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Logan-Rogersville

Comprehensive Literacy Model
The Logan-Rogersville School District uses a Comprehensive Literacy Model based on the
work of Linda Dorn, University of Arkansas as the structure around which all elements of
the program are organized.





Mission
To develop self-regulated learners with the capacity to guide and
monitor their learning and to meet the needs of the global society.

Vision
To develop self-regulated learners who meet rigorous academic
standards.

Goal
To develop a seamless transition across school systems where best
practices in literacy instruction are implemented to create intellectual
environments that make literate thinking a top priority for students.
programs, curriculum approaches, and assessment.



Essential Features
Ten essential features of a Comprehensive Literacy Program:

• Framework for Literacy
Framework for Literacy uses a workshop approach for meeting the needs of all students
within an integrated, inquiry-based curriculum.

• High Standards
High Standards are based on the Common Core Standards and professional standards that
align with specific benchmarks along a literacy continuum.

• Model Classrooms
Model Classrooms creating constructivist settings where teachers meet together to
apprentice one another in implementing the literacy framework.

• Coaching
Coaching and Mentoring using contingent scaffolding, coaching cycles, and a gradual release
model for increasing teacher efficiency.

• Accountability
Comprehensive Assessment System includes a school-wide seamless assessment system with
multiple measures for evaluating success.

• System of Interventions
System of Interventions include Reading Recovery and small group interventions in grades
K-3 and classroom and supplemental group interventions in grades 4-12.

Professional Development
Collaborative Learning Teams (Professional Learning Communities) use authentic contexts
for learning, including study groups, book clubs, peer observations, cluster conferences, and
demonstration lessons.

• Well Designed Literacy Plan
Well-Designed Literacy Plan includes short and long-term goals with specific benchmarks
for continuous literacy development

• Technology
Technology for Learning uses technology to learn about the world, including searching for
information, communicating with others, and creating new products.

• Spotlighting
Spotlighting and Advocacy includes techniques for disseminating information on the model,
school successes, including news releases, articles, school reports, and presentations.





A Curriculum for Literacy

“On the road to literacy, children take individual paths that are influenced by
their prior experiences and their personal perceptions of the world. The goal
of the curriculum is to ensure that ALL children, regardless of where they are
on the path to literacy, are provided with the appropriate opportunities for
reaching their highest potential. Here, we must recognize that some children
will enter the classroom behind their peers, whereas others will enter the
classroom with advanced skills and knowledge. Yet a third group of children
will fit right into the school’s definition for where students should be achieving
according to grade-level expectations.

Traditionally the classroom curriculum has been designed for this average-
performing group of students. Instructional models such as whole-group
reading (where all children are reading the same basal text at the same time)
teach to the middle group, that is, those children who fit into the school’s
literacy classification for a grade-level student. In too many cases, a one-
size-fits-all curriculum has been applied to the primary class, thus ignoring
the diverse strengths and needs of a typical classroom culture.

The teacher must ensure that all children from the lowest-performing to the
highest-performing -- will receive appropriate literacy experiences that will
enable them to read their highest potential…”


Shaping Literate Minds (2001), Dorn & Soffos – Chapter 2 p. 18





Balanced Literacy
“Learning to read is a cognitive and social process that that is shaped through
interactions with more knowledgeable others. An enriched environment provides
children with many opportunities to learn about literacy. A balanced literacy
curriculum consists of five interrelated components: (1) reading books to
children, (2) independent reading, (3) shared reading, (4) writing about
reading, and (5) guided reading.” (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

Every student CAN learn to read and write. Because reading and writing are a developmental
process that involves growth and change, some children will require more intensive and sustained
instruction and support than others.

A balanced literacy program includes a range of literacy activities, carefully selected materials for
each activity, and a responsive teacher who knows how to structure the literacy interactions that
move children to higher levels of understanding. Using an ―apprenticeship‖ approach, the teacher is
the ―expert‖ who continually asks the following:

- What can my students do alone? What can my students do with my help?
- What types of materials will support students in applying their current knowledge,
strategies, and skills?
- How does each literacy activity support students in building effective reading systems?
- What guidance do I provide to students in each activity? (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

OUR FOCUS
Teach for Independence
Assess the WHOLE child…Not just a Reading Level
Be Reflective Professionals

The Logan-Rogersville School District uses a balanced approach to literacy that integrates the
teaching of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The teacher creates the instructional
opportunities for students that are intended to activate students’ background knowledge, integrate
the four cueing systems, and apply problem-solving strategies to support students in becoming
confident, independent learners who use literacy throughout life.



Independent Reading
Shared Reading Reading Aloud
Writing about Reading Guided Reading

―The longer I write and read, the more I learn; writing and reading are
lifelong apprenticeships… -- Donald M. Murray

Apprenticeship Model

Learning environments that are organized around an apprenticeship model emphasize the importance
of the teacher as the ―expert‖ who knows what each student (apprentice) brings to the learning
task and who understands how to help the students use current knowledge as a foundation for
learning something new. Through scaffolding, the teacher engages the students in noticing,
acquiring, and reconciling new information.

Scaffolding (Wood, Bruner, Ross 1976) is a process that enables a child or novice to solve a
problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal which would be beyond his/her unassisted efforts. A
scaffold is a temporary and adjustable support that enables the accomplishment of a task that
would be impossible without the scaffold’s support (Anderson, L. 1989). As the learner becomes
more knowledgeable in the content and habits of thinking around a new skill, the scaffolding is
gradually removed. Scaffolding is not a static, predetermined instructional condition. The degree of
scaffolding changes with the abilities of the learner, the goals of instruction and the complexities
of the task. Scaffolding may be substantial at first on new or difficult tasks and then can be
gradually removed.

The figure below illustrates the use of scaffolding in an apprenticeship approach. It is useful in
understanding the movement from modeled and shared instruction to coaching and guided
instruction to independent practice. The goal is to gradually release responsibility to students as
they become readers and writers engaged in purposeful and rigorous work.




