POWERGRID Practices in EHV Substation Layout

K K Sarkar Dy. Chief Design Engineer (Engg-s/s)

Power Grid Corporation of India
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Important considerations in layout..
Reliability and Security
Selection of Bus Scheme Ease of Maintenance Operational Flexibility

Short Circuit Level Shape of the land Altitude of the land above mean sea level Feeder orientation Safety of Equipment and personnel Possibility of future expansion Cost
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Bus Switching Schemes…
Single Main Scheme Double Main Scheme Single Main & Transfer Scheme Double Main with by-pass isolator scheme Double Main & Transfer Scheme One & Half Breaker Scheme Double breaker Scheme Ring Bus Scheme

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SINGLE BUS SCHEME
Simplest and cheapest bus bar scheme Maintenance and extensions of busbars are not possible without shutdown of the substation. Operation & maintenance of bus bar is easy. easy

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SINGLE MAIN AND TRANSFER SCHEME
Individual CB can be taken out for maintenance on-load at a time. The transfer bus coupler acts as the breaker for the circuit under by pass. Individual circuits have a bypass isolator to connect to the transfer bus and this isolator will be closed during bypass operation of that particular circuit.
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DOUBLE BUS SCHEME
Load will be distributed on both the buses and the bus coupler shall be normally closed. For maintenance & extension of any one of the buses the entire load will be transferred to the other bus. On load transfer of a circuit from one bus to the other bus is possible through bus isolators provided the bus coupler is closed and thereby two buses are at the same potential. On load bypassing of any circuit for breaker maintenance is not possible. possible
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DOUBLE BUS WITH BY-PASS SCHEME
This bus arrangement provides the facilities of a double bus arrangement & a main and transfer bus arrangement. The bus to which the transfer bus isolator is connected can be used as a transfer bus also. During the time a circuit is under bypass, the bus coupler will act as the breaker for the bypassed circuit.
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DOUBLE MAIN AND TRANSFER SCHEME
In this bus scheme, in addition to the two main buses there will be a separate transfer bus also. Since separate transfer bus is available there will be no need of transferring the load from one bus to the other bus unlike in a double main cum transfer bus arrangement. Other features are similar to the one described in double bus with by pass arrangement.

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BREAKER AND HALF SCHEME
In this scheme, two circuit have three breakers, the middle breaker ties the two circuits and hence is called the tie breaker. Breaker or bus maintenance is possible without any shut down of the feeder Even if both the buses are out of service, power can be transferred from one feeder to another feeder through tie breaker

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DOUBLE BUS TWO BREAKER SCHEME
Each feeder is controlled by two breakers. This arrangement is comparatively costlier than other scheme and hence followed in very important circuit only. In this arrangement breaker maintenance for any feeder circuit is easily possible without any shutdown.
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RING BUS SCHEME
As long as the ring is closed load has two sources of supply and any circuit breaker can be taken out of service without affecting the supply. Extension of ring scheme is difficult. No bus bar protection required.

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Selection of Switching Schemes…
No reliability in Single Main, Double Main, Single Main & Transfer Scheme w.r.t bus fault, feeder fault & breaker maintenance Double Main & Transfer Scheme, One & Half Breaker Scheme & Double breaker Scheme are

characterized by reliable and interruption free supply.
One & half breaker scheme can be selected for EHV substations due high reliability, operational flexibility, ease of maintenance, ease of expansion, due consideration of cost
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Bus Bar Design, Selection of conductor levels & Bay width calculation..
Selection of conductor (AAC, ACSR, Tube) Current Carrying capacity with temperature rise of 35 deg.C over ambient of 50deg.C ambient (IEEE-738) Temperature Rise during short circuit Stresses in tubular bus Cantilever Strength of post insulator Deflection of the tube Natural frequency of tubular bus bar Aeolian Vibration
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Bus Bar Design & Selection of conductor levels..
Electrical Clearances (IEC-60071) Corona Electric Field (10kV/m)& Magnetic Field (500μT) Short Circuit Forces (IEC-60865) Sag-Tension Calculation Normal Tension (Factor of safety 2.0) and Short Circuit Tension (Factor of Safety 1.5) Height of conductor levels Bay width & Phase to Phase spacing
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Minimum Clearances for Layout (at altitude <1000m above mean sea level)…
Voltage Level (Rated) 765 kV Ph-Ph (m) 7.6 (cond-cond) 9.4 (rod-str) 4 2.1 Ph-E (m) 4.9 (cond-str) 6.4 (rod-str) 3.5 2.1 Sectional Clearance (m) 10.3 BIL (kVp) SIL (kVp)

2100

1550

400 kV 220 kV

66.5500 5

1550 1050

1050 650
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Type of Isolator & Structure in Layout
Type of Isolator
Horizontal Centre Break Isolator (HCB) Horizontal Double Break Isolator (HDB) Pantograph Isolator (Panto) Vertical Break Isolator (VB) Staggered

Type of Structure
Pie (╥) structure Enclosed (Π) structure
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Height of shield wire, Height & Location of LM & Location of Fence..
DSLP Calculation to decide the height of shield wire and/or Height & location of LM
Rolling Sphere Method (IEEE-998) Razevig Method

