mkvlevrebi dRemde cdiloben am bazisuri p rocesebis dadgenas, Tumca, axla yuradReba azriani masalis daxsomebazea gadatanili _ informaciis im s axeobaze, romelsac yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi aqvs adgili. • mexsierebis eqsplicituri g amoyeneba (Explicit uses of memoty) _ cnobieri Zalisxmeva mexsierebidan informac iis aRdgenisa. • mexsierebis implicituri gamoyeneba (Umplicit uses of memory) _ ko direbis da aRdgenis procesebis gaucnobiereblad informaciis daxsomeba da aRdgena. mexsierebis tipebi

121 rodesac mexsierebis Sesaxeb iwyebT fiqrs, pirveli, rac mogdiT TavSi, aris is sit uaciebi, romelSic Tqven iyenebT Tqvens mexsierebas _ igonebT Tqvens sayvarel fil ms, meore msoflio omis dawyebis TariRs da sxv. faqtobrivad, mexsierebis erT erTi umniSvnelovanesi funqcia aris is, rom Sens individualur Tu sazogadoebriv warsul gamocdilebaSi SesaZlebeli gaxdes saWiro informaciis cnobieri moZieba. magram me xsierebis mniSvneloba gacilebiT ufro metia. masze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebeli xdeba y ovelgvari Zalisxmevis gareSe bevri yoveldRiuri saqmis Sesruleba. magaliTad, rode sac quCaSi manqanis saWes uzixarT, gza, maRaziebi quCis orive mxares nacnobi, Cv eulebrivia TqvenTvis. es mexsierebis meore mniSvnelovani funqciaa, romelic cnobi erebis Caurevlad moqmedebs. mexsierebis tipebis ganxilvisas giCvenebT, Tu rogor muSaobs mexsiereba am funqciebis gansaxorcieleblad, xSirad aracnobier donezec. implicituri da eqsplicituri mexsiereba ganvixiloT suraTi 8.2. ra Secdomaa daSvebuli am suraTze? pirveli, ramac gagakvir vaT, aris cocxali kurdRlis yofna samzareuloSi. magram saidan modis es gancda? Tq ven, albaT, ar CamouvliT TiToeul sagans da ar ikiTxavT: es samzareuloSi unda iyo s? an es kabinetSi unda iyos? es magaliTi kargad gviCvenebs gansxvavebas mexsier ebis gamoyenebis implicitur da eqsplicitur unarebs Soris. Tqvens mier kurdRlis S emCneva implicituri mexsierebis funqcia iyo, radgan Tqveni mexsierebis procesebm a samzareulos Sesaxeb codna naxatis interpretacias yovelgvari gansakuTrebuli Zal isxmevis gareSe daukavSira. magram axla Tu dagisvamT kiTxvas, ra aklia samzareul os am suraTze? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad dagWirdebaT eqsplicituri mexsierebi s amoqmedeba. gagiCndebaT kiTxvebi: rogoria tipuri samzareulo? ra aklia? (gaifiq reT onkanze an gazis quraze?). amrigad, rodesac saWiro xdeba mexsierebaSi Senaxu li informaciis gamoyeneba, es SeiZleba moxdes zogjer, impliciturad _ informacia amodis cnobieri Zalisxmevis gareSe, zogjer ki eqspliciturad _ informaciis amosat anad cnobieri Zalisxmevaa saWiro. aseTive gansxvavebas aqvs adgili ara mxolod wa rsulis aRdgenis, aramed axali informaciis miRebis, anu aRbeWvdis (kodirebis) pro cesSic. saidan iciT, ra xdeba samzareuloSi? rodesme dagiswavliaT ra unda xdebode s samzareuloSi an rogor unda gamoiyurebodes is? albaT, ara. ufro savaraudoa, rom es codna Tqven aracnobierad SeiZineT. da piriqiT,

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122 samzareuloSi arsebuli bevri sagnis saxeli, albaT, eqspliciturad daixsomeT. rogor c me 11 TavSi vnaxavT, asociaciebis damyareba sityvebsa da Sinaarss Soris bavSvo baSi xdeba, eqsplicituri mexsierebis procesebze dayrdnobiT. Tqven daimaxsovreT s ityva macivari imitom, rom odesRac viRacam migaqcevinaT yuradReba am sityvaze, r ogorc am konkretuli sagnis saxelze. es gansxvaveba implicitur da eqsplicitur mex sierebas Soris Zalian afarTovebs mexsierebis Sesaxeb Sesaswavl sakiTxTa diapazon s. (Buchner, &Wipich2000, Roediger,1990). tradiciulad, ebinghausis Semdeg, mkvle varTa umravlesoba Seiswavlida eqsplicitur mexsierebas. eqsperimentatorebi, Cveul ebriv, informaciis daxsomebas Txovdnen cdis pirebs, xolo mexsierebis Teoriebis m izani iyo, aexsnaT am pirobebSi daxsomebis da daviwyebis faqtebi da kanonzomiere bani. axla ki, rogorc Semdgom am Tavis gacnobisas ukeT SegviZlia gavigoT mexsier ebis saWiroebis da gamoyenebis mravalferovneba. axla ukve viciT, rom informaciis aRbeWvdis da aRdgenis procesebSi monawileobs rogorc eqsplicituri, ise implicitu ri mexsiereba. (Toth. et al. 1994). axla ganvixiloT sxva kriteriumis safuZvelze gamoyofili mexsierebis formebi. vnaxavT, Seiqmna meTodebi implicituri mexsierebi s Sesaswavladac. amrigad, axla ufro deklaraciuli da proceduruli mexsiereba SegiZliaT stvena? aba, midiT, daustvineT. Tu stvena ar SegiZliaT, maSin TiTebi d aatkacuneT. mexsierebis romeli formaa pasuxismgebeli am moqmedebebze? Tqven SeiZ leba gaxsovT kidec, rogor swavlobdiT am moqmedebebs, magram axla amas yovelgvari Zalisxmevis gareSe akeTebT. zemoT moyvanili eqsplicituri da implicituri mexsier ebis Sesaxeb magaliTebi exeba faqtebisa da movlenebis daxsomebas, romelsac deklaraciuli mexsiereba ewodeba. magram, rogorc vxedavT, gvaqvs mexsiereba imisac, Tu rogor unda vimoqmedoT an gavakeToT raime. es ki proceduruli mexsierebis kompetenciaa. ramdenadac am Tavis didi nawili faqtebis da movlenebis daxsomebas da mogonebas e xeba, saWiroa imis ganxilvac, Tu rogor viZenT raimes gakeTebis, an raRac moqmede bis Sesrulebis unars. proceduruli mexsiereba mimarTulia im gzebis daxsomebaze, romelic ganapirobebs raime moqmedebis Sesrulebas an raimes gakeTebas. is safuZvlad udevs perceptuli, kognituri da motoruli Cvevebis SeZenas. proceduruli

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123 mexsierebis Teoriebi yvelaze xSirad daswavlis droSi mimdinareobaze amaxvileben y uradRebas. (Anderson,1996, Anderson etal., 1999): rogor xdeba gadasvla garkveuli aqtiobis Sesaxeb deklaraciuli faqtebis CamonaTvalidan igive aqtiobis aracnobier , avtomatur Sesrulebaze? an ratom xdeba, rom Cvevis gamomuSavebis Semdeg xSirad gviZneldeba am Cvevis gamomuSavebis procesis metnaklebad detaluri gaxseneba da d eklaraciuli faqtebis aRdgena, romelic, Tavis droze, safuZvlad daedo am Cvevis Se muSavebas. am fenomenis TvalsaCinoebisTvis gavarCioT Semdegi martivi moqmedeba _ telefonze nomris akrefa. Tavidan, rodesac telefonze darekvas cdilobdiT, gixdebo daT yoveli cifris akrefis win dafiqreba Tqven moqmedebdiT deklaraciuli faqtebi T: Tavidan unda avkrifo 2 Semdeg unda avkrifo 3, Semdeg _ 3 da a.S. magram Tu sa kmaod xSirad mogiwiaT am nomris akrefa, ukve aRar anawevrebT telefonis nomers cn obierebaSi calkeul cifrebad, aramed erTianad, uswrafesad, meqanikurad krefT nome rs. am process codnis kompilacia ewodeba (Anderson, 1987). praqtikis Sedegad Tqv en SegiZliaT sxvadasxva moqmedebebis TanmimdevrobiT Sedgenili sakmaod rTuli moqm edeba cnobierebis Carevis gareSe SeasruloT. magram, amave dros, Tqven ver ixsene bT cnobierad am moqmedebis calkeul mdgenelebs. Tu isev telefonis magaliTs davubr undebiT, arc ise iSviaTad, SeiZleba SegxvdeT adamiani, romelmac SeiZleba ver gai xsenos telefonis nomeri, sanam akrefis imitacias ar gaakeTebs. codnis kompilacia is maxasiaTebelia, romlis gamoc proceduruli mexsiereba sxva formebSi ar agereva T. Tu odesme Tqvens mSoblebs (an nebismier pirovnebas) ucdiaT TqvenTvis manqanis tarebis swavleba, SeiZleba miaqcieT kidec yuradReba, rom miuxedavad imisa, rom mSoblebi TviTon SeiZleba Zalian kargi mZRolebic iyvnen, magram ver SeZlon kargad da sworad gadmogcen manqanis marTvisTvis aucilebel moqmedebaTa Tanmimdevroba. • d eklaraciuli mexsiereba (Declarative memory) _ mimarTulia faqtebisa da movlenebis daxsomebaze. • proceduruli mexsiereba (Procedural memory) _ mimarTulia imaze, Tu rogor unda Sesruldes moqmedeba, rogor, ra gziT unda moxdes perceptuli,

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124 kognituri da motoruli Cvevebis SeZena da gamoyeneba. Tqven, albaT, imisTvisac mi giqceviaT yuradReba, rom codnis kompilacia, zogjer Secdomebis mizezic xdeba. mag aliTad, Tu Tqven xSirad gixdebaT kompiuterze inglisurad beWvda da, SeiZleba iTqv as, rom gawafuli mbeWdavi xarT, udaod SeuwuxebixarT the s problemas. proceduruli mexsierebis gareSe cxovreba uaRresad garTuldeboda, radgan TiToeuli moqmedebis S esruleba yovel jerze nabij nabij mogviwevda. da miuxedavad amisa, yovelTvis, rod esac SecdomiT dabeWdavT, advilad gaarCevT am Secdomis mizezi ucodinarobaa Tu meq anikuri Secdoma. procesebi mexsierebis procesebi mexsierebis nebismieri forma mo iTxovs sami saxis mnemur moqmedebas: aRbeWvdas (kodirebas), Senaxvas da aRdgenas . kodireba aris informaciis gadamuSavebis pirveli safexuri, romelic informaciis mexsierebis sistemaSi Semosvlas emsaxureba. Senaxva akavebs informacias garkveul i drois manZilze. aRdgena ki Senaxuli informaciis cnobierebaSi amotanas, an mis gamoyenebas warmoadgens. martivad rom vTqvaT, kodirebas Semoaqvs informacia saca vSi (Senaxva), akavebs mas, sanam saWiroeba moiTxovs, xolo aRdgenas amoaqvs igi. axla ufro vrclad ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani. kodireba saSualebas iZleva, rom mexsierebaSi gare samyaroSi arsebuli sagnebisa da movlenebis Sesaxeb warmodgenebi Seiqmnas. mexsierebis warmodgena, C veulebrivi warmodgenis analogiuria: vTqvaT, me mainteresebs rogoria is saukeTeso saCuqari, romelic Tqven bolo dabadebis dReze miiReT. (igulisxmeba, rom es saCuq ari Tan ar gaqvT). ras gaakeTebT amisTvis? Tqven agviwerT am nivTs, mis Tvisebeb s. SeiZleba dagvixatoT, an imitacia gaakeToT, rogor iyenebT. yvela SemTxvevaSi e s iqneba realurad arsebulis mxolod warmodgena. miuxedavad imisa, rom arc erTi ma Tgani ar aris originalis identuri, TiToeuli maTgani mainc garkveul codnas gvawvd is am saCuqris yvelaze mniSvnelovan aspeqtebze. mexsierebis warmodgenebi zustad aseve moqmedeben. maTSi Senaxulia warsuli gamocdilebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani niS nebi, rac SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs ganviaxloT, warmovidginoT warsuli gamocdileba. Tu informacia aRbeWdilia mexsierebaSi, misi Senaxva moxdeba drois garkveuli peri odis ganmavlobaSi. Senaxvis procesSi xdeba Tavis tvinis struqturis xanmokle da x angrZlivi cvlilebebi. am Tavis bolos vnaxavT, Tu

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125 rogor cdiloben mkvlevrebi daazuston Tavis tvinis is adgilebi, Tu sad xdeba axali da Zveli informaciis Senaxva. garda amisa, vnaxavT, ra xdeba amneziis gansakuTr ebul SemTxvevaSi, rodesac individebi kargaven axali informaciis Senaxvis unars. • kodireba (Encoding) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac mexsierebaSi formirdeba mentaluri reprezentaciebi. • Senaxva (Storage) _ kodirebuli informaciis Sekaveba garkveuli drois manZilze. • aRdgena (Retrieval) _ Senaxuli informaciis aRdgena, amotana mexsierebidan. aRdgena ki aginazRaurebT yvela mis winmswreb Zalisxmevas. aRdgenis process SeuZlia wamebSi uzrunvelhyos adre aRbeWdili informaciis migneba da amota na. SegiZliaT gaixsenoT, ra uswrebs win Senaxvas: kodireba Tu dekodireba? axla Z alian advilia amaze pasuxi, magram aseve swrafad gaixsenebT, ras moiazrebs dekod irebis cneba da aseve darwmunebuli iqnebiT Tqveni pasuxis sisworeSi am momentida n ramdenime Tvis Semdeg? sakiTxi, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli erTi biti specifikur i informaciis amotana mexsierebaSi arsebuli uzarmazari raodenobis informaciidan, udides interess iwvevs im fsiqologTa Soris, romelTa mizanic aris imis garkveva, Tu rogor muSaobs mexsiereba da rogor SeiZleba misi gaumjobeseba. marTalia, kodi rebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis, rogorc damoukidebeli mnemuri procesebis, daxasiaTe ba SedarebiT advilia, magram am sam process Soris urTierTmoqmedeba sakmaod rTuli a. magaliTad, imisaTvis, rom Tqvens mexsierebaSi vefxvis aRbeWvda moxdes, saWiro a, rom vefxvis cneba gqondeT. aseve, imisaTvis, rom mexsierebaSi Cajdes Semdegi winadadeba: „is iseTive patiosania, rogorc benediqt arnoldi“, saWiroa, rom TiToeuli sityvis mniSvneloba gavixsenoT, unda vicodeT inglisuri gramatikis wesebi, romleb ic sityvebs winadadebebad kravs, da bolos, Sesabamis kulturasTan dakavSirebul in

formaciasac unda vflobdeT, kerZod, Tu rogori patiosani iyo benediqt arnoldi, es cnobili revoluciuri omis moRalate. axla Tqven ukve mzad xarT, ufro Rrmad gaecnoT informaciis kodirebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis procesebs. SemdgomSi Cven ganvixil avT xanmokle mexsierebis formebs, daviwyebT sensoruli mexsierebiT da gadavalT xa ngrZliv mexsierebis formebze (sur. 8.3). agixsniT, rogor vixsomebT da ratom

126 gvaviwydeba. Cveni mizania, rom samudamod gaacnobieroT, Tu sad rogor iyenebT Tqv ens mexsierebas. vimedovnebT, rom es dagexmarebaT Tqveni mexsierebis zogierTi as peqtis gamosworebaSi. sensoruli mexsiereba muSa mexsiereba moicavs xanmokle mexsierebas xangrZlivi mex siereba sur. 8.3. informaciis gadasvla xangrZliv mexsierebaSi da misi aRdgena mexsierebis TeoriebSi aRwerilia informaciis gadasvla xangrliv mexsierebaSi da iq idan misi cnobierebaSi amotana Tu gamoyeneba. TeoriebSi informaciis Tavdapirveli aRbeWvda miewereba sensorul da xangrZliv mexsierebas. informaciis gadasvla xang rZliv mexsierebaSi _ Senaxvas, xolo informaciis gadmosvla ukan _ muSa mexsiereba Si _ aRdgenas. Sejameba mexsierebas ganvsazRvravT, rogorc informaciis gadamuSavebis process. fs iqologebi Seiswavlian mexsierebis sistemaSi informaciis Sesvlasa da gamosvlas. e binghausi iyo mexsierebis pirveli mkvlevari, romelmac Seqmna kvlevis meTodologia da aRmoaCina daviwyebis siswrafis fundamenturi kanonzomierebani. arsebobs mogon ebis eqsplicituri da implicituri formebi. mexsierebis zogierTi forma Seicavs dek laraciul mexsierebas faqtebis Sesaxeb codnas. zogierTi forma ki procedurul i nformacias codnas, rogor Sesruldes esa Tu is amocana. kodirebis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis Zireuli procesebi kompleqsurad moqmedeben da gvexmarebian axali gamocdi lebis SeZenasa da gamoyenebaSi. sensoruli mexsiereba daviwyoT mexsierebis zogierTi formis sisustis demonstraciiT . 8.4 naxatze sakmaod rTuli vizualuri scenaa gamosaxuli. gTxovT, momentalurad (d aaxloebiT 10 wamis ganmavlobaSi) SexedoT mas da Semdeg furceli daafaroT. amis Se mdeg ramdenime kiTxvas dagisvamT suraTTan dakavSirebiT: 1. ra iaraRi uWiravs pat ara biWs suraTis qveda nawilSi? 2. ras akeTebs kaci suraTis zeda nawilis SuaSi? 3. suraTis dabal marjvena kuTxeSi qals qolga marjvena Tu marcxena xelSi uWiravs?

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127 am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad, albaT, suraTze xelmeored daxedva mogindebodaT, k idev erTxel rom SegexedaT suraTisTvis, ara? sabednierod, amgvari, xelmeore gadax edvis SesaZlebloba Tqvens mexsierebaSi Cadebulia. fsiqologebi varaudoben, rom se nsoruli mexsiereba gaaCnia yovel sensorul modalobas. TiToeuli sensoruli mexsiere ba inaxavs gamRizianeblis fizikur Tvisebas wamis an wamze naklebi drois ganmavlo baSi. es mexsiereba kidev ufro afarToebs garemodan informaciis miRebis SesaZlebl obas. am azris ufro detalurad naTelsayofad moviyvanT ramdenime gamokvlevas mxedv elobiT da smeniT sensorul mexsierebaze. xatiseburi mexsiereba mexsierebis mkvlev rebma sensorul mexsierebas sensorul sferoSi xatiseburi mexsiereba uwodes (Naisse r, 1967). xatiseburi mexsiereba umciresi drois ganmavlobaSi inaxavs aRqmuli info rmaciis Zalian did raodenobas. xatiseburi mexsiereba anu xati daaxloebiT wamis n axevars grZeldeba. pirvelad masze dakvirveba moxda eqsperimentSi, sadac cdis pir ebs evalebodaT, aRedginaT ekranze wamis mexuTedis ganmavlobaSi miwodebuli inform acia. saidan viciT xatiseburi mexsiereba jorj sperlingi (1969 1963) cdis pirebs awvdida 9 asosa da cifrisgan Sedgenil sam mwkrivs 7 X B 1 L 4 V 5 W F 3 7 cdis pirebs sTxovdnen ori gansxvavebuli amocanis Sesrulebas. masalis mTlianad aRdgenis SemTxvevaSi cdis pirebs unda aRedginaT maqsimaluri raodenoba, rasac SeZlebdnen. Cveulebriv, am SemTxvevaSi daaxloebiT oTxi wevris a Rdgena xdeboda. cdis pirTa meore nawils masalis nawilobriv aRdgenas sTxovdnen. am dros cdis pirebs mxolod erTi mwkrivi unda aRedginaT. masalis miwodebis Semdeg gaismoda dabali, saSualo an maRali bgeriTi s ignali, romelic cdis pirs miuTiTebda, romeli mwkrivi unda aRedginaT. sperlingma daadgina, rom ganurCevlad imisa, romeli mwkrivis

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128 aRdgenas moTxovdnen, cdis pirebi am mwkrivs srulad aRadgendnen. imis gamo, rom c dis pirebs zustad SeeZloT aRedginaT bgeriTi signalis Sesabamisi nebismieri mwkri vi, sperlingma daaskvna, rom mTeli miwodebuli informacia gadadis xatisebur mexsi erebaSi. es miuTiTebs am ukanasknelis did moculobaze. amave dros, masalis sruli da nawilobrivi aRdgenis meTodiT gansxvaveb uli raodenobiT masalis aRdgena gviCvenebs, rom informaciis swrafi daviwyeba xdeb a: masalis sruli aRdgenis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi cdis pirebs ar SeeZloT xatisebur mexsierebaSi asaxuli mTeli informaciis srulad mogoneba. es dadasturda eqsperime ntSi, romlis drosac bgeriTi signalis miwodeba masalis eqspoziciis Semdeg odnav d agvianebiT xdeboda. 8.5 suraTze Cans, rom intervalis gaxangrZliveba nulidan erT wamamde aRdgenili wevrebis raodenobas amcirebs. fsiqologebma zustad gamoiangariS es is dro, romelic sWirdeba xatiseburi mexsierebidan informaciis waSlas (Gegenfu rtner & Sperling, 1993; Loftus at al., 1992). imisTvis, rom maqsimalurad cota ra m daikargos Cveni mxedvelobiTi samyarodan, mexsierebis procesebma Zalian swrafad unda gadaitanon informacia ufro myar sacavSi. gaiTvaliswineT, rom xatiseburi me xsiereba ar aris fotografiuli mexsierebis sinonimi, rogorc amas SeiZleba zogierT i Tvlides. fotografiuli mexsierebis teqnikuri cneba aris eideturi warmodgena: xa lxs, romelsac gaaCnia eideturi warmodgenebi, SeuZlia ufro didi xnis ganmavlobaSi , vidre xatisebur mexsierebas, detalebSi aRadginos suraTi _ TiTqos aRiqvams da a Rwers mas. „xalxi“ realurad bavSvebia, radgan dadgenil iqna, rom bavSvTa Soris 8%, x olo mozrdilTa Soris 0% ia eidetikosi. (Neath, 1998). ar arsebobs metnaklebad dam akmayofilebeli Teoria, romelic axsnida, Tu ratom qreba asakTan erTad eideturi wa rmodgenebi (Crowder, 1992). miuxedavad amisa, Tu Tqven, am wignis mkiTxveli, xar T damamTavrebeli klasis moswavle an kolejis studenti, Tqven namdvilad ar geqneba T eideturi warmodgenebi. sur. 8.5 eqo mexsiereba bgerebze sensorul mexsierebas e qo mexsiereba ewodeba. eqo mexsiereba, iseve . rogorc xatiseburi, mcire xniT ina xavs ufro met informacias, vidre daviwyebamde misi aRdgenis unaric gaaCnia adami ans (Crowder & Morton, 1969; Darvin et al., 1967). magram eqo mexsiereba, xatise bur mexsierebasTan SedarebiT, 5 10 wamiT

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129 met xans grZeldeba. eqo mexsierebis aseTi xangrZlioba SeiZleba davukavSiroT droS i bgeraTa Tanmimdevari urTierTdakavSirebis gzebs. magaliTad, rodesac vusmenT win adadebas, yoveli bgeris Tanmimdevari Semosvla xdeba Cvens yurSi. eqo mexsiereba gvexmareba, rom es calkeuli bgerebi mTlianobebad Seikras. eqo mexsierebaze Catar ebulma gamokvlevebma gamoavlina sensoruli mexsierebis meore mniSvnelovani Tviseb a; axlad Semosuli informacia advilad gandevnis winas. Tu vinme gikiTxavT sityvaT a mwkrivs, yoveli axali sityva gadaaadgilebs winas eqo mexsierebaSi. mkvlevrebi Tavidanve darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom bgeraTa msgavseba gansazRvravs sityvaTa amov ardnas eqo mexsierebidan. (Crowder, 1976). magram axla ukve viciT, rom amis mize zi msmenelis mier smeniTi gamRizianeblebis kategorizaciac SeiZleba iyo (Ayres et al., 1979). garedan smeniTi informaciis Semosvlisas, Tqven am gamRizianeblebis nakadis nawilebad dayofas axdenT _ gansazRvravT, romeli bgerebi erTiandeba mTlia nobebad. eqo mexsiereba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor ajgufebT smeniTi modalobiT Semosul gamocdilebas (LeCompte & Watkins, 1995). saidan viciT kategorizacia gavlenas axdens eqo mexsierebaze studentebze Catarda mexsierebis eqsperimenti, sadac ekiTxebodaT asoTa mwkrivi, romelsac sufiqsi mosd evda. sufiqsi yovelTvis erTi saxis iyo da . magram eqsperimentis erT seriaSi JRe rda, rogorc Txis kikini mee. m monawile cdis pirebi darwmunebuli iyvnen, rom e s xma namdvilad cxvars ekuTvnoda, xolo mere seriaSi ki darwmunebuli iyvnen, rom am xmas adamiani gamoscemda, (rac marTlac, ase iyo). aRmoCnda, rom sufiqsi mxolo d im SemTxvevebSi Sedioda eqo mexsierebaSi, Tu cdis pirebi Tvlidnen, rom xma ada mianis iyo (Neath et al., 1993). miaqcieT yuradReba imas, rom moqmedi fizikuri g amRizianebeli erTi da igive iyo. magram mxolod maSin irRveoda eqo mexsiereba, ro desac cdis pirebi mwkrivis da mee s kategorizacias axdendnen (asoebsac da sufiqs sac adamianis xmiT wakiTxulad miiCnevdnen). amrigad, kodirebis da Senaxvis ukve uadres safexurze mniSvneloba aqvs informaciis gadamuSavebas. Tqven, albaT, dasva mT kiTxvas, ratom aqvs sensorul mexsierebas ori ZiriTadi niSani –wamebis manZilze grZeldeba da advilad irRveva. saqme is aris, rom es niSnebi asaxavs garemosTan C vens urTierTobas. Cvenze mudmivad

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130 moqmedebs axali mxedvelobiTi da smeniTi gamRizianeblebi. es axali informacia gad amuSavebas moiTxovs. sensoruli mexsierebis xangrZlioba sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom garemos cvalebadoba asaxos, magram arc imdenad Zlieria, rom winaaRmdegoba gauwi os axal sensorul STabeWdilebebs. Cven SemdgomSi ganvixilavT mexsierebis gadamuSa vebis im saxeebs, romelic SesaZlebels xdis ufro xangrZlivi droiT daxsomebas. Sej ameba sensoruli mexsiereba uzrunvelhyofs garemodan informaciis Semosvlas. xatise buri mexsiereba aris mxedvelobiTi mexsierebis forma, romelic SesaZleblobas gvaZl evs didi raodenobis informacia umciresi drois manZilze SevinaxoT. eqo mexsiereba asaxavs gamRizianeblebs. Tumca, igi ufro didxans grZeldeba, vidre xatiseburi me xsiereba, mas axali informacia ufro advilad arRvevs. xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa mexsiereba sanam am Tavis wakiTxvas daiwyebdiT, Tqven, SeiZleba, arc icodiT, ro m gqondaT xatiseburi da eqo mexsiereba, magram SeiZleba icodiT kidec, rom gagaCn iaT mexsierebis iseTi forma, romelic mxolod xanmokle droiT informaciis Senaxvas uzrunvelyofs. ganvixiloT Zalian Cveulebrivi SemTxveva, rodesac satelefono wignSi amoikiTxeT nacnobis telefonis nomeri. Tu es nomeri dakavebulia, Tqven isev dagW irdebaT telefonebis wignSi Caxedva. es magaliTi gasagebs xdis, Tu ratom gamohyve s mkvlevrebma mexsierebis calke forma, romelsac xanmokle mexsiereba uwodes. Tqve n ar unda warmoidginoT, rom xanmokle mexsiereba aris specialuri adgili, sadac Se dis daxsomebuli masala. is ufros meqanizmia, romelic SemecnebiT SesaZleblobebs w armodgenaTa momcro sqemaze uyris Tavs (Covan, 1999, Shiffrin, 1993). magram xanm okle mexsierebis resursebi Zalian cvalebadi da aramyaria. Tu gavixsenebT telefon is nomris magaliTs, imisTvis, rom ar dagaviwydeT informacia (am SemTxvevaSi tele fonis nomeri), Tqven sagangebo zomebi unda miiRoT, raTa ufro saimedod aRbeWdoT i s. Cven ufro farTod xanmokle mexsierebis im tipis SesaZleblobebs gavecnobiT, rom elic eqsplicituri mexsierebis ganxorcielebas uwyobs xels. amas imitom vusvamT xa zs, rom implicituri mexsierebis xanmokle formebis Seswavla mkvlevrebma mxolod ax la daiwyes (McKone & Trynes, 1999). winaswari monacemebiT,

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131 implicitur mexsierebasac SeiZleba gaaCndes xanmokle forma, saidanac informacia i mplicituri mexsierebis xangrZliv formaSi gadava. amave qveTavSi Cven SevexebiT i nformaciis mexsierebaSi gadamuSavebis kidev erT formas, romelic gansazRvravs azr ebisa da qcevebis Tanmimdevar da yovelwuTier mimdinareobas. es aris muSa mexsier eba. rogorc vnaxavT, muSa , mexsiereba gamoiyeneba iseTi amocanebis Sesasrulebla d, rogoricaa metyveleba da msjeloba (Baddeley, 1986). davuSvaT, Tqven cdilobT, d aixsomoT telefonis nomeri da iwyebT fanqris da qaRaldis Zebnas, raTa CaiweroT is . Tqveni xanmokle mexsiereba gaZlevT SesaZleblobas, SeaCeroT telefonis nomeri Tq vens mexsierebaSi, muSa mexsiereba ki arCevs da iyenebs im fsiqikur operaciebs, romlebic xels Seuwyoben Zebnis procesis warmatebiT dasrulebas. daviwyoT ganxilva xanmokle mexsierebis ganxilviT. xanmokle mexsierebis moculobis SezRuduloba xanm okle mexsierebis ZiriTadi funqcia aris erTjeradi aRqmiT informaciis uSualo aRbeW vda cnobierebaSi. me 5 e TavSi Cven aRvniSneT, rom yuradRebis funqcia aris gare samyarodan garkveul obieqtTa da movlenaTa seleqcia. ramdenadac Tqveni yuradRebis moculoba SezRudulia, aseve, SezRuduli iqneba xanmokle mexsierebaSi Semosuli inf ormaciis raodenobac. xanmokle mexsierebis SezRudul moculobas ganapirobebs yuradR ebis SezRuduloba. xanmokle mexsierebis moculobis dasadgenad mkvlevrebma uSualo mexsierebis testi gamoiyenes. SeiZleba, odesaRac Tqvenc SegisrulebiaT msgavsi amocana: waikiTxeT erTxel Semdegi cifrebi, xolo Semdeg CamowereT igive Tanmimdev robiT, ramdensac SeZlebT: 81 734 9 42 85 ramdeni aRdgineT sworad? axla waikiTxeT asoebisgan Semdgari mwkrivi da, aseve, r amdensac SeZlebT, aRadgineT igive TanmimdevrobiT. IMRSOFLPTZB ramdeni aRadgineT sworad? Tu Tqven sxva adamianebisgan ar gamoirCeviT, daaxloebiT xuTidan cxra erT euls aRadgenT. jorj mileris (George Miller, 1976) mixedviT, adamiani saSualod ix somebs Svid (plius an minus or) erTeuls. mas igi „magiur cifr“

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132 Svids uwodebda. es vrceldeba SemTxveviTi wesiT ganlagebuli cifrebis, asoebis, ma rcvlebis, sityvebis da nebismier azrian Tu nacnob masalaze. uSualo mexsierebis t estiT xanmokle mexsierebis SesaZleblobebi gadafasebulia, radganac cdis pirebs Se saZlebloba aqvT, amocanis Sesasruleblad sxva wyaroebic gamoiyenon. gaixseneT, ma galiTad, rom eqomexsiereba SesaZleblobas gaZlevT, xmamaRla wakiTxuli masalidan u keT daixsomoT bolo ramdenime wevri (Tu sufiqsi ar erTvis Tan). arsebobs faqtoreb i, romlebic amcireben xanmokle mexsierebis moculobas oridan oTxamdec ki (Crowder , 1976). magram Tu mxolod es aris is raodenoba, riTac iwyebT informaciis SeZenas , maSin ratom aris, rom xSirad verc amCnevT Tqveni mexsierebis aseT SezRudulobas ? ACCOMMODATING TO STM CAPACITY miuxedavad imisa, rom xanmokle mexsierebis mocul oba sakmaod SezRudulia, xanmokle mexsiereba Tavis funqcias mainc warmatebiT asru lebs ori mizezis gamo: pirveli, mas aqvs SesaZlebloba informaciis ganmtkicebisa ganmeorebebisa da dajgufebis gziT da meore, xanmokle mexsierebidan informaciis a motana Zalian swrafad xdeba. ganmeoreba Tqven, albaT, SegimCneviaT, rom saukeTeso gza Tqveni nacnobis erTxel amokiTxuli telefonis nomris daxsomebisaTvis ramdenjerme misi gonebaSi (an xmamaRla) ganmeor ebaa. daxsomebis am teqnikas SemaCerebeli ganmeoreba ewodeba. ra mosdis ganmeore bis gareSe informacias, kargad Cans erT erT maxvilgonier eqsperimentSi. saidan v iciT xanmokle mexsierebaSi ganmeorebis gareSe informaciis daviwyeba xdeba cdis p irebs ukiTxaven sam Tanxmovans, mag. F, C da V s. maT es Tanxmovnebi unda aRadgi non gansxvavebuli droiTi intervalis Semdeg, romlis xangrZlioba meryeobs 3 dan 18 wamamde. ganmeorebis Tavidan asacileblad, kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris CarTulia xelis SemSleli amocana (distraqtori): cdis pirebs aZleven samniSna ricxvs da av aleben ukuRma daiTvalos samis gamoklebiT manam, sanam im sami Tanxmovnis aRdgeni s niSans miscemen. eqsperimenti Catarebuli iyo sxvadasxva Tanxmovnebis da gansxv avebuli droiTi intervalebis gamoyenebiT mravalricxovan cdispirebze.

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133 rogorc 8.6 suraTze naCvenebi, aRdgenili masalis raodenoba sul ufro iklebs aRbeWv dasa da mogonebas Soris, drois zrdasTan erTad. sami wamis Semdeg ukve hqonda adg ili daviwyebas, 18 wamis Semdeg ki cdis pirebs aRaraferi axsovdaT. ganmeorebis S esaZleblobis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi aRdgenili masalis raodenoba mcirdeba drois gasvlasTan erTad (Paterson & Paterson, 1959). Sedegi aradamakmayofilebelia imis gamo, rom informaciis ganmeoreba ar moxda. aradamakmayofilebelia imitomac, rom m oxda am informaciis distraqtoris masalasTan interferencia. (interferenciaze Cven Semdgom vimsjelebT). Tqven, albaT, SegimCneviaT, rom rodesac wveulebaze pirovne bas gacnoben, is Tavis saxels da gvars geubnebaT, romelic xSirad swrafadve gaviw ydebaT. erT erTi ZiriTadi mizezi amisa aris is, rom droa saWiro am saxelisa da g varis ganmeorebisaTvis. aba, scadeT, rodesac gagacnoben adamians, manam sanam sa ubars gaagrZelebdeT, gaimeoreT ramdenjerme misi saxeli da gvari. amrigad, Cven S egviZlia, davaskvnaT, rom ganmeoreba dagexmarebaT, raTa SevinarCunoT informacia xanmokle mexsierebaSi. magram davuSvaT, es informacia sakmaod rTulia an didia ga sameoreblad, maSin mis SenarCunebaSi dajgufebis strategia dagexmarebaT. dajgufeba (Chunking) ) jgufi (Chank) aris azris matarebeli informaciis erTeuli ( Anderson, 1996). es erTeuli SeiZleba erTi aso an erTi cifri, an ramdenime wevrisgan Semdgari jguf i, sityvac da winadadebac ki iyos. magaliTad, cifrebis es Tanmimdevroba 1 9 8 4 oTxi erTeuligan Sedgeba da Tavisuflad jdeba xanmokle mexsierebis moculobaSi. mag ram Tu Tqven am cifrebs aRiqvamT, rogorc weliwads (1984 weli), an jorj orvelis w ignis „1984“ saTaurs, maSin es erTi erTeuli iqneba da Tqvens xanmokle mexsierebaSi d agrCebaT adgili sxva masalisTvisac. dajgufeba (Chunking) aris dasaxsomebeli masa lis patar patara jgufebad rekonfiguraciis procesi msgavsebis an sxva maorganizeb eli principis safuZvelze, an xangrZliv mexsierebaSi Senaxul informaciaze dayrdno biT ufro didi jgufebis (patterns) Seqmnis procesi (Baddeley, 1994). ramdeni erTe ulisgan Sedgeba cifrebis es mwkrivi? 19411917186518121776. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu er Teulad ganixilavT TiToeul cifrs, Tqveni pasuxi iqneba „20“, xolo Tu am Tanmimdevroba s gaanawilebT amerikis SeerTebul

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134 Statebis istoriaSi momxdari omebis mixedviT, pasuxi iqneba „5“. Tu Tqven bolo strate gias airCevT, erTi Tvalis gadavlebiTac Zalian gagiadvilebT igive TnmimdevrobiT a m mwkrivis aRdgena. maSin, rodesac Tu am mwkrivs, rogorc 20 damoukidebeli erTeul isgan Semgars, ganixilavT, ara Tu misi TanmimdevrobiT, aramed srulad aRdgenasac verafriT SeZlebT. Tqveni xanmokle mexsierebis moculoba aucileblad gaizrdeba, Tu Tqven monaxavT didi moculobis masalis ramdenime jgufSi gaerTianebis gzas. cnobil pirovnebas S. F. s (igi gamoCenili mrboleli iyo) SeeZlo 84 cifris daxsomeba maT i distanciis garbenis droTa mixedviT dajgufebis safuZvelze. saidan viciT dajgufe bis (Chanking) upiratesoba F.S s oqmi gviCvenebs mis gonebamaxvilobas. ramdenada c is grZ.el distanciebze darboda, man SeamCnia, rom bevri mwkrivis cifrebi SeiZl eba dajgufebuliyo, rogorc garbenis dro sxvadasxva distanciaze. magaliTad, man mo axdina 34925614935 mwkrivis Semdegi saxiT dekodireba: 3:49,2 aris sarekordo dro; 56,14 aris 10 milis distanciaze garbenis dro; 9,35 sWirdeba 2 milis garbenas. S emdgomSi dasaxsomebeli mwkrivis dasajgufeblad S.F. iyenebda, agreTve, asaks, Rir SesaniSnav TariRebs, specialur cifrobriv kodebs. aseve, SeeZlo mas Tavisi xangrZ livi mexsiereba gamoeyenebina, raTa grZeli, SemTxveviTi wesiT dalagebuli wevrebi azrian jgufebad gaeerTianebina. magram, amave dros, S.F. s asoebze saSualo mexs iereba hqonda, radgan ar hqonda gamomuSavebuli asoTa mwkrivis dajgufebis araviTa ri strategia. (Chase & Ericsson, 1981; Ericsson & Chase, 1982). SF. s msgavsad, Tqvenc SegiZliaT, axlad Semosuli informaciis gadastruqtureba moaxdinoT Tqveni pi rovnuli gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, (magaliTad, daukavSiroT igi megobrebis an na Tesavebis asaks), an daukavSiroT axali masala Tqvens xangrZliv mexsierebaSi arse bul kodebs. maSinac ki, rodesac Tqven ver SeZeliT, Tqvens xangrZliv mexsierebaSi arsebuli wesebi, mniSvnelobebi Tu kodebi gamogeyenebiaT, am strategiiT sargeblo ba mainc SesaZlebelia. SegiZliaT daajgufoT ritmis, riTmis an droiTi intervalebis mixedviT (magaliTad, 181379256460 dan miiRebT 4 erTeuls: 181, 379, 256 da 460). yoveldRiuri gamocdilebidan Tqven iciT, rom aseTi dajgufebis principi mSvenivrad muSaobs telefonis nomris damaxsovrebisas.

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135 • muSa mexsiereba (Working memory) _ mexsierebis unari, romelic rogoricaa gamoiyeneba, rogorc iseTi amocanebis Tanmxlebi, mizezobrioba da metyveleba. Sedgeba fonologiuri yulfis, sivrciTvizualuri matrici sa da centraluri aRmasruleblisagan. • dajgufeba (Chunking) _ informaciis calkeul w evrTa dajgufebis procesi msgavsebis an sxva maorganizebeli principis safuZvelze. xanmokle mexsierebidan informaciis aRdgena informaciis ganmeorebasa da dajgufebazea damokidebuli, Tu rogor aRibeWdeba informacia, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos misi Senaxva. magram am strategiuli midgomis gareSec aRmoCnd a, rom xanmokle mexsierebidan masalis aRdgena Zalian efeqtiania. saul Stenbergis klasikur gamokvlevaTa seriaSi (Saul Sternberg, 1966, 1969) gamoyenebuli iyo amo cana, romelic naTelyofda im did siswrafes, romliTac cdis pirebi afasebdnen xanmo kle mexsierebaSi Semosul informacias. saidan viciT xanmokle mexsierebidan masali s efeqturi aRdgena cdis pirebs didi raodenobiT Catarebuli cdebis TiToeul jerze e ZleodaT dasaxsomebeli masala, romelic erTidan eqvs erTeuls moicavda, magaliTad, cifrebs 5294 da 6. cdidan cdamde es masala icvleboda imis mixedviT, Tu romeli da ramdeni cifri iyo miwodebuli. TiToeuli saxis masalis miwodebis Semdeg Stenbergi maSinve sTavazobda erT gamosacdel tests – cifrs, romlis Sesaxebac cdis pirebs und a eTqvaT, Sedioda Tu ara es cifri uSualod mis mier aRqmul masalaSi. damokidebuli cvladi cnobis siswrafe iyo. ramdenad swrafad SeeZlo cdis pirs daeWira xeli Rila kze, romelzec aRniSnuli iyo „diax“, raTa daedasturebina, rom axsovs, rom es cifri iy o dasaxsomebel masalaSi da daeWira xeli Rilakze aRniSvniT „ara“, raTa eCvenebina, ro m darwmunebuli iyo, rom es cifri miwodebul cifrebs Soris ar iyo. Stenbergma daiT vala es dro da aRmoCnda, rom testuri masalis aRbeWvdasa da Semdeg pasuxs sWirdeb oda 400 miliwami, xolo 35 miliwami sWirdeboda am gamRizianeblis (cifris) mexsier ebaSi Senaxul informaciasTan Sedarebas. erTi wami sWirdeba 30 aseT Sedarebas. ro gorc vxedavT, xanmokle mexsierebidan informaciis aRdgena araCveulebrivad efeqtia ni aRmoCnda.

136 Tumca, Stenbergis Sedegebis asaxsnelad wamoyenebuli iyo gansxvavaebuli Teoriebi (Ratcliff, 1978, Townsend, 1971, 1990), yvela Tanxmdeba imaSi, rom xanm okle mexsierebidan informaciis amotana Zalian swrafad xdeba. modiT, gavakeToT ga rkveuli daskvnebi am aRmoCenidan da gavavloT analogia did samecniero biblioTekas Tan. mocemul biblioTekaSi wignebis didi raodenobaa (aRsaqmel STabeWdilebaTa didi raodenoba), magram, Tqvenda samwuxarod, yovel jerze mxolod sami wigniT sargeblo bis ufleba gaqvT (xanmokle mexsierebis SezRuduli moculoba). magram, davuSvaT, yo veli msurveli wigns Zalian swrafad kiTxulobs (xanmokle mexsierebidan informaciis amotanis siswrafe). aseTi unaris gamo Tqven mSvenivrad isargeblebT biblioTekiT da iSviTad gaacnobierebT biblioTekaSi moqmed ganawess sami wignis gatanis Sesaxe b. Tqveni xanmokle mexsierebac msgavs samuSaos asrulebs informaciis miRebasa da efeqtur aRdgenas Soris. muSa mexsiereba Cven gansakuTrebiT gavamaxvileT yuradReba xanmokle mexsierebaze da im rolze, rom elsac xanmokle mexsiereba TamaSobs axali informaciis eqspliciturad aRbeWvdis pro cesSi. magram, rogorc adrec aRvniSneT, Tqven gWirdebaT kidev iseTi mexsiereba, r omelic mudmiv aqtivobaSia da nebismier momentSi, nebismieri Tqveni moqmedebis ga nxorcielebis SesaZleblobas mogcemT, gansxvavebiT mexsierebis im formebisgan, rom elic faqtebis aRbeWvdas udevs safuZvlad. magram aucilebelia mexsierebis TvalsaCi no Sedegis gamovlenamde mimdinare procesebic. gaxsovT, albaT, am Tavis dasawyisS i Cven gTxoveT dagemaxsovrebinaT ricxvi. SegiZliaT moigonoT es ricxvi? Tu SeZeli T misi mogoneba, maSasadame, Tqven aqtiurad warmoidgineT daxsomebuli ricxvi – es m exsierebis sxva funqciaa. Tu Cven gTxovT, gaakeToT raRac ufro rTuli, magaliTad, gadaisroloT burTi erTi xelidan meoreSi da paralelurad ukuRma iTvaloT samis gamok lebiT 132 dan, am SemTxvevaSi Tqven mexsierebas ufro met moTxovnebs uyenebT. mkv levrebma gaaanalizes mexsierebis is funqciebi, romlebic yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gWirdebaT da Seqmnes Teoria muSa mexsierebis Sesaxeb, sadac es ukanaskneli klasikuri xanmokle mexsierebis fo rmad ganixiles. (Healy & McNamara, 1996). alan bedlim da misma kolegebma (Alan

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137 Baddeley, 1986, 1992, Baddeley, Andrade, 2000) muSa mexsierebaSi sami komponenti gamoyves: • fonologiuri sacavi: masSi xdeba enaze (metyvelebaze) dafuZnebuli Semosvla da misi gamoyeneba. fonologiuri sacavi xanmokle mexsierebas. rodesac im eorebiT am wuTSi informaciis nawilobriv emTxveva mosmenil TqvenTvis ucnob telefonis nomers daxsomebis mizniT, am dros fonologiur sacavis moqmedebas eyrdnobiT. • mxedvelobiT sivrciTi Tu, magaliTad, sqema: vinme i s fonologiuri ramdeni sacavis merxia msgavs Tqvens funqcias asrulebs, oRond sivrciTi da mxedvelobiTi STbeWdilebebis mimarT. gkiTxav T, auditoriaSi, Tqven iyenebT mxedvelobiT sivrciTi sqemis SesaZleblobebs auditor iis warmosadgenad da Semdeg iTvliT merxebis raodenobas. • centraluri aRmasrulebeli: aq xdeba yuradRebaze kontroli da sacavidan da sivrciT mxedvelobiTi sqemidan miRebuli fonologiuri informaciis koordinacia. yovelTvis, rodesac gaqvT amocana, romelic fsiqikur proc esTa koordinacias moiTxovs, warmoidgineT, magaliTad, rom gaixsenoT da aRweroT ra Rac suraTi. Tqven eyrdnobiT centraluri aRmasruleblis funqcias, romelic warmarTav s Tqvens fsiqikur SesaZleblobebs amocanis sxvadasxva aspeqtis gadasawyvetad. (am sakiTxs me 9 e Ta vSi davubrundebiT). xanmokle mexsierebis muSa mexsierebis cnebis ufro farTo kont eqstSi Seyvana amtkicebs im mosazrebas, rom xanmokle mexsiereba procesia da ara _ lokaluri adgili. SemecnebiTi saqmianoba, magaliTad, metyvelebis procesi Tu pro blemuri situaciis gadawyvetis msgavsi kognituri aqtioba, bevri gansxvavebuli ele mentis swraf da Tanmimdevar amoqmedebas da CarTvas moiTxovs. muSa mexsiereba Tqv en SegiZliaT ganixiloT, rogorc aucilebeli elementebis sagangebo da xanmokle mobi lizacia. Tu gindaT, ukeT daakvirdeT romelime fizikur obieqts, SegiZliaT ufro met ad gamokveToT igi; muSa mexsierebas Tqveni fsiqikuri obieqtebis _ mexsierebis wa rmodgenebis naTlad asaxvac SeuZlia. muSa mexsiereba koordinacias uwevs, agreTve, am obieqtebTan dakavSirebul aqtivobebs. mecnierebma daamtkices, rom muSa mexsie rebis mixedviT adamianebi individualurad gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan. (Daneman, Merikle, 1956; Jenkins et. al., 1999). erT erTi ZiriTadi kriteriumi amis dasadg enad aris muSa mexsierebis moculoba. am mizniT, mkvlevrebi sTxoven cdis pirebs winadadebaTa seriis

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138 xmamaRla wakiTxvas da, Semdeg, TiToeuli winadadebis bolo sityvebis aRdgenas. 8.1 cxrilSi sacdelad warmogidgenT ramdenime aseT winadadebas. Aam amocanis Sesruleb a arc ise martivia. dadgenilia, rom vinc saSualod 4 an met erTeuls ixsomebs, aqv s kargi mexsierebis moculoba, xolo Tu 2,5 erTeuls an naklebs ixsomebs _ mcire mo culoba. magram es aris saSualo monacemi, gamoyvanili gansxvavebuli amocanebis ga moyenebiT Catarebuli mravali cdidan. ase rom, 8.1 cxrilSi motanili testidan amaz e mets sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb verafers SeityobT. imis gamo, rom muSa mexsierebis moculoba aris imis sazomi, Tu Tavisi xanmokle kognituri procesebis gamoyenebis ra SesaZleblobebi aqvs individs, mecnierebi iyeneben mas gansxvavebul amocanebze SesaZlo pasuxTa prognozirebisaTvis. saidan viciT muSa mexsierebis moculoba gavl enas axdens teqstis daxsomebaze mecnierebma gamoyves individTa sami jgufi, romel Tagan TiToeuls, Sesabamisad, hqonda maRali, saSualo da dabali mexsierebis moculo ba. TiToeul cdis pirs sTxovdnen waekiTxaT moTxroba „mSvenieri Zveli saxlis“ Sesaxeb, erTis mxriv, myidvelis da, meore mxriv, mZarcvelis poziciidan. moTxrobaSi aRwer ili sagnebi da faqtebi savsebiT sakmarisi iyo, rogorc erTi, ise meore poziciis g ansamtkiceblad. magaliTad, saxlis moZvelebul saxuravs upirispirdeboda monetebis Zveli koleqcia. mkvlevrebs ainteresebdaT, ra gavlenas moaxdenda maT mexsierebaze is pozicia, romelic maT moTxrobis kiTxvisas hqondaT. cdis pirebs sTxovdnen, orj er aRedginaT moTxroba – erTxel Tavdapirveli poziciis mixedviT (myidveli an mZarcve li) da Semdeg meore poziciis safuZvelze. (axla warmoidgine, rom xar. . .). cdis pirebs, romelTac mexsierebis didi moculoba hqondaT, meore poziciidanac sakmao ma salis aRdgena SeeZloT. es ver sSeZles sxva cdis pirebma. (Lee Sammons & Whitney, 1991). mkvlevrebma daaskvnes, rom mcire da saSualo moculobis mexsierebis mqone cdis pir ebi Tavidanve irCeven pozicias da am poziciidan xdeba, ZiriTadad, moTxrobis info rmaciis gadamuSaveba. maRali/didi moculobis cdis pirebs ki SeuZliaT orive pozici is safuZvelze am informaciis gadamuSaveba. eqsperimentebi, romlebSic muSa mexsie rebis moculoba izomeba, xels uwyobs imis garkvevas, Tu ra gansazRvravs mexsiereb is SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebis individualur gansxvavebebs.

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139 da bolos: muSa mexsierebis mier xdeba Tqveni fsiqologiuri awmyos SeCereba. swore d muSa mexsierebaa, romlis saSualebiTac Semodis konteqstSi axali informacia, dam oukidebli epizodebis erTmaneTTan dakavSireba da erTian Sinaarsad Sekvra. igi gaZ levT SesaZleblobas, cvalebadi situaciis Sesabamisad, mudmivad ganaaxloT, SeavsoT Tqveni STabeWdilebebi Tu warmodgenebi da gamokveToT arsebiTi momentebi saubarSi . es yvelaferi simarTlea, radgan muSa mexsiereba gamtaris rols TamaSobs Semosul informaciasa da xangrZliv mexsierebas Soris. axla gadavideT droSi ufro gamZle me xsierebis formebis ganxilvaze. Sejameba xanmokle mexsierebis funqcia aris eqsplicituri saxiT informaciis pirvel adi aRbeWvda. xanmokle mexsiereba itevs oridan oTxamde erTeuls. ganmeorebas SeuZ lia informaciis SeCereba xanmokle mexsierebaSi. moculoba izrdeba, Tu informacia azrobriv nawilebad dajgufdeba. informaciis amotana xanmokle mexsierebidan swrafa d xdeba. klasikuri xanmokle mexsierebis cneba Secvala ufro farTo, muSa mexsiereb is cnebam. muSa mexsierebis sami komponenti asaxavs adamianis mier gamocdilebis SeZenis mudmiv process. • xangrZlivi mexsiereba (Long term memory) _ daxsomebis pr ocesi, romelic uzrunvelhyofs informaciis Senaxvas da SemdgomSi, nebismier dros m is aRdgenas. • kodirebis specifikuroba (Encoding specificity) _ es principi gulisx mobs, rom aRdgenili informaciis raodenoba matulobs, Tu daxsomebis da aRdgenis pr ocesSi erTi da igive mimniSneblebi moqmedeben. xangrZlivi mexsiereba. aRbeWvda ( kodireba) da Senaxva ramden xans inaxeba informacia mexsierebaSi? ganvixiloT 90 wlis qalis mexsiereba , romelsac TvalnaTliv axsovs san franciskoSi 1906 wels mom xdari miwisZvra da xanZari, romelic am miwisZvras mohyva. mas zustad axsovs, Tu ras ganicdida, rodesac igi sxva bavSvebTan erTad mirboda yuresTan didi brezentis tomrebis wyliT asavsebad. Semdeg mama arTmevda am svel tomrebs da asxamda saxur avze im imediT, rom saxls xanZrisgan gadaarCenda. veraviTarma Semdgomma STabeWdi lebebma ver waSala is SiSi da SfoTva, romelic am patara

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140 gogonam ganicada, rodesac xedavda, Tu rogor iyo misi qalaqi miwasTan gasworebuli . (rogor ingreoda qalaqi). rodesac fsiqologebi saubroben xangrZlivi mexsierebis Sesaxeb, isini gulisxmoben, rom daxsomebuli Sinaarsi, STabeWdileba, xSirad, SeiZ leba mTeli sicocxlis manZilze axsovdes adamians. aqedan gamomdinare, Teoriam und a axsnas ara mxolod is, Tu rogor inaxeba informacia didi xniT, aramed isic, Tu r ogor SeuZlia mexsierebas misi aRdgena–gamoyenebac. xangrZlivi mexsiereba aris Segr Znebebis da xanmokle mexsierebis gziT miRebuli nebismieri saxis gamocdilebis sac avi. masSi Sedis movlenebi, informacia, emociebi, Cvevebi, sityvebi, kategoriebi , wesebi da msjelobebi. xangrZlivi mexsiereba inaxavs pirovnebis mTlian codnas s amyarosa da sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb. fsiqologebisTvis cnobilia, rom xSirad ufro a dvilia xangrZlivi droiT daxsomeba, Tu mis Sesaxeb winaswar garkveuli azri gaqvs. es winaswari informacia gexmarebaT, erTgvari sqemis rols TamaSobs Semosuli info rmaciis ukeT gagebisTvis. daskvnis saxiT mexsierebis Sesaxeb Cven Semdegi unda g iTxraT: Tqveni mexsiereba gacilebiT ukeTesi iqneba, Tu is pirobebi, romelSic inf ormaciis aRbeWvda moxda, daemTxveva an maqsimalurad Tanxvdeba im pirobebs, romel Sic mis aRdgenas cdilobT. Tavis Semdgom nawilebSi vnaxavT, Tu ras niSnavs „damTxve va“. konteqsti da kodireba manam, sanam kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris Sesabamisobas SevexebodeT, gvinda ganvixiloT fenomeni, romelsac „konteqstis Soks“ uwodeben. xalxi T gavsebul oTaxSi dainaxeT pirovneba, romelsac, grZnobT, rom namdvilad icnobT, m agram ver mogigonebiaT vin aris, xolod met naklebad xangrZlivi da zrdilobiani da kvirvebis Semdeg gaxsendebaT misi vinaoba, magram imasac acnobierebT, rom imitom gagiWirdaT misi mogoneba, rom mas adre sxva konteqstSi SexvdiT. ras akeTebs fos taSi werilebis ganyofilebaSi mosamsaxure qali Tqveni saukeTeso megobris wveuleba ze? Tu gqoniaT Tqvens gamocdilebaSi aseTi SemTxveva, mixvdebiT ra moiazreba kodi rebis specifikurobis principSi: mexsiereba yvelaze efeqtianad maSin moqmedebs, r odesac aRdgenis procesis konteqsti kodirebis konteqsts emTxveva. axla vnaxoT, ro gor moaxdines mecnierebma am principis demonstrireba. kodirebis specifikuroba

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141 ra mniSvneloba aqvs konkretul konteqstSi informaciis swavlas? pirvelad endel tul vingma da donald tompsonma 1973 wels moaxdines kodirebis specifikurobis mniSvnel obis demonstrireba, rodesac mogonebasa da cnobas Soris Cveuli urTierTdamokidebul ebis sawinaaRmdego Sedegi miiRes. saidan viciT kodirebis specifikuroba gavlenas axdens cnobasa da mogonebaze cdis pirebs sTxoven, daiswavlon sityvaTa mwkrivebi, mag. vagoni Savi, magram, amave dros, afrTxileben, rom maT unda daixsomon wyvil is mxolod meore sityva. eqsperimentis Semdeg stadiaze cdis pirebs sTxoven sityva ze TeTri oTx Tavisufal asociacias. es sityva specialurad aris SerCeuli imisTvis, rom am asociaciaTa Soris sityva Savi aRmoCndes. amis Semdeg cdis pireb s sTxoven, icnon am asociaciebSi is sityva, romelTa daxsomebac maT eqsperimentis pirvel fazaSi wyvilebidan moeTxovebodaT. cdis pirebma mxolod 54% is mogoneba Se sZles. xolo maSin, rodesac wyvilis pirveli wevri dausaxeles, 61 % aRadgines. rat om iyo mogoneba ukeTesi, vidre cnoba? tulvingis da tomsonis mixedviT, amis mizez i konteqstis Secvlaa. cdis pirebisTvis, romlebmac sityva Savi daixsomes vagonis konteqstSi, Zneli iyo misi aRdgena, roca konteqsti sityva TeTriT Seicvala. Tuki aseT mniSvnelovan cvlilebas konteqstis es minimaluri cvlileba iZleva, warmoidgineT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi arsebuli rTuli ko nteqstebis cvalebadoba ramdenad did efeqts gamoiwvevs. mecnierebma SeZles konteq stis mexsierebaze sakmaod Zlieri gavlenis eqsperimentuli gamowveva. erT erT aseT eqsperimentSi myvinTavebi swavlobdnen sityvaTa mwkrivs zRvis napirze da wyalqve S. Semdeg ki imave sityvaTa Semowmeba am or konteqstSi (napirze da wyalqveS xdeb oda. aRmoCnda, rom daxsomebis efeqturoba 50% iT meti iyo, rodesac kodireba da aR dgena erTnair pirobebSi, erT konteqstSi xdeboda, Tumca, TviT masalas araferi sae rTo ar hqonda arc napirTan da arc yvinTvasTan. (Gooden & Baddeleyi, 1975). seve, daxsomeba ukeTesia, Tu masalis ardgenisas Tanmxlebi musika igivea rac daxsomebi sas. (Balch & Lewis, 1996). Sabis eqsperimentSi ki daxsomebis efeqturoba ufro ma Rali iyo, rodesac Sokoladis sunis fonze xdeboda daxsomeba da aRdgena (Schab, 199 0). sunsa da konteqstis efeqts Soris urTierTkavSirze Catarebulma eqsperimentebma gamoavlina, rom yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gansxvavebuli suni gansxvavebul gavlenas axdens konteqstis efeqtze.

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142 saidan viciT mkveTri suni mimniSneblis rols asrulebs romeli sunia ufro mniSvnelo vani mexsierebis konteqstis efeqtisTvis? ramdenime eqsperimenti iyo am mimarTule biT Catarebuli sxvadasxva sunelebis gamoyenebiT. erT SemTxvevaSi es iyo cdis pir ebisTvis sruliad ucxo, uCveulo sunis matarebeli osmantusi (aziuri warmoSobis mce nareulkenkrovani; Herz, 1997, p. 375), Cveulebrivi, nacnobi suni, magram uCveulo kvleviTi laboratoriisTvis (vanili) da laboratoriisTvis Cveuli (fiWvis) suni. hi poTezis mixedviT, mxolod ori suni gamoiwvevda yuradRebas Tavisi siaxliT da uCveu lobiT da CaerTveboda kodirebis procesSi. hipoTeza dadasturda. Tumca, kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris 48 saaTi gavida, cdis pirebi mniSvnelovnad met sityvas ixsomeb dnen (20 sityviani mwkrividan), rodesac aRdgenis dros igive suni iyo oTaxSi, rac aRbeWvdisas. magram es exeboda mxolod osmantuss da vanils. (Herz, 1996). am gam okvlevebSi naTlad gamoCnda, rom ara yovelgvari suni monawileobs konteqstis efeqt Si. sunis mniSvneloba SeiZleba sxvadasxva konteqstSi icvlebodes. tkbileulobis ma RaziaSi SeiZleba vanilma Tavisi Zala, rogorc konteqstis elementma, dakargos. rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti adgilmdebareobis konteqstis efeqti Cven, aseve, SeiZleba gamoviyenoT mexsierebis erT erT klasikur i kanonzomierebis – rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqtis asaxsnelad. davuSvaT, Tqven und a daiswavloT sityvaTa mwkrivi. Tu Cven gTxovT, gaixsenoT TanmimdevrobiT es sityv ebi, raodenoba, romelsac Tqven aRadgenT, Sesabamisi iqneba 8.7 suraTze gamosaxul i Sedegisa: Tqven mSvenivrad aRadgenT mwkrivis dasawyisidan ramdenime (dasawyisi s efeqti da bolodan ramdenime sityvas dasawyisis efeqti) (daboloebis efeqti mwkr ivis Sua nawilidan ki erTi–ori sityva daboloebis efeqti). gagaxsendebaT. 8.7 suraT ze gamosaxuli kanonzomiereba zogadia mexsierebis, rogorc Tavisufali wesiT aRdgen ili masalis mimarT (gaixseneT, ramdeni sityvis gaxsenebasac SeZlebT) ise, igive TanmimdevrobiT aRdgenis instruqciis SemTxvevaSi (gaixseneT igive TanmimdevrobiT, ra TanmimdevrobiTac moismineT) da, agreTve, sxvadasxva raodenobis – 6, 10, 15 sit yvaTa mwkrivis daxsomebis

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143 dros (Jahnke, 1965). mecnierebma daadgines, rom dasawyisis da daboloebis efeqti bevr satesto situaciaSic moqmedebs (Crowder, 1976, Neath, 1993). ra dRea dRes? d aijerebT, rom erTi wamiT ufro swrafad upasuxebT am kiTxvaze kviris dasawyisSi da bolos, vidre Sua kviraSi? (Koriat & Fischoff, 1974). mrudis aseTi forma aixsneb a mwkrivis wevrebis gansxvavebuli konteqstualuri mniSvnelobiT, Tqveni cxovrebise uli gamocdilebis Sinaarsebis gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT da sxv. (Knoedler et al 1999, Marks & Crowder, 1997, Neath & Knoedler, 1994). konteqstualuri gansxvavebi s gasagebad SeiZleba dasvaT kiTxva: „ramdenad gansxvavdeboda situacia (konteqsti), romelSic me miviRe informacia, im situaciisgan, romelSic me unda aRvadgino igi?“ SevCerdeT daboloebis efeqtze. 8.8 suraTze mocemulia vizualuri gamokveTilobis mag aliTi. warmoidgineT, rom suraTze Tqven matareblis liandags xedavT. Tqveni yuradR eba liandagis bolozea (suraTis ukana nawilze) mimarTuli da xedavT, rom boloSi, h orizontze liandagebis Zelebi TiTqos uerTdebian erTmaneTs, Tumca, Tanabrad arian sivrceSi daSorebulni. Cven ki SegviZlia, vTqvaT, rom wina nawilSi ganlagebuli li andagebi gvecema TvalSi da is Tqveni, (liandagis bolo) konteqstisgan gansxvavebu lia. axla warmoidgineT, rom gindaT, moigonoT aTi bolos nanaxi kinosuraTi. am Sem TxvevaSic liandagis msgavsi situacia gvaqvs. umravles SemTxvevaSi, Tqven bolo su raTs ukeT warmoidgenT, radganac Tqven gamohyofT erTmaneTSi areul suraTebidan ima s, romelic ufro axloa, axlo warsuls miekuTvneba. am logikas Tu gavyvebiT, „Sua“ info rmacia ukeT daxsomebadi gaxdeba, Tu mas ufro gamovkveTavT (erTmaneTSi areuli aRa r iqneba). es idea gaTvaliswinebulia 8.8B suraTze, sadac liandagebi erTmaneTisga n Tanabrad arian daSorebulni. • rigSi adgilmdebareobis aRdgenis efeqti procesis (Serial position effect) maxasiaTebeli, _ mexsierebidan mwkrivis informaciis wevrebisa. • rodesac dasawyisi da bolo wevrebis ukeT mogoneba xdeba, vidre mwkrivis Sua dasawyisis efeqti (primacy effect) _ mwkrivis pirveli wevrebis ukeTesad daxsomeb a. • daboloebis efeqti (recency effect) _ mwkrivis bolo wevrebis ukeTesad daxsomeba. • konteqstualuri gamokveTa (contextual distinctiveness) _ Tvalsazrisi, romlis

144 mixedviTac mwkrivis adgilmdebareobis efeqtze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos konteqstma da gamokveTilma warsulma gamocdilebam. sur. 8.7. mwkrivSi a dgilmdebareobis efeqti mrudi gviCvenebs adgilmdebareobis efeqtis zogad kanonzomierebas. studentebs sTxo ven, gaixsenon gansxvavebuli sigrZis sityvaTa (6, 10, 15 sityva) mwkrivebi an se riuli aRdgenis wesiT (gaixseneT sityvebi igive TanmimdevrobiT, ra TanmimdevrobiT ac moismineT), an Tavisufali aRdgenis wesiT (gaixsenebT, ramdensac SeZlebT). TiT oeul mrudze kargad Cans, rom daxsomeba ukeTesia dasawyisSi (dasawyisis efeqti) d a boloSi (daboloebis efeqti). saidan viciT mwkrivis elementebis gamokveTa imisaTvis, rom matareblis liandagebi Tanabrad daSorebuli davinaxoT, saWiroa, liandagis Zelebi Tanabrad davaSoroT erT maneTs. samagierod, naklebs davinaxavT. mecnierebma es logika gamoiyenes mexsier ebis eqsperimentSi, gaatares ra analogia sivrcesa da dros Soris. cdis pirebs sTx ovdnen, daexsomebinaT asoTa mwkrivebi, magram gansxvavebuli droiTi intervalis pi robebSi. drois es cvlileba Semdegnairad xorcieldeboda: cdis pirebs sTxovdnen, wa ekiTxaT SemTxveviTi ricxvebis garkveuli raodenoba, romelic kompiuteris ekranze a soebs Soris Cndeboda. Cveulebriv pirobebSi, A nawilis msgavsad, 8.8 suraTze or w yvils Sua ori cifri Cndeboda. proporciul pirobebSi ki (B nawilis nsgavsad) pirve l wyvils Soris 4 cifri iyo, xolo bolo wyvilebs Soris – arc erTi. amas unda gamoewv ia is, rom wina cifrebi ufro gamokveTili unda yofiliyo iseve, rogorc liandagis S emTxvevaSi moSorebuli Zeli ufro Sors Canda. marTlac, cdis pirebi ukeT ixsomebdne n Soreul (adre aRqmul) masals im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es wevrebi ukeT iyvnen gam okveTilni. (Neath & Crowder, 1990). es eqsperimenti imaze miuTiTebs, rom standar tuli daboloebis efeqts adgili aqvs imitom, rom mwkrivis bolo wevrebi ukve avtomaturad gamokveTilia. igi ve principiT SeiZleba avxsnaT dasawyisis efeqti: yovel jerze Tqven raRac axals i wyebT, axal konteqsts qmniT. am axal konteqstSi pirveli ramdenime mocemulobaa ga mokveTili. amrigad, dasawyisis da daboloebis efeqti SegiZliaT ganixiloT, rogorc mimarT ori pozicia TiToeuli TiTo bolodan. erTi da igive liandagis

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145 mimniSneblebi. mogonebis mimniSneblebi. ramdenadac Cven vagrZelebT aRbeWvdasa da mogonebaze saubars, droa Tqveni mexsierebac CavrToT muSaobaSi. vecdebiT gavimeo roT klasikuri eqsperimenti mexsierebaze da amitom gTxovT daimaxsovroT ramdenime sityvaTa wyvili. gaimeoreT da daiswavleT es wyvilebi manam, sanam eqvsives samje r uSecdomod zepirad ar ityviT: vaSli – navi qudi –Zvali velosipedi _ saaTi Tagvi _ x e burTi – saxli yuri – sabani axla, rodesac Tqven ukve daiswavleT sityvaTa mwkrivebi , am tests kidev ufro sainteresos gavxdiT. axla gvWirdeba Senaxvis intervali – dro , romlis ganmavlobaSic unda SeinaxoT informacia mexsierebaSi. modiT, drois gayva nis mizniT, visaubroT zogierT proceduraze, romelsac Tqveni mexsierebis Sesamowme blad gamoviyenebT. Tqven SeiZleba gadawyvitoT, rom gaxsovT an ar gaxsovT raRac d a mexsierebis romeli meTodiTac ar unda Segamowmon, erTnair Sedegs miiRebT. es ar aris ase. magaliTad, Cven vnaxavT, rom implicituri da eqsplicituri mexsierebis testebi sruliad gansxvavebul Sedegebs gvaZleven, magram jer jerobiT ganvixiloT e qsplicituri mexsierebis ori meTodi: mogoneba da cnoba. mogonebis dros xdeba adre mowodebuli informaciis reproduqcia. „ra aris rigSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti?“ es kiT xva mogonebis kiTxvaa. cnobis dros ki xdeba imis gacnobiereba, rom raRac movlena swored isaa, romelic Tqven adre aRiqviT (gaigoneT an dainaxeT). „ra ewodeba mxedv elobiT sensorul mexsierebas: (1) eqo; (2) engrama; (3)xati; Tu (4) abstraqtuli k odi?“ es ki cnobis kiTxvaa. cnoba da mogoneba Tqvens yoveldRiur eqsplicitur mexsie rebasac ukavSirdeba. kriminaluri pirovnebis dasadgenad policia iyenebs mogonebis meTods, rodesac dazarelebuls sTxovs, aRweros, moigonos borotmoqmedis specifikur i niSnebi: „rame ucnauri xom ar SeniSneT Tavdamsxmelis garegnobaSi?“ xolo rodesac da zaralebuls uCveneben eWvmitanilTa fotoebs

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146 da ramdenimes Soris unda amoicnos konkretuli Tavdamsxmeli, an TviTon borotmoqmed s uCveneben policiis ganyofilebaSi, maSin cnobasTan gvaqvs saqme. • mogoneba (Recall) _ aRdgenis meTodi, romlis drosac individs moeTxoveba adre mowo debuli informaciis reproduqcia. • cnoba (Recognition) _ aRdgenis meTodi, romlis drosac individs moeTxoveba imis gacnobiereba, rom raRac movlena swored isaa, romelic Tqven adre aRiqviT (gaigoneT an dainaxeT). axla gamoviyenoT es ori procedura, raTa Sevamowm oT, Tu rogor daimaxsovreT sityvaTa mwkrivebi ramdenime wuTis win. daasruleT sity vaTa mwkrivebi: qudi _ ? velosipedi _ ? yuri _ ? SegiZliaT SearCioT is wyvilebi, romlebic daiswavleT? vaSli _ bavSvi vaSli _ navi vaSli _ boTli cnobis testi ufro advilia Tu mogonebis? asec unda iyos. axla vcad oT am Sedegis axsna mogonebis mimniSneblebis daxmarebiT. mimniSneblebs mogonebis mimniSneblebs uwodeben im saSualebebs, romlebic gexmarebaT mexsierebaSi garkveu li informaciis moZebnaSi. es mimniSnebeli SeiZleba modiodes garemodan, rogorc, v TqvaT, provokaciuli kiTxvebi („mexsierebis romel principebs daukavSirebdiT sperlin gis da Stenbergis kvlevebs?“), an Tqven TviTon SeqmnaT („sad minaxavs igi adre?“). Tqv en yoveTlTvis cdilobT, eqspliciturad gaixsenoT. amas akeTebT garkveuli mizniT da am mizans xSirad mogonebis mimniSneblis saSualebiT aRwevT. ar unda gagikvirdeT, rom advili iqneba gaxseneba Tu Zneli, damokidebulia mimniSnebelze. Tu Tqveni me gobari gkiTxavT, „vin aris is imperatori, ver vigoneb?“ Tqven unda gamoicnoT vis gul isxmobs (faqtobrivad, es gamocnobanas TamaSi iqneba, magram Tu ikiTxavs: „vin iyo klaudiusis Semdeg imperatori?“, am kiTxvaze Tqven maSinve upasuxebT – „neroni“. Tagvi _ xe Tagvi _ ena Tagvi _ karavi burTi _ saxli burTi _ mTa burTi _ rqa

147 davubrundeT isev mogonebasa da cnobas. mexsierebis orive testi moiTxovs mimniSne blebs, magram cnobis mimniSneblebi gacilebiT ufro Sedegiania. mogonebis SemTxvev aSi, Tqven mxolod mimniSnebels unda miendoT, rom igi migiTiTebT informaciaze. cn obis SemTxvevaSi ki naxevari saqme gakeTebulia. rodesac uyurebT sityvaTa wyvils Tagvi xe, Tqven mxolod unda „ki“ an „ara“ upasuxoT kiTxvas: „es aris, adre rac vnaxe? (Tu viswavle?)“ vidre maSin, rodesac pasuxobT: Tagvi _ ?; „ra vnaxe (ra viswavle?).“ rogor c xedavT, cnobis testi mniSvnelovnad gagiadvileT. magram axla warmoidgineT, rom amis nacvlad gaZlevT adre mocemul wyvilebs areulad. romelia amaTgan swori? qudi _ saaTi qudi _ Zvali yuri _ sabani yuri _ navi axla Tqven unda icnoT ara swored is sityva, romelic adre naxeT, aramed misi Sesa bamisi konteqstic. (Cven isev gavixseneT konteqstis ideas). Tu Tqven xSirad Segi vsiaT mravlobiTi arCevanis testi, gecodinebaT, rogori cbieri SeiZleba iyos cnobi s situacia. magram umravles SemTxvevaSi Tqveni cnobis Sedegebi ukeTesi iqneba, v idre mogonebis, radgan mogonebis mimniSneblebi cnobis SemTxvevaSi ufro mizanmima rTulia. axla gavecnoT mogonebis mimniSneblebis zogierT sxva aspeqtsac. • mogonebis mimniSneblebi (Retrieval cues) _ Signidan an garedan momdinare stimule bi, moZebnaSi. romelic gvexmareba mexsierebaSi garkveuli informaciis • epizoduri mexsiereba (Episodic memories) _ xangrZlivi mexiereba avtobiografiuli xasiaTis movlenebisTvis da im konteqstisTvis, sadac es movlenebi xdeba. • semantikuri mexsiereba mexsiereba (Semantic memories) _ genetikuri, kategoriuli mexsiereba, rogoricaa sityvebis mniSvnelobebi da cnebebi. epizoduri da semantikuri mexsiereba Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom arsebobs mexsierebis gansxvavebuli formebi. Tqven gaqvT implicituri da eqsplicituri mexsiereba da, agreTve, deklaraciuli da proceduruli

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mexsiereba. Cven SegviZlia sxva ganzomilebac SemovitanoT, romlis mixedviTac dek laraciuli mexsierebis formebi gamoiyofa im mimniSneblebis gansxvavebis safuZvelz e, romlebic aucilebelia informaciis

148 amosatanad mexsierebidan. kanadelma fsiqologma endel tulvingma (Endel Tulving) 1 972 wels pirvelma miuTiTa deklaraciuli mexsierebis epizodur da semantikur formaze. epizoduri mexsiereba individualurad inaxavs pirovnebis mier gancdil movlenebs. m agaliTad, Tqveni yvelaze bednieri dabadebis dRe, an pirveli kocna Tqvens epizodu r mexsierebaSia Senaxuli. imisaTvis, rom gaixsenoT esa Tu is movlena, Tqven gWir debaT mimniSneblebi, romlebic gizusteben am movlenis dros _ rodis moxda is, an r a konteqstSi hqonda mas adgili. informaciis kodirebaze bevrad aris damokidebuli, SeZlebT Tu ara ama Tu im movlenis gaxsenebas. magaliTad, SeZlebT, gaixsenoT mea Ted Tqvens mier kbilebis gamoxexvis stili riTi gansxvavdeboda meTerTmeted kbileb is gamoxexvisgan? yvelaferi, rac Tqven iciT, Tavidan garkveul konteqstTan erTad Semodis. magram aris informaciaTa garkveuli raodenoba, romelsac uceb poulobT sru liad gansxvavebul konteqstebSi. am saxis informaciebi amodis mexsierebaSi maTi S esabamis drosa Tu adgilTan mikuTvnebis da mimarTebis gareSe. es semantikuri sema ntikuri mexsiereba _ zogadi, kategoriuli mexsierebaa, rogorc, magaliTad, sityveb is Tu cnebebis mniSvnelobebi. adamianTa umravlesobisaTvis iseTi faqtebi, rogoric aris E=MC2 an pasuxi kiTxvaze „romelia safrangeTis dedaqalaqi?“ specialur miTiTebas , Tu rodis an ra situaciaSi SeiZina man es codna, ar moiTxovs. ra Tqma unda, es ar niSnavs imas, rom Tqveni semantikuri mexsiereba yovelTvis saimedoa. Tqven mSv enivrad acnobierebT, rom SeiZleba dagaviwydeT bevri faqti, romelic aRar ukavSird eba im situacias, romelSic igi aRiqviT Tu daiswavleT. saukeTeso strategia im Sem TxvevaSi, rodesac ver igonebT semantikuri mexsierebidan informacias, aris is, ro m mas, rogorc epizodurs, ise miudgeT. Tu etyviT Tqvens Tavs: „vici, rom romaeli im peratorebis saxelebi dasavleTis civilizaciis speckursSi viswavle“, es dagexmarebaT gamonaxoT mimniSneblebi, romlebic Segivseben mexsierebaSi am TeTr laqas. interf erencia rodesac adre gTxoveT, dageswavlaT wyvilovani asociaciebi, faqtobrivad, e s iyo epizoduri mexsiereba. davuSvaT, axla Cven gTxovT sxva saxis epizoduri mexs ierebis amoqmedebas. kidev erTxel scadeT daiswavloT es sityvaTa wyvilebi ise, ro m uSecdomod SeZloT samjer misi ganmeoreba.

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vaSli – qurdi qudi – wre Tagvi – Jurnali velosipedi –saxuravi burTi – bavSvi yuri –kapiki r gor midis saqme? albaT, SeamCnevdiT, rom wyvilis yoveli pirveli sityva axal sity vasTan aris dakavSirebuli. ufro Zneli iyo am axali wyvilebis daswavla? rogor fiq robT, Zvelad daswavlilis mogoneba axla ufro gagiWirdebaT? (aba, scadeT). orive S emTxvevaSi pasuxi erTia: „Znelia“. es patara savarjiSo miuTiTebs mimniSnebelis axal aspeqtze _ interferenciaze. interferencias adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac mimniSnebe li ver moqmedebs efeqturad da ver aRadgens Sesabamis informacias. rac ufro didia am specifikur mimniSnebelze SesaZlo pasuxTa raodenoba, miT ufro Znelia erTi swo ri pasuxis aRdgena. (Bower et al., 1994, Chandler & Gargano, 1995) Cven ukve mog iyvaneT magaliTi yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan, rodesac gTxoveT, gagesxvavebinaT kbili s gamoxexvis epizodebi. mogonebebi erTmaneTSi airia, moxda interferencia. proaqt iuli interferencia ( (proaqtiuli niSnavs „Semdgomze moqmeds“) niSnavs, rom informaci a, romelic warsulSi SeiZineT, aZnelebs axali informaciis aRbeWvdas. retroaqtiuli interferencia (retroaqtiuli niSnavs „winaze moqmeds“) ki imaze miuTiTebs, rom axali informacia xels uSlis Zveli informaciis aRdgenas. sityvaTa wyvilebi, romlebic T qven daiswavleT, orive saxis interferencias moicavs. aseve, orive saxis interfer enciasTan geqnebaT saqme, Tu xSirad icvliT telefonis nomers. Tavidan Tqven giWir T axali telefonis nomris daxsomeba _ Zveli „amoxteba“ xolme. (proaqtiuli interferenc ia), magram rodesac bolos da bolos kargad daimaxsovrebT axal nomers, SeiZleba aR moaCinoT, rom aRar gaxsovT Zveli, Tumca, wlebis manZilze mas iyenebdiT (retroaqt iuli interfrencia). rogorc mexsierebis bevri movlenis, maT Soris, interferenciis Seswavlac, pirvelad daiwyo ebinghausma, romelic TviTon swavlobda uazro marcvalT a mwkrivebs. man aRmoaCina, rom daswavlilis 65% ar axsovda. 50 wlis Semdegac aRmoC nda, rom nordvesternis universitetis studentebs, romlebmac ebinghausis eqsperime ntebi gaimeores, igive Sedegebi hqondaT. is mwkrivebi, romelTac

150 studentebi ufro adre swavlobdenen da amisTvis mravaljer imeorebdnen, aRdgenisas axlad naswavl mwkrivebSi ereodaT (interferencia) (Underwood, 1948, 1949). gavixs enoT, ras vusvamdiT Cven mudam xazs: mogonebisTvis gadamwyvetia kodirebasa da aR dgenas Soris Tanxvedra. Tavis Semdgomi ori nawilis gacnobisas Tqven naxavT, rogo r ukavSirdeba nawilebi erTmaneTs, rom mogoneba ganxorcieldes: konteqsti, romelSi c Tqven cdilobT, aRadginoT warsuli movlena, TviTon gamodis, rogorc mogonebis mim niSneblis wyaro, xolo rodesac ar Tanxvdeba kodirebis konteqsti mogonebis konteqs ts, aRdgenisas Semotanil mimniSnebels ar SeuZlia da xelsac uSlis mexsierebaSi sa Ziebeli movlenis povnas. • interferencia (Interference) _ mesierebis fenomeni, romelic maSin xdeba, rodesac mogonebis mimniSneblebi ver miuTiTeben efeqturad erT konkretul movlenaze. kodie rebis da aRdgenis procesebi Cven vnaxeT, rom kodirebis konteqstsa da aRdgenis ko nteqstebis urTierTdamTxveva gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs mexsierebisTvis. axla davazustoT es daskvna im procesebis ganxilviT, romelsac emyareba xangrZliv mexsi erebaSi informaciis miReba da aRdgena. Cven vnaxavT, rom am SemTxvevaSi saukeTes o Sedegi miiRweva, rodesac kodirebisa da aRdgenis procesebic erTmaneTs emTxveva. gadamuSavebis doneebi daviwyoT iqidan, rom informaciis gadamuSaveba – yuradRebis forma, romelsac Tqven i nformaciis kodirebis procesSi iyenebT – gavlenas axdens Tqvens mier informaciis da xsomebaze. gadamuSavebis doneebis Teoriis mixedviT, gadamuSavebis rac ufro Rrma doneze xdeba informaciis gadamuSaveba, miT ufro ukeT daamaxsovrdeba igi adamians (Craik & Lockhart, 1972, Lockhart & Craik, 1990). Tu gadamuSaveba moicavs masal is analizs, Sedarebebs, interpretacias da sxva saxis gadamuSavebebs, daxsomebis efeqti ukeTesi iqneba. gadamuSavebis siRrme xSirad ganisazRvreba, rogorc msjelob is saxeobebi dasaxsomebeli eqsperimentuli masalis mimarT. ganvixiloT sityva Gyur Zeni. Cven SegviZlia gTxovoT, fizikur doneze warmarToT msjeloba: ra feris melniT aris es sityva dawerili? an riTmas miaqcioT yuradReba: eriTmeba igi sityva berZens? an mniSvnelobaze gaamaxviloT yuradReba: magaliTad, rom igi xilia.

151 albaT, SeamCnieT, rom yoveli momdevno SekiTxva am sityvis sul ufro Rrma gadamuSa vebas moiTxovs, met sityvebTan dakavSireba 1990). magram gadamuSavebis Teoriis n akli isaa, rom mecnierebs yovelTvis ar SeuZliaT daazuston, Tu ratom vakuTvnebT z ogierT gadamuSavebis process gWirdebaT. (Lockhart & Craik, zedapiruls da zogierTs ki Rrmas. magram am saxis gadamuSavebis SemTxvevaSic ki Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom procesebs, romelTac iyenebT informaciis kodirebisTvis , gavlena aqvT imaze, SeZlebT Tu ara am informaciis aRdgenas. axla ki vnaxavT, r om kodirebis da aRdgenis procesebs Soris damTxveva gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan ro ls TamaSobs implicitur mexsierebaSi. • gadamuSavebis doneebis Teoria (Levels of processing theory) _ am Teoriis mixedviT, rac ufro Rrma doneze xdeba informaciis gadamuSaveba, miT ufro ukeT daa maxsovrdeba igi adamians. • gadatanis Sesabamisi romlis gadamuSaveba mixedviTac (Transfer approptiate mogoneba processing) _ Tvalsazrisi, xdeba. saukeTesoa, rodesac implicituri kodirebis da implicituri aRdgenis procesebis damTxveva gadamuSaveba da implicituri mexsiereba Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom gansxvaveba eqsplicitur da implicitur mexsierebas Soris kodirebis da aRdgenis gansxvevaSi mdgomareobs. (Roediger, 1990, Schacter et al, 1993). sxva pirobebTan erTad, erT erTi pirobaa, magaliTad, rom Tqven implicitur ad SegiZliaT aRadginoT masala, romelic Tavidan eqspliciturad gqondaT aRbeWdili. ase xdeba, rodesac Tqven saxeliT mimarTavT Tqvens saukeTeso megobars da saxelis gaxseneblad araviTari Zalisxmeva ar gWirdebaT. zustad aseve implicituri mexsiere bis yvelaze aSkara gamovlenasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac implicituri kodirebis da implicituri aRdgenis procesebis damTxveva xdeba. amas gadatanis Sesabamisi gadam uSaveba (Transfer appropriate pocessing) ewodeba: daxsomebis efeqti yvelaze maRa lia, rodesac kodirebis procesSi warmoebuli gadamuSaveba gadadis da gamoiyeneba a Rdgenis procesebSi (Roediger, 1989). Tu ramdenad efeqturi saSualebaa igi, vnaxav T ramdenime meTodis aRweris safuZvelze, romelic implicitur mexsierebaSi gamoiyen eba. Semdeg ki giCvenebT, Tu rogor xdeba kodirebisa da aRdgenis procesebis urTie rTSeTanxmeba.

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152 axla ganvixiloT implicituri mexsierebis Semowmebis tipuri eqsperimenti: mkvlevre bi studentebs aZlevdnen sityvaTa mwkrivs da sTxovdnen 1 dan (yvelaze naklebad sa siamovno) 5 de (yvelaze metad sasiamovno) quliT skalaze SefasebinaT, Tu ramdenad sasiamovno mniSvneloba hqonda TiToeul maTgans (Rajaram & Roediger, 1993). Aeqsp erimentis am pirveli fazis Semdeg cdis pirTa mexsiereba mowmdeboda erT erTi Semd egi oTxidan implicituri mexsierebis amocaniT (davuSvaT, erT erT mwkrivSi aris si tyva martorqa): fragmentuli sityvis Sevseba. cdis pirs eZleva fragmentuli sityva rtrq , romeli c man unda Seavsos pirveli TavSi mosuli sityviT. sityvis fuZis Sevseba. cdis pir s evaleba Seavsos sityvis fuZe, magaliTad, mar , pirveli TavSi mosuli sity viT. sityvis identifikacia. kompiuteris ekranze cdis pirebs eZlevaT sityvaTa rigi iseTi siswrafiT, rom naTlad TiToeulis aRqma ver SeZlon. maT unda gamoicnon TiToeuli, kompiuterze miwodebuli, sityva. am SemTxvevaSi, erT erTi sityva iqneba martorqa. anagrama. cdis pirebs eZlevaT igive sityva, magram areuli asoebiT, magaliTad, qatorarma da maT unda daasaxelon pirveli azriani sityva, romelic TavS i mouvaT. zustad iseve, rogorc martorqis SemTxvevaSi, swor pasuxs TiToeul amocan aze gansazRvravs adre miwodebuli mwkrivis sityvebi. amave dros, yvelaze sayuradR ebo is aris, rom eqsperimentatori cdis piris yuradRebas specialurad ar warmarTav s Sesabamisobaze adre mwkrivSi arsebul sityvebsa da axali amocanis pasuxebs Sori s – swored amitom aris mexsiereba implicituri. implicituri mexsierebis Sesafasebla d mkvlevrebi im cdis pirTa Sedegebs, romlebmac gaiares eqsperimentis pirveli sta dia da Seafases sityvebi sasiamovno usiamovno mniSvnelobis mixedviT (magaliTad, martorqa) udarebdnen im cdis pirTa monacemebs, visac es pirveli stadia ar gauvli a. suraTi 8.9 gviCvenebs, Tu ra gavlenas axdens implicituri mexsiereba sityvebze : procenti gviCvenebs, Tu ramdeni sityva aRadgines sworad cdis pirebma im sityve bidan, romlebic pirvelad miwodebul mwkrivebSi iyo, imasTan SedarebiT, romelic am mwkrivebSi ar iyo. sxvadasxva cdis pirebs sxvadasxva sityvaTa mwkrivebi miewode boda. yoveli davalebis SemTxvevaSi Tqven xedavT, rom upiratesoba adre nanax sity vebs eniWebaT, maSinac ki, rodesac cdis pirebs moeTxovebaT

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153 mxolod sasiamovno usiamovno mniSvnelobis mixedviT maTi Sefaseba. am upiratesobas praimings (Priming) uwodeben, radgan winaswar sityvis aRqma TiTqos amzadebs da xels uwyobs Semdgomi gamocdilebis miRebas. mexsierebis zogierTi amocanis SemTxve vaSi praimingis efeqti kviraze meti grZeldeba (Sloman et al., 1988). axla davubr undeT kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris Tanxvedris sakiTxs. implicituri mexsierebis o Txive testi gulisxmobs testSi mocemuli informaciis fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis Tanx vedras. sxva sityvebiT, ra procesebic moqmedebs martorqis kodirebis procesSi, ig ive procesebi ganapirobeben sityvis fuZis mar s Sevsebas. magram arsebobs sxva testi _ kategoriuli asociaciis, romelic mniSvnelobas, cnebas efuZneba da ara _ fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis Tanxvedras. davuSvaT, gaZlevT „miTologiuri qmnilebebis“ gva rovnul cnebas da gTxovT, daasaxeloT am kategoriis imdeni Semadgeneli, ramdensac SeZlebT mokle drois ganmavlobaSi, magram Tu Tqven mogindebaT TqvaT „martorqa“ imis g amo, rom is adre mowodebul sityvaTa mwkrivSi (Tumca, gansxvavebul konteqstSi) am oikiTxeT, saqme gveqneba implicitur mexsierebasTan. Tu gamoviyenebT fizikuri max asiaTeblebis da mniSvnelobis praimingze damyarebul implicituri mexsierebis or ga nsxvavebul tests, vnaxavT kavSirs kodirebasa da aRdgenas Soris. saidan viciT pra imings adgili aqvs, rodesac gadamuSavebis formaTa Tanxvedra xdeba mexsierebis mk vlevrebma Caatares eqsperimenti, raTa eCvenebinaT, rom implicituri mexsierebis g ansxvavebul formaSi gansxvavebuli tipis gadamuSavebas aqvs adgili. cdis pirebs e ZleodaT sityvaTa rigi instruqciiT an mniSvnelobis mixedviT (sasiamovno Sinaarsis aa sityva Tu usiamovno), an fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT (ramden Tanxmovans Seicavs sityva?) daemuSavebinaT masala. gaixseneT, rom kategoriis asociaciis te sti efuZneba mniSvnelobas. Sesabamisad, mkvlevarTa hipoTeza is iyo, rom kategori is asociaciis testSi praimings adgili eqneboda, Tu Sedegebma hipoTeza daadastura . aseve, fizikuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT masalis damuSavebas praimingi mosdevs mxolod im testebSi, romelic masalis fizikuri maxasiaTeblebiT damuSavebas gulisx mobs. (Srinivas & Roediger, 1990).

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154 am tipis kvlevebi asabuTeben gadatanis Sesabamisi gadamuSavebis Sesaxeb Tvalsazr iss: Tu Tqven informaciis kodirebisTvis iyenebT gadamuSavebis garkveul tips, mag aliTad, fizikur an mniSvnelobis mixedviT analizs, maSin am informaciis aRdgena y velaze efeqtiani iqneba, Tu am dros analizis igive tips gamoiyenebT (Park & Gabr ieli 1995; Rajaram et al., 1998; Weldon et al., 1995). adre Cven aseTi azri gamo vTqviT: mogoneba yvelaze efeqturia maSin, rodesac pirobebi, romelSic moxda infor maciis kodireba, emTxveva im pirobebs, romelSic unda moxdes aRdgena. am TavSi Cv en warmogidgineT am azris dasasabuTebeli faqtebi. axla vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba ko direbisa da aRdgenis Teoriis Semdgomi gamoyeneba. • praimingi (Priming) _ implicituri mexsierebis Sefasebisas, upiratesoba, romelic adre gagonil sityvas an nanax situacias eniWeba. arastruqtururebuli informaciis daxsomebis gaumjobeseba am nawilis wakiTxvis Semdeg Tqven ukve unda gagaCndeT ga rkveuli azri imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda gaiumjobesoT yoveldRiuri mexsiereba – meti daimaxsovroT da naklebi daiviwyoT. monakveTi „fsiqologia Tqvens cxovrebaSi“ dagexmarebaT, rogor gamo iyenoT es codna swavlasTan mimarTebaSi. Tqven ukve iciT, rom informaciis aRdgena yvelaze ukeT xdeba, Tu igive konteqstSi igonebT, an igive gadamuSavebis tips iy enebT, rac masalis Tavpirvelad aRbeWvdis dros. magram aq erTgvarad gansxvavebul mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme da amis gagebaSi Cven dagexmarebiT. saqme exeba ara struqturirebul an SemTxveviT informacias. warmoidgineT, rom muSaobT maRaziaSi ga myidvelad. Tqven unda daimaxsovroT uamravi ram, rasac myidveli Tqvengan moiTxovs : „mwvane maisurSi qals unda baRSi samuSao Sarvali da fexsacmelebi. mamakacs cisfe r SarvalSi _ 2 cali brtyeltuCa, 6 cali 0,25 zomis xraxni da saRebavis safxeki.“ es situacia Zalian hgavs eqsperimentis situacias, sadac Tqven wyvilovani asociacie bi unda dagemaxsovrebinaT. rogor daimaxsovreT sityvaTa wyvilebi, romlebic wina T avSi iyo warmodgenili? amocana, albaT ,cota rTuli iyo, radgan wyvilebi TqvenTvis gansakuTrebul azrs moklebuli iyo. xolo mniSvnelobas moklebuli informaciis daxso meba Znelia. imisaTvis, rom ar SegeSaloT, romel myidvels ra misceT, saWiroa iseT i asociaciebis damyareba, rom SemTxveviToba maqsimalurad gamoiricxos. gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba

155 aRbeWvdis gansamtkiceblad ZiriTad strategias ewodeba gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba . ganmeoreba am teqnikis ZiriTadi idea is aris, rom rodesac informaciis aRbeWvdi sas Tqven imeorebT masalas, amiT izrdeba misi gadamuSavebis SesaZleblobac. erT e rTi gza gadamuSavebisa aris araSemTxveviTi, azriani asociaciebis damyareba sityv ebs Soris. magaliTad, Tu Tqven gindaT, daimaxsovroT sityvaTa wyvili Tagvi – xe, un da warmoidginoT xeze amZvrali Tagvi, romelic eZebs yvels. mogoneba ukeTesi iqneb a, Tu informaciis calkeul nawilebs patara moTxrobis saxes miscemT (Bower, 1972). SegiZliaT, maRaziis SemTxvevaSi swrafad moifiqroT moTxroba, sadac TiToeul myidv els Tavisi moTxovnebiT adgils miuCendiT? (amas patara praqtika sWirdeba). Tqven, albaT, mixvdiT kidec, rom, aseve, Zalian kargi saSualebaa Tqveni moTxrobis mxed velobiTi warmodgenebiT gamdidreba. mxedvelobiTi warmodgenebi Zalian efeqturia mo gonebisTvis, radgan erTdroulad ormagi kodirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva _ verbaluri s da mxedvelobiTis (Paivio, 1972). gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba, aseve, SesaZlebe lobas iZleva, dagicvaT mwkrivis Semdgomi efeqtisagan. magaliTad, rodesac pasuxis gacemis rigi an dro dgeba, xSirad adamians ar axsovs, ra Tqva uSualod misma winamorbedma. Tu ode sme gqoniaT situacia, sadac wreSi myofs erTdroulad ramdenime adamians gacnoben, advilad gasagebi iqneb,a ra igulisxmeba am efeqtSi. ra erqva Tqvens pirdapir mdg om qals? am efeqtis mizezi aris yuradRebis gadatana sakuTari saxelis an sakuTari SeniSvnis Tqmaze (Bond et al., 1991). amis Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa gadamamu Savebeli ganmeoreba. gadaitaneT yuradReba mopirdapire qalis saxelze da roca gaig onebT „liza“, TqviT: „icinis, rogorc mona liza“. • gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba (Elaborative rehearsal) _ mexsierebis gazrdis meTodi , romliTac xdeba dasamaxsovrebeli informaiis gamdidreba. • mnemonikuri xerxebi (Mnemonics) _ strategiebi an saSualebebi, romelic xels uwyob s faqtebis grZeli mwkrivis aRbeWvdas nacnob da adre aRbeWdil informaciasTan daka vSirebis gziT. mnemonika mexsierebis gaumjobesebis Semdegi saSualeba aris specialuri strategiebis Seqmna, romelTac mnemonikuri xerxi ewodeba. (berZnuli sityvidan „moigone“). mnemonikuri mne monika moicavs rCevebs, romelic xels uwyobs faqtebis grZeli mwkrivis aRbeWvdas n acnob da adre aRbeWdil informaciasTan dakavSirebis gziT. bevri

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156 mnemonikuri xerxi mza mimniSneblebs iZleva, romelsac wesrigSi mohyavs SemTxveviT i informacia. ganvixiloT lokusis meTodi, romelic pirvelad berZenma oratorma , ga moiyena. lokusi niSnavs „adgils“. lokusis meTodi niSnavs sityvis Tu movlenis adgilis mixedviT daxsomebas da aRdgenas, xolo oratorisTvis xangrZlivi moxsenebis calkeu li nawilebis nacnob adgilebTan dakavSirebas. imisaTvis, rom daimaxsovroT, ra gaq vT wamosaRebi supermarketidan, gonebaSi isini saTiTaod unda ganalagoT im gzaze, romliTac institutSi midixarT. Semdeg, mogonebisas CamouvliT maT da gaixsenebT (i x. suraTi .8.10). mimniSnebeli sityvis meTodi hgavs lokusis meTods, im gansxvavebiT, rom mwkrivis wevrebs ukavSirebT mimniSneblebs da ara adgilebs. tipuri mimniSneblebi am meTodisTvis aris gariTmuli strofebi, sadac sityvebi cifrebs eriTmeba. magaliT ad: erTi RmerTi; ori lori, sami skami da sxv. SemTxveviTi informaciis daxsomebis gasaRebi aris informaciis iseTi saxiT dalageba, rom mimniSneblebma gagiadvilon aRdgena. fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi rogor SeiZleba mexsierebis gamokvlevebi dag exmaroT gamocdebisTvis mzadebaSi yvelaze xSirad studentebi mexsierebis Sesaxeb g amokvlevebis wakiTxvis Semdeg svamen kiTxvas: „rogor gamoviyeno miRebuli informaci a swrafad?“ „rogor momexmareba es gamokvlevebi momavali gamocdebisTvis mzadebaSi?“ vna xoT, ra tipis rCevebi SeiZleba gamoviyvanoT am gamokvlevebidan. • kodirebis specifikuroba. principi rogorc rom gaxsovT, mogonebis kodirebis anu specifikurobis gulisxmobs, konteqsti pirobebi, romelSic mogoneba xdeba, unda daemTxves kodirebis konteqsts. swavlis p rocesSi konteqsti xSirad niSnavs „informaciis gansxvavebul konteqstsac“. Tu Tqven yo velTvis erTsa da imave konteqstSi swavlobT, gagiWirdebaT sxva konteqstSi misi aR dgena, ase magaliTad, Tu profesori cota sxvagvarad dagisvamT kiTxvas, SeiZleba d aibneT da ver upasuxoT. amitom Tqven swavlis procesSi konteqstebi unda cvaloT. g adaawyveT masala, dausviT Tqvens Tavs sxvadasxva kiTxvebi, scadeT masalaSi axali kombinaciebis Seqmna, magram Tu mainc SeferxdebiT gamocdaze, scadeT gamoiyenoT, rac SeiZleba meti mimniSnebeli, raTa pirveladi konteqsti aRadginoT: „es xom igive a, rac xanmokle mexsierebis leqciaze movismine“. • mwkrivSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti. adgilmdebareobis efeqtis mruds

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157 Tu gavixsenebT, vnaxavT, rom masalis SuaSi ganlagebuli informacia yvelaze cudad gvamaxsovrdeba. faqtobrivad, studentebs ufro kargad axsovT leqciis dasawyisi da bolo, vidre Sua nawili. (Holen & Oaster, 1976, Jense n, 1962). rodesac leqciaze xarT, ecadeT, swored leqciis Sua nawils DmiaqcioT gan sakuTrebuli yuradReba. rodesac swavlis dro mova, Tqven ganskuTrebuli Zalisxmeva unda gamoiyenoT am masalis daswavlisaTvis da ecadeT, rom masala yovelTvis erTi d a imave TanmimdevrobiT ar iswavloT. imasac miaqcieT yuradReba, rom es Tavi mexsi erebis Sesaxeb wignis SuaSia ganlagebuli. Tu Tqven mTeli wigni gaqvT Casabarebel i, maSin mis swavlas meti Zalisxmeva unda moaxmaroT, vidre dasawyis an bolo Tave bs. • gadamamuSavebeli mzadebis ganmeoreba procesSi, da mnemonikuri gancda xerxebi. giCndebaT, zogjer, TiTqos Tqven gamocdisTvis daulagebel, TviTon unda iseTi masalas arastruqturirebul swavlobT. vTqvaT, swvlobT tvinis gansxvavebuli nawilebis funqciebs. am SemTxvevaSi Tqven ipovoT ma salis gadamuSavebis warmodgenebi daixmareT, an efeqturi gza. winadadebebSi magal iTad, CarTeT, an mxedvelobiTi

TiToeul cnebas patara istoria daukavSireT. am wignis erT erT avtors dRemde axsov s Tavisi mnemonikuri xerxi, romelic gamoiyena fsiqologiis SesavalSi ventramedialuri hipoTalamusis, romlis abreviaturac magram laTinurad aris VMH, dasamaxsovreblad. es iyo Very Much Hungry, rogorc me 12 TavSi naxavT, es mnemonikuri xerxi mas Semdeg gasul 20 weliwadSi aR ar aris iseTi zusti). gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba ki xels SegiwyobT naswavli kid ev ufro ganamtkicoT. • metamexsiereba. gamokvlevebma am sferoSi gviCvena, rom adamianebi . kargad grZnoben, Tu ra ician da ra _ ara. rodesac Tqven gamocdaze xarT, sadac dr o SezRudulia, Tqven unda miuSvaT Tqveni intuicia da andoT mas drois ganawileba. magaliTad, SegiZliaT mTeli bileTis kiTxvebi uceb gadaikiTxoT da naxoT, rogor grZ nobT, romeli kiTxva iciT ukeT. aris iseTi gamocdebic, sadac yvela kiTxvaze pasux i savaldebulo ki ara, SerCeviTia, magram pasuxi siswrafes moiTxovs. aqac Tqvens intuicias unda endoT da im kiTxvebs unda upasuxoT, romelSic darwmunebuli xarT, r om iciT. imedi gvaqvs, rom axla met naklebad gasagebia, Tu rogor SeiZleba mexsie rebaSi Catarebuli gamokvlevebi dagexmaroT gamocdebisTvis warmatebiT momzadebaSi.

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158 metamexsiereba davuSvaT, Tqven xarT iseT situaciaSi, rom gWirdebaT raRacis mogon eba. Tqven akeTebT yvelafers, rom gamoiyenoT mimniSneblebi, romlebic kodirebis s ituacias asaxaven, magram mainc verafers igonebT. nawilobriv, imis mizezi, rom a seT Zalisxmevas axmarT mogonebas, aris Tqveni darwmunebuloba, rom am informacias Tqven flobT, magram, aseve, gacnobierebuli gaqvT, ras warmoadgens Tqveni mexsie reba? iciT, Tu rogor muSaobs Tqveni mexsiereba? an saidan iciT, rom am informaci as flobT? es metamexsierebis kiTxvebia. metamexsierebis mTavari kiTxvaa: rodis d a ratom inaxeba mexsierebaSi gancda imisa, rom vici. pirveli, vinc Seiswavla es gancda, iyo j. T. harti (J. T. Hart, 1965), romelmac kvleva daiwyo imiT, rom studentebs usvamda kiTxvebs zogadi ganaTlebidan. magaliT ad, Cven gekiTxebiT: „mzis sistemaSi romeli planetaa yvelaze didi?“ iciT am kiTxvaze pasuxi? Tu ar iciT, rogor moiqceodiT (romel pasuxs airCevdiT) am situaciaSi: „Tum ca, me axla ar maxsovs pasuxi, me vici, rom ramdenimeAaraswor pasuxs Soris avirC evdi swors“. es iyo kiTxvebi, romelTac harti Tavis cdis pirebs aZlevda. pasuxebSi darwmunebulobis mixedviT, cdis pirebs unda SeefasebinaT 1 dan, („sakmaod darwmuneb ulivar, rom ver avirCev sworad mravlobiTi arCevanidan“), 6 de qulebiT, („savsebiT da rwmunebuli, var rom sworad avirCev“). Tqven rogor gaanawilebdiT qulebs? ai, es alt ernativebi: a. plutoni b. venera g. dedamiwa d. iupiteri Tu Tqven yuradRebiT daa kvirdebiT Tqvens darwmunebulobis – „vgrZnob, rom vici“ gancdas, maSin swor pasuxs im S emTxvevaSi daasaxelebT, „d“ s, Tu Sefaseba iqneba 6, xolo mis aRniSvnas naklebi alba Toba eqneba, Tu Sefaseba iqneba – 1. (sando pasuxi rom miviRoT, ra Tqma unda, kiTx vaTa didi raodenobaa saWiro). Hhartis mixedviT, visac 1 quliT aqvs Tavisi darwmu nebuloba Sefasebuli, 30% iT nakleb swor pasuxebs iZleva maSin, rodesac 6 qula 75 % ian warmatebas uzrunvelyofs. es faqtebi miuTiTebs imaze, rom „vgrZnob, rom vici“ g ancda SeiZleba zusti indikatori iyos.

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159 metamexsierebis Sesaxeb gamokvlevebi mimarTulia rogorc im procesebze, romlebic „vg rZnob, rom vici“ gancdas iwveven, aseve, imaze, Tu rogor miiRweva Sefasebis sizust e (Koriat & Levy Sadot, 1999; Metcalfe, 2000). • rom mimniSneblis nacnobobis hipoTezis mixedviT, adamianebi Tavisi „vgrZnob, vici“ gancdis dros emyarebian mimniSneblis nacnobobas. magaliTad, rodesac gekiTxebian: „ra erqva beThovens?“, Tu Tqven adre gagigiaT mis Sesaxeb, SeiZ leba gagiCndeT azri, rom ramdenime alternatividan icnobT mis saxels anu swor pas uxs. (Metcalfe et. al., 1993; Reder & Ritter, 1992; Schwartz & Metcalfe, 1992). • misawvdomobis hipoTezis pasuxis mixedviT, wvdomas. adamiani amrigad, Tu cdilobs kiTxva arasruli „ra erqva informaciidan swori beThovens?“, TqvenSi advilad aRZravs informacias, romelic, Tqveni azriT, am kiTxva ze swor pasuxTan aris dakavSirebuli, Tqven gagiCndebaT gancda, rom swor pasuxs a dvilad gamoicnobT (Koriat, 1993, 1995). orive Teorias gaaCnia empiriuli dasabuTe ba da oriveSi igulisxmeba, rom Tqven SegiZliaT endoT Tqvens grZnobas, rodesac da rwmunebuli xarT, rom iciT raRac. (mogvianebiT Cven SevexebiT mowmis Cvenebebze C atarebul gamokvlevebs, romelic am zogadi wesdan gamonaklisebze miuTiTebs). Tqven ukve garkveuli codna gaqvT imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor aRibeWdeba da rogor aRdgeba i nformacia Tqvens mexsierebaSi. Tqven iciT, Tu ras niSnavs aRbeWvdisa da aRdgenis situaciebis „kargi Tanxvedra“. Semdeg TavSi Cven mexsierebis procesebidan gadavinac vlebT mexsierebis Sinaarsebze anu imaze, Tu ra xdeba mexsierebaSi. • metamexsiereb a metamexsiereba mexsierebis (Metamemory) da _ implicituri an eqsplicituri strat egiebis codna Sesaxeb. unarebis mexsierebis efeqturi mexsierebis Semecneba. Sejameba xangrZlivi mexsierebis Teoriebma unda axsnas, Tu rogor xdeba codnis SeZena da Senaxva mexsierebaSi mTeli cxovrebis manZilze. kod irebis specifikurobis principis mixedviT, informaciis yvelaze kargad aRdgena xde ba maSin, rodesac konteqsti, romelSic xdeba kodireba, emTxveva aRdgenis pirobebs . mwkrivSi adgilmdebareobis efeqts iwvevs TiToeuli STabeWdilebis (sityva, movlen a da a.S) mogonebis konteqstebs Soris gansxvaveba.

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160 Tqven eZebT daxsomebuls mimniSneblebiT. cnoba xSirad ufro advilia, vidre mogoneb a, radgan am SemTxvevaSi mimniSneblebi met informacias Seicaven. epizodur mexsie rebaSi daxsomeba aRbeWvdis konteqstTan mimarTebaSi xdeba. semantikur mexsierebaS i ki informaciis aRbeWvdis garkveul epizodTan mimarTeba dakargulia. interferenci a SeiZleba iyos proaqtiuli, rodesac Zveli informacia ereva da xels uSlis axlis a RbeWvdas, an retroaqtiuli, rodesac axali informacia ereva Zvels. informaciis gad amuSavebis Teoriis mixedviT, informaciis ufro Rrma gadamuSaveba mis ukeTes daxso mebas iwvevs. implicitur mexsierebaze Catarebuli kvlevebis mixedviT, aRbeWvdis d a mogonebis procesebis damTxveva iwvavs praimings. Tqven SegiZliaT gaiumjobesoT mexsiereba gadamamuSavebeli ganmeorebis da mnemonikuri xerxebis daxmarebiT. meta mexsierebisTvis specifikuri msjelobebi Tqveni mexsierebis Sesaxeb tipuri da zust ia. struqturebi xangrZliv mexsierebaSi aqamde Cvens mier motanil yvela magaliTSi Cven gTxovdiT, rom dagemaxsovrebinaT an aRgedginaT izolirebuli an erTmaneTTan d aukavSirebeli informaciis erTeulebi. is, rasac Tqven umravles SemTxvevaSi aRadge ndiT, iyo organizebuli codnis nawilebi. gaixseneT, magaliTad, rodesac Cven gTxoveT gemsjelaT, iyo Tu ara yurZeni xili. Tqven daufiqreblad gaeciT dadebiTi pasuxi. m agram ras ityviT avokadoze an tyemalze? am TavSi Cven SeviswavliT, Tu am tipis p asuxis siZneleebi rogoraa dakavSirebuli mexsierebaSi informaciis struqturirebis xasiaTTan da gzebTan. vimsjelebT, agreTve, imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gexmarebaT mex sierebaSi organizebuli codna ama Tu im informaciis swrafad gaxsenebaSi. mexsiere bis struqturebi mexsierebis ZiriTadi funqcia aris msgavsi STabeWdilebebis erTman eTTan dakavSireba, raTa garemosTan urTierTobis procesSi SeZloT misi gamoyeneba. (gaixseneT martivi gansazRvreba me 5 e TavSi aRqmis funqciis Sesaxeb). Tqven cxo vrobT samyaroSi, romelic savsea uTvalavi individualuri STabeWdilebebiT da movlen ebiT, romelTa mudmivi gacxrilva da maTi informaciis iseT mcire, martiv erTobliob ad dayvana gWirdebT, romlis marTvasac SeZlebT. amave dros, Tqven ar gWirdebaT sa myaroSi garkveuli struqturis mosaZebnad yovel jerze cnobierebis CarTva. rogorc i mplicituri mexsierebis ganxilvisas vnaxeT, warmoudgenelia, rom yovel wuTs, nebis mieri

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161 sagnis aRqmisas Tu moqmedebisas, ambobdeT TqvenTvis: „es is aris, rac samzareulos nivTebs miekuTvneba.“ garemosTan urTierTobis Cveulebrivi gamocdilebiT Tqvens mexsi erebis struqturaSi garemos struqturebi aisaxeba. ganvixiloT mexsierebis struqtur aTa formebi, romelic Camoyalibda Tqveni garemosTan yoveldRiuri urTierTobis proce sSi. kategorizacia da cnebebi daviwyoT me 11 TavSi ganxiluli movleniT – im gonebrivi ZalisxmeviT, romelic saWiro a, raTa bavSvma daimaxsovros, magaliTad, sityva ZaRlis mniSvneloba. imisaTvis, r om es sityva mniSvnelobis matarebeli iyos . bavSvisTvis, bavSvs unda hqondes una ri, daimaxsovros yvela is situacia, romelSic es sityva gamoiyeneba da, agreTve, informacia konteqstis Sesaxeb. am gziT bavSvi aRmoaCens, ra aris ZiriTadi arsi: bewviani arseba, romelsac oTxi fex i aqvs, niSnavs ZaRls. bavSvma unda Seimecnos, rom ZaRli ewodeba ara erT konkret ul cxovels, aramed amgvar cocxal arsebaTa mTel kategorias. individualuri gamocdi lebis kategorizaciis unari – erTi da igive qcevis ganxorcieleba mis mimarT an erTi da igive saxelis darqmeva _ aris moazrovne organizmis erT erTi yvelaze bazisuri da mniSvnelovani unari (Mervis & Rosch, 1981). Tqvens mier gamoyofili kategorie bis gonebaSi reprezentacias cnebebi ewodeba. cneba ZaRli, magaliTad, ewodeba bav Svis mier ZaRlTan dakavSirebuli cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis mexsierebaSi SekavSir ebas da Senaxvas. (rogorc me 11 TavSi vnaxavT, Tu bavSvs jer kidev ar aqvs dazus tebuli ZaRlis mniSvneloba, es cneba SeiZleba iseT niSnebsac moicavdes, romelic m ozrdilebma SeiZleba am cnebisTvis Seusabamod CaTvalon.). Tqven SeZenili gaqvT ua mravi cneba. Tqven gaqvT sagnebis da qcevebis kategoriebi, magaliTad, sakuWnao da beizboli. cnebebi SeiZleba asaxavdes Tvisebebs, magaliTad, wiTeli an didi; abstraqtul ideebs, magaliTad, WeSmariteba an siyvaruli; mimarTebebs, maga liTad, ufro Wkviani, vidre; TiToeuli cneba Tqvens mier samyarosTan urTierTobiT SeZenili mTlianobebad Camoyalibebuli gamocdilebis reprez entaciaa. prototipebi im ZaRlebs Soris, romelic Tqven Tqvens sicocxleSi ginaxavT, romels warmoidgenT, rodesac waikiTxavT winadadebas: „ZaRli xravs Zvals“. SegiZliaT konkretuli ZaRli daas axeloT? Tu romelime tipuri ZaRli warmogidgebaT,

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162 romelic yvela nanaxi ZaRlebis saSualos – prototips warmoadgens? ganvixiloT eqsperi menti, romelic dagvexmareba am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemaSi. • cnebebi (concepts) _ sagnebis an ideebis saxeobebis an kategoriebis mentaluri reprezentaciebi. • prototipi (Prototype) _ kategoriis yvelaze reprezentaciuli magaliTi. saidan vici T prototipebis Camoyalibeba cdis pirebs uCvenebdnen calkeuli adamianis saxeebis suraTebs, romlebic sxvadasxva xarisxiT gansxvavdeboda prototipisgan (suraTi. 8.11). Semdeg maT aCvenebdnen saxeebis meore jgufs. zogierTi suraTi adrec iyo miwodebuli, zog ierTi axali iyo da gansxvavdeboda prototipisgan. iyo, agreTve, prototipis suraTi , romelic gansxvavdeboda pirvelad miwodebuli prototipisgan. cdis pirebs evalebod aT gamoecnoT, Tu romeli suraTi hqondaT maT adre miwodebisas nanaxi. kargad gamoi kveTa sami Sedegi, romelic mocemulia suraTze 8.1. cdis pirebi cnobdnen yvela im suraTs, romelic adre hqondaT nanaxi., maSinac ki, rodesac mas prototipTan mxolod 25% s hqonda msgavseba. axal suraTebze miuTiTebdnen, rom axali iyo da cnobis xa risxi prototipTan mimarTebiT ganisazRvreboda. da bolos, yvelaze darwmunebulni cd is pirebi iyvnen axali prototipis ucnobobaSi. (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). am eqspe rimentSi cdis pirebi ise moqmedebdnen, TiTqos gaaerTianes yvela saxe, romelic ki unaxavT, raTa prototipuli konstruqti SeeqmnaT. kategoriebis Tavisi TvisebebiTur T prototipebi iqmneba mTeli Tqveni gamocdilebidan. amitom prototipebi yovel wuTs SeiZleba icvlebodes da mdidrdebodes axali kategoriiT. aqedan gamomdinare, mecni erebi mividnen im daskvnamde, rom konkretuli kategoriisTvis prototipis reprezent acia gonebaSi SeiZleba ar gqondeT. ufro savaraudoa, rom prototipi TviTon calkeul egzemplarebSi, rogorc saSualo raRac moqmedebs. (Hintzman, 1986, Nosofsly et al. , 1992). magaliTad, yvela ZaRli, romelic ki am momentisTvis ginaxavT, ayalibebs prototipuli ZaRlis Tqveneul cnebas. ufro metic, Tu Tqven saRamos gaxvediT quCaSi da dainaxeT erTi an ori ZaRli, Tqveni prototipi SeiZleba odnav Seicvalos kidec. is, rom Tqven gaqvT unari, iseT kategorias, rogorc, vTqvaT, ZaRlia, mounaxoT pr ototipi, gaZlevT SesaZleblobas icnoT kategoriis met naklebad

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163 tipuri warmomadgenlebi _ rac ufro meti Tviseba aqvs saerTo kategoriis calkeul we vrebs erTmaneTTan, miT ufro tipiurni arian isini. es kargad Cans magaliTad frinv elis kategoriis ganxilvisas. ris gamo iTvleba yvavi tipiur frinvelad, xolo siraq lema am pingvini atipiurad? pasuxi ganisazRvreba im xarisxiT is xarisxi, riTac e s qmnilebebi hgvanan im kategoriis warmomadgenlebs, romelTac Tqvens mexsierebaSi frinvelis kategoriaSi aerTianebT. kategoriis wevrTa tipiuroba ki _ Tu rogor See sabameba raRac Tqvens prototips _ yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan momdinareobs. gamokvle vebma gamoavlina, rom xalxi ufro swrafad pasuxobs kategoriis tipiur warmomadgenl ebze, vidre uCveuloze. Tqveni reaqciis dro kiTxvaze, aris Tu ara yvavi frinveli, ufro swrafi iqneba, vidre is, rom siraqlema frinvelia (Rosch, 1976). kidev erTx el vimeorebT, rom es efeqti damokidebulia Tqvens gamocdilebaze frinvelTa kategor iis mimarT. Tqvens gamocdilebaSi ufro advilia yvavisTvis, rogorc frinvelisTvis a dgilis povna, vidre siraqlemasTvis( Tu ra Tqma unda, Tu Tqveni cxovrebis manZilz e xSirad ar gicxovriT siraqlemebis garemocvaSi). ierarqiebi da bazisuri doneebi cnebebi da maTi prototipebi damoukideblad ar aRmocendeba. rogorc nax. 8.12 gviCv enebs, cnebebi SeiZleba azrian organizaciebad gaerTiandenen. iseT did kategorias , rogoricaa cxoveli gaaCnia qvekategoriebi, rogoricaa frinveli da Tevzi, romlebi c Tavis mxriv, moicaven saxeobebs, iadoni, siraqlema, zvigeni da oraguli. Tavis mxriv, cxovelis kategoriac aris qvekategoria ufro didi kategoriisa cocxali ars ebebi cnebebi dakavSirebulia sxva saxis arsebebi. informaciasTanac: Tqvens mexsi erebaSi Senaxulia codna imis Sesaxeb, rom zogierTi frinveli iWmeva, zogi saSiSia , zogi ki nacionaluri simboloa. rogorc vxedavT, ierarqiebSi arsebobs is garkveul i done/safexuri, romelzec adamianebi ukeT moiazreben obieqtebs da axdenen maT kategorizacias. maT bazisur doneebs uwodeben. (Rosch, 1973, 1978). magaliTad, ro desac Tqven bazarSi yidulobT vaSls, Tqven SegiZliaT ifiqroT masze, rogorc xilis erT erT saxeobaze, romlis mniSvnelobac Zalian farToa, an rogorc Safranze, rac sp ecifikuri da viwro mniSvnelobisaa. bazisuri done aris vaSli Tqven rom gaCvenon a m obieqtis suraTi da gkiTxon ra aris es, vaSli. Tqven ufro swrafad upasuxebT, ro m es aris vaSli (da ara xilis saxeoba). bazisur dones prototipis gamowvevis meti Zala aqvs. Tqven vaSlis cnebasTan meti Sexeba da gamocdileba gaqvT, vidre mis s pecifikur jiSebTan. Tqven rom

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164 vaSlebis gamomyvani iyoT, Tqveni bazisuri done am ierarqiaSi ufro dabali iqnebod a. • bazisuri done (Basic level) _ kategorizaciis done, romelic yvelaze swrafad SeiZl eba amovitanoT mexsierebidan da gamoviyenoT yvelaze efeqturad. fsiqologia XXI sa ukuneSi adamianis da kompiuteris mexsierebis SesaZleblobebi rodesac xdeba kompiu terisa da adamianis SesaZleblobebis Sedareba, xSirad iseTi STabeWdileba rCeba, rom kompiuteri sjobnis adamians. kompiuteris me xsierebas bevrad meti – aTasobiT da milionobiT meti biti informaciis Senaxva SeuZl ia, vidre Cvens mexsierebas. magram adamianis mexsierebas erTi iseTi Tviseba aqv s, romelic Cvens mexsierebas ufro maRla ayenebs. procesebi, romlebic SesaZleblob as gvaZlevs, movigonoT specifikuri informacia, xSirad bevrad ufro efeqturia, vid re kompiuterSi Zebnis procedura. davuSvaT, Tqvens megobars Tqveni gamocda unda a m Tavis mixedviT da gekiTxebaT: „romelma mkvlevrebma Semoitanes kodirebis specifik urobis cneba?“ Tqven SegiZliaT gasceT swori pasuxi (tulvingi da tomsoni); mcdari p asuxi (soerlingi) an, TqvaT, rom ar iciT. Tqven Zalian ar gindaT, gasceT iseTi p asuxi, romelsac araviTari kavSiri ar aqvs kiTxvasTan. rogor ggoniT, ra xdeba, ro desac am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis davalebas aZlevT manqanas? pirveli veb saiti, romelsac gvTavazobs Google.com aris Semdegi: „aris Tu ara HIV is izolacia miRweuli ?. meore mcdeloba AskJeeves.com s ukavSirdeba. is gvTavazobs cneba ra aris, davu kavSirdeT Britanica.com s. ratom aris kompiuteris mexsierebidan es pasuxebi adam ianis mexsierebisgan gansxvavebuli? Cven adamianis mexsierebis (mogonebis) or Ta viseburebas gamovyofT, romelic kompiuterTan SedarebiT mis upiratesobas warmoadge ns. pirveli: rogorc ukve am TavSi adrec gaecaniT, adamianis mexsiereba efeqtiana d iyenebs Sinaarsobriv mimniSneblebs, mimarTuls saZiebel informaciaze. is uzrunv elyofs imas, rom aRdgenili informaciis Sinaarsi Seesabamebodes kiTxvis Sinaarss. kompiuteri ki piriqiT, konteqsts ar iTvaliswinebs da ufro sityvis viwro mniSvne lobazea orientirebuli. magaliTad, Tu Cven „kodirebis specifikurobas“ veZebT Google.c om_Si an

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ASKJeeves Si, TiToeuli maSinve gadmogviSlis gverds, romelzec iqneba pasuxi pirve l kiTxvaze. kompiuterze maZieblisTvis kiTxvis nawilebs, romlebic konteqstis dasa zusteblad iqneba mimarTuli (romelma mkvlevrebma Semoitanes), aSkarad uaryofiTi g avlena eqneba Ziebis efeqturobaze. kompiuterze bevri pasuxis mosaZebnad Zalian Z nelia CarTo konteqsti ise, rom kompiuterma gaurkveveli mimarTulebiT ar gagagzavn os. meorec, adamianis mexsierebas marTaven cnebebi da ara sityvebi. rodesac Tqve ns mexsierebaSi eZebT pasuxs kodirebis specifikurobis Sesaxeb, ara aqvs mniSvnel oba ras ityviT, „mkvlevars“ Tu „eqspermentators“, „aRmomCens“ Tu „Semqmnels“. cneba aamoqme TiToeul sityvas, rogorc mimniSnebels. kompiuters ki saqme aqvs mxolod sityvebTan . magaliTad, rodesac Cven Google.com s veubnebiT, Secvalos „aRmomCeni“ „SemqmneliT“, igi gvaZlevs „links“ mexsierebis TeoriaSi garkveuli gverdis miTiTebiT. magram „mkvlevaris“ Secvla „eqsperimentatoriT“ gvaZlevs, rogorc pirveli linkis SemTxvevaSi, gverds saTau riT: „talRebi, pulsi, neironuli masis Teoria“. es patara eqsperimenti kargad uCveneb s, Tu kompiuteri, adamianis mexsierebisgan gansxvavebiT, rogoraa damokidebuli uf ro sityvebze, vidre cnebebze. axla mainc Tu grZnobT odnav upiratesobas kompiuter Tan SedarebiT? SegiZliaT, ramdenime wuTi dauTmoT imaze fiqrs, Tu rogor SeiZleba adamianis mexsierebis es Tvisebebi gadasceT kompiutersac. veb gverdebi: WWW.Goog le.com WWW. ASKJeeves.com • sqemebi (Schemas) _ obieqtebis, xalxis an situaciis Sesaxeb konceptualuri CarCoebi, an codnis „klasterebi“. codnis erTeulebi, romelic moicavs ga remos struqturebis Sesaxeb ganzogadebebs. sqemebi Cven vnaxeT, rom cnebebi mexsierebis ierarqiaSi agurebis rols TamaSoben. isini a gurebis rols ufro rTul kompleqsebSic TamaSoben. gaixseneT suraTi 8.2. instinqtur ad saidan xvdebiT, rom baWiis adgili ar aris samzareuloSi? Cven adre ukve aRvniS neT, rom es procesi implicitur mexsierebas emyareba, magram Cven ar gviTqvams, T u mexsierebis romeli struqtura iyo amisTvis

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166 gamoyenebuli. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, is, rac Tqven gWirdebaT, aris iseTi saxis reprezentacia mexsierebaSi, romelic samzareulos individualur cnebas _ macivris, WurWlis sarecxi niJaris Tu gazquris Sesaxeb codnas _ gaaerTianebs ufro did struq turaSi. sqema aris cnebiTi CarCo, an codnaTa klasteri sagnebis, adamianebis da s ituaciis Sesaxeb. sqemebi aris „codnaTa Sekvrebi“, romlebSic garemos struqturis Sesa xeb rTuli ganzogadebebia aRbeWdili. Tqven gaqvT samzareulos da sawoli oTaxis sqe ma, sareiso avtobusis mZRolis da profesoris, qeifisa da banketis sqemebi. SegiZl iaT, ramdenime wuTi dauTmoT da dafiqrdeT, Tu ra da rogor aris am kategoriebSi ga nzogadebuli. erTi ram, rasac SeamCnevdiT, aris is, rom Tqveni sqema ar moicavs T qveni cvalebadi gamocdilebis yvela individualur detals. Tu prototipi aris katego riebis Sesaxeb Tqveni gamocdilebebis saSualo, sqemaSi warmodgenilia garemoSi sit uaciaTa Sesaxeb Tqveni gamocdielebebis saSualo. iseve, rogorc prototipebi, Tqven i sqemebic cvalebadia da cxovrebiseul movlenebTan erTad icvleba. (Rumelhart et a l., 1986). Tqveni sqemac mxolod im detalebs Seicavs, romelsac Tqven gansakuTrebu li yuradReba dauTmeT. magaliTad, rodesac ekiTxebiT, ra aris warmodgenili, ra xat ia Tu weria amerikuli monetis Tavze, studentebi arasodes weren sityva Tavisufleb as, Tumca, yvela monetazea igi gamosaxuli. (Rubin & Kontis, 1983). aba, Seamowme T! amrigad, Tqveni sqema inaxavs zustad imas, rac SeamCnieT garemoSi. axla ki ga nvixiloT yvela is gza, romelSic cnebebs da sqemebs iyenebT. mexsierebis struqtur ebis gamoyeneba modiT, vnaxoT, Tu rogor moqmedebs mexsierebis zogierTi struqtura . Tqven ukve naxeT, rom Tqvenma sqemam SeasaZlebloba mogcaT, uyoymanoT mimxvdari yaviT, rom baWiis adgili samzareuloSi ar aris. axla gaixseneT me 2 e Tavi, sadac Cven ganvixileT, Tu ra gavlenas axdens adrindeli codna orazrovani figuris inter pretaciaze. gaxsovT es figura? suraTi. 8.13. ras xedavT: ixvs Tu baWias? davuSva T, Cven winaswar mogamzadeT imisTvis, rom dinaxavdiT ixvs. Tu Tqven SeusabamebT naxatis niSnebs Tqvens sqematur molodinebs am niSnebis mimarT, dainaxavT ixvs. i give moxdeba baWiis mimarTac, Tu geqnebaT baWiis molodini. Cven viyenebT mexsier ebaSi arsebul informacias, raTa gavamarTloT molodini.

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167 Tqven gaqvT, agreTve, mexsierebis struqturebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen Tqvens aRqmasa da mogonebaze. (Cantor & Mischel, 1979; Levy et al., 1999). magaliTad, T qven, albaT, ukve geqnebaT kbilis eqimis, sakulto beladebis, ekologistebis da ma Svelebis cnebebi. Tu TqvenTvis ucnob pirovnebaze getyvian, rom is erT_erTi am pr ofesiis warmomadgenelia, Tqveni stereotipuli warmodgena miawers mas konkretul pi rovnul maxasiaTeblebs an Sesabamis qcevebs. socialuri fsiqologebis mier dadgenil iqna, rom enas da sityvebsac SeuZliaT, garkveuli gavlena moaxdinon am cnebaTa i nterpersonalur gamoyenebaze. es gamokvleva gviCvenebs, rom mexsierebis struqture bs SeuZlia, gavlena moaxdinos samyaros Sesaxeb Tqvens azrTa msvlelobaze: Tqvenis awmyo gamocdileba warsuli gamocdilebiT aris Seferili da es ukanaskneli cvlis Tq vens molodinebs momavlis mimarT. Tqven male naxavT, rom xSirad erTi da igive miz eziT, cnebebi da sqemebi SeiZleba xelsac uSlides zust mogonebas. gamotovebulia " saidan viciT". originalSi gv. 244. rekonstruqcia mogoneba, rogorc rekonstruqcia axla ganvixiloT sxva mniSvnelovani saSualeba, romelSic gamoiyeneba mexsierebis s truqtura. bevr SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Tqven gTxoven, moigonoT garkveuli informacia , Tqven ver igonebT zustad am informacias. amis nacvlad, Tqven rekonstruqcias uk eTebT informacias ufro zogadi saxiT Senaxuli codnidan. rekonstruqtuli mexsierebi s naTelsayofad ganvixiloT Semdegi sami kiTxva: • me 3 TavSi aris Tu ar sityva „da“? • 19 91 weli Seicavs Tu ara 7 ivlisis dRes? • sunTqavdiT guSin @2.05 –sa da 2.10 wuTs Sor is? qven, albaT, samive kiTxvas dadebiT pasuxs gascemT yovelgvari meryeobis gare Se, magram, ra Tqma unda, konkretuli epizoduri mexsiereba am movlenebis ar geqne baT (im SemTxvevebis gamoklebiT, rogorc, magaliTad, Tu vinme 7 ivliss ar aris da badebuli da misTvis gansakuTrebuli dRea). am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad Tqven u nda gamoiyenoT zogadi codna, raTa rekonstruqcia gaukeToT mas da miuyenoT, ra Sei Zleba momxdariyo. gavarCioT rekonstruqciis es procesi ufro detalurad. rekonstruqciuli mexsierebis sizuste

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168 Tu adamianebi zogjer codnis zogierTi aspeqtis rekonstruqcias axdenen zusti monac emebis aRdgenis nacvlad, maSin mosalodnelia, aRmovaCinoT SemTxvevebi, rodesac re konstruirebuli mogonebis faqtebi gansxvavebuli iqneba realuri suraTisgan, anu me xsierebis Secdomebs eqneba adgili. erT erTi yvelaze STambeWdavi demonstracia mex sierebis Secdomisa sakmaod Zvelia. klasikur naSromSi „mogoneba: eqsperimentuli da socialuri fsiqologiis gamokvlevebi“ (1932) ser frederik bartleti ikvlevda sakiTxs, Tu rogor moqmedebs warsuli gamocdileba axlad SeZenili informaciis mogonebaze. b artleti studentebs sTxovda, daemaxsovrebinaT gansxvavebuli kulturis Tqmulebebi d a legendebi. yvelaze cnobilia misi masala „sulebis brZola“. • rekonstruqciuli mexsiereba (Reconstructive memory) _ mexsierebis konkretuli reprezentaciebis ararsebobis pirobebSi, Senaxuli codnis zogad tipebze dayrdnobiT informaciis erTad ganlagebis procesi. bartletma aRmoaCina, rom misi studentebis mier gaxsenebuli Sinaarsi gansxvavdeboda originalisgan anu imisgan, rasac awvdidnen dasamaxsovreblad. Sinaarsis damaxinjeba sami saxis rekonstruqciu l process moicavda: • donis daweva (leveling) _ moTxrobis gamartiveba. • gamokveTa _ garkveuli detalebis gansakuTrebuli gaSuqeba. • asimilacia _ detalebis Secvla ise, rom isini ukeTes SesabamisobaSi mosuliyvnen sakuTar codnasTan. amrigad, cdis pi rebi ixsenebdnen moTxrobas da maTTvis ucnob sityvebs Tavisi kulturisTvis Cveuli sityvebiT cvlidnen: navi kanoes nacvlad, Tevzaoba _ selapebze nadirobis magivrad. bartletis cdis pirebi, aseve, xSirad cvlidnen moTxrobis Sinaarssac, raTa SeemcirebinaT zebunebrivi Zalebis Ses axeb frazebi, romelic maTi kulturisTvis ar iyo damaxasiaTebeli. miyvnen ra bertl etis kvals, Tanamedrove mkvlevrebma Seiswavles mexsierebis darRvevebis mravalfer ovneba, romelTac adgili aqvT mogonebis konstruqtuli procesebis gamoyenebis dros (Bergman & Roediger, 1999). magaliTad, mkvlevarTa erTma jgufma gamoavlina kanonz omiereba, romelsac „sapnis operis“ efeqti uwoda (Owens et al., 1979). erTi epizodi a m gamokvlevis masalidan: nensi mivida kokteilis wveulebaze. man mimoixeda oTaxSi, raTa iq myofni SeeTvali erebina. igi miuaxlovda Tavis profesors sasaubrod. man icoda rac unda eTqva misT vis, magram nerviulobda imaze, rac unda eTqva.

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169 stumarTa erTma jgufma Saradebis TamaSi daiwyo. nensi zeviT avida cota mosamagreb lad. koniaki ki kargi iyo, magram mas ar ainteresebda, Tu ras saubrobda iq stumr ebis nawili. cota xnis Semdeg, sakmarisiao, gadawyviya man da datova wveuleba. axla warmoidgineT rogor gansxvavebulad aRiqvamT am nawyvets, Tu Tqven cdis pirTa meore jgufSi aRmoCndebiT, romelTac winaswar es Sesavali waakiTxes: nensim gaRviZebisas isev sisuste igrZno da gaukvirda, marTla fexmZimed iyo Tu ar a. rogo unda uTxras profesors, rac dainaxa? axla xelaxla miubrundiT pirvel nawyvets da xelaxla waikiTxeT. cdis pirebisaTvis am winaityvaobis arsebobas Tu ararsebobas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs maTi mexs ierebisaTvis. rodesac sTxovT, moigonon Sinaarsi an icnon nawyvetebi, cdis pirebi , romelTac wakiTxuli aqvT Sesavalic da, aqedan gamomdinare, TavSi mosdiT „arasasur veli fexmZimobis“ sqema, ufro metad imas aRadgenen an icnoben, romelic nensis fexm Zimobas ukavSirdeba. cdis pirTa mier sqemis gamoyeneba iwvevs Sinaarsis Sesabami s da mosalodnel damaxinjebas. magram unda gvaxsovdes da es mniSvnelovania, rom r ogorc me 5 e TavSi, rodesac aRqmis iluziebze vsaubrobdiT, fsiqologebs procesebis normaluri operaciebis saCveneblad xSirad iseTi pirobebi da situaciebi mohyavT, romlebic Secdomebs iwveven. iseve, rogorc aRqmis iluziebi ar iwveven imas, rom k edelSi gaiaroT. aseve, mexsierebis iluziebi Zalian iSviaTad Tu SegiSliT xels yov eldRiur cxovrebasa da saqmianobaSi. mexsierebis es damaxinjebebi SegiZliaT ganix iloT, rogorc Cveulebriv, Zalian kargad momuSave procesTa Tanmdevi movlena. faqto brivad, Tqven umravles SemTxvevaSi garkveuli epizodis detalebis aRdgena arc ki g WirdebaT. movlenaTa arsis aRdgena ki rekonstruqciiTac mSvenivrad xerxdeba. cota vrclad SevexoT im Tvalsazriss, romlis mixedviTac, detalebis aRdgena yovelTvis ve r xerxdeba. imisaTvis, rom vnaxoT, rogor SeuZlia rekonstruqcia ganicados mexsier ebam imisaTvis, rom moergos mogonebis sagans Tu mizans, gamoviyenoT citatebis Se mTxveva. arc Tu iSviaTia SemTxveva, roca gindaT Tqveni sityva Tu moxseneba gaamd idroT sxvisi gamonaTqvamiT. Tqven, magaliTad, SeiZleba TqvaT: „gaixseneT, Cveni fs iqologiis profesori rom gveubneboda: „korelacia mizezobriobas ar niSnavso“. rodesac Tqven vinmes sityvidan citata mogyavT, Tqven arCevT aspeqtebs, romlebsac Tqveni mexsiereba

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170 rekonstruqcias ukeTebs. (Clark & Gerrig, 1990). Tqven SegiZliaT sityva sityviT m oiyvanoT is an misi dedaazri gadmosceT. am gadawyvetilebas Tqven Tqveni sityvida n gamomdinare iRebT. mkvlevrebma gviCvenes, rom mexsierebis gamoyeneba am mizneb is cvlasTan erTad icvleba. saidan viciT miznebi gavlenas axdens mexsierebaze cdi s pirebs aCvenebdnen wuTnaxevari xangrZliobis scenas videfilmidan da sTxovdnen d aemaxsiovrebinaT dialogi am filmidan. cdis pirebs 45 wuTi eZleodaT, rac sakmaris i iyo, rom yvela cdis pirs sakmaod zustad aRedgina dialogis teqsti. cdis pirebi or jgufad gayves. TiToeul students dialogis Sinaarsi sxva studentisTvis unda gad aeca, magram erT jgufs sTxovdnen es moTxroba maqsimalurad zusti yofiliyo (teqstT an axlos), xolo meore jgufs ki sTxovdnen, rac SeiZleba saintereso yofiliyo maTi monaTxrobi. is cdis pirebi, romlebsac hqondaT maqsimaluri sizustiT aRdgenis inst ruqcia, 99% is sizustiT, sityvasityviT aRadgendnen dialogs, maSin rodesac meore jgufis cdis pirebma dialogis mxolod 62% aRadgines. ramdenadac orive jgufis wevre bma daimaxsovres dialogis teqsti Zalian kargad, meore jgufma, ubralod, airCia, r om ufro saintereso iqneboda, Tu yvelafers ar uambobda sxvas (Wadi, Klark, 1993). es Sedegi gviCvenebs, rom Cveni Zalisxmeva, rom zustad aRvadginoT, damokidebuli a garemoebebze. Tu Sen Tvli, rom pasuxismgebeli xar imaze (valdebuli xar), rom z ustad moigono, ra moxda, Sen amas gaakeTeb _ obieqtur monacems waradgen an aRiar eb da ityvi, rom ar gaxsovs. zogierT cxovrebiseul situaciaSi, marTlac, sakmarisi a rac moxda, imis ubralo rekonstruqcia, metnaklebad zusti aRdgena. es Tqveni gad asawyvetia. magram arsebobs erTi sfero, sadac Tqven udao pasuxismgebloba gekisre baT ra moxda, imis sizusteze. ganvixiloT mowmis mexsiereba. mowmis mexsiereba mowme sasamarTloze debs fics „Tqvas simarTle da mxolod simarTle“. magram am TavSi Cv en vnaxavT, rom maxsiereba zusti iqneba Tu mcdari, damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor aris informacia aRbeWdili da emTxveva Tu ara aRdgenis pirobebi aRbeWvdis pirobe bs. ramdenadac fsiqologebma ician, rom adamianebma SeiZleba ver Tqvan „simarTle“, ma Sinac, rodesac es Zalian undaT,

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171 maT yuradReba gaamaxviles mowmis mexsierebaze da daiwyes Seswavla. mizani mizani a gamoZiebisTvis xelSewyoba da iseTi meTodis moZebna, romelic uzrunvelyofs mowmi s Cvenebis sizustes. am mimarTulebiT mniSvnelovani gamokvlevebi iyo Catarebuli e lizabet loftusis da misi kolegebis mier (Elizabeth Loftus et al., 1979, 1992). m isi gamokvlevis ZiriTadi daskvna is iyo, rom mowmis mexsiereba (Cveneba) Zalian advilad icvleboda Semdgomi informaciebis gavleniT. magaliTad, cdis pirebs uCvene bdnen films, sadac avtokatastrofa xdeboda _ ori manqana erTmaneTs ejaxeboda. cdi s pirebs sTxovdnen, ganesazRvraT manqanebis siCqare (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). mag ram cdis pirTa erT nawils kiTxvas Semdegnairad usvamdnen: „ra siCqare eqnebodaT ma nqanebs, rodesac Seejaxnen erTmaneTs?“ xolo cdis pirTa meore nawils ki ekiTxebodne n: „ra siCqariT moZraobdnen manqanebi, rodesac erTmaneTs Seexnen?“ pirvel SekiTxvaze cdis pirebis pasuxi saSualod 100km/sT iyo, xolo meore kiTxvaze ki _ 80km/sT. er Ti kviris Semdeg ki cdis pirebs ekiTxebodnen: „dainaxeT Camsxvreuli SuSebi?” sinamdv ileSi Camsxvreuli minebi filmSi ar iyo. miuxedavad amisa pirveli jgufis cdis pir Ta mesamedma aRniSna, rom dainaxa Camsxvreuli SiSis naWrebi, xolo meore jgufidan ki mxolod 14 % ma aRniSna, rom SuSebi dainaxa. amrigad movlenis Semdgom inform acias arsebiTi gavlena aqvs mowmis Cvenebaze. movlenis Semdgomma informaciam Sei Zleba daamaxinjos mowmis mexsiereba maSinac ki, rodesac cdis pirs gacnobierebuli aqvs, rom eqsperimentatori SeiZleba ecados mis SecdomaSi Seyvanas. cdis piri ve r axerxebs gaarCios Tavisi mexsierebis namdvili wyaro romelia; veRar xedavs gans xvavebas movlenasa da mis Semdgom informacias Soris (Johnson et al., 1993; Weing ardt et al., 1995). rogorc mosalodneli iyo, rodesac adamians ramdenjerme warudge nen mcdar informaciaa, igi swored am mcdar informacias ufro namdvilad miiCnevs ( Mitchell & Zaragoza, 1996). Tumca garkveuli winaaRmdegoba arsebobs am movlenis a xssniTi meqanizmebis dadgenaSi (Lindsay, 1993; Loftus, 1992; Schreiber & Sergent , 1998), tendencia mowmis Cvenebis Secvlisa Semdgomi informaciis gavleniT dadgen ilad iTvleba. es gamokvlevebi adastureben im azrs, rom Tqveni mexsiereba icvleba _ rekonstruqcias ganicdis warsuli gamocdilebis sxvadasxva elementebis gavleniT. Cven ganvixileT aRbeWvdis, Senaxvisa da aRdgenis bevri mniSvnelovani Tavisebure ba. bolos Cven ganvixilavT mexsierebis am funqciebis biologiur safuZvlebs.

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172 Sejameba mexsierebis ZiriTadi funqcia aris msgavsi gamocdilebis erTmaneTTan daka vSireba, raTa garemoSi ukeT gaverkveT. cnebebi mentalur kategoriebs warmoadgenen . prototipebi iqmneba mTel Cvens gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT kategoriis wevrebis Ca TvliT da, amdenad, yoveli axali wevris aRqmasTan erTad TviTonac icvleba. iqmneba erTgvari bazisuri done, romlis daxmarebiTac adamianebi ukeT axdenen kategorizac ias da ukeT gaiazreben movlenebs. sqemebsa da konceptualur CarCoebSi ukeT Cans g amocdilebis mozrdili monakveTebis kanonzomierebebi, vidre cnebebi. rodesac infor maciis zusti aRdgena ver xerxdeba, misi rekonstruqcia xdeba. rekonstruqciaze sqe ma axdens gavlenas. mecnierebma gviCvenes, rom mexsierebis gamoyeneba komunikaci is miznis cvlilebasTan erTad icvleba. mowmis Cveneba aucileblad moiTxovs zust me xsierebas, magram gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom igi mowyvladia damaxinjebebisadmi mo vlenis Semdgomi informaciis gavleniT. mexsierebis biologiuri aspeqtebi axla droa , rom gTxovoT, gaixsenoT is ricxvi, romelic Tqven mexsierebis Sesaxeb Tavis dawy ebisas unda dagemaxsovrebinaT. SegiZliaT moigonoT? ratom, ra mizniT CagitareT as eTi savarjiSo? ifiqreT im unaris biologiur safuZvlebze, romelic SesaZleblobas ga ZlevT, nebismieri informacia monaxoT da moigonoT. rogor akeTebT amas? aRbeWdva m exsierebaSi niSnavs Tqvens tvinSi garkveul cvlilebebs. Tu Tqven gindaT, rom es i nformacia, sul cota, am Tavis bolomde dagamaxsovrdeT, am cvlilebas permanentuli xasiaTi unda hqondes.. rodesme dagisvamT kiTxva Tqveni TavisTvis, Tu rogor aris es SesaZlebeli? Cveni Txovnis mizezi, dagemaxsovrebinaT nebismieri ricxvi, swore d es iyo, anu gagegoT, Tu raoden didi mniSvneloba aqvs biologias mexsierebisTvis . axla cota ufro Rrmad ganvixiloT es sakiTxi. engramis ZiebaSi modiT, gavixsenoT wignis dasawyisSi TqvenTvis mowdebuli testi, ufro zustad, SevamowmoT Tqveni mexsiereba. 37 xom is ricxvia, romlis damaxsovreb ac gTxoveT rogor unda ganvsazRvroT, Tqvens tvinSi sad aRibeWda igi? karl leSlim (Karl Lashly, 1929, 1950), romelmac Seqmna pirveli wigni

173 mexsierebis anatomiis Sesaxeb, es sakiTxi engramis _ tvinSi mexsierebis fizikuri warmomadgenlis _ Ziebas daukavSira. leSli virTagvebs aswavlida labirinTSi gavla s, Semdeg maTi tvinis calkeul nawilebs amokveTda xolme da amowmebda maT labirinT Si naswavl qcevas. leSlim daadgina, rom tvinis dazianebiT gamowveuli mexsierebis darRveva amokveTili qsovilis zomis proporciuli iyo. darRveva miT ufro Zlieri iy o, tvinis rac ufro didi nawili iyo dazianebuli. amave dros, mexsierebaze gavlena s ar axdenda is, Tu tvinis ra nawili iqneboda dazianebuli. leSlis mixedviT, engr ama tvinis erT konkretul ubanSi ki ar Tavsdeba, aramed mTel tvinze vrceldeba. le Slim ver SeZlo engramis lokalizacia imitom, rom martiv situaciaSi mexsierebis sx vadasxva forma erTdroulad monawileobs. labirinTis swavla moicavs sivrciT, mxedve lobiT da ynosviT gamRizianeblebs. neiromecnierebis mtkicebiT, rTuli, kompleqsuri informaciis daxsomeba ganawilebulia mraval neironul sistemaSi maSin, rodesac di skretuli codna calke gadamuSavdeba _ tvinis mxolod SezRudul ubnebSi lokalizirdeb a. (Markowitsch, 2000; Rolls, 2000). mexsiereba moicavs oTx ZiriTad nervul struq turas: • naTxemi – mniSvnelovan mexsierebisTvis, rols romelic TamaSobs ganmeorebas p roceduruli saWiroebs da mexsierebisTvis, klasikuri ganpirobebisTvis. • zoliani sxeuli – wina tvinis kompleqsuri struqtura. sa varaudo safuZvelia Cvevis Camoyalibebisa da „stimul reaqcia“ kavSirebis. • didi tvinis qerqi pasuxismgebelia sensoruli mexsierebis da SegrZnebebs Soris asociaciebis • nuSisebri saxelebis kompleqsi deklaraciul – pasuxismgebelia mexsierebaze, faqtebis, agreTve TariRebis, emociuri STabeWdilebebis daxsomebaze. tvinis sxva nawilebs, rogoricaa Talamusi, bazaluri winatvini da prefrontaluri korteqsi, agreTve, gaaCniaT saSualebebi mexsierebis s xvadasxva tipis formirebisTvis. • engrama (Engram) _ mexsierebis fizikuri kvali tvinSi. gamotovebulia bolo abzaci. amnezia

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174 1960 wels, sahaero Zalebis radarebis axalgazrda teqnikosi niki. a. saSineli dazi anebis msxverpli gaxda, ramac Zireulad Secvala misi cxovreba. niki ijda magidasT an, xolo misi mezobeli TamaSobda miniaturuli safarikao daSniT. Semdeg, moulodnel ad niki wamodga da Semotrialda – swored im dros, rodesac misma amxanagma moiqnia x mali. xmali moxvda nikis marjvena nestos da ganagrZo moZraoba marcxena tvinis mi marTulebiT. am SemTxvevam seriozulad daaziana niki. yvelaze mZime problema amnez ia, xangrZlivi droiT mexsierebis dakargva iyo. amneziis gamo niks yvelaferi aRqm isTanave aviwydeba. wignSi ramdenime abzacis wakiTxvis Semdeg pirveli winadadebe bi aRar axsovs. satelevizio gadacemidan azri ver gamoaqvs, sanam reklamis ganmav lobaSi aqtiurad ar moigonebs da gaimeorebs oriode wuTis win nanaxs. mecnierebi s argebloben nikis msgavsi pacientebiT, radgan „bunebriv eqsperimentad“ Tvlian aseT Se mTxvevebs. nikis msgavsi tvinis dazianebis adgilis dakavSirebam qcevis deficitTa n saSualeba misca mkvlevrebs daedginaT mexsierebis sxvadasxva formebis mimarTeba tvinis garkveul ubnebTan. Tavis mxriv, niks jer kidev axsovs moqmedebebi anu pr oceduruli mexsiereba ar aqvs darRveuli, Tumca, deklaraciuli mexsiereba aRar funq cionirebs. ase magaliTad, mas axsovs, rogor unda aurios sxvadasxva masala, magra m ar axsovs ra komponentebia am narevSi. eqsplicituri mexsierebis darRvevis es f aqtebi naTlad miuTiTeben imaze, rom eqsplicitur da implicitur mexsierebaSi tvini s gansxvavebuli ubnebia CarTuli. axla ganvixiloT mexsierebis sxva dayofa, romeli c SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos gansxvavebul anatomiur struqturasTan. gamokvlevebi s Sedegad aRmoCnda, romhipokampis dazianebis dros irRveva eqsplicituri mexsiereb a da ara implicituri (Squire, 1992) saidan viciT amneziis dros implicituri mexsi ereba daculia gamokvlevaTaHerT seriaSi monawileobdnen cdis pirebi, romelTac korsakovis sindromis (qronikuli alkoholizmi) Sedegad dazianebuli hqondaT hipokampusi. rogorc amneziis mqone pacientebis, ise janmrTelebis jgufs a wvdidnen sityvaTa mwkrivs da sTxovdnen, SeefasebinaT emociuri TavalsazrisiT, rom eli sityva moswondaT da romeli –ara. maTi mexsierebis Sesamowmeblad iyenebdnen or tests. erT SemTxvevaSi cdis

175 pirebs eZleodaT sityvis dasawyisi marcvali, romelic unda SeevsoT TavSi mosuli pi rvelive sityviT. (Sevsebis testi). meore testSi ki marcvali mimniSneblis rols Ta maSobda, radgan cdis pirs masze dayrdnobiT unda moegonebina Sesabamisi sityva wa kiTxuli mwkrividan (mimniSnebliT mogonebis testi). mimniSnebel testSi amneziis m qone pacientebi naklebs igonebdnen, vidre janmrTeli cdis pirebi, magram sityvis Sevsebis testSi pacientebis da janmrTelebis mexsierebis moculoba Tanabari iyo (G raf et al., 1984). es Sedegi imaze miuTiTebs, rom korsakovis sindromiT gamowveul i tvinis dazianeba gavlenas axdens eqsplicitur mexsierebaze, xolo implicitur mex sierebas ucvlelad tovebs. mecnierebma daadgines, rom es gavlena SeiZleba sakmaod xangrZlivi iyos (Cave & Squire, 1992). gamokvlevebiT implicituri mexsiereba 7 d Ris Semdeg gamovlinda. hipokampis mniSvnelovani dazianebis SemTxvevaSic implicit uri mexsiereba ar irRveva. is faqtebi, rom tvinis dazianebis zogierTi forma azia nebs eqsplicitur da ara implicitur mexsierebas, SesaZleblobas aZlevs fsiqologebs , amtkicon, rom mexsierebis es ori forma gansxvavebul kanonzomierebebs avlens ko direbisa da aRdgenis procesebSi. ganvixiloT, magaliTad, is gzebi, riTac adamiane bi amyareben asociaciebs iseT winadadebasTan, rogoricaa „medicina arCens enabluobas“. Cven ukve viciT zemoT moyvanili gamokvlevidan, rom amneziis mqone individebi iZenen codnas eqsplicituri cnobierebis gareSe, magram, aseve, SeuZliaT codnis SeZena sityvebs Soris asociaciuri kavSirebis Sesaxeb? er Ti pasuxi, romelic ukavSirdeba im individis monacemebs (Rajaram, Coslett, 2000), romlis inicialebicaa C.V. da romlis amneziac gamowveulia Sublis wilis nawilis, kerZod, medialuri temporaluri lobis dazianebiT, aris – „ara“. miuxedavad imisa, rom C. V. avlenda perceptualur implicitur mexsierebas, mas ar hqonda konceptualuri impl icituri mexsiereba. es Sedegi miuTiTebs imaze, rom eqsplicituri mexsierebis gare Se garkveuli tipis asociaciebis SeZena SeuZlebelia. am tipis gamokvlevebi SesaZl eblobas aZleven mecnierebs, ukeT Cawvdnen mexsierebis biologiur safuZvlebs da me xsierebis procesebis organizacias. tvinis suraTi fsiqologebma didi codna daagrov es anatomiasa da mexsierebas Soris kavSiris Sesaxeb, amneziis mqone individebze dakvirvebis gziT, magram tvinis

176 gadaRebis teqnikam SesaZlebeli gaxada janmrTeli cdis pirebis mexsierebis procese bis Seswavla (Niberg, Cabeza, 2000) (SegiZliaT gadaxedoT me 3 e Tavs, sadac saub aria gadaRebis teqnikis Sesaxeb). magaliTad, Pozitron Emission Tomografis (PET) saSualebiT endel tulvingma da misma kolegebma (Nyberg et al., 1996; Tulving et a l., 1994) daadgines, rom epizoduri informaciis kodirebisa da aRdgenis dros tvini s ori naxevarsfero gansxvavebuli aqtivobiT xasiaTdeba. es gamokvlevebi iseTivea, rogorc mexsierebis standartuli gamokvlevebi, im gansxvavebiT, rom kodirebisa da aRdgenis procesSi cdis pirTa sisxlis mimoqcevis skanireba xdeba PET iT. am gamo kvlevebSi gamovlinda tvinis Zlieri aqtivoba marcxena prefrontalur korteqsSi (ixi leT suraTi 8.14) epizoduri informaciis kodirebis dros, xolo marjvena prefrontalu r korteqsSi tvinis gaZlierebul aqtivobas adgili hqonda epizoduri informaciis aRd genis dros. amrigad, anatomiuri sxvaobac gamovlinda im konceptualuri sxvaobebis garda, romelic kogniturma fsiqologebma aRmoaCines. funqcionaluri magnituri rezon ansiT (fMRI) warmoebulma gamokvlevebmac gamoavlina mexsierebis operaciebis tvinS i ganawilebis mniSvnelovani detalebi (Gabrieli, 1996, 1997). saidan viciT tvini da kodirebis operaciebi magnituri rezonansiT gamokvlevis dros cdis pirebs mexsie rebis eqsperimentebi utardebodaT. maT proeqtoriT ekranze miewodebodaT sityvebi, romlebsac xedavdnen Tavs zemoT sarkeSi. cdis pirebs evalebodaT, TiToeuli sityvis Sesaxeb Tavisi azri gamoeTqvaT, kerZod, semantikuri xasiaTis: „es sityva, (magaliTad, „skami“ an „siyvaruli“) : abstaraqtulia, Tu konkretuli? an perceptuli xasiaTis: „es sityva, (magaliTad, „ndo ba“ an „wigni“) fanqriT aris dawerili, Tu melniT?“ funqcionaluri magnituri rezonansiT ga mokvlevam gviCvena, rom marcxena prefrontaluri qerqis midamoSi (frontaluri qerqi s aramotoruli ubani) ufro maRal aqtivacias aqvs adgili semantikuri kodirebis, vi dre perceptuli kodirebis SemTxvevaSi (Gabrieli et al., 1996). mecnierebi varaudo ben, rom qerqis am ubnis aqtivacias semantikuri kodireba iwvevs, marcxena naxeva rsferos metyvelebasTan kavSiris gamo. (ix. Tavi 3)

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177 ramdenime axali gamokvleva mieZRvna tvinis specifikuri regionebis Seswavlas, rom elTa aqtivacia axali mexsierebis Camoyalibebis dros xdeba. (Brewe et al., 1998, Wagner et al.,1998). am gamokvlevebSi cdis pirebs martivad unda SeefasebinaT sit yvebi an siuJetebi (scenebi). (magaliTad, eTqvaT, abstraqtulia Tu konkretuli esa Tu is sityva). am amocanis Sesrulebis dros cdis pirebs skanirebas ukeTebdnen ma gnituri rezonansiT, raTa gamoevlinaT tvinis aqtivobis ubnebi. skanirebam gasaoca ri ram uCvena: prefrontaluri qerqis da parahipokampuli (hipokampTan axlos mdebar e) qerqis is ubnebi iyo ukeT ganaTebuli, romelTa Sesabamisi sityvebis Tu siuJete bis Sefaseba cdis pirebma ukeT SeZles. am axal gamokvlevebSi gamoCnda mexsierebi s SemuSavebis pirveli periodis biologiuri safuZvlebi. skanirebis Sedegebi gviCve neben, rom sxvadasxva disciplinis mecnierebma erTad unda imuSaon, raTa bolomde k argad Cawvdnen mexsierebis procesebis kanonzomierebebs. fsiqologebi adamianis me xsierebis Sesaxeb monacemebs moipoveben, rac Semdgom neirofsiqologebisTvis masal aa Sesabamisi tvinis struqturebis aRmosaCenad. amave dros, fiziologebis monaceme bi koreqcias ukeTeben fsiqologiur Teoriebs informaciis kodirebis, Senaxvisa da a Rdgenis Sesaxeb. am sferoSi momuSave mecnierebi saerTo ZalisxmeviT uzrunvelyofen did warmatebebs mexsierebis procesebis kvlevaSi. Sejameba karl leSlim, romelic pirveli iyo, vinc engramebis Zieba daiwyo, aRmoaCina, rom mexsiereba mTel tvins moicavs. tvinis mravali struqturaa CarTuli swavlisa da mexsierebis procesebSi. a mniziis mqone pacientebze gamokvlevebma daamtkica, rom implicituri da eqsplicitu ri procesebis ganxorcielebaSi gansxvavebuli struqturebi monawileoben. tvinis ska nirebis teqnika SesaZleblobas iZleva ganisazRvros janmrTel adamianTan mexsierebi s procesTa biologiuri safuZvlebi. sur. 8.1. ebinghausis daviwyebis mrudi mrudze gamosaxulia uazro marcvalTa daxsomebis raodenoba individTa mier ekonomiis meTodis gamoyenebiT 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi. mrudi swrafad eSveba qveviT da Semdeg daaxloebiT erT doneze Cerdeba sur. .8.2

178 Tu baWia uceb gadmoxteba magididan da Tqven gaifiqrebT „ra unda baWias samzareuloS i?“ amis mizezi Tqveni mexsierebis procesebis mier samzareulos situaciis aracnobie ri gadamuSavebaa, romelic baWiassamzareulosTvis zedmet elementad miiCnevs. sur. 8.5. mogoneba nawilobrivi aRdgenis meTodiT uwyveti mrudi gviCvenebs nawilob rivi aRdgenis meTodiT daxsomebuli masalis saSualo raodenobas, rogorc uSualod miw odebis Semdeg, aseve mogvianebiT. SedarebisTvis, wyvetili xaziT mocemulia masali s mogoneba sruli aRdgenis meTodiT. (sperlingi. 1960) gv. 221 suraTi → sensoruli mexsiereba → muSa mexsiereba xangrZlivi mexsiereba moicavs xanmokle mexsierebas ← sur. 8.3. informaciis gadasvla xangrZliv mexsierebaSi da misi aRdgena aRdgena mexsierebis TeoriebSi aRwerilia informaciis gadasvla xangrliv mexsierebaSi da iq idan misi cnobierebaSi amotana Tu gamoyeneba. TeoriebSi informaciis Tavdapirveli aRbeWvda miewereba sensorul da xangrZliv mexsierebas. informaciis gadasvla xang rZliv mexsierebaSi Senaxvas, xolo informaciis gadmosvla ukan muSa mexsierebaSi aRdgenas. sur. 8.4. ramdens daixsomebT am scenidan? aTi wamis ganmavlobaSi uyureT am naxats, Semdeg furceli daafareT da ecadeT upasu xoT teqstSi dasmul SekiTxvebs. Cveulebriv, xatiseburi mexsiereba mxedvelobiTi ve lidan mcire xniT mxolod wamier xats inaxavs. sur. 8.6. xanmokle mexsiereba ganmeorebis gareSe rodesac intervali stimulis miwodebasa da aRdgenas Soris sxva amocanit aris Sevse buli (distraqtoriT) mexsierebis moculoba mcirdeba, ramdenadac intervali izrdeba. gv. 227, sur. ratom aris informaciis aRdgena xanmokle mexsierebidan biblioTekaSi wignis monaxvis analogiuri? gv. 229, sur.

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179 rodesac quCaSi moZraobis wesebis darRvevis semdeg SexvdebiT am kacs, ratom ver c nobT, rom mas xom wveulebaze SexvdiT. sur. 8.7. mwkrivSi adgilmdebareobis efeqti am naxatze naCvenebia adgilmdebareobis efeqtis ganzogadebuli suraTi studentebs T xoven moigonon sityvaTa sxvadasxva sigrZis _ 6, 10 da 15 sityvisgan Semdgari mwk rivebi an igive TanmimdevrobiT, rogorc iyo miwodebuli, an Tavisufali mogonebis w esiT (aRadgineT, ramdeni sityvac SegiZliaT ). TiToeuli mrudi gviCvenebs, rom rog orc dasawyisis(daswyisis efeqti) ise bolo nawilis daxsomeba (daboloebis efeqti)u keT xdeba. sur. 8.8 konteqstis mixedviT gansxvaveba Tqven SegiZliaT Tqvens mexsierebaSi inf ormacia matareblis liandagis msgavsad warmoidginoT. A nawilis analogiurad, SegiZ liaT ifiqroT, rom didi xnis win Tqvens mexsierebaSi Semosuli informacia erTmaneT zea mWidrod miwyobili, rogorc moSorebiT ganlagebuli liandagis „Spalebi“. B nawilSi k i vxedavT, rom am efeqtis acilebis erT erTi gza aris adre miRebuli es „Spalebi“ erTm aneTisgan dacilebulad ganvalagoT, ise, rom proporciulad iyvnen erTmaneTisgan daS orebulni. aseve, SegiZliaT Zveli informacia gamokveToT fsiqologiurad gansxvavebu li mniSvnelobebis miniWebis gziT. gv. 233, sur. pirovnulad mniSvnelovani movlene bi, magaliTad, wlebis manZilze unaxav megobartan Sexvedra, epizoduri mexsierebis kuTvnilebaa. semantikuri mexsierebidan romeli informacia seedreba am SexvedriT gamowveul sixaruls? sur. 8.9. implicituri mexsierebis testze praimingi praimingi gviCvenebs sxvadasxva amocanebiT sakontrolo sityvebze manipulaciebis dros gavle nis. zogierTi implicituri testiT SesaZlebelia gamovlena. praimingis kviraze meti xnis Semdeg sur. 8.10. lokusis meTodi lokusis meTodSi Tqven akavSirebT dasamaxsovrebel sityvas (magaliTad sayidlebis s iidan) nacnob adgilebTan (magaliTad institutidan saxlisken mimaval gzaze. sur. .8.11

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180 A. B. prototipuli saxe da calkeuli saxeebi prototipebis, Zveli saxeebis da axali saxee bis prototipuli Sefaseba, (A) saxis 75 % emTxveva prototips, 50% aqvs gansxvavebuli Tmebi da Tvalebi, 25% s mxolod Tvalebi aqvs saerTo, dabolos, 0 % aqvs saerTo prototipTan. cdis pirebs Txoven Seafason, aqfT Tu ara nanaxi adre es saxe. yvelaze maRali da rwmunebulobis xarisxi aris prototipis mimarT, romelic adre arasodes unaxavT. daa xloebiT Tanabaria darwmunebulobis xarisxi adre mamaxi saxeebis mimarT. axali sax eebis SemTxvevaSi cdis pirTa darwmunebulobis xarisxi klebulobda prototipisgan mi si msgavsebis semcirebasTan ertad. sur. 8.12. cnebaTa ierarqiulad organizebuli struqtura kategoria cxoveli SeiZleba daiyos Semdgom qvekategoriebad, rogoricaa Tevzi, frinveli da Tevzi TiToeuli qve kategoria SeiZleba kidev daiyos. zogierTi informacia(aqvs kani gaaCnia iererqiis yvela dones. sxva informacia, magaliTad, (SeuZlia simRera) mxolod dabali donis cnebebs SeiZleba hqondes (magaliTad, iadons). sakvanZo sakiTxebi ra aris mexsier eba • kognituri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi ganixilaven mexsierebas, rogorc inform aciis gadamuSavebis process. • mexsiereba, romelic moiTxovs cnobier Zalisxmevas, a ris eqsplicituri. aracnobieri mexsiereba implicituria. • deklaraciuli mexsiereba u zrunvelyofs faqtebis daxsomebas. proceduruli mexsiereba ki uzrunvelhyofs unarebi s SemuSavebas. • mexsierebas xSirad ganixilaven, rogorc kodirebis, Senaxvis da aRd genis samsafexurian process. sensoruli mexsiereba • sensoruli mexsierebis sistema didi moculobis, magram Zalian mcire xangrZliobisaa. • xatiseburi mexsiereba wamebis ganmavlobaSi aCerebs mxedvelobiT v els. • eqo mexsiereba inaxavs smeniT gamRizianeblebs.

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181 xanmokle mexsiereba da muSa mexsiereba • xanmokle mexsierebas SezRuduli moculoba a qvs da swrafadve qreba ganmeorebis SesaZlebelobis ararsebobis pirobebSi. • ganmeoreba aCerebs masalas xan mokle mexsierebaSi. • xanmokle mexsierebis moculoba SeiZleba gaizardos dasaxsomebe li wevrebis azrian jgufebad dalagebis Sedegad. • aRdgenis procesi xanmokle mexsier ebidan efeqturad xorcieldeba. • muSa mexsierebis farTo gageba xanmokle mexsierebas moicavs. • muSa mexsierebis sami komponenti xels uwyobs gare samyarodan gamocdilebis yovelwuTier asaxvas. xangrZlivi mexsiereba. kodireba da aRdgena. • xa ngrZlivi mexsiereba moicavs Tqvens srul codnas samyarosa da Tqveni Tavis Sesaxeb . igi TiTqmis ganusaRvreli • Tqveni gaxsenebis unaris pirobaa moculobisaa. da aRdg enis pirobebis kodirebisa damTxveva. • swavlisa da aRdgenis konteqstebs Soris damTxveva ganapirobebs aRdgena s. • adgilmdeareobis gansxvavebiT. • mogonebis mimniSneblebi xels uwyoben xangrZliv mexsierebaSi informaciis moZebnas. • epizodur mexsierebas iseTi movlenebis daxsome basTan aqvs saqme, romlebic pirovnebis subieqtur gamocdilebaSi monawileobdnen. s emantikuri mexsiereba sityvebisa da cnebebis arsebiTi mniSvnelobebis Sesaxeb mex sierebaa. • interferencias adgili aqvs, rodesac mimniSneblebs mxolod Sesabamis mru dis Tavisebureba aixsneba konteqstebs Soris informaciasTan (mexsierebasTan) ar mivyavarT. • rac ufro Rrmad aris gadamuSavebuli informacia, miT ukeTesia daxsomeba. • implicituri mexsierebisTvis mniSvneloba aqv s, rom kodirebis da aRdgenis procesebi msgavsi iyos. • mexsiereba • Cveulebriv, SeiZ leba gaviumjobesoT gadamamuSavebeli ganmeorebiT da mnemonikuri xerxebiT. darwmunebulobis gancdas zustad SeuZlia mexsierebaSi informaciis arsebobis winaswarmetyveleba. xangrZlivi mexsierebis struqturebi

182 • cnebebi aris azrovnebisTvis mexsierebis saSeni agurebi (masala). maTi Camoyalibeba xdeba, rodesac mexsierebaSi Camoyalibdeba saerTo niSnebis mqone obi eqtebis an azrTa jgufebi. • prototipi warmoadgens cnebis saSualo ekzempliars. • cneb ebi xSirad ierarqiulad arian dalagebulni zogadidan kerZosaken. • sqema ufro zogadi kognituri klasteria. • mexsierebis yvela es zogadi struqtura gamoiyeneba axali in formaciis molodinebisa da interpretaciis konteqstisTvis. • mogoneba mxolod angariS i ar aris, igi rekonstruqciuli da seleqciuri procesia. • wina gamocdileba da mizne bi gavlenas axdens mogonebaze. • axalma informaciam SeiZleba Secvalos mogoneba da amiT mowmis Cveneba arasando gaxados, Tu mas axali movlenis Semdgomi informacia Seereva. mexsierebis biologiuri aspeqtebi • tvinis gansxvavebuli struqturebi (hipo kampis, amigdalas, cerebelumis da cerebruli korteqsis CarTviT) monawileoben sxva dasva tipis mexsierebaSi. • eqsperimentebi amneziis mqone pacientebze daexmara mkv levrebs imis garkvevaSi, Tu rogor xdeba gansxvavebuli tipis mexsierebis Camoyalibeba da tvinS i maTi ganawileba. • tvinis skanirebis teqnikam udidesi roli Seasrula mexsierebis kodirebis da aRdgenis procesebSi tvinis monawileobis Sesaxeb codnis mopovebaSi. ZiriTadi cnebebi amnezia bazisuri done dajgufeba cnebebi konteqstis mixedviT gan sxvaveba deklaraciuli mexsiereba eqo mexsiereba gadamamuSavebeli ganmeoreba kodi reba kodirebis specifikuroba engrama epizoduri mexsiereba mexsierebis eqsplicitu ri gamoyeneba xatiseburi mexsiereba mexsierebis implicituri gamoyeneba interfere ncia gadamuSavebis doneebis Teoria xangrZlivi mexsiereba

183 mexsiereba metamexsiereba mnemonika dasawyisis efeqti praimingi procedurulki mex siereba prototipi mogoneba mwkrivis daboloebiis efeqti cnoba rekonstruqciuli mex siereba aRdgena mimniSneblebi sqemebi semantikuri mexsiereba sensoruli mexsiereb a adgilmdebareobis efeqti xanmokle mexsiereba sacavi gadatanis Sesabamisi gadamu Saveba muSa mexsiereba Tavi 9. kognituri procesebi • kognituri procesebis Seswavla − − fsiqikuri procesebis aRmoCena fsiqikuri procesebi da fsiqikuri resursebi • metyveleba − − − eqspresiuli metyveleba impresiuli metyveleba metyveleba, azrovneba da kultura • fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: SeuZliaT Tu ara cxovelebs enis Seswavla? • vizualuri Semecneba − − vizualuri reprezentaciebis gamoyeneba verbaluri da vizualuri reprezentaciebis ko mbinireba • problemis gadaWra da azrovneba − − − problemis gadaWra deduqciuri azrovneba induqciuri azrovneba

184 • fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: eqspert sistemebi da medicina • gadawyvetilebis miReba − − evristika da msjeloba gadawyvetilebis miRebis fsiqologia • sakvanZo sakiTxebi − ZiriTadi cnebebi

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185 rodesac TojiniT vTamaSobdi, misis salivanma [elen keleris maswavlebeli] xelze da mawera sityva `T o j i n a~ (doll). me damainteresa TiTebis am TamaSma da Seveca de gamemeorebina... me ar vicodi, rom vambobdi sityvas, saerTod ar vicodi, rom s ityva arsebobs, me ubralod TiTebiT vTamaSobdi. erTxel, rodesac axali TojiniT vTamaSobdi, misis salivanma aiRo Cemi Zveli Tojina , Camisva kalTaSi da aso aso miTxra `T o j i n a~ da Seecada mivexvedrebine, rom orive `T o j i n a~ iyo. manamde, cota xniT adre, veWidavebodiT sityvebs `t a l a x i~ da `w y a l i~. misis salivani cdilobda, mi vexvedrebine, rom `t a l a x i~ aris talaxi da `w y a l i~ aris wyali, magram me kvlav mereoda es ori . . . Cven mivuyvebodiT biliks saxlis garSemo da vtkbebodi T mcenaris mcenaris surneliT, romelic saxlis kedlebs faravda. viRac wyals avsebd a. Cemma maswavlebelma xeli wylis nakadSi Camayofina. roca erT xelze civi wylis nak adi Semexo, man meore xelis gulze damawera sityva `wyali~ jer nela, Semdeg ufro swrafad. me wynarad vijeqi da mTeli gulisyuriT SevigrZnobdi misis salivanis TiTe bis moZraobas. uecrad dameufla bundovani amaRelvebeli gancda, TiTqos raRac daviw yebuli brundeboda; da rogorRac enis saidumlos farda aexada. maSin mivxvdi, rom ` w y a l i~ aris is mSvenieri grili raRac, xelebze rom mexeboda. am cocxalma sity vam gamoafxizla Cemi suli, mianiWa mas sinaTle, imedi, sixaruli da Tavisufleba. Tumca, siZneleebi amiT ar dasrulebula, magram es siZneleebi ukve advilad gvardeb oda. es saxli swavlis dauokebeli surviliT davtove. ukve yvelafers hqonda Tavisi saxeli da TiToeuli axal azrs Sobda. saxlSi dabrunebisas yvela sagani, romelsac k i vexebodi, sicocxliT iyo gamsWvaluli (Keller, 1902/1990, gv.15 16). elen keleris avtobiografiis `Cemi cxovrebis ambavi~ am nawyvetSi avtori aRwers e nisa da azris gamoRviZebis mniSvnelovan detalebs. erTi wlis asakSi elenma gadait ana gaurkveveli daavadeba, romlis Sedegadac man dakarga mxedveloba da smena. sam i TviT adre, sanam mas Svidi weli Seusruldeboda, mis cxovrebaSi gaCnda ana saliv ani _ misi maswavlebeli. salivanma SesZlo SeWriliyo keleris wyvdiadSi da, rogorc avtori aRniSnavs, saSualeba misca gamoecada `azris dabrunebasTan dakavSirebuli mRelvareba.~ • kognituri procesebi (Cognitive processes) – iseTi umaRlesi fsiqikuri procesebi, rogoricaa aRqma, mexsiereba, metyveleba, problemis gadawyveta da

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186 abstraqtuli azrovneba. • Semecneba (Cognition) – codnis SeZenis procesi, romelic moi cavs yuradRebis miqcevas, gaxsenebas, azrovnebas; aseve, gulisxmobs cnebebs da S TabeWdilebebs. • kognituri fsiqologia (Cognitive Psychology) – mecniereba, romelic S eiswavlis fsiqologia umaRles • kognituri fsiqikur procesebs – yuradRebas, enis gamoy enebas, aRqmas, problemis gadaWras da azrovnebas. mecniereba (Cognitive science) – informaciis gadamuSavebis procesebis Sinaarss: procesebisa da sistemebis kvlevis interdisciplinaruli sfero. Tqven, albaT, arasd ros dagWirvebiaT ase cxadad aRgeqvaT sakuTari procesebi. kognituri procesebi es procesebi, rogorc wesi, cnobier mdgomareobaSi ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobs, magram adamianisaTvis SeumCneveli rCeba. miuxedavad a misa, metyvelebisa da abstraqtuli azrovnebis unars xSirad ganixilaven, rogorc ad amianuri yofis arss ipyrobs ramodenime (arsebiT Tqvens niSans). guls, an Tumca, roca kargad Camoyalibebuli istoriaSi moxseneba rodesac deteqtiur gaxsnis gamomZiebeli samxilze awyobs danaSaulis virtuozul logikas, Cven vacnobierebT SemecnebiTi aqtiobis inteleqtualur triumfs. termini Semecneba aerTianebs SemecnebiTi procesebis yvela formas. rogorc 9.1 su raTzea naCvenebi, kognituri procesebis Seswavla gulisxmobs adamianis fsiqikuri c xovrebis Seswavlas (me 5 e TavSi ganxilulia 9.1 suraTze aRwerili zogierTi sakiTx i). kognicia (Semecneba) aerTianebs rogorc Sinaarsebs, ise procesebs. SinaarsebS i moiazreba is, rac Tqven iciT _ cnebebi, faqtebi, wesebi, mogonebebi: `ZaRli Zu Zumwovaria~, "wiTeli sinaTle niSnavs `sdeq~ s~, `saxlidan wavedi 18 wlis asakSi~ . kognituri procesebis saSualebiT Tqven manipulirebT im fsiqikuri SinaarsebiT, d ilemebis romlebic dros gare samyaros interpretaciisa da cxovrebiseuli fsiqologia Si racionaluri gadawyvetilebis miRebis saSualebas gaZlevT. Semecnebas kognituri fsiqologiis specialistebi Seiswavlian. bolo sami aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi kognitur fsiqologiasTan erTad am sakiTxebze muS aobdnen ukve axali interdisciplinaruli sferos _ kognituri mecnierebis warmomadge nlebic. (ix. sur. 9.2). kognituri mecniereba fokusirebulia garSemo sxvadasxva mo mijnave sferoebSi am erTi sferos da igive sakiTxis arsebul codnaze. TiToeuli war momadgenlebs SesaZlebloba aqvT, gauziaron erTmaneTs monacemebi da aRmoCenebi. me 8 e TavSi

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187 Tqven naxeT, Tu rogoraa SesaZlebeli, mexsierebis biologiuri safuZvlebis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva kvlevebis gamoyenebiT, mexsierebis Teoriebis daxvewa: kognituri mecnierebis arsi kargad gamoCnda muSaobis procesSi. Teoriebis umravles oba, romelsac winamdebare TavSi ganvixilavT, Seqmnilia sxvadasxva momijnave spec ialistebis urTieTTanamSromlobis Sedegad. Semecnebis Seswavlas daviwyebT kognitur i procesebis kvlevis mokle aRweriT _ rogor cdiloben mkvlevarebi gazomon kogniuri funqcionirebis Sinagani pr ocesebi. Semdeg Cven ganvixilavT kognituri fsiqologiis kvlevis ZiriTad sakiTxebs , romlebsac praqtikuli gadaWra, gamoyeneba azrovneba, aqvT: metyveleba, da vizualuri Semecneba, problemis msjeloba gadawyvetilebis miReba. sur. 9.1. kognituri fsiqologiis sfero kognituri fsiqologebi Seiswavlian umaRlesi fsiqikuri funqciebis Semdeg sakiTxebs : rogor xdeba adamianis mier codnis SeZena da am codnis gamoyeneba garemos gageb isa da gardaqmnis mizniT. sur. 9.2. kognituri mecnierebis sfero kognituri lingvistikis, mecniereba kognituri warmoadgens fsiqologiis filosofiis, da neiromecnierebis, mecnierebis kompiuteruli (xelovnuri inteleqtis) rTul kombinacias. kognituri procesebis Seswavla rogor SeiZleba Semecnebis Seswavla? pirveli, rac T avSi mogivaT, aris is, rom kognituri procesebi Tavis tvinTanaa dakavSirebuli. Tq ven SegiZliaT dainaxoT Sesuli informacia, mag. fraza: `damireke~ da daakvirdeT S edegs _ darekes; magram rogor SegiZliaT moaxdinoT im moqmedebebis identifikacia, romlebic akavSirebs frazas Tqvens reaqciasTan? rogor SegiZliaT gaigoT, ra moxda am SualedSi _ romeli kognituri procesebisa da fsiqikuri reprezentaciebis aqtivacias efuZneba Tqveni reaqcia? am TavSi aRwerilia logikuri analizis is tipebi, romelTa safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli gaxda kognituri fsiqologiis mecnieruli Seswavla. fsiqikuri procesebis aRmoCena fsiqikuri procesebis Seswavl is erT erTi ZiriTadi meTodologia Seiqmna 1868 wels holandieli fsiqologis f. dond ersis (F.C. Donders) mier. `fsiqikuri procesebis siswrafis~ Seswavlis mizniT don dersma Seqmna eqsperimentuli

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188 davalebebi, romlTa warmatebiT Sesrulebis dros SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda gonebrivi sa fexurebis gamoyofa (Lachman et al., 1979). cxrilSi 9.1 mocemulia eqsperimenti, r omelSic daculia dondersis logika. sanam kiTxvas gaagrZelebdeT, gTxovT, SeasruloT TiToeuli davaleba. cxrili 9.1. dondersis fsiqikuri procesebis analizi (qarTuli varianti) fsiqikuri CainiSneT TiToeul davalebaze daxarjuli dro (wamebSi). davale bebi SeasruleT mocemuli TanmimdevrobiT. imuSaveT SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad. davaleba 1: yvela didad daweril asos daawereT Tavze “s” iyo ar beTs rost an, me e RmrT aga s ani, o arabeTs ost ostevan, mefe RmrTisaga sviani, agan maRali, bali, Sqa Sqar avali ymiani ma ali, uxvi, md ba i, laSqa mravali ym ni vi, mdaba Ddro:

davaleba 2: didad daweril xmovnebs daawereT Tavze “v”, xolo didad daweril Tanxmovnebs “s” iyo ar beTs rost an, me e RmrT aga s ani, o arabeTs ost oste van, mefe RmrTisaga sviani, agan maRali, bali, Sq avali ymiani Sqa ma ali, uxv i, md ba i, laSqar mravali ym ni vi, mdaba Ddro: davaleba 3: yvela didad daweril asos daawereT Tavze “v” iyo ar beTs rost an, me e RmrT aga s ani, o arabeTs ost ostevan, mefe RmrTisaga sviani, agan maRali, bali, Sqa Sqar avali ymiani ma ali, uxvi, md ba i, laSqa mravali ym ni D vi, mdaba dro:

ramdeni xani dagWirdaTEpirveli davalebis Sesasruleblad? warmoidgineT, rom Tqven unda CamoTvaloT safexurebi, romlebic gaiareT davalebis Sesasruleblad. CamonaTval i daaxloebiT aseTi iqneba: a. gansazRvreT, niSani didia Tu patara. b. Tu didia, daawereT Tavze “s”. ramdeni xani dagWirdaT meore davalebis Sesasruleblad? am savarjiSos Sesasrulebla d studentebis umravlesobas naxevari wuTiT meti an kidev ufro meti dro sWirdebaT. es gasagebi gaxdeba, rogorc ki aucilebel safexurebs CamovTvliT: a. gansazRvreT niSani _ didia Tu patara; b. gansazRvreT didi aso _ xmovania Tu T anxmovani g. Tu Tanxmovania, daawereT Tavze “s”, Tu xmovania, daawereT “v”; amgvarad, pirveli davalebidan meoreze gadasvlisas Cven davamateT ori gonebrivi s afexuri, romlebic SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT rogorc stimulTa kategorizacia (xmovani Tu Tanxmovani?) da pasuxis arCeva (v s dawera Tu s s

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189 dawera?). pirveli davaleba moiTxovs stimulTa kategorizaciis erT safexurs, meore davaleba ki pasuxs meore Soris _ aseTi kategorizaciis or safexurs da, agreTve, o r gakeTebas. radganac meti droa meore davalebaSi es iyo yvelafris dondersis (ope racia) aucilebeli davalebis arCevanis gakeTeba giwevT, rac pirvel davalebaSi gaakeTeT da kidev metis, amitomac davaleb is SesrulebisaTvis arsi: davaleba. saWiro. mosazrebis SemovitaneT proceduraa. ZiriTadi mesame Cven damatebiTi es gonebrivi safexuri Catarebis da meore yovelTvis met dros saWiroebs SesrulebisTvis. albaT, gainteresebT, ratom eqsperim entis rom pirveli unda davrwmundeT, Sesrulebaze daxarjul droebs Soris sxvaoba ar aris ganpirobebuli imiT, rom v–s dawe ras sWirdeba meti dro, vidre s–s daweras. mesame davalebas ufro naklebi dro unda s Wirdebodes, vidre meores. (Tqvens SemTxvevaSic ase iyo? ara?) Tavdapirvelad dond erss imedi hqonda, rom Tavis proceduras gamoiyenebda sxvadasxva fsiqikuri proces ebis xangrZlivobis zusti SefasebisaTvis. misi meTodis gamoyenebiT Tqven SegeZloT , gamogekloT pirveli davalebis SesrulebisaTvis daxarjuli dro meore davalebaze daxarjuli droisaTvis da gangesazR vraT stumulis kategorizaciisa da pasuxis arCevisTvis saWiro dro. Tu Tqven Seqmni T davalebas, romelic saWiroebs mxolod stimulis kategorizacias (xolo pasuxis arCeva ar iqneba saWiro, rogorc es dondersma gaakeT a), maSin Tqven SegiZliaT mianiWoT ricxvebi _ drois xangrZlivoba _ calkeul proce ss. amgvarad, SesaZloa, stimulis kategorizacias sWirdebodes 100 milisekundi (wam is measedi), xolo pasuxis arCevas _ 150 miliwami. kognitur fsiqologiaSi momuSave specialistebi aRar iyeneben gamoklebis meTods, radganac nebismieri Tumca, iyene ben sWirdeba procesisaTvis mkvlevarebi saWiro mihyvebian dro damokidebulia ZiriT ad davalebis logikas. romelic detalebze. isini cdis xSirad pirs dondersis reaqciis dros _ drois xangrZlivobas, Sesasruleblad.

konkretuli davalebis dondersis ZiriTadi debuleba, rom damatebiTi fsiqikuri procesi saWiroebs damatebi T dros, kvlav fundamentur wanamZRvars warmoadgens kognituri fsiqologiaSi Catareb ul kvlevaTa umetesobaSi. vnaxoT, rogor ganviTarda es mosazreba ukanaskneli 130 w lis ganmavlobaSi. sur. 9.3 umaRlesi kognituri procesebis analizi

190 kognituri fsiqologebi cdiloben gansazRvron im fsiqikuri procesebis identuroba da organizacia, romlebic umaRlesi kognituri procesebis (maRali donis kognituri aqt ivobebis) saSen masalas warmoadgenen. A) dondersis davalebis avtoriseuli versia moiTxovs, rom, sul cota, 3 procesi Tanmimdevrulad ganxorcieldes. B) zogierTi procesi mimdinareobs seriulad anu Tanmimdevrulad; zogierTi ki erTdroulad, erTmaneTis paralelurad. C) davalebis Sesrulebaze daxarjuli dro yovelTvis ar aZlevs mkvlevarebs saSualebas, gansazRvron procesebis paraleluri Tu seriuli mimdinareob a. A) dondersis davaleba didi aso? → → Tanxmovani Tu xmovani? s Tu v? ______________________________dro_____________________________→ B) seriuli da para leluri procesebi procesi A→ procesi B → procesi C procesi A procesi B procesi C ___________________________dro________________________________→ C. seriuli da para leluri procesebis droSi Tanxvedra. procesi X procesi Y

191 procesi X procesi Y _____________________________dro__________________________ _____→

fsiqikuri procesebi da resursebi kognitur fsiqologiaSi momuSave specialistebis m ier iseTi umaRlesi kognituri procesebis Semadgenel komponentebad (calkeul procesebad) daSla, rogori caa metyveleba da problemis gadaWra, kubebiT TamaSs waagavs. TiToeuli kubi warmo adgens gansxvavebul komponents (process, romlis ganxorcielebac unda moxdes). aqt ivobis mizania gansazRvros TiToeuli kubis forma da zoma da kubebi ise moargos er TmaneTs, rom mTliani procesi ganxorcieldes. dondersis davalebebSi Tqven naxavT, rom kubebi SeiZleba daewyos mwkrivSi (ix. sur. 9.3. nawili A). erT safexurs pird apir mohyveba meore. rom kubebis metaforuli ramdenime gamoyeneba saSualebas gvaZlevs, davinaxoT, SesaZlebelia procesis erTdrouli mimdinareoba (nawili B). es ori suraTi warmoagens me 5 e TavS i aRweril seriul da paralelur rigSi xolo procesebs yvela Zieba Soris gansxvavebi s ilustracias. Tqven xedavT, rom vizualuri Zieba zogierT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba wari marTos SesaZlbelia miyolebiT. procesebis paraleluri Tu seriuli mimdinareobis ide ntifikaciis mizniT fsiqologebi xSirad iyeneben reaqciis dros. Tumca 9. 3 suraTis me 3 e nawilSi mocemuli magaliTi dagarwmunebT, rom es meTodi yovelTvis ar amarT lebs. warmoidgineT, rom gvaqvs davaleba, romelic, savaraudod, moicavs or process . Tu Cven gvecodineba mxolod am procesebis mimdinareobis ganvsazRvravT maTi mimd inareobis specifikas zustad dro, verasodes ar viqnebiT paralelurad erTdroulad, _ mocemuli sxva tipis elementis moiTxovs Semowmeba TiToeuli elementis seriul gadamuSavebas. Semowmeba unda moxdes cal calke, erTi meoris anu darwmunebulni, Tanmimdevrulad mimdinareobs es ori procesi TuU erTdroulad. kognit uri fsiqologiis kvlevis erT erT mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens davalebis ise Ti pirobebis gansazRvros Seqmna, uamravi romlebic SesaZlo saSualebas miscemen bl okebis eqsperimentators, konfiguraciidan swori varinti. savarjiSos meore davalebaSi (romelic Tqven axlaxans gaakeTeT) Cve n SegviZlia darwmunebulebi viyoT, rom procesebi seriulia, radgan erTi aqtivoba T anmimdevrulad moiTxovs Semdeg aqtivobas. magaliTad, Tqven ar

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193 SegiZliaT moaxdinoT reagireba (moemzadoT s s an v s dasawerad), sanam ar gansazR vravT, Tu rogori unda iyos pasuxi. Teoretikosebi procesebis seriul da paralelur mimdinareobis gansazRvras xSirad aqtiobaSi CarTul fsiqikur resursebze moTxovnis xarisxis SefasebiT cdiloben. warmoidgineT, rom megobarTan erTad midixarT saswavl ebelSi. Cveulebriv, TqvenTvis advilia, iaroT pirdapir da Tan isaubroT _ am dros gadaadgilebisa da metyvelebis procesi paralelurad mimdinareobs. magram ra moxdeb a, Tu moulodnelad trotuarze gubeebs dainaxavT? gubeebs Soris gzis gasakvlevad, p rocesi SesaZlebelia, damatebiT Tqven SewyvitoT gegmis saubari. axla gadaadgilebi s metyvelebis moTxovs resursebs SesamuSaveblad; procesi ki momentalurad ferxdeba. am magaliTSi ZiriTadi daSveba isaa, rom adamia nebs gadamuSavebis SezRuduli resursebi aqvT, romelTa gadanawilebac unda moxdes s xvadasxva davalebebze (Kahneman, 1973; Navon & Gopher, 1979). am resursebis yura dReba gadanawilebaze ganxilulia, Tqveni rogorc yuradRebaa pasuxismgebeli. me 5 e TavSi procesebis erToblioba, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs konkretul situaciaSi amovarCi oT CvenTvis saWiro perceptuli informacia. am SemTxvevaSi termini yuradReba gulisxmobs seleqcias. Tumca, gasarkvevia, romeli fsiqikuri procesi unda iqnes amorCeuli, rogorc gadamuSavebis resursis mimRebi. aqve unda aRiniSnos kidev erTi sirTule: yvela procesi ar saWiroebs erTnair resurss. faqtobrivad, Cv en SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT, avtomaturia procesi Tu saWiroebs kontrols (Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). kontrolirebadi kontrolirebadi procesis ga nxorcieleba Zalian procesebi saWiroebs yuradRebas, avtomaturi procesebi ki, rogorc wesi _ ara. erTd roulad erTze meti rTulia, radganac isini ufro met resurss moiTxoven; avtomaturi procesebis Sesruleba ki SesaZlebelia sxva davalebis paralelurad, masSi cnobieri CarTulobis gareSe. qvemoT moyvanilia avtomaturi procesebis magaliTi. dasawyisisT vis gTxovT, SeasruloT cxril 9..2 Si moyvanili davaleba. rTuli iyo Tu ara A sia, B siasTan SedarebiT? • seriuli procesebi (Serial processes) _ ori an meti fsiqikur i procesi, romelic Tanmimdevrulad, erTmaneTis Semdeg mimdinareobs.

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194 • paraleluri procesebi (Parallel processes) _ ori an meti fsiqikuri procesi, romel ic erTdroulad mimdinareobs. ricxvebis cxrili 9.2 ricxvebis gadamuSaveba dasviT r aime niSani fizikurad gansxvavebuli wyvilebis Tavze, iqneba es ricxvebis Tu sityvebis wyvilebi (e.i. unda aRniSnoT 4 6 da oTxi eqvsi). SeecadeT , gansazRvroT, romeli sia ufro rTulia. sia 1. 8 8 2 1 ori ori erTi erTi sia 2. 1 1 2 9 cxra erTi 2 2 saidan viciT Tqven ar SegiZliaT uaryoT ricxvebis `mniSvnelo ba~ cdis pirebs sTxoves, SeefasebinaT 9. 2 cxrilSi cifrebs Soris gansxvaveba. mi Rebuli Sedegebis mixedviT, cdis pirebs bevrad ufro uWirT, roca cifrebi erTmaneTT an axlosaa (mag., 1 2). vidre maSin, roca maT Soris didi intervalia (mag., rva e rTi), miuxedavad imisa, ra formiTaa ricxvebi mocemuli, arabuli cifrebiT Tu sityv ebiT. miaqcieT yuradReba, rom pirvel siaSi mocemulia gansxvavebuli wyvilebi, rom elTa Sorisac patara intervalebia, xolo meore siaSi mocemul wyvilebs Soris interv ali didia. amitom pirveli sia ufro Zneli unda yofiliyo. magram ratom unda moexdi na ricxvebis siaxloves gavlena maTi fizikuri msgavsebis gansazRvraze? erTi ori d a erTi cxra fizikuri cxra ori rva ori 8 8 1 8 erTi erTi 8 9 rva rva 2 8 cxra cxr a 1 9 cxra erTi ori ori cxra rva 8 9 erTi ori 1 1 1 2 9 9 cxra cxra ori erTi rva rva 2 2 rva cxra 9 8 gansxvavebulobis xarisxis mixedviT TiTqmis identuria. mkvlevarebi varaudoben, ro m rodesac xedavT 2 1 an ori, Zalauneburad fiqrobT Sesabamis raodenobaze, ori maS inac ki, rodesac es xels uSlis davalebis Sesrulebas. xdeba ricxvis

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195 mniSvnelobis avtomaturi Sefaseba miuxedavad imisa, rom, es ar gvWirdeba an ar gv inda (Dohaene & Akhavein, 1995). bavSvobidan, albaT, gaxsovT, rogor euflebodiT r aodenobas da ricxvis cnebebs. axla kavSiri ricxvsa da raodenobas Soris imdenad a vtomaturi gaxda, rom misgan Tavis daRweva TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. zemoT moyvanili d avalebidan Cans, rom avtomaturi procesebi mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli mexsie rebis efeqtian gamoyenebaze (Logan 1988,1992). iqneba obieqti “2” Tu “ori” – aRqmulis mexs ierebaSi gadamuSaveba uzrunelyofs informacias raodenobis Sesaxeb. axla es inform acia, kontrolirebadi da avtomaturi procesebis Sesaxeb, gamoviyenoT erTdrouli sia rulisa da saubris situaciis ganasaxilvelad. swor gzaze siarulis dros ori moqmede ba xels ar uSlis erTmaneTs, rac imaze miuiTiTebs, rom swor gzaze siaruli da lapa raki SedarebiT avtomaturi aqtivobebia. Tumca, gubeebis gamoCenisTanave situacia icvleba _ es gaiZulebT gzi s mravali variantidan airCioT erT erTi. axla Tqven unda gadawyvitoT, saiT waxvid eT da ra TqvaT. radganac Tqven ar SegiZliaT orive moqmedebis erTdroulad Sesruleb a, Tqveni yuradReba “CixSi eqceva” (Pashler, 1992,4). es magaliTi naTelyofs, ratom x deba kontrilirebadi da avtomaturi procesebis xarisxis da ara zusti kategoriebis mixedviT gansazRvra. pirobebis garTulebis SemTxvevaSi is, rac avtomaturi iyo, uk ve moiTxovs yuradRebis kontrols. amgvarad, konteqstidan gamomdinare, esa Tu is p rocesi SeiZleba saWiroebdes met nakleb yuradRebas. axla Tqven xvdebiT fsiqikuri procesebis logikas. rTuli saazrovno amocanebis gadaWris mimdinareobis axsnis mizniT, Teoretikosebi gvTavazoben model ebs, romlebSic kombinirebulia rogorc seriuli da paraleluri, ise kontrolirebadi d a avtomaturi procesebi. kognitur fsiqologiur kvlevaTa umravlesobis mizania iseTi eqsperimentuli situaciis Seqmna, romelic daadasturebs aseTi modelebis TiToeuli komponentis arsebobas. axla, rodesac ukve naTelia kognitur fsiqologiuri kvlevis logika fsiqikuri procesebis Seswavlisas, d roa, gadavideT ufro konkretul sakiTxebze. Cven saSualeba gveqneba, ganvixiloT ko nkretuli kognituri procesebi muSaobis procesSi. daviwyebT metyvelebis gamoyenebiT.

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196 Sejameba kognitur fsiqologiaSi da kognitur mecnierebaSi momuSave specialistebi S eiswavlian fsiqikur procesebsa da struqturebs, romlebic saSualebas aZlevs adamia ns, mag., gamoiyenos ena, gadaWras problema da miiRos gadawyvetileba. dondersma pirvelma Seqmna kognituri davalebis calkeul Semadgenel procesebad gaanalizebis meTodi. Tanamedrove mkvlevarebi fsiqikuri aqtiobis kompo nentebis gansazRvris mizniT Seiswavlian seriuli da paraleluri procesebis komponentebs; aseve, sxvadasxva donis avtomatur da kontrolirebad proc esebs. • kontrolirebadi moiTxoven procesebi (Controlled processes) _ procesebi, ro mlebic meti yuradRebas; xSirad rTulia erTdroulad erTze kontrolirebadi procesis erTd ganxorcieleba. • avtomaturi procesebi (Automatic proc esses) _ procesebi, romlebic ar moiTxoven yuradRebas, maTi ganxorcieleba SesaZle belia sxva moqmedebis paralelurad. metyveleba SuaRamea da karze viRac akakunebs. kars aRebT da iq aravin aris; ucbad SeamCnieT, rom Zirs konverti devs, konvertS i ki furcelia, romelzec weria: “kata xaliCazea”. ras geubnebaT es Setyobineba? ra Se gviZlia SevcvaloT, rom es Setyobineba gasagebi gaxdes TqvenTvis? am SemTxvevaSi yvelaze advilia, mogawodoT Sesabamisi konteqsti. warmoidgineT, rom Tqven saaidumlo agenti xarT da instruqciebs yovelTvis aseTi ucnauri saxiT iRebT. maSin Tqven gecodinebaT, rom “k ata” aris Tqveni kontaqti. xolo “xaliCaze yofna” sabrZolo adgils niSnavs. e.i. Tqven u nda waxvideT. magram imisaTvis, rom fraza “kata xaliCazea” gasagebi iyos, sulac ar a ris aucilebeli, hqondes. • warmoidgineT, rom Tqveni kata xaliCaze karis win mxolod maSin wveba da gelodebaT, roca gareT gasvla surs. rodesac Tqven Tqveni ojaxis r omelime wevrs eubnebiT “kata xaliCazea”, Tqven gulisxmobT: “SegiZlia, kata gareT gauSv a?” ("katas kari gauRo"). iyoT saidumlo agenti. mas SeiZleba sxvadasxva mniSvnelob a

197 • warmoidgineT, rom Tqven megobars surs manqanis gamoyvana farexidan da SiSobs, ra dgan ar icis, sad aris kata. am dros Tqven eubnebiT: “kata xaliCazea” da am sityvebS i gulisxmobT, rom katas safrTxe ar emuqreba da mas SeuZlia manqana gamoiyvanos. • warmoidgineT, rom Tqven gsurT, SeajibroT Tqveni kata da Tqveni megobris ZaRli. a m dros Tqven ambobT: “kata xaliCazea”, riTac miuTiTebT, rom “kata isvenebs da ar surs sirbili”. aRweril magaliTebSi mocemulia gansxvaveba winadadebis azrsa da mosaubris mier nagulisxmev azrs, sazriss Soris (Grice, 1968). metyvelebis gamoyenebis Seswavlisas fsiqologebi aqcents akeTeben rogorc produqciaze (eqspresiuli metyvel eba), metyveleba): • nagulisxmevi azris gamosaTqmelad rogor iyenebs mosaubre swor sityvebs? • rogor igebs msmeneli mosaubris mier nagulisxmev azrs? eqspresiuli mety veleba SexedeT 9.4 suraTs da SeecedeT, ramodenime sityviT aRweroT igi. ris Tqmas apirebT? axla warmoidgineT, rom igigve suraTi unda aRuweroT brma adamians. ras SecvlidiT? gWirdebaT Tu ara meore SemTxvevaSi eqspresiuli metyvelebis Seswavlisa s aqcenti gonebis ufro meti ise mosaubris mier nagulisxmevi azris gagebaze (impr esiuli daZabva? keTdeba rogorc metyvelebis produqciaze (ras irCeven adamianebi mocemul momentSi saTqmelad), ase ve, im procesebze, romlebic Setyobinebebs, gamonaTqvamebs udevs safuZvlad. metyv eleba ar gulisxmobs mxolod zepir metyvelebas; metyvellebaa, agreTve, wera da Jes tebiT saubari. simartivis mizniT saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebulia sityvebi: mosaub re – is vinc metyvelebs anu wers an laparakobs (igulisxmeba JestebiT laparakic) da msmeneli – is vinc ismens (igebs). sur. 9.4. eqspresiuli metyveleba SegiZliaT aRuweroT suraTi Tqvens megobars? ras SecvlidiT, Tqveni megobari rom br ma iyos? msmenelis gaTvaliswineba

198 Cven SemogTavazeT, aRgeweraT 9.4 suraTi normaluri mxedvelobis mqone da brma adam ianisaTvis im mizniT, rom gamonaTqvami dagegegmaT konkretuli unda unda msmenelis gaTvaliswinebiT. vin aris nebismier msmeneli SemTxvevaSi da saubrisas romelic gaiTvaliswinoT, Tqveni informacia, miawodoT auditoriis wevrebs (Clark, 1992, 1996). magaliTad, Tqven, albaT, TavSi azrad ar mogivaT vinmes uTxraT, rom kata xaliCazea, Tu man ar icis, rom kata xal iCaze mxolod maSin wveba, rodesac gareT gasvla surs. msmenelis gaTvaliswinebis w esi, romelic TanamSromlobis princips emyareba, pirvelad Semoitana filosofosma h. pol graisma (H. Paul Grice). graisi TanamSromlobis princips gasagebad ganixilav s, graisma rogorc mosaubris oTxi instruqcias, gamonaTqvami aagos da mimdinare sa ubris pirobebisa da mniSvnelobis mixedviT. am instruqciis arsis Camoayaliba aqsi oma, romelsac gulisxmieri yuradRebiani mosaubreebi iyeneben. 9. 3. cxrilSi warmodgenilia TiToeuli aqsioma da SeTxzuli dialogi, sadac naCvenebia metyvelebis dros aRwerili aqsiomeb is gavlena pasuxebis SerCevaze. rogorc 9.3 cxrilidan Cans, karg mosaubres unda SeeZlos, gaTvalos, Tu ra SeiZleba icodes da gaigos misma msmenelm a. amgvarad, Tqven ar etyviT Tqvens megobars: “dRes aleqsisTan erTad vsadilob”, Tu d arwmunebuli ara xarT, rom man icis, vin aris aleqsi. garda amisa, TqvenTvis da T qveni megobrisTvis nacnob yvela aleqss Soris mxolod erTs axsenebT am konteqstSi (sadilad sxvasTan erTad ar waxvalT). anu “saerTo codnaSi” arsebobs vinme aleqsi, romelic cnobilia rogorc TqvenTvis, ise _ Tqveni megobrisaTvis. herbert klarks da qeTrin marSals (Herbert Klark, Kethrine Marshal, 1981) miaCniaT, rom “saerTo codna” eyrdnoba informaciis sam wyaros: • jgufis wevroba – sxvadasxva sididis jgufis wevrebi iyeneben Semoklebul msjelobebs, roca a zri eyrdnoba jgufis wevrebis saerTo gamocdilebas da gasagebia misi wevrebisaTvis . • lingvisturi Tanaarseboba – saubrisas admianebi ukve ganxilul informacias (wina saubrebis dros) miiCneven “saerTo codnis” nawilad. • fizikuri Tanaar seboba – fizikur TanaarsebobasTan gavqvs saqme, roca mosaubre da msmeneli fizikurad erT situaciaSi imyofebian da Sexeba aqvT erTsa da imave obieqtebTan. es gulisxmobs rogorc saubris garemos (sivrces, romelSic saub ari mimdinareobs), ise maT garSemomyof adamianebs.

199 amrigad, rodesac Tqven axsenebT aleqsis – “me dRes aleqsisTan erTad vsadilob”, SesaZlo a, gasagebi iyos imitom, rom Tqven da Tqveni megobari mcire jgufis wevrebi xarT, romelsac aleqsic miekuTvneba (jgufis wevroba), an SesaZloa, imitom, rom adre, saubarSi Tqven ukve aRniSneT aleqsis arseboba (lingv isturi Tanaarseboba), an sulac imitom, rom aleqsi iqve dgas oTaxSi (fizikuri Tan aarseboba). modiT, ufro dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT jgufis wevroba. warmoidgineT, rom vinmes pirvelad xvdebiT. Tu Tqven gsurT, rom iyoT yuradRebiani da gulisxmieri mosaubre, pirvel rigSi unda gaarkvioT ra sazogadoebas (jgufs) ekuTvn is igi. amgvarad, mosaubre laparakis dros iTvaliwinebs Tavis molodins msmenelis Sesaxeb (Tu ra iqneba misTvis gasagebi). adamianebs SeuZliaT TiTqmis zustad gans azRvron, ra SeiZleba icodnen sakuTari jgufis wevrebma, Tumca, tendencia aqvT dau Svan, rom sxvebisTvisac cnobilia is, rac TviTon ician (Fussel&Kraus, 1992). daak virdiT, Tu msmenelis ramdenad codnis zusti gansazRvra unda SesaZlebels miawodoT xdis quCaSi eqspresiuli metyvelebis adekvatur regulacias.Y detaluri informacia adamians, romelic gzis miswavlebas gTxovT. aZlevT Tu ara konkretul kiTxvebs (mag .: iciT, sad aris meria?), cdilobT Tu ara misi aris Cacmulobidan igi da da metyvelebidan gamomdinare, gansazRvroT, saidan ramdenad dawvrilebiT unda auRweroT gza. Cven ganvixileT eqspresiuli metyveleba Setyobineb is doneze. rogorc vnaxeT, gamonaTqvamis formireba damokidebulia msmenelze, romel sac esaubrebiT. axla ganvixiloT fsiqikuri procesebi, romlebic saSualebas gaZlevT , gamoTqvaT azri. • eqspresiuli metyveleba (Lenguage production) – is, rasac adamian ebi amboben, aniSneben an weren; am Sinaarsebis gadmocemis procesi. • msmenelis ga Tvaliswineba (Audience design) _ konkretul auditoriaze gaTvlili Sinaarsiis formirebis procesi. cxrili 9.3. graisis aqsiomebi eqspresiuli metyvelebis Sesaxeb

200 1. raodenoba: Setyobineba unda iyos imdenad informaciuli, ramdenis moTxovnac aris. nu miawodebT imaze met informacias, vidre mogeTxovebaT. rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: Tqven unda ecadoT, gansazRvroT, realurad ra raodenobis informacia esaWiroeba Tqvens msmenels. amisaTvis SeiZleba saWiro gaxd es winaswar imis gansazRvra, Tu ra icis msmenelma. 2. xarisxi: SeecadeT, ilapara koT simarTle. ar TqvaT iseTi ram, rac mcdari ggoniaT da risi damadasturebeli faq tebic ar gaqvT. rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: rodesac Tqven laparakobT, msmeneli elodeba Tqvens mier miwodebuli informaciis dadasturebas. TiToeuli gamonaTqvamis dagegmis dros m ofiqrebuli unda gqondeT misi damadasturebeli faqtebi. 3. mimarTeba: Tanmimdevrul oba. rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: rodesac raimes ambobT, darwmunebuli unda iyoT, rom msmenelisaTvis gasagebia kavSiri Tqvens mier miwodebul Setyobinebasa da manamde miwodebul informacias Soris. Tu cvliT saubris Temas anu Tqvens mier Camoyalibebu li azri pirdapir kavSirSi ar aris wina informaciasTan, Tqven unda auxsnaT, ris S esaxeb saubrobT. 4. stili: ilaparakeT zustad da garkveviT; moerideT orazrovani f razebis gamoyenebas. teqsti agebuli unda iyos mokle da gamarTuli winadadebebiT. rCeva mosaubrisaTvis: Tqven valdebuli xarT ilaparakoT SeZlebisdagvarad garkveviT, Tumca, ara xarT dazRveuli Secdomebisagan. rogorc yuradRebiani da guli sxmieri mosaubre, unda darwmundeT, rom msmenelebma sworad gaiges, risi Tqmac gsu rdaT. Cans Tu ara qvemoT mocemul dialogSi, ramdenad iyenebs daTo graisis aqsiome bs? ras amboben? giorgi: yofilxar niu iorkSi? daTo: erTxel, 1992 wels. ra SeiZle ba ifiqros daTom? ar vici ratom mekiTxeba, amitom, albaT, ufro meti unda vuTxra, vidre, bralod “ho”. giorgi: wasvlas vapireb, magram meSinia ar gamZarcvon. ver vety vi, rom sanerviulo araferi aqvs, mainc ar damijerebs. ra SeiZleba

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201 daTo: Cemi azriT, iq bevri usafrTxo adgilia. vuTxra iseTi, rac simarTles hgavs da Tanac daamSvidebs? giorgi: sastumro rogori iyo? daTo: RamiT ar davrCenilvarT. Tu vetyvi, rom sastumroSi ar gavCerebulvar, SeiZleba ifiqros, rom sxvagan gavaTi e Rame. iseTi ram unda vuTxra, rac gasagebs gaxdis, ratom ar SemiZlia kiTxvaze p asuxis gacema. giorgi: ar ginda, erTad wavideT? daTo: ar vici, unda vnaxo, ramdenad SevZleb wam osvlas. wasvla ar minda, magram ar minda uaris Tqma uxeSad gamomivides. mixvdeba giorgi, rom Tavs varideb? (Tavis daZvrenas vcdilob) giorgi: aa . . . daTo: hm gaeba maxeSi. saidan viciT eqspresiul metyvelebaze gavlenas axdens jgufis wevroba eqsperimentu lLpirobebSi mkvlevarebi studentebs sTxovdnen, SeesrulebinaT Sedarebis davaleba, ise, rom winaswar arafers eubnebodnen. eqsperimentators win ewyo gansazRvruli Ta nmimdevrobiT 16 Ria baraTi (4X4) niu iorkis xedebiT da mas ise unda aRewera sura Tebi, rom c.p. s swori TanmimdevrobiT daelagebina isini. eqsperimentatori da cdi s piri erTmaneTs ver xedavdnen, Tumca, maT hqondaT saubris SesaZlebloba. eqsperi mentators swrafad SeeZlo ganesazRvra, icnobda Tu ara c.p. niu iorks. rodesac isi ni isini ufro niu iorkis metad macxovreblebs sakuTar esaubrobdnen baraTebis aRsawerad, iyenebdnen saxelebs: “es aris sitikorpis Senoba”, vidre zogad maxasiaTeblebs: “es aris

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202 maRali Senoba samkuTxa saxuraviT” (Clark, 1987). metyveleba da Secdomebi gindaT saxeli gaiTqvaT? gavixsenoT v. a. spuneri (Reverend W.A. Spooner), oqsfordis universitetidan, romlis saxelis mixedviTac, ori an meti sityvis pirvel i marcvlebis gadanacvlebas spunerizmi ewoda. riverend spunerma es saxeli samarTl ianad daimsaxura; zarmac students semestris gacdenis SemTxvevaSi frazis “You have wasted the whole term” ("Sen mTeli semestri gaacdine") nacvlad eubneboda: You have tasted the whole worm, ("Sen mTeli matli SeWame") (w aste – gacdena; taste gemos gasinjva, term semestri). spunerizmi metyvelebis Secdo mebis erT erTi saxeobaa, romelsac saubris dros vuSvebT. es Secdomebi gasagebs xd is azris gamoTqmis dagegmis process. rogorc 9.4 cxrilidan Cans, gamonaTqvamis da gegmva ramodenime erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul doneze xdeba, romelTagan TiToeulze SeiZleba gamovlindes metyvelebis Secdomebi (Bock&levet, 1994; Rapp&Goldrick, 2000). gasaocaria, magram aRwerili Secdomebi, rogorc Cans, ar und a iyos SemTxveviTi – isini gasagebi xdeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sasaubro enis struq turas. mosaubrem SeiZleba gadaanacvlos styvebis pirveli asoebi – “tips of the slung” n acvlad “slips of the sung” sa, magram arasodes ityvis “tlips of the sung”, radganac am S emTxvevaSi irRveva inglisuri enis marTlweris wesi, romlis mixedviTac sityvis Tav Si arasodes gvxvdeba “tl”(Fromkin, 1980). cxrili 9.4. Secdomebi gamonaTqvamis dagegm vaSi dagegmvis doneebi mosaubrem unda airCios sityvebi, romlebic saukeTesod gamo xataven mis

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203 azrs. Tu mosaubres enaze ori sityva adgas, mag: `movifiqre“ da `movigone“, SeiZleba Tqvas `movifone“. mosaubrem arCeuli sityvebi sworad unda daalagos da gaaerTianos winadadebaSi. radgan adamiani gegmavs gamonaTqvams, rogorc mTlian erTeuls, SesaZ loa, moxdes sityvebis gadanacvleba. cxviridan sisxli wamskda → sisxlidan cxviri wa mskda. lamazi gogos kaba → gogos lamazi kaba . mosaubrem bgerebi unda gaaerTianos sityvebSi, romelTa Tqmasac apirebs. radganac adamianebi gamonaTqvams winaswar ge gmaven, SeiZleba moxdes bgeraTa gadanacvleba. cali xeli → xali celi. metyvelebis m etyvelebis Teoriuli modelebis agebisas ar didi mniSvneloba eniWeba Secdomebs. amitom mkvlevarebi Semoifarglebian aRniSnuli Secdomebis mxolod bunebriv pirobebSi dakvirvebiT da maTi aRnusxviT. maT Seiswavl es gamowvevis sxvadasxva xerxebi (Bock, 1996). am teqnikis gamoyenebiT SesaZlebe li gaxda moqnili eqspresiuli metyvelebis safuZvlad mdebare rogorc procesebis, is e reprezentaciebis met naklebi gageba. eqsperimentul pirobebSi metyvelebis Secdo mebis xelovnurad procesebi. gaixseneT me 6 e TavSi ganxiluli xelovnurad Seqmnili predispoziciuli spunerizmi. es teqnika cdis pirebs ubiZgebs, laparakis dros dauS van spunerizmis magvari Secdomebi (baars, 1992). c. p. ebs Txoven waikiTxon dawy vilebul sityvaTa sia, romlebsac msgavsi fonematuri struqtura aqvT:L buzi fuli ba Ri fari boli foni bedi fexi Semdeg ki sTxoven, xmamaRla Tqvan “feri beri”. rig SemTx vevebSi zogierTi c.p. manamde wakiTxuli sityvebis gavleniT ambobs “beri feri” am teq nikebis mier gamoyenebiT Secdomebis mkvlevarebs daSvebis saSualeba eZlevaT, Seis wavlon mag: mosaubris albaTobaze moqmedi faqtorebi.

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204 spunerizmis msgavsi Secdomebis albaToba izrdeba, rodesac bgerebis gadaadgileba realur sityvebs gvaZlevs (Baars et al., 1975; Stemberger, 1992) amg vrad, “feri beri” is magivrad “beri feri” s Tqmis albaToba ufro metia, vidre mag; “coli qm ari”” is savaraudos magivrad “qmoli cari” s Tqmis albaToba. msgavsi Sedegebi procesi xdis, rom metyvelebaSi CarTuli zogierTi kognituri uzrunvelyofs kognituri Secdomis gamovlenas da gasworebas. es procesebi ar gvaZle ven iseTi Secdomebis daSvebis uflebas, romlebic konkretuli enisaTvis miuRebeli d a ararealuri sityvebis gamoTqmas gulisxmobs. reprezentaciebi. erT erTi eqsperimentis dros c.p. ebs sTxovdnen wyvilwyvilad wae kiTxaT idiomaturi gamoTqmebi mag.: shoot the breeze – raise the roof (bevri lapara ki – aurzauris atevxa); ori wamis Semdeg ki sTxovdnen, rac SeiZleba swrafad gaexse nebinaT erT erTi. droSi SezRudvis pirobebSi c.p. ebi zogierT SemTxvevaSi urevdne n ori frazis sityvebs da iZaxdnen shoot the roof. Secdomis daSvebis albaToba rad gan am SemTxvevaSi or ufro didia, vidre zemoT aRweril aqvs. es SemTxvevaSi, bolo gamonaTqvams erTnairi mniSvneloba Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom erTnairi mniSvnelobis mqone idiomebiT reprezentaciebi er TmaneTTan aris mexsierebaSi dakavSirebuli: rodesac adamiani apirebs Tqvas erTi i dioma, msgavsi mniSvnelobis mqone idiomis reprezentaciulma kavSirma SeiZleba gan apirobos kombinirebuli Secdomis aRmoceneba (Cutling & Bock, 1977). Cven ganvixil eT zogierTi faqtori, romlic ganapirobebs ama Tu im gamonaTqvamis warmoTqmas da zogierTi procesi, romelic xels uwyobs maT aqtivizaci as. axla ki SevexoT msmenelebs, romlebic igeben mosaubris mier nagulisxmev azrs. impresiuli metyveleba warmoidgineT, rom mosaubre ambobs `kata xaliCazea.“ Tqven u kve iciT, rom konteqstidan gamomdinare, am gamonaTqvamis gamoyeneba SeiZleba erT maneTisgan gansxvavebuli azris gamosaxatad. Tqven, rogorc msmeneli, rogor airCev T mxolod erT azrs? metyvelebis gagebaze saubars Cven daviwyebT orazrovani mniSvn elobis problemis ufro detaluri ganxilviT. orazrovnebis daZleva daZleva

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205 ras niSnavs sityva bari? TavSi, albaT, misi ori mniSvneloba mainc mogividaT: erT i, romelic dakavSirebulia miwaTmoqmedebasTan (sasoflo sameurneo saqmianobasTan) da meore, romelic dakavSirebulia kafesTan. warmoidgineT, rom vinme geubnebaT: `m as aqvs bari”, rogor xvdebiT, ra igulisxmeba am konkretul SemTxvevaSi? Tqven unda SesZloT am or mniSvnelobas Soris arsebuli leqsikuri orazrovnebis daZleva. Tu dafiqrdebiT, aRmoCenT, rom zogierTi kognituri procesis gamoyenebiT, konteqstidan gamomdinare cdilobT sityvis orazrovnebis daZ levas. ris Sesaxeb saubrobdiT manamde: sauSao iaraRebze Tu gasarTob adgilebze. e s farTo konteqsti unda dagexmaroT sityvis ori mniSvnelobidan erT erTis arCevaSi. magram rogor? sanam am kiTxvaze pasuxs gavcem deT, gagacnobT orazrovnebis kidev erT tips. ras niSnavs es winadadeba: `ninos da giorgis dedas gadasces daxmareba”? Tqven SeiZleba gaigoT misi mxolod erTi mniSvne loba, magram am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs struqturul orazrovnebasTan. struqturis (Akmajian et al., 1990) ix. sailustraciod 9.5. suraTi. iyeneben lingvistebi winadadebis xSirad diagramebs. I nawilSi warmodgenilia winadadebis `kata xaliCazea” analizi. am winad adebis struqtura Zalian martivia. II da III nawilSi ki warmodgenilia winadadebis `ninos da giorgis dedas gadasces daxmareba” ori gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis Sedare biT rTuli struqtura. II nawilSi gakeTebuli analizis mixedviT, fraza `ninos da gi orgis” exeba dedas, erT adamians _ ori bavSvis dedas gadasces daxmareba. III nawil Si warmodgenili analizis mixedviT, winadadebaSi gamoyofilia ori qvemdebare `ninos’’ da `giorgis dedas” e.i. or adamians g adasces daxmareba. romeli mniSvnelobiT igebT winadadebas, rodesac mas pirvelad k iTxulobT? rogorc xedavT, am SemTxvevaSic winadadebas ori mniSvneloba aqvs da Cve n vubrundebiT igive kiTxvas, romelic leqsikuri orazrovnebis dros gaCnda: rogor gansazRvravs konteqsti erTi mniSvnelobis amorCev as ori an meti SesaZlo variantidan? sur. 9.5. winadadebis sruqtura winadadebis gramatikuli struqturis TvalsaCino ilustraciis mizniT, lingvistebi xSirad iyeneben diagramebs. I srtuqtura warmoadgens winadadebis „kata xaliCazea“ struqturul analizs. II da III struqtura ki gviCvenebs, rom winadadeba „ni nos da giorgis dedas gadasces daxmareba“ ori erTmaneTisagan

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206 gansxvavebuli struqturuli analiziT SeiZleba iyos warmodgenili. vis gadasces daxmareba? or adamians Tu erTs? davubrundeT Semdegi leqsikur "anas orazrovnebas yvavili aqvs". (sityvis ra orazr ovnebas), am ganvixiloT yvavili? winadadeba: aris SemTxvevaSi warmoidgineT, rom TavSi leqsikoni gaqvT. yvavilis mniSvneloba, albaT, aseTi iqne ba: gansazRvreba 1: mcenare. gansazRvreba 2: infeqciuri daavadeba. am winadadebi T gadmocemuli informacia ar gvaZlevs saSualebas, SesaZlo ori mniSvnelobidan avir CioT erT erTi. rogorc kvlevis Sedegebi adasturebs, aseTi tipis winadadebis wakiT xvis Semdeg mexsierebisTvis misawvdomi xdeba sityvis orive mniSvneloba (Vu et al ., 1998). konkretul situaciaSi sityvis mniSvnelobis gansazvrisaTvis saWiroa konteqstis gaTvaliswineba, magram rogor gve xmareba konteqsti mniSvnelobis arCevaSi? kvlevebis mixedviT aRmoCnda, rom konteq sti uzrunvelyofs azris gagebis ramdenime (tipis) saSualebas (Vu et al., 1998, 20 00). ganvixiloT Semdegi magaliTebi: 1. ana avadaa yvaviliT. 2. ana krefda yvavil ebs. 3. ana ver mova. mas yvavili aqvs. pirvel winadadebaSi zmnis `avadaa’’ mixedviT , SesaZloa, ganvsazRvroT, ra mniSvnelobiTaa gamoyenebuli yvavili iseve, rogorc m eore winadadebaSi. mesame winadadebis pirvel nawilSi aRwerilia situacia, romelic qmnis konteqsts meore winadadebisTvis `yvavili aqvs’’. es magaliTebi gviCvenebs, mi xedviT rom Tqven iTvaliswinebT miniSnebis sxvadasxva tips. konteqstis msmeneli momentalurad gansazRvravs orazrovani sityvis mniSvnelobas (Binder & Morris, 1995 ; Sereno, 1995). struqturuli orazrovnebis daZleva konteqstis mixedviT xdeba (Mac Donald, 1993; Shapiro et al., 1993; Trueswell, 1996). erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul aseT gramatikul iZleva. modiT, davubrundeT Cvens magaliTs, romelic pirvelad gan vixileT da struqturebs Soris swrafi arCevis SesaZleblobas konteqsti

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romelic sakmaod orazrovania: `kata xaliCazea”. am SemTxvevaSi orazrovneba ganpirob ebulia Tavad SinaarsiT da ara calkeuli sityvebiT an winadadebis

207 struqturiT. mkvlevarebma aRmoaCines, rom konteqstis mixedviT gadawyobis kanoni am SemTxvevaSic moqmedebs (Gibbs, 1994). SegviZlia dasaZlevad naTqvamsa d avaskvnaT, efeqturad msmenelis Cven rom metyvelebis procesSi adamiani orazrovneb is iyenebs mier konteqsts. am dros sruli SeTanxmebulobaa gagebul e.w. azrs Soris. metyvelebis _ procesis procesebi, Sesatyvis da ganxilvisas romelTa gamovyaviT „msmenelis irCevs gaTvaliswineba“ mimdinare saSualebiTac mosaubre situaciis gamonaTqvams. impresiuli metyvelebis analizis safuZvelze msmenels aqvs molodini, rom mosaubre naTqvami sworad fraza dadginda, rom amrigad, metyvelebs. msmenelisaTvis gamomdinare. cxrili 9.5. mizanSewonilia, gaiazros konteqstidan orazrovani gamonaTqvamis

pirdapiri da sarkastuli interpretacia pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT naxmari gamonaTqvami marta dis saxlSi mivida stumrad. gar eT yinavda da marta Zalian bednieri iyo, rom saxlamde miaRwia. man uTxra das: “Sen i saxli Zalian myudroa, ra mSvenieria aq da rogor Tbila”. sarkastuli moTxovna toni s amxanagi, romelTan erTadac cxovrobs igi, yovelTvis Rias tovebs misaRebi oTxis fanjaras, maSinac ki rodesac gareT yinavs. tonis mravaljeradi Txovna – daeketa fan jara – uSedego iyo; erTxel fanjara Ria iyo, tonis ar sjeroda, rom mis amxanags ar scoida. man uTxra amxanags: “ra mSvenieria aq da rogor Tbila”. saidan viciT konteqsti gvexmareba arapirdapiri mniSvnelobis gagebaSi ganvixiloT gamonaTqvami: „aq mSvenieria da Tbila.“ ras niSnavs es? rogorc 9.5 cxrilidan Cans, S esaZlebelia, am tipis martiv gamonaTqvamebs sxavdasxva azri mivaniWoT sxavdasaxv a istoriis SeTxzviT. Cven vnaxeT, rom sityva sityviT versia axlo kavSirSia sityv ebis pirdapir mniSvnelobasTan. igive gamonaTqvamis arapirdapiri versia mas sarka stul mniSvnelobas aniWebs. axla gamoviyenoT zemoT aRniSnuli modelebi leqsikuri o razrovnebis ilustraciis mizniT. Tu

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208 mkiTxveli gamonaTqvamis informacias pirdapiri sityva sityviT mniSvnelobis amuSavebs Tu es konstanturi gza rigis (Tanmimdevrobis) mixedviT, maSin mosalodnelia, rom Tavdapirvelad igi Seecdeba ga gebas. warumatebeli aRmoCndeba, mkiTxveli gamonaTqvamis sxva mniSvnelobas ganixilavs (Crice 1975; 19 78; Searle, 1979a). am modelis mixedviT, moTxovnis da sarkastuli gamonaTqvamis g agebas ufro meti dro sWirdeba, vidre pirdapiri gamonaTqvamis. konteqstis mixedvi T gadawyobis modelis mixedviT ki ufro advilia sarkastuli gamonaTqvamis gageba, vidre pirdapiris. kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom mkiTx velebi ufro swarafad igeben sarkastul moTxovnas, vidre igive gamonaTqvamis pirdapir mniSvnelobas (Gibbs, 1986). ra gvesmis orazrovnebis daZlevis Sesaxeb saubrisas Cven aqcenti gavakeTeT imaze, Tu ras vig ebT. axla yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT naTqvamis gagebaze, Sesabamisad, kiTxvas ase davsvamT: rodis Cndeba mexsierebaSi reprezentaciebi _ frazis Tu mTliani teqstis gagebis dros? mag.: ra inaxeba mexsierebaSi, rodesac Tqven gaigebT ukve nacnob f razas: `kata xaliCazea”. kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom mniSvnelobis mqone rep rezentaciebi warmodgenilia bazisuri erTeulebiT, romlebsac propoziciebs uwodeben (Clark & Clark, 1877; Kintsh, 1974). propozicia gamonaTqvamis ZiriTadi azria. wi nadadebis `kata xaliCazea” ZiriTadi azri isaa, rom raRac wevs raRacaze. am frazis wakiTxvisas Tqven gamoyofT propozicias ze da cdilobT, gaigoT katasa da xaliCas Soris arsebuli mimarTeba, romelic gamoxatulia am propoziciiT. propoziciebis Cawera xSirad ase xdeba: ze (kata, xaliCa). mravali gamonaTqvami erTze met propozicias Seicavs. ganvixiloT Semdegi winadadeba: `kata uyurebda Tagvs, romelic SeZvra taxtis qveS.“ aq pirveli Semadgeneli propoziciaa qveS (Tagvi, taxti). aqedan vawyobT: SeZvra [(Tagvi, qve S (Tagvi, taxti))]. sabolood ki miviRebT: uyurebda [kata, SeZvra (Tagvi, qveS (T agvi, taxti))]. qveS (Tagvi, taxti) SeZvra [Tagvi, qveS (Tagvi, taxti)] uyurebda [kata, SeZvra (Tagvi, qveS (Tagvi, taxti))]

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209 rogor kvleva SegviZlia SevamowmoT, rom mniSvnelobis propoziciuli fsiqikuri propoziciebi roli marTlac ase muSaobs? metyvelebis fsiqologiis sferoSi Catarebuli zogierTi miznad isaxavda, eCvenebina reprezentaciebis metyvelebis gagebaSi (Kintsch, 1974). rogorc kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, Tu f razaSi ori sityva ekuTvnis erTi da igive propozicias, mexsierebaSi maTi warmodge na xdeba erTdroulad, maSinac ki, rodesac isini erTad ar dganan winadadebaSi. saidan viciT propoziciebi qmnian mexsierebis struqturas ganvixiloT winadadeba “mav zoleumi, sadac mefe ganisvenebda, moedans gadahyurebda.“ miuxedavad imisa, rom am winadadebaSi mavzoleumi da moedani erTmaneTisgan daSorebulia, propoziciuli anali zi gvafiqrebinebs, rom isini mexsierebaSi erTad unda Seikribos propoziciaSi gada hyurebda (mavzoleumi, moedani). am analizis Sesamowmeblad mkvlevarebma cdis pirebs warudgines sityvebis CamonaTvali da sTxoves, ganesazRvraT, iyo Tu ara TiToeuli sityva winad adebaSi. zogierT cdis pirs CamonaTvalSi mavzoleumi uSualod moednis Semdeg miewod a, zogs ki _ sxva propoziciidan amoRebuli sityvis Semdeg. pasuxi “diax, iyo mavzol eumi“ gacilebiT swrafad modioda im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac CamonaTvalSi mavzoleumi uS ualod moednis Semdeg iyo mocemuli, vidre maSin, rodesac mas sxva propoziciidan a moRebuli sityva uZRvoda win. es Sedegi cxadyofs, rom cnebebi mavzoleumi da moeda ni erTad iyo warmodgenili mexsierebaSi (Ratclif & McKoon, 1978). rodisme damaxso vreba? raime fraza SegimCneviaT, SesaZloa, filmidan rom gicdiaT da Zalian zustad Znelia vinmes naTqvamis zustad aqedan (sityva sityviT) dagemaxsovrebinaT rom saxlSi dabrunebuls aRmogiCeniaT, mxolod zogadi azri gaxsovT. es magaliTi miuTiTebs, Tu ratom ar aris srulyofili s ityva sityviT damaxsovreba. imitom, rom erT erTi ZiriTadi operacia, romelsac Tqv eni metyveleba axorcielebs, gulixmobs propoziciebis gamoyofas, xolo propoziciebi s zusti Tanmimdevroba swrafad ikargeba Cvens mexierebaSi (mag.: "kata misdevs Ta gvs" _ "Tagvi gaurbis katas").

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210 mexsierebaSi Senaxuli yvela propozicia ar aRmocendeba zustad miRebuli informacii s safuZvelze. msmenelebi xarvezebis Sevsebas daskvniT axerxeben, logikuri daSvev ebis gakeTeba SesaZlebelia mexsierebaSi arsebuli informaciis safuZvelze. ganvixi loT ori winadadeba: me sakonditroSi mivdivar TeasTan Sesaxvedrad. igi Sempirda, rom miyidis namcxvars. imisaTvis, rom es winadadeba gaigoT, saWiroa, sul cota, o ri daskvnis gakeTeba. Tqven unda gaarkvioT, vin aris `igi” meore winadadebaSi da r ogor aris maRaziaSi wasvla dakavSirebuli dapirebasTan, rom giyidian namcxvars. m egobari, vinc es winadadeba giTxraT, vTqvaT, darwmunebulia, rom Tqven SegiZliaT am ori momentis gaTvaliswineba. Tqven arasodes getyvian: `me mivdivar sakonditroSi TeasTan Sesaxvedrad. igi _ Teas vgulisxmob _ Sempirda, rom miyidis namcxvars da sakonditro aris maRazia, sadac gemrieli namcxvrebi iyideba”. mosaubre yovelTvis Tvlis, rom msmeneli TavisTavad, varaudiT akeTebs daskvnebs miRebuli i nformaciidan. uamravi gamokvleva mieZRvna imis garkvevas, Tu ra saxis daskvnebs akeTeben msmenelebi regularulad (Gerrig, 1993; Graesser et al., 1994; McKoon & R atcliff, 1992), romlebsac gamonaTqvamis msmenelebi, SemTxvevaSi Cveulebriv, pote nciuri akeTeben. aRmoCnda, rom nebismieri SeuzRudavia. daskvnebis raodenoba magaliTad, radganac Tqven iciT, rom Tea aris adamiani, Tqven SegiZliaT, gaifiqro T, rom mas aqvs guli, RviZli, filtvebi da a.S. magram Tqven, albaT, es TavSi azr ad ar mogivaT maSin, rodesac vinme geubnebaT: `me sakonditroSi mivdivar TeasTan Sesaxvedrad”. kvlevebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom sakmao sifrTxiliT ekidebian daskv nebis gakeTebas. msmenelebi Semdegi ganvixiloT winadadeba: `arqiteqtorma daWra kaci”. rodesac cdis pirebs ekiTxebodnen, ra iaraRi igulisxmeboda am winadadebaSi, umravlesobam aRniSna, rom es iyo dana. Tumca, kv levis Sedegebis mixedviT dadginda, rom am da msgavsi tipis winadadebebis kiTxvis bunebriv pirobebSi adamianebs TavSi ar mosdiT cneba `dana” (Dosher & Corbett, 198 2). kvlevis aseTi Sedegebi adasturebs, rom sakmaod sando daskvnebis gakeTebac ki ar xdeba avtomaturad. mag.: viRaca daWres daniT. daskvnebis umetesoba, romlebsa c Tqven

211 akeTebT, daaxloebiT iseTivea, rogorc wina winadadebis SemTxvevaSi, romelic gulis xmobs mimarTebis damyarebas `Teasa” da nacvalsaxels `igi~ Soris da `sakonditrosa~ da `namcxvars~ Soris. aseTi daskvnebi saSualebas gaZlevT, gamoiyenoT im informac iis reprezentacia, romelsac mosaubre gadmogcemT. metyvelebis ganxilvam gviCvena, ramdeni ram esaWiroeba mosaubres, raTa warmoTqvas swori winadadeba Sesabamis dros da msmenels, raTa swored gaigos mosau bris mier nagulisxmevi azri. Cven, rogorc wesi, amas ar vacnobierebT. rogor ggon iaT, kargad aris agebuli Tqveni kognituri procesebis muSaobis meqanizmebi? • daskv na (Inference) _ xarveziani informaciis Sevseba arsebuli mtkicebulebebis an rwme nis da Teoriis safuZvelze. metyveleba, kultura da azrovneba Tu swavlobT, an iciT ucxo ena? Tu asea, rogor ggoniaT, am or enaze Tqven gansxvavebulad fiqrobT? axd ens Tu ara gavlenas ena azrovnebaze? es is kiTxvaa, romelsac mkvlevarebi ara erT gzis ganixilaven. es kiTxva rom ufro konkretuli iyos, gagacnobT kros lingvistur magaliTs. warmoidgineT, rom bavSvma dainaxa, rogor isrola mamamisma burTi. Tu ba vSvi inglisurenovania, ityoda: Daddy threw the ball – mamam isrola burTi, xolo Tu bavSvi Turqulenovania, maSin ityoda Topu babam atti.. rogor fiqrobT, am winadade bebSi erTi da igive azria mocemuli da mxolod sityvebia gansxvavebuli? es mTlad a se ar aris: ti sufiqsi Turquli winadadebis boloSi miuTuTebs, rom mosaubre movle nis TviTmxilvelia; roca mosaubre gagonils hyveba, maSin winadadeba mis sufiqsiT mTavrdeba anu iqneboda atmis. inglisur enaze mosaubre adamianebi samyaros ar yof en im movlenebis mixedviT, romlebic sakuTari TvaliT ixiles da romlebic sxva wyar oebidanaa cnobili (Slobin, 1982; Slobin & Aksu, 1982). SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom ori enis gansxvavebulma gramatikulma moTxovnebma gavlena moaxdinos azrovnebis st ilze? Turquli da inglisuri enis SemTxvevaSi am kiTxvaze pasuxi ucnobia. xom ar g surT CaataroT kvleva? es gansxvaveba gasagebs xdis azrovnebaze enis potenciuri z egavlenis sakiTxiT dainteresebas. am sakiTxis mecnieruli Seswavla daiwyo edvard sepirma (Edward Sapir) da misma studentma benjamen lii uorfma (Benjamin Lee Whor t). kros longvisturi kvlevebis

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212 safuZvelze miRebuli SedegebiT avtorebma daaskvnes, rom gansxvavebebi enaSi azrSi gansxvavebebs ganapirobebs. sepiri aRniSnavs: “Cven vxedavT da gansxvavebulad Cvevebi ganvicdiT movlenebs, radganac Cveni sazogadoebis enobrivi interpretaciis gansazRvruli arCevanisadmi gangvawyobs” (Sapin, 1941/1964, p.64) sepirma da uorfma es daskvna maT mier Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegebis safuZvelze gaakeTes. uorfma Camoayaliba ori hipoTeza, romlebic sepir uorfis hipoTezis saxeliTaa cnobili (ix. Brown, 1976). lingvisturi gansxvavebebi fardobiToba am _ enebs Soris arsebuli individebis struqturuli gansxvavebul aisaxeba enebze molaparake aralingvistur kognitur unarebze. lingvisturi determinizmi – enis

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samyaros aRqmasa da azrovnebas. struqtura Zlier gavlenas axdens da, SesaZloa, mTlianadac gansazRvravdes am enaze molaparake individebis mier am ori hipoTezidan lingvisturi determinizmi SedarebiT ufro Zlieria, radgan igi a mtkicebs, mecnierebma scades rom – ena, faqtobrivad, gansazRvravs da azrovnebas. Tanamedrove araerTgzis fsiqologebma, zusti lingvistebma meTodebis anTropologebma am hipoTezis kvlevis Seqmna gadasamowmeblad (Gumperz & Levinson, 1996 ). ganvixiloT gagikvirdeT, azrovnebaze rom enis gavlenis ferTa erT erTi aspeqti. SesaZloa, sxvadasxva enebSi dasaxelebis gansxvavebuli raodenobaa. linvisturi analizis safuZvelze dadginda, rom inglisur enaSi ferTa 11 dasaxelebaa (Savi, TeTri, wiTeli, yviTeli, mwvane, lurji, yavisferi, mewamuli, vardisferi, stafilosferi, nacrisferi). xolo zogierT enaSi, mag.aliTad, papua axa l gvineaze mcxovrebTa enaSi, romelsac dani ewodeba, ferTa ori dasaxeleba arsebob s _ Savi da TeTri (muqi da Ria) (Berlin & Kay, 1969). uorfi miiCnevs, rom adamia ni `samyaros mSobliuri enis safuZvelze adiferencirebs~ (1956 p. 213): mkvlevarebi varaudoben, rom ferTa dasaxelbis raod enoba (2 an 11), SesaZloa, gavlenas axdendes sxvadasxva enaze mosaubre adamianeb is mier ferebis klasifikaciis unarebze. fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

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213 SeuZliaT Tu ara cxovelebs enis swavla? Tqven, ra Tqma unda, ginaxavT filmi, an s atelevizio Sou, sadac cxovelebi Cveulebriv saubroben adamianebTan. gaxsovT miste r edi _ molaparake cxeni? SesaZlebelia es realur cxovrebaSi? am sakiTxis kvleva gasuli saukunis 20iani wlebidan daiwyo; fsiqologebma scades SimpanzeebisaTvis es wavlebinaT laparaki. radganac Simpanzeebs ar gaaCniaT laparakisaTvis Sesaferisi sametyvelo aparati, mkvlevarebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, komunikaciis damyarebis sxva meTodebi moeZebnaT. enis magaliTad, Simpanzes, varianti saxelad vaSos aswavles amerikuli niSnebis gamartivebuli (Gardner & Gardner, 1969); Simpanzes, saxelad saras ki daaswavles simboloebiT manipulacia (simboloebi aRniS navdnen iseT cnenebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, vaSli, micema) (Premark, 1971). am e qperimentebis Sedegebma azrTa sxvadasxvaoba warmoSva (Seidenberg & Pebitto, 1979 ). kritikosebi dainteresdnen Semdegi sakiTxebiT: Simpanzeebis mier simboloebis an Jestebis SemTxveviTi kombinaciebis (magaliTad, vaSo bodiSi, Sen m eti daleva) gamoyeneba aris Tu ara metyvelebis azriani gamoyeneba. aseve, mniSvn elobaTa umetesoba, rac miewereba maimaunis gamonaTqvams, xom ar Cndeba adamianis da ara maimunis TavSi. ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi siu sevij rumbaum (Sue S avage Rumbaugh 1998) sevijda misma kolegebma Caatares kvleva, romlis Sedegadac g amoikveTa ufro zusti monacemebi Simpanzeebis metyvelebis unaris Sesaxeb. sevij r umbau, ZiriTadad, muSaobda bonobos jiSis Simpanzeebze, romlebic, evoluciuri Tval sazrisiT, ufro axlos arian adamianTan, vidre Simpanzeebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom bono bos jiSis orma maimunma, kinzim da mulikam kvlevis procesSi spontanurad aiTvises plastmasisagan damzadebuli siboloebis mniSvneloba; maT ar dasWirvebiaT rTuli tr eningi. isini simboloebis mniSvnelobebs avtomaturad daeuflnen adamianebsa dakvir vebis mniSvneloba, da bonobos garda jiSis amisa, kanzas maimunebs maT esmiT Sori s komunikaciis inglisuri procesze sityvis misi dros. zogierTi magaliTad, SeuZlia sityvis gagonebaze dados Sesabamisi simbolo an foto. mkvlevarebma bonobosa da Simpanzes jiSis ori maimuni saTvis Seqmnes pirobebi, sadac maimunebi Rebulobdnen/iRebdnen metyvelebis iseT gamocdilebas, rogorc adamiani enis adreuli aTvisebis

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214 periodSi (ix. Tavi 11). kvlevis safuZvelze dadginda, rom Simpanze panpanzeesac k i SeuZliaT zogierTi inglisuri sityvis mniSvnelobis daufleba, Tumca, bonobos jiSi s maimuns – panbaniSas bevrad ufro unari aqvs (Brake & Savage Rumbaugh, 1995). bon obos jiSis maimunebze miRebuli Sedegebi gasaocaria, Tumca, metyvelebis unarisa d a sityvis ubralod gamoyenebas Soris didi gansxvavebaa. gavixsenoT e.w. meti sity vis daswavlis msmenelTa gaTvaliswineba. SuZliaT cxovelebs informaciis Secvla auditoriaze morgebis mizniT? mkvlevarebma gadawyvites, pasuxi gaecaT am kiTxvaze . doroTi Cenim da robert seifarsTma (Dorothy Cheney, Robert Seyfarth, 1990) Caat ares didi kvleva. isini Seiswavlidnen vervetis jiSis maimunebis komunikaciur una rebs. sxvadasxva tipis saSiSroebis, magaliTad, leopardis, arwivis an gvelis moax loebis dros es maimunebi gansxvavebul xmebs gamoscemen. maT auditoriidan dros ga momdinare ufro SuZliaT sixSiris xmis Secvla: mdedri maimunebi Tavis saSiSroebis maRali xmebs gamoscemen, roca STamomaval maimunebTan erTad arian, vidre sxva maimunebTan. Tumca, vervetis jiSi s maimunebs ar SeuZliaT msmenelis codnis gaTvaliswineba da, aqedan gamomdinare, xmis Secvla: eqsperimentul pirobebSi Seqmnili saSiSroebis SemTxvevaSi deda verve tebi erTsa da igive xmebs gamoscemen marto yofnis drosac da maSinac, roca maTi S Tamomavali safrTxis momaswavlebeli movlenis TviTmxilvelia. arsebaa, mkvlevarebma SeuZlia, daadgines, rom adamiani sxvisi erTaderTi da cocxali romelsac gaiTvaliswinos codna Sesabamisad Secvalos qceva (Povinelli & Prince, 1998). rogorc naxeT, Simpanzesa da bonobos j iSis maimunebs gaaCniaT adamianis msgavsi metyvelebisaTvis aucilebeli zogierTi, magram ara yvela unari. Tumca, Semdgomi kvlevebis Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze dadginda, rom sxvadaxsva enaze molaparake adamianebi erTnairad asruleben ferebis klasifikaciis davalebebs. es monacemebi eWv qveS ayenebs mtkicebas lingvisturi determinizmis Sesaxeb, Tumca, mkvlevarebi mainc iziareben azrs SedarebiT susti g avlenis Sesaxeb – metyvelebaSi gansxavebebs kognituri gansxvavebebi sdevs Tan. sai dan viciT metyveleba gavlenas axdens ferebis klasifikaciaze

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215 mkvlevarebma c.p. ebs sTxoves, SeemowmebinaT sami feris wiri. ferebi aRebuli iyo lurjidan mwvanemde speqtralur diapazonSi. c.p. ebs evalebodaT, ganesazRvraT, sa mi elferidan yvelaze metad romeli gansxvavdeboda danarCeni orisagan. c.p. Ta erT i jgufi warmodgenili iyo inglisurenovani individebiT (inglisur erTeulebi), enaSi arsebobs xolo meore mwvanisa – da lurjis leqsikurad mcxovrebi gansxvavebuli indiv idebiT, CrdiloeT meqsikaSi romlebic tarahumaras enaze laparakoben. am enaSi lurjisa da mwvane elferis aRsan iSnavad arsebobs mxolod erTi sityva – Siyoname. mkvlevarebi varaudobdnen, rom Tu sepir uorfis hipoTeza marTalia, maSin inglisurenovani indiv idebi SesZlebdnen lurjisa da mwvanis zRvarTan axlo myofi elferis garCevas, radga nac inglisur enaSi arsebobs sityvebi mwvane (green) da lurji (blue); xolo imis g amo, rom tarahumaras enaSi aseTi gansxavebuli erTeulebi ar arsebobs, am enaze mo laparake c.p. ebi ver SesZlebdnen mosazRvre elferebis garCevas (Key & Kempton, 1 984, p.68). miRebuli Sedegebi adasturebs sepir uorfis hipoTezas: ferTa triadis S esaxeb msjelobis dros inglisurenovani c.p. ebi arCeven sxvadasxva elferebs, tara humaras enaze molaparake individebi ki _ vera. msoflioSi aTasobiT enaa, romelTa Soris uamravi saintereso gansxvavebaa, rogorc es Turquli da inglisuri enebis mag aliTze giCveneT. Sesabamisad, arsebobs umaravi sakiTxi (hipoTeza), romelic Semdg om kvlevas saWiroebs (gerrig &Banaji, 1994; Hunt & aGnoli, 1991; Smith, 1996). s avaraudoa, rom azrovnebaze ar aisaxeba enebs Soris arsebuli bevri leqsikuri da g ramatikuli gansxvaveba, rogoricaa, gansxvaveba sityvebsa da struqturebs Soris. m iuxedavad amisa, radganac Cven aRvwereT kulturuli gansxvavebebi "fsiqologia da c xovreba" Si, mizanSewonili iqneba, gaviTvaliswinoT lingvisturi fardobiTobisa da determinizmis sakiTxebi. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom bevr situaciaSi gansxvavebuli kulturis warmo madgenlebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul enebze laparakoben, SegviZlia davsvaT sakiTxi metyvelebis gavlenis Sesaxeb kulturul gansxvavebze. axla sityveb is saSualebiT azris gadacemis sakiTxidan gadavideT im pirobebis ganxilvaze, sadac mniSvneloba xatzec aris damokidebuli. Sejameba

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216 saubrisas Sesabamisi admianebi cdiloben, arseboba iyvnen gulisxmierebi saerTo da yuradRebianebi. gaTvaliswinebas. msmenelis moiTxovs codnis spunerizmi da metyvelebis sxva Secdomebi SesaZlebels xdis swori frazebisa da gam onaTqvamebis dagegmvisa da Sesworebis procesebis met nakleb gagebas. orazrovani sityvebis, struqturebisa da gamonaTqvamebis gasagebad, mniSvnelobebis SesaZlo variantebidan swori arCevanis gasakeTeblad msmenelebi iye neben konteqsts. fsiqikuri reprezentaciebi propoziciebis garSemo yalibdeba. miRe buli informaciisagan ufro metis gasagebad, msmenelebs uxdebaT daskvnebis gakeTeb a, romlebic ar atareben SemTxveviT xasiaTs. sepir uorfis hipoTezis Tanaxmad, ene bi, romlebzec adamianebi laparakoben, gansazRvraven adamianis mier samyaros aRqm asa da gaazrebas. am hipoTezis zogierTi damadasturebeli faqti gamovlinda ferebze Catarebul eqsperimentebSi. mkvlevarebis winaSe kvlav dgas enebs Soris arsebuli uamravi gansxvavebis Seswavlis sakiTxi, romelic, SesaZloa, gavlenas axdendes azrovnebaze. vizualuri Semecneba 9.6. suraTze mocemu lia winadadebis “kata xaliCazea” reprezentaciis ori nimuSi. romelia TqvenTvis ufro m isaRebi? Tu winadadebas lingvistur propoziciebze dayrdnobiT gaiazrebT, orive sworia – orive suraTze kata xaliaCazea. miuxedavad amisa, TqvenTvis, albaT, ufro misaRebi A variantia, , radgan am winad adebis gagebisas savaraudoa, rom zustad am suraTis Sesabamisi scena warmogidgeba T (Searle, 1979b). ras fiqrobT meore suraTis Sesaxeb? cota ucnauria, ara? ase gg onia, kata sadac aris daecema. es SfoTva Cndeba imitom, rom Tqven SegiZliaT zust ad situacia gaiazroT ra suraTebze moxdes. dayrdnobiT. am nawilSi Tqven Cven Segi ZliaT warmoidginoT, SeiZleba ganvixilavT vizualuri xatebisa da procesebis gavlenas azrovnebaze. sur. 9.6. viz ualuri reprezentaciebi aris Tu ara orive kata xaliCaze? vizualuri reprezentaciebis gamoyeneba kacobrioba icnobs warmodgenis safuZvelze g akeTebul uamrav mniSvnelovan aRmoCenas (Shepard, 1978). gaixseneT f. a. kekule ( Cven igi ukve vaxseneT me 6 e

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217 TavSi), romelmac benzolis qimiuri agebuleba aRmoaCina. muSaobis dros, kekule xSi rad cdilobda, warmoedgina mocekvave atomebi, romlebic molekulaTa erT jaWvSi erTi andebodnen. benzolis rkali man sizmarSi aRmoaCina, roca gvelis magvarma molekula Ta jaWvma sakuTar kuds piri Caavlo da wre Sekra. maikl faradei, romelmac magniti zmis uamravi Tviseba aRmoaCina, naklebad erkveoda maTematikaSi, magram cxoveli w armodgenebi hqonda magnituri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. rogorc amboben, albert ainStain i mTlianad vizualuri xatebis terminebiT azrovnebda da mxolod vizualur xatebze da yrdnobiT gakeTebuli aRmoCenebis Semdeg gadmoscemda maT maTematikuri simboloebisa da sityvebis saSualebiT. es magaliTebi movitaneT imisaTvis, rom Tqvenc scadoT v izualuri xatebiT azrovneba, Tumca, vizualuri xatebiT manipulaciis unars yovelgva ri mcdelobis gareSec regularulad iyenebT. ganvixiloT klasikuri eqsperimenti, sadac c.p. ebs sTxovdnen, moexdinaT vizualuri xatebis warmodgenaSi datrialeba. “R”, suraTi 9.7. sxvadaxsva kuTxiT daxrili “ ”, romelic warmodgenis Sesafase blad gamoiyenes cdis pirebs SemeTxveviTi TanmimdevrobiT miewodebodaT figurebi da moeTxovebodaT, rac SeiZleba swrafad ganesazRvraT, ra iyo miwodebuli “R” Tu misi sa rkisebuli asli. rac ufro metad iyo figura gadaxrili vertikaluri mdgomareobidan, miT ufro meti iyo reaqciis dro. saidan viciT gonebaSi rotacia fizikuri rotaciis msgavsia cdis pirebs miewodeboda T sxvadasxva kuTxiT daxrili laTinuri aso “R” sa da misi sarkiseburi aslis (rusuli “ ”) nim uSebi (ix. sur 9.7). asos miwodebisTanave c.p. s evaleboda, ganesazRvra miwodebuli nimuSi “R” iyo, Tu misi sar kisebuli asli. aRmoCnda, rom gadawyvetilebis miRebaze daxarjuli dro da daxrilobi s kuTxis sidide pirdapirproporciul kavSirSia – rac ufro metad aris mobrunebuli gra fema, miT ufro meti dro sWirdeba mis identifikacias. warmoidginon garkveuli miRe buli figura da Sedegebi mowmobs, igi rom cdis pirebi cdiloben, moatrialon ris vertikalur iReben mdgomareobamde gadawyvetilebas. fiqsirebuli siCqariT, Semdegac

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218 rotaciis siCqaris erTnairi maCveneblebi miuTiTebs, rom gonebaSi rotacia fizikuri rotaciis msgavsi procesia (Shepard&Cooper, 1982). adamianebi Zalian xSirad iyen eben gonebaSi rotaciis unars. rogorc me 5 e TavSi naxeT, xSirad sagnebis aRqma T qvenTvis ucnobi kuTxidan gixdebaT. gonebaSi rotacia saSualebas gaZlevT, SecvaloT sagnis aRqmuli xati da moargoT xat s, romelic Tqvens mexsierebaSi inaxeba (Srinivas, 1995; Tarr, 1994; Tarr&Rinker, 1989). mag., 9.6 suraTze mocemuli figuris aRqmisas Tqven, albaT, daatrialeT moa trialeT?). vizualuri xatebis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT, agreTve, zogierTi tipis kiTxv ebze pasuxis gacemis mizniT. warmoidgineT, rom gekiTxebian: golfis saTamaSo burT i ufro didia Tu ping pongis? Tu Tqven ar gaxsovT, SegiZliaT erTdroulad warmoidgi noT maTi vizualuri xatebi. sagnis xatis aseTi gamoyenebis figura, raTa amogecnoT igi, rogorc kata (an iqneb Tavi SemTxvevaSic, mas bevri saerTo aqvs realurad aRqmul saganTan. saidan viciT vizua luri xatebis skanireba erT erTi kvlevis dros c.p. ebs sTxovdnen, daemaxsovrebina T rTuli figura, kerZod, motoriani navi (ix. sur 9.8), Semdeg ki sTxovdnen, warmo egdinaT TvalsaCinod da yuradReba SeeCerebinaT erT erT detalze, magaliTad, Zravaze. Semde g ki sTxovdnen, warmoedginaT navis kidev erTi detali, magaliTad, saqare mina an Ruza. aRmoCnda, rom Ruzis “dasanaxad“ (warmosadgenad) c.p. ebs ufro meti dro sWirdeb odaT, vidre saqare minis, romelic ufro axlosaa ZravasTan, vidre Ruza. reaqciis d roebs Soris gansxvaveba adasturebs, rom adamianebi iseve aTvaliereben vizualur x atebs, rogorc realur sagnebs (Kosslyn, 1980). sur. 9.8. warmodgenis vizualuri sk anireba navis figuris Seswavlis Semdeg cdis pirebs sTxovdnen, “SeexedaT” maT mier warmodgeni li navis ZravisaTvis; Semdeg ki ekiTxebodnen: ra hqonda navs – saqare mina Tu Ruza . saqare minis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi reaqiis dro naklebi iyo, vidre maSin, roca c.p. ebi xedavdnen Ruzas, romelic Zravisagan ufro daSorebulia. miRebuli Sedegebi mowmobs, rom c.p. ebi aTvalierebdnen maT mier warmodgenil sagnebs.

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219 xatebiT operireba SezRudulia. ganvixiloT Semdegi problema: warmoidgineT, rom gaqvT carieli, didi furceli da gadakeceT is Suaze (miiRebT or gverds), kidev gadakeceT Suaze (oTxi gverdi) da ganagrZeT ase, sanam 50 jer ar g adakecavT. rogor ggoniaT, ra sisqis iqneba Tqveni qaRaldi? (Adams, 1986). pasuxi aseTia: daaxloebiT 50 milioni mili (250 x 0.028 diumi – qaRa ldis sisqe), daaxloebiT dedamiwidan mzemde manZilis naxevari. Tqven, albaT, ufro naklebi gegonaT. Tqveni warmodgena gadaitvirTa warmosadgeni informaciiT. verbal uri da vizualuri reprezantaciebis kombinireba Cven, ZiriTadad, yuradReba gavamax vileT vizualuri reprezentaciebis im tipebze, romelTa Camoyalibeba xdeba garemoSi arsebuli vizualuri stimulis mexsier ebaSi xatis saxiT gadataniT, an misi warmodgenis SemTxvevaSi – mexsierebidan amotaniT. Tumca, vizualur xatebs Tqven xSirad qmniT verbaluri infi rmaciis ginaxavT, safuZvelze, mag.: miuxedavad imisa, kata, rom realurad sami ar asodes kudi aqvs. Tqven SegiZliaT warmoidginoT verbaluri kiTxvis romelsac verbaluri informacia saSualebas gaZlevT, SeqmnaT vizualuri reprezentacia. gansak uTrebiT unari mniSvnelovania informaciis dros, xatovani warmodgenis detalebs mxatvruli literaturis romelic sivrciT Seicavs. ganvixiloT nawyveti moTxrobidan "From a View to a Kill“: mdelo sididiT ori CogburTis kortis zomis iyo, sqeli balaxiTa da xavsiT dafaruli. misi erTi nawili SroSanebiT iyo mofenili, garSemortymuli xeebis qveS ki enZeleb i mimofantuliyo. mdelos erT mxares mayvliTa da ayvavebuli vardebis ekliani buCqn ariT dafaruli patara goraki esazRvreboda. bondi gars uvlida goraks da daJinebiT iyureboda buCqebs Soris, magram iq araferi Canda, garda gorakis miwiani zedapiri sa (Flemming, 1959 PP.19 20). scadeT, warmogedginaT scena da daxmarebodiT bonds safrTxis moZebnaSi? (is mas ip ovis). kiTxvis dros, aRwerili detalebis warmodgenis mizniT, SegiZliaT SeqmnaT sivrciTi fsiqikuri Tu modeli rogor (Zwaan asaxavs

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& Radvansky,1998). mkvlevarebi modeli araerTxel dainteresdnen, fsiqikuri sivrciTi realuri sivrciTi gamocdilebis niSnebs (Rinck et al., 1997). warmoidgineT, rom ki TxulobT saintereso nawyvets moTxrobidan.

220 sxedxarT operaSi megobrebTan erTad. Tqveni mosvlis mizania, SexvdeT da esaubroT maRali wris warmomdagenlebs da saintereso adamianebs. axla dgaxarT eleganturi ai vnis moajirTan, romelic gadahyurebs parters. zustad Tqvens ukan, Tvalis simaRlez e, aivnis kedelze CuqurTmebiani lampa kidia. lampis fexi, romelic kedelzea mimag rebuli, mTlianad mooqrovilia (Franklin&Tvresky, 1990, p.65). seriul eqsperimentebSi cdis pirebi (mkiTxvelebi) swavlobdnen am tipis teqstebs, romlebSic detalurad iyo aRwerili damkvirveblis garSemo arsebu li sagnebis ganlageba (Franklin & Tvresky, 1990). mkvlevarebs surdaT eCvenebinaT, rom gonebaSi warmodgenili arsebuli obieqtebis sivrceSi ganlageba ga nsazRvravs am sivrcis Sesaxeb informaciis mexsierebidan amotanis siswrafes. mag. , c.p. ebi ufro swrafad pasuxoben kiTxvaze: „ra aris Tqvens win“, vidre kiTxvaze: „ra aris Tqvens ukan“, miuxedavad imisa, rom TiToeuli obieqti erTnairi sizustiT iyo aRwerili. am Sedegebis gageba Zalian advilia Tu dauSvebT, rom kiTxvis dros aRmocenebuli reprezentaciebi saSualebas gaZlveT, “moxvdeT scenaze”, Tqven SegiZliaT verbaluri gamocdileba gardaqmnaT vizualur sivrciT gamocdilebad. zogadad, Tqvens garSemo arsebul samyaroze fiqris dros, TiTqmis yovelTvis gixdebaT informaciis vi zualuri da verbaluri reprezentaciebis Sejereba. Tu gindaT darwmundeT amaSi, scad eT msoflio rukis daxatva. rogor apirebT amis gakeTebas? zogierTi ram TqvenTvis c nobilia vizualuri gamocdilebiT; mag., Tqven daaxloebiT iciT afrikis kontinentis moxazuloba, radganac is nanaxi gaqvT. Tqveni naxatis zogierTi detali ki verbalur informacias eyrdnoba; mag., SeiZleba SeiZleba gaxsovdeT, ar icodeT, rom sad iap onia unda ramodenime daxatoT is. kunZulisagan erT erTi Sedgeba, Tumca, dros, gamokvlevis romelic 49 qveyanaSi Catarda, 79 qalaqSi macxovrebel 4000 students sTxoves, daex ataT msoflio ruka (Saarinen, 1987). kvlevis mizani iyo imis dadgena, rogoria kul turaTa Soris sxvoba msoflios TvalsaCino warmodgenis, vizualizaciis mixedviT; igi miznad isaxavda, agreTve, mSvidobis xelSewyobas. kvlevis safuZvelze dadginda, r om umravles SemTxvevaSi warmosaxuli msoflio fokusirebulia evropaze – evropa mocemulia naxatis centrSi, xolo

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221 mis garSemo ganlagebulia sxvadaxsva qveynebi. es SesaZlebelia ganpirobebuli iyos imiT, rom saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi geografiis saxelmZRvaneloebSi warmodgenil ru kebze evropa warmodgenilia rukis centrSi. Tumca, dafiqsirda kulturaze orientireb uli rukebic. 9.11 suraTze warmodgenilia avstraliaSi mcxovrebi studentis mier dax atuli ruka. es ruka gviCvenebs, Tu ra xdeba, roca verbaluri perspeqtiva – Cemi sax li unda iyos centrSi – gavlenas axdens vizualur reprezentaciaze. am nawilSi vnaxeT , rom Cveni vizualuri procesebi es da reprezentaciebi warmoadgens Seavsebs verbalur unarebs. informaciis miRebis ori tipi yveldRiurad aRmocenebuli moTxovnebisa da amocanebis gadaWris damatebiT saSualebe bs. axla ki ganvixiloT is sferoebi, sadac xdeba vizualuri da verbaluri reprezent aciebis gamoyeneba problemuri situaciis daZlevis dros. es sakiTxebia: problemis gadaWra da azrovneba. suraTi: 9.11. yuradReba miaqcieT msoflos am avtraliaze kon centrirebul warmodgenas, axla vin aris qvemoT? Sejameba adamianebs SeuZliaT vizu aluri reprezentaciebis gamoyeneba sagnis gonebaSi rotaciisaTvis. adamianebi warm odgenil xatebs aTvaliereben ise, rogorc realur sagnebs. vizualuri da verbaluri informaciis SejerebiT adamianebs SeuZliaT srulyofili fsiqikuri reprezentaciebis Seqmna. problemebis gadaWra da azrovneba warmoidgineT erTi Cveulebrivi cxovrebiseuli situacia: Tqven SemTxveviT CageketaT Tqveni saxlis, oTaxis an manqanis kari da darCiT gareT. rogor moiqceviT am SemT xvevaSi? moifiqreT, Tu ra ,,gonebriv nabijebs” gadadgamdiT am problemis kognitur d asaZlevad. procesebs, es ,,gonebrivi nabijebi” aucileblad gulisxmobs da romlebic ganapirobeben problemis gadwyvetasa azrovnebas. azrovnebas dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad es orive aqtioba saWiroebs moc emuli axali informaciis dakavSirebas mexsierebaSi arsebul informaciasTan. Cven

222 ganvixilavT problemis gadawyvetis sxvadasxva aspeqtsa da azrovnebis or formas _ deduqciursa da induqciurs. problemis gadawyveta ,,ra aris is arseba, ro melic diliT oTx fexze dadis, SuadRisas _ orze, xolo mzis Casvlis Semdeg _ samze?” berZnuli miTologiis Tanaxmad, borotma arsebam _ sfinqsma _ Tebes xalxs am amocan is amoxsna ubrZana; xolo sanam vinme mis amoxsnas SeZlebda, xalxi misi tiranuli mmarTvelobis qveS icxovrebda. oidiposma gamocanis elementebSi metaforebi amoicno _ dila, SuadRe da mwuxri adamianis cxovrebis sxvadasxva periodebs warmoadgens. bavSvi xoxavs siarulis dawyebamde, amdenad, igi oTxze dadis; mozrdili adamiani k i _ or fexze, xolo moxucebulobaSi adamiani, miuxedavad imisa, rom or fexze dadis , siarulisas yavarjensac iyenebs. e.i. sam fexze dadis. oidiposis pasuxi iyo ,,a damiani”. Tumca, Cveni yoveldRiuri problemebi ar aris oidiposis gamocanasaviT rTuli, magram problemis gadaWra yoveldRiuri cxovrebis ZiriTadi nawilia. Tqven ga mudmebiT awydebiT problemebs, romelTa gadawyvetac gixdebaT: rogor movaxerxoT sam uSaosa da movaleobebis Sesruleba drois gansazRvul periodSi, rogor mivaRwioT warm atebas gasaubrebaze; rogor gavwyvitoT urTierTioba arasasurvel pirovnebasTan da a .S. mravali problema dakavSirebulia realur codnasa da TqvenTvis saWiro informaci as Soris gansvlasTan. roca problemas wyvetT, Tqven amcirebT am gansvlas saWiro i nformaciis mopovebiT. problemis daZlevis arsis ukeT gasagebad, SeecadeT gadaWraT 9.12 suraTze mocemuli problemebi. fsiqologiuri kvlevis Sedegebis gacnoba saSual ebas mogcemT, naTeli warmodgena SeiqmnaT problemis gadawyvetis Taviseburebebis SesaxebAda, Ses aZloa, TqvenTvis saintereso rCevebic miiRoT, romlebic dagexmarebaT davalebis Ses rulebis gaumjobesebaSi. • problemis mimarTulia momentidan gadawyveta miznis (Problem solving) problemis _ azrovnebis mTeli procesi, romelic rigi romelic sawyisi fsiqikuri konkretuli

gadawyvetaze, miRwevamde mimdinareobs operaciebis saSualebiT. • msjeloba (Reasoning) _ azorvnebis procesi, rodesac an vaskvniT faqtebis erTobliobaze dayrdnobiT; mocemul mizanze obieqtze mimarTuli

223 azrovnebis procesi. problemuri situacia rogor gansazRvravT problemas realur cxovrebiseul pirobebSi? Cveulebriv, Tqven acnobierebT gansxvavebas Tqvens arsebul mdgomareobasa da sasur vel mizans Soris. magaliTad, Tqven ganicdiT materialur gaWirvebas da gsurT, iSov oT fuli; TqvenTvis cnobilia, agreTve, ra SegiZliaT (an gindaT) gaakeToT problemi s dasaZlevad. magaliTad, Tqven SeecdebiT SeTavsebiT raime samsaxuris Sovnas da a r daiwyebT jibis qurdobas. problemis formaluri gansazRvra aerTianebs am sam elem ents. problemis gansazRvra sam elements moicavs (Newell & Simon, 1972). problema ganisazRvreba: • Tavdapirveli mdgomareobiT _ arasruli informacia an aradamakmayofilebeli pirobebi; 1. mizniT _ informacia an pirobebi TqvenTvis sasu rveli garemos Sesaxeb; 2. operaciaTa TanmimdevrobiT _ is savaraudo safexurebi, r omlebsac gaivliT mocemuli mdgomareobebidan sasurveli miznis misaRwevad. am sami elementis erTobliobiT ganisazRvreba problemuri situacia. situacia ilustraciis mizniT problemis gadawyveta SegviZlia SevadaroT labirinTSi gzis povn as (problemuri situacia), romelic gulisxmobs sawyisi wertilidan (Tavdapirveli md gomareoba) sasurvel wertilamde gadaadgilebas (mizani). am dros Tqven gixdebaT da saSvebi operaciebis ganxorcieleba. problemebis gadaWrisas sawyisi siZneleebis um ravlesoba im SemTxvevaSi Cndeba, Tu am sami elementidan romelime ar aris sakmarisad gansazRvruli (Simon, 1973). kargad gansazRvruli problema saxelmZRvaneloSi sawyisi mocemul problemas mixvdeT, hgavs, Tu romelSic garkveviTaa

warmodgenili pasuxis mdgomareoba, cudad mizani da operaciebi, romelic miznis misaRwevadaa saWiro. Tqveni amocanaa, rogor gamoiyenoT operaciebi misaRebad. gansazRvruli problema ki hgavs saxlis dizainis Seqmnas, romanis daweras an Sidsi s mkunalobis meTodis aRmoCenas, sadac naTlad ar aris gamoyofili sawyisi mdgomare oba, mizani da operaciebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, pirvel rigSi, saWiroa problemis ars is zusti gansazRvra _ misi sawyisi mdgomareobis, idealuri gadawyvetis da miznis miRwevis SesaZlo saSualebebis dadgena.

224 rogorc Tqveni gamocdilebidan iciT, maSinac ki, roca sawyisi mdgomareoba da sabol oo mizani kargad aris gansazRvruli, swori operaciebis (moqmedebebis) moZebna miz nis misaRwevad mainc Znelia. Tu Tqveni gamocdilebidan gaixsenebT maTematikis gak veTils, mogcaT ras darwmundebiT, formula rom es marTlac gTxovaT, asea. magaliTad , x is x2+x_12=0@da maswavlebelma mniSvneloba. gansazRvroT akeTebT amisaTvis? am algebruli amocanis gadasawyvetad SegiZliaT, gamoiyenoT algoriTmi: Tanmimdevruli, safexureobrivi procedura, algori Tmi romelic yovelTvis gvaZlevs swor pasuxs (konkretuli tipis problemebis gadasaW relad). Tu algebrul wesebs sworad gamoiyenebT, aucileblad miiRebT x is swor mniS vnelobas (e. i. 3 da _4). algoriTmi saketis kodis daviwyebis SemTxvevaSic dagexm arebaT. Tu Tqven TanmimdevrobiT cdiT sxvadasxva variantebs (mag.: 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 4), gasaRebs aucileblad miagnebT, Tumca, amisTvis, SesaZloa, Zalian didi dro da gWirdeT. algoriTmis gamoyeneba ufro efeqtiania kargad gansazRvruli sawyisi probl emis da gadasaWrelad, mizani, vidre radgan cudad naTlad aris gamoyofili problemi s mdgomareoba gansazRvruli SemTxvevaSi. rodesac algoriTmis gamoyeneba SeuZlebelia, adamianebi xSirad iyeneb en evristikul meTodebsa da strategiebs, romlebic efuZneba praqtikul saqmianobasa saidumlo da gamocdilebas. Sesaxeb warmoidgineT, da gsurT, rom kiTxulobT vin mok la deteqtivs mdidari mkvlelobis gaarkvioT komersanti. Tqven, SesaZloa, gamoricxoT, rom igi ufrosma msaxurma mokla, radgan Tqveni gamocdilebiT migaCniaT, rom avtori ar mimarTavda Sinaarsis aseT banalur g anviTarebas. rogorc SemdegSi vnaxavT, evristika warmoadgens msjelobisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis mniSvnelovan aspeqts. • problemuri situacia (Problem space) _ elementebi, romlebic qmnian problemas: saw yisi mdgomareoba _ arasruli mizani informacia _ an pirovnebisaTvis an mdgomareob a, aradamakmayofilebeli pirobebi; informacia romelsac eswrafvis adamiani; operaciebis erToblioba _ pirovnebis mier sawyisi md gomareobidan sasurvel miznamde misaRwevad gavlili safexurebi. • algoriTmi (Algorit hm) _ Tanmimdevruli safexureobrivi procedura, romlis saSualebiTac gadasaWrelad. vpoulobT swor pasuxs konkretuli tipis problemis

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225 • evristika (Heuristics) _ kognituri strategia an ,,praqtikuli meTodi”, romelic xSir ad gamoiyeneba rogorc Semoklebuli gza rTuli amocanis gadasaWrelad. sur. 9.10. SegiZliaT gadaWraT es problemebi? (nawili I) scadeT am amocanebis amo xsna (pasuxebi mocemulia suraTze (9.11). nu naxavT pasuxebs, sanam TviTon ar ecd ebiT am problemebis mogvarebas. . A. SegiZliaT, daakavSiroT yvela wertili erTman eTTan oTxi swori xazis gavlebiT ise, rom kalami furclidan ar aiRoT. B. 6 futis simaRlis milSi, romelic fizikis laboratoriaSi iatakzea mimagrebuli, Caagdes 3 cali ping pongis burTi. rogor amoiRebdiT burTebs milidan. C. Wadrakis dafas ori mopirdapire kuTxidan moaciles TiTo ujra, darCa 62 ujra. Tq ven gaqvT 31 cali dominos koWi, TiToeuli or ujras faravs. scadeT mTlianad dafaro T Wadrakis zedapiri dominos koWebiT. D. Werze erTmaneTis daSorebiT ori Tokia Cam okideuli, ise, rom Tu xels erTi Tokis bolos mokidebT, meores veRar da miwvdebiT. Rerebi Tqven gevalebaT yuTSi. miswvdeT meore Tokis bolos da gadaabaT isini erTmaneTs. E. Tqven gaqvT sanTeli, Wikartebi asanTis asanTis daamagreT anTebuli sanTeli karze. F. gadasawyveti gaqvT ,,wylis qilis” 3 problema. SegiZliaT mxolod 3 qilis gamoyenebiT (wylis raodenoba

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gansazRvruli ar aris) miiRoT yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi wylis gansazRvruli raodenoba? mkvlevrebi isini xSirad fiqris dainteresdnen problemur situaciaSi adamianebis mi er algoriTmisa da evristikis gamoyenebiT. azrovnebis safexurebis Sesaswavlad mimarT avdnen xmamaRali fiqris meTods romelic meTods, (Ericson & Simon, 1993). magaliTa d, gulisxmobs mkvlevarebi verbalizacias dainteresdnen, SeeswavlaT is fsiqikuri procesebi, romelTa saSualebiTac cdis pire bi wyvetdnen Wadrakis dafis problemas (suraTi 9.10 nawili C) (Kaplan & Simon, 1990). qvemoT mocemulia erT erTi cdis piris xmamaRali fiqris oqmis Canawe ri, sadac igi akeTebs mniSvnelovan daskvnas, rom problemis gadaWra

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226 SeuZlebelia, Tu igi koWebs mxolod vertikalurad an horizontalurad daalagebs (dafas vardisferi da Savi ujrebi hqonda). ,,...ase carieli adgili rCeb a... es moklea _ ramdeni rCeba _ uhhh... vardisferi ufro metia, vidre Savi, imisaTvis, rom Sevavso, saWiroa, SevaerTo ori vardisferi, magram amas ver vizamT, imitom rom isini diagonalzea... es ixureba? .... (Kaplan & Simon, 1990 gv. 388). cdis piri mixvda, rom mizans ver miaRwevda, Tu dominoebs sul horizontalurad an vertikalurad daalagebda. xSirad mkvlevarebi cdis pirTa azrovne bis Canawerebs problemis gadaWris modelis amosaval wertilad iyeneben (Simon, 197 9, 1989). problemis gadaWris gaumjobeseba gaumjobeseba ra uSlis xels problemis gadawyvetas? Tu gamoiyenebT Tqvens yoveldRiur gamocdileb as, erTdroulad SeiZleba mixvideT daskvnamde, problemis rom ,,uamravi ram aris gasaTvaliswinebeli.“ gadawyvetis procesebze dakvirvebas zustad imave daskvnamde mivyavarT. xSirad problemis gadawyvetas aZne

lebs is, rom mocemuli problemis gadawyvetis gonebrivi moTxovnebi aRemateba gadamuSavebis arsebul resursebs (Kotovsky et al., 1985; Kotovsky & Sim on, 1990). problemis dasaZlevad saWiroa mTeli rigi Tanmimdevruli operaciebis dag egmva. Tu moqmedebaTa es rigi an TviTon gegmaSi mocemuli TiToeuli moqmdeba metad rTulia, SesaZloa, verc ki dainaxoT sawyisi mdgomareobidan saboloo miznamde misaRwevi gza. rogor SegiZliaT am SesaZlo problemis gadawyveta? proble mis gadawyvetis gaumjobesebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs Tqveni resursebis Sesabamisi, realurad ganxorcielebadi gegmis SemuSavebas. Tu Tqven reg ularulad gixdebaT erTi tipis problemebis gadaWra, maSin mizanSewonili iqneba dae ufloT daZlevis procesSi gamoyenebul komponentebs, rac ganapirobebs procesis avto matizacias da nakleb Zalisxmevas (Kotovsky et al., 1985). davuSvaT, taqsis mZRol ad muSaobT niu iorkSi da yoveldRiurad gixdebaT manqanebiT gadaWedil quCebSi piki s saaTis dros moZraoba. SesaZloa, qalaqis sxadasxva monakveTSi gamoimuSavoT gans xvavebuli sapasuxo reaqciebi. ase, rom Tu droTa ganmavlobaSi geqnebaT gadwyvetil ebis mza komponentebi, Tqven mTel

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227 yuradRebas gzas miapyrobT. magaliTad, mgzavrs misi ayvanis adgilzeve gadaaxdevinebT mgzavrobis safasurs, Semdeg ki SeZlebT mTeli Tqveni yuradReba moZ raobaze gadaitanoT. gagacnobT warsuli gamocdilebis awmyoSi gamoyenebis erT erT s aukeTeso magaliTs. wamgebiani msoflio Cempions, gari kasparovs gansazRvra SeuZli a da Wadrakis figurebis SemTxvevaSi ganlagebis poziciebis TiToeul gamocdili strategiis gamoyeneba, rac mas saSualebas aZlevs erTdroulad ramodenime oponenti daamarcxos (Gobet & Simon, 1996). rig SemTxvevaSi sasargeblo reprezent aciis povna problemis sruliad axal WrilSi gaazrebis saSualebas iZleva. waikiTxeT 9.6 cxrilSi mocemuli amocana. rogor apirebT am amocanis amoxsnas? dafiqrdiT, sa nam kiTxvas gaagrZelebdeT. Tu Tqven am problemis mosagvareblad maTematikuri xerx ebis gamoyeneba scadeT, warmatebas ver miaRwevdiT. am SemTxvevaSi ukeTesi iqneba warmoidginoT ori beri, romelTagan erTi mTis wveridan Camodis, meore ki adis ( Adams, 1986). isini xom erT wertilSi Sexvdebian erTmaneTs? (ix. sur. 9.12). axla ori beri SecvaleT erTiT. azrobrivad es erTi da igivea, e.i. amocana damtkicebul ia. amocanis aseT gamartivebas uzrunvelyofs swored swori – vizualuri da ara verbal uri an maTematikuri reprezentaciis gamoyeneba. Tu 9.10 suraTze mocemul amocanebs gadaxedavT, kidev erTxel, darwmundebiT problemuri situaciis adekvaturi reprezen taciis mniSvnelobaSi. Tqven unda mixvdeT, rom milidan ping pongis burTebis SeRwe va. erTamaneTisagan moSorebiT amosaRebad ar aris saWiro milSi Camokidebuli Tokis boloebis SesaerTeblad ki saWiroa yuradReba miaqcioT Tokis qveS, iatakze myof erT erT saga ns da gamoiyenoT igi, rogorc simZime. anTebuli sanTlis karze dasamagreblad ki aucilebelia asanTis kolofi gamoiyenoT, rogorc Sandali, xolo san Teli unda gamoiyenoT, erTis mxriv, rogorc iaraRi, xolo, meores mxriv, sagani, ro melic rigidobis unda miamagroT karze. bolo ori problema 1931). funqcionaluri fenomenis ilustraciaa (Duncker, 1945; Maier,

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funqcionaluri rigidoba xels uSlis sagnis tradiciulad miRebuli Tvisebebis ugulveb elyofas uaryofiT da misi axali Tvisebebis Tu funqciis danaxvas, riTac gavlenas a xdens problemis gadaWraze. rodesac problemur situaciaSi aRmoCndebiT, pirvel rigSi, daukvirdiT, rogor warmoidgenT mas; xom

228 ar arsebobs misi gaazrebis an daZlevis gansxvavebuli an ukeTesi gzebi? Tu sityve bi ar gSveliT, SeecadeT, es problema naxatiT warmoidginoT. mosinjeT Tqveni varia ntebi. naxeT, Tu romeli funqciis Secvlaa SesaZlebeli axali kombinaciis misaRebad . rodesac raime problemis gadaWras cdilobT, rogorc wesi, Tqven fiqrobT anu azrov nebT. qvemoT ganvixilavT azrovnebis erT erT formas, romelsac deduqciuri azrovneba ewodeba. • funqcionaluri rigidoba (Functional fixedness) – sagn is tradiciuli xedvis Secvlis da axali funqciis danaxvis da misi efeqtianad gamoy enebis uunaroba. cxrili 9.6. gamocana ,,beri“ erT diliT, zustad mzis amosvlisas budisti beri iwyebs asvlas maRal mTaze. mTis biliki viwroa, daaxloebiT erTi Tu ori nabijis siganis. spiraliviT daklaknili biliki mTis mwvervalisaken miemarTeba. beri sxvadasxva siC qariT midis, xSirad Cerdeba dasasveneblad, Wams gamxmar xils (Cirs) da taZarSi m zis Casvlamde cota xniT adre midis. ramodenime dRis marxvisa da meditaciis Semdeg, isev mzis amosvlisas, beri igive bilikiT mTidan qvemoT eSveba , igi sxvadasxva siCqariT modis; xSirad Cerdeba Sesasveneblad. qvemoT Camosvlisa s, misi siarulis saSualo siCqare bevrad aRemateba qvemodan zemoT asvlis siCqares . daamtkiceT, rom bilikze aris wertili sadac beri zustad erTsa da imave dros imy ofeboda asvlisasac da Camosvlisasac (pasuxi ix. sur. 9.12). 9.12. suraTi 9.12 A suraTze naCvenebia ori beri. erTi moZraobs qvemodan zeviT, meore zemodan qvemoT. B suraTze warmodgenilia maTi Sexvedris adgili dRis erTi da igive momentSi. axla SecvaleT ori beri erTiT; amocana damtkicebulia. deduqciuri azrovneba warmoidgineT, rom midixarT restoranSi da fulis gadaxdas Tqv eni erTaderTi sakredito baraTiT „American Express“ iT apirebT. rekavT restoranSi da ekiT xebiT: „SeiZleba Tqvens restoranSi sakredito baraTiT, „American Express“iT, sargebloba ?“ restornis mepatrone gpasuxobT: „Cven viRebT yvela ZiriTad sakredito baraTs“. am pas uxis Semdeg SegiZliaT daaskvnaT, rom isini miiReben

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229 Tqvens sakredito baraTsac. ratom? am SemTxvevaSi SegviZlia vixelmZRvaneloT silog izmiT (ori winadadebidan gakeTebuli logikuri daskvna), romelic berZenma filosofo sma aristotelem 2000 wlis win mogvca: wanamZRvari 1. restorani iRebs yvela ZiriTad sakredito baraTs. wanamZRvari 2. „Ame rican Express“ i aris ZiriTadi sakredito baraTi. daskvna: restorani miiRebs baraTs „American Express“. aristotele ikvlevda, Tu ra logikuri mimarTeba arsebobda winadadebebs Soris, roml ebic realur daskvnamde migviyvanda. deduqciuri azrovneba gulisxmobs logikuri wesebis sworad gamoyenebas. Cven moviyvaneT sakredito baraTi s magaliTi, raTa gveCvenebina, rom gvaqvs logikuri daskvnis gakeTebis unari, rom elsac logikuri, deduqciuri mtkicebulebis forma gaaCnia. miuxedavad amisa, fsiqol ogebi ikvleven, gvaqvs Tu ara deduqciuri azrovnebis formaluri wesebi. (Schaeken et al., 2000). es masStaburi kvleva gvafiqrebinebs, rom, SesaZloa, marTlac gagva Cnia zogadi logikuri azrovnebis unari, magram realur samyaroSi deduqciur azrovne baze gavlenas axdens specifikuri codna samyaros Sesaxeb da konkretul problemasTa n dakavSirebuli reprezentaciuli resursebi. • deduqciuri azrovneba (Deductive reaso ning) – azrovnebis forma, romelic ori an meti wanamZRvridan logikuri daskvnis gake Tebis unars gulisxmobs. modiT, ganvavrcoT msjeloba Semdeg daskvnebze da vnaxoT, Tu ra gavlenas axdens codna deduqciur azrovnebaze. ganvixiloT Semdegi silogizmi: wanamZRvari 1. yvelafers, rasac aqvs Zrava, sWirdeba benzini. wanamZRvari 2. avt omobilebs sWirdebaT benzini. daskvna: avtomobilebs aqvT Zrava. rogor fiqrobT, sworia es daskvna? logikis wesebis Tanaxmad — ara, radgan pirveli w anamZRvari Riad tovebs im faqts, rom zogierT sagans, romelsac ara aqvs Zrava, ag reTve, sWirdeba benzini. siZnele imaSi mdgomareobs, rom is, rac arasworia logiku r problemaSi, ar aris aucilebeli mcdari iyos realur cxovrebaSic. e. i. Tu Tqven flobT mxolod pirvel da meore wanamZRvarSi mocemul informacias da Tqven mas ganix ilavT ubralod, rogorc formaluri logikis savarjiSos, maSin es daskvna mcdaria. mi uxedavad amisa, roca c.p ebi

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230 msjeloben, gamomdinareobs Tu ara daskvna logikurad ori wanamZRvridan, isini ufro dadebiTi pasuxisken ixrebian, rodesac daskvna avtomobils Seexeba, vidre maSin, rodesac uazro termini „oppobines“ gamoiyeneba (Markovitz & Nantel, 1989). aseTi Sede gi rwmenis efeqtis naTel magaliTs warmoadgens. rwmenis efeqti gulisxmobs, rom ad amianebi WeSmaritad miiCneven im daskvnebs, romelTaTvisac SeuZliaT realuri samya ros misaRebi modelis konstruireba (ageba), xolo mcdarad Tvlian im daskvnebs, rom elTaTvisac amis gakeTeba uWirT (Evans et al., 1983; Janis & Frick, 1943; Newstea d et al., 1992). • rwmenis efeqti (elief bias effect) – situacia, romelsac cvlis pir ovnebis codna, ganwyoba, Rirebulebebi amaxinjebs da romelic aiZulebs mas miiRos mcdari argument ebi. azrovnebis process, suraTi: ZaRli (gv 276) wanamZRvari 1. yvela katas 4 fexi aqvs. wanamZRvari 2. me 4 fexi maqvs. daskvna: me kata var. Tu arsebobs iseTi damajerebeli daskvna, romelic Seesabameba adamianis gonebaSi p roblemis reprezentacias, es daskvna WeSmaritad miiCneva. avtomobilis SemTxvevaSi , aZnelebs SemTxvevaSi, codna avtomobilebis Sesaxeb aZnelebs am daskvnis uaryofa s. Tumca, roca monawileebs misces zustad es wanamZRvrebi da sTxoves, gaekeTebina T daskvna, daaxloebiT naxevarma SesZlo sworad ganesazRvra, rom am forforamrigad, mulirebiT swor daskvnas ver gamoitanda. amrigad, codnas, SesaZloa, ufro naklebi gavlena hqondes Tqveni sakuTari azrovnebis procesebze, vidre Tqvens (Rips, 1990 ). mier sxvisi daskvnebis Sefasebaze ( ). logikuri azrovnebis iseTi formaluri in struqciebi, romlebic aq aris aRwerili, amcirebs rwmenis gavlenas daskvnaze (Evan s et al., 1994). azrovnebis SeadareT, Tu unars rogor gamocdilebac asrulebT aumjo besebs. da imave amaSi dasarwmuneblad, abstraqtuli erTsa davalebas

azrovnebis saSualebiT da samyaros Sesaxeb realuri codnis gamoyenebiT. warmoidgin eT, rom erT rigSi dalagebulia 4 baraTi, romelTagan TiToeulze weria „a“, „d“, „4“, „7“, ise, rc es 9.13 suraTzea warmodgenili. romeli

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231 baraTi unda gadmoabrunoT, rom SeamowmoT wesi: „Tu baraTis erT mxareze xmovania, mi s meore mxares iqneba luwi ricxvi“ (Jihnson Laird & Wason, 1977). ras izamdiT? umr avlesoba fiqrobs, rom unda gadmoabrunos baraTi „a“ — rac sworia da baraTi „4“, rac ar aris swori. ara mocemuli baraTs wesis „4“. mcdarobis amitom mis dasamtkiceblad araviTari mniSvneloba aqvs gadmobrunebas azri ara aqvs (xvdebiT, ratom?). Tqven unda gadmoabrunoT baraTi „7“ da Tu naxavT, rom mis meore mxares mocemulia xmovani, gamodis, rom wesi ar aris sw ori. sur. 9.13. abstraqtuli da sagnobrivi azrovneba Tqven gevalebaT gadmoabrunoT zeda rigSi mocemuli baraTebidan is baraTebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SeamowmebT wess: „Tu baraTis erT mxareze mocmulia x movani, mis meore mxares iqneba luwi ricxvi“. qveda rigSi mocemuli baraTebidan und a gadmoabrunoT is baraTebi, romlebic saSualebas mogcemT, SeamowmoT Semdegi wesi: „Tu momxmarebeli apirebs alkoholuri sasmelis dalevas, igi 18 wlis mainc unda iyos“. rogorc wesi, c.p. ebi meore davalebas ukeTesad asruleben. am dros SesaZlebeli, realuri cxovrebiseuli strategiebis gamoyeneba. am davalebas veisonis seleqciis davalebas (Wason selection task) uwodeben, romel ic eWvs qveS ayenebs adamianis efeqturad azrovnebis unars. es negatiuri azri Sem dgomSi modificirebul iqna ori mimarTulebiT. pirveli: mkvlevarebma gamoTqves vara udi, rom, SesaZloa, c.p. ebi baraTebis Sesamowmeblad iyeneben aradeduqciur strat egias, ris gamoc isini ufro adastureben, vidre uaryofen wesSi asaxuli mimarTebis ganzogadebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom am strategias mcdar deduqciur azrovnebamde mivyavarT, realur situaciaSi igi mizanSewonilia mimarTebebis Sesaswavlad da gadawyvetilebis misaRebad (Oaksford, Chater, 1994; Oaksford et al., 1997). meorec, deduqciuri azrovnebis gamoyeneba u fro efeqturia, rodesac c.p. ebs saSualeba aqvT, veisonis davalebis Sesrulebis dr os gamoiyenon samyaros Sesaxeb realuri codna (Holyoak & Spellman, 1993). warmoidgineT, Tqven gTxoves 9. 13 suraTis qveda rigSi mocemul baraTebze logikuri davalebis Sesruleba. unda

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232 SeamowmoT wesi: „Tu momxmarebeli apirebs alkoholuri sasmelis dalevas, igi 18 wlis mainc unda iyos“ (CHeng & Holyoak 1985). am SemTxvevaSi, albaT, maSinve mixvdiT, r omeli baraTebi unda gadmoabrunoT: „17“ da „ludis daleva“. realur cxovrebaSi msgavsi prob lemis dros SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT azrovnebis pragmatuli sqema. rogorc me 8 e TavSi aRvwereT, sqemebis Camoyalibeba xdeba gamocdilebis Sedegad. Tqven akrZalvebis d idi gamocdileba gaqvT — gaixseneT is dro, roca geubnebodnen: „televizors ver uyureb, sanam saSinao davalebas ar Seasruleb“. aseTi tipis interaqciebis procesSi Tqven i muSavebT gonivrul asaki sqemas. da sma, realur xdeba am cxovrebiseul sqemis situ aciaSi, xolo sadac pirobiT dakavSirebulia aqtivacia; situaciaSi, romelic luw ricxvebsa da xmovnebs akavSirebs, sqemis aqtivacia ar xd eba. amitom aseTi pirobiTi tipis davalebebi ar iZleva deduqciuri azrovnebis unaris saTanadod Sefasebis saSualebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom ukanaskneli kvlevebis Sedegad gaCnda akrZalvebis procesSi sqemebis SeZenis azris alternatiul i idea. zemoT aRwerili davalebis 3 wlis asakis bavSvebisaTvis modificirebuli var iantis Catarebis dros aRmoCnda, rom maT kargad SeuZliaT wesis gageba Tu ra ari s nebadarTuli da ra – akrZaluli. es Sedegebi savaraudos xdis, rom akrZalvis situac iis gaazreba, SesaZloa, Tandayolili iyos (Cummins, 1996). radganac igi ar aris d amokidebuli informaciis socialur nawils, normebze, SesaZloa, warmoadgendes genet ikuri romelic memkvidreobiT gadaecema adamians, rogorc socialur arsebas (Cummins, 1999). am nawilis dasawyis Si aRvwereT situacia, saidanac Tqven akeTebdiT swor deduqciur daskvnas sakredito baraTis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. samwuxarod, cxovrebaSi arsebobs uamravi SemTxveva, rodesac SeuZlebelia swori daskvnis gakeTe ba, sakmaod sando wanamZRvrebidanac ki. axla, ganvixilavT am magaliTis axal vers ias, romelic Tqvengan gansxvavebuli formis azrovnebas moiTxovs. induqciuri azrov neba warmoidgineT aseTi situacia: mixvediT restoranSi da mxolod maSin gagaxsendaT, SegemowmebinaT, gaqvT Tu ara sakmarisi naRdi fuli. aRmoaCineT, rom mogiwevT Tqveni sakredito baraTis „American Express“ is gamoyeneba, magram

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233 restornis gareT ar aris gancxadeba imis Taobaze, SegiZliaT Tu ara am restoranSi sakredito baraTiT sargebloba. restornis fanjrebidan moCans kargad Cacmuli momxma rebeli. meniuSi ki xedavT, rom fasebi sakmaod maRalia. mxedvelobaSi iRebT ra Tqv en garSemomyofTa maRal materialur mdgomareobas, mocemul situaciaze dakvirveba ga fiqrebinebT, rom es restorani miiRebs Tqvens sakredito baraTs. es aris deduqciur i daskvna, radganac igi emyareba Tqvens varauds da ara _ logikur wanamZRvars. Tq veni daskvna induqciuri azrovnebis nimuSia. induqciuri azrovneba gulisxmobs sava raudo daskvnis gamotanas mocemul situaciaze dayrdnobiT, magram igi ar gvTavazobs sando daskvnebs. • induqci uri azrovneba (Inductive reasoning) – azrovnebis forma, romelic misawvdom mtkicebulebaze da warsul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT garkveuli albaTobiT daskvnis gakeTebas gulisxmobs. Tumca, saxeli, SesaZloa, axalia, magram Cven ukve SemogTavazeT induqciuri azrovnebis ramdenime nimuSi. me 5 e da me 8 e TavebSi v naxeT, rom adamianebi warsulSi dagrovil informacias iyeneben awmyosa da momavlis gansazRvris mizniT. Tqven induqciur azrovnebas iyenebT Semdeg SemTxvevebSi: hae rSi popkornis surnelis safuZvelze askvniT, rom viRac popkorns akeTebs. induqciur azr ovnebas iyenebT, Tu daeTanxmebiT azrs, rom asoebi am furcelze uecrad ar gauCinar deba (an Tu iswavliT, Tqveni codna ar gauCinardeba testirebis dros). da bolos, a m TavSi ganvixileT daskvnis tipebi, romlebic adamianis saubridan gamomdinareoben. Tqveni varaudi, rom igi namdvilad maRali wris warmoma dgenelia, misi metyvelebis maneridan gamomdinare, induqciuri azrovnebis nimuSs w armoadgens. realur cxovrebaSi problemis gadaWris unari xSirad damokidebulia indu qciur azrovnebaze. davubrundeT isev Cvens magaliTs. Tqven SemTxveviT CageketaT k ari da darCiT gareT. ras moimoqmedebT am SemTxvevaSi? warsulSi aseT dros miRebul i gadawyvetilebis gaxseneba pirveli mizanSewonili nabijia. am process problemis analogiuri gadawyveta ewodeba. Aam dros Tqven iwyebT awmyo da warsul situaciebs Soris saerTos Ziebas (Holyoak & Nisbett, 1988; Holyoak & Thagard, 1997). safuZve lze `karis SeiZleba Caketvis da gareT zogadi darCenis” wesi: warsuli gamocdilebis moZebna, gagaxsendeT `iseTi adamianebis romelTac aqvT gasaRebi”. am zogadi wesiT SeiaraRebuli, Tqven iwyebT am

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234 adamianebis gamoyofas da fiqrs, rogor ipovoT isini (Ross & Kenedy, 1990). am pro blemis gadasaWrelad SeiZleba dagWirdeT im meTodis gaxseneba, romelic Tqveni mego brebis rom mosaZebnad Tqven ukve SeimuSaveT. mieCvieT am problemis gadaWra imito m geadvilebaT, warsuli gamocdilebis gamoyenebas: induqciuri azrovneba saSualebas gaZlevT, gamoiyenoT gamocdili meTodebi da swrafa d gadaWraT axali problemebi. problemis analogiuri gadawyvetis Sesaxeb kvlevebs x Sirad saganmanaTleblo mniSvneloba aqvT (Kolodnery, mecnierebis amocanebi 1977), magaliTad, Tqveni maTematikisa da sabunebismetyvelo Tavisi amoxsna, amonaxsniT. maswavleblebi ukve gacnoben ramodenime pasuxebiT midgoma amocanas mocemulia damuSavebuli dasZlevT. aseTi saxelmZRvaneloebSic. SemdgomSi ki, Tqven gixdebaT msgavsi tipis amocanebis romle bsac, savaraudod, emyareba im mosazrebas, rom Tqven gamoiyenebT induqciur azrovnebas da SesZlebT Zveli meTodeb is gamoyenebas axali problemebis dasaZlevad. mkvlevarebi Seecadnen, ganesazRvraT is pirobebi, romlebSic moswavleebi warsuli gamocdilebis maqsimalurad gamoyenebas SeZlebdnen (Lorett & Anderson, 1994; Novick & Holyoak, 1991). zogadi daskvna, romelic maT gamoitanes, gulisxmobs, rom moswavleebs analogiis mosaZebnad xSirad daxmareba sWirdebaT. imisaTvis, rom moswavlem SeZlos axal problemaSi Zveli problemis mniSvnelobis danaxva, xSirad saWiroa damatebiTi waxaliseba — miniSnebisa da mimarTulebis micema (Ross & Kennedy , 1990). modiT, ganvixiloT magaliTi: saidan viciT msgavsebebis mosaZebnad adamia nebs xSirad daxmareba sWirdebaT daakvirdiT 9.14 suraTis I nawilSi mocemul figura s. warmoidgineT, rom viRacam milis zeda bolodan Caasxa wyali. ra mimarTulebiT wa va wylis nakadi milis qveda bolodan gamosvlis Semdeg? SegiZliaT, gamoiyenoT meor e nawilSi mocemuli nimuSebi. ganvixiloT kiTxvis odnav Secvlili varianti. warmoidgineT, rom viRacam milis TavSi daamagra Slangi. cvlis es rames? c.p.ebs p irvelad sTxovdnen, daexataT wylis nakadis mimarTuleba, romliTac, maTi azriT, wya li wavidoda milidan gamosvlis Semdeg. amis Semdgom ki sTxovdnen, amoerCiaT is su raTi, romelic yvelaze metad hgavda maT naxats. erT erT

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235 eqsperimentSi, sadac pirobebSi ar iyo mocemuli Slangi, c.p Ta mxolod 30% ma gasc a swori pasuxi (f varianti), xolo Slangis Semotanis Semdeg es ricxvi 75% mde gai zarda. ra ganapirobebs am gansxvavebas? rogorc Cans, warsuli gamocdilebis eqspli cituri Sexsenebisas (magaliTad, gaixseneT, rogor gamodis wylis nakadi sarwyavi milidan), c.p ebi iwyeben induqciur azrovnebas, Tu mca, am Sexsenebis gareSe isini fiqroben, rom „miamituri fizikis“ kanonidan gamomdin are, milidan gamosvlis Semdeg wylis nakadi ganagrZobs cirkularul moZraobas (Catr ambone et al., 1995). am eqsperimentSi kargad Cans, rom adamianebis umravlesobas problemis gadaWrisas sWirdeba Sexseneba (miTiTeba), rom gamoiyenon induqciuri azrovneba. T qven SeiZleba ar mogwonT, rom aseTi Sexseneba xSirad aucilebelia — maswavleblebi d a saxelmZRvaneloebi iSviaTad iZlevian aseT miniSnebebs. ra unda qnaT? SeecadeT, Tqven TviTon, SeZlebisdagvarad, moZebnoT konkretuli analogia; SeecadeT, gansazRv roT problemis struqtura da gamoiyenoT msgavsi struqturis mqone, TqvenTvis ukve n acnobi problemis daZlevis meTodi. rac ufro zustad da sworad gaqvT gagebuli Zveli problemis komponentebi da struqtura, miT ufro advilia Zvel da axal problemebs S oris msgavsebis danaxva da gadawyvetilebis meTodis morgeba. manamde ki SegiZliaT , endoT fsiqolog eqsperimentatorebs da maT mier miRebuli Sedegebi gauziaroT maswavleblebs da saxelmZRvanelos avtorebs. sur. 9.14. ra mimarTulebiT wava wyali ? warmoidgineT, rom suraTis pirvel nawilSi daxatuli mowyobilobidan gamodis wylis n akadi. rogor ggoniaT, ra mimarTulebiT wava wyali? daxateT. Semdeg ki, meore nawi lSi warmodgenili nimuSebidan airCieT erT erTi, romelic yvelaze metad hgavs Tqven s naxats. induqciur azrovnebasTan dakavSirebiT kidev erTi ram unda aRvniSnoT. xSirad SesaZlebelia efeqturi gadawyvetilebis xelmeore gamoyeneba. magram rig Sem TxvevebSi, roca Zvel da axal situacias Soris kritikuli gansxvavebaa, warsulze da mokidebulebam SeiZleba xeli SeuSalos axali problemis daZlevas. 9.12 suraTze aRwe rili am wylis qilebis amocana amis klasikur magaliTs gamo warmoadgens. SemTxvevaSi warsul gamocdilebaze damokidebulebis

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236 SeiZleba amocana saerTod ver amoxsnaT (Luchins, 1942). pirveli ori amocanis „e“ nawilSi Tqven aRmoaCenT, rom pasuxis misaRebad arsebobs zogadi formula B A2(C). bunebrivia, rom mesame amocanis amoxsnisas iseve SeecdebiT mis gamoyenebas da na xavT, rom am formuliT mesame amocana ar amoixsneba. am SemTxvevaSi unda gaavsoT „a“ qila da gadmoasxaT imdeni, rom Seivsos „g“ qila, ris Semdegac dagrCebaT wylis saWiro raodenoba. Tu Tqven ver mixvdiT, es rogor unda gagekeTebinaT da amocanis amosax snelad pirvel formulas iyenebdiT, es imas niSnavs, rom SegeqmnaT im gamocdili we sis gamoyenebis fsiqikuri ganwyoba, romelmac warmateba mogitanaT. ganwyoba — es ar is fsiqikuri aqtivobis, azrovnebis Tu Cvevis winmswrebi mdgomareoba, romelsac garkveuli pirobebis zemoqm edebiT SeuZlia aRqmisa da problemis gadaWris xarisxisa da siswrafis gazrda. Tumc a, maSin, rodesac azrovnebisa da moqmedebis Zveli xerxebi axal situaciaSi ar ari s produqtuli, maT SeuZliaT fsiqikuri aqtebis Seferxeba da damaxinjeba. rodesac p roblemur situaciaze fiqris dros gaiWedebiT, daixieT ukan da hkiTxeT sakuTar Tavs : warsuli warmateba xom ar ganapirobebs Tqveni xedvis SezRudvas? problemis daZle vis rac gadaWrisas SeiZleba gaiTvaliswineT problemuri situaciebisa da maTi farTo speqtri, rac ufro SemoqmedebiTs gaxdis daZlevis process. am nawilSi Cven ganvixileT problemis gadawyvetisa da azrovnebi s sxvadasxva tipebi da konkretuli etapebi, romlebic unda gaiaroT realur pirobebS i moqmedebis gaumjobesebis mizniT. am Tavis bolo nawilSi Cvenc imave strategias mivmarTavT. Cven aRvwereT zogierTi mniSvnelovani kvlevis Sedegebi, romlebic daka vSirebulia gansjisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesebTan. Cven, agreTve, Semog TavazeT, Tu rogor unda gamoiyenoT es Sedegebi TqvenTvis mniSvnelovan situaciaSi. Sejameba problemuri situacia moicavs Tavdapirvel mdgomareobas, mizans da mTel r ig operaciebs, aRwevs romelTa saSualebiTac daZleva Tavdapirveli ufro mdgomareobi dan roca individi adamianebi sasargeblo mizans. problemis efeqturia, da gadawyvetilebis komponentebs gamocdian pouloben

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237 reprezenataciebs. deduqciuri azrovnebis gamoyenebiT viRebT sando daskvnebs. kvle vis Sedegebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom adamianebi yovelTvis ar arian Tanmimdevru lni rwmenis deduqciuri Tumca, azrovnebis deduqciuri dros. magaliTad, isini tyuvd ebian matulobs gavleniT, azrovnebis efeqturoba „akrZalvebis“ situaciaSi. induqciuri azrovneba moiTxovs warsuli gamocdilebis general izacias. induqcias didi gamoyeneba aqvs analogiuri problemis gadaWris dros: axali problem is gadasaWrelad adamianebi cdiloben, ipovon misi analogiuri Zveli problema, roml is daZlevis gzebic maTTvis ukve cnobilia. • fsiqikuri ganwyoba (Mental set) _ axal i problemis dasaZlevad wina problemis daZlevis stilis, saSualebis gamoyenebis te ndencia. fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi eqspert sistemebi da medicina Tu odesme gqonia T seriozuli samedicino konsultacia eqimTan, Tavad yofilxarT im situaciis monawil e, roca individis msjelobasa da problemis gadaWris unars udidesi mniSvneloba aqv s. Tqvens janmrTelobaze pasuxismgebelma pirma unda moaxdinos Tqvens mier CamoTvlili simptomebis erToblio bis (paternis) identifikacia da daadginos daavadebis gamomwvevi mizezi. miRebuli daskvnis safuZvelze individma samoqmedo gegma unda SeimuSavos. am procesSi mocemuli sirTuleebidan gamomdinare, warmoidgin