Apprenticeship Model in Balanced Literacy
Scaffolding
Reading
Read Aloud Shared Guided Independent










Assisted (Interactive ---Writing Aloud) Independent

Writing
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Workshop Framework
“A workshop framework allows teachers to develop grade-level content in a
whole-group setting, followed by differentiated instruction in small-group or a
one-to-one context, and concludes with a debriefing session and teacher
assessment.” The integrated workshop approach creates “opportunities for
students to transfer their learning to varied contexts.” (Dorn, 2012)

Reading and Writing workshop are models, or formats, that allow for differentiated instruction and
the development of self-regulated learners. In a workshop format, routines are established which
generally follow a structure that includes five components: 1) Mini-lessons, 2) Small-group
instruction, 3) Independent practice, 4) One-to-one or small group conferences, and 5) Sharing.
These five features of a workshop, when integrated together, work to scaffold students’ knowledge
from a novice to experienced literacy learner. The workshop framework can be used in all areas of
the curriculum including, reading, writing, content (science and social studies) as well as math.


Component Description Time Focus
Mini-Lessons
Daily -- one lesson for reading
and one for writing
10-15 min
(each)
Explicit teaching /
demonstration
Small Group
Instruction
Daily for students below
benchmark, 2-4 times per week
for other students
15-20 min
Guided reading
Literature discussion
Language studies
Independent
Practice
Daily – once for reading and once
for writing
15-20 min
(each)
Promote transfer – students
apply their knowledge in
independent activities
One-to-One or
Small Group
Conferences
At least one conference per week
per student
3-5 min
Assessment of student
behaviors in reading and
writing
Share Time
Daily – time provided at the end
of the workshop to share / wrap-
up learning
10 min Whole group discussion

In a balanced-literacy environment, teachers may also include additional elements along with the
Reading & Writing workshop components. These very important additional elements are:
- Read Aloud / Shared Reading (Daily) 10-20 min
- Word Study (spelling/phonics/vocabulary) 20-25 min
- Language Studies 20-35 min
- Content Studies 45-60 min (Also known as Content Workshop)


The goal is to enable leaners to acquire strategies
for self-regulating their learning.

Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 115-134 Ch. 8
Framework of a Mini-Lesson

“The purpose of a mini-lesson is to enable students to accomplish a particular
goal with assistance from the teacher. The teacher closely observes the
groups, makes mental notes of students who need extra help, and plans for
ways to scaffold these students in small groups or individual conferences.”
(Teaching for Deep Comprehension, pg. 96)

Scaffolding the Mini-Lesson

Modeling / Instructing Guided Practice Independent Practice
All Teacher Joint Responsibility All Students










High Teacher Support Low Teacher Support


1. Review anchor chart with comprehension/reading strategies. As new strategies are
introduced and discussed, they are added to the chart. (2-3 minutes)

2. Model the process—Use a think-aloud process with a mentor book, generally from a previous
read-aloud, to help students notice and apply a particular behavior. (4-5 minutes)

3. Provide guided practice. (10 minutes)
a. ―Guided practice is the step that makes the model meaningful and enables students
to see the connection to their own learning.‖ (p. 97)

4. Provide independent practice during Reader’s Workshop/Guided Reading.
a. ―During guided practice, students apply a specific strategy with the goal of testing
it in context; during independent practice, students must apply the single strategy
in concert with other strategies, thus promoting deeper comprehension.‖ (p. 97-98)

5. Sharing at end of Reader’s Workshop. (10 minutes)
a. Sharing ―gives students a chance to share their comprehending processes with the
class, and it allows the teacher to assess the students’ learning.‖ (p. 98)


See - Teaching for Deep Comprehension for ideas on building a ―toolbox of effective strategies‖ p. 98-107

Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Reading
“Reading is a process of constructing meaning for the text based on the
reader’s background knowledge, purpose, available strategies, and
understanding of the task and purpose.” (Dorn & Jones, 2012) “Comprehension
results from the minds’ ability to make links and ask questions regarding the
particular reading event. If the mind cannot formulate questions about the
reading, true comprehension is impossible. When teaching for comprehension,
our challenge is twofold: 1) understand the complexity of the reading process,
and 2) apply this knowledge to our work with students.” (Dorn & Soffos, 2005)

In simple terms, reading is getting meaning from printed materials. However, there is nothing
simple about the process. Reading involves the coordination of what the student knows (READER),
the material being read (TEXT), and the reason for reading (CONTEXT). In order to construct
meaning, the reader must bring together knowledge or background experiences, an understanding of
the words, and the ability to decode the words. ―A reader who is reading independently is attending
to many sources of information – or cues – in the text…‖ (p. 30)
- Meaning is based on the reader’s background knowledge and ability to relate that
information to the authors intended purpose. In other words, children ask themselves,
―Does my reading make sense?‖ – and – ‖What is the author trying to tell me?‖
- Structure refers to the reader’s exposure to oral language and their experience with
book language. Children may ask themselves, ―Does it sound right if I say it this way?‖
- Visual cues rely on graphophonetic knowledge (i.e. letters and their corresponding
sounds). Children may ask, ―What do I notice about this word?‖



An additional cue has been suggested by Linda Dorn. She refers to Pragmatic cues as those which
are derived from the social and cultural aspects of language.

―Research shows that the teacher – not methods or programs – is the most
important factor in a student’s reading success.‖ (Allington, 2002)

See -- Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 29-30
Meaning
Does it make sense?
Visual
Does it look
right?
Structure
Does it sound
right?

Reading Aloud (Interactive)

A well-balanced comprehensive literacy program includes reading aloud to students in an effort to
provide them with opportunities to hear texts that they may not be able to read independently.
The act of interactively reading aloud to children helps to engage their attention, increase
concentration, develop spatial/sequential memory, and enhances their ability to problem-solve.
During the read-aloud experience, the teacher may stop to discuss particular parts of the text and
invite questioning and discussion. Reading aloud both fiction and non-fiction a text ―…allows children
to interact with more complex language patterns, vocabulary, literary features, and world
concepts.‖ The teacher engages the children in an interactive experience that builds upon their
background knowledge while exposing them to new learning in a supportive context.‖ (Dorn & Jones,
2012

The purpose for reading aloud to children includes…
- Provide a good model of fluent and expressive reading
- Expose children to a wide variety of story structures, genres, characters and writing
styles (note: using complex texts)
- Provide opportunity for discussion
- Increase children’s concept and vocabulary knowledge
- Promote an enjoyable experience with books













―Having books read aloud is a vital part of learning how to read.‖
(Dorn & Soffos, 2001)


Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 34-35
Shaping Literate Minds (2001), Dorn & Soffos - p. 19-20

Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Strategy: Demonstration
 Teacher performs the task; models and explains thinking and how to ―do it‖.
 Teacher may invite students’ comments and participation, when appropriate.

Focus: Complex Text
 Teacher engages students in an interactive experience that builds on their
background knowledge using complex text.

Time: 10 minutes

Shared Reading

Shared reading allows children the opportunity to learn about the conventions of print, text
structures, and literacy features in either a whole-group or small-group setting where the teacher
provides support and assistance during the lesson. The teacher shares an enlarged text (big book
with small children) and ―…creates instructional conversations that engage children in talking about
the text while prompting them to apply specific strategies for understanding written language.‖
During the shared reading experience, the teacher is reading and responding alongside the children
scaffolding their learning. Responses made by the teacher will fluctuate based on the observations
of the students’ developing control over the material. ―Choosing a text that both the teacher and
the children will enjoy should be the first consideration.‖ (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

Common resources for shared reading include…
- Big Books
- Poems on Charts
- Enlarged Texts
- Nursery Rhyme Charts
- Raps / Favorite Songs
- Finger Plays
- Stories Written During Assisted Writing













―When children read supportive texts over and over, they build literacy
skills without boring, repetitive worksheet drills.‖
(Dorn & Jones, 2012)



Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 36-47
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Strategy: Shared Demonstration

 Teacher shares an enlarged text with students; creates instructional
conversations
 Teacher (expert) and students (apprentices) share and work through the task
interactively

Focus: Conventions, Text Features, & Literary Structures

 Teacher selects a text that helps children learn about the reading process in a
relaxed and supportive context -- (NOT necessarily a complex text)

Time: 20-25 minutes

Guided Reading

Guided reading groups provide students with similar instructional needs the opportunity to practice
effective reading strategies on texts at their instructional level in a small group setting. The
teacher monitors and adjusts the degree of support provided based on the observed behaviors of
the student(s). ―Guided reading helps children develop an appreciation of the story and at the same
time stimulates problem-solving conversations about how to apply reading strategies in context.‖
The goal is to help add to the students’ ―toolbox‖ of strategies so that they can apply them to a
variety of texts with full comprehension. ―Successful guided reading interactions depend upon the
teacher’s ability to 1) observe the children’s processing behaviors and respond accordingly, 2) use
language prompts that focus on cue integration and effective processing strategies, and 3) select
appropriate materials that support reading development‖ (Dorn &Jones, 2012).

Levels of the Guided Reading Continuum
- Emergent Readers
o K-1
st
(see. Apprenticeship in Literacy p. 54-56)
- Early Readers
o 1
st
-2
nd
(see. Apprenticeship in Literacy p. 57-59)
- Transitional Readers
o 2
nd
-3
rd
(see. Apprenticeship in Literacy p. 60-62)
- Fluent Readers
o End of 3
rd
grade (see. Apprenticeship in Literacy p. 62-64)
 Note: At this point, students are ready to transition to ―Literature
Discussion Groups‖


















―Guided reading moves along a continuum from emergent to
fluent…requiring a sensitive and observant teacher who understands
how children learn.‖
(Dorn & Jones, 2012)
Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 49-65 & 196-197
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Strategy: Guided Practice
 Teacher selects leveled readers based on students’ instructional needs.
 Teacher provides students with a toolbox of resources for reading a variety of
text with full comprehension

Focus: Targeted Support for Reading Comprehension
 Applying reading strategies in context to books selected at students’
instructional level

Time: 15 minutes per group

Literature Discussion

―If we believe in the power of language for literacy learning, then classrooms should burst with
opportunities to talk about literacy. One of the most powerful language experiences can occur
during literature discussion groups‖ (Dorn & Soffos, 2006). Literature discussion groups are small
group conversations about books that typically begin when students become fluent readers.
Students read and discuss books while developing the literate talk that helps them develop higher
levels of deep comprehension.

Teacher’s responsibility may include…
- Modeling ways of responding to literature
- Teaching students how to participate in a discussion group
- Selecting and introduce books
- Facilitating discussion
- Promoting ―conversational moves‖ (see. Teaching for Deep Comprehension)

Students’ responsibility may include…
- Reading assigned text independently
- Recording questions, connections and observations
- Engaging in group discussion
- Listening actively to others











―Talk is a necessary condition of literacy.‖
(Dorn & Soffos, 2006)

Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 186
Teaching for Deep Comprehension (2005), Dorn & Soffos p. 79-93

Strategy: Guided Practice
 Teacher groups students based on interest and reading level to promote
conversation about text and application of comprehension strategies
Focus: Deeper Comprehension
 Teacher may select books based on the following…
o Units of study such as text type (eg. Fiction and Non-Fiction)
o Genre (eg. Myths, Fairy Tales, Mysteries, Biographies)
o Author study
o Content areas (eg. Science and Social Studies)
o Themes

Time: 15-20 minutes per group
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility

Independent Reading

Providing time each day for students to engage in independent reading allows them to practice cue
integration, fluency, and strategy application to materials within their reading control. When
children have the opportunity to select texts that contain familiar content and vocabulary, their
own background knowledge provides them a scaffold. The important part of having students read
books at the independent level is to allow him/her to practice effective strategies while reading for
meaning. Teachers support and conference with students as they read books for an extended
period of time. Teachers must also hold students accountable for their reading and ensure that
they know how to select an appropriate book. Using a reading log is an excellent way to help
students become independent while also integrating reading and writing.

It is important that time is scheduled for students to read independently and respond to literature
each day in an effort to…
- Improve competence
- Apply strategies
- Sustain reading behavior
- Promote fluency
- Build confidence
- Build automaticity of high frequency words
- Extend vocabulary
- Build deep comprehension
- Allow for problem-solve independently










―When students read a lot, they become more efficient readers.‖
(Dorn & Soffos, 2001)

Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 34-35
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Strategy: Independent Practice / Guided Discovery
 Students read familiar or easy books (as students become transitional readers
they may read ―new‖ easy books)
 Teacher conferences both informally (observing behavior) and formally with
students (running records), providing assistance as needed.
Focus: Volume Reading
 Students read texts that are within their reading control (independent level)

Time: 15-20 minutes daily
More about Reading
Reading Strategies
There are two things to consider when thinking about reading strategies. First of all, there are
reading strategies/behaviors that effective readers use when attempting to comprehend the
message of the author, and second; there are strategies/prompts that can be used to help a child
problem solve when he or she is reading.

Dorn & Jones (2012) list the following strategies applied by effective readers:
 Use background knowledge to predict information.
 Monitor by rereading.
 Cross-check one source of information with another.
 Search for additional information.
 Self-correct when cues do not match.
 Read fluently and with expression.
 Reflect to comprehend at deeper levels.
 Regulate reading behavior (slow down or speed up) to meet reading goals.