Earthmat Design (IEEE-80/CBI&P Report No. 302) – Location of switchyard fence
Touch Potential Step Potential Grid Resistance Earth Potential Rise (EPR)
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Location of other buildings, auxiliaries..
Control Room Fire fighting pump house (FFPH) DG set LT station placement Roads & rail tracks Switchyard Panel Room Open Store Colony and other infrastructures
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Methodology – Soil Effect
-QL H -VL
R

E D

SOIL

H +QL +VL
r r FD = ED = Q2 − Q L ⋅ 2H ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ H2 + D2 ⎟ 2Πε 0 1 24 ⎜ 4 2 3⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ r aY

r r E DT = ∑ E D

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Electric Field Calculation
QL QL = CHARGE PER UNIT LENGTH VL

R

+ Q2 FR

SOURCE

r ELECTRIC FIELD E r r FR r QL E= = aR Q 2 2Π ε o R ε 0 = permittivity cons tan t = 8,85x10 −12 F / m
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()

Methodology – Charge calculation
[QL] QL C = = = [C] [V] CHARGE / UNIT LENGTH CAPACITANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS AND SOIL f (εo , H, d, D i j) APPLIED VOLTAGE
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= V =

Methodology – 3 phase Busbar
i j k
3 r r E x = ∑ Ei i =1

i'

j'

k'

CAPACITANCE CALCULATION

[Q] = [C][V ] [C] ⇒ [P ]−1
⎡ 4H x ⎤ 1 Ρii = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2Π ε 0 ⎢ d eq ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ D ij ⎤ 1 Ρij = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2Π ε 0 ⎢ D ij′ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
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d eq = D

n

n ⋅d D

Methodology – Magnetic field calculation
y z x l dl r dB

A wire with length (l) having a current I produces in the air a flux density dB and a magnetic field dH µ0 = = B = = H= = magnetic permeability of free space 4 π ⋅ 10 -7 H/m Magnetic flux density or magnetic induction V ⋅ s/m2 or wb/m2 or tesla Magnetic field strength A/m
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Methodology – Magnetic field attenuation
Single conductor with earth return magnetic field decreases as 1/r System of parallel conductors energized by a balanced current magnetic field decrease as 1/r2 (r » distance between conductors) Localized source (ex.: power transformer) magnetic field decrease as 1/r3 (r» transformer dimensions) H is a three-dimensional field in space. If source can be considered infinitely long the field component in the direction of the line is negligible
Hx =

y I x H(x, y)

−I y 2Π x 2 + y 2 x I Hy = 2Π x 2 + y 2 3 r H x ∑ = H xi

(

) )

(

r Hy


i =1

i =1 3

= H yi

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Corona Onset gradient
E
c

= m ⋅ E

0

⎛ ⋅δ ⋅⎜1 + ⎜ ⎝

K

δ ⋅ rc

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Where surface factor m is a constant m=1 0.75 < m < 0.85 0.6 < m < 0.8 0.3 < m < 0.6 m = 0.2 Sleek and clean cylindrical conductor Stranded conductors Presence of dust, irregularities Presence of moisture, snowflakes or heavy fog Presence of major pollution or accumulation of deposit

E0 and K are empirical constants depending on the nature of the applied voltage. E0 = 29.8 kV peak / cm = 21.1 kV rms / cm for AC according to Peek [3] K = 0.301 For parallel conductors K = 0.308 For concentric conductors rc = Conductor radius in centimeter
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Corona onset gradient (Cont’d)
The air pressure can be corrected as a function of the altitude

p A =1− p0 K
Where A = Altitude in km K = 10.7 (Linear approximation of published experimental data)
δ = 1.00 δ = 0.94 δ = 0.87 Temperature = 25 °C, Altitude = Sea level Temperature = 25 °C, Altitude = 600 m Temperature = 50 °C, Altitude = 600 m
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POWERGRID 400 kV STANDARD LAYOUT
Bus Scheme adopted : One & Half Breaker Scheme Layout : I-Type First (Equipment Level)- 8m Second Level (Main Bus) - 15m Third Level (Jack Bus) – 22m Bay Width – 24m Main Bus : Quad ACSR Bersimis/Quad AAC BULL Main Bus Span: 48m Equipment Interconnection: 4” or 4.5” IPS Al tube Normal Tension for gantry Structure: 4T/phase Normal Tension for O/H shield wire: 0.8T, 10.98mm dia GS wire (7m peak) Fault Level: 40kA/50kA/63kA (1 sec) Cantilever Strength of Post Insulator : 800 kg
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POWERGRID 220 kV STANDARD LAYOUT
Bus Scheme adopted : Double Main & Transfer Scheme Scheme First (Equipment Level)- 5.9m Second Level (Main Bus) – 11.7m Third Level (Jack Bus) – 17.2m Bay Width – 16m Main Bus : Quad ACSR Moose Main Bus Span: 48m Equipment Interconnection: 4” IPS Al tube Normal Tension for gantry Structure: 4T/phase or 2T/Phase Normal Tension for O/H shield wire: 0.8T, 10.98mm dia GS wire (5m peak) Fault Level: 40kA/50kA (1 sec) Cantilever Strength of Post Insulator : 800 kg

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THANKS FOR LISTENING
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