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FLIGHT
HANDBOOKS
Volume 2
Lunar Flight Handbook
PART 1BACKGROUND MATERIAL
Prepared GEORGE MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT
for CENTER
the C.
Huntsville, Under Contract
Alabama NAS 85031
_
0ffice of Scientific and Technical Information NAT, ONAL AERONAUT, CS AND SPACE AD M, N, STRAT, D.C. Washi,gto,, 1 ON
9
63
CONTENTS
Volume I II III IV Introduction Physical The Data
II,
Part
1  Background
Material II IIi IIII ......... IVI
..................... ..................... System in the .............. EarthMoon System
EarthMoon
Trajectories
parts
The preceding of Volume II
contents contain II,
are Part 1 of Volume the following: Part 2  Lunar Mission
II.
The
remaining
two
Volume V VI VII VIII IX X Earth Departure
Phases VI VII VIII
.................... Transfer ................
EarthtoMoon Lunar Descent Orbit
...................... Ascent Transfer from the Lunar Surface .....
to and
VIIII IX 1 XI
MoontoEarth Earth Return
................
.....................
Volume Xl XII Mission Planning
II,
Part
3
 Mission
Planning Xli XIII AI BI i
...................
Bibliography Appendix Appendix Index A B
..................... Glossary Symbols ................. ..................
.........................
FOREWORD
This the Space The volumes of space Martin
handbook Company Center various in Flight by
has under of Handbook
been
produced
by
the
Space with second MSFC,
Systems the and in George Space a treating to the books
Division C.
of
contract the National is
NAS85031 Aeronautics the by of purpose
Marshall of dynamics
Flight Lunar
Administration. series the mission is to form years orbital serve they of
considered sponsored of aspects
contractors, a variety The
flight and
interest of these In through such
designer as a basic
evaluator. tool in
primary mission material
preliminary data in each and present of three and
planning. collected area, flight. is concerned in
condensed several earth
provide intensive flight,
background studies lunar
space
mission
as
flight, II, the
interplanetary volume, parts
Volume The The volume parts
with three
lunar separate
missions. booEs.
consists are:
presented
Part Part Part
i 2 3
 Background  Lunar  Mission
Material Phases
Mission Planning
The Jorgen Martikan this material
Martin
Company George
Program Townsend direct
Manager has been
for
this
project Director. the
has
been Fred of of
Jensen; has with
Technical for
had he
the has
responsibility the responsibility
coordination the generation
volume;
shared Santora.
for
Frank
Additional Garceau, prepared preparing James have made Andrew by
contributors Jazwinski Kuhn and and for Markson,
were Lloyd Elsie
Robert Emery. M.
Salinger, The John
Donald graphical Magnus Pragluski, Foy of and this
Kraft, work has
Thomas has been in
Dieter
Smith.
assisted Don Novak, Tyler
the
handbook Edward
publication. Sidney during the
William Roedel, Wade writing
Porter,
James book.
helpful
suggestions
The the MSFC
assistance contract
given management
by
the
Future
Projects by
Office Conrad
at D.
MSFC Swanson
and is
by
panel,
directed
gratefully
acknowledged.
INT RODUCT
ION
I.
INTRODUCTION
The primary intent of the Lunar Flight Handbook is to introduce the engineer to the flight mechanics aspects of lunar missions. In addition, the handbook material is designed to enable the user to design this decade. a lunar mission for any date in
To fulfill this double purpose while presenting new material in compact form, several guidelines were established and followed in the selection and arrangement The Handbook of the material. for the Lunar Flight between textbooks of observational astronomy, in journals and reports. in the Handbook is in
to reentry into the earth's atmosphere upon return from the moon. Of special interest is the attempt to catalogue a major portion of circumlunar and approach trajectories to the moon and return trajectories to a degree of accuracy which has not so far been achieved in the published literature.
(3)
format selected is somewhere
Mission chapter material specific use in
planning. In of the Handbook, is applied to lunar missions preliminary
the
final technical the previous the design of two to illustrate its
design. chapter the data follow.
celestial mechanics and and the recent literature The material presented
tended to provide the link between these two types of publications and to provide a framework for the published articles and reports covering specialized aspects of lunar flight. The order of the presentation progresses from relatively simple physical concepts to a derivation, or tlle outline of the derivation, of more detailed results and concepts. More important and useful results are presented analytically, and if possible graphically, while results which depend on the vehicle configuration and operational concepts, such as the use of tracking and communication equipment, have been described in narrative form ber of sketches are included to permit a quick grasp and the concepts and techniques Frequent reference provided to enable the values to their source only. in the A large numtext in order of
The subject material of each technical and some general guidelines for use of presented in the Lunar Flight Handbook
Chapter Chapter
II.
PIIYSICAL II describes
DATA the environment factors describes the first constants the of the
space vehicles, gives the various systems lunar exploration the astronautical
conversion of units and In or
between the section, describspace bodws, vedata
programs. constants, force of
ing the gravitational hicle and the geometry
acting on lhe cele,stiul recently has been constants, determined
have been discussed. The on astronautical constants and with the best values a confidence of these interval
published summarized, together with the for all Thus, constants Future, astrothe Thus, preliminary of
easy visualization of lunar flight.
to outside material is reader to trace numerical and find references
Student's t distribution, have trajectory calculations in the a standard and nearly consistent based on recent data has been more accurate determinations nautical constants graphical trajectory the Handbook will design purposes. will
been used Handbook. set of adopted. of these any for
to further material. Frequent reference is made to material in the Orbital Flight Handbook, the companion volume to this Handbook, since the technical material overlaps to some extent. It was attempted to keep the technical level and notation uniform throughout the llandbook. This was no small task if one considers that a number of people were contributing to the Handbook directly and much outside material was reviewed, checked and integrated into the text. The ranged technical into three material groups: of the tiandbook is ar
not change ciata significantly. retain its value
The atmospheric, thermal environment effect of this environment occupants nearearth environment
meteoritic, of the space on the
radiative vehicle vehicle data
and and the and its
are then discussed. The environment and earthmoon has been classified and to the as
on the space summarized Flight Handand lunar observa has been
with frequent reference book for details, while surface environment, tions and discussed as it is in much known more
the Orbital nearmoon deduced from present,
(1)
Background material. This group, consisting of Chapters II, 1II and IV, gives the results of astronomy, describes the geometry, the environment, the force models for trajectory calculation, and and classifies missions. In in the metric to of the units lunar addition, trajectories since all
at the detail.
Since handbook data is given in the absolute MKS system of units, the various systems of chanical anti thermal units employed for trajec tory cah:ulations as well as conversion factors between metric, tems of units tabular form, mental tiples units have units. chapter status continues the U. S. with lunar a review exploration of the are but English given. basic common listed in
me
material is in the versions system (2)
Lunar system commonly is given.
Flight Handbook of units, conused English
and astrononiica] sys Much of the data is in definitions anti fundamultiples the text to the anti submulprovide for various sys
with been
Lunar mission phases. consisting ofEh_pters ses all possible chronologically
This group, V to X, discuslunar flight departure
convenient tems of The current
conversions
between
phases of from earth
of
11
program to familiarize the reader with the project terminology and with the immense scope of the lunar exploration task. A list of announced space vehicle launches with lunar missions, their trajectories, completes results and the material attempted experiments of Chapter II.
ated. integration computer The
The
description of these round out
of
methods on
for the
numerical digital
trajectories this section.
Voice
(volumeofinfluence
calculated which uses the geometry Voice tech
envelopes) computation technique, a patched conic force model, and and nomenclature, peculiar to the
Chapter
III.
TIlE
EARTIIMOON
SYSTEM
Chapter III provides some astronomical background for lunar flight. The various coordinate systems centered at the earth or the moon and used for describing the position of space vehicles are introduced, and transformations between the various mooncentered and trajectory coordinate systems is also The are given. included. A list of available lunar' maps
nique have been introduced in the final section of Chapter IV. This special treatment is necessary since the particular trajectory geometry enables the efficient cataloguing of lunar trajectories to be discussed in the summary of Chapter VI.
Chapt('r This
V, is
I',AtlTII the of The first
I)EPAt{TURE chapter in the chronological lunar tech
motion of a space as interpreted strieted threebody cussed. Conclusions astronomical results tic spacevehicle have been presented
space vehicle in earthmoon in the threebody and re problems of astronomy is disthat can be drawn from these in their application to ballisin earthmoon detail. space
description mission. nique, in specified at injection, technique,
the separate fixed translunar
phases
of a trajectory
trajectories in some
which the translunar trajectory has a inclination to the moon's orbital plane the variable translunar trajectory in which the i_clination of the transvaries with injection how the itself the use time are of of injection, discussed. or
lunar trajectory and the translunar It is demonstrated
Since knowledge of lunar position and orientation is also required for lunar flight, brief descriptions of Delaunay's Hansen's and the HillBrown Iunar theories are followed by a listing of the available lunar ephemerides and by a method digital for including lunar programs. librations in trajectory computer
parking
Chapter ............
IV.
TIRAJECTO[{IE5 NTOXSNSYSTE
1N M
Tilt,;
EAtg'F[t"
bits during earth departure increases the period in which space vehicle launch can take place (i.e., the launch tolerance) and hence provides additional flexibility for the planning of lunar missions. During the injection phase, abort requirements, or the requirements to return the space vehicle to earth as quickly as possible in the event of a malfunction, have been discussed. Abort requirements are mentioned for each phase of lunar flight in the Handbook since they are important for the selection of trajectories and vehicle hardware for manned lunar missions and aspect since of many lunar published missions. articles disregard this
the
This chapter nomenclature
introduces, in and classification
descriptive of lunar
form, mis
sions and trajectories as well as the determination of the trajectories. The restricted threebody problem perrnits the use of many types of ballistic trajectories for lunar flights. If thrust is available to modify these ballistic trajectories at predetermined points, a wide variety of lunar missions are possible. described The underlying scribed The and force in most common illustrated by missions sketches in have the been text.
All graphical data for specific numerical examples in the Lunar Flight ttandbook reflects launches from Cape Canaveral, Florida, under appropriate launch azimuth restrictions. At present, NASA has announced plans to use this launch site for lunar flights, and in view of the longrange planning and expense of the launch support equipment, these plans are likely to be carried out. I_aunch from other sites with diffcrelK la_lnch azimuth restrictions rcquirl,s a different set of graphs since trajectories have a strong dependence on launch site location.
models, trajectory considerable
or the physical assumptions, calculations, have been dedetail in order to show the
assumptions involved in the use of particular equations of motion for lunar trajectory calculations. The description starts from simple twobody equations permitting closedform solutions; it progresses through the "patching" of twobody trajectories around the earth and moon in order obtain a complete ballistic lunar trajectory; restricted threebody force model is discussed as a tool to determine trajectories; the nbed) force model with earth oblateness and lunar axiality concludes gravitational mospheric is presented in detail; with a discussion of forces, such drag, meteoritic as and the the chapter effects of to the
('hapter
VI.
I,;AR'FIITOMOt)N
"FIgANSFt'_[{
trinon
rocket drag,
thrust, at,_olar radiution
pressure, electromagnetic forces, special and general relativistic effects. In most cases the form of the equations of motion has been given or derived and the effect of including the nongravitational forces in lunar trajectories is cvalu
Of special note in this chapter is the catalogue of a large portion of circumlunar trajectories to an accuracy which permits the preliminary selection of lunar mission parametersa level of accuracy which is unique among presentations of this type. Use of the Voice patchedconic trajectory program, use of trajectory symmetry about the moon's orbital plane as well as a plane perpendicular to it, and use of two equations for extending injection parameters, enables the presentation of a major portion of the circmnlunar trajectories launched from Cape
I2
Canaveral in only 83 figures. Typical comparis_o_ trajectories calculated by use of the Voice technique, the restricted threebody force model, and the nbody force model have been given frequently throughout the Handbook in order to illustrate the remarkable accuracy achievable with the Voice technique. Navigation during lunar missions has been discussed qualitatively and quantitatively, with examples given for a particularly useful navigation technique for position determination in cislunar space. Tracking and communications, on the other hand, have been described qualitatively, since the actual procedures depend to a great degree on the available equipment as well as on the trajectory. Several techniques midcourse guidance correc{ions and some typical fuel requirements for have determining been discussed are also given.
Chapter
IX.
MOONTOEARTH
TRANSFER
This chapter gives a catalogue of trajectories from the vicinity of the moon to the vicinity of the earth in 90 figures. Use of symmetry and reinterpretation of moontoearth trajectories as earthtomoon trajectories again enables a significant extension of the catalogued data. The catalogues of Chapters VI and IX thus include a major portion of feasible circumlunar and approach trajectories. Impact as well as specialized periodic trajectories have not been catalogued since they most probably will not be used for lunar exploration in the 1965 to 1970 time period; however, they are described and classified in Chapter IV. Midcourse guidance during the moontoearth been briefly discussed. guidance techniques, and tracking requirements directly to moontoearth energy requirements transfer phase have The description of navigational techniques of Chapter VI applies trajectories. and
Abort cedures together circumlunar Chapter
requirements during the with abort mission VI.
and translunar maneuver conclude
possible abort trajectory graphs for the material
prophase a typical of
Chapter
X.
EARTtt
RETURN
Chapter
VII.
LUNAR
ORBIT
Artificial behave in in earth
the orbits.
satellites same Only
in fashion the
orbits as
around artificial
the moon satellites constants the
A description of reentry into the earth's atmosphere and landing at a specific site completes the chronological description of the lunar mission phases. The problem of timing earth return provides the introduction to the chapter which considers two methods for reentering the atmosphere and landing. The first method considers the space vehicle into the earth's from the transearth trajectory the parabolic speed speed). Equations reentry trajectories, aerodynamic niques during considered. forces this of a direct entry atmosphere at speeds near escape by use techare of of of
astronautical
appearing in the equations and the magnitude of perturbing forces of the other celestial bodies are different. Hence, satellite data most commonly used in prelir_inary design such as period, velocity, as well lunar oblateness as reconnaissance of and the effects aspects on the orbit, of lunar orbits, the ef
for earth (or earth motion, characteristics maneuverability guidance reentry
are given analytically relative magnitude fects is presented. The effect been of for
graphically, and various perturbing
and various supercircular
finite entry discussed, data
rocket to
burning
time
on
fuel with
requirements orbits has
and exit from lunar and a comparison This entry supplements and exit
The second combination of rocket deceleration
method of reentry atmospheric and to establish
employs rocket or a circular
a pure earth
Voice trajectory the fuel requirements
is made. for orbit
given in the trajectory catalogues of Chapters VI and IX, which is based on an impulsive change of velocity (infinite thrusttoweight ratio). Finally, lunar orbit determination schemes are described briefly.
satellite orbit prior to reentering and landing from circular orbital speed. The requirements on the guidance system and the materials are thus reduced, but a significant amount of fuel is required for the deceleration and deorbit maneuvers.
Chapter Chapter VIII. DESCENT TO AND ASCENT THE LUNAR SURI_ACE FROM
X1.
MISSION
PLANNING between the presented of a lunar period of 1965
the
In this lunar
chapter, surface
the has
vehicle trajectory been described:
the
near need
Chapter background in Chapters mission on to 1970.
Xl, provides the link and trajectory material II to X and the planning a specific date in the
to reduce the lunar approach velocity of the space vehicle for most landing missions, the descent burning and ballistic flight phases, any required hovering or translation, landing safety boundaries and abort during each descent or ascent phase are covered. In each case the equations of motion, some methods of trajectory optimization and the guidance trajectory as well phase. as typical results describe
The following material is necessary for the conversion from generalized trajectory data to specific mission dates: transformations from tim Voice coordinat_ system to the selenographic coordinate system, the illumination of the moon by the sun, lunar declination and distance from the earth, and some useful empirical relationships for extending catalogued
I3
trajectorydata. Alsoincluded missionplanare ningenvelopes, graphs or whichgiveseveral geometrical trajectoryparameters sa function a of missionconstraints summary in form, thus enabling readypatching thetranslunar,lunar a of orbit, andtransearth trajectoriesintoa complete andcontinuous trajectoryfor themission. Theuseof thematerialin theHandbook andthe procedure planning of lunarmissions hasbeen
illustratedbytwosample missions thefinal in section the chapter.Onemission a manned of is lunarexploration mission witha stayofthree daysonthelunarsurface,whilethe otheris an unmanned photographic reconnaissance mission of themoon lastingonemonth. In addition to illustratingtheuseof theHandbook materialfor missionplanning,hesemissions t arerepresentative of thetypeof lunarmissions planned the for endofthis decade.
I4
CHAPTER PHYSICAL
II DATA
Prepared
by:
F. Martikan and R. Salinger Martin Company (Baltimore) Aerospace Mechanics Department March 1963
Page A. B. C. D. E. Astronautical Environmental Systems Summary References Constants Data .................... IIi II10 ........... and Results .... II20 II26 II32 II35
...................... Conversion Tables Programs
of Units and of Lunar
Exploration
................................ .................................
Illustrations
II.
PHYSICAL
DATA
The purpose of this chapter is to present background data for the discussion of lunar missionsto be more specific, the astrodynamieal constants needed for hnar trajectories, a discussion of the space vehicle environment, and of the absolute MKS system of units used in the handbook, together with conversion factors to English units. The astt'odynamical constants and nearearth environment have been discussed in the companion volume (Chapter II, Ref. 1), and data from that reference is given in summary form for the convenience of the user. Additional data needed specifically for lunar missions has been included in more detail in Sections A and B. A list of space vehicle launches with lunar missions, their objectives, and the present lunar exploration program of the United States is given at tile end of the chapter, in Suction D.
(1)
Collect constant. Assume particular same
all
recent
values
of
a particular
(2)
that
the constant
various are
of
values roughly
of
the the
accuracy. the sample, n n mean (x) and variance (2) of
(3)
Obtain this
X=n
i=l
xi' _ =n X
i=l 2 a_ x the
(xi
n of values
n
1 for
, where constant.
n
is
the
number
A. The from
ASTRONAUTICAL of the solar observations
CONSTANTS system are determined accurate
(4)
Throw out all mean by more tion (la). Recompute as the the "adjusted
values than
deviating one standard
from the devia
constants astronomical
(5)
mean mean"
and for of
use the
this
value constant. is
enough for the prediction of the positions of celestial bodies. However, for a successful lunar or interplanetary mission, better values for the astronomical unit (AU), the distances, diameters, figures, masses, and other data concerning the earth, moon, sun, and planets are required. As these values should be internally consistent, they depend on the physical model used for the trajectory calculation. In addition, some indication of the uncertainty in the values is necessary since these constants define the ballistic trajectory, and uncertainties in the constants are reflected in trajectory "errors" and "miss distances. "
The
"confidence
interval"
a constant
used here to indicate that the sample interval brackets the true mean or adjusted mean, as computed by the procedure above, some prescribed percentage of the time. For these small samples, the confidence interval has been obtained from the Student _s tdistribution. As this procedure has been fully discussed in Chapter II of Ref. 1, no further details will be given here. In nautical when their handbook sense, to some constants centric primary 1. the remainder constants of are this section, defined (and the end levels Since, influence of the astrodiscussed, the section, as used in the
In recent years, several articles on astronautical constants have appeared in the literature (Hefs. 2, 3, 4, 5 to name but a few). Of these, Refs. 2 and 3 have aimed at a standardization of the constants for astronautical calculations (although there seem to be small inconsistencies in the data, and no indication of a "standard deviation" or other 'honfidence interval" is given in the data). Reference 4 is restricted to a statistical analysis of geocentric constants, and the constants in Ref. 5, even though internally consistent, appeared too late for their evaluation and inclusion in the handbook. Reference 5 is reproduced in its entirety as Appendix B of Ref. 1. In addition, the calculation of the lunar ephemeris is based on a different set of constants, which is given 6). Since more become available of space vehicles, means, most of by more accurate In any case, the used in trajectory For companion data has the in the American accurate values in the future Ephemeris (Itef. of constants will from observations
necessary), values and
and at confidence
are summarized. all celestial bodies
in the broadest the trajectory planetocentric with the geowhich are
degree, heliocentric and wii1 be given, together and selenocentric constants interest for lunar trajectories.
of
Heliocentric
Constants
radar echoes, and by other these constants will be superseded values and smaller tolerances. best values available should be calculations. in 1, this the and handbook recently the best of The the and its
Planetary observations and theories of planetary motion permit precise computation of the angular position of the planets. Although angular measurements are quite accurate, no distance scale is readily available. Attempts to resolve this problem have ied to the comparison of large, unknown interplanetary distances to the largest of the known distances available to man, the equatorial radius R of the earth. In the process,
(2
solar earth' to the whose lized
paraliax was defined s equatorial radius sun from a fictitious mass and sidereal by Gauss in his
the ratio of the the mean distance unperturbed planet period are those utito of the solar
as
trajectories
computation
volume, Ref. been summarized,
published values procedure various
of the constants have used for determining constants is as follows:
been used. the means
gravitation AU). This revisions fundamental the unit length can be
constant (i. e., one astronomical unit, definition renders unnecessary the in planetary tables as more accurate constants are made available, since (in kilometers) modified. of the astronomical
II
1
the
In the broadest ratio between
sense, the solar two sets of units:
parallax is (1) the astro
duces off. The as the rotation, found 2.
a much
lower
end
figure
error
due
to
round
nomical set utilizing the solar mass, the astronomical unit and the mean solar day (which has recently been replaced by the ephemeris day), and (2) the laboratory set, for which the absolute MKS system of units has been adopted in this handbook. Another important heliocentric quantity is the value of the solar gravitational constant, . p_ = • _2) GM©, stant stant where and can M O G is the universal of the in both grawtatmnal sun. the This concon
sun's mean in
orbit
and
such
auxiliary
constants its rate years can (_ef. 6). of be
obliquity and lengths the American
of the ecliptic, of the various Ephemeris Constants
Planetoeentrie
is the
mass
be determined
astronomical de
and the laboratory terminations are
units; results from both given in this subsection.
The mass of a planet is its most important property from the standpoint of trajectory analysis; only in the vicinity of a planet will its actual shape influence the trajectory to some degree. From the mass and its shape, some auxiliary quantities such as the radius of a sphere having the equivalent volume can be derived. Planetary tabular and form at some the lunar end of data this is summarized subsection.
In 1938 it was internationally agreed (IAU 1938) that to maintain the Gaussian value of the solar gravitational GM law O constant by or Gaussian Gauss from constant Kepler's KO2 third in
as determined in astronomical
units.
Table 1 presents the gravitational properties of the sun and planetstheir masses and gravitational constants p = GM in absolute MKS, gravitational FPS, and astronomical units. In addition, the radius of action of the particular planet with respect to The radius the of sun is action given in the same units.
KO
_ _  r
r@@ M 0
M S
_
+ MG AU3/2
2/5 r* (1) where r OP defines a spherical region around the planet p which approximates the sphere of influence of the planet in the dynamical system of the planet and the sun. (For more detail, see Subsection Blb of Chapter IV.) The main significance of the radius of action lies in its use in the "patching" of conic trajectories; inside the sphere of influence, the gravitational attraction of the planet may be neglected as a first approximation to the trajectory, while outside the sphere of influence the gravitational attraction of the planet may be neglected. In the case of the moon, the tabulated radius of action is centered at the moon and defined with respect to the earth, while in the case of the earthmoon system it is centered at the masses definition columns revolution, the true a given distances 1/2 earthmoonbarycenter, of the earth of and moon and are the used combined in its last three period of sun, and earth on = distance from sun to planet = top
(%
(2)
0.017,
202,
098,
95
solar day
where
ros r M(D M S M®
= 1 AU = 365.256,383,5 = solar mass = 1 mean solar days
= ratio
of
earth
and
solar
masses
= 0.000,002,819 The this value definition. 2. The value of pQ = GM O (as KO is usually units) can best values to Ref. denoted when be determined for 2, G and M O. measured directly This in laboratory by use of the yields, if we of K© has nine significant figures by
refer
with respect to the sun. The Table 1 present the sidereal its mean distance from the distance of the planet from the date and to illustrate for typical the scale calculations neat' the 7 and 6, of
PO _O
= 1.3251 1/2 = 1"1511
(1
± 0.00101 (1 + 0"0005)
x
1020 x
Em3/sec 1010
2]
planetary of planetary
[m3/see2]
gravitational data is taken
attractions from liefs.
earth. The respectively.
The ured three
latter
value,
which units, figures of the
corresponds is accurate as compared determination
to
KO
meas
in laboratory significant figures units.
only to the to the nine of K@ in
significant astronomical
Table 2 presents the geometry of the planets. Most celestial bodies are very nearly spherical in shape, ttowever, an oblate elIipsoid can be assumed as a second approximation to the planetary shape, while, for the shape of the moon, a triaxial ellipsoid has been deduced from observations. The oblate eliipsoid is defined by its equatorial natively, radius by I{e, 1_
e
It is thus advantageous to compute nomical system of units, converting necessary. This procedure assures suits will become more accurate as for the astronomical unit are obtained
in the astroonly when that the rebetter values and pro
its and
polar its
radius
Rp, f,
or, with
alter
flattening,
R f = e g
e
tg p (3)
II2
TABLE Gravitational
Gravitational Mass Planet Mercury 0 1024 3237 k g 0 02232 M 106 km 3 Isec 2 1016 ft3/sec 2
1 of the Planets
Properties
Constant i0 9 AU3/solar day 2 106 km Radius 109 of ft Action r* AU
Sidereal Period Revolution of Mean from the Distance the Sun Planet O. 387 to
True from December
Distance Earth Epoch: 25 0. 8407 (AU) 0, 1963
(w')
o 2411
(AU)
6, 100,000 ±65,000
0
021,
725
0
076,
721
o o48,5o9
0 726,987
0 1117_
0 61696
o
36674
0
000,747,6
Venus
4.
8811
O, aa45
407,000 ± 1300
0
325,581
1.
149,
78
2
0241
0
004,
126
0
6156
0,
724
l.
4076
Earth
5.
9758
0.
40947
332,440 ±50
O, 398,
601,
5
1. 407,
64.___8
O.
890,033
O. 92482
3.
03429
0
006,
185,0
10000
1.
0000
0
EarthMoon
6.
0484
0.
41444
328,400 ±25 M$ Mt I 3,090,000 ±12,000 1j 047 ±0 1 3500 zl.7 22,800 :l 100 19,500 ± 2 ()C, 350,000 ± 27,000 106 1 0000Ci 4
O. 403,444
1. 424,
75
0.
900,847
0
92933
3
04898
0
006,215,1.
Moon
0.
(}73451
0.
0050330
= 81.357±0.010 0004,899,4 0.042,883,0 O. 017,302,___1 0.151,440
O.
010,939,_8
O. 066282
O. 21746o
0
000,443,3
O.
0748**
0.0025
OD
Mars
O. 6429
O. 04405
0
095,753,
1
0
57763
1
8951
0
003,
86_.._3
1.
8822
1.53
2.3554
Jupiter
1896
7
129
97
126
515
446.
783
282
493
48
141
157
943
0
321,
96
11.86
5.20
4.7246
Saturn
567
80
38.
89
37.
860,
4
133.
703
84
538,3
54
774
179
7I)
O. 366_
31
29.46
9.54
10.4871
Uranus
87.
132
5
970
5811,91
20
524,6
12
977,4
51
755
169
80
0
346,
13
84,0
19.2
17,9031
Neptune
I01
88
6
981
6
795,
75
28.
999,
0
15174,2
89
952
285
28
0
581,
51
164.
8
30, 1
31.0049
Pluto
5
676
0
3889
0
378,596
1
337,0
0
845,
364
38,
812
117
49
0
239,
5
247
7
39.
4
32.5967
Sun
1,9866
x
106
0
13613x
132,511
467,960
295,912
208.3
_

0.9835
*x
Jne erlined digits * Solar gravitational Period of revolution
are
questionable constant is is around
Gauss±an earth.
value
Table having
2 also the
presents volume
the
radius as the
of the oblate
sphere ellipsoid,
which
can IR 6
be R e
expressed 1 
to f sin 2 6
order + _
f2
as sin 2 2
same
R
=
(Re2
Rp )
1/3
(4) _R e 1  f sin2*, g sin 2 2 (6)
to facilitate Keplerian orbit calculations and illustrate the small planetary asphericities. Table 3 presents the circular velocity,
to where esthe flattening f is defined by Eq (3). I_ e is
cape velocity and gravity at the surface of the equivalent sphere (called "sea level") in metric, English and astronomieal units, as computed from the following equations:
the earth,s equatorial radius, latitude (as given on maps), centric latitude. These latter related by tan _, = (1  f)2 lan_.
6 is the geodelic and 5, is _he geotwo quantities
are
(7)
Vc[rcular
=
A consistent = Vescape (5) t! e rC
expression
for"
Ue
is 2
given
by
Vparabolic
 Z.l 4
2
_
(3
sin 2 *,

1)
go
R 2  gr,]4
Preliminary trajectory calculations use the spherical body assumption (i.e., that the celestial body is spherically symmetric in coneentrie layers} with the radius R given by Eq (4) and the the gravitational distance is from given potential byU =_, where r The r negative sign bital data for can be obtained denotes an attractive foree. Orthe planets and auxiliary quantities from Ref. 6. Since the orbits and near the for orbits data on r is where earth system) attraction By g
"