―In planning the child’s literacy program, it is critical that the teacher observe and
take notice of which strategic operations the child is initiating and which ones he
or she is neglecting‖ (Dorn & Jones, 2012).

In Appendix A-5 (p.188) of Apprenticeship In Literacy (2012), Dorn and Jones give some effective
problem solving prompts to use when working with readers.

Prompts for Checking on Meaning Information
 You said, _______________. Does that make sense?
 What would make sense there?
 Look at the picture. What is happening?
 Reread that part and think about what would make sense.

Prompts for Checking on Structure Information
 You said, ________________. Does that sound right?
 Reread the part and think about what would make sense.

Prompts for Checking on Visual Information
 Does ___________ look right?
 Look at the first letter.
 Search into the word.
 It could be _______, but look at ___________. Check to make sure that looks right.
 Is there something about that word that you know?

Prompts for Self-Monitoring
 Were you right?
 Why did you stop?
 What did you notice?
 What’s wrong?
 Try that again.
 You almost got that right. Can you fix it?
Fluency
According to Dorn & Soffos (2005), there is a link between comprehension and fluency, but it is
more than just telling a reader to read faster. Fluency comes about when elements of knowledge
work together to help a reader comprehend the message of the book. Fluency is made up of speed,
rhythm, and flexibility. Speed has to do with the rate of retrieval and rhythm has to do with
phrasing and how the story sounds. Flexibility means that the reader can pace himself according to
his purpose and/or needs. Sometimes, flexibility might mean slowing down to think about the
meaning or speeding up to group ideas or phrases. It might also mean how the tone of the voice
expresses meaning. We use the fluency scale from the National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP) when looking at the fluency of a reader.
(see Teaching for Deep Comprehension p. 39-40)

Oral Reading Fluency Scale
Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions,
repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract
from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author’s syntax is
consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation.

Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some small groupings may be
present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the
syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present.

Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some
word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and
unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage.

Level 1 Reads primarily word by word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may
occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National
Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2002 Oral Reading Study

Comprehension Strategies
In order to comprehend text, a reader must ―plan, select, direct, and orchestrate the various
cognitive structures and processes available to them‖ (Dorn & Soffos, 2005). This can include
deciding what strategies to use when figuring out words and deciding how much time to spend on
certain aspects of reading. Dorn & Soffos (2005) tell us that ―fluent and expressive reading, and
efficient and economical self-corrections‖ are two signs of comprehending power. The following is a
list of ten of the most important strategic reading behaviors for comprehension given by the
authors:
 Rereading.
 Previewing or surveying a text.
 Asking questions before, during, and after reading.
 Reading aloud to clarify thinking.
 Using story structure, text genre, and writing conventions.
 Using text aids to illuminate and extend meaning.
 Marking texts and recording notes.
 Using context and parts of words to infer meaning.
 Writing in reading response logs.
 Discussing ideas with others.

For specific information regarding how to teach students about each of the reading behaviors
listed above, see Teaching for Deep Comprehension p. 98-107. These lessons will provide you
with specific ―step-by-step‖ directions on how to conduct mini-lessons for each strategy.
Writing
“The act of writing is a cognitive process that involves comprehension of ideas,
expressive language, and mechanical skills. All writing instruction must be
based on what children already know. Anything less can promote passive
learners who feel inadequate about writing. Teachers must provide young
writers with assisted and unassisted opportunities to learn about writing.
First, the child accomplishes a task with teacher assistance; then the child
accomplishes the task alone. The writing environment is structured to allow
for the transfer of knowledge, skills, and strategies from assisted to
unassisted learning zones.” (Dorn & Soffos, 2001)

Writing is a balance between students’ abilities to compose text and transcribe information. ―When
teachers’ analyze children’s writing, they can design their writing program based on what children
already know and what they need to know to move their writing forward‖ (Dorn, 2001). Teachers
must also recognize the student behaviors that indicate how each student is developing as a writer;
and they must teach for the ―orchestration of the writing process.‖ To promote this process,
teachers can simply ask themselves four questions…

- What is easy for the writer to do?
- What is hard for the writer to do?
- What do I (teacher) expect the writer to do?
- What do I (teacher) expect to do for the writer?

In an apprenticeship setting, teachers recognize the vast range of experience that students bring
to the task of writing. The goal is to provide ―children guided opportunities to learn how to use
things they know (skills, strategies, facts) to initiate problem-solving in different situations.‖
Ultimately, teachers must identify the level of support students need and move them from highly
assisted writing experiences to more independent writing. (Dorn & Jones, 2001)
Writing
Gradual Release of Responsibility










Assisted (Interactive ---- Writing Aloud) Independent


―For us as teachers, the goal of writing instruction is to provide young writers with
opportunities for learning about the processes of writing.‖ (Dorn & Jones, 2001)

See – Scaffolding Young Writers (2001), Dorn & Jones - p. 5-6
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility

Assisted Writing

―During assisted activities the teacher uses language prompts and adjustable levels of support to
enable children to accomplish writing tasks they would be unable to accomplish alone.‖ (Dorn &
Jones, 2012) When students are provided instruction in writing by a more knowledgeable person
(teacher or peer), they gain important skills that can be applied to help them communicate their
thoughts more effectively. The purposes of early writing activities are:
- to create a situation that promotes risk taking
- to demonstrate effective writing strategies, and
- to help students learn how to apply their existing knowledge to problem-solve in
different places and with new information.
Assisted writing will look different based on the skills and abilities of the learners (eg. Modeled ,
Guided, and Independent). With young emergent-early writers, the assisted writing activities are
more interactive in nature. As students move beyond early writing, the teacher may use more
―writing aloud‖ types of activities.

Interactive Writing (early - emergent writers)
o Shared experience between teachers and students
o Teacher transcribing the text
o Students writing a few known words on the chart / or individual materials
o Focus is on developing early reading and writing behaviors
o Uses students’ strengths…never doing anything for them that they can do
alone
o Predictable framework for scaffolding young writers.
Writing Aloud (emergent – transitional - fluent writers)
o Teacher vocalizes thoughts while writing aloud
o Invites students to contribute
o Focus is on promoting effective problem-solving strategies
o Goal is demonstrate the importance of composing a meaningful, coherent
message for particular audience and a specific purpose
o Children acquire important tools for learning how to write more
sophisticated and conventional messages.









Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 68-82 Ch. 5
Strategy: Demonstration
 Teacher vocalizes thoughts while composing text; students may contribute
 Teacher provides good models for student writing
 Teacher provides strategies that allow students to help themselves when writing
Focus: Meaningful Message
 Students acquire skills for writing more meaningful and coherent messages

Time: 15-20 minutes
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility

Independent Writing

Independent writing gives children personal opportunities to apply recently demonstrated
techniques and strategies. While the focus of assisted writing activities is to provide students with
good models through demonstration of writing techniques, the goal of independent writing is to
assess the degree to which students are applying what they have learned during assisted writing.
The teachers may collect writing samples across time to evaluate the degree to which students are
demonstrating expected skills, strategies and techniques. ―In order to follow children’s progress
effectively and instruct them according to their needs, teachers must be able to analyze and
interpret change over time in children’s writing development.‖ The stages of writing and spelling
(which are very closely aligned) help to show change over time in writing development.












―As the students demonstrate they are moving to a higher plane of learning, the
teacher creates new assisted writing situations that validate the old knowledge and
activate new learning. At the same time, the teacher provides independent writing
opportunities that allow the children to practice the skills and strategies they are
acquiring from the assisted activities. Throughout, the teacher collects data that
she uses to inform her next instructional move.‖ (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 83-86 Ch.6

Strategy: Independent Practice / Guided Discovery
 Students utilize models created by the teacher to work independently on writing
meaningful and coherent messages
 Teacher observes and conferences with students offering support
 Teacher analyzes writing samples across time to identify stages of writing
development

Focus: Volume Writing / Assessment of Students
 Students practice skills / strategies learned from assisted activities

Time: 15-20 minutes daily
Writing
Spelling
Teacher Support
Student Responsibility
Reading/Writing Connection
“Reading and writing are reciprocal processes. The very act of reading and
writing require that children apply perceptual and cognitive strategies, both of
which share common relationships for working with written language. When
children become more competent in one area, similar advances in the other
area will be observed.” (Dorn & Soffos, 2001)


Remember, the apprenticeship model is about scaffolding students’ learning. The teacher (as the
expert) is providing varying degrees of support based on needs of the learners (novices). In
addition to the teacher, ―non-verbal scaffolds‖ may also be used in the classroom (Dorn & Jones,
2012) to support students in their reading and writing. The following are five examples of non-
verbal scaffolds that can be used to help students become proficient readers and writers.

Knowledge Binder
A Knowledge Binder is a personal binder that contains resources for students to use during reading
and writing activities. With young children who are at the emergent level, the binder might include
alphabet charts, names of classmates, color words and high frequency words. Upper level student
binders may include resources such as text maps, writing checklists, list of academic words, and
other sources that can be used during literacy activities.

Anchor Charts
Anchor Charts are visual displays of specific information generated during a modeled/guided lesson
or demonstration. Typically these charts include procedures, text features, guidelines for
discussion as well as a variety of other grade level topics. These charts can be used as a scaffold
when the teacher is not available.

Reading Response Logs
Reading Response Logs are used by students both during and after reading. They generally include
four sections: 1) My Thinking (comprehension responses), 2) Reading Strategies, 3) Powerful
Words/Phrases, and 4) Text Maps.

Writing Portfolio
The Writing Portfolio is a folder with several pockets that hold writing resources. These resources
might include a list of verbs, adverbs, adjectives, transitional words, interesting vocabulary,
figurative language and examples good beginnings / good endings in writing.

Rubrics / Checklists
A variety of examples of Rubrics and Checklists are provided in the Apprenticeship text. These
resources are intended to help children plan and reflect on their literacy performance.

Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 24-25

Word Study
(spelling/phonics/vocabulary)
“A word study curriculum is designed to ensure that students acquire the skills
and strategies they need for automatic word recognition…Word study is based
on a developmental continuum that moves from simple to complex and
emphasizes strategies for learning how words work. In a balanced literacy
program, teachers examine students’ reading and writing for evidence of how
they solve unknown words and then use this information to plan constructive
word study activities.” (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

Word study lessons can occur in both a whole group and small group setting. The ultimate goal is to
provide students with knowledge, skills and strategies to use when encountering unknown words in
their reading and writing. Word study also follows an apprenticeship approach that includes three
components:
 Clear Models and Explicit Language
- Teacher provides an explicit demonstration of the process to be learned.
 Guided Practice
- The teacher provides an opportunity for students to apply new learning with
appropriate guidance.
 Transfer to Independent Reading and Writing
- The teacher provides an opportunity for students to apply new learning to
independent reading and writing.













Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 101-114 Ch.7

Strategy: Shared Demonstration
 Teacher (expert) and students (apprentices) share and work through the task
interactively
 Lessons are based on previous experience with meaningful texts (prior reading)
 Linking new learning to previous learning

Focus: Word Work (Spelling, Phonics & Vocabulary)
 Acquire skills and strategies to solve unknown words as they read and write
o Lessons may include...
 Letter and Sounds, Print Awareness, Word Knowledge, Sorting
Letters, New Words, Blends, Onset/Rime, Chunking Strategies,
Syllable Patterns.

Time: 20-25 minutes
Language Studies
(Units of study: Genre / Author / Content)
“During social constructed events, language is used to communicate a useful
(i.e. meaningful) message to another person. In an apprenticeship setting,
adults model the significance of written language as an important tool for
documenting and communicating information.” (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

Language Studies are units of study that allow students to explore different genres, authors, and
content areas, as well as learn the ―functions of the language system, including grammatical
structures, text conventions, vocabulary, and crafting techniques‖ (Dorn & Jones, 2012).
 Clear Models and Explicit Language
- Teacher provides an explicit demonstration of the process to be learned.
 Transfer to Independent Reading & Writing
- The teacher provides an opportunity for students to apply new learning to
independent reading and writing.









Teachers must understand that ―oral language is the foundation on
which written language is built.‖
(Dorn & Jones, 2012)


Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 118, 137
Strategy: Explicit Instruction / Guided Discovery
 Teacher delivers instruction in a whole group setting
 Students may transfer this knowledge to their independent work
 Lessons are based around literary units (genre/author studies), expository units
(non-fiction, content studies, procedural texts), and persuasive units

Focus: Language System
 Mentor texts, text maps, anchor charts, reader response logs are used as
instructional tools for teaching the functions of the language system
o Functions of the language system may include...
 Grammatical structures, text conventions, vocabulary, and crafting
techniques

Time: 15-20 minutes
Genre Studies
Genre studies are part of language studies, which help students understand the functions of
language. The genre of a text simply means the characteristics of the text. Genre studies are
important because when ―readers understand how texts are organized and how writers write, and if
they have an understanding of the author’s topic, they can use this information to predict and infer
the author’s intentions.‖ However, if students lack this understanding and experience with texts
and authors, ―their reading comprehension is likely to be impaired‖ (Dorn & Soffos, 2005). Below is
a sample format for a genre study (Dorn & Soffos, 2005):
 Teacher introduces a genre and gives the text characteristics of the genre.
 Teacher does a read-aloud of a book that is typical of the genre.
 Teacher & students compose an anchor chart of the text characteristics of the genre.
 Teacher gives a brief book talk on other texts in the genre.
 Students rate their top three choices and select the book that will be read in the group.
 Students read and record their thoughts while the teacher conferences with students.
 The group meets with the teacher to work on a group text map.
 Students read other books from the genre.
 Students engage in other literature extension activities (e.g. writing their own text).
 Students share their literature extension projects with the class during share time.
Appendix three of Teaching for Deep Comprehension (p. 131-156) contains a glossary of genres.
In addition, there are book lists by genre & grade level, descriptions of the genres with sample
questions and text maps, and graphic organizers.

Author Studies
Author studies are similar to genre studies, but the focus is on the writing of a certain author and
the writing craft of that author. Dorn & Soffos (2005) suggest that author studies ―are best
introduced in an apprenticeship setting along a supportive continuum that is adjusted according to
students’ needs‖. On pages 91-92 of Teaching for Deep Comprehension, they give some examples
of what an author study might look like at various levels.
 Emergent to Beginning Readers
- Teacher may be reading the text aloud and co-constructing an anchor chart.
- Students may discuss the text with others during a share time.
- Students may be ―looking‖ at the texts during Independent reading, but not
expected to be ―reading‖ the text independently.
 Late Early to Transitional Readers
- Teacher may conduct ―book talks‖ on certain texts.
- Students select a book to read independently and form peer discussion groups with
others who have also read the text.
- Teachers and students may co-construct an anchor chart that includes
commonalities from all texts.
 Fluent Readers
- Students select an author to research (reading several titles from the same
author).
- Students may record their thoughts/observations in a reading log.
- Students compile their research into a multi-media presentation.

―Genre and author studies provide a context for comprehending texts at deeper
levels. The connection between reading and writing is emphasized as students
learn the techniques and styles of their favorite writers and use this knowledge to
predict and infer messages.‖ (Dorn & Soffos, 2005)
Content Studies
(Science & Social Studies)
“The content workshop is a grades-specific lesson focused on content
knowledge in science and social studies. The teacher provides a clear
explanation of the content to be learned and provide appropriate scaffolding
to ensure students’ understanding” (Dorn & Jones, 2012).

The content workshop lessons follow the same framework as reading / writing workshop beginning
with a whole-group lesson followed by collaborative and / or independent work. The teacher
―mingles‖ among the students to provide support as needed. The content workshop emphasizes the
research cycle while also help students apply problem-solving strategies when they are reading
content information.

 Whole Group Content Lesson
- Teacher provides an explicit demonstration of the process to be learned.
 Collaborative Research
- The teacher provides an opportunity for students to apply new learning with
appropriate guidance.
 Connections made to reading and writing workshop














―The teacher provides a clear explanation of the content to be learned
and provides students with appropriate scaffolding to ensure students’
understanding.‖ (Dorn & Jones, 2012)

Additional Information:
Apprenticeship in Literacy (2012), Dorn & Jones - p. 101-114 Ch.7
Strategy: Research Cycle & Problem-Solving
 Teacher (expert) provide a whole-group lesson focused on grade-specific content
and provides support to students (apprentices) as needed during their
independent work on collaborative research project.
 Lessons are based on grade-specific standards and can be integrated into a unit
of study linking the content workshop to reading / writing workshop.

Focus: Science & Social Studies Content
 Acquire content knowledge in are areas of science and social studies
o Lessons may include the use of non-fiction texts and focus on the use
of problem-solving strategies when reading content information.

Time: 45-60 minutes
Comprehensive Intervention Model
“To promote accelerated learning (in contrast to remediation), students receive
multiple layers of interventions at the same time. Tier 1 classroom instruction
is provided alongside any supplemental intervention. Supplemental interventions
are not linear, but rather are based on intensity, expertise, and student
needs. Referrals to special education are based on students’ responses to
invention in Tiers 1, 2, and 3. (Dorn, 2007)

Layered Interventions

Tier 1
Classroom Teacher
(Differentiated)
Tier 2
Interventionist
(Small Group)
Tier 3
Interventionist
(Individual)
Tier 4
Special Education
(Small Group / Individual)
Provides differentiated
instruction in a workshop
framework, including whole
group, small group, and one-
to-one conferences.
Provide small-group
supplemental intervention
for students who are below
grade level. (In addition to
Tier I support)
Provides most intensive one-
to-one intervention for
students who are reading at
a below basic level. (In
addition to Tiers 1 & 2)
Provides small-group
intervention that aligns with
classroom support for
students identified with
learning disabilities.


Types of Inventions across the Grade-Span

Intervention Reading Focus Writing Focus Materials
Emergent Literacy
Emergent literacy
foundations & language
development
Print and phonemic
awareness & language
development
ABC chart, nursery
rhymes, writing journal,
interactive writing, big
books, easy texts
Reading Recovery
Reading strategies,
fluency and
comprehension
Writing strategies &
early composing
strategies
Leveled texts and
writing journals
Guided Reading Plus
Reading strategies,
fluency and
comprehension
Reading & Writing
connection –Writing about
reading
Leveled texts and
writing journals
Writing Process
(Assisted Writing)
Increased reading
through writing
Composing, revising, and
editing strategies
Writing portfolios,
mentor texts, writing
checklists
Comprehension Focus
Group
Comprehension
strategies, knowledge of
text structures, and
deeper understanding of
content
Reciprocity of reading
and writing, the writing
process, and text
organization
Collection of books (both
literature and
informational texts),
writing portfolios, text
maps and writing guides

Literacy Environment
Environmental Scale for Assessing Implementation Levels (ESAIL)
Developed by L. Dorn & C. Soffos (2007)

Ten Criteria for the Literate Environment
The ESAIL instrument is designed to assess a school’s level of implementation in a comprehensive
literacy model, specifically the Partnerships in Comprehensive Literacy (PCL) model. Schools can use
the ESAIL for multiple purposes, including: 1) a pre-assessment to determine a school’s readiness
for implementing a comprehensive literacy model; 2) a periodic assessment to study a school’s
growth over time on one or more literacy criteria, and 3) a post-assessment to measure a school’s
improvement over the academic year. Schools should use the ESAIL to guide and monitoring school-
wide efforts, including professional development in particular areas.


Criterion 1: Creates a Literate Environment
Teachers create a literate environment by providing a wide variety of reading experiences, including
rich and diverse opportunities for students to read, discuss, and write texts across the curriculum.
Students’ learning at various stages in the reading and writing process is celebrated and displayed
on walls within and outside classrooms. Classrooms are arranged to promote whole and small group
problem-solving discussions. Inquiry-based learning is evident, including relevant and purposeful
talk. Respectful talk and attitudes are promoted and used among students, and students’ questions
are valued by providing opportunities for clarifying and seeking information through research.

Criterion 2: Organizes the Classroom
Teachers organize the classroom to meet the needs of diverse learners, including selecting
appropriate materials and working with whole group, small group, and individual learners. Other
features include an emphasis on establishing classroom norms that support the children’s ability to
self-regulate their literate behaviors for different purposes and across changing contexts,
including staying on-task, working independently, assuming responsibility for classroom materials,
and respecting the rights of others. Teachers’ workspace and materials, including assessment
notebooks, are organized and used to document learning and plan for instruction. Students’
workspace and materials, including students’ logs, are organized and easily accessible. Classroom
libraries are well organized and contain an abundant amount of reading material across genres,
authors and topics.

Criterion 3: Uses Data to Inform Instruction and To Provide Research-Based
Interventions
Teachers use assessments to inform instruction and to monitor students’ learning. A range of
summative and formative assessments are used, including portfolio assessments, conference notes,
constructed response measures, observations, anecdotal notes, running records, logs, and norm- and
criterion-referenced tests. Data are used to tailor interventions that provide multiple layers of
support for the neediest students, including a comprehensive intervention model with Reading
Recovery in first grade and small group interventions across the grades. The specialty teachers
collaborate and plan with the classroom teachers to ensure consistency of interventions across the
school day.


Criterion 4: Uses a Differentiated Approach to Learning
Teachers use a workshop approach to learning across the curriculum, including reading, writing,
language, and content workshops. Small group reading and writing instruction is provided to meet
the needs of diverse learners; and explicit mini-lessons are tailored to meet the needs of the
majority of students across the curriculum. Daily one-to-one conferences are scheduled with
students during the workshop framework. Teaching prompts are used to promote problem-solving
strategies, higher-order thinking processes, and deeper comprehension. Quality literature is read,
enjoyed, and analyzed across the various workshops. A writing continuum is used to meet student
needs, plan instruction, and monitor student progress. Writing is taught as a process, including
drafting, revising, editing, and publishing processes. Mentor texts and notebooks are used as
resources across genres; and inquiry-based learning is promoted and arranged across the content
areas.

Criterion 5: Uses Assessment Wall for School-wide Progress Monitoring
Schools use common assessments across grade levels for measuring student achievement.
Data on the assessment/intervention wall are used for monitoring program effectiveness and to
ensure struggling students are receiving appropriate interventions.

Criterion 6: Uses Literacy Coach to Support Teacher Knowledge and Reflective
Practice
Coach follows guidelines for coordinating, monitoring, and assessing school change:
50%- 60% of time coaching and supporting teachers in the classroom, and planning and implementing
literacy team meetings and other professional learning opportunities for teachers; 20% -40% of
time teaching struggling readers in intervention groups; and 10%-20% of time coordinating and
supervising the school’s literacy program, including meeting with administrators, designing
curriculum, analyzing and reporting data for school improvement, and spotlighting the school’s
literacy program. Coach applies scaffolding techniques through coaching cycles that use a gradual
release model to promote self-regulated teachers. Coach coordinates an assessment team, collects
school-wide data, assists in data analysis for continuous school improvement, and uses results for
school planning.

Criterion 7: Builds Collaborative Learning Communities
Coach plans and coordinates teachers’ professional study groups, grade level planning, and peer
observations. Coach creates a climate for collaborative problem-solving and reflective practice.
Teachers use reflection logs to reflect on learning during and after team meetings, conferences,
cluster visits, and other professional learning experiences.

Criterion 8: Creates and Uses School Plans for Promoting Systemic Change
Coach and teachers collaboratively identify strengths and needs of current literacy practices and
create a plan of action, including school plan with timelines and persons responsible for executing
the plan. Coach and teachers share with stakeholders and gain support for school improvement
initiatives. Coach compiles data into a school report and shares results with stakeholders.

Criterion 9: Uses Technology for Effective Communication
Coach and teachers network with other professionals through the use of technology including list
servers and discussion boards. They use technology to collect, analyze, and store student data and
keep current with research and best practices. Coach models effective use of technology through
well-designed PowerPoint presentations, Internet searches, and research. Teachers provide
opportunities for students to use technology for real world purposes, including word processing,
research, and presenting information.

Criterion 10: Advocates and Spotlights School’s Literacy Program
Stakeholders, including parents, are informed and engaged in accomplishments of the school’s
literacy goals. Coach and teachers invite the community into the classrooms and recruit volunteers
to assist with the school’s literacy initiatives. Coach disseminates information (e.g., brochures,
school reports, newsletters) on the school’s literacy program to various audiences.




Self-Assessment Tool
Environmental Scale for Assessing Implementation Levels (ESAIL)

Criterion 1: Creates a Literate Environment
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Reading responses through writing are displayed on walls and in
hallways.

2. Writing drafts and/or published pieces are displayed on walls
and in hallways.

3. Diverse reading materials are enjoyed, discussed and analyzed
across the curriculum.

4. Co-constructed language charts embrace student language and
are displayed on walls and in students’ notebooks.

5. Tables, clusters of desks and/or areas are arranged to
promote collaborative learning and problem solving.

6. Problem-solving is collaborative (pairs or groups) and talk is
purposeful.

7. Engagement is maintained by meaningfulness and relevance of
the task.

8. Respectful talk and attitudes are promoted and used among all
learners.

9. Elaborated discussions around specific concepts are promoted
and students’ thinking is valued and discussed.

10. Classroom environment is conducive to inquiry based learning
and learners are engaged in constructive interactions around
purposeful literacy events.


Notes:












Criterion 2: Organizes the Classroom
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Routines and procedures are clearly established.
2. Classroom is designed for whole group, small group and
individual teaching and learning.

3. Teachers’ workspace and instructional materials are organized
for teaching and learning.

4. Students’ materials are organized and easily accessible.
5. Students’ logs are organized and reflect integrated learning
across the curriculum.

6. Classroom libraries contain an abundant amount of reading
material across genres, authors and topics.

7. Literature for daily instruction is organized and accessible.
8. Books in classroom library are organized and labeled according
to genre, topic and/or by author.

9. Literacy tasks are organized and are designed to meet the
needs of groups and individual learners.

10. Summative and formative assessments are organized for
instructional purposes and documentation.


Notes:










Criterion 3: Uses Data to Inform Instruction and
To Provide Research-Based Interventions
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Summative and formative assessments are used to determine
where to begin instruction and to provide interventions.

2. Data are used across the curriculum to monitor student
progress and to guide and plan instruction.

3. Summative and formative assessments are used to tailor in-
class interventions to meet the needs of struggling learners.

4. Data are used to plan a Comprehensive Intervention Model
(CIM), including one-to-one and small groups in grades K-8.

5. Teachers collaborate with intervention teacher/s around
student/s progress and collaboratively develop a plan of action.


Notes:






Criterion 4: Uses a Differentiated Approach to
Learning
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Instruction includes a workshop approach to learning across
the curriculum.

2. Explicit mini-lessons are tailored to meet the needs of the
majority of students across the curriculum.

3. Daily small group reading and writing instruction is provided to
meet the diverse needs of students.

4. Daily one-to-one reading and writing conferences are
scheduled with students.

5. Prompts are used to activate successful problem-solving
strategies, higher order thinking, and deeper comprehension.

6. Writing is taught as a process, including composing, drafting,
revising, editing, and publishing.

7. A writing continuum is used to meet student needs, plan
instruction, and monitor progress over time.

8. Quality literature is read, enjoyed and analyzed across the
curriculum.

9. Mentor texts and notebooks are used as resources across
genres.

10. Inquiry based learning opportunities are promoted and
arranged across the curriculum.


Notes:










Criterion 5: Uses Assessment Wall for School-
wide Progress Monitoring
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Common assessments are developed and used across grade=
levels for measuring student achievement.

2. Data on the assessment/intervention wall are used for
progress monitoring school-wide program effectiveness.

3. Data on the assessment/intervention wall are used to ensure
struggling students are receiving appropriate interventions.


Notes:











Criterion 6: Uses Literacy Coach to Support
Teacher Knowledge and Reflective Practice
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Coach supports teachers in classrooms; teaches groups of
struggling learners, networks with other coaches, plans team
meetings, meets weekly with principal; and coordinates the
school’s literacy program.

2. Coach uses coaching cycles and scaffolding techniques in a
gradual release model to promote self-regulated teachers.

3. Coach collects data from teachers and organizes and assists in
data analysis for assessing program effectiveness in the school.

4. Coach guides teachers in analyzing data for assessing teaching
and learning across various curricular areas.

5. Coach organizes an assessment team in the school.

Notes:






Criterion 7: Builds Collaborative Learning
Communities
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Administrator and coach plan and coordinate teacher
professional study groups, grade level planning, and peer
observations.

2. Administrator and coach create a climate for collaborative
problem-solving and reflective practice.

3. Teachers use reflection logs to reflect on learning during and
after team meetings and to engage in problem-solving discussions.


Notes:





Criterion 8: Creates and Uses School Plans for
Promoting Systemic Change
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Coach, teachers, and administrators collaboratively identify
strengths and needs of current literacy practices and create a
plan of action (school plan with timelines and persons responsible
for executing the plan).

2. Coach, teachers, and administrators share plan with
stakeholders and gain support for school improvement initiatives.

3. Coach compiles data into a school report and shares results
with stakeholders.


Notes:



Criterion 9: Uses Technology for Effective
Communication
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Coach and teachers network with other professionals through
the use of technology including list serves and discussion boards.

2. Coach and teachers use technology to collect, analyze and
store student data and keep current with research and best
practices.

3. Coach models effective use of technology through well
designed presentations, Internet searches, research, etc.

4. Teachers provide opportunities for students to use technology
for real world purposes, including word processing, research and
presenting information.


Notes:







Criterion 10: Advocates and Spotlights School’s
Literacy Program
Proficiency Level
Meeting Approaching Below
1. Stakeholders, including parents, are informed and engaged in
accomplishments of the school’s literacy goals.

2. Coach and teachers invite the community into the classrooms
and recruit volunteers to assist with the school’s literacy
initiatives.

3. Coach disseminates information on the school’s literacy
program to various audiences (brochures, school reports,
newsletters, etc.).


Notes:













Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2007). Environmental Scale for Assessing Implementation Levels
(ESAIL). University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Center for Literacy.
No Excuse Words K-3

These lists contain words that are either found frequently in student writing or
can be used by teachers to help students spell more difficult words. This is by no
means an all-encompassing list of words that are used frequently or need to be
known. The list does provide a starting place in helping students understand that
the purpose in learning to spell words is for APPLICATION in daily reading and
writing. Once a word is known, there should be an expectation that these words are
spelled correctly. Students will know many of these words prior to the grade level
listed. For those students, it becomes more about the awareness of using the word
correctly than about learning to spell the word itself.

Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Third Grade
a it all saw again school after off
am like are she any there also only
and me by that ask until been other
at my come they because walk big over
can no day this both were does put
do see for very could what down some
go the get want four where finally take
he to has was friend who find them
I up have went from why good then
in we here when give work into these
is you look will great would its time
of with house write just us
play our wrong made use
said more water
now

Revised August 2014


(Fourth & Fifth Grade to be Added)



Resources


Dorn, L. & Jones T. (2012). Apprenticeship in literacy. Portland, ME: Stenhouse
Publishers.

Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2012). Interventions that Work: A comprehensive
intervention model for preventing reading failure in grades K-3. Boston, MA:
Pearson Education, Inc.

Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2001). Shaping literate minds: Developing self-regulated
learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2005) Teaching for deep comprehension: A workshop
approach. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2001). Scaffolding young writers: A writer’s workshop
approach. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.