(35 sin 4 b,  30 sin 2 5, + 3
)]
(8)
r G is (the
the
distance in ="e lhe is .12 and be
from geographic the J4
the
center coordinate
of
the
its center.
gravitational 0 where the
radius C'Me
gravitational are numerical in through terms (8)
constant coefof can f, be R ape ,
av :  br
of
the
earth, which andre. to any
and can
ficients g_, plied
expressed (6)
Equations oblate planet.
of planets (with the exception of Mercury Pluto) are very nearly circular and are ecliptic plane, another common assumption preliminary calculations is that planetary are circular and in the ecliptic. Further planets of this ter III listed of 3. the
The
earth,s
gravitational to the earth
potential, must satisfy
%,
at
a
point exterior equation. 
LapIace,s
and their orbits, together with the sources information, has been presented in Chapof Kuiper (Ref. 8) and inthe references in the Bibliography of background material Lunar Flight Handbook. A solution separation Ue in written
_2[Je
+
O2Ue
O2Ue
0
Geocentrie
Constants
of this partial of variables
differential suggests harmonics
an
equation expansion which can
by of be
The approximation of the earth' s shape by a rotating oblate ellipsoid which in the interior is symmetrie in ellipsoidai layers is quite good for ascent and descent trajectories as well as shorttime orbits around the earth. The further assumption ellipsoid potential tential centrifugal 2 cos ¢, earth the of is made that the surface of the oblate ts an equipotential surface of the geowhich consists of the gravitational pothe earth, force , where its and ¢, co e axis, is the due is U S, to the and the the rotation, rotational the local potential _ rate radius latitude. 1 we of of 2 the 2 R_ the of
terms of spherical in the form
___._
y
(I{e
p
m
(sin,,)
•
to
_C cos m becomes X is through coefficients, polynomial, polynomlaI the
&o,r;,
mk + S n, the longitude Cn, P n m m' is in m sin
n
_'3 m_,]l (10)
L_ n,
where torial R e now radius, east
earth,s
mean (counted Sn, the terms m are
equapositive nu
around earth,
R0p is
to
the
360°), and
geocentric
merical The a function loeal of radius geocentric of the oblate is elIipsoid given by R_ as Legendre Legendre
associated of the
latitude
defined P n by m
H_ 2 cos R e 2
2 _, +
R,
2 sin .... R 2 (I e
2 _, =I f)2 Pn m (x) = (1 _x2}_dx dm m Ip n (x _ (Ii)
II4
TABLE Geometry of the
2 Planets
Radius
of
Sphere (R 3 :
of R:
Equivalent RE)
Volume,
R
Equatorial Planet (km) (statmi)
Radius (naut mi)
i R (ftx 107) 1/f (km) (stat
Polar mi)
Radius)Rp (naut mi) (ft x 107) (kin) 2330 ±10 6100 ±5O 6371.02 ±0.05 3958.77 ±0.03 3440.08 ±0.02 3790 ±30 3290 ±25 (stat mi) (naut mi) (ft x 107)
Mercury
2330 ±10 6100 ±50
1448
±6
1258
±5
0.7644 ±0.0032 2.001 ±0.016
_*
2330 ±10 6100 ±50
1448
±6
1258
±5
0.7644 ±0.0032
1488
±6
1258
±5
0.7644 ±0.0032 2.001 _0.016 2.09023 ±164 x 10 7
Venus
3790
±30
3290
±25
_*
3790
±30
3290
±25
2.001 ±0.016
Earth
6378.16 ±0.02 ............
3963.20 ±0.03
3443.93 ±0.02
2.09257 7 ±164 x 10
298.24
±0.01
6356.77 ±0.05
3949.77 ±0.03
3432.38 ±0.02
2.08555 7 ±164 x i0
EarthMoon
Moon*':'
a
1738.57 ±0.07
1080.30 _0.04 1080.14 ±0.04 1079.68 ±0.04
938.75 ±0.03 938.61 ±0.03 938.22 ±0.03
0.
57040
....
±0.00002 0.57031 ±0.00002 0.57007 ±0.00002 .... 1737.58 ±0.07 1079.68 ±0.07 938.22 ±0.03 0.57007 ±0.00002 1738.16 ±0.07 1080.04 ±0.04 938.53 ±0.03 0.57026 ±0.00002
b I c ¢31
1738.31 ±0.07 1737.58 ±0.07
Mars
3415
±5
2122
±3
1844
±2
1.1204 ±0.0016
75
±12
3369
±5
2094
±3
1819
±2
1.1055 ±0.0016
3400
±5
2113
±3
1836
±2
1.1155 ±0.0016
Jupiter
71,375 ±50
44,350 ±30
38,539 ±25
23.417 10.016
15.2
±0.1
66,679 ±50
41.432 ±30 33,900 ±30 070
36,004 ±25 29,470 ±25
21.876 ±0.016 17.990 ±0.016
69,774 ±50
43, ±30
356
37,675 ±25
22,892 ±0.016
Saturn
60.500 ±50
37,590 ±30
32,670 _25
19.849 ±0.016
10.2
±
?
54,560 ±50
58,450 ±50
36, ±30
320
31.560 ±25
19.178 ±0.016
Uranus
24,850 ±50
15,440 ±30
13. ±25
420
8.153 ±0.016
14"
±
?
23, ±50
14,340 ±30
12,460 ±25
7.571 ±0.016
24.240 ±50
15,060 ±30
13,090 ±25
7.953 ±0.016
Neptune
25,000 ±250
15,530 _150
13.500 ±130
8.202 ±0.080
58.5
±
?
24,600 ±250
15,260 ±150
13,270 ±130
8.062 ±0.080
24.870 ±250
15,450 ±150
13, 430 ±130
8.159 zO.080
Pluto
3000 ±500
1860 ±300
1620 t250
0.984 ±0.16
....
3000 ±500
1860 ±300
1620 ±250
0.984 :0.16
Sun
696,500 ±500
432,800 ±300
376,100 ±250
228.51 ±0.16
....
696,500 ±500
432, ±300
800
376.100 ±250
238.51 zO.16
*Taken **Moon
from is best
K.
A.
Ehrieke by
(Ref. triaxial
7) ellipsoida: toward earth b: orthogonal to "a" and c: along axis of rotation.
presented
"c"
TABLE Planetary
Circular Velocity at Sea
3 and
Level (A U/solar
Circular
Level (AU/solar
and
Escape
Escape Velocity
Velocities
at Sea
Planetary
Gravity
Gravity at Sea Level
Planet Mercury
{km/sec) 3.05361
(ft/sec) 10,018.4
(statmi/hr) 6,830.73
day) 0.00176444
(km/sec) 4.31846
(ft/sec) 14,168.2
(stat 9.660.13
mi/hr)
day) 0.00249530
(cm/sec 400.212
2)
(it/see 13o1303
2)
(statmi/hr 32,228.9
2)
(AU/solar 0.199801
day
2}
Venus Earth EarthMoon
7.30630 7.909773 ........................
23.970.8 25,950.7
16,
343.7
0.00422174 0.00457044
10.33266 11.18610
33,899.8 36,699.8
23.113.5 25,022.6
0.00597043 0.00646357
875.261 982.0214
28.7159 32.21855
70,484.5 79.081.88
0.436964 0.4902632
17.693.7
I
Moon
1.678900
5,508.2
3,755.59
0.00097010
2.374831
7.789.8
5.311.23
0.00137194
162.169
5.32049
13.059.38
0.0809608
Mars Jupiter Saturn
3.55141 42.5818 25.4511
11,651.6 139,704 83,500.9
7,944.27 95,252.7 56,932.4
0.00205208 0.0246047 0.0147062
5.02243 60.2196 35.9932
16.477.8 197,571 118.088
11.234.9 134,707 80.514.5
0.00290207 0.0347962 0.0207977
370.951 2598.63 1108.26
12.1703 85.2569 36.3601
29,872.5 209,267 89,247.5
0.185193 1.29734 0.853284
Uranus Neptune Pluto
15.4841 16.5308 11.23(?)
50,800.9 54,234.8 36.860{_)
34,637.0 36,978.3 25,1301'¢)
0.00894705 0.00955183 0.00649(?}
21.8978 23.3780 15.89{?)
71,843.3 75.699.5 52,130(?)
48,984.1 52,295.2 35.540(?)
0.0126530 0.0135083 0.00918{?}
989.073 1098.84 4209(?)
32.4499 36.0512 138.1{?)
79,649.7 88,489.3 338.900(?)
0.493784 0.548584 2.101{71
Sun
436.181
1,431.040
975.709
0.252035
616.853
2.023.795
1,379.860
0.356431
27.315.7
896.186
2.199,730
13.6371
Underlined
digits
are
questionable.
A
frequent
variant
,_
of the
co n
form
(i0) is
n
measurements forp$, the A. table The far The the J2 of through
in
Ref. J6'
4 Re
and and
elsewhere. 1/f at J2 of Jn" accurately For the the is, are end
Values given of in Section
adopted
constants coefficient coefficient
oblateness largest
numerically,
US
= _GG
+ _ n=l
Pn, m=0
m
(sin
_b,) •
by
value astronomical the
of _o@
is
extremely
known hand
I An, where
m
cos
mk
+ Bn,
m
sin
mk_t
(12)
from books,
observations. value
constant
Pn,
m
(x)
= of of is of the expressions cases removes U@ by on U(_ to most
Pn (10) or (11) the bothersome the longito has riod
_@
= 7. 292
115
146
x
10 5 turn with
rad/sec determines respect
(14) the pea fixed
A simplification axially symmetric timedependence tude The k, which
been taken, of the earth,s
which in rotation
to
eliminating the rotating
defined k in
earth.
equinox or the sidereal day at The mean solar day, or period tation with respect to the mean 86, 400 see. 4. Selenoeentric Selenocentric Constants constants can
86164. 0989 see. of the earth,s rosun, is 24 hr, or
inclusion
requires
a transformacoordinates programs. before For be as written as
tion of the potential it can be used in the axially symmetric
inertial trajectory earth, holds to
U_) inertial
can
be
conveniently inthose
(in expression in rotating
which coordinates):
well
divided into two categoriesthose of primary terest in determining the moon,s motion, and determining its shape and gravitational potential. In the first category, L,, (Ref. been the 8) the lunar and constants inequality the in values at mass Chapter K_ , as ratio II of in this the
U®
= rG
n=l
Jn
\rG/
Pn
(sin
*,
, (13)
lunar byW. M_
distance, de _ p@ _1_ and of Sitter have
defined
discussed
where US for
Jn an Eq
= 
Cn,
0'
Sn,
0 = 0.
Equation earth, is
(8), a special
giving
Me
oblate
ellipsoidal
case of expressions standard pressions
(13) restricted to n = 2 and n = 4. The (I0), (12) and (13) were adopted as notation by the IAU in 1961. Other exused in the literature for U$, as well constants Chapter in terms II of Ref. for is (12) consistent of to or is U_, give mean also is the of Jn' I. radius the complex gento have
Ref. 1, the table subsection.
the numerical adopted constants
are given the end of
the
The moon has earth, which
been means
captured that the
rotationally relatively
by strong
as the equivalent been catalogued An the eral derive. the face earth, forms It radius of the analytic Re, (10) is
in
expression which and customary geoid, (which
local with too
of
gravitational the longest an effect itational This has tational
attraction of the earth has aligned axis of the moon toward the earth in similar to the action of the earth,s gravtorque on a dumbbellshaped satellite. the immediate consequence that the rorate of sidereal earth. value the moon about its axis, of the Flight ¢o_ , moon Handbook,
Redescribing an sea level surequipotential
of the earth
equals the around the the constant
mean motion For the Lunar
surface of the geopotential)in by superimposing the deviations the oblate ellipsoid characterized a world than +50 trajectory (6) for R_, for done strictly map. meters Since at
graphical form of the geoid from by R e and f on are earth, simple U_ the less many form which trajectory. R$ and U_ is
_0_i
= _$¢
= 2.661
699
484
x
10 6
rad/see
(15)
has been adopted, fixing the lunar month and the sidereal of the moon about its axis length period of the sidereal of revolution 11. s55,
these deviations any point of the retain the for of
calculations while the with using
a form
at 27 d 7h 43 m
adequate This are is not From lites, determined center system J2 Cm, have is of the
approximation the knowledge consistent. observations of Jn' n well, the and than together up origin the Jn'
or 27. 321 661 4 days. The clination of the lunar orbit torques moon in its of the to perform orientation sun and other a "wobble with respect
eccentricity and inas well as gravitational planets motion" to the cause the or librations earth at a librations Section in the C. solar
that
longterm values relatively mass and
of
earth have = 0
satelbeen the
= 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, where of the J1
if
given time in are discussed Other examples
its orbit. These lunar further in Chapter Ill, of rotational capture which Venus, Mariner has as
coordinate coefficient
coincide, much n and been larger Sm, n obtained
oblateness n__> with m, n 3.
system include Mercury, by the sun, and possibly the recent findings of of
the
been captured determined by II space vehicle.
Values
to
standard = 8 from
deviations gravity mined
Values for
of the
r_
, _,
and problem
_(t)_
have (i.e.,
been the
determotion
nbo_y
II7
ofthemoon undertheattractionof the sunand planets).If thesimplerrestrictedthreebody problemis used trajectorycalculationsspherfor ( ical earth, sphericalmoon a circular orbit in around theearth, massless pace s vehicle),then thevalueofoneconstant ustbechanged m for consistency withKepler,sthird lawfor thisforce model,asmentioned Subsection ofChapin B2 ter IV. It is customaryo retainthevalues t of
p$, pC distance and of _ and use a mean earthmoon
Cartesian and YS of b, c and inertia and c axes zS
coordinate coincide axes, of axes, the
system. with the
Thus, selenographic Define I b and that
the
a,
b, x S,
respectively. moon and I a, assume
moments the is a,
I c about the moon
symmetric observation Consequently,
in concentric it has been Ia data
ellipsoidal determined
shells. From that a > b > c.
< I b < I c
r_
= 384,
747.2
km
(16)
For (Ref. tions, given
Very little the manual, 9), which Jeffreys, in the
is available on the lunar shape. the data given by Alexandrov is based on Yakovkin.s observaand the has assumptions been adopted. depend have on been
instead The
of the lunar FOG
distance
r_
= 384, 402 the lunar
km. unit (LU)
calculations, previous paragraph, of the motion lunar of the
distance
is also
called
and is analogous to the astronomical unit (AU) on the planetary scale of distances. The value of r_ is 0.09% larger force than r4 , but the restricted cannot be ex as
The lengths the rigidbody calculated as:
semiaxes moon
and
threebody
model observed doesn.t
constants
Forced Libration Semiaxis Semiaxis a (km) b (kin) 1738.67 1738. 1 1737.58 21 + 0.07 ± 0.07 ± 0.07
Free Libration 1738.57 1738.31 1737.58 ± 0.07 ± 0.07 ± 0.07
pected to match the force model acting on the
quantities exactly, include all the forces
moon. of interest in connection with Semiaxis c (kin)
Another
item
the motion of the moon are the lengths of the lunar months, which have been obtained from Ref. 6 (data is for the epoch 1900.0): Synodic Tropical Sidereal Anomalistic Draconitic month month month month month 29.d530589 27.d321582 27.d321661 27.d554551 27.d212220 29d12h44m02.s9 27d07h43m04.s7
Values for free libration, adopted by Baker, have also been adopted for the Lunar Flight Handbook. These values are based on the dimensionless momentofinertia I I
C a
parameters:
27d07h43mll.S5 27d13h18m33.s2 27d05h05m35.s8 1900 from can cal
Ib
= 0. 000, 626, ard error)
6 ± 0. 000,002,
7
(stand
Ia  Ib IC
= 0. 000, forced
204.9 libration
i
0. 000,
000,
9 for
a
Any variation lunar theory and safely be neglected culations.
of these values since any observed difference for most astronautical
= 0. 000, 209, free libration. These were the observational of inertia I
a
8 ± 0. 000,002,
2 for
a
calculated data given by
Accurate orbital data for the moon, which involves several additional constants, can be found in Ref. 6. The hnar theory which has been used in obtaining the data, the comparison of theory with observation, and the variables given are discussed in detail in Section C of Chapter III. Some orbital elementsimportant spherical position coordinates as well as the illumination of the moon up by the sunhave year 1970 been to given the in Chapplanning ter XI of lunar to the missions. enable
byJeffreys of Yakovkin.
(Ref. The
10) from moments
are = kM
(b 2 + c 2)
Ib I
e
= kM = kM
(e 2 + a 2) (a 2 + b 2)
(17)
The second category of constants deals with the figure of the moon and its gravitational potential. The asphericity of the moon can be deduced from photographic measurements as well as from physical librations (the small wobblemotion of the moon due to gravitational torques of the sun and planets other than earth), and the data indicates that the moon may best be represented by a triaxial ellipsoid with semiaxes a, b and c. The c axis is assumed to coincide with the rotational axis of the rected to the mean center Subsection A2 of Chapter and the b axis completes moon, the a axis point of the moon III for a definition), the righthanded is di(see
wherek the value
is the inhomogeneity k = 0.2 for a constant
factor, density
which has model of
the moon and sional model caused by the interior (Ref. the moments Moment Inertia Ia Ib Ic (1034 (1034 (1034 kgm kgm kgm of
k = 0.199 for a modified compresof the moon having a density gradient pressure of the outer layers on the 9). For>, = 0. 199 (exact value) of inertia are: Forced Libration 2) 2) 2) 8. 8293 ± 0.0018 ± 0.0018 0.0018
Libration 8. 8298 Free 0. 0018 i 8.8312 8.8349 ± 0.0018 ± 0.0018 [
8.8317 8.8349±
II8
Again, adopted The 2 Xs
the in
values for free this handbook. of 2 YS Zs the 2 hmar
libration
have
been
surface
ellipsoid
is
given
by
+_e
ii
1 + 2(1 Ic r S is (the the
rs
/U
2+
a
7
f
+
7
will the ,
= 1
be transformed to radius latitude, in order the spherical of a
(18)
r S
c
(1

3 cos 2_¢)
This
expression R_k, point, the an of f, the 0_
coordinates surface and obtain ing k_,
selenocentric the selenographic longitude for R_k. as Define
+ c
 3 sin2¢
_)
(23)
selenographic
to flatten
where moon system),
distance in zS the denote
from
the
center
of
the
expression lunar b = 0.00015 equator
radius YS and
selenographic components and r S. Since for system. from the to the _ is the the YS U_
coordinate of r S in be rotates a non
a = a
selenographic (19) tween of the lunar prime meridian as with inertial the the YS moon, rotating
coordinates axis the and
angle axis is in
and
the
flattening
a c
expression
coordinate
f*
=
a
= 0.00057.
(20)
The coordinate
transformation system x_ III, y_ z¢ from is
selenographic lunar equatorial 2b of
x S YS given where:
zs in
The equation of the spherical coordinates,
lunar
ellipsoid
becomes,
in system Chapter SubsectionA
2[c cos2 0+
cos2¢_( sin2 ¢_ ] = 1 Since accurate by use order for R both to of the terms is . X_ f, and solve f* for are very R@. and small, binomial in f, and theorem, f*. The
P
I sin 2 k(i
YS
=
 sin
(A S +_¢
t)
x_
+ cos
(A S+
_
t)
y_
(i  f,)2 z S = z_ (21) where it is sufficiently expand only firstexpression the xff A S is and an x S arbitrary axes. The initial expression phase angle for Uff between in non(24)
subsequently retaining resulting
rotating substitution matical
equatorial of Eq (24) operations
lunar
coordinates into Eq (23)
becomes, and some
after mathe
+>,
R0) ' (6_
)
_ f*
a
_
 f,
cos2d_
(i

cos2k¢ (22)
)
sin20_J the local radius of the oblate
2 The expression for + earthR_ to first ordercan be obtained from Eq (22) if f,.0, f*f, as can be verified by comparison with Eq (6). Altitude on lunar maps is not given with respect to the ellipsoidal surface. wrilc_is defined to first order by Eq (22), and it is not given with respect to a spherical moon, but _iven with respect to an arbitrary spherical lunar datum which is well below the lunar surface and face results features. in positive altitudes for all lunar sur1 3 (_ z_ 2 r_ 3
X_
2 y_ 2 rt 24 cos 2 (A S + _q t)
y_
2 sin 2 (A S + ¢o_ t))
+
re
Ic  Ia _ zd2_)]% (25)
3
(The
where It remains to obtain an U¢ shape model. (Ref. expression corresponding and for to the its 9) lunar gravitational triaxially compressional and Baker, potential potential ellipsoidal lunar Makemson in the following
r{
= r S.
change
in
subscript
has the radius coordinate
been
for the modified A1exandrov (Ref. 10) give the lunar used form:
introduced in has components system. )
order in
to the
emphasize that lunar equatorial
widely
Another form of the lunar gravitational potential has been given by Jeffreys (Ref. ii, p 140). It is more useful than the forms (23) and (25) because it allows the expression of the lunar potential in a form analogous to Eq (I0) for the earth,s potential, with the polar flattening of the moon described by the numerical coefficient
II9
J2 =  C2,0 andthelunarequatorial llipiieily e bythecoefficient 2,2" This form is givenin C theselenographic coordinale system,and,wi_h a slighlchange notation compalibilitywith in for Eq (10),it is:
2 (i c2, 2 cosY,
where the 1 J2Ic  2 M{ (Is 2 a 6 (27) + Ib) 200 x 10 6 values of
soon as they handbook will future changes to be reflected for relatively cant improvement
become remain in the in the shortterm in
available. The data in the valid, as any anticipated constants will be too small graphical data, which is trajectories. A signifithe values for selenocentric as soon as longmoon can be
sin ,,>
(26) are:
constants is expected, however, term satellite orbits around the established and obserw_'d.
cos2
the coefficients
B,
ENVIHONMENTAL and in
DATA summarized effect determine the astrothe
Section A discussed nautical constants which
Ib  la C2, 2 4M{ The the that semiaxls largest Ull a used semiaxis, in the forms Eqs or 2  27 x 10
gravitational environment of the space vehicle Section B gives some background on other forces and the atmospheric, radiation, meteoroid, and thermal environment in which the sl_ace vehicle finds itself during lunar missions. Environmental (1) data pertaining which includes this body, the celestial interplanetary, space data. and data may directly nearsatellite be subdivided to the celestial environment into body, of between data, two
the
a,
(26) in
and order
(27) to
should ensure to the
be
represents
potential
external
moon. Further ful for determining perturbation on in Chapter VII.
of the lunar potential the magnitudes of the a lunar' satellite orbit are
useearth.s given
(2) data pertaining to space bodies, such as cislunar space interstellar and intergalactic The dividing line between the
types of environment is not very well defined, especially for celestial bodies without a dense gaseous atmosphere, but the delineation will in the discussion of environmental data.
help
For the compressional lunar models, the origin coordinate system is at moon, the so oblateness for that J1 = 0.
of the As
and constant density the sclenographie mass center of the in the is case numerically (Jy)q). orbits VII. 2 given in Eq (27) of the earth, the
coefficient the moon, effects on further for in J2 with lunar in and
J2
largest Oblateness be discussed The are For given
(J2)_ satellite
will
Chapter C2,
For lunar' missions near earth, cislunar space and nearmoon environmental data is required. As nearearth data has been discussed extensively in Chapter II of thef 1, this environment will only be summarized and its applicability to lunar flight discussed Nearearth data has been accumulated rapidly by earth satellites so a clearer picture of the environment is rapidly becoming availabIe. Much less is known about the cislunar environment (the region beyond the earth' s atmosphere) and the effect of its magnetic field, due to the small number of space probes and the relatiw_ly shor_ _ime that these probes are in cislunar space The effects of radiation and micrometeoroids have been discussed quite generally in Chapter II of Ref 1 and are also applicable to cislunar space The bulk of the data in this section is on the nearmoon environmentthe approximate with a brief mosphere. lunar surface, its appearance thermal characteristics, discussion of the tenuous and together lunar at
values
rather crude, calculations by Krause
so no uncertainties the lunar handbook, 5), together with even though with the values the handbook.
will bc given. the values his his for unvalues a, b,
(Ref.
certainty, are slightly c, I a, I b, :
will be adopted, inconsistent I c adopted for
Krausc
obtains
6 J2 C2, 2 = 212.5 = 18.8 x x 10 6 10 ± 1.3 x 10 ± 2.9 x 10
6 6 (28)
5.
Summary The constants
of
Adopted needed given in 4. Note
Constants for this is trajectory section made of calculaare the sumsource
tative cation
Much of the environmental nature and intended and framework into and a and
data is of a qualito provide a classifiwhich the numerous
tions which marized in
were Table
sources References providing section
articles in this field can be placed giving a comprehensive survey and link between the material in this the actual sources have been indicated enable to its the tracing source of data required for
of each number. The values given, together wtm the uncertainty and the confidence level have been calculated by Townsend (Ref. 12); they reflect our present knowledge regarding such observations and measurements. The values have been adopted and in Better for uniformity the presentation values, with in trajectory calculations of results for the handbooks. smaller uncertainties and a level will in trajectory appear in the calculations future as
in order to lunar flight
The primary concern in this section is to describe the space environment with very Might mention of its effect on the trajectory, people and materials The modification of the force model ment IV (and hence of the trajectory) by the environhas been discussed in Section B of Chapter A recent survey article by Jaffe and Rittenhouse
higher confidence and should be used
II10
TABLE Adopted
4
Constants
Approximate Confidence Quantity Best Value Uncertainty (%) Level b
General
Constants f299792.5 km/sec fo. 1 kin/see
Speed
of
light 3 in nt 0. sec 005 x l0 ll i]1 2
Universal
grav
constant
G
6.670
x
10
11
_ kg
kT90
Heliocentric
Constants a6'i 798 b±o, 001
Solar
parallax unit
Astronomical 2 K O
a149,53
x
IO 6
km
aao.
03
90
Co.
2959122083
a±0"
010
10
99+
AU3/solar
day
2
Planetocentric
Constants
Mercury Solar mass/mass Mercury a6, a2330 100, 000 km b±65,000 70
bel
1
70
Equatorial l/f
radius
?
?
?
Venus Solar mass/mass Venus a407, OO0 b±1300 90
Equatorial
radius
a61oo atmosphere)
km
(ind.
b±12
70
1/f
?
?
9
EarthMoon a328, 450 b±25 81
Solar inass
mass/earthmoon
Equatorial l/f
radius
Mars a3,090, OO0 b±12,000 b±12 81
Solar
mass/mass
Mars
Equatorial
radius
a3415 b75
88 2 80
b±l
l/f
Jupiter Solar mass/mass Jupiter al047.4 b±0.1 81
Equatorial 1/f
radius
a7t, ai5.2
875
km
b±20
50
bio.
1
50
Saturn Solar mass ]mass Saturn a3500 b±2.0 b±480 70
Equatorial l/f
radius
a60, al0.2
500
km
5O
±?
? (continued)
NOTE: aBaker's value (Ref. 3)
bTownsendTs c Guusslan dEhricke_s
value
(Igef.
12)
value value (Ref. 7)
eKaula's fKrause' s
value value
(Ref. (Ref.
4) 5)
IIii
TABLE
4 (continued)
A pproximate Confidence Quantity Uranus Solar Equatorial mass/mass radius Uranus a22,800 a24, a14.0 85(1 b±60 be50 i ? 50 ? ? Best Value Uncertainty Level b
(%)
l/f
Neptune Solar Equatorial 1/f Pluto Solar Equatorial i/f Geocentric _ g Constants (tad/sec) (km3/sec 2) mass/mass radius Pluto mass/mass radius Neptune
a19, a25, a58.
500 000 5 km
bi200 b±2100 ± ?
7O 5O ?
a350, a3000
000 km
be27, b±500
O00
70 20 ?
f7.29211514B e398601.5 a1082.28 a2. a2. a0,20 a_l.0 radius (kin) e6378. e298.24 Constants x 30 12
x
10 5
(exact) ±9.9 88 95 90 92 88 70 95 95
J2 J3 J4 J5 J6 Equatorial 1/f Selenocentrie _ Lunar L' : wq_
x 10 6 x 10 6 x x 10 6 10 6 10 6 163
a±0. a±o. a_o. aio. a±o. e±0.
2 x 1(> 6 2 x 10 6 5 x 10 6 1 x 10 6 8 x 021 10 6
e±o. 01
(rad/sec) (km)
f2.661699484 a384, a6. b81. 402 4385 357 57 3i km km km x x 10 6 10 6 km
x
10 6
(exact) all km 88
distance
ai0. bi0.01 a±0. a±o. a±O. f±2.9 f±l.
0015
92 90 50 50 50 50 50
Me I_
Semiaxis a (km) b (kin) c (km) J2 C2,2
a[738. a1738. a1737.58 f212.5 f18.8
07 07 07
km km km x 10 6
3 x
10 6
II 12
(Ref. 13) discusses the behavior of materials in space environments; the 330 references at the end of this article may be consulted for more detailed information. I. NearEarth a. Atmospheric types Environment environment of nearearth atmospheric, environment. environment can be
mate variability for preliminary engineering design, it is sufficient, in most eases, to introduce a certain percentage dispersion in density about the 1961 U. S. Standard atmosphere. The a space forces, main effects of the earth' s atmosphere aerodynamic it produces. on
vehicle' and the
s trajectory aerodynamic
are the heating
Three
distinguishedthe and the meteoroid
the radiation, Due to the many
largescale and local variations in the earth' s atmosphere, most trajectory calculations are based on a model atmosphere which is assumed to describe average properties of the actual atmosphere and to obey the perfect gas law PM R *T hydrostatic godh, differential equation (30) (29)
The parameter relating these two effects is the atmospheric density. Expressions for aerodynamic forces have been given in Subsection B4b of Chapter IV; they are important in designing parking orbits and waiting orbits (see Chapter V and Chapter V of Ref. 1). Aerodynamic forces and heating define a safe reentry corridor for earth return, or a region of possible limits cussed tioned b. reentry of the in in trajectories lunar vehicle. IX X. environment of within This Ref. the design aspect is briefly dismen
Chapters Chapter
1 and
p

and
the dp=
Radiation
where 0 p T : the = the = the density pressure temperature moleeular x 103 in kg/m 3 2
Contrary to the atmospheric effects on the space vehicle, the effect of radiation is damage to man, electronic equipment, and structural components of the space vehicle. Of all the elements in a spaee vehicle, man and semiconductors have the lowest threshold of damage from ionizing radiation. The radiation dosage to be expected in a nearearth orbit, radiation damage thresholds, and the shielding (which is defined as additional structural material in the vehicle to absorb radiation before it can reach man and electronic equipment) have been dis
in newtons/m in °K weight of air
_'I = the I%* =
8. 31439 sal gas
joules/kg°K
is the
univer
cussed
extensively Most of nearearth 1958, the when
in
Chapter
II
of
Ref.
1. in and
constant due to gravity in meters. model atmosin m/sec 2 the since data on penetrating environment has the first earth been radiation acquired
g h The
= the = the
acceleration geometric
satellites
altitude
physical
properties
for the
space probes carried radiationmeasurement equipment aloft. Little penetrating reaches the surface of the earth, as phere mately ation represents shielding material
radiation the atmosof approxi
phere have been calculated under sumptions and by use of satellite
additional asobservations.
They are tabulated as a function of altitude up to 700 km as the 1961 U. S. Standard atmosphere. This tabulation, the history of model atmospheres, and additional background have been presented in Chapter II of Ref. 1 and in the listed references of that chapter. Atmospheric effects on space vehicles with lunar mission objectives at altitudes in excess of 700 km are negligible over the short periods of time the vehicle is at these altitudes, and hence no atmosphere need be assumed for altitudes in excess of 700 kin. However, if density Nicolet mosphere with the good data at extreme altitudes (Ref. 14) can be used as is required, a guide. The at
1 kg/cm 2, and, was not detected
hence, much until satellite In fact, The general many space types:
of the radiexperiments parameters radiation can
could be performed. are still poorly known. be classified into five (1)
Van Allen radiation, consisting energy charged particles which trapped in the earth' s magnetic An inner and an outer belt have distinguished; out as far particle by geomagnetic as flux the outer belt may 10 ER (earth radii). of these storms. two belts
of highhave been field. been extend The affected
is
up to 700 km can be assumed same angular velocity as the of accuracy. U. S. Standard model
to rotate earth to a
{2)
degree The 1961
atmosphere between cycle.
Solar flare radiation, consisting of highenergy protons and electrons which are ejected at certain times from the sun. Half an hour or more after a large chromospheric possibly earth (p flare, electrons) 62, Ref. highenergy can 15). be protons detected (and on the
represents the maximum
average atmospheric conditions and minimum of the sunspot
The actual atmospheric properties that the space vehicle encounters may differ quite considerably from the model atmosphere. This variability is due primarily to solar radiation and heating, gravitational effects of the sun and moon or tidal motions, as well as viscous and turbulent effects, which have been discussed in Chapter II of Ref. i. To approxi
(3)
Cosmic nuclei numbers served) the
radiation, consisting of atomic (mostly of hydrogen, but atomic in excess of 30 have been obwhich move with velocities near of light.
speed
II13
(4)
Auroral radiation, consisting of electrons and protons emitted by the sun and concentrated near the geomagnetic poles. The electrons supply the energy for the auroral light. Penetrating electromagnetic radiation of the sun, consisting mostly of Xrays and Vrays with energies as high as 500 kiloelectron volts and wavelengths as short as 0.02 A (IA been observed. = i0i0 meter) having
c.
Meteoroid
environment
(5)
Meteoroids are small astronomical bodies which are generally in highly eccentric orbits around the sun. They range in dimension from several reuters (extremely rare) to dust particles or micrometeorites as small as one micron in diameter. Beyond the earth's present a hazard out by a sample Chapter IV, the atmosphere, to space calculation force on meteoroids vehicles. As in Subsection the space vehicle may pointed B4d due
of to
and
More recent
detailed data of Ref. damage, these radiations material
can
descriptions be found includes as well radiations. which i as
in
of these radiations Ref. 15, while
Chapter II the type of ments from the l0 6 space kg
data on radiation, shielding requireTable 5 summarizes at least This 70 to 71; data can are the and slope an of inthe as a (the enerKy as
meteoroids is relatively small and can be neglected in all but the most precise trajectory calculations. However, of major concern is the possibility of a meteoroid collision with the space vehicle resulting in penetration or even puncture of the skin of the vehicle or fuel tank. Puncture of the skin causes a loss of an abort pressurization of the mission. or fuel, which may require
penetrate centimeter.
per
square
table has additional be found types dication particle function of
been taken from Ref. 15, pp remarks and sources of the in this reference. Tabulatecl radiation, of the the integral energy or particle spectrum versus differential energy (the
Data concerning average meteoroid fluxes, encounter probabilities and penetration has been given in Chapter It of Ref. i. Also listed there are the more common meteoroid penetration models and a typical model for evaluating meteoroid effects on propellant storage vessel design Meteoroid showers are observed on earth and tend They result from swarms are roughly meteoroid meteoroids in the shower seem as It phenomena to recur of meteoroids which are annually. which
flux per of energy),
energy curve spectrum of of the energy)
distribution of particles of the particle flux in an well as the particle flux In the nearearth
as a function increment itself.
environment,
radiation
haz
same solar is observed to come from its on can "quadrant. earth has be assumed in shower.
orbit. When a on earth, all the same area
in
ards occur mainly in the parking and/or waiting orbit phase, in any orbital phase on earth return, and in the nearearth portions of lunar flight, when the vehicle velocity relative to earth is about i0 kin/see. Radiation dosages and shielding requirements during Chapter II of Ref. orbit altitudes in phase selected during so earth as to that portion have been given i. The parking and waiting Chapter V as well as the orbital return be below in Chapter the inner X can be Van Allen in
the sky, known showers observed 99 of Ref. 15. showers value of and near 2. Cislunar
" Data on meteor been given on page that many other is and that enhanced the in
may be expected the micrometeorite the meteoroid Space space, the
space flux
Environment the solar the penetrating sun, and the flare radiation, electromagnetic meteoroid environ
belt.
Figure i illustrates the early phases of a typical lunar mission launched from Cape Canaveral. The doughnutshaped inner VanAllen belt is shown, with the proton flux indicated by eight cross sections and the geomagnetic equator shown on the earth. The shading indicates the proton fluxthe darker the appearance of the shaded area, the higher the flux. The illustrated trajectory (with a relatively high parking orbit altitude) intersects the fringes of the inner Van Allen belt after injection, but the time spent in the re,ion of high proton flux is very small due to the high initial space vehicle velocities. Solar pecially tection cosmic flare radiation occurs sporadically, esduring sunspot maxima. The only proagainst this type of radiation and against and solar electromagnetic radiation is of the space vehicle so as to provide vulnerable men and and the maximum electronic layout pro
In cislunar cosmic radiation, radiation from
ment must be considered. The qualitative description and summary of Subsection B1 regarding these areas apply, as does the referenced quantitative material in Chapter 1I of Ref. 1 and in Ref. 15. In general, increasingly less reliable data is available than for the nearearth environment. In the list of lunar hicleborne listed. 3. Lunar The probes in experiments Section and D, some of results have the vebeen
Environment figure of the moon has been discussed in
the shielding of the equipment tection to the equipment. the auroral parking and regions near
some detail in Subsection A4 of Chapter II and its motion in space in Section C of Chapter III. Still to be discussed are lunar topography as deduced by observation of the rnoon with telescopes, the photographs and maps which have resulted from these observations, the thermal environment on the hnar surface, lunar atmosphere. have been made by the smallest lunar' the type of surface, and Since many lunar observations telescopes, Table 6, showing features visible from earth viewing Ref. 16, surface the
For launches radiation can waiting orbits the geomagnetic
from Cape Canaveral, be neglected, since will not reach the poles.
the
with perfect optics and under" excellent conditions (see Wilkins and Moore, 349) gives an idea of the finest lunar that can be observed.
p detail
I114
TABLE Penetrating
5 in Space
Radiations
Radiation Protons Auroralaltitudes > 100 km Integral key, Van titudes krn Solarflarerelativistic E > i Bev Allen±40 from ° from equator, 103 to 8 x inal103 E 0'8 varies
Particle or Photon
Energy Energy
Flux (protons/cm2sec)
spectrum, between
100 E 1
kev and
<t£
<B00
E 4 40
Normally 104 to with E > 100 Mev
106
integral
spectrum observed
above with
Up
to
_104
tegraIinvariant
Mev; no radiation E > 700 Mev
and
usually'
< i0 Bev
Usually occasionally
10 to to 102 to but
102; _ 104 oc
Solar
flare
  nonrelativis
tic
From integral large tensity' be
30
to
300
Mev, for event, spectrum by' 3 x where Mev; 30 spectrum
E 1
to
E 6
Usually casionally
spectrum; solarflare integral
typical maxinmight 1010 E 4
_ 104
represented 2 sec, energy below m
protons/era proton be applied Cosmic space raysinterplanetary E 1"5 integral E > 10 Bev
E is should not
Mev for 2 ± 0,3 for E>40 Mev near max of sunspot cycle; ably' increases near sunspot probto _5 min of at
Cosmicray bedo<10 Electrons Auroralfrom km altitudes
("splash") Earth radii
al
1 to
I0 Mev
1 near mosphere
top
(electrons/cm2sec) 100 to 1000 <50 integral E I nearly and key; spectrum spectrum E2"5; highly >4 kev I observation 6key ranges from variable; between showed stream E 3 Up to kov Probably _108 for E >20 Up to 1011 to 1013 to 10 7
average
_105
monoenergetic spectrum
Van
Allen
radiation
Integral to E 6 100 Mev
Solartudes Neutrons
flare> 60 °
 magnetic
lati
< 102
(neutrons/era albedo E 0'9 0.1 ential Bey ev differential < E< spectrum 100 kev, for spectrum E 2 for differ<1
2
sec)
Cosmicray
1 Mev<E
X
and Electron Auroral
YRays bremsstrahlung zone _E 4 kev visible below km, aurora radiation usually E 2'5 10 be50 to integral spectrum for E> 30
(photons/cm2sec)
10
to
103
above atmosphere
ab
sorbing integral 500 key; spectrum, theoretical _100 key l03 _104 to
Lowlatitude Atmosphere belt near
105
spectrum,
100
tween magnetic and 60 ° Van Allen belt
latitudes
20 to 50 l0 7
kev
erg/cm key
with an 2 sec
energy
flux of
Nuclear mosphere
Yrays above
from polar
atcaps
E > i00
_i03
initially
Solar flares Ahove 100 hemisphere
km
on
sunlit
5 to 10 2
80 to
key 10 a
with
an
erg/em
energy 2 sec)
flux
of
500 10 4
key
with
an
energy
flux
of
erg/cm2sec
II 15
TABLE Smallest Lunar Features
6 Visible from and negative of the moon with a photometer and noting the brightness (photometric method), by making direct measurement at or near the limb, or by other methods. (2) Determine absolute heights the selenographic locations very accurately and correcting projection and the refraction atmosphere. by of measuring these points for the of the earth'
Earth Assuming Perfect Optics Excellent Viewing Conditions
s
For more detail, Fielder (Ref. 20) can suited. From these observations, the lief of the lunar surface has been found However, the necessary excellence of the view
be convertical reto be high.
ing conditions can be illustrated by the fact that photographs have not shown craters less than 1 km in diameter on the moon,and hence visual observations are the primary tails on the lunar surface. a. Lunar topography formations described. the features on the In order surface of to discuss in in general this subthe source for small de
moon these use
About have
100,000 been
Some peaks near the lunar south pole exceed an altitude of 9000 meters above the neighboring valleys. This compares with an elevation of 12,000 meters of the Island of Mindanao above the Philippine trench on earth, which has almost four times the radius of the moon. The slopes are usually gentle, with angles less than those on earth, tIowever, in the Jura mountains, slopes average as much as 45 ° . The maximum elevation in this region (Ref. is about 21). 6000 meters above Sinus Iridum
formations, for lunar
nomenclature is introduced
section. The problem of classification has been taken up by Blagg and Saunders (Hcf. 17) and Blagg and MUller (Ref. 18) for those wishing more detail, and another system has been proposed by Bobrovnikoff (Ref. 19), which is claimed to be more detailed than those of Refs. 17 and 18. The moon as dark viewed areas. of the from In lunar earth general, surface, is characterized the the lighter l_igher its
Very characteristic features of the lunar surface are the "wailed enclosures", the larger of which have been referred to as "walled plains" and the smaller of which are called "craters" by Bobrovnikoff. Wailed enclosures consist of a plain surrounded by n_ountains which slope relatively steeply inward (up toa 20 ° slope, which locally may exceed 45 ° , as for Copernicus, Ref. 21) and somewhat more gently outward (5 ° to 10 ° overall for Copernicus, t%ef. 21). They are named primacily but smaller craters after are scientists named and after philosophers, a larger one
by light and the appearance elevation. The dark
areas
are
called
"maria,
" or'
seas.
They are, in general, low plains with some small irregularities (compare the surface elevation contours as given on the USAF lunar aeronautical charts, one of which is reproduced as Fig. 2 in the present chapter). The term "maria _' is restricted to larger areas. The terms "lacus" (lake) and "sinus" (bay) are applied to smaller dark features on the lunar surface, while the term mediate The "palus" (marsh) coloration. boundaries describes regions of inter
in the vicinity by suffixing a capitai Latin letter, i.e., "MtistingA." Wailed enclosures may have one or more central peaks, or they may be without one. The walled plains are quite irregular in shapehexagonal, quadrangular, triangular, or ovalwith the maximmn linear dimension from about 30060 kin. Craters are much more circular down which in shape, and to the limit of is of the order range in diameter from 60 km the present optieaI resolution, of 1 km. The craters may
between
the
dark
maria
and
the are
lightercolored generally been given jut out into
"continents" and "mountains" quite sharp. The continents have names, except for a few "capes the maria. moon or usually are after scientists; by suffixing of a large named
be large and submerged, as is Stadius, large and partially filled, or small craterlets ranging in size down to blowholes or "pits, " which are the smallest observed craters. There are also such features as confluent craters and crater chains. Associated with some craters, and named after
not _' which
Mountains terrestrial mountains Greek letter
on the mountains are
after smaller in
them, are "fractures, large valleys to fault the lunar surface has surrounding), consist of together in a
"which range in lines (caused when subsided relative rills, of and small cracks, craters
size from part of to the which joined
designated to the name
a smai1 mountain
eiefts or large number a chain.
their vicinity, i.e., Stadius _. They occur as "chain mountains" in mountain ranges, "ridges, " "cellular ring formations" or "domes, " which are small, rounded mountains. The vertical relief of the lunar surface can be determined in two steps: (1) Determine ing the technique as there region altitudes the relative height by measurlength of a mountain' s shadow (a which is quite accurate as long are mountains in the particular of the moon by scanning by determining the photographic the
At the time of full moon, "rays,,, or white streaks which seem to originate from a crater can be observed on the moon, their brightness depending on the phase of the moon. The most prominent is the system of rays associated with the crater Tyeho. These ray systems can be classified as radial ray systems, tangential ray systems, ray systems " bright spots." Lunar surface another, as in the in certain directions, may merge sequences or as
features following
ingo one of features
II16
listedby Bobrovnikoff (Ref. 19),fop example: Maria, walledplains,craters, craterlets, crater chains,valleys; Mountain ranges,isolatedpeaks,mounds, domes,pits. Ina similar fashion,mountain ranges onthemoon are connected withmaria, whileisolated peaks occurin or nearwalledplainsandcraters, as mentionedreviously. p Duringthehistoryofobserving themoon (since
Galileo's time), no clearcut surface have been observed. lunar surface features (those changes Changes severalkm of the lunar in small in extension)
Bobrovnikoff
on
p 67.
The
albedo,
or
reflecting
power of the lunar surface, can be defined in two ways: (1) the spherical albedo of the moon or the ratio of the light of the sun scattered in all directions by the lunar hemisphere to the total light, is 0.073; (2) the average geometric albedo of the moon, or ratio between the average brightness of the disk at full moon and the brightness of a white screen of the same size normal to the incident solar In from rays, detailed a small is 0. 105 (Bobrovnikoff). emission Actually, of light this
photometry, the area is measured.
depend on such conditions of visibility as the phase of the moon, the libration, the resolving power of the telescope, atmospheric refraction, cloud cover, and the subjective interpretation of the observer. These changes are mostly observed as variations in the brightness and color of small craters, the observation of something looking like a mist, and the appearance of flashes, i.e., any apparent changes in physical relief. Real changes of physical relief must occur due to the impact of meteorites, but no such observation can be safely attributed to that cause (Ref. 19, p 62). The lunar surface must also change due to the pressure of tidal motions inside the moon (Ref. 20, p 127). Much nature more material of the lunar on lunar topography surface can be found and in
is to be regarded as the average emission of light over the various surface materials, slopes and the microfeatures or unevenness of the surface in that small area. The moon can be studied in detail due to its nearness to earth, and many photometric made. feature to the metric whose following Of studies course, on on of the lunar details brightness of have the been lunar sun and photopoint P to the
depends observer coordinates brightness sketch:
the directions earth. If one (ap, is measured (p, ip) by
to the defines of a
reference
P
the
Bobrowlikoff (Ref. (Ref. 21), and the these references.
19), Fielder bibliography In addition,
(Ref. 20), Firsoff listed in each of the present theories To Sun To Observe_. On Earth /
on the origin of the lunar features, and questions of selenology (which form the lunar counterpart of geology on earth), such as the composition of the interior, the type of surface, the pattern of tectonic grids, and the divisions of selenological time are discussed in Refs. 19 through 21. Our knowledge of the moon' s topography and interior will increase vastly in the near future as the planned lunar missions of Ranger, Surveyor, and Apollo spacecraft return scientific data to earth. Until such time, many of the present theories should be regarded as provisional. An illustration of the actual photographically observed lunar topography can be found in the Lunar Aeronautical Chart, which has been reproduced as Fig. 2. Other lunar maps and series of lunar maps prepared in the same fashion are listed in Subsection A2g of Chapter III. b. In Lunar photometry the total emission The brightness conditions is (mag).
o
where rays, to of of the the P
ipiS epiS observer sun can p*= be
the the
angle angle on respect
of of earth,
incidence reflection and to in earth, the )" form a P is
of of
the these
solar rays angle
the
phase the
with
then
brightness
expressed { _
p;'," f " 0 (tp,
p,
P
(31)
of of
integrated photometry, a celestial body is measured. the full moon under standard given in stellar
In Eq (31), p* is called the ratio of the brightness
the
,,brightness of the diffusing
factor,;' surface of it of f P such
or
usually visual latest finds (average
magnitudes wavelength is by Nikonova
In
the
at point P to the brightness of the same size placed normally can be directly compared with terrestrial depends that Hence f on objects. The the photometric ip the = 0% normal (p
a white screen to the sun, and the brightness factor of
region (average determination 12.67 mag, wavelength value of the and
5280 A ), the (1949) who region gives mag; the between
normalized coordinates = 0 ° and albedo, is
in 4250
the
photographic
= 1 when P0' or
C_p = 0 °. the value of
A ) Bobrovnikoff mag, or the _0.09 difference
an average color index the two, the full i 0.011 curves brightness
of 11.55 moon,
is +1. 12 mag. The moon under standard lux (Bobrovnikoff, p of the moon, with the
amount of light from conditions is 0. 342 66). Integrated phase of the lunar given by
p for an object near the center of the full moon. It should be remarked that the brightness of every detail of the moon reaches its maximum at full moon, and at that time the brightness of structurally similar details does not depend on the solar position with respect to them, i.e. , f = i when i = c
or the variation phase, have been
II 17
(seeBobrovnikoff, Ref. 19, p 68).
table been obtained albedos of taken normal from from which Location Darkest Proeellarum Maria Palude Mountain Crater Bright Brightest The and 1.34 ratio darkest stellar One is (seas) s (marshes) regions bottoms rays spot of (Artstarehus) spot (inside Oceanus (b_ = +27 °) albedos Kuiper a catalogue were reduced p_ (gel. of Of lunar' 8, p
The features 236)
following has and was
power is 4_
crossing 2 r¢)O S. 
a From 2
sphere
of
radius of
tOO energy,
:
1 AU
conservation
104 normal to absolute
visual values: PCi: I
w_
\ro_
/ s
of the lunar surface area
(33)
kl_ = 60 ° ,
0.051 O. 065 O. 091 O. 105
and the temperature be e oi_[le s
=
rc) _
,
(S)
1/4
(34)
For r¢)¢
S = 1379 =_O$ it
watts/m follows that
2 (Allen, T = 394.5
Ref. ° K
22)
and ° C.
= 121.5
0112 I 0. 131_ 0. 176[
This value should temperature that since in practice interior fleeted. of the
be regarded as the maximum the lunar surface can attain, some energy can flow to the and some energy is re
moon,
brightness points is magnitudes.
between the brightest 3.45, which corresponds
to
this
can observe sunlight which
the ashen reaches
light on the the observer It after is
moon; from
the dark hemisphere been reflected from
of the moon the earth.
having about 4000
The temperature of the moon is a very difficult quantity to measure. Lunar" temperatures have been determined by investigating the emitted light of the moon at various wavelengths (radiometric measurements). Problems arise with the resolution of the measuring instrument and the penetration of the radiation into the lunar surface as well. Thus one can at best obtain an average temperature over some area at some estimated depthbelow the lunar surface, and the temperature of certain lunar rocks, i.e., a specific local temperature, cannot be determined. Variations depend on of the thermal lunarsurface temperature inertia constant,
times fainter than moonlight. Seasonal and diurnal variation has been detected in the brightness (see Fielder, Ref. 20, p 55). In addition, there is observational evidence from spectroscopic data that there are luminescent substances on the moon. surface of the moon seems to be quite varied in color. These coIors range frmn the greenish tint of the maria to yellow and orange hues on the continents and mountains. These shades have also been photographed and are represented on many of the lunar maps tisted in Subsection A2g of Chapter III. Itowever, measurements of lunar color by photography through filters yield a surprisingly small coloration range e. (see Bobrovnikoff, of the Ref. lunar to be a temperature : 19, p 71). The
the
K = (x p c)I"2:
where of the X (cal/cm2sec) surface material, (cal/gram) all measured indicate is the 0 thermal
(35)
conductivity is its Optical How
(grams/cm3) is the in that specific cgs units. K = 1000.
density, and e per unit mass, lunar observations
heat
Temperature
surface black is body given in by
If the moon is thermal equilibrium, the StefanBoltzmann
assumed its law
ever, Muncey (Hcf. 23) has postuiated that Xand c vary with the absolute temperature in vacuo, and K for 300 ° K _ 27 ° C should be between 200 and 300. Radiometric observations of lunar surface
WI_
= a T 4
(32)
temperatures indicate of about 130 ° C and of 153 ° C depending Some (Ref. perature Lunar
a maximum a very unreliable on the phase by
temperature minimum of the moon. and Strassl tem
where
W_
watts/m by is in unit to °K,
2 is
the
total
amount area the
of
radi
recent measurements 29) indicate a subsurface which surface
Mezger equilibrium of the were
ated power temperature temperature m2(°K) r¢)_ The of tion be total radius of the 4 is the
area of the be calculated, and _ = 5.67
lunar T x
is
whose absolute watts/ Let sun. a sphere defini
is independent isotherms which
phases. obtained given Ena of function month 3. The = as
10 8 constant.
the distance
StefanBoltzmann of solar 2 is 4 _. ro( constant [ the moon
from crossing , and, total
the
by Geoffrion, et al. (gef. 25) have been a function of phase in Space and Planetary vironments (Ref. 26). A rough estimate average lunar surface temperatures as of the lunar 12 h 44 m day 2.s9) (1 lunar h_s been day = 1 synodic given in and Fig.
radiated to( l solar
power W(_ S, the
29 d
by
radiated
data in Fig. 3 is based on Pettit data (Ref. 27) under' the assumptions temperature variations in latitude
Nicholson,s that the and longitude
II
18
are identical(i.e. ,
circular) planes subsolar constant, d. The space field. on the and coincide; point that has the the
the
surface ecliptic
isotherms and lunar
are equalorial at the by the solar
solar irradiation been taken as given watts/m field on the a Soviet lunar put an 3 x 2.
the lunar surface. could be water. of water at 150 state Such at zero surface
Due ° C,
One of these useful materials to the low vapor pressure it could remain in the solid for millions exist in of some years. lunar areas
S = 1396.4 Lunar magnetic
pressure conditions
instrumentation vehicle These lunar
I,unik
II
which remain in pcrpelual also be large ice deposits lunar surface. It has been volatile materials associated such centrated g. The rarefied, evidence occultation ena able that, square as H20 near Lunar lunar as as , H2S, the
shadow. There might sealed off benealh the predicted that the with earlh volcanism SO 2 have of the been conmaria.
did not detect measurements magnetic field
magnetic upper limit 10 4 gauss,
CO 2 and margins
circular
of
which compares to a field in the polar region of the field is very weak compared ever, one can still assume on the lunar due rising of lmnar structure to to high surface the a is general maximum activity of
strength of 0.6 gauss earth. Thus the lunar to the earth's. Howthat the magnetic field the order of 2.5 x 10 5
atmosphere atmosphere determined sharp surface and the absence eclipses. considerations assumptions, _(_) atmosphere or of the is must from be such extremely observational
shadows, sudden star of refraction phenomJeans (Ref. 32) was _t' kinetic theory if the rootmeanmolecules where Vp
gauss, field, periods e. The face tains
interplanetary of 4 x 10 4 26,
magnetic gauss p 102). at
during solar to show from under certain velocity
solar surface of
(Her.
individual 0.2 Vp,
characteristics the surface to continents, different and the and theories subsurmounabout
of
a planet's
layers varies
of the maria, according major the another
is the parabolic then atmospheric years can be 2. 375 earth's suggest lar weight kin/see value that
escape velocity of dissipation periods expected. The low value for the moon as compared of V = 11. 18g kin/see P only molecules with a high as SO2, C02, It2S can
the origin of the theory postulates features, while
surface features. One volcanic origin of these postulates meteoritic
the planet, of i00 million of V = P to the would then molecube re
origin. The spectroscopic, radiometric, radar and radio data on the moon suggest a surface cover of dust or finely ground powder, but there is disagreement on the thickness of the dust layer. It is assumed to vary in thickness from a few millimeters to several meters, although some small areas on the moon seem to be substantially free from dust cover (Bobrovnlkoff, Ref. 19, p 106). predict a Both layer the of meteoritic dust. and volcanic theories
such
The behavior of the dust is also open to question. Theories range from an extremely loose top layer held in suspension by electrostatic forces and subject to migration (Gold, Ref. 28) to a layer of dust grains cemented together (Whipple, Ref. 29). The vacuum welding effect found by Roche (ttef. 30) predicts a strong tendency of particles to adhere to each other when disturbed by seismic quakes. In Ref. 26, p 111, it is stated that theoretical considerations suggest "dust on the lunar surface which is cemented into a porous, sedimentary to earth The features) lowdensity matrix, rocks on earth dust and not subject microfeatures of the lunar (i.e., surface but to weak compared strong compared migration. " smali to to
tained by the moon for hmg periods of time. Some radiogenic krypton, xenon, argon, radon and helium should be continually released from the lunar interior, and some gases may be released during the vaporization of ice deposits. However, the latler would escape rather rapidly due to the low value of V . Hence, the compoP sition of the lunar atmosphere is open to question. The following table, taken essentially from Fielder (Ref. 20 , p 115), gives maximum densities of the lunar atmosphere as established by various methods:
_{aximum <if the :Observation Method Absence twUigh, Photography of twilight in green light with polarirneter Photography of twilight in yellow light with a 20ern coronograph Photography of twilight in orange light, with a 20cm coronograph and potariscope Refraction of radio a of Source Russel. Stewart Lipski Dugan (Ref. (Her. and 33i 341
I)ensity Lunar
Atmosphere (atmospheres) < 10 4
<
10 4
a < 10 8 35)
unobservably are also
Lyot and Dollfus (Hcf.
open
question. Radar measurements seem to indicate both a smooth and rough surface on the decimeter scale (see Ref. 26, p 112), while the photometric interpretations of Sytinskaya (Ref. 311 indicate mean dimension of these microfeatures of the order of several millimeters to several centimeters. f. Natural resources on the moon
DoUfus
(Ref.
36)
i0 9
a
Elsmore Whitfield {Ref. 37)
and
< l0 12
waves ill the lunar ionosphere Refraction of radio waves in the lunar
A good reference on lunar natural resources is Ref. 26,pp 114 to 121 and the listed sources. The conclusion in that reference is that limited amounts of useful materials may be present on
Costain, Elsmore and Whitfield (Her. 38)
< 10 13
ionosphere
II19
In general,theminimum densityonthelunar surfaceis assumed bethe same thatof the to as interplanetary edium. However,Eipik m i and Singer (Ref. 39)have postulated zeropressure dueto therepulsion ionized of gasmolecules y b thepositivelychanged lunarsurface. Under these circumstances maximum a lunaratmospheric density 10 atmospheres of 12 canbeassumed (Bobrovnikoff), compared 1013 to atmospheres assumed Ref. 26. in Locallytheatmosphericensitymayexceed d thesevaluesduetovery rare gaseous discharges. Therehavebeen observations haziness of near somefeatures,notably a "volcanic of eruption" in thecrater Alphonsus bserved o byKozyrev (Ref.40). Again,fromkinetictheoryconsiderations,mostof thesegases quicklyescape fromthemoon. Dueto theabsencef a lunaratmosphere, o the surfaceof themoon bombarded uchmore is m frequently meteorites,mtcrometeorites, by cosmicrays andhighenergyolarradiation(such s as Xraysandyrays)thantheearth. Theradiation andmeteoriticenvironment nearthelunar surfaceis probably notmuchdifferentfromthat in cislunarspace,sincesuchanatmospherean c providenoshielding. h. Summary Thelunarenvironmental datahasbeen discussed narrativeform for this handbook in because its importance lunar flight. The of for majorreferences used this discussion ave for h been Refs.8, 19, 20, 21and26, andthesources indicated thesereferences. If it is desired in to tracethelunar environmental information to thesource,themajorreferences which givethe source should beconsulted.All numerical ata d onthelunarenvironment hasbeen eitherreferenced themajorreference tothesource to or itself to allowfurtherchecking ofnumerical ata. d
Our present ideas about the moon can be summarized also Bobrovnikoff, (1) The relief sions The high, lunar with and vertical but lunar the Ref. 19, surface conditions as follows (see p 108): has small a rough pits, microdepreson
(5)
Locally, seismic mon.
gases quakes
must must
be escaping, be rather
and com
(6)
The temperature variations are tremely great, from a maximum about +130 ° C near the subsolar to a minimum of about 150 ° C. There netic There face orites, radiation texture is no field. is from appreciable lunar
exof point
(7)
mag
(8)
no shielding of the bombardment micrometeorites, which affect and composition the
the
lunar surof meteand
particles structure, of the surface.
Some quired
lunar environmental data, as by the space vehicles listed
it was acin Section
D
of this chapter, has already been incorporated in the present writeup. It should be mentioned again that planned space vehicle flights into the vicinity of the moon and exploration of the lunar surface will yield much more data and may modify our present ideas on the nearmoon environment.
C.
SYSTEMS CONVERSION the system Lunar of
OF
UNITS TABLES
AND
Throughout absolute MKS on the kilogram ond as order with units tween in this meter as
Flight units,
Handbook which is
the based
as the the basic to be able presented common
the basic unit of length, the basic unit of mass, and the secunit of time, has been used. In to compare the handbook data use elsewhere, the and conversion systems factors of beform and 41). be of the have
that in
the units section.
are presented in More information
summary on units
conversions can be found in Judson (Ref. It is important that this or later references consulted, since the metric equivalents U.S. foot, and U.S. pound (avoirdupois)
surface many elevations. relief slopes
recently been changed slightly by act of Congress. Another good reference on units of measurement is Green (Ref. 42), who aiso discusses electrical systems of units. Astronomical units have been discussed to some extent by Herrick, Baker, and Hilton (Ref. 2) and in the standard textbooks of astronomy. gentle. 1. Systems The gives unit the of Mechanical and absolute to unit to Astronomical system of mass, while system of units mass (see Units. units the gives Table 7).
(2)
(maerorelief) are consists generally of dust ce
is
(3)
The
surface
(probably mented matrix (4)
radioactive) into a porous, not subject to
which is lowdensity migration.
unit force in an unit acceleration force in a gravitational of go
aGceleration
a unit
There is the upper being 10
no appreciable atmosphere, limit on atmospheric density 12 atmospheres.
There are two types of gravitational units; choice of either depends on whether the unit of mass is numerically equal to the unit mass in the absolute system (Type (Type 1). 2) or differs from it by a factor go
II 20
TAt3LE Systems of
7 Units
Mechanical
Pr,,p,,it}
Mass
gram
(g)
Time
Force
Enc
r_y
N_ 3 {mh)
millibar =
(1)
The absolute MKS system of units in column 1, which is used by physicists, has been employed throughout the Lunar Flight Handbook. Auxiliary units, related to the units in the table by powers of defined by the following standard prefixes and abbreviations tera: giga: mega: kilo: hecto: deka: deei: eenti: milli: micro: nano: pico: femto: atto: 1012 199 106 103 102 10 t 10 1 10 2 1010 6 10 9 12 10 10 15 p f a will the be are 3 T G M k h da d e m _t n basic 10, are pre
as a unit of mass or force is usually clear from the context. To avoid confusion, it is desirable to denote the basic unit of mass by "kilogram" and the basic unit of force by "kilogram force" as has been done in the table above. The derived units tons " etc. same such remark applies to as "gram," "metric
(3)
The gravitational in column 3 of used by European neers.
the
MKS system preceding aeronautical
of units table is engi
(4)
The gravitational in column 7 is in The word "pound"
FPS system of units general use in the U. S. is very often used
interehangeabiy as a unit of force and mass, and consequently its meaning is ambiguous. To avoid confusion, the basic unit of mass has been designated "pound" and the basic unit of force has been designated "pound force" in the preceding table. Again, the same remark applies to derived units such as "ounce" and "ton. "
(5)
1018
The gravitational FPS system in column 6 is used by American onautical engineers. The basic of mass in this system of units slug. pounds pressed the mass One slug corresponds so is that M/g0, in the to mass where pounds
of
units aerunit is the go M M exis
Both basic and auxiliary units used in the Itandbook, whichever more convenient in describing quantity in question. (2)
(mass), in slugs expressed
(mass).
The gravitational MKS system of units in column 4 of the preceding table is in general use in Europe. The word "kilogram" is very often used as the unit of both mass and force. Consequently, the is ambiguous, expression although "kilogram" its meaning II21
Astr(momers frequently use systems (>funits which are adapted to calculations in dynamical astronomy. A comparison of two common systems of astronomical units with the absolute MKS system is given in Table 8.
TABLE Systems
8 Units
of Astronomical
Absohle
MKS Type i M 2 r Astronomical *1 AU = 149.53 unit x (AU) 109
Astronomic
al ]ype 2 2
G M 1 M ,_ i¸ = Property Lenglh Met,r (m) r
K2
b
= KO r 2
M2
m **M O
Mass
Kilogram
lkg)
Solar *1 M@
mass
(M O ) x 10311 kg
_ 1.9866
Time
Second
'see)
Mean sotar day L MSD = 86.4(l(_ × ll_ I1 m3,_kg sec 2 *K O
(MSD} sec (AU)3/2
*10
= 5_1. 1324401_7
MSD
Universal constanl tational Force
G
gravitational or solar KO
*G gravi
= 6.67O
= 0.0172021l_815
I,:_
= 1 (AU)3/2 tC) M O (AU) 2 tQ
constant
Mo Newton _ 1 kg i:_./s_,c 2
(AU) 2
**
(MSDi radian 5_rww
Angular
velocity
Radian/sec
r'adian
T
*Value
adoplcd
in the
handbook,
b'or
[ur(her
details
see
Section M2 "_O >
\. lr_ 6
**If then and
the
mass quite the unit
M 2 is frequently of force
all
appreciablu the unit of
frac!i,m mass is .
:_1' M O , ctl_se_l as
i.e.. M
= (M O + M2)
,
becomes
M(AU) t 2 0
The astronomical been defined because planets and moons accurately As long as by all the
system of units, Type the angular motion of can be determined much than are their distances. performed in accurate. make
1, has the more
*T M® *M_
= =
27.
3216614 mass
mean
solar
days
1 earth
observation ealcuiations units, they calculations the
astronomical the end of transformation units (see
are very one can MKS
At the The is
....
=
M$
81.
357

0.012291505
(exact).
to Subsection
absolute A1). system order
laboratory unit ill ) = 4. of time 37501990 in a Type 2 astronomical therefore, the system graviMSD_
has
The astronomical been introduced average the sun
in
of units, that the of
Type mean the earth
2, motational 2. constant Length, Capacity a. Meter Defined of the earth becomes and K® = 1 (LU)3/
tion (or around
angular velocity) has magnitude 1.
%
In both systems of astronomical units, the dynamical system consists of a spherical earth in an elliptical orbit around a spherical sun, so that twobody results apply. It is also possible to construct other sets of astronomical units by use of other planets or comets and the sun, or of moons around particular interest when applied to ical moon in an For the becomes earthmoon the lunar the planets. The earth case is of in lunar flight problems the dynamical system of a spherelliptic orbit around the earth. system, unit (*1 earth's The unit is the constant the LU unit of = 384,747.2 length km) = Type
Velocitvj Acceleration Unit Conversions relations wavelengths Krypton86: of length. the
Volume/
(m) = 1,650,763.73 orangered radiation fundamental metric (ft) U.S. = 0.3048 unit of m length.
of
of unit (exact):
the the
Foot
fundamental
Second (see) fundamental 1 Velocity Acceleration Volume The (or fundamental meter cube The units:
= 1/86400 unit of length/time. units: capacity) unit or the lm
mean cirri
solar time.
day:
the
and unit of mass 5. 9758 x 1024kg).
mass (*M® of time in a mean of
astronomical system and the gravitational corn es :
solar day (MSD) the earth be
length/ units: of unit in
(time) (length) is volume
2. 3. one cubic equal to a
volume of
*K®

'r
l
M
M_
V
0. where 228570389 (LU) MSD 3/2
(m 3) with
edges
length. is the of 1 kg near pres
fundamental metric unit of capacity iiter (_), which is equal to the volume of pure water at its maximum density 4 ° C and under standard atmospheric sure of 760 is a mm unit Hg. of (in 1 f liquid 3). = 1000. capacity 028
(era3). equal to
%¢ *The been values used
=
1LU in the calculations. lunar handbook have
The
gallon 231 cubic
adopted for the
inches
II
22
b.
Length
conversions conversion factors for standard units of length,
Table
9 lists
TABLE Len_th
International Astronomical Units Nautical Miles Statu;e Miles
9
Conversions
In,, Meters E rlat_r,nal In_e rna[Lomd In_erna!L mat
I I 1 i 1 1 1
As'i, _r._,,,, S: ,* _',
,,, ,,, L ,
L ,_ ,:
_r:_' "_l,i_:,_,t _ Mii,' =
1 1.238.575xl0 1. 07G, 292x B It) 8 "11 "11 3x 4x10 10 "11 12
80, 1 0.
737,
9_x
106
92. 1.150,
911.
52 779.
× 106 447
149. 1_2: I f,_)_.
52_6
x
10 _
1_:_.524,3xt_) 2025. _71, ¸ 61], 29S _2_
F_ _0.572_!x1() f_17_. 52_{_ 3 2_0. ¸ _39, _, 115, 4,_5
9
_,_.{_7.4×10 72, _; _ _% gl _6_ _70. _. :lf_5, ¸¸ 07_L 740
l_ R2_
".[, h 
868,
978,
2'_2 80:_x10 501x10 3 3 x 10 3 4
1 0,_1,:_71, 0,568, O, 1Bg. 1_}2×10 1_1,81a×10 39:_, g:_9× 282x1_ in _ ¸_ 4 ¸_
_44'
17_;n 1.09:_,
M_'_,r
0._68,777.3x10 Yard F_O_ Inch = = = 0.811,52B,_X10 0.20a, 0.169. 843, 869,
0.539,956, 0.493,736. 0. 164, 578,
I _,_}t44 _. tL _(/4_ 0254 _¸ ¸: ,_
IrL_e,r,:,'_,,n:Ll Interna:ional International
833
0.137.149,028xlD
0.157,82_,
O.O27.777,777
0._B3,333,33:_
]
1 micron c. Table Velocity 1 0 lists
= 10 6 conversions
meter,
1 Angstrom
unit
= 10 10
meter
conversion
factors
for
standard
units TABLE
of
velocity. 10
Velocity
International Astronomical per 1 A.stronomtcal Mean I Solar Day Unit = Unit Day = 0.997.289,57 l International Mile i Statute per Hour Ml/e per Nauti6al = flour = 0" 297' 258,__ 2x 106 l0 "6 0.298,072, 0.259,017,5x lxlO6 10 8 ! I 3.354.892 per per i 1,002,737,90 3.364, OT_x Mean Solar Units Day AstronornieM per Sidereal Units Day Nautical per
Conversions
Miles ]tour
Statute per
Miles Ilour
Kilornelers lIour
per
Meters _econd
per I"pet per" Second
106
3,871.313
x
106
G.230,27_x
105
1.730,632
x
1[/i
5,577,928
x
it3 _
AstronornicM Sidereal
x
108
3.860,743
x
106
6.213,260x
106
1.725,907
x
106
5.682,424
x
106
[. i
150,779,447
1.852. 1.609,344.
0.514,4t4,444 0.447.040*
1.687,
809,
856
0.258,310._x
0.888,978.242.6
1.466.866,G66
I
Kilometer
per
Hour
=
D. 160.5D8,_
x
ID 6
D. 160. S46,__.
x
1O 6
O. 539,956,803,
,i
0.82[,371,192
1
0.277.
?77,777
0.911.
344.415
I 1
Meter Fool
per per
Second Second =
:
0. 577,823,_ 0. ]TO. 210_z__x
x
I0_ 106
0. 579, 0.:76,
4051_,5 S02,8
x x
I0 _ i0 6
1.943,
844,491 80[}
2. 236,936,288 0.681,818, 1St
3. 600_ 1.097,28(I*
I O. 3048.
3. 280,839, I
895
0. 592,483,
Underlined *Denotes exact
digits
are conversion
questionable. factor,
d. Table
Acceleration 11 lists
conversions conversion factors foe standard units of acceleration.
TABLE Acceleration
11 Conversions
%stlonomi,'al p,, A.s_r per onomit '_ohc _1 lkc: Vrnt 2 t '_1, _,, Solar
l'ntts Da:, '_
Asttnn_mical p,,r Sld_., ,._d
tlnils D_v g
lilt,,
,;al[,,llaI Mi_,.s p,_,
Natti,M I{ouE ¸_
5tatut,,
Mito IIo_J_ Z
p_,r
[.O05,4B;L
K:
l.t01,701o
*
105
t
_1_.(147
*
I(_ 5
p_ t hit,: M;I,
Sial,:
_;d
DC,74 ,,:_J, i1
t,
_=,1,
54;,
*,'J
1
i.
:_94,
[95t_ ×
10 a
1. _04,
25_
*
I,l:'
_,ae/,,,kal p+,
l{t,<lr
,I 7L_,4[)14.
]l} 5
O. 717.331.Ix
I0
5
i
i. lSt_,77[t,.147
}tour
2
p,.r
0._,t_L944.7
x
10 ,5
0._23.:_44,22
x l_
5
0.8_8,97_L
242,_
1
_.609,
]4t
[.2;I,
.:,..
H :< II,
4
4
(l,4
,if4
,ll
4 K Ill
Kit amee,,t tie,It Me_'/ Lnte* per 2 " p_r nat tonal Second
[L _85,209, S_,,_)rld _oot 2 = 0.015,216, 2 • D,(I,19,923,9_
f, x
2_
5
0.3_7,:_2t,_9 0.050. 197,70
x 10
5
[),5"_[+,f_SG, 0,_39[I,784,f_17,_
gfl:q
4 × 104
I)._:2L, D. goS,
_7L, 297,
t_2 t161,ft × 104
S2
0.015,300,
a_
0.211,294,
IRg,
6 x
104
0.245,245,245,
a _
104
II23
e. Volume andcapacity conversions Table12lists conversion factorsfor standard nitsofvolume u andcapacity.
TABLE Volume and Capacity 12 Unit Conversions
Cubic 1 Cubic 1 Cubic 1 Cubic 1 Liter 1 Gallon *Denotes (U.S.) exact Inch Foot Meter 1* 1,728* 61,023.74 61.02545 231" conversion
Inches 5. 1 ,,_ 35.
Cubic 787037
Feet x 10 4
Cubic 1.6387064
Meters x 10 5
Liters 0.01638661 28.31605 999.972
Gallons 0.004329004 7.480519 264.172 0.2641794 1
0. 028316846592. 31467* 1 1.000028 3. 7854118 x x 10 10 3
0.03531566 0. factor 1336806
1 3.785306
3,
Angular Table 13
conversions lists conversion factors for standard units TABLE Angular Unit of 13 Conversions
Minutes Revolutions Radtans 6.283,185,307 I x x x 10 4* 10 3 10 5 10 7 1.745,329,252 2.908,882,096 4.848,136,812 9.817,477,040 x x x x 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 4 360.0* 57,295,779,511 1 1.666,666,666 2.777,777,777 5.6250 x 10 2* x x 10 2 10 4 _ of Arc Seconds of Arc 1,296,000.0* 206,264.806,236 3,600.0* 60.0* l 202.5* 6400* 1018.591636 17.777,777,77 0.296,296,296 4.938,271,605 1 x 10 3 Angular Mils
angular
measurement.
1 1 1 1 1 **1
Revolution Radian Degree Minute Second Angular = = of of
•
1 0.159,154,943 2.777,777,777
21,600.0* 3,437.746,771 60.0* 1 0.016,666,666 3.375*
Arc Arc Mil =
= •
4.629,629,629 7.716,049,382 1.5625 x
*Denotes
exact
conversion
factor. from and inch. the milltradtan, the "mi]" which From the table,
**The "angular rail" should be differentiated which is often designated "mU" in targeting, is a unit of length corresponding to 0. 001 1 angular rail = 0. 981,747,704 miUiradian
4.
Mass a.
and Defined
Force relations
Unit
Conversions
go
= 32.
17404855 force nt force (lbf)
+ ft/sec 2(kgf)
(derived = 9. 80665
value). kgm/sec 2
1 kilogram = 9. 80665 protounit units 1 pound = 32. b. Table units. of units to unit 2 2 system by go' is the where the adopted In U.S. of units go = acsea units is a 1 newton 1 newton 1 newton is a mass: unit c. Derived
Kilogram (kg) the type kilogram: of mass in the Pound the avoirdupois fundamental FPS
mass of the international the fundamental metric absolute MKS system of (ib) = 0.45359237 U.S. unit of mass system of units, kg in
= 32.
17404855
+ lbft/sec
2
17404855 Derived 14 lists mass
+ pdl unit conversions factors for mass
(exact): the
absolute Unit force which 1 newton I poundal Unit force mass 9. 80665 celeration level value in unit
conversion
in an absolute system gives unit acceleration (nt) (pdl) a = I kgm/see = 1 Ibft/sec
force = =
and
mass +lbf kgf
unit
conversions
I kgf I Ibf
2. 204622621 0.45359237 newtons 105 gem/sec
= 4.
448176256
+
gravitational
multiplied m/sec due for 2 (exact)
= = =
2 +kgf
= 105
dynes
standard
to gravity, 45 ° latitude.
0.101972661 0.224811235
+ lbf
II24
1 newton= 7.23301387 +pdl 1pdl = O.1382549543 +newtons 1pdl = 0.31080950ibf +
TABLE Derived Mass 14 Conversions
1 kg 1 lb
= =
0.
101972661
+ kgf + lbf slugs.
sec2/m see2/ft =
0.0310809501 0.0310809501
Pau:Ms _Lac Mass Na:th M_ Moon 27.54_;, 81. I 358 __ Mass {_)c} 1. :_1, 4. L_t_4, m 25 2 x x ?ugs x 1029 I_12J l021 5.975,0 x 1024 _3.(72. fix i[* 2"t 2!(I.7_; K_log2a r2_• (a vdp)
oum:_ (a, dl_!
i 1 i
fiola_ I:artt_ Moon
Ma_s Ma_ Mass
" = =
1 3.0BS,06_x 3.697,320 x l0 10 6 .8
332,440 1 1.229,14 x 10 2
×
1(' 24
5,_32,3
7.344,_1 14. :%iKI,
× ft02,
1022 1_76
16. 2_2,
]i)(,(_ 174,
x (]4_{,
[(I 22 55(;
'2q 514,
¢_; 7B4,
x
11_ 22 777, (1
1
Sl'Jg
"
7.346,
l_x
10
29
0.244,25
x
10
23
0.198,72
x
1(_
21
1 l
Kilogram Poured (avdp)
= =
5.
043,
7_
x
1() :_I 10 31
0.
167,
36
x
10 10
.24 25
0.136,15
x
10
22
[_.852,
17f_,_2
x
OI 2
1
2.2(4
622
62]
_;5.27L_1,I)4
2.28:_,2_x
0.759,15x
0._;17,_ _. _1;, _)1 v
x x
10 i(_
23 24
3. I.
1_8, 942,
095, 55_,
016 :;_5
x x
l0 1,_
2 3
O.
45:_,
5F+2.37 x lO 2
1 0.0_42,5:
l(i. i
(} :
0.283,495,231
1
Ounc_
(avdp}
=
1.427,
i)4
x
10
:t2
_.474,47
x
10
26
Und+._linvd :, D{.r_ote_
digits exac_
am_ cow¢or._ion
qm.stionahh.. factm'.
1 metric 1 ton =
ton 2000'::
= 1000" pound = = = =
kilogram (avdp) 426.8579495 3087. 469937 = 907. 18474* kilograms
g0 5,
z
N8(}fi65:
mete: _
s = 32. 174,()48,555 rtl._ 2
Energy a. Derived chanical 1 joule 1 joule 1 joule 1 joule 1 erg 1 pdl 1 pdl 1 kgf 1 lbf 1 lbf b. ft ft m ft ft
Unit
Conversions conversion units of factors energy between me
lkgcal 1 kgcal 1 Btu
+mkgf + ftlbf +kgcal +ftlbf ÷ lb+ joules +x +x 10 4 10 4 kgeal Btu ft2/sec 2
0.2519957611 778.0292165 34980 866068
= = = = = = = = =
1 ntm 107 erg
= 1 kgm2/see = 107 gcm2/sec +kgf + lbf m
2 1 Btu 2 1 Btu = 25032. = 1054.
0.101972661 0.7375621493 10 7 joule
1 Btu ft 1 joule = 10 Tkgm2/sec +joule d. 0.0310809501 9. 80665 32. joules +pdl + joules factors units or kilogram hours of energy 1 kiloelectron 1 kilocalorie 1 860 kilowattcalorie (kwhr) (kgcal) = 1 megaelectron 1 billion Btu = 3. 98320719 +Btu 1 erg 1 wattsec e. Derived to 1 kwhr 1 kgeal lkgcal = 1 joule conversion units 3.6 1000 x 106 calories = +kgm2/sec 2 and under go One pressure atmosphere (of the factors of energy 6. from thermal 1 lbfft 1 kgcal Pressure a. = = Defined from thermal ft + lbf ft The of work ference taken charge. "electron Atomic 2 1 joule 0.04214011007
= 2. =
388888888
9. 479876444 units is defined
energy volt"
as
the
amount difis of
17404855
done on one electron by a potential of 1 volt; the charge on the electron 10 as 4. 80286 x 10 electrostatic units
1. 35581794 conversion
12 Defined to 1 electron volt (EV) volt volt volt x x x = (kEV) (MEV) (BEV) 11 = = = Unit units is earth defined as _ s atmosphere) m/see 2. the standard at sea corresponds 6. 24196 8. 46297 2.6116 10 10 1022 18 EV EV EV 1.60206 = = = x 10 103 106 109 EV EV EV erg mechanical
1 kgcal
1 = 0. 45359237
electron
mechanical =
joules
Conversions
4186.046511+joules 4186.046511
level
= 9. 80665
It
1125
to the sea 1961 U.S. One pressure (103m) 9.80665
level pressure Standard Model
of the 1959 ARDC Atmospheres.
and
the
T(OR) t(OF)
=
1.8T(°K) ) = T(OR)  Ti(°R )
 ti(°F
millimeter of mercury (mm that a column of mercury in height m/see of 2. mercury of mercury go unit dynes Usually, (rob), factors = = = = 10 4 10 2 0. of (in. Hg) 1 inch = 32. 17404855 exerts at 0 ° C and
Hg) is the I millimeter under g0 =
where T. (°K) = 273.16 ° K
that at
One inch a column 32 ° F One and bar of nt/m2). of b.
is the pressure in height exerts + ft/sec corresponding centimeter is 1 mb given 3 = 10 in bar. 2. b.
t.(°F) 1
= 32 ° F
under is a l06
Derived t. (°C) 1 T i (°R)
relations = 0o C
pressure per square pressure where between nt/cm millibar
to (or
a.force 105
=
491. 
688 ° R T i (°R) t(°F) 1.8 t i (°F)
terms
millibars
T(oR) t(°C) = 1.8
Conversion 1 nt/m i nt/rn 1 nt/m 1 nt/m 1 nt/m I nt/m 1 kgf/m I I pdl/ft ibf/ft 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
pressure 2 (rob) + kgf/m pdl/ft + ibf/ft x 10 4 nt/m 2 2 2 Ibf/in. 2 2
units T(°R)
1.8
t(°C) + 273.16(°C)
= t(°F)
t(°F)  ti(*F) = 1.8t(°C)
+ 491. 688 ° R = 1.8 T(°K)
I01972661
 32 ° F 
0.67196908 020885437
273.16(°K)
= 0.
where 2 °C = degrees (Celsius) in thermodynamic scale in in thermodynamic thermodynamic Kelvin Rankine scale centigrade
= 1.4503776= 9. = 80665
(exact)
°K 1.48816371 8802515 756 + nt/m  nt/m + nt/m 00 nt/m kgf/m 267 pdl/ft lbf/fi + ibf/in. 2 2 1 atmosphere i atmosphere 1 atmosphere 1 atmosphere 7. Temperature a. Defined Unit relations = = = = 14.695951 760 29. 1013. mmHg 921260 2500 in. mb fig 2 2 2 2 D. °R = 47. = 6894. = 101,325. = 10,332.275 2
= degrees = degrees scale
1 Ibf/in.2 1 atmosphere 1 atmosphere I atmosphere 1 atmosphere
the subscript of water.
"i"
denotes
the
freezing
point
= 68,087. = 2116.2170
SUMMARY OF PROGRAMS United
LUNAR AND the
EXPLORATION RESULTS National Aeronautics
In the
States,
and Space Administration has been established by Congress to direct the nation's civilian space program which up to the time of writing includes the entire announced U. S. lunar exploration program. Table lunar spacecraft all announced launches presented from Ref. has been many lesser 15 U. summarizes the current U, S, programs, while Table 16 lists S. and Soviet space vehicle
Conversions
with lunar mission objectives. The data in the first table has been taken partially 43, while the data for the second table obtained from Refs. 43, 44 and 45 and sources.
t(oc)
=
T(°K)
 Ti(OK
)
II26
TABLE Current _ect Apollo, NASA Contractors North American, command and mission modules, systems integration; MIT, guidance development; Collins Radio, telecommunications; MinneapolisHoneywell, stabilization and control; AiReseareh, environmental control; Radioplane, parachute recovery; Lockheed Propulsion Company, escape tower rocket; Marquardt, reaction controls; Grumman, lunar excursion module (LEM); Avco, heat shield, etc. U.S. Lunar
15 Spacecraft Programs Status Earth uled orbits 1967 orbital 1964 to 1966, to 1968. been shots sched
Description Threeman earthorbitaL and landing Boosters: spacecraft for lunarorbital missions. Saturn for earth
1965, lunar lunar landing Lunar orbit mission selected. pro
orbits, Saturn C5 rendezvous, NOVA flight. modules: 4.5 x Spacecraft command newtons,
for lunar for direct has three module, 3.5 m 20.5
rendezvous file has
104
high; x l04 lunar 13 x
service newtons, excursion 104
module,
7 m high; vehicle, 6 m 104 high;
newtons, 38 x
total weight
newtons.
An idea of the magnitude of this lunar program may be gained in that, by the first launch, about 20,000 companies and 150,000 to 200,000 scientists and engineers will have been involved. The total cost is estimated at $20 billion.
Lunar Vehicle NASA
Logistics (LLV),
Grumman, Northrop Space Technology Laboratories submitted feasibility studies, contract award expected early 1963; Pratt and Whitney, variablethrust RL10 liquid hydrogen engine.
3300newton spacecraft "bus" to carry support payloads to the moon, initially boosted by Saturn CIB; later 9 x 104newton "bus" will
boosted by Saturn C5. Seven specific payloads be studied.
Development expected to begin in 1963 after congressional approval of fiscal year 1964 budget. Cost is expected to run to $500 million.
Ranger,
NASA
JPL, prime Aeronutronic, Hercules,
contractor; capsule; retrorocket.
1300newton instrument sule with seismometer be hardianded on the Before tapes surface. impact, pictures The a TV of the booster
capwill moon. camera lunar is an
Research
and
develop
AtlasAgena
B combination.
ment stage. First two Rangers failed to launch from earth orbit; Ranger III launched January 26, 1962, but failed to impact the moon and is in solar orbit; on the 1962; October power hours Ranger IV impacted moon April 26, Ranger V, launched 18, 1962, had a failure after 8 and 44 minutes; it the orbit. moon A
failed to impact and is in solar total are 1963, many Ranger time gram halted review of 9 more planned for and as
Rangers 1962 to
there may be as 15 additional shots. At the of writing, the prohas been temporarily for an extensive of the many failures.
Surveyor, NASA
Hughes, Martin, power
prime SNAP generator.
II
contractor; nuclear
3300newton spacecraft lands 400 to 1300 newton instruments on the moon. Booster: AtlasCentaur lunar orbiting vehicle is planned.
First for
lunar 1964seven
flights soft
planned land
ing vehicles and orbiting vehicles mitting pictures surface.
five iunar for transof' the lunar
II27
'FABLE Data on U.S. and Soviet Space
16 Lunar Mission Objectives
Vehicle Launches with (Chronological listing) failure are given below:
Definitions Success: Partial Failure: I. 2.
of success, major mission yielded
partial objective
success, was
achieved.
success: yielded O I I, to
scientific
information on major failure. partial mission Propulsion success. of the 113,000 returned km from earth. It carried an ionization data gave a qualitative peak of radiation objective. failure No mission will be stated for failures.
no scientific (U.S._ (U.S._ a lunar measure
information 1958, 1958,
Pioneer Pioneer Pioneer chamber space.
17 August 11 October
of the
first stage.
probe, reached a cosmic radiation,
distance and
in
3. 4.
Pioneer Pioneer
II III
(U.S.),8 (U.S.),6
November December
1958, 1958,
failure. partial success. payload earth on an escape earth escape velocity; trajectory achieved into the a maximum vicinity dis
The mission of the moon. tance of about Onboard vealed
objective was to place a The space vehicle failed 100,000 km from earth. included a second earth. 1959,
scientific to achieve
it
the
instruments existence
of
two GeigerMueller Van Alien radiation The region of
counters. belt at
Cosmic a higher radiation
ray altitude _as
data than found
from that to
Pioneer discovered of
III two
reby
the Explorer concentric
5.
I earth satellite. belts around the 2 was was orbit January probably achieved between
highintensity
consist
Lunik This moon) went
I (U.S.S.R._ lunar of into probe 7500 km a solar Period
success. to impact. Pericynthion hr after launch. After Mars with the following distance lunar passage, characteristics: (closes the approach to space vehicle the
an attempt about 36 earth and = = = = = 450 d
Eccentricity Inclination Perihelion Aphelion Onboard instruments included:
0.148 15. 18 ° 146.4 197.2x x 106 106km km= = 0.9791AU 1.319AU
Magnetometer Twin GeigerMuelIer counters Nitrium spectral analyzer Skin and chamber temperature thermocouples Mtcrometeorite erosion gauge Sodium vapor discharge device (which released, 100 km in diameter at a distance of 115,000 The total vehicle weight was 14,435 was to magnetic craters, newtons. measure intensities field strength, properties of
for tracking km from earth)
purposes,
a sodium
cloud
The purpose of the ments of the moon ment evaluation of sion of the moon's 6. Pioneer This velocity orbit lunar was between IV (U.S.),3 probe
vehicle included the lunar surface. March passed the
of radiation gravitational the moon's
and cosmic rays. forces, cosmic ray inner strata and optical
Actual measureintensity, sediteletransmis
1959, moon
success. at a distance velocityof following of approximately m/see. 60,000 "['he km because the injection on to a solar
84 m/sec below earth and Mars Period Eccentricity Inclination the earth' equator to s
the planned with the = = 397d75 0.067
11,166 characteristics:
vehicle
continued
=
29.9
°
II
28
Perihelion Aphelion Inclination ecliptic Onboard instruments included:
= = to =
147.6 173.7
1. 5 °
x x
106 106
km km
= =
0.9871 1. 162
AU AU
2 GeigerMueller counters A photoelectric sensor A despin mechanism The total space mission vehicle objectives an weight was were 60 to: trajectory limits of of radiation a photoelectric this payload indicating newtons.
Primary
Achieve Determine Determine Test the During nature altitude The while Data
7.
earthmoon the physical the extent operation of life, space, belt. belt
the in
Van Allen the vicinity sensor
radiation of the
belts moon
the 8 hr of its battery of cosmic radiation Van Allen radiation first the was II Van second received (U.S.S.R.), imImcted and on Mare launch and Allen belt to radiation consists a 12 range
in
transmitted variations
to on
earth new information both the extent and
on intensity
the of
extent and the high
was
found of km.
to low
consist energy
of
high
energy after
protons shielding.
and
low
energy
electrons,
primarily of 650,000 1959, in
protons
Lunik
September
success. area the bounded earthmoon velocity m/see. The by the Mare distance of the space last stage Tranquillitatis, of r_¢ = 381,100 vehicle of the 5 hr rocket Mare km
Lunik II Serenitatis,
the moon Vaporum to at impact. impact
a triangular after covering The was
in
35h2m24 s from was 2317 m/see, on the moon. The The guidance mission
it
seienoeentric about 3315
before impact also impacted
system objectives
of
Lunik of Lunik
II
functioned II were the the to earth earth
only
during
the
initial
powered
phase
of
flight.
investigate: and moon radiation substance
The magnetic Radiation belts
fields of around
Intensity and variations in cosmic Heavy nuclei in cosmic radiation Gas components of interplanetary Meteoritic particles The results of the (1) (2) flight The The an 8. Lunik Lunik vicinity that [s III III (U.S.S.R.),4 carried scientific moon. from continued were Side. It the included moon moon ionosphere. October 1959, equipment, passed earth. close to success. including it, so has is discovery no magnetic by that
field a belt
or of
radiation low energy
belt
of ionized
charged gases
particles. which might resemble
enveloped
both oriented
photographic as to photograph
and
television the part of
systems the lunar
to
the surface
of the hidden
Photography interpretation Moon' s Far Lunik Its III initial
for 40 subsequently
minutes and published
images by the
were later U.S.S.R.
televised Academy
to earth. of Sciences
The as
plates an Atlas
and of
their the
passed orbital Nodal
within parameters period
7000
km
of
the
moonfs
south
pole
at
its
pericynthion
on
6 October
1959.
were: = = = 16d2 0.8 76.8 °
Eccentricity Inclination
II
29
Perigee Apogee 9. Lunar The 10. Pioneer The the primary earth. Orbiter booster for V (U.S.), mission went Period I (U.S) all 11
distance distance 26 Lunar March of into a November Orbiters 1960, Pioneer solar = = to = = = included:
= =
40,671 469,306.4 1959, was success an
km km failure AtlasAble combination.
It
V was to record orbit between Earth 311d6 O. 104 3.35 120.5 148.5 ° x x 106 106 km km
space and
data Venus
within with
approximately the Following
80 x 106 characteristics:
km
from
Eccentricity Inclination ecliptic Perihelion Aphelion Onboard instruments
= 0.8059 = 0.9931
AU AU
High energy radiation counter to measure Ionization chamber and a GeigerMueller encountered Micrometeorite counter Search coil magnetometer Photoelectric cell "aspect faced the sun The Important experimental (1) total weight of the indicator" spacecraft of electrical 5 million this was
high tube
energy radiation, to measure the
total
particularly radiation
from flux
the
sun
designed I00
to newtons and system 40,000
send
a
signal
when
the
device
directly
accomplishments Discovery of "ring" current from earth. Discovery and oscillates Discovery to solar Achievement Discovery angle with Discovery netic field. Discovery that radiation (U.S.),25 (U.S.), August 15 that the that that large of
cislunar
interplanetary in the km in
space
probe
were: namely, a 65,000 km
current amperes,
outer atmosphere, diameter, exists
(2)
the with
earth's solar
magnetic flare activity. magnetic
field
at
times
extends
out
as
far
as
i00,000
km
(3)
of flare
interplanetary activity. of the the plane the first planar of the Forbush radio
field
which
fluctuates
in
intensity
in
relation
(4)
communication the interplanetary
over
interplanetary magnetic field
distances. forms a large
(5) (6)
angle of ecliptic. decrease
does
not
depend
on
presence
of
earth's
mag
(7)
of
penetrating will be
a 1960,
radiation beyond major hazard for failure. failure.
the Van Allen manned flight
belts. between
The earth
conclusion and Venus.
is
11. 12. 13.
Lunar Lunar Ranger
Orbiter Orbiter
II III
September December 1961, failure
1960,
I (U.S.),23
The mission objective was to make highly elliptical earth orbits near minimum threebody velocity for earth escape. Ranger I was injected into a parking orbit around earth. It was planned to inject the space vehicle from parking orbit by a velocity impulse of about 3200 m/sec into the desired irajectory. However, the actual velocity impulse was only 73 m/sec, which resulted in a low altitude earth orbit and caused the vehicle to reenter the atmosphere after one week. During this time, the onboard The planned instruments experiments Subjects Fields, and solar of functioned and flawlessly. instruments for Rangers I and II are: and for solar and Measurements plasma thinwalled GeigerMuelIer
Experiment particles Electrostatic Semiconductor counter
Instruments analyzer detectors
charged Xrays
II
30
Subjects
of
Experiment Ionization Triplecoincidence Rn Xray vapor
Instruments chamber telescopes
and
Measurements
magnetometer scintillation telescope composite detectors detectors
Hydrogen Interplanetary 14. Ranger Ranger from 15. Ranger The II II earth III mission (U.S._ had the parking (U.S._ of used 51 1872 Period Perihelion Aphelion The mission objectives (1) (2) (3) Collect Relay Place surface (4) (5) The 16. Ranger weight IV of 18
geocorona dust 1961, failure.
Lymanalpha Micrometeorite
Novernber mission failed
same orbit 26
objectives and and it reentered 1962, IV and partial V was
onboard instruments the earth's atmosphere
as
Ranger after
I. Its 9 hr.
injection
rocket
January IlI,
success. to impact the the at orbit moon to land velocity was a scientific too km package. high. and Pericynthion selenocentr[c
Rangers an hr earth after m/see.
Ranger Ill was reached velocity was
parking launch. It
orbit. The continued =
However, lunar distance into 406d4 147. 173.90 planned in flight and TV 12 x x 106 106 for in a solar
injection that time with the
was 36,785
the
following
characteristics:
distance distance and experiments "tray to an to earth, data by
= =
km km
= 0.9839 = 1. 163 III, of
AU AU IV the of and V were moon. the lunar surface on the lunar to:
Rangers the vicinity
a vidicon
camera, capsule
photos
instrumented relay the spacecraft seismic radar
transmitting data refleetivity and space in the to earth. of flight vicinity
containing
a seismometer
Determine Develop III, April
the
moon
by
a radar
altimeter.
technology. of :{000 newtons.
Rangers
IV 1962,
and
V was partial UT, It
(U. s. ), 23
success. 23 April failed to 1962, perform and impacted any of its on the planned moon at experiments. 1250 UT, 26 April
Ranger IV 1962, after 17. Ranger The space
was launched a flight time
at 2050 of 63 hr. 1962,
V (U.S.),18 vehicle
October was launched
failure. at 1659 UT. Ranger Vhad a power faiiure 8h46 The were m after launch, program failures or, and was at
it missed the moon by temporarily halted for best, partial successes.
725 km on a program
21 October, review in
continuing view of the
into a solar orbit. fact that 5 firings
Ranger either
II
31
E. REFERENCES 1. "OrbitalFlightHandbook," 12684, ER Martin Company, Space Systems ivision, D (Baltimore),1963.
2. Herrick, Hilton, Constants S., C. Baker, R.M.L., G., "Gravitational for Accurate Space Astronautical (Proceedings), 1958, pp 197 to Jr. and and ReIated Navigation, Congress, Springer 235
14.
Nicolet, M., "Density of the Heterosphere Related to Temperature, " SAO Special Report No. 75, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (Cambridge, Massachusetts), 1961. Johnson, F. S., editor, "Satellite EnvironPress
15. " 16.
ment Handbook, " Stanford University (Stanford, California), 1961. Wilkins, Macmillan Blagg, List of 1t. P. (New and Moore, York, 1955. P., "The
Eighth International BarceIona, 1957 Verlag 3. (Vienna), M.
Moon,"
Makemson, and Westrom, ardization Journal of No. 1,
W., Baker, R.M.L., Jr. G. B. , "Analysis and Standof Astrodynamic Constants, " Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 8, 1961, M., "A pp Geoid 1 to and 13. World Geodetic
17.
M. A. Lunar
and Saunder, Formations
S. A., "Collated Named or Lettered "
Spring W.
in the Maps of Neison, Lunar Nomenclature International Association 1913, p 196. and
Sehmidt, 1V_dler, Committee of the of Academies,
4.
Kaula, System metric, Journal 1961, Note
Based on a Combination Astrogeodetic, and of Geophysics Res. pp 1799 to 1811; also TN D702, May 1961. G.
of GraviSatellite Data," VoI. 66, June NASA Technical
18.
Blagg, Lunar nomical
M. A. Formations, Union,
1Vffiller, K., " International 1935. T., "Natural " WADC Phase Air
"Named Astro
19.
Bobrovnikoff, ment of the
N. Moon,
EnvironTechnical Center Document
5.
Krause, H. Astrodynamic shall Space VEF 6212 1963.
L., "Ona Consistent Set of Constants, " George C. MarFlight Center Report MTPP & (NASA) (Huntsville, Alabama), 20. " 21.
Note 8473, Wright (Dayton, Ohio), June No. AD 242177. Fielder, Surface, 1961. Firsoff, Structure Company, 22. Allen, (London), 23. Muncey, Temperature, 1958, pp Mezger, Thermal MC/S, Vol. " 1, R. C. G., "Structure " Pergamon
Development 1959, ASTIA
of Press
the Moon's (New York),
6.
"American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, published annually by the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. (obtainable from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.). Ehricke, trand deSitter, System of the lands, 213 to K. A., (Princeton, W. and "Space New Brouwer, Flight, Jersey), D., " Van 1960. "On Nos
V.
A.,
"Surface
of
the
Moon, and
Its
and Origin, " Hutchinson Ltd. (London), 1961. W., 1955. W., "Calculation " Nature, Vol. 1458 to 1459. P. S. and Radiation Planetary 1959, pp A. R., "Isothermal Observatory Strassl, of the "Astrophysical
Quantities"
7.
8.
the
of Lunar 181, 24
May
of Astronomical Astronomical Vol. 231. VIII, No.
Constants, Institutes of 307, 8 July
" Bulletin the Nether1938, pp 24.
H., Moon
at
"The 1420
9.
Alexandrov, Potential, Sciences, 1960, pp
I., "The Lunar Gravitational " Advances in the Astronautical Vol. 5, Plenum Press, New 320 to 324. Jr. and Makemson, to Astrodynamics, (New York), 1960.
and Space 213 to 226.
Science,
York,
25.
10.
Baker, R.M.L., "An Introduction demic Press
M. " Aca
W., 26.
Geoffrion, W. M., Lowell 1960.
Korner M. and Sinton, Contours of the Moon," Bulletin No. 106,
11.
Jeffreys, H., "The Earth, Its Origin, History, and Physical Constitution, " Fourth ed., Cambridge University Press, 1959. Townsend, Planetocentrie, Constants," Space 1962. Systems G. E., "Analysis of Heliocentric, Geocentric and Selenocentrtc ER 12201, Martin Company, Division (Baltimore), June 28. 27.
Valley, S. L., editor, "Space and Planetary Environments,"AFCRL62270, Air Force Surveys in Geophysics No. 139, GRDAir Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Bedford, Massachusetts), January 1962. Pettit, Radiation Journal, physical Gold, Q., Astronautics, Whipple, Layer," 1959, E. and Nicholson, Temperatures, VoI. 71, 1930, Journal, "Dust Vol. Vol. on S. B., "Lunar " Astrophysical p 102, and Astro91, 1940, p 408. in 266.
12.
13
Jaffe, havior ARS pp
L. D. and Rittenhouse, of Materials in Space Journal, Vol. 32, No. to 345.
J. B., "BeEnvironments, 3, March 1962,
the Moon, 2, 1959,
pp
" Vistas 261 to Dust Vol.
" 29. F. L., Vistas pp 267 to "On the Lunar in Astronautics, 272. 2,
320
II
32
30.
Roche, Vacuum Vistas
R. A., "The Importance of High in Space Environment Simulation, in Astronautics, Vol. 2, 1959,
39. "
Opik, Gases sical 3070.
E. J. and Singer, S. F., from the Moon, " Journal Research, Vol. 65, 1960,
"Escape of of Geophypp 3065 to
pp 22 to 27. 31. Sytinskaya, N. of Microfeatures ARS No. 32. Journal 3, March N., "Probable of the Lunar Dimensions Surface, " 32, 41. Jeans, Dover J., "Dynamical Theory of Gases," Publications, Inc., 1954. and Stewart Company, 42. 34. Lipski, Y. N., "On the Existence Atmosphere, " Dokl Akad. Nauk., 1949, pp 465 to 468. Lyot, B. Atmosphere and of a Lunar Vol. 65, 43. 35. Dollfus, A., "Recherche au Voisinage de la Lune, d'une " 40.
(Russian 1962,
Supplement), Vol. pp 488 and 489.
Kozyrev, Process Vol. 18,
N. A., "Observations on the Moon, " Sky and 1959, pp 184 to 186.
of a Volcanic Telescope,
Judson, L. V., "Units of Weight and Measure (United States Customary and Metric), Definitions and Tables of Equivalents, " National Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publications 20, 1960. Green, Units ing 233 (Washington), December
33.
Russell, H. N., Dugan, R. S. J. Q. , "Astronomy, " Ginn and 1945.
of
M. H., "International and Measurement, " Chemical Inc. (New York),
Metric Publish1961.
Company,
Comptes Rendus Vol. 229, 1949, 36. Dollfus, A., AtmosphEre
d'Academie de Science, pp 1277 to 1280. 44. Recherche d'une de la Lune, "
"AstrologCurrent and Space Programs Satellites," Missiles No. I0, 3 September
Status of U.S. Missile Plus All Orbiting and Rockets, Vol. II, 1962, pp 19 to 30.
"Nouvelle, au Voisinage
Comptes Rendus Vol. 234, 1952, 37. Elsmore, Occultation of an Lunar 1955, 38.
d'Academie de Science, pp 2046 to 2049. G. R.,"Lunar and the Derivation 45.
Stafford, W. H. and Croft, R. M., "Artificial Earth Satellites and Successful Solar Probes, 1957 to 1960," NASA Technical Note TN D601, March 1961.
B. and Whitfield, of a Radio Star
Upper Limit for the Density of the Atmosphere," Nature, Vol. 176, pp 457 to 458. 46.
Cummings, C. I., et al., "The Ranger Program, " JPL Technical Report 32141, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, California), September 1961. Kuiper, "Planets Chicago G. and Middlehurst, and Satellites, Press (Chicago), B. " University 1961. M., of editors,
Costain, C. H., Elsmore, B. and Whitfield, G. R., "Radio Observations of a Lunar Occultation of the Crab Nebula, " Monthly Notices of the Royal Vol. 116, 1956, pp Astronomical 380 to 385. Society,
II33
ILLUSTRATIONS
If 35
LIST
OF
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Inner Van Allen
Title Belt Proton Trajectory Flux and Initial Portions
Page
of a Typical 2 3 Lunar Chart
Lunar
................ Region ....... . .
II 39 II40 II41
of the Mare
Humorum Surface
Estimate
of Average
Lunar
Temperatures
II37
!
J
!
/
!
_0
\
\
\
i
/
/
.....
i
//
/
Fig.
I.
Inner Van Allen Belt Proton Flux and Initial Portions of a Typical Lunar Trajectory
LUNAR
CHARt
Y MAR_ HUMC_UM LAC 9_
• i_ ¸_¸ i:!
. I
L
Cb
_c
93
Fig.
2.
Lunar
Chart
Of
The
Mare
Humorum
Region
F_.
3o
Estimate
Of
Average
Lunar
Surface
Temperatures
3oc
o_ /
/
Q
,/ /
/
\
\
/o_
Zcl
CHAPTER III
THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM
Prepared F. O.
by:
Martikan, F. Santora, and R. Salinger Martin Company (Baltimore) Aerospace Mechanics Department March 1963 Page
Ao
Geometry Motion Motion References Tables
and Coordinate in EarthMoon of the Moon
Systems
................
IIIi III14 11122 11134
B. C. D.
Space
....................
..........................
................................ and Illustrations .......................
III37
III.
THE
EARTHMOON
SYSTEM
This chapter is an introduction to the kinematics and dynamics of the earthmoon system. This introduction is necessary before any actual trajectory programs or trajectories can be discussed, in order to present a clear understanding of the geometry, the various coordinate systems, the vocabulary and previous work in celestial mechanics peculiar to the earthmoon system. Section A for various introduces aspects coordinate earth in space, attitude systems usemoon flight guidance, control. Em
civil time is defined with respect to the position of a fictitious mean sun which moves uniformly along the equator and hence is a function of the earth's rotation and its orbital motion as well. The difference between mean solar time and apparent solar time, the latter being based on the apparent position of the sun, never exceeds 16 minutes. Universal time (UT), sometimes referred to as Greenwich mean time, is the mean solar time referred to the Greenwich (prime) meridian. However, the above listed clock times reflect the variability in the rotational earth due to tidal friction and irregularities unknown sources. A uniform mathematical which is defined by the apparent annual the sun in true orbital longitude rather rotation of the earth, is the ephemeris or Newtonian time. The mathematical of ephemeris time has been developed, values AT = ET UT rate of the from time
ful such lunar
of
to
as tracking, reconnaissance is
motion and
phasis centered formation inertial current troduces
placed on the selenographic or moonrotating coordinate system and transfrom geocentric or earthcentered to selenographic coordinates. A list of lunar maps is also given. Section B inthe classical threebody and restricted
motion of than the time (ET) theory and the
threebody problems of astronomy and their application to the dynamical system of the earth, moon, and space vehicle. Valuable qualitative as well as quantitative trajectory information can be obtained from the restricted threebody problem. However, the application of the restricted threebody problem to the classification of lunar missions and its adaptation for trajectory calculations will be deferred to Chapter IV. Section C discusses the some theories adaptation ephemerides the moon grams. of in very used complex to find motion of this motion, in the and moon, the lunar of pro
(I)
are given in the American Ephemeris (Ref. I), which is published annually, or in the Explanatory Supplement (Ref. 2) up to the year of publication. The fundamental epoch from which ephemeris time is measured is 1900 January 0, Greenwich mean noon in UT which is simultaneously 1900 January From +35 s less in than past 1962 0, 12 h ET observations and the in ET. AT change years systems Coordinates system of the center geographic and the coordinate fundamental system plane is At is in (Ref. is given that instant AT _ 0.
these theories for observations accurate trajectory
generating and simulation computer
approximately AT 1, is generally page in Ref. vii). 3. A
1 s between of time
discussion A. GEOMETRY AND SYSTEMS COORDINATE 1.
EarthCentered a. Geographic
In the description of the motion of the moon and of vehicles in the earthmoon space many different coordinate systems have been employed depending on the particular problem of motion to be solved. Several coordinate systems are used in lunar flight problems since several different disciplines such as geography, astronomy, aerodynamics, kinematics, dynamics, and numerical analysis enter into the problem with each discipline having evolved its own techniques and sets of coordinates. Some of the more commonly employed coordinate systems are described in the following pages according to their origin of coordinates, the principal directions and the fundamental plane; transformation equations between the major systems are given. The coordinate systems are further classified into (I) earthcentered coordinates, (2) selenographic ordinates, and Before (4) coordinates, vehiclecentered discussion (3) trajectory coordinates. the various co
is
The origin the earth's
the equatorial plane. Longitude A is measured either east or west from the Greenwich (prime) meridian and the geocentric latitude 4' is the measured along a meridian from the equatorial plane, positive if north and negative if south the equatorial plane. The local radius of the earth, following Re>, is sketch. the ) used on maps is the defined as the angle and a normal to the most nearly describes of the earth. The 4' and _ is approximately there is an angle between by the local third spherical coordinate.
angle of
(See
The latitude tude _ which is equatorial plane ellipsoid which sea level surface ference between at 4' latitude vertical
geodetic latibetween the reference the mean greatest dif0. 19 ° astronomical the local gravitational
a detailed
of
co
ordinate systems is attempted, some basic definitions of the principal time systems will be given since time usually enters the description of motion or observation of celestrial bodies and space vehicles as the independent variable. mental time unit is the sidereal of revolution of the earth about spect sidereal to the stars. time (ST). This Mean The fundaday, or the period its axis with reis known (MST) or as
= 45°. In addition, ¢>* which is the (as determined
field and affected by the centrifugal force) and the equatorial plane. The difference between _ and _* is called "station error" and is usually negligible. The geographic coordinate system is not an inertial one since it rotates around the earth's axis z G at a constant angular velocity _G' A
time system solar time
III1
rectangular origin in the the at the
geographic center of)t and
coordinate earth has
system
with
of the = O, the
its xGaxis zGaxis toward the .. //\\ _
direction pole,
_ = O, the
_Zh
Zenith i_ dN°rth
A
north
YGaxis system
completing in the
righthanded plane.
coordinate
equatorial
,
I//
L .J
[ \. /'IVehicle
w • z_
Local vertical
_
_ _1/z_emm
.._
£1)
Meridian
__
. A..st
k\
South h YG the zbaxis directed toward
/
the north celestial
pole (unit vector _'m/ and the y5 axis directed
kL2
so (unit
as
to vector
form _h
a
righthanded }' Since the
coordinate equator and
system the vernal
Equator
equinox are not inertially fixed due to the precession and nutation of the earth's axis, the "equator and equinox " of a certain " date should be specified in precision work. The true equinox takes into account the nutation and precession of the earth while the mean equinox ignores the nutation. Deb. Topocentric system fine a origin Electronic and optical observations of space vehicles will be generally made from the surface of the earth. It is therefore advantageous to define a topocentric or local coordinate system with origin at the observer and the plane of the horizon of the to the rected is directed The of the as the fundamental topocentrie vector (unit plane. system The xhaxis is directed is diPosition of the vehicle celestial Nor, th Pole
coordinate as the x_, points
system Yb' toward
x(_ z'_
YO' system,
z_with except equinox plane
the
same
that and of the
the
x_axis
the
mean
x_y(_plane earth (see
is the mean equatorial followin_ sketch).
rectangular south to the to (unit east the
_h ), the vector
Yhaxis
_h ), and zenith _h the is in
the (unit the is A,
zhaxis
/ ] \ \_ projected onto
astronomical zenith and to z h.
vector direca is
_h ). tion plane
astronomical local vertical
horizon azimuth,
perpendicular
The
defined as the angle from clockwise in the horizon c, as the angle measured the zenith. to The range rp,
north plane from or
measured positive and the elevation, this plane toward distance from the
observer coordinate topocentric with the e. The center torial toward
the vei_icle, is the third spherical (see the following sketch). The system is not inertial since it rotates earth. Equatorial origin and the system is generally fundamental the earth. taken plane The equinox at the is the x'@axis (unit earth's true is vector
Tmle
vernal
equinox
Celestial
sphere
= right ascension, vernal equinox right ascension grees or hours equa= declination, ) equator toward to the
measured east along the celestial may be measured (i hr = 15°). from the
from the equator. either
true The in de
plane the
of true
directed
A I
measured
true
celestial positive south.
vernal
x
the radius vector north, negative
of object, toward the
II[2
In Ref. I the coordinates are usually referred to the mean equator and equinox of the beginning of the appropriate year. For the ease of the sun, the celestial longitude referred to the true equator and equinox of a certain date is not given but is obtained by applying a reduction factor, which is tabulated in the Ephemeris, to the celestial longitude referred to the mean equinox and equator of the same date. This reduction is the sum of the precession in longitude from the beginning of the year to date, the nutation in longitude and the correction for aberration. For a definition of celestial longitude see the next coordinate A standard reference for the mean equator equinox used for comparison of data from sources is 1950. 0. d. Ecliptic system system. and various
double position script
subscript without the comma indicates of the object denoted by the second in the coordinate system of the first. coordinate place, then whose system a third is has been subscript given. from
the subIf transwill Thus
the origin of the lated to another denote the object
position
rOA is the of the earth system vehicle centric while from
distance of the in a geocentric r O,_/,, the center system. between is of
vehicle equatorial the the
the center coordinate of the a seleno
distance moon
in
equatorial
Transformations centered here since in Chapter 2.
the
various
earth
coordinate systems will this subject is treated XI of Ref. 3. Coordinate System
not be given more properly
Selenographic a. Definitions
The origin is generally taken as the earth's center and the fundamental plane is the ecliptic, or plane of the earth's orbit around the sun. The x{ axis (unit normal and the is directed _{), the to the true vernal equinox along _ { ), the lunar the with north
vector
z(axis plane
is directed (unit vector so as to form
The selenographic coordinate system is fixed respect to the moon and rotates with it. The pole of the moon is toward the direction of lunar angular velocity plane latitude is qb_ vector perpendicular is measured _(_, and to from the _,_. the
to the y{axis
ecliptic
is directed system
a right(see the
equatorial
banded coordinate following sketch).
(unit vector
_()
Selenographic
North of ecliptic
Pole
' G
lunar equator, positive toward in the hemisphere containing and negative toward the south. longitude the lunar _(_ prime the positive mean is measured meridian center direction east I(_ point for
the north, i.e., Mare Serenitatis, Selenographie and west from passes moon. toward East, the
= 0 which of k(_, the is
/
_
Celest:al
/A2
J'_G
Vernal equinox
through or the
hemisphere containing Mare Crisium. Tile mean center of the lunar disk is the point on the lunar surface intersected by the moonearth line if the moon is at the mean ascending node when the node coincides either with the mean perigee or mean apogee. It is located in the Sinus Medii, a specified distance from the crater MSsting A (see Fig. i). Orientation of these cardinal directions for astronautical calculations is in accordance with a resolution adopted by the International Astronomical Union general assembly, 1961. Sometimes, notably in the American Ephemeris (Ref. prime i), k(_is measured through eastward 360 ° . For from the the primary
meridian of moon prime 360 axes
k e
= celestial along equinox
the
longitude, ecliptic
measured from the
true
positive vernal
east
purpose on the lunar through
astronomical is sometimes meridian ° . in the
observations, measured positive toward
longitude from the the west
_
= celestial to the
latitude, radius vector and terms the of
measured of the ecliptic directions
from object coordinate from
the
ecliptic The selenographic by moon. the moon's lie being and YS Unit of in x S, YS' The Zs zsaxis equatorial the moon's to the the _S' Xs, YScoordinate with origin points plane. equatorial lunar righthanded X_S' and _S are zS to sysat tem the the The plane, prime coordinate defined axes. in are center north x Sdesignated of pole and the the of Ysaxes xsaxis
are origin taken
The equatorial defined in
systems a particular be the
and not by at the earth's
origin center,
itself, which may the sun's center,
moon's center, or translated anywhere. We introduce a double subscript notation to define the coordinate system as well as the origin. If the origin of the ecliptic and equatorial coordinate systems is taken at the center of the earth, then there is a single subscript "_)" or "{". However, if the origin is taken at the center of the moon, for instance, then we use two subscripts separated by a comma "_, (_" or "{ , (_" respectively. A
directed completing vectors the
meridian system. the
direction
III
:3
b.
Transformation selenographic
from lunar coordinates to define
equatorial
to
In addition lunar equatorial rotate with the are designated of the The
it is useful coordinate moon. The by xc, moon. y_, The
a selenocentrie not
=
T(A
S+
w(_t)]
1
YS
(3_
system which does axes in this system z(_ with z_and moon's origin Zsaxes at the coin
center cide.
x(_axis
is in the
equatorial direccoordi
plane directed toward an inertial tion which will be specified each nate the ing system is used, and the
reference time this
The origin of the lunar present case was taken but it may be translated equatorial and ecliptic section le and ld) c. Rotation coordinates rotation x'_,_, coordinates about about _N about sketch). system z_,(_ through _S from
equatorial system in the at the center of the moon, anywhere just as in the coordinate systems (sub
y(_axis system.
completes (See follow
equatorial
to
selenographic
righthanded sketch. )
coordinate
The coordinates graphic kz¢ rotation tation a rotation
from
selenocentric ' z' y(_,(_, (_,_, x S, YS' Zs the angle the
equatorial to selenoconsists angle i_, angle _', and AM to z(_, of a a rofinally (see an _ inerwith
through the
through A further xo,
following tial
rotation (_, YO,(_'
coordinate
the xaxis directed to the mean equinox of date or to the mean equinox at epoch (a specified date) may be performed, but the difference between true equinox and mean equinox of date or of a recent epoch is smalI and can usually be neglected in preliminary design work. The matrix Inertial reference direction rotations ec uation: are defined by the following
If the
angle
between
the
x(_ and subsequent
xsaxes time
at time t it will from
t = 0 is A S , then be (A S + ¢0(_t). elenocentric oordinates
at any Hence
()
x S YS = zS and the selenographie by matrix nates by
cos
AM
sin
AM
 sin
AM
cos
AM
0
0
!]
0 •
I° °l
cos i(_ sin i(_  sin i(_cos i
the transformation equatorial by
lunar is given
to selenographic _COS a' " /ok sin a' sin 0c°s a' f_' 01 01
"Xs "i YS
zS
[l
the
cos  sin
(A S + ¢0C t) (A S + _ t)
sin (A S ÷ _C cos (A S + _
t)
0
9
] • [T(fl')] .ly_,(_ _
t} 0
0
0
1
= [T(AM)]
[T(ic)
(ii}
and inverse transformation is: III4
transformation coordinate multiplication unit vectors in
to
unit system
vectors can
in be
the obtained
and replacing the coordinate
the coordidirections:
_S
= x_,(_(cos ^' (cos + y_}_ ,(_
A M
cos sin
fl'  sin
AM
sin
fl' cos
i(_ i(_) [5)
AM
f_'
+ sin
AM
cos
gl'
cos
+
_._,(_(sin
A M
sin
i¢)
A
}S
:
x_,<
(sin
A M
cos
a'

cos
AM (
sin
_'
cos
i_) _'
^, + y_),< + cos
A
icos sin t;0
sin fl' cos 0 fl' . cos sin i< 0 i{ (5) • sin AM cos AM YS 0 0 Zsj The values of i{ and fl' are _,6[ cos i([ equinox of date. to carry or in (6), out values the of tabulated as the x S, YS' coordinates Zs coordiis given Eqs inorder: In order (4), (5) sin are needed is convenient the displacement mean center moon Ref. latitude sents tions of the in I as terms of to choose of of the the earthmoon moon, or libration

sin cos
(6)
sin cos
AM
sin
A M
f_' cos
i_}
+
z_,(_
(cos
AM
sin
i(_)
z S : A
,<(sin
[2' sin i(_) tabulated to the nearest 0.001 ° inRef. I for intervals of i0 days and referred to the true equator of the earth and
+ _,(_
(cos
9'
sin
i{)+
The nates by the matrices, verses to
inverse x_,<,
rotation y_,{,
from z_,(_
transformations A M and cos quantity of from the the AM It
inverse of
of the product of the transformation which in turn is the product of the the individual matrices in reverse
quantities. tabulated line
z., j
i
longitude and latitude. This is given in the earth's selenographic longitude and (2, b) to the nearest 0°01, which repre300 meters on the moon's surface. Librawill be discussed in detail in Section C2 present chapter.
Moon's plane
equatorial
N True vernal equinox Moon's
Earth's plane prime
equatorial
meridian
i
right ascension node measured of date. = inclination earth's of equator. the
of the from.the
moon's true
ascending equinox
lunar
equator
to
the
A M
=
angle in the the ascending meridian.
lunar node
equatorial to the
lunar
plane from prime
III
5
Let L bea unit vectoralongtheearthmoon line. Thecomponents _ in the selenocentric of
equatorial
are:
1 sin i< sin 6I
coordinate
system
x'
"®,C'
Y_9,C' z@,<
cos AM sin i cos_ sin
K
cos
6 cos
([I'  _)
(10)
L x Ly h z where c_ is the declination
 cos  cos the sin
6 cos 6 sin c_ 5
[ _c°s i< sin
iQ_ cos 6 J
6 sin
(fl'  a)
(7)
cos rigilt ascenmon of the moon. of the moon If the librations and in sketch), to the = b The tal right parallax, ascension _C'
b
cos o_, of the
6
cos
(f2'
 o_)
]
horizonfrom
(11)
declination moon are
6 and obtained
longitude are f and latitude b (see following then we obtain, by applyint{ the law of cosines spherical triangle with sides b, f, d, cos d cos b cos f so that
A
Ref. 1 and eOCentric ee sketch
can be equatorial on the
used
to find the coordinates following page).
rectangular of the moon
xS • _
: cos
d : cos
b cos
J[
(8) Let the magnitude of r@(_ be r@_, then:
9S
• _
:
cos
b
sin
_
(9)
X_c
ygj)<
: r®<
: r@<
cos 6 cos _
cos 6 sin
If from {9) and
we Eqs
take (5) simplify
the and for
expression (7), the sin substitute results, AM are and
for
_S it in the AM
•
i_ Eqs
and {8) terms
^ YS
and of
"
then cos
following in
expressions tabulated
z_(_
: r(_<
sin
6
(12)
quantities
obtained:
and
r(_(_ is found
from
the
tabulated R
: e
lunar
horiis
sin A M
: cos
b f
[c os i(_ cos
5 sin (fl'  a)
zonta]
parallax
,_<
by:
r_t_
n(_
where
R e
Plane parallel to earth's equatorial plane
zS
line
5
/Moon's True Moon's equatorial vernal plane equinox
prime
meridian
Ili6
d.
T _ZIt )
Vehicle nates
position
in
selenographic
coordi
The nearly 5,I oon axis ,_r_6 system. in the lowing and from
selenographic constant its origin the origin the are angular is
coordinate velocity translated of tile
system _'(Cabout by the
has the
a
Z S
vector equatorial be the given folto the
geocentric
Earth
Before selenographic quantities sketch:
vehicle coordinate defined
position can system, by reference
A
"r
y'®
following The tric 
position equatorial :
vector of system, ^
the
vehicle
in
the
geocen
^
^'
(15)
The the
position geocentric
vector
of the
center system,
of the
moon
in
equatorial
^i i
AI
AI
the earth's equatorial necessary substitutions and cos 6 Eqs (10)
and
radius. for (11)
By sin a, become:
making cos c_,
the sin
6
The position selenocentric equatorial the moon,
vector of the vehicle referred to the equatorial coordinates, i.e., in coordinates translated to the center of
sin
AM
r@<
cos
cos
£
b
Ecos
i(_
(x_)
C sin
f2' AT r®,6__: x_,<_z_x® + A, z@ the vehicle
A
 y(_(_
cos
[2')

z_6
sin
i(_
]
(13)
I Y®,6
_A_(
_ (17)
+ +
z_,
6 _,, of
ro<
sin£
cosbsin fl'
[
x
_
C cos fa'
+ )0(_
]
[ cos i< z_3(_ (x_< sin i< sin ] fl'
The position coordinates, rSA: XsAX the
vector
m
in
selenographic
A
S + YsAY sketch
S+ below
zsAZ that
S
(18)
cos
AM
:
r@(_
sin _ cos cos
b
Note
from
y_(_
f_')
%,<
and (14)
r% ".6
,6 _i of (XsA, the YSA' vehicle Zs&)' in in selenographic terms (x_3,6 the rotation of _A' given seleno
(19)
cos _
r@(_ + y_)_ cos sin b 9']
[x_<eos
The
rsA
:
rO
(2o)
With
sin
AIr I and (4), 4),
cos
AM
known,
the
rotations
inout. in
position
dicated by Eqs This transformation Koskela (Ref. (iRef. 6).
(5) and (6) can has also been Baker (Her. 5)
be carried discussed and Kalensher
coordinates, centric Z_,(_+A Eq (4) equatorial ), can
coordinates, be found by
Y_,<+A' in
Zs
_ A = rSA
True
vernal
equinox
III7
z¢
/meridian
\"NI_
/Lunar
prime
_/
equat°rial/N /
plane / _
Lunar
_
/
I
I
I
Vehicle df'l
/l
HAA_ !
z ,'J
and in by use terms of Eqs of geocentric (15) through equatorial (18):
U.,c,,J
(21)
coordinates
1
l
The matrix multiplication can be performed to yield the cle in selenographic coordinates of the vehicle and of the moon torial M r, coordinates AM (a, 6, _(_, f, as b) well of the as indicated by Eq (22) position of the vehiwhen the position in geocentric equathe moon pararneters are known: i(_,
z, 9
(22)
Selenographic
longitude:
k(_
=
sinlQ
[X2A+
YSA .y2A
] 1 ]2 )
:
cos

xSA+ Altitude of the vehicle
YSA
]'
RC
of vector
,
surface
 180 ° <
_,_
moon:
X <
180 °
(27)
above
of
XSA
= (X_t_A
 X_)(COS
A M
cos
a'
hC :
sin A M sin _' cos i(_) + (Y_A where y_)(cos + (Z_AAIr I z_(_)(sin sin f_' + AM sin sin A M i(_) cos f_' cos (23) e. Vehicle nates velocity i C) rsA is R(_ the is the mean
rSAradius of the in
(28)
the moon rZA. coordiand
magnitude
selenographic
YSA
= (X_Acos
x_(_)(sin AM sin f2' AM COS f2'
AM cos sin COS sin if) i{) _'
cos
a' + (y@& hicle tation
Before we give an expression velocity, we have to introduce and make some definitions. Let a dot respect • dx

for
the some
veno
y_(_)(sin AM
with + cos 
over a to time, ""
X 
symbol i. e.,
denote
differentiation
i(_) + (Z_A
d2x dt=2" (24)
X
z_C)(Cos
A M
dt
'
zSA
= (X_A+ (Y_A+ (Z n ® a
x_(_)(sin y_)(cos
tl'
sin f_'
i_) sin i(_)
In
addition,
define velocity coordinate
A .
the
following vector system,
/_
velocities: in the geocentric
The vehicle equatorial
Z_<)
COS i<
(25)
f_
.
.
At
r(_A : x_x '
The velocity equatorial
•
' O+
vector system,
A
Y®AY®, ,
of the
+ _A_
moon in the geocentric
(29)
The vehicle moon's sketch (22) as
selenographic longitude and latitude of a and the altitude of the vehicie above the surface are illustrated in the following and can be calculated from Eqs (21) and follows: latitude: 1 _ZsA_ \rSA ] ' 90° < _ ,_< (%+ 90 ° (26)
•
/k
•
Selenographic = sin
The velocity vector centric equatorial
_. .
of the system,
A I •
vehicle
in
the
seleno
A
I
r® ,_ _,
: x_,_
_A_
+ y_,¢
AY_
III8
•
°
°
The velocity vector graphic system is "_ rSA= • ^ +A XsAX S YsAYs of Eq
of the
vehicle
in the
seleno
YSA
:
(x'o/X
X'_S)
(sin
A M
cos
f_ '
+.
ZsAZs
,,
(32)

cos
A M
sin
fl' cos
i<)
Differentiation
(19)
yields + (}'@&}OC) (sin A M sin a' (39)
r@A However,
=
r(_(_
+ r(_,(_h
(33) + cos A M cos f_' cos i(_)
,¢_A due to the with respect system. coordinates
= rSA
+
_x
rSA
(34)
+ (z'(_A
z'_)C)
(COS
AM
sin
i(_)
 coS xSA
rotation of the selenographic system to the geocentric inertial coordinate Hence, the velocity in selenographic can be written,
ZSA:
(K'(_A
J{'0S
) (sin
f_' sin
i C)
+ (Y(_A "' rsA: rOCr(_ A_'(_ x rsA (35)
 Y'O
S)
(cos
f_'
sin
is)
(40)
+ (_'@/xwhere f. (36) Vehicle coordinates acceleration
_'(9S) (cos i<)
acceleration in selenographic
I
_{ x rsA = cos = _(I YSA Xs
The equatorial entiation
of the
vehicle
in selenoeentric by differ
00
xSA The velocity selenographic terms nents graphic
coordinates of both sides
°. °.
can be obtained of Eq (33).
YSA
Zs
+ _¢ xSA_S
rOA= vehicle
•
r@c+
r®,([
__/X
(41)
components
•
of the
.
in in where, to time by in differentiation the and geocentric if we assume of Eq (34) with respect
coordinates
(Xs/x, YSA'
Zs2
of geocentric equatorial of the moon and vehicle vehicle position are:
velocity compoas well as seleno
equatorial that _C
coordinate = 0
system,
_x'e/x%<1
YSA 1 :
r(_,C
_A
: rSA+
2 _(_ x rSA+
_(_ x (co([ x rs2. (42)
Zs/xj
(37) ° C YSA_
The coordinates ,. rsAfrom L2 22
vehicle can Eqs
acceleration be obtained and (42):
in by
selenographic solving for
(41) ":
\pxd
which kSA can be multiplied k'Oc)(cos to yield: = (>:'@&AM cos _' sin AIr I sin f_' cos i(_) + (Y''OAy'_<) (cos A M sin f_' (38)
2,.


rSA=re/x r®¢  2 5"_ rs/x _ _ (_¢x rs2 × where (43)
x rs/x and
: _(_
YSA
_S + _([ XsAYs
(44)
% (co< :x%/x)
The selenographic components of coordinates the moon's and vehicle (kSA, vehicle's
_
"Yss
y /xys •
in "zSA ) in
acceleration
+ sin
A M
cos
f_'
cos
i(_)
terms
of
geocentric as velocity well as are:
+ (Z'(_A
z'(_([)
(sin
AM
sin
i(_)
+ w<
YSA
equatorial selenographie
components vehicle
of acceleration position and
III
9
Ii' :i
SA XS A YSA + _/n2¢_(_ xSA C
Atlas issffe_l,__, published Publishers, connaissance
of in
the the giw_s of
Moon's Far R Academy Ignited States the results the lunar far
Side. This of Sciences by Interscienee of the Lunik side. The
atlas, and III r'evolume
A
(46)
gives a description of the interpretative technique used and 30 integrated photographs of the moon's far side obtained by the space vehicle camera. The results include a catalog of 498 formations classified according to the reliability of the observation and 4 maps drawn to scale l:10, 000, 000. Topographic maps, prepared a scale of 1:2, by a tones combination representing is 988 assumed km and I,unar]3y__y 500,000. of to the Maps. It This series Map Service, shows surface relief, color contours variations. with datum of R(_ the = 500m of is on features and The
g,
Lunar
maps lunar map surface series to the exist best which our' reprepresent
shaded surface be
Several sent the knowledge:
moon 1737.
a sphere
lunar
of
vertical
USAF Lunar Atlas (edited by Dr. Gerard P. Kuip_6_'). This atlas contains 280 photographs of life moon, sheet size 16 x 20 inches, scale 2.54 m to the lunar diameter or about 12.7 km to the cm and bound in a looseleaf ring binder. The photographs were from a collection of lunar plates taken at Mr. Wilson, Lick, Yerkes and McDonald Observatories in the United States and the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. 9rthographic Gerard Lunar Atlas of the Moon (edited P. Kuiper), supplVm_n_ No. Atlas. This volume contains the U_KAF grid Lunar Atlas established which from a by 1 to 60 carry control
approximate contour tion of 7000 m at the A. A complete listing from "Named I,unar Blagg and K. MLi_ler the map. One street, brium, 113 x 134 cm
lines is based on an elevacenter of the crater M0shing of lunar formations derived Formations" (1935) by M. is included on the back of Mare NeetarisMare Imhas been published.
3.
Trajectory
Coordinates
Dr. _F
the
The position of a vehicle in earthmoon space can be given either in geocentric, geographic, or topocentrie coordinates. Similarly, its position and velocity may be given in the selenocentric, selenographie or topocentric when the vehicle is near the for instance, it is convenient coordinate systems moon. For tracking, to use a topocentric
plates YF_ the orthographic
net of 5000 points. Grid 1.25 em on the published parallels are printed in each of the sheets which 24 in. posttype hardback
spacing is approximately copy. Meridians and color at 2 ° intervals on are bound in an 18 in. x cover. supplernent atlas No. consists 2 to of of 91. 4
the
Rectified USA F
Lunar Atlas, Lunar 5_tlas.
system centered at the station since the tracking measurements and errors are given in that system. In the same manner several specialized coordinate systems have been evolved for various trajectory digital computer programs. a. Typical rectangular of coordinate systems.
This
p/o_aphs of the entire visible hemisphere the moon, rectified by projection on a globe cm in diameter. Each of thirty fields on the globe were rephotographed at tilree different illuminations, morning USAF composite and late corresponding afternoon, The from Mt. to full moon,
tory the early
The choice computations force model on
coordinate systems for trajecdepends to a large degree on and the dynamical system as used for" integrating A great simplification the of in
well as equations
the method of motion.
Lunar Mosaic. phoi_the
lunar moon
mosaic made from
is
a the at
motion in earthmoon the dynamical system moon are assumed to
space is achieved when the spherical earth and move in circular orbits
best imagery selected Yerkes, McDonald and The photography projection which
photographs taken Wilson Observatories. fitted to the moon
has been portrays
an orthographic at mean librapub
around the common center of mass (barycenter) which is taken as inertially fixed. The coordinate systems of the Martin Simpiified Lunar Trajectory Digital Program, Ref. 7, which uses the force A gram at the model basic has described coordinate origin rate sketch). moon, the above, will be given digital and here. prorotates system directed with lhe sys
tion as a sphere in lished in two sizes, (lunar diameter 69 l:10, 000, 000 (lunar Lunar ThdI_unar coordinated Aeronautical Aeronautical series
true perspective. LEM 1, scale cm) and LEM diameter 34 Charts Charts requiring
It is 1:5,000,000 1A, scale cm).
its
at _@_
system in the the barycenter of The zRaxis of the
(LAC Series). consist of a total of 144
constant following the
earthmoon is
a charts (see toward angular tem, a_d Cartesian xRaxis coincides the earthmoo_ the righthanded
to cover the entire moon. charts can be produced of (59% of the total). Surface by a combination of shaded tones representing spherical figure radius of R(_ of = 1738 surface the moon km.
Approximately 80 the visible surface features are shown relief, contours and color variations. is assumed are with shown A a
momentum the Yl';_xis coorc_inate
vector
completes svstem.
Elevations
Consider oriain at t the the = 0 x0
another berycenter the axis, xl,_
coordinate and axis and is axes
system x0, Y0' by
with z0' an angle angular
by 300m approximate to the datum which scale is 1:1,000,000 sheet size is 22 in.
contours and referenced was taken at 1735.4 kin. (10 km to the cm). and x 29 in.
The the
At
time from
rotated
subsequently
the
III
t0
Y
_
XR
Y e
Barycenter
Xo
Earth
_x
e
displacement axis
of the t).
rotating A third
xi{ axis coordinate
from
the
x0
is
the
ratio of the
of
the
mass and
of moon.
the
moon
to
the
total
mass
earth
is (_ + _G(_ to the at the
systern, but Ze" the It remains geographic the zG _(_). plane) plane to relate x GyG axis The ZG at the the x e Ye Ze system which to
parallel centered and
nonrotating earth,
x 0, Y0'
z0 system
will be denoted
by x e, Ye'
system constant
rotates
a fourth, has
mooncentered axes x m, Ym' Zm
nonrotating (see the
coordinate
about
angular plane s equaangle
system sketch).
preceding nonrotating invelocity (Xe Ye torial earthmoon to the at the orbital earth'
Transformations rotating rotation the =
from
systems to the volve the same (_ + _@_ IT (_+
coordinate system through the angle given by the
is inclined
(x G YGplane)
constant does not
t) about wff)(it) ]
zaxis
matrix i and their line of intersection em rotate in inertial space. Since the initial value of _ is arbitrary, we may assume that the intersection between the two planes is coincident with the Ye axis. Thus t = 0. (x G _ locates Similarly axis) the the the we moon locate in the
its orbit in and the IV). lated (¢ + u@_t) 0 cos (_ 0 + _(]_(rt) be (47) Greenwich
at time
meridian at time as the in the
relative an_le Ye
to this A G which to the (see
a translation definition Position to position
of in
which can the barycenter the nonrotating in the rotating
obtained by using (see also Chapter systems system is by re
intersection is defined YG axis
t = 0 by from
angle
 axis plane
earth'
s equatorial
following The J0
I =
sketch). transformation systems from to the xG the YG the x e Ye ZG Ye Ze conthrough the
z0 _
_@<
coordinate sists
system axis
first of a rotation (iem) through and the
about
the angle zG axis
then angle
of a rotation (A G + %_
about t).
zI{
(48)
With coordinate coordinate
[T(iem)] transformations systems are
=
IT
(tern) between
Il, the
the various
given
by,
YG where Y is the mean distance between the zG
=
®<
of the earth and moon, and v=
_<
IT M(_ + I%.I@ (AG+ coot) ] IT (iem)] 1 (Xe
Ze.
centers
}
III11
Earthmoon _ZG _ orbital plane
e
_v<.'_I .... /( l/ Ear h_/_2ar t
/
/Moool
_ Earth's
_
/
/
equatorial
YC ent e 7
'_
YG
1 = IT (AG+ _oGt)] ET (iem) J
{'}
zR where [T (AG+_t)] = iOS (A G + _Gt) sin (A G + _ot) 0 sin (A G + ¢o(Dt ) cos (A G + _t) 0 i]
the trajectory planes with the MOP as reference directions. The earthmoon line as well as the earth and moon equatorial planes are defined with respect to this basic system. c. (49) Consider the dynamical system of a vehicle with negligible mass and one central spherical attracting body. It can be shown that in this case the vehicle the center of the as the orbit plane. moves attracting in a fixed body plane which through is known Orbit plane system
(50)
The Cartesian coordinate systems given in Subsection 3a are essentially orbit plane systems with axes in and perpendicular to the orbit plane. Let us define an additional coordinate system with origin at the center of the attracting body and the axis Zp axis may approach , or to yp complete }p, the axis be normal directed to the to to central node in the orbit the orbit plane. the and denoted denoted by directed The yp, sketch). The
T
(iem)
]  1
=
Xp
perifocus, body, and
closest byx
ascending is the 9p
[co,em o o%'em] 1 ,
Lsin
and T [_+ The iem 0 cos iem J _G(t)]isgivenby angles iem , _ and Eq A G (47).
(51)
x_. so unit Zp as
The to vectors directions,
plane, system. in the following Xp,
righthanded and _p are (see
respectively
zp,
z_,
z,
z R
are
determined the
for
any specific of the earth b. The VOICE
launch time and moon. coordinate system
t = 0 from
ephemerides
/ SVehicle _/A Direction of perifocus
system and force model used
coordinate
in the VOICE lunar trajectory program will be discussed in detail under that heading (Section IV C). Like the previous system, it is essentially based on the moon' s orbital plane (MOP) as a fundamental plane and the lines of intersection of
True
_///__'_x__e
I,_
){eference
plane
vernal
equinox
x_ Orbit
plane
III12
The
orientation
of the
orbit
plane
may
be
while required
for
a at
circular epoch
orbit t O,
only
four
elements
are
given in terms of the orientation angles i, 0 < i < 180 °, inclination between the orbit planeand th_ reference plane measured from due east on the reference plane, _', longitude of the ascending node measured from the true vernal equinox, and _, the argument of perifoeus as measured from the ascending node. The angles similarly lem, • _G'
t2' i r
longitude inclination orbital
of
the
ascending
node
radius
and _ given in Section garded as orientation
3a can angles.
be reT_ since of the time of ascending vanishes nodal and crossing the argument
Since there are three secondorder equations of motion for the vehicle, there are six constants of integration which enter into the solution of the equations given of motion. These constants Xp, may yp, be Zp and
eccentricity is undefined.
perigee These
elements
remain
constant
for
the of of act
in terms
of initial position Xp, j_p, _p
initial velocity
at time
tO or in terms
dynamical system described at the beginning the present section. In astronomy the concept orbital eIements is used even if other forces on the vehicle, provided that they pared to the central force directed attracting body. In this case the slowly with time, and osculating t O are defined as the orbital the body are small toward elements elements of force removed the
of six orbital elements, which do not involve the coordinates, velocity components, or time. In case of elliptic orbits customary sets of elements at epoch,
I
tO , are: longitude inclination of the ascending node
comthe change at time vedue at to
elements central were
[2 i 0_ a e T
CO
hicle the to •
if all spherical
forces except attracting
argument semimajor eccentricity time of
of perifocus axis It has been found through experience that the orbital elements of a space vehicle are useful for descriptive purposes and to caIeulate approximate energy requirements only, but not suited to the analytical development of orbit determination and to precision work. In the iatter case rectangular VehicleCentered In problems involving coordinates Coordinates aerodynamic forces, vehicle, bodyare more useful.
perifocal
passage
The placed an t 0
time as
of an
perifocal element chosen where its orbit
passage, by t 0, the t O, the
T mean which mean Another
may
be anomaly is
reat by of of
4.
arbitrarily =n(t O  Tw), in is:
epoch nis plane.
given
stability, control it is sometimes axis system its instantaneous along the fixed
and guidance convenient to in the center axis the the
of a space introduce a
motion set
the vehicle elements a' i
%
vehicle with of gravity, of the
origin at the xbaxis in the
longitudinal direction,
vehicle directed
longitude inclination = _ mean + co,
of
the
ascending
node
forward to the
Ybaxis
laterally the rightdown
right
and
zbaxis system sketch). by
completes being
handed co n e e0 Typical orbit at _ i co q e T
CO
Cartesian (see following
directed
longitude
of
perifoeus
ward
motion xb
eccentricity = co + i O, elements epoch, longitude inclination argument perlfocus eccentricity time of perifocal passage of perifoeus Additional distance required such as specialized sets of axes in which the vehicie rocket are for particular aeeelerometers, equipment telescopes, mean of t o are: ofthe ascending node a longitude parabolic or at epoch hyperbolic
engines, etc. the body axes be discussed
as well as transformations between and other coordinate systems wiil when they are used in the manual.
[II
13
B. MOTION EARTHMOON IN SPACE Thediscussion this sectionis based in essentiallyonresultsof classicalastronomy ith w MoultonsCelestial _ Mechanics (Ref. 8) used as
the primary reference. Derivations that are important in the discussion of various force models used in the lunar trajectory digital programs, as well as special solutions of the equations of motion useful for space vehicle missions in earthmoon space are given. The material here is also introductory to a more complicated description of the motion of celestial bodies and vehicles in space jectories. Assume a dynamical system of n bodies, which are homogeneous in spherical layers and move under the influence of their mutual gravitational attraction. The determination of the motion of these bodies reduces to finding 6n integrals an secondorder simultaneous differential tions, and is known as the nbody problem. gravitational is the most due to their attraction important enormous of the equaThe which may be necessary for precision tra
I0 integrals are has proved that, coordinates are bles, there are existing functions. strated that use
the only ones known since Bruns when rectangular Cartesian chosen as the dependent variano new algebraic integrals of Also, Poincare _ has demonof orbital elements as the deyields no new uniform transeven when the masses of all are very small. However, can be reduced still further trick of eliminating nodal the requirement n=3.
pendent variables cendental integrals bodies except one the general system by the mathematical position and to e further 1. Threebody
time which reduces integrals in the ease Problem
For lunar flight three bodies, n=3, motion of a vehicle earthmoon though a requires
trajectories the which is concerned in the environment
problem of with the of the
system, is of primary general solution to the 18 arbitrary constants
interest. Alproblem (which or integrals) has
between celestial bodies force affecting their motion size and mass. The as
sumption of spherical celestial bodies is actually quite a good one. The equatorial semiaxes of the ellipsoidal earth model differ by only 21.4 km from the polar semiaxes with the radius of the equivalent sphere being 6371.02 km. The three dynamically determined semiaxes of the moon differ by at most 0. 7 km from their arithmetic mean of 1738.5 kin. The effect of aspherieity of the earth on the motion of the moon at a mean distance of 384,402 km from the earth is thus very minor, even for comparatively long periods of time. effect of the asphericity of the earth and moon on the space vehicle will be important only when the space vehicle moves in the vicinity of these celestial bodies as will be shown later. Any irregularities in the shape of the sun and planets are completely negligible in earthmoon space over time periods of a week since these bodies are millions of kilometers away. Consider the twobody problern, n=2. Six integrals of the differential equations of motion can be found by considering the motion of the center of mass, and the other six constants of the equations other. The three integration of motion introduced of one body by integrating relative to the The
not as yet been found, there are a numoer of important results which have been established if the initial positions and velocities of the bodies satisfy certain conditions. While some of these special cases have not been found in nature, there are nevertheless some applications, for instance the libration point satellite buoys proposed by Buehheim and discussed further in Chapter IV. These special cases can be classified into: (i) study of the properties of motion of an infinitesimal body (i.e., one that is attracted by finite masses but in turn is assumed not to attract them) when it is attracted by two finite bodies which revolve in circles around their common particular bodies tances The center of mass; (2) construction solutions for the motion of three such that the ratios of their mutual are constants. former method while, for be described will the be discussed of finite dis
in
the
next section methods will be given There 3 finite here.
latter case, and references
special will
of
are three bodies:
special the three
solutions bodies
at
for the
the case vertices
initial
coordinates
and
the
initial
velocity of one body with respect to the other, or 6 orbital elements, determine the motion of the two bodies completely. The motion of the smaller body takes place in a fixed plane through the center of the massive body which is known as the orbit plane. For n> 2, however, only ten of the 6n integrals which are required in order to solve the problem completely have been found. If the dynamical system of n bodies which are homogeneous in spherical layers is subject to no forces except their mutual attractions, six of these integrals show that the center of mass {barycenter) exhibits tilinear motion at constant speed, three more that the angular momentum of the system is stant, and tile tenth is simply an expression conservation of kinetic and potential energy. recstate conof the These
of an equilateral straight line, and bodies all at one lutions are described Moulton (Ref. 8) Freundlich (Fief. a. Conditions
triangle, three bodies in a the trivial case of the three point. The two nontrivial soamong other piaces, in on pages J09318 and in Finlay9). for circular it threebody orbits
Lagrange has shown that three finite bodies to move around their common center cial case of circular orbits Ref. sume plane. common x0Y0plane of the three 8 will be presented that the three bodies Take the origin center of mass as the plane be in
in
is possible for elliptical orbits of mass. The spediscussed in
the following. Asmove in a common at and Let M 3 and the the the let masses G deThen
of coordinates (barycenter) of M 1, motion. M 2,
bodies
note the universal the differential
gravitationai (equations of
constant. motion are:
II[14
i x0i =W
1
l
aU
OU
,
i=l,
2,
3 (56)

2 _R
(xR3 XR3 + GM1 3 rl,

XR1) 3
Y0i=IV[Y. _Yoi where U=G M (xR3 + GM2 1 M 2 rl, 2 +GM 2 M 3 r2, 3 +GM 3 M 1 r3, 1 and three similar 3 r2, XR2) = 0 3
equations
with
x R replaced
by
(57)
is the gravitational gravitational system, the motion YR with the the centers of the origin uniform x 0 Y0 axes and of potential, potential ri, work energy, • denotes J Mj. can the be referred and to rofunction, of the the distance or negative dynamical between The axes tating respect x_
YR" The equations bodies the converse is also are true, satisfied, around i.e., the if the then origin The six
(Eqs (60)) move in circles angular
the with system by
uniform
velocity can that be the
c0R. reduced origin
M i and system at
equations use of center
(Eqs (60)) the condition of mass
further is at the
baryeenter veIocity the transformation
with to
angular by
co R with M 1 Xli 1 + M 2 xR2 M1 YR1 + M2 YR2 + M 3 XR3 + M3 YR3 = 0; = 0 (61)
J
to yield
after
simplification: (XR1 3 rl, (xi{ 2 XR2)
Yoi
l=
[sin
c°s0co
Rt
_g 2
+ GM 2
(58)
Substitution after simplification: of Eq (58) into Eq (56) yields, + GM3
1  XR3) 3 rl, 0 3
2 xRi 2c°R xRi c°K_ xRi _i aXRi c°R xR2 + GM1
(x[<2 3 rl,
 xR1) 3
• . YRi If origin nates stant tions the and indicated YRi' the with +2c°t{ bodies the
• Yai are angular to
2 coRYRi moving velocity in _
1
0U
(59)
around coordithe
(XR2 + GM3 3 r2,
 XR3) 3
=0
(62)
circles ca , their R
with respect and their time (59) become, potential and with drop
the rotating axes are conderivatives vanish. Equaif we take the derivatives of to time the coordinates of as XRi derivatives
2 co bl YR1
(YR1 + GM2 r 3 1,
 YR2 2
)
respect the
(YR1 + GM2
 YR3 3 rl, 3
)
0
2  coRXR1 + GM2
(XR1 3 rl,
 xR2) 2
/
0 (60)
2 co R YR2
(Ya2 + GM1 r 3
 YR1 1, 2 )
)
(XR1 + GM3
3 rl,
xR3) 3
(YR2 + GM3 Equations and sufficient solutions in are circles. b. r3,
 YR3 3 (62) for orbits
= 0 are the necessary the existence of the three

2 c0_%XR2
(xR2 + GM 1 rl,
 xR1) 3 2
(61) and conditions which the
of bodies
+ GM3
(Xl{ 2 3 r2,
XR3) 3 0
Equilateral
triangle
solutions
It remains to find solutions to the system of algebraic equations (Eqs (61)and Eqs (62)). It can be shown that the system is satisfied if the three bodies lie at the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
III15
In thatcaser
system becomes: M 1 xR1
= rl,
2
= r2,
3
= rl,
3'
and
the
system
of
equations
(Eqs
(61) 1 + r) +
and
(62)
become: = 0
M 1 XR1 + M 2 xR2 + M 3 XR3 = 0 M 2
+ M 2 (xig
M 3 xR3
M 3 + 2
(r _
+_ M3
 _)
xR1
M2  _xa2
7
2 c° R +_XR1
= 0 (65) 2 _R
M1 M 3  _ XR3
r
M3
= 0
7 +
Elimination of xR3 and xa2 M1  '3r xR1 (63) M 2 + (M 1 + M 2) XR1
9
2 yields co R + (MXR1 +M2r) 2
=0
(r _
M3 + r'_
 _)
M 3  3r
XR3
= 0 M_ xR1 + M3r)2 whose coefficients = 0 (66)
M1
YR1
+ M2
YR2
+ M3
YR3
= 0 MXRI a quintic equation + M2r for XR1
+rYM 3  3YR3
r
Yal
 r'J Ya2
are all positive. Therefore, positive root but there is tive root, and consequently of the problem. of  xR2 expressed among adopting may be in XRl used. terms XRl,
there is no real at least one reaI negaat least one solution
= 0
Instead M/7 + T M3
r
as
the The of this
unknown, distance new and XRl variable. A are
 _)
YR2
 W M1
r
YR1
A
 XR3 be
must The
relations
XR2,
xR3
M 3  3YR3
r
= 0 M 1 XR1 + M 2 x R2 + M3 XR3 = 0 equations XR2 exist, vanish. condition ..... the By (Eqs (63)) YR3 determinant defining turns out to be from which is linear for of xR3  xR2 = A a and XR2 xR1 = r
The homogeneous nontrivial the M
system in solution
of
XR1, to must
and
coefficients = M 1 + M 2 w
+ M 3 this r3 RG 4
M23 2 R =
= 0 from
which XRl (64) r 
[r
Substitution of = 1, and subsequent Eq
+,%) + 3"1
M (67) into Eq simplification (66) letting yields:
MG _
r
Then
two
of
the
XRi
and
two
of
the
YRi
are
arbitrary, (M1 + M2)A 5 + _ M1 +2 M2)A 4
and the equations have a solution compatible with r. = r. Therefore, the equilateral triangular 1, j configuration with proper initial components of velocity is a particular solution of the threebody problem. c. We equations YR2 axis. from tive. Xgl = Straight can find (Eqs line a (61) i.e., Iie in end XR2 solutions special and all the of solution (62)) bodies order the axis and by to the system YR1 the x RM 3 the 2 = XR2 posi= which
(68)
assuming are M 1, toward rl, on
+
is Lagrange' only s quintic equation in A. Equation (68) has coefficients valid in masses is unique one real positive root since the change sign only once. The only A the problem for the chosen order of the is positive; hence,the soIution of Eq (68) and gives the location of the three bodies
YR3  0,
Let the Then them negative XR3 the
M 2,
>x R1
= r,
and
II}16
in the straight line solution. Two more distinct straight line solutions can be obtained by cyclically permuting the order of the three bodies. Moulton (Ref. 8) also discusses in which the orbits of the three sections with e _ 0. Restricted If the mass ThreeBody of one Problem of the three bodies is small special bodies soluare Note
rc/, 2 + z0A
that the vehicle
+
] i/2
is not (See restricted following
,0 1
to motion ) sketch.
tions conic 2,
in the x0Y0plane.
Then
the
equations
of motion
of the
vehicle
are:
compared to that of the other two, in fact so small that it does not influence the motion of the more massive bodies, then the determination of the motion of the ted threebody space of 105 of the vehicle kg small body problem. in earthmoon is very x is known as the Since the mass space small i024 restricof any Y0 I MA (x0A' Y0A' z0A) M ¢ (x0_' YO¢' 0)
( MZN order to that of the
or less)
compared kg) or that
earth
(.MI_= 5. 9758
moon (Mff= 7. 3451 x i022 kg), this approximation is permissible for the study of motion in earthmoon space. In addition,we assume that the earth and moon rotate in circular orbits around their common _O(_ center This of the of mass is not moon' with the angular the earth ,_ Barycenter x0
velocity
quite s orbit
true
since the
eccentricity
around
is about 0. 055 and,hence, the angular velocity varies with the moon's orbital position. Nongravitational forces such as atmospheric drag, electromagnetic forces, meteoritic drag, and solar radiation pressure may become important for unorthodox space vehicle shapes even though they can be utterly neglected in the motion of celestial bodies. Thrust forces will also be neglected in the following discussion. The equations of motion of the space vehicle and some results of the restricted threebody problem will be presented in this section with the discussion following that given by Moulton (Ref. 8, pages 278307). General' characteristics of lunar flight trajectories have been deduced from the restricted threebody problem, notably by Egorov (Ref. i0) and Buchheim (Ref. ii). We will discuss these applications in detail in the next a. Let of mass and let the (See Equations the origin (barycenter) the direction is A3. of of to chapter. motion lunar flight missions
/Mo
(x00'
YO@'
O)
x0A
GM(_
(XOA '3
x0(_)
GM(_
(x0/'
3
x0@
oa
= _GMG(YoA
3 Yogi))

GM(_
(Yo A
3 yOC)
r_
"" GM z0A GM__
r(2zx
(69)
Zozx =
Let new origin the motion of the
_)rr_A
of the (xR, and bodies YR"
rCA
be zt_) in referred having the the to a same
system as same the
axes old,
rotating as the
x 0 y0plane system The moving After in the into vehicle
coordinates be at the center of the earthmoon system, of the axes be so chosen that plane the of their masses the the universal coordinates motion. of the earth
in with
the
direction angular
earthmoon w(_.
uniform
velocity
x 0 y0plane Section
the
) Denote
and moon by MOand tational constant by M@, M(_and the
M(_ and G. Let be
graviof
vehicle and (x0±, of
(x0(_,y00,0); Y0L" z0/')' from respectively, the earth
transformation from the inertial to the coordinate system is given by Eq (58). computing the velocity and acceleration rotating coordinate system and substituting Eqs (69), the equations of motion of the in the rotating coordinate system became:
• " " 2
(x0( C, y0(_,0); so and that moon the
distance is,respectively:
the
vehicle
XRA
2_(_YR/x
= _o(_)(_XRz
x
_ G%(xR ,x e )
3 + (Y0AY00 )2
oM (xR x<) e
3
roA
=
[(x0Ax00)2
+ (z0 ) 2] 1/2
I[I17
GMQ(YRA 3
b. YR@ ) GML_(YRA 2 YR(c )
Jacobi's
integral
and
implications
(7O)
Equations (71) admit an integral first given by Jacobi and which has been discussed by Hill in his Lunar Theory. Let
•. z R,A
GM@z = 3 r@±
RA
GM( 3
z Rr, r(QA then
W
i 2 = 17 _@(_" ....
@2
I_A
2) + YRA
+
GM@ r@_'_" +
GM(¢ r_A" '" (74)
Eqs • •
(71)
can
be •
written _)\V :0_[1
in
the
form
The
direction
of the
xi{ YRaxes
can
be
chosen moon
so that tile xRaxis (see sketch on page
is in the 11); then
direction YR@:
of the
x[% A
 2_@(yRn
A
0, YI{_[ : 0, vehicle sim• . YRA + 2c°@_x PW • RA _ _w _YlgA (75)
and the equations plify to:
of motion
of the
• •
•
2
"z'RA xRA  2cao_YRA GM@ (XRA 3 %A = co@(xRA  xR@) _ GM(_ (xl{ A 3 r_A  x[{,_) If these 2_RAand suiting function
• ° • 2
= 5z t{A
equations 2zRA
are
multiplied and integrated, and ZRA
by added, since alone,
2xRA, the W is and this rea
,respectively, can ytgA, be
equation of Jacobi' xlg A,
Y_A
+
2_°_xRA
= °a@CS]%A
(71)
gives
s integral:
GM@
y [_A 3
GIVI C yl%/X 3
XR
+
YR
+
zR
= VR/x
= 2WC
•. zRA
= 
GM@ZRA 3
GM(_
ZRA 3
van2
=_®242
+ 2GM rCA
an
+ ya2A)
(7
+ r®a 2GM@ (76)
%n
where
rC_
where 2 + z[2 11/2 VI_ A the
is
the
magnitude
of
the
velocity
of
the
vehicle in the Jacobian tative in the
rotating constant. system
coordinate We can information from
system and C is obtain some qualifrom Jacobi' trajectories s integral.
and quantitative earthmoon the constant numerically zRA' the in the velocity rotating for points VRA relative the
r(_± b'or the of earth coordinate axis xRchave motion The vehicle grals sional do along
= particular and moon system the become not
RA

xR(
+ YI_A
+ zRA
(73) orbits and the
When determined xRA' termines points
of
integration from the Yt{A" of
C has been initial conditions, (76)deat and gives vehicle. surfaces of and these on the the In all
force about (rotating
model (circular the barycenter) system line) and explicitly, (Eqs (71)) and require of last four the if it chosen the with
YRA'
ki%A' VRA
Zl_/x'Eq the vehicie system; Eq the (76) space defines side real
the ' x l.._and ,e_
x R
coordinate VRA, to Eq
earthmoon constants, involve of sixth time motion order
conversely, of locus particular, of zero of
a given accessibie = 0 in velocity.
equations
(76) On one
equations are of for the motion
of the space six intethe F;q> re
surfaces other space surface velocity space
velocity
VI_ _
will
be
determination of the vehicle; plane,thenthe and only
threedimenmoves in of are
earthmoon (71) vanishes, quired sional tions tained hicle case and of
equation integrals of
side imaginary; or, in other words, vehicle can move on the real side only. Thus the surfaces of zero indicate the regions of space to vehicle is constrained. of the surfaces point can of xRA, be zero yR/x, obtained
the of this relative which
the
for the motion
determination of the vehicle. of
the twodimenIn general, soluob
the equations by stepbystep initial conditions as well as the moon given,
motion (Eqs (71)) are integration with six vein the threedimensional initial positions of the earth
The velocity denoting letting
equation for" the VRA an
relative zRA by
arbitrary vehicle t£q (76):
space = 0 in
Ili18
®
where {73). enter
2 +yiA ) + 2GM@+ GM([ C 2 _ = C(x aa r@_ rC _77)
cCA only Eq the are given by Eqs (72) and and zl% A squares the of YI<A
the and cluded of
contour when from C
also
begins only of a
to
open portions
behind of are and to to a
the the the
earth plane ex
= C 7 the motion
vehicle above further shrink
interiors the of points, the is
2 kidneyshaped As regions
regions C decreases of an No exclusion equilateral region
below value two with
r@Aand Since into
xRaxis. C8, the
(77), with
surfaces to the
defined x R YR
are and xR
each earth excluded
completing and moon. if
triangle of the
symmetricaI :Rplanes. surfaces trace that in (Eq the
respect the the
x R yRpiane
We
obtain witit
intersection xR, by YRplane zRA
of the or the
C < C 8" at C 4 and which which the contours together called corresponding with double of zero traces and the points. relaof
(77))
x RyRplane
letting
= 0 in to 2
The C
points
equation:
= C 2, for
C 6 coalesce C = C 8 are for (77)) the and
points
_ _:_,C( x 2 RA
+ YRA 2
)
From the equation tive velocity (Eq these surfaces such points to as are in
surfaces from
the
the
x R Y[{' 2, it can
xRzl% be seen
YI% zl{that [tence all the it
2GM@ + [(xl%A  XFto) 2 +yI%A 2] I/2 (78)
planes double it
Fig. in
the
x RyRplane. the trace in tile
sufficient
consider
x R YRof the interest
+
2GM(_ 1/2
=C
plane, Eq (78), for double points. These as critical points of
the determination double points the curves:
are
of
2 The curves (Eq and from in the
2
2
(78))
ttmm moon'
are
shown,
not
to
scale,
in de
(_, Y) : _®c(xa_
+ Ya_)
2GM O
Fig. 2, of motion duced. The the ditions move order
the general characteristics s orbitai plane can be
+
values CI>
of
C in
Fig. ....
2 are For
numerically initial the vehicle the it If the earth con
in 2GM_ can or a The condition of zero, for Eq i.e. a critical with point respect is that to the XRA first and can + [( xRA  x t<_) 2 +YRA 2] 1/2 C = 0 (7!,)
C 2>
C 3> to
corresponding either of in a closed
C = C 1, region the the
about moon; moon.
in a dosed satellite conditions move moon moon earth earth For tirely gion the :noon
region about the earth or correspond to
remains the initial vehicle the earth
C = C 3,
derivatives YRA be
(78)
within
a closed
contour
around
system such that motion from is possible. The limiting case or moon orbits from earthmoon trajectories the value C is = C 5, earthmoon vehicle value C represented the vehicle system motion is = C4 separates by can
earth to separating or moonC C 2. escape enreearth
2
GM@(xRA

xR(_))
from the of possibie moon. or The moonearth
since the open behind the
 x,<)
3/2 = 0 (80) 2 c°@cY GM@yRA RA 3/2
trajectories
from
possible
escape trajectories from the earthmoon system. Besides these inner bounds of vehicle motion there are, for the same C values, ciosed outer boundaries around the earthmoon system beyond which motion is also possible. A vehicle coming from the very earth far or of away moon the inner C with any C> closer C 4 cannot than of the Fig. of For approach outer 2. the When curve
boundary C of = C 4 the zero
= C 4 contour and outer
GM C YRA [(xit A be  xR_)2 that motion written: +YRA2] Eqs (Eqs (80) (71)) 3/2 are
= 0
branches coalesce.
relative
velocity
C :
C4
a It to and the should equations can be noted of identical with ZRA =0,
vehicle starting near the earth cape from the system and one remote point can reach either creases to Cand beyond, the a contour behind the moon widens.
or moon can esstarting from a body. As C deopening in the When C = C 6
which
Illif)
M_
XRA• o
in 2_@(_yRA = ]_ 'OxRA '
LU,
and
where
v
=
_
= 0.01214226.
(s I)
•
2 _@(_xRA at the critical
1
1 2
Since terms of
xR( _ distances
= (1

v)
LU, the
the
double
points are:
in
8F
(XRA, _yRA
yi along xRaxis
YRA
Since
points
xRi
= 0. 83741
I_U
8F
OF
0
XRM
= 1.15524
LU
_a_
and locity VRA we obtain
..
 0, Wa _
XRe = 1.00506 LU system value MKS units we are on a surface of zero relative veFor this force model of the earthmoon (see Chapter IV, Section B), a consistent is 1 LU = 384, 747.2 kin. Hence, in XRi = 322,190 km
since
• 2 = [xRA from Eqs
°°
"2 +yRZ_] (81)
1/2
:_ 0
XRA Hence critical it will disturbed system. The and line
= 0, the
yRA coordinates
= 0. of the vehicle at the
XRM
= 444,480
km
points remain by We
satisfy at the forces proceed equation points to the
the differential equations and critical point unless it. is from outside of the dynamical to obtain the critical points. of on Eq the (80) is satisfied or the by: by YRA = 0
XRe
= 386,690
km = o,
Substituting C 2, C 4 and
these (I6 can
values be
into Eq
(78) with values
y RA are:
second the double
found. km (__)
These 2
x R axis are given
straight C 2 = 3.34367
solutions
problem
2
GMo(xRA

XR_)
C 4
= 3. 322621
(km) __
2
C 6
= 3. 15895
(km) _se_
2
(82)
GM_ (xR/, ' xR(_) 0 From C 8 are Eq (80), to the be double equidistant points corresponding from triangle the earth with to and these found
moon, and form an equilateral two and with coordinates If, that and lunar double Let by C4 (gef. the XRi, and 8, as the the in Ref. 8, the units are normalized the earth such XRS or YRS = +333,201 km = 187,702 km
sum M = MG+ distance between
M(_is the
unit of mass and moon
unit (LU) is the unit points can be given double XRM C6, points and XRe on the
of length, then in a convenient xRaxis correspond Then for v, the by from M(_small three be
the form. denoted The value is:
of
C 8 from
this
equilateral
triangle
solu
which
to Moulton
C2,
tion
respectively• 292293), small
pages
compared straight them the 2/3 " 1 line as These
C8
= 3.13365
(km
to M@and solutions
hence can
\sec/
_ 2
be obtained
expressing
I/3
power series coefficients. in v The and result i/3 determining is:
values
of
C2,
C4,
C 6
and
C 8 can
be
made
xRixR =(;)
1/3
3 (;)
2/3
1
+..
more meaningful if the velocity of a vehicle the earth is calculated using these values. the calculations, the positions of the vehicle be chosen as 100 km and 1000 km from the of the to earth on the xRaxis both adjacent radius coordinates and of
near For will surface oppothe
x MxRe  XR_
: (;)
 2 .23
+
1
v

1
site earth are:
the moon. If the equatorial (6,378.2 kin) is used, these
(71 . , . 2 v 3+ 124
(83)
xA
1
= 1, ou6.5
km
Case
I:
100 km surface adjacent
above of earth to moon
III20
xA2 =2,706.5km Case II: I000 kmabove surfaceof earth adjacent moon to III: i00kmabove x±3 =ii, 149.9kmCase surfaceof earth opposite moon to xA4 12,049.9km Case IV: surfaceof earth i000kln above opposite moon to Thefollowing sketch shows theposition the of five double points. YR
1LU• (xRS, YRS )
VRA. lowers m/see, jection sensitive The responding ing to
A change the values
in of
altitude the
from critical
100 VRA
to
1000 709
krn
' s by required is quite
indicating velocity to the table to C6; also
that for lunar injection reveals
the
minimum trajectories altitude. that than easier the
in
velocities those to
cor
C 4 are
lower it is
correspondescape from the moon.
therefore, the it is by qualitative C = C 4, of of
the vicinity moon than The large C C = C 2 and
earth by projecting toward projecting away from the difference between the as Fig. well 2, of as should in the C be = C6
and
= C 8 contours
compared
with the small indicating the initial velocities.
differences sensitivity
projection velocities, lunar trajectories to
The sured tem and in
velocities the are rotating defined
VI_ A
given
in R
table coordinate
are
measys
xt%YRZ as
XReq 1LU
•
XRi=
5', ILU
• xRm
x R VRA
2=_:
RA
2
+ YRA
2+.
ZRA
2
(84)
while given • (xRS, 1LUYRS ) system
velocities in the defined 2
in
lunar
trajectories XeYeZe
are coordinate
usually
earthcentered as . 2+ = XeA . YeA 2
Ve± The ponents The integral velocities to be: I C 2 = 3.34367 10942.2 II 10233.3 III 10942,2 IV 10233.2 are then found from Jacobi' s
+
ZeA
2
(85) velocity com
transformation is
between
the
C 4
= 3.32621
10943.4
10234.6
10943.4
10234.6 where iT (_+ (84) the of in to the each =o_t)l to (86) of . is show the Since table value of the values double of given that vehicle, the is by V e_ as magnitude independent VRA, of VeA. there Eq (47). depends well as of of on the each di
C6
= 3.15895
10951.1
10242.8
10951.1
10242.8 Equations
C 8
= 3.13365
10952.3
10244.1
10952.3
10244.1
VRA, direction
position VR±
The
magnitude
of
VR&
is
the
same
regardless VRA rection correspond c. Stability previous such wouId
of direction although it is seen to vary from point to point (Cases I to IV correspond to different points). From Eq (76), Fig. 2 and the preceding sketch, it follows that on a circle with small radius about the earth, the velocity is relatively insensitive to position on the circle. This is also evident from the table by comparing Cases I and II (altitude i00 kin, radius 6478.2 km with positions adjacent and opposite to the moon) where the difference is too smallto detect. According to Egorov at an altitude of 200 km (radius 6578.2 km), the variations in VRA are of order less than IV 0.01 m/see
a range of
points
and by comparing radius 7378.2 km site to the moon), 0. I m/see. The earth has a very
Cases II and with positions the variations radius of the pronounced
(altitude i000 km, adjacent and oppoare of order circle around the on the required
The five double points given here are special soIutions of the equations of motion and are analogous to the special solutfons of the threebody problem (see Section BI). The question of stability of these five points is of importance; i. e. , will the vehicle stay near the point if given a small displacement and velocity (stable solution) or will it rapidly depart from that point (unstable solution)? These smalldisplacements and velocities forces neglected may in be regarded the present as due model, to small which
effect
IIl21
means thatthe space vehiclewill actuallyremain neat'thestabledouble pointsbutdepartrapidly fromtile unstable ones. It canbeshown (Ref.8, pp299to 305andRef. 11,pp725to 728)that the straightlinesolutions unstable, hilethe are w equilateral trianglesolutions stable. are Equilateralrianglesolutions t have been observed in the solar system. With the Sun and Jupiter considered as the massive bodies, asteroids have been discovered at approximately the. equilateral point and with a mean angular' velocity equal to that of Jupiter (Ref. 12; p 243). Buchheim (bid. 11) has proposed to establish satellites at the equilateral triangle points of the earthmoon system which could serve as space buoys. It has been suggested by Moullon (l{ef. 8) that the phenomenon of gegenschcin, a hazy patch of light opposite to the sun, is caused by meteors t(_mporarily trapped in unstable periodic orbits around the straightline point opposite to the sun in the sunearth system.
a brief
discussion
of
lunar'
librations
and
to
an
approach for determining librations in a digital computer trajectory program which has stored positional data of the moon in geocentric equatorial coordinates. 1. Lunar Theory
Lunar theory in celestial mechanics is generally understood to bc the analytical theory of the motion of the moon. The gravitational attraction of the earth and sun, and the earth's and lunar aspherieity, as well as gravitational attractions tion of employed at present ttansen, of the the moon planets as they aJ'e considered. affect The the momethods
in various lunar three methods, and ttillBrown, A detailed theories 13 can of
theories differ, but those of Delaunay, are referred to most of these in Ref. and 13. 2.
frequently. other lunar" The here
discussion be found
brief discussion follows Refs.
lunar and 14,
theories as welt
given as Ref.
The discussion of lunar theory, of astronomy the spherical traction of the
is restricted to the "main problem" which is the threebody problem as applied to finding the motion of moon under spherical lunar the earth theory gravitational and sun. at
C. The space
MOTION
OF
TIIE its
MOON orientation in lunar in flight:
position of the are of paramount
moon and importance
a. Choose coordinate mass of and be tion nate of The pare the axes M@ of
Delaunay's
the position is important in determining the required injection conditions, as well as the exact value of the gravitational force of the moon on the vehicle during flight, and the position together with the particular orientation of the moon arc important for landings at specified lunar sites. For these reasons, the orbit of the moon assumed in the discussion of the body problems sion trajectories, forces in that nomical It has moon' sidereal threebody and restricted is not accurate enough and a consideration modei and a comparison threefor preciof neglected with astrothe
an inertial righthanded Caztesian system with origin at the center the dynamical system earth, moon, x' 0y'0 with z0 Let x0@ with giwm mass of Eqs 56 motion and 57): mass
t
of sun
the Y0_t_
mass z0_]_" in
i
of
the The
earth posi
position moon is with
the
M(_
this
i
eoordiand z0@ (comthat
system sun equations with
by
x0_,
Y0_' x0@, the moon
z0_ Y0@' are
M@by of
observations of the moon is necessary. been observed that the mean period of s rotation about its axis is equal to its period of revolution around the earth.
Because of this fact and since lunar vehicles originate and are observed from earth, it is advantageous to define the orientation of the moon with respect to earth. The moon rotates at a very nearly constant rate about its axis while its orbital angular velocity varies slightly due to the eccentricity of the lunar orbit. Thus, during different orbital positions of the moon, some areas on either side of the moon become visible. Similarly, the rotational axis of the moon is inclined by about 6.7 ° to the normal of the moon' s orbital plane and areas beyond the north and south poles of ttw moon become visible from earth at various times. These apparent sidetoside moon which occur tical librations. tractions of the ellipsoidal figure of the rotational and tilting movements periodically, are known In addition, the gravitational sun and of the axis of of as the opat
x°c  MC _0 •., 1 01L
•., yoc _, _ 1 MC 1 01J b_oc OU
1 k ,1 .[ (87)
0C
where
MC
0C
J
+
GM(_ M@
U 
GM@M_ r0,
+
_
GM@M@ r0,
(88)
®
C
® _0
r°'¢
_@
planets on the triaxially moon cause a slight wobble the moon which is called
is the gravitational potential which is the negative of the tiai energy of the dynamical Since (Eq (87)) cessive solutions In r0, r0, @ the __(_ the threebody cannot be solved approximations in analytical moon, small M@is
(work function) gravitational potensystem.
__h,ysieal libration. At any given time, lunar librations are determined by the moon's precise orbital motion, its rotational rate, and dynamical effects of its asymmetrical figure. first part briefly the methods tion of the moon, puted and observed lunar ephemerides. The of this section discusses very used for computing the posithe comparison between compositions, and the tabulated The latter part is devoted to
equations of motion in closed form, sucmust be used to obtain
form. sun configuration
or
earth, is
compared large
to
r0,(_
_@ to
C _ @ while
compared
III22
Mq:_+ M(_, and
proximates very well. coordinates
the
earthmoon
barycenter
apM@M C (M@+M(_)M@
unperturbed motion around the sun It is, therefore, helpful to introduce of the moon relative to the earth,
! !
U=G[?_
M@M
+
C M@
re@
2 r@(_ P2 (cos S)
x@< = Xo<  Xo@
YOC = Y0<
I
+
(89)
M@+M
C
3_ r@@
3 r[@__C P3 ro MoM C + M_ @ ) (cos S) (92)
 Y0@
I
M@M
C Mo(M@M_) M(_) 2 +
z@c = z0c  z0@,
and moon coordinates barycenter,
I
+ (M@ relative to the earth+ M@M
of
the
sun
cM@(M_)
(M@ + M<) 3
, xo _ = Xo@
M@x0@+M M@
I
C x0¢ + M(_ _<_P4
I
r @Q
(cos
S)+
• . •1
M@ Y0 @ = Y;@ 
YO_ M@
+ MC + M(_
YO_[ (90)
I Zlt) q /0
I
M®z_® M®+
+ M< z0® MC
the x@_, axes but, need not for agreez@c
_0 G = z00The precise specified for with previous
be ment
orientation of this discussion, notation,
/!
r_ O of I/
Y@C'
are equatorial to the mean the necessary motion (Eq
coordinates equator and transformations, (87))become M@ + M C C M C M<
of the equinox.
moon referred After making the equations
3U x_< OU 8Y@c
I/ I/
k@C
=
M@M M@+
(91)
Y@C
M@
M(_
+ M<
@_
K
M@M C
to express Let r 2 OC
a @C
U in terms 2 + Y@C of the new be
oU z
(91))
The equations can now be
of motion written in
of the
the moon form
(Eq
It remains coordinates. the
•. x_<
+
G(M@+Mc) 3
x@<
3R = )N
2 = x@c
2 + z@(_ earth the sun
square of the distance 2 2 2 moon, r@@ = x0@ +y0@ distance from the
from the 2 + z0@be earth to the
to the _)OC +
G(M @_M¢)
r 3 Y@C
OR
= 8y@£
square with
(93)
of the
®<
., z@<
where, Legendre if we
components in the respective coordinate systems (the earthmoon barycenter is very close to the earth), and S the angle at earth between the earthmoon and earthsun lines (see following sketch). 1 r0,@_ C, pressed polynomials the gravitational in Then, as in Ref. 14, page 270, 1 t r0, @ ,@ andr0, C __@ eanbeexterms of cos of S, potential: r@C, Pn r@@and (cos S), Legendre toyield for R
G (M_)+ + 3 r_<
substitute
M(_ ) z@<
the
OR : _®<
for the
expressions
polynomials,
= G M@[{r@c_
2
(94)
IIl23
4 /_  T 15 COS 2 S (94)
for the constants
intermediate of the
orbit motion.
of the In actual
moon which motion R
are ¢ 0
 _ cos
+
. .
.
and the orbital elements vary with time for the true orbit. The requirement of the method is that the coordinates and velocity components expressed in terms of the elements and time have the same form for the intermediate (R = 0) and the true (R ¢ 0) orbit. For the actual motion, one can obtain six firstorder differential equations (called wtriation of parameter equations) which give the timevariation of the elements and are fully equivalent to the equations of motion (Eq (93)). The procedure calls for integration of the variation of the orbital elements pressed as sums the coordinates may be obtained nate transformation. Delaunay the system canonical parameter equations as functions of time to obtain and ex
G(M@+Mc)M(9
In this has y@,_ The expression omitted z O_ second " term on the lefthand side of the for since R the term %_[_ r@o of x 0_"
been and
it is independent
of trigonometric series. Finally as well as velocity components as functions of time by a coordi
equations of motion tational attraction R is the disturbing due to the gravitational the earth. If R z first approximation ellipse. The by using earthmoon
(Eq (93)) is due to the graviof the moon by the earth, and function which in this case is attraction of the sun by 0 the intermediate orbit, or to the path of the moon, is an
chooses of differential form:
a
set
of elements equations
so takes
that the
dL R may be modified law for the motion further of the
OF
d_
v OF
expression for Kepler's third barycenter,
ai : ae "_ : _E
da
2 3 (95) dH M C) = noa@,
OF dg_
8F dh
£"
8F
(97)
G(M
0
+ M O+
_i = Fff"_where n@ and a O are the sun's mean motion and These canonical are, in terms in section A3. of elements and or Delaunay variables elliptic eIements given semimajor axis, respectively. If we ignore the mass of the earth and moon compared to that of the sun, and that of the moon with respect to the earth, then we obtain after some manipulations: 2 3
the
L
= (_a)
1
/2 /2
R
=noa_
\a(_ 3
/ 4
(__+_i
3 cos2S)
G = (ua) 1 H : (.a)
h =[2
(1
e2)
1/2
1/2
(1
e2)
1/2
cos
i (98)
(96) 2 4 5
+
(

T
+
cos
S
_0
: A ndt time
+
,
the
mean
anomaly
at
any
835 cos4S)
+ ......
]
= R1
+ R2
+ R3
and 2
In earth
Delaunay' around
s lunar the sun is
theory a fixed
the orbit ellipse
of in
the a fixed is the
+ 2 L2
R
(99)
plane. The expression (Eq (96)) for R can now be expanded in terms of elliptic elements of the moon's and sun's orbits. Delaunay's series for R consists of one constant and 320 periodic terms (Ref. 13). The method of known as variation variation of of elements parameters, and variation also of of the case and
Hamiltonian variation be solved of in
of
the
system. equations just (Eq one (97)) cannot
The cannot
parameter closed
form,
as
solve in closed the threebody procedure has the disturbing
form the problem, to be used. function 1 2 . l_m'
equations of motion of and some approximation The coefficients of R are e@ expanded a and in power not ex
arbitrary constants, is used lunar equations of motion. R = 0. Then the instantaneous velocity mination components of a unique of the set of
in the solution Consider the coordinates moon allow six orbital
series plicitly
in e(_,
sin
the deterelements
in canonical
elements),
_(and <27 while the
general
III24
argument ferring anomaly powers series.
is a function to the moon's of the of n__ sun appear
of the angles h, g, ! reorbit, and the mean the of the integration, power
d_ H{=
(1 F na 2
e2) e aR
1/2
8R _Ye
cot na 2 (1
i 1/2  e 2)
_R _{
IC)' During as part
nC
da
_imethod consists de
= h& _F_o
1/2 1e 2 e aR (1 e 2) e _R
The principle of Delaunay's of introducing a force function 2 = P + P1 +Q1 cos0,
Hi =T na
(100) dl0 2
9_0
_m_
a7
8R
I  e2
aR
_Y=
where P1 denotes of R, term the and nonperiodic cos from terms in the These IV of In need expansion periodic QI 0 is one the single of R.
 n_
equations Ref. 3.
_£
 2na
have
e been
_derived in Chapter
"
(continue
(101)
d )
selected
expansion
Delaunay then integrated the canonical equations by using _ instead of F by applying a canonical transformation to new canonical variables L', G', H', _', to _ g' and and h' This Ql transformation cos @ has disapis
Hansen's method, not be fixed, and
the
the plane of fixed plane
the of
sun refer
applied
the term
peared from R. Delaunay canonical transformations
used a succession of (or contact transfor
ence may be chosen as the ecliptic of a given date or any other plane inclined at a small angle to the ecliptic. However, the motion of the sun must be known. Consider instantaneous orbit in the orbit and constant nz the _3 a where elements = G (M(_% first the motion of the moon in its orbit plane. Define an intermediate plane of the moon's instantaneous at n, theorigin. a, e and with Let mean units of orbit its perigee it have anomaly time. satisfy have a Let
" 2
mations) until the coefficients of the periodic series became sufficiently small to be neglected. By use of this method Delaunay has obtained a literal solution to the main problem of lunar theory which was presented in two volumes. His results may be readily extended to include other effects on the motion of the moon (Ref. 13). The utilization of systems of differential
one focus elements z is
a variable of the
intermediate let
n
+ IV[(( ) and
equations in canonical form has the advantage that general rules can be established governing transformations from one set of variables to another, which is helpful if one large number of transformations drawback to Delaunay' s method vergence of the coefficients of the parameters in moon. is considers the required. One is the slow con
forward motion where y is an the attraction
_y in the plane of the orbit unknown constant depending on of the moon. Impose the addion the intermediate radius r lies on If the true put (102) of the lunar radius and lunar orbits. beThe
nO
powers of n(_ 0. 00748 in the case terms of the other factory. b. Ilansen's lunar theory the motion of the moon in Convergence generally in satis
tional condition that the _oint orbit with true anomaly f and the actual radius to the moon. radius to the moon is r, then r where tween =r (1 + k),
k is the fraction the intermediate
Hansen
considers
motion of the moon in the instantaneous plane of the orbit can be given as soon as z and k are determined in terms of time and the introduced constants. In tb_e determination of k and z a
its instantaneous orbit variation of parameters For the orbital elements
plane and starts with the differential equations. 12, i, w, a, e and I0
these equations, which are equivalent to Delaunay' s canonical equations (Eq (97)) (Refs. 3 and 14), become d_/ _= na 2 (1 1  e2) 1/2 sin i 8R h
single function W of the variable elements is used. Hence, in Hansen's method, the angular perturbations in the plane of the orbit are added to the mean anomaly of the intermediate orbit and the radial perturbations are expressed by the ratio of the true and intermediate radius vectors. Next the differential equations for the latitude of the moon above the fixed reference plane are obtained by considering the motion of the instantaneous orbit plane.
_F
di _i= na 2
cot
i 1/2
_R
(1  e2)
(1oi)
The motion of the instantaneous orbit plane is independent of the motion of the moon in that plane. Finally, by a transformation of coordinates it can be shown that some very small corrections have to be added to the true orbital longitude in the instantaneous orbit in order to
1 na 2 (1  e2) 1/2 sin i
8R
11125
obtain thetrue orbitallongitude _ +f) re(i_+ ferredto a fixeddirectionin a fixedreference plane. Thedifferentialequationsre solved a by successivepproximations, a withtileexpansion of'R in termsof elliptic elements andtime being nowsomewhat differentfromthe formused by
Delaunay The powers since slow the sun's orbit of the is not fixed. in convergence been coefficients bv all startin_
The results of Section Cla carry over directly since the orientation of the axes was not specified rigorously" in this development. With the other assumptions the equations of motion (Eq (93)) become, by use of Eq (96) and a change in notation,
G(M@
+ M(_
)
OR 1
cC +
of" n@_ has overcome values of as obtained improve, have to be
3
Z' E_
x_C
+ M(_) Y_(_
=
(103) aR 1 = axcc
nC
with assumed numerical entering into the theory vation. If the observations changes in these values parameters from obserthen small taken into lunar of the theory lunar where G(M 5;_ C + 0 _.3
account. Tables based on Hansen's were introduced into the calculation ephemeris in 1862 (Ref. 14). c. Both consider plane, ttillBrown Delaunay' the or the motion plane lunar s and theory Hansen' moon at each s in
R 1 2 lunar" the instant theories osculating contains
=
n@r@(_ 2 2
g+_
cos2S (104)
r cC = x_c +YEc
Introduce rotating xRaxis The a with is equations coordinate angular ahvays of in motion system system velocity the direction of the moon x R YR n@ so of ZR that the become with Eqs the sun.
of the which
the origin of coordinates, the radius, vectors of the moon. The method of parameters is then used to obtain the
anti velocity variation of motion of on the referred velocity in
the moon. The HillBrown lunar theory, other hand, uses rectangular coordinates to axes moving with the constant angular of the sun's mean motion, n@. Advantages
in this coordinate (74) and (75)):
(compare
using rectangular coordinates are: the development of R in terms of elliptic elements is unnecessary, and the perturbations are obtained a form more immediately suitable for ephemeris calculations (Ref. 14). The perturbations ing simplifications theory begins that with depend in disturbing (see neglected Eq the the on expansion of the those
in
XR( _ ..

2 n ._>13}H'< .
= _x_ _W
(105)
J
, w ith G(M@+ W = r _ M_r) I 2
OW
nO n((
with
follow
original function (96)) in the
equations: R is which series given means expanby that
2
2
gnO(XR_+YR_)+R1 (106)
(i)
The
R 1 only
aC aO

is
Introduction pression G(M@
W =
of (Eq
r_/_
cos for 3 + g n
S = xt:l,(_ R 1 permits 2 @ x 2 R_'
into us
the to
exwrite
sion.
(104)) + M,_)
(2)
The plane
moon of sun's the
is
assumed ecliptic
to (icm
move = 0).
in
tile
r
(107)
(3)
The
orbit is
about circular
the (e@
earthmoon = 0, a@, =
and ..
Xu_
yields
for
the
equations
of
motion:
baryeenter
r@G)The remaining differential equations thus give all

2 nO._RC
+
G (M q:)+ M (_) ....
r
xI_
no
terms depending on e C on may n_and e(_ , and the terms depending a particular Choose origin at A1 the and ecliptic. an the the x be eliminated of those coordinate the earth axes in (2) by obtaining
2 3n_xR_,Q).
2 = 0
(1o8)
solution ecliptic center
equations. YRC +2noxlU system with as in Section the fixed plane zc_ :_ of 0. onn C To obtain only,
•
_ +
G (M ®+ M C)
3
r
yR_
= 0
of
_C
to the Eq initial (108) that conditions depends
(_ , Ye(_ By
a
solution
assumption
above
n O
consider
III26
XRC(t=t0)=c1
YRC (t =t o) = 0 ;=Rcit=t o)= 0 YRC it =t o) = c 2
that is, t = t0. Poincare' (Eq 1109)) a periodic has shown that the initial conditions coordinate system the moon is in conjunction with the sun at
motion
of
the
moon
for
the
main
problem and secondly due to the attraction
of of of
(109)
lunar theory as outlined above the perturbations of this solution direct and indirect gravitational
the planets, the shape of the earth and triaxiality of the moon. The obtained coordinates of the moon are expressed as explicit functions of time. Thirdly, Brown (Ref. 15) computed rabies deriving coefficients of all periodic terms to an accuracy of the order' of 0". 001 in true orbital longitude (52 + . + f), celestial latitude q)E' and 0".0001 in sine parallax (Ref. 6 n@)n_, 16) by
yield in the rotating solution of the form  n@)
keepingterms
°fthe
°rder
(
ec'6
Co'4
x Re
= A 0 cos
(n_
(tt O ) + A 1 cos
3 R for
g
1E m' the main
a_ problem
in
the in the
disturbing lunar used from obtain
function theory. for the cal1923 to the position
(n(_
n@)
(t
t 0)
+ A 2 cos
5 (n¢
n@) Brown' s tables culation of lunar 1959. However, >{110) have been ephemerides in order to
(t  t 0)
+ . . .
YR(_
= B0
sin
(n(z
n
O ) (tt
0 ) + B 1 sin
3
(n(_
n
O ) (tt
O ) + B 2 sin
5 (n¢
n@)
it  t o) + . . .
J
of the moon to the desirg.d precision of 0 s. 001 in right ascension and 0 . 01 in declination, the lunar ephemeris since 1960 is based on values of true orbital longitude, celestial latitude and horizontal parallax calculated directly from the trigonometric series obtained from the tlillBrown theory, not Brown's tables. It has been shown in Ref. 16, pages 364 through 417, that there exist discrepancies in the calculation of the the moon's tables positiorr from which amount t5 in to the theory an amplitude and from of 01
where
A. I and
B i,
i
= 0, is
i,
2,
. . . are
constants. intermediate The interthe coefficircumin
This periodic solution orbit in the HillBrown mediate orbit allows cients vents the in with the expansion Delaunay' The lunar any slow accuracy
taken as the lunar theory. one to determine in
approximately tude, 0". in sine
0". 1 in lunar lunar celestial
true orbital longilatitude and 0".
nO
n(_' of the
n
parallax.
which
convergence of R in powers theory solving of the
coefficients
At present the position of the moon for ephemeris calcuIations is expressed in the form of a trigonometric series as given in explanation in Brown's argument is a linear secular and periodic netary attractions. series is a constant lunar theory additions due
the
of (Ref.
@ encountered
nc
s lunar
13). problem the interA i, B i in
of
first step for theory consists orbit, i.e.,
the main determining
tables (Ref. 15). Each function of time with small additions due to the plaEach coefficient of the for the main problem of and periodic of the planets. of lunar expression argu
mediate
coefficients
with small secular to the attractions
nO
Eq ill0) in terms of the parameter a numerical Next the equations in R whose m = n(_ for which Hill adopted m = 0. 080848933808312. solution of the differential obtained, pend on m i.e., and terms e_ e@ R whose are = 0, value general (Eq coefficients Then is lifted on is coefficients well a m, 1 O as m and the and m and of (108)) is den o
Consider only the main theory. Each argument in is in turn a function of four ments "_'," = (_  p, mean
problem the series fundamental
anomaly
of
the
considered. a O = re@
J
©'
go
L
F,
mean
anomaly of
of lunar of the
the perigee) moon of the
I
simplification terms e@ by pend are in
F
coefficients This terms in sing e C,
depend procedure R whose 1
=C  t/, argument plus mean anomaly = (2  L, mean moon from
considered.
continued deand (111 *The notation with one adopted the used in Her. 1 has notation tables been used D elongation the sun
!
/
 J
considering on m, a_; of
m, co, thereof.
. • as 1 m, 1 sing . 1
combinations higher powers
the
The tlillBrown development
of
lunar theory a solution to
consists first the equations
of of
here, as the
astronornical in Bro,.vnVs
as well indicated.
III27
<
(L)
=_
+_ + _ is the moon, measured the mean equinox ascending node,
mean longitude in the ecliptic of date to the then along the
of the from mean orbit
L (L')
= _°O + _ O (g@) is the of the sun, measured equinox of date mean from longitude the mean
The independent variable is time counted from the epoch 1900, January 0.5 ET (Greenwich mean noon) which corresponds to the Julian Date 2415020.0. The position of the moon is usually given in spherical coordinates , i.e., true orbital longitude (f2 + c_ + f), celestial latitude is a dO , e measure and of hSrizontal _<). Its parallax position in _(_ (which
geocentric
(_)
= the mean measured date along ascending = the mean measured
longitude of lunar perigee, from the mean equinox of the ecliptic to the mean node, then along the orbit longitude from the of solar perigee mean equinox
rectangular, can then The calculation periodic together mental
be
or any obtained
other coordinate system by suitable transformations.
of
date
f_
trigonometric series as used for the of the lunar posittoncontains 1629 terms which are tabulated in 1Ref. 16, with 50 additive terms to the fundaarguments. terms are very small ones, all due to the sun, have sizable known terms are: perturbation in the with a coefficient +39' mean synodic
= the longitude of node of the lunar measured from date
the mean orbit on the mean
ascending the ecliptic equinox of
The series
arguments of can be expressed
each in
periodic the form
term
of
the
Most of these periodic but some of the principal disturbing effects of the coefficients. The better The variation is a periodic moonls mean longitude< 29". 9 and a period to of
onehalf
Pl _ where
+P2
go
+p3
F
+p4
D
(112)
month mately periodic
(new moon 14.8 days. perturbation
new moon), or approxiEvection is the largest in < due to periodic
Pi
= 0,±I,
+2,
+3 .... taken terms for each is a linear the argu
If the attractions of the planets are into account, then secular and periodic are added to the solar arguments and planet a new argument appears which function earth ments. of and time. moon are Effects included of the in
variations in the osculating eccentricity and longitude of perigee _ of the moon's orbit. Its coefficient is +1 ° 161 26".4 and the period approximately 31.8 days. This term was known to Hipparchus from observations of the moon. The annual equation is another perturbation in <with coefficient 11' 8". 9 and period of an anomalistic year (the time between successive solar perigees in the orbit of the sun as seen from earth) of approximately 365.3 days. This perturbation is due primarily to the eccentricity of the earth's orbit around the sun. The parallactic inequality is a secondary perturbation in (_ (t. e., it comes from a term of 1R2) with a
shape of the solar
The coefficients for the position of the lunar and
in the trigonometric of the moon are functions solar orbits:
series of four
e,
e<
= o. 054900489, tricity of the = sin of 1. _I the m
constant of moon' s orbit
the
eccen
coefficient 2' 4". 8 and period of mean month (approximateIy 29.5 days). The perturbation in latitude has a coefficient 23". d. From coordinates This lunar compared corrections to be applied accurately. 7 and a period and of approximately 32.3
synodic principal of +10' days.
y
= 0.044886967, of of the the sun'
constant moon' s orbit of sine parallax (113_ s orbit
inclination
Theory lunar of
observation the true of time.
e'
, e_ = eccentricity _v = 3422". 5400,
constant
theory one can obtain the moon as a function by
n©
The obtained introduced coefficient numerical characteristic, form numerical very at of value accurately the beginning the periodic multiplied which can of_, by which can is Each of a the be observation, of the theory. terms consists by the principal be expressed in
position given with observation and coordinate before this
theory must be and usually several transformations have can be made
comparison
factor
ql e< e@
q2 y
q3 a
q4 (114)
The geometric the actual or true times. However, observed directly takes a finite time observer (correction this time the body been (stellar displaced from aberration).
ephemeris is a table giving position of the body at various actual positions cannot be since light emitted by the body to travel from the body to the for light time), and during as well as the observer have their original These two position corrections are
where attraction periodic
qi
= 0,
1,
2,
3 ....
The
gravitational secular e and y.
of the planets terms in the
introduces parameters
known as planetary aberration, to the observed or apparent they yield its true position. apparent position of the body
and if applied position of the body, A table giving the as a function of time
O'
I1128
is known as an apparent ephemeris. Ephemerides of the sun, the principal planets, and the moon are usually apparent ephemerides. In the case of the moon the entire planetary aberration consists of the correction for light time which amounts to approximately 0". 7 in geocentric mean orbital longitude C with a variation of 0". 05 due to the eccentricity of the moon' s orbit (Ref. 14), and will be neglected in this manual. For observations of the moon from the surface of the earth, such as moonrise and moonset, three additional corrections, the diurnal aberration due to the earth' s rotation which is a part of the stellar aberration, the atmospheric refraction, and a parallax correction, must be applied to reduce the observation to an apparent ephemeris. Formulas for these corrections are given in Ref. 2. Furthermore, the fundamental reference
ascending node on the true equator of the earth its ascending node on the ecliptic of date; f_C' right lunar ascension equator" of the measured
to the
ascending node of the mean from true equinox of date.
Mean lunar
I
_
Ecliptic
i¢
planes in celestial mechanics, the ecliptic and the celestial or earth' s equatorial plane, as well as one of their points of intersection on the • celestial sphere, the vernal equinox, are in constant motion. Hence, the geocentric coordinates of the body vary due to this motion. The secular terms of this motion, which are independent of the positions of the earth and moon, are termed precessional terms. There are also periodic terms in this motion with arguments _ , _Q, The has F, D, f_which are termed nutationalterms.
/
True vernal equinox
e?Ue t°fh
On items
pages 52 to 67, Ref i tabulates for every half day: the apparent
the following true orbital
principal term in nutation depends on f_ and an amplitude of 9".210 and a period of 18.6
longitude apparent of date;
referred to the mean equinox of date; the celestial latitude referred to the ecliptic the horizontal parallax, the semidiameter
years, The tabulated positions of the sun, moon, and
planets in the ephemerides are usually apparent positions, that is, the coordinates of the66d_s an observer at the center of the earth would see them, and referred to a coordinate system defined by the instantaneous equator, ecliptic, and equinox. If the corrections for planetary aberration are applied to apparent positions, tru__._ee positions nutation tained, referred are obtained. are neglected, If the periodic mean positions of the defined effects of are obbody by the
and ephemeris transit (time of crossing of the ephemerides meridian which is I. 002738 A T east of the Greenwich meridian). In Ref. i, pages 68 to 159, the apparent right ascension, the apparent declination referred to true equator and equinox of date, and together with differences for interaberraand 0".01,
polation tion, are
fully corrected to the
for" planetary nearest 0 s.001
tabulated
which are the coordinates to a coordinate system
respectively for each hour of ephemeris time (pages 68 through 159). This accuracy has been recommended for national ephemerides by a resolution of the International Astronomical Union in 1952 and has been introduced into the lunar ephemeris from 1960 on. The phases of the moon and lunar on perigee 159. for physical observations on the apparent coordinates of and apogee have also been tabulated
mean equator, ecliptic and equinox Sometimes the effects of precession for some time in order to provide ence for theoretical calculations.
of date. are removed a fixed referThe selected
page
epoch is usually chosen at the beginning of the year 1950.0 in order that data from various sources can most easily be combined. In l%ef. 1 some positions are referred to the mean
the
The ephemerides moon are based
given above usually
in the fundamental ephemerides and tabulated to a lesser degree to 0.01%
described of accuracy,
equator and equinox at the beginning of the year for which the ephemerides have been published. Transformations between the various reference systems are given in Ref. e. Available lunar ephemerides
new 6.
The age, or number of days since the previous moon, and the fraction of the illuminated sun's selenographic librations, and the bright (UT) limb, of each coorposition
disk, the earth's and dinates, the physical angles for of the axis and Time
tabulated day, are
Oh Universal
The principal is the American
reference Ephemeris
for lunar ephemerides and Nautical Almanac
(Ref. I) which is published annually about two years in advance. On page 51 of Ref. I the following items are tabulated for every tenth day: the values of the fundamental arguments F ', _, C, and D (see the following sketch); i_,
given in Ref. i, pages 310 through 317. The earth's selenographic coordinates are the sum of the optical and physical librations of the moon. They are the coordinates of the point on the lunar surface where the moonearth line intersects it, and are given in the customary selenographic coordinate system described in Section A of _his Chapter. The sun's selenographic coordinates are the coordinates of the point of 2
lhe inclination of the mean equator of the moon to the true equator of the earth; z_ the angle along the mean equator of the moon from its
I[I29
intersection themoonsun withthelunar of line surfaceandaregivenin termsof selenographic latitude(seeSection A2) andcolongitude. he T selenographic colongitude, , 0 o < k, C < 360 _, ).,(_
can be obtained by subtracting longitude, 0° < k < 360 °, from sun,s selenog_aphic colongitude illuminated regions of the lunar the seqenographic 90 ° or 450 °. The determines the surface because
position
of the
moon
can
be determined
with
essentially the Nautical
ephemeris Almanac
accuracy for decades and Office of the United States I for
Naval Observatory is prepared to supply ephemerides outside of the scope of Ref. special purposes. To ner, a future addendurn rectangular coordinates mean 1965 equator through and 1969
aid the lunar mission planwill give the geocentric of the moon referred to years The z_ are
the sun,s selenographic latitude is small I _ CI < 2°: at new moonX,(_: 270 °, at first quarter ).'C z 0 °, at full moon k,_: 90 °, and at last quarter k,_= 180 ° . The terminator is defined as the ortliogonal projection of the great circle bounding the of the moon illuminated on a plane (by the perpendicular sun) hemisphere to the line
equinox of date for the in halfday intervals. x_, y_,
components of lunar position given in units of earth radii. Woolston (Ref. 17) gives for the years 1961 through mission planner: the phases
of sight from the center of the The selenographic colongitude be regarded as the selenographic
earth or EML. of the sun can thus longitude of the
additional lunar data 1971 useful for the of the moon are
terminat°r" The selenographic longitude enin_g terminator differs by 180 ° from that of_morning terminator. The position angle of the axis is the angle between north on the lunar meridian which passes through the apparent central point of the lunar disk and the declination circle through this central point, measured positive eastward from the north point of the disk. The position angle of the bright limb is the angle between north on the same lunar meridian and the moonsun line. Both position angles are analogous to the azimuth of topoc_ntric coordinates. In addition to the selenographic coordinates of the earth, the physical librations in longitude, latitude, and position angle are tabulated separately. For lunar mission planning purposes, of the moon are often needed in advance published ephemerides. In principle, sible to determine lunar ephemerides HillBrown Lunar Theory for all time. positions of the it is posfrom the However,
tabulated to within approximately one minute of time. and graphs giving the declination of the moon with phases indicated as well as its radial distance are presented for a rapid visualization of trajectory and solar illumination data. From the graphs the declination can be obtained to @ithin approximately 0.5 ° and the radial distance to within 600 these graphs 2. Librations km are of for any presented the Moon given in date. Chapter Some XI. of
An important whether they be or landing flights, or its orientation is defined as the with This respect mean
factor in planning lunar circumlunar, reconnaissance, is the libration of the with respect to earth. 'position of the moonearth is Mean Center the fundamental of The the
missions, moon, Libration line point." base following mean
to the Moon,s center point* of
for the sketch
mapping illustrates
lunar features. the orientation
center point are measured
(MCP) and how latitude in the selenographic
and longitude coordinate
rth
Pole
equator
ime
a
or mean apogee.
some
parameters
such
as
orbital
elements
and
the masses of the planets must be supplied by observation, and due to observational inaccuracies, the position computed from theory by use of these observed parameters will differ more and more from the true position at the same time the farther ahead one tries to predict. However, the
*Definition of MCP: The mean center point is the point on the lunar surface where the surface is intersected by the radius of the moon that would be directed toward the earth,s center, were the moon to be at the mean ascending node when the node coincided with either the mean perigee
III30
system. Thelunar equatorial planeis perpendicularo themoon,s t spinaxisandthe magnitudefthemoon' angular elocity_o(_ o v is practicallyconstant. s Selenographic longitudes remeasured a from theMCP(located Sinus in MediiCentral Bay) positivein thedirectiontowardMareCrisium (Sea Crises). Selenographic of latitudes are positivein thehemisphereontaining are c M SerentatisSea Serenity).Alsoin thesketch, ( of thepositivelibrationsin longitude (+I)and latitude(+b) shown theselenographic are in system. These coordinates rethesumof boththe a opticalandphysicallibrationsin longitude and latitude,respectively Therefore astheposition of themoonearth (MEL)changes ith line w respectto theMCPsodoesanyspecificlunar featurevary withrespecttothe MEL.
The causes of lunar librations are essentially twofold: First there are the optical librations which are the result of the dynamical properties of the moon,s orbit about the earth, and secondly, the physical librations which are caused by the motion of_(_in inertial triaxiality in the moon,s space due figure. to the small has
fa'¢
/
Center MEL
of
earth
___w@
to \
MCP
0
_\ \
\ \ Orbital motion
_
MEL
MC
P_
a
constant
rotational
rate
w(_and
rotates the is
through orbital
an angle 0, = (t 1  to) _0 C. Because motion of the moon about the earth
The following sketch is a view of the earthmoon system as seen from a point in the ecliptic plane. Effects of physical librations on I (p < 0. 045 ° ) are ignored for the purpose of this demonstration.
elliptic, the central angle0 # 0% The difference (l,) is called the " optical libration in longitude" with a variation from approximately + 8 ° to  8 ° in a period of approximately 1 lunar month. The of 0.04 much ° ) are smaller the result physical of rigid librations body (order dynamics
I = 1.535°_
_r,
_'___Moon
"r
_
• i I _ Ecliptic _ /
_
i (m
_
I
_
I, [
l. Lunar
equator
_ 5.2°
_ Moon I I
_
Moon's
orbital
plane
(MOP._.!..._ )
The inclination of the mean lunar equator to the ecliptic is denoted by I and is constant (1.535°). Now an observer at the earth,s center would note at (I + i em a more exposed northern hemisphere = 6.7 °) and onehalf month later
and the moon,s characteristics
triaxial cause
characteristics. the direction
of
the
These moon,s
would view a more exposed southern hemisphere (I + i = +6 7°). This apparent oscillation of em the moon is termed the "optical libration in latitude " with a variation from approximately + 7 ° to 7 ° in a period of approximately 1 lunar month. The moon ecliptic. following sketch system when viewed During the illustrates from (t I the above earththe moon
spin axis(_(_) to oscillate in inertial space about a "mean" position. The periods of the physical librations in longitude and latitude are approximately i year and 6 years, respectively. If these minor librations are ignored, an uncertainty of i000 m can arise for any given surface coordinates. Thus it can be seen that for preliminary can be eliminated "landing" mission planning, the physical librations disregarded. However they cannot be from detailed planning, especially for type missions. This becomes more
interval
t o ) the
1I[31
evident vehicles
when considering the fact that landing within this decade will be severely
limited in hovering and translational capability. Furthermore, guidance inaccuracies may demand a large part of this capability. Physical librations can be compensated for prior to leaving earth or at a later time during flight depending on the guidance scheme. From the above discussion, it is seen that the librations are continually changing i___n magnitude. Also, the path traced
data of the ordinates. simulating
moon in geocentric rectangular coThus, the following approach for or determining librations on the com
puter is practical. The object is to obtain librations in longitude and latitude beyoncl published ephemeris data from geocentric equatorial coordinates of the moon using transformations of coordinates in terms of fundamental arguments. First, the reference coordinate Systems are shown in the following sketch. The numerical values in the following equations have been obtained from Ref. I: EML (x_, (earth Y(I ' z_) moon in line) has geocentric components equatorial
by the MEL about the MCP is complex.____This is evidenced in Fig. 3. In this figure the MEL loci are shown for the month of October in the years 1966 and 1967. Note the almost complete change in the trace characteristics and particularly the rapid movement across the moon,s equatorial plane (up to 2°/day). This movement has considerable influence on
coordinates (mean = obliquity 23.462294  0.164 0.0503° of the ecliptic) ° T
the planning of translunar and transearth trajectory orientations. Even during an earth launch time tolerance of 2 hr, a landing site can be displaced from a planned translunar trajectory to the site by 5000 m if librations are not accounted for during on the this time. moon will Aborts markedly occurring influence during a stay the earth
_  0.0130125 ° • 10 5 T 2 + • 105 T 3
(115)
return trajectories as compared flight plan. Thus, the librations both position and time constraints mission.
to the original of the moon add to the lunar
T
denotes
the
time
measured
in Julian
centuries of 36525 ephemeris days from the epoch (1900 Jan 0.5 ET). See Table i for Julian 2000. day numbers for the years 1950 through
Methods given in literature (Refs. 2 and 6) for determining librations can become cumbersome because interplanetary digital trajectory programs do and will most likely use stored positional
Z
O
Center
of
earth
• _
Moon
Mean equinox of date
x_
l II
32
,q (the longitude of the mean ascending node of the lunar orbit on the ecliptic, measured from the mean equinox of date) fl = 259.183275 + 0.002078 d denotes from the The ecliptic °  0.052953922 ° d 3 days (116)
° T 2 + 0.2 ° • 105T of ephemeris
the number epoch.
transformation matrix reference frame is:
giving
EML
in the
(EML)f2
=
I!i! (sl
xf2 _ Icos y_= s f_lcos I lsin
sinf2sine
sinai e cos c _J\z YO G (_/ (i17) Mean lunar equator
_ costilsin I _ Icos
In Ref. 2, optical librations are calculated using Hayn,s value of 1. 535 ° for the inclination (I) of the mean lunar equator to the ecliptic. The ascending node of the mean lunar equator on the ecliptic is at the descending node of the mean lunar orbit (_ ¢ 180°). From the following sketch the _ relative to the mean equatorial plane of the moon can be found.
The symbols f' and b, are the optical librations in longitude and latitude, respectively. The mean longitude of the moon C, is given by the following series from Ref. 1. (_ = 270. 434164 ° + 13. 1763965286 105°T ° d 3 (119)
iF
/
/ / x m'e MEL The
za_
tz.,
a
 0.001133 and is measured equinox of date lunar orbit and meridian rotates orbital libration
° T 2 + 0.19.
in the ecliptic from to the mean ascending then aIong the orbit. at a rate motion in latitude (c0(_) which n_of is the
the mean node of the The prime is equal The to
Center moon
of __
I !
/_ MEL
the
mean
moon. by:
optical
given
b : 900 cosl[Z_' M LI \i _ t
Now 4 = X_quato plane (moonearth transformation line) =  EML is given by: of moon 1 • x (_, f_ YrYiaql '_2 triple fore the vector product @, the angle B is found (MEL by taking x z(_,f2). from x(_, f_ to
(120)
the vector There_, B is
z(_,_x measured
,
or
cos
I _1
(121)
= COS
\I BII
_ _. f_/ sinI cos z Thus, the _' = optical ;  (Clibration in longitude equals: (122)
From the following sketch and the aforementioned definition of the MCP (the condition that the center of the apparent disk of the moon be at the mean center), the librations in longitude and latitude vanish simultaneously when (_= _2 and [_ = 180 o.
f?)  180o •
for the
These librations must be adjusted to account the ,wobble, motion mentioned previously of lunar north pole (_). Because of this
IIt 33
motion, the actual of the lunar equator _? + or. It is well to librations are made
inclination and descending node on the ecliptic are I + O and note here that the physical up of forced and free librations.
Free libration of the moon due to the gyroscopic motion has not been detected with certainty by observation and is neglected. The above equation represents the forced librations due to external torques (sun, earth, planets) on the moon. From the physical by the use the Explanatory Supplement, librations (5_ and $b) of the following formulas: Ref, 2, be found
the years 1965 to 1969 and stored in the interplane tary trajectory program (Ref. 18). A continuous readout of librations can be obtained by curve fitting the positional data of the moon and utilizing the formulas presented in this section.
D.
REFERENCES
1.
can
"American published
Ephemeris annually
by
and Nautical the Nautical
Almanac," Almanac
5f
=
0.003
sin
((_
F,)
 0.005
sin
2
(F'
_2)
Office, United States Naval Washington, D.C. (obtainable of Documents, U.S. Govt. Washington 25, D.C.) 2. "Explanatory nomical Ephemeris Majesty's 3. Supplement Ephemeris and
Observatory, from the Supt. Printing Office,
5b
=
 0.016 sin M+N sin _'
g@+
0.018
5Cb,
I
(123)
to the Astrothe American Her 1961. Company, Md.,
and Nautical Almanac," Stationery Office, London, Handbook," Division, Martin Baltimore,
where
T
"_
the mean perigee, from the the mean orbit, and 334.329556o+ 0.010325
longitude of the lunar measured in the ecliptic mean equinox of date to ascending node of the lunar then along the orbit 0.1114040803Od ° T 2 0.12 ° 104T 3 (124)
"Orbital Flight Space Systems ER 12684, 1963.
4.
Koskela,
P.,
Selenographic Lunar
Coordinates Pro
for the Air Force gram, " Aeronutronic TechnicaI January 5. Baker, 6, R.
Trajectory Systems Interim Publication
I _
I
=
Note 3 ASI 1959. M. L., and
U325_
Makemson, 1960.
M. ,,
W.,
_@
"_
mean
anomaly
of
the
sun 6.
"An Introduction Academic Press, Kalensher, ordinates, Pasadena, February Novak, Digital Space Moulton, lestial 1914. 9. (126)
to Astrodynamics, New York,
l@
=
358. 
47583
+ 0.98560267 ° T 2  0.3 ° •
°d 105T 3 (125) 7.
0.00015
[3. E., " Selenographic ,, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif., Technical Report 24, 1961.
Co3241,
5C M
= =
M
sin
_'
 N  f2)  0.003 ° sin
D., "Simplified Lunar Trajectory Program,., Martin Marietta Corp,, Systems Division, Baltimore, Md. F. 1t., "An Introduction MacMillan, to New CeYork,
0.04 ° sin (F'
(_  _)
N = 0.02°eos(F ,  f_)+O. OO3Ocos
8.
Mechanics,"
(C  a)
FinlayFreundlieh, ics,,. Pergamon V. A., Dynamics, Part 1958. Press,
E.,
"Celestial New York,
Mechan1958. of Index, Moon of
The Eqs
values (115),
of the (119), the are in
fundamental (124) and of and longitude) latitude)
(125)
arguments have
been and
given in calcuThe actual physical
10.
Egorov, Flight
"Certain ', Russian 1, Intern.
Problems Literature Phys.
lated from librations librations
HillBrown the sums longitude in in
lunar theory. the optical latitude, = _' = b'
Satellites, New York, 11. Buchheim, tories," January Also: nology, Chapter 12.
respectively + 6f (127) + 6b purposes, libra
(libration b (libration For a future tions As addendum coordinates equinox components of in reference addendum oneday mentioned will of date
R. W., The Rand 30, 1958.
"Lunar Corp,
Flight Report
TrajecP1268.
and mission will contain intervals. in Section CI
planning the actual
Sei.fert, H. S., ed., "Space Tech', John Wiley and Sons, New York, 7, 1959. It. C., "An Astronomy, York, 1960. "An Theory, 1960. Introductory ,. Dover Treatise Publica
above, to
a
future 13. for
Plummer, on Dynamical tions, New Brown, E. on the Lunar New York,
present the moon in onehalf
the geocentric referred day are
rectangular the mean The radii
W.,
intervals. in earth
Introductory ,, Dover
Treatise Publications,
(x@_,yo_,zo(_)
III34
14. Brouwer,D., andClemenee, M., G. ',Methods f CelestialMechanics," cademic o A Press,New York, 1961. 15. Brown,E. W., ,,Tables oftheMotionofthe Moon, YaleUniversity " Press,NewHaven, Conn.,1919. 16. Anon., "Improved LunarEphemeris 1952 to 1959, Nautical lmanac " A Office,United States NavalObservatory, Washington, 1954. 17. Woolston, . S., ..Declination, D Radial Distance andPhases ftheMoon the o for Years1961 1971 Usein Trajectory to for Considerations," NASA Technical Note D911,Washington, August 961. 1 18. Pines,S., andWolf, H., ,,Interplanetary Trajectoryby Encke Method Programmed for theIBM 704,"Republic Aviation Corp., ReportRAC656450, December 1959. 15,
III '35
TABLE
AND
ILLUSTRATIONS Page
Table
1
Julian Day Numbers 2000 ................................. Selenographic on a Lunar Curves Plane Lunar October
for
the
Years
1950
to
III39
Fig.
1
Coordinate Photograph
System .................... Velocity
Superimposed
III40
Fig.
2
of Zero Relative ................................ Librations During 1967 ..........................
in the
xRY R
III41
Fig.
3
October
1966
and
Ill
42
III  37
TABLE
1
Julian Day Numbers for the Years 19502000 (based on Greenwich Noon)
Year 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1_77 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Jan. 0. 5 243 3282 3647 4012 4378 4743 5108 5473 5839 6204 6569 6934 7300 7665 8030 8395 8761 9126 9491 9856 O222 O587 0952 1317 1683 2048 2413 2778 3144 3509 3874 4239 4605 4970 5335 5700 6066 6431 6796 7161 7527 7892 8257 8622 8988 9353 9718 0O83 O449 0814 1179 1544
Feb. 3313 3678 4043 4409 4774 5139 5504 5870 6235 6600 6965 7331 7696 8061 8426 8792 9157 9522 9887 0253 0618 0983 1348 1714 2079 2444 2809 3175 3540 3905 4270 4636 5001 5366 5731 6097 6462 6827 7192 7558 7923 8288 8653 9019 9384 9749 0114 0480 0845 1210 1575
0.5
Mar. 3341 3706 4072 4437 4802 5167 5533 5898 6263 6628 6994 7359 7724 8089 8455 8820 9185 9550 9916 0281 0646 1011 1377 1742 2107 2472 2838 3203 3568 3933 4299 4664 5029 5394 5760 6125 6490 6855 7221 7586 7951 8316 8682 9047 9412 9777 0143 0508 0873 1238 1604
0.5
Apr. 3372 3737 4103 4468 4833 5198 5564 5929 6294 6659 7025 7390 7750 8120 8486 8851 9216 9581 9947 0312 0677 1042 1408 1773 2138 2503 2869 3234 3599 3964 4330 4695 5060 5425 5791 6156 6521 6886 7252 7617 7982 8347 8713 9078 9443 9808 0174 0539 0904 1269 1635
0.5
May0.5 3402 3767 4133 4498 4863 5228 5594 5959 6324 6689 7055 7420 7785 8150 8516 8881 9246 9611 9977 0342 0707 1072 1438 1803 2168 2533 2899 3264 3629 3994 4360 4725 5090 5455 5821 6186 6551 6916 7282 7647 8012 8377 8743 9108 9473 9838 0204 0569 0934 1299 1665
June0.5 3433 3798 4164 4529 4894 5259 5625 5990 6355 6720 7086 7451 7816 8181 8547 8912 9277 9642 *0008 0373 0738 1103 1469 1834 2199 2564 2930 3295 3660 4025 4391 4756 5121 5486 5852 6217 6582 6947 7313 7678 8043 8408 8774 9139 9504 9869 0235 0600 0965 1330 1696
July0.5 3463 3828 4194 4559 4924 5289 5655 6020 6385 6750 7116 7481 7846 8211 8577 8942 9307 9672 =_0038 0403 0768 1133 1499 1864 2229 2594 2960 3325 3690 4055 4421 4786 5151 5516 5882 6247 6612 6977 7343 7708 8073 8438 8804 9169 9534 9899 0265 0630 0995 1360 1726
Aug. 3494 3859 4225 4590 4955 5320 5686 6051 6416 6781 7147 7512 7877 8242 8608 8973 9338 9703 *0069 0434
0.5
Sept.
0. 5
Oct. 3555 3920 4286 4651 5016 5381 5747 6112 6477 6842
0.5
Nov. 3586 3951 4317 4682 5047 5412 5778 6143 6508 6873 7239 7604 7969 8334 8700 9065 9430 9795 .0161 0526
0.5
Dec. 3616 3981 4347 4712 5077 5442 5808 6173 6_38 6903 7269 7634 7999 8364 8730 9095 9460 9825 _0191 0556 0921 1286 1652 2017 2382 2747 3113 3478 3843 4208 4574 4939 5304 5669 6035 6400 6765 7130 7496 7861 8226 8591 8957 9322 9687
0.5
3525 3890 4256 4621 4986 5351 5717 6082 6447 6812 7178 7543 7908 8273 8639 9004 9369 9734 *0100 0465 0830 1195 1561 1926 2291 2656 3022 3387 3752 4117 4483 4848 5213 5578 5944 6309 6674 7039 7405 7770 8135 8500 8866 9231 9596 9961 0327 0692 1057 1422 1788
243
243
7208 7573 7938 8303 8669 9034 9399 9764 _:_0130 0495 0860 1225 1591 1956 2321 2686 3052 3417 3782 4147 4513 4878 5243 5608 5974 6339 6704 7069 7435 7800 8165 8530 8896 9261 9626 9991 0357 0722 1087 1452 1818
243
244 244
0799 1164 1530 1895 2260 2625 2991 3356 3721 4086 4452 4817 5182 5547 5913 6278 6643 7008 7374 7739 8104 8469 8835 9200 9565 9930 0296 0661 1026 1391 1757
0891 1256 1622 1987 2352 2717 3083 3448 3813 4178 4544 4909 5274 5639 6005 6370 6735 7100 7466 7831 8196 8561 8927 9292 9657 *0022 0388 0753 1118 1483 1849
244
244
244
244
244 245
245 245
*0052 0418 0783 1148 1513 1879
1900 1950
Jan Jan
0.5 0.5
ET ET
: Julian = Julian
Day Day
2,415,020.0 2,433,282.0
= Greenwich = Greenwich
Noon, Noon,
January January
1, 1,
1900, 1950,
a common epoch another common first entry in this
epoch table
and
III39
Fig.
1.
Selenographic
Coordinate
System
Superimposed
on
a
Lunar
Photograpb
III40
YR
C8.
2
xR
(a}
Drawn
to
scale.
YR
XRs, YRS C 8
C 1
Xl_e,
• RS, x 8 C
 YRS 1 C_
(b)
Not
drawn
to scale.
I
Fig. 2. Curves of Zero Relative Velocity in the xRY R Plane
[II41
N
(+) latitude
22nd 10th
6 °
15th
4 °
Moonearth October 1st,
line midnight
28th 17th
2 o
2nd
_th
Mean
center Lunar equator 4o longitude
4 ° October 31st
_2 °
2° (+)
(midnight)
20th
31st
14th
_1966 0 October midnight 1st,  6° _1967
25th
10t 11 Prime meridian 8o
Fig.
3.
Lunar
Librations
During
October
1966
and
October
1!)67
III42
CHAPTERIV
TRAJECTORIES
IN THE
EARTHMOON
SYSTEM
Prepared
Fo
by:
Martikan, L. Emery, F. Santora, T. Garceau and A. Jazwinski Martin Company (Baltimore) Aerospace Mechanics Dep_rtment March 1963
Page Classification and Trajectories Force The Models Voice and Nomenclature ........................... Lunar Trajectory of Lunar Missions IV 1 Calculations ...... IV13 IV39 Orbits ............ IV42 IV43 ....................... IV45
Ao
B°
for
C. D. E.
Technique Class
......................... of Circumlunar
Additional References Tables and
............................... Illustrations
IV.
TRAJECTORIES
IN
THE
EARTHMOON
SYSTEM
This terial on
chapter kinematics
will
apply the introductory and dynamics of the
maearth
(2)
Atmospheric
drag
is
neglected
during
moon system trajectories models and motion will
from Chapter III to space vehicle in earthmoon space, The force methods of solving the equations of be discussed with emphasis on the the usefulness of Some typical trawill be sketched to illustrate the contemplated in
the brief portion of the lunar trajectory in the earth,s atmosphere, since the space veilicle reaches tile required velocity for passage to the moon while it is more titan 100 km above the surface (3) of the earth. balon the when
approximations introduced and various trajectory programs. jectories in earthmoon space and described briefly in order types of succeeding Section lunar missions chapters. to be
Lunar trajectories are assumed listic, i.e., no thrust forces the vehicle. Lunar missions, other hanfl, may include phases large thrust forces alter quent vehicle trajectory. sions with a continuous not be considered here.
act on
A gives
a classification
of
lunar
tra
jectories, and introduces the nomenclature of lunar trajectories to facilitate their visualization when results will be presented later in the manual. Section B describes the various force models that are used in lunar trajectory calculation, i.e. : (1) the analytical restricted solutions twobody are trajectories available, (2) for their which patch
the subseLunar mislow thrust will
(4)
The earth and moon are in orbits around the earthmoon center (the small eccentricity lunar orbit can be neglected tative trajectory discussions). use
circular baryof the in quali
ing to form (3) restricted trajectories of the moon nongravitational the digital a description technique taining
a complete threebody with earth incluJed,
earthmoon trajectory, trajectories, (4) nbody oblateness and triaxiality as welt as a discussion of
forces and their simulation on computer. Finally, Section C gives of the Voice trajectory computation which has been used extensively in obtrajectories in this manual.
These facts suggest the threebody problem discussed a force model for discussion tortes. Sometimes an even may describe the trajectory:
of the rest, ricted in Chapter III as of lunar trajec simpler force model
lunar
A. OF 1.
CLASSIFICATION LUNAR MISSIONS Considerations
AND AND
NOMENCLATURE TRAJECTORIES
Twobody are used on and at some to selenocentrie
equations (cacti1space vehicle) most of the trajectory to the moon, point near the moon a transformation coordinates is performed and veilicle) are near the moon. be discussed further present chapter. will be made XeVeZ e with nonrotating at the center xRYHZH x Raxis
General
twobody equations (moonspace used to describe the trajectory This last simplification will in Sections B1 and C of the Any either origin coordinates of with the moon, origin at in at sketches nonrotating the center XmYmZm or the in of trajectories coordinates of the with rotating barycenter
broad tories.
Trajectory studies can be groups, feasibility and Feasibility trajectories
divided precision are
two trajecused for
into
preliminary vehicle performance studies such as injection requirements, maneuvering requirements, tolerances on flight parameters, guidance accuracies, observational constraints. Precision trajectories, on the other hand, are used for the detailed planning of an actual flight, In this latter approach the best values of parameters influencing the trajectory may be used to compute a nominal path, or to include correctional information, based on observations of the vehicle, in the trajectory calculation to obtain a path that is frequently updated during In this handbook most of the computed tories are of the feasibility type For the present qualitative and discussion the flight. trajec
earth, origin
coordinates and the
along the earthmoon line in the direction of the moon (see sketch on page IV20) A typical lunar trajectory is ptotted to scale in geocentric nonrotating coorttinates in Fig. 1 and in barycentric rotating coordinates in Fig. 2 with the time from injection indicated on each trajectory. Ti_e nonrotating trajectory shows the characteristic shape of a twobody conic section near the earth, and it is not until the moon is approached closely that the moon,s gravitational attraction modifies the shape of this conic section. The path in the rotating coordinate system is approximately as it would appear to an observer at the center of the moon, since the moon,s mean orbital ,notion is equal to the rotational rate qualification ,,approximately" cause the difference between orbital small orbital cause trajectory motion inclination due of to about is the its axis. included true and e_ spin axis anti to The bemean the its different
of
lunar trajectories sary to consider space vehicle, the characteristics The assumptions
missions it is not necesall the forces that act on the but only those which determine of the lunar trajectories. made in this section are: effects of the sun and
(i)
Gravitational
planets on lunar trajectories can be neglected because the region where the gravitational attraction of the earth and moon predominate extends in all directions about three times the earthmoon distance from earth.
eccentricity the hmar by to
plane (both given the lunar observer as the xRY
optical librations) see a slitthtly trace.
R coordinate
IV 1
As the title of this section indicates, lunar flights may be classified either into classes of trajectories, as was done notably by Egorov (Ref. l) and Buchheim (Hcf. 2), i.e., the trajectories are subdivided by their shape in an inertial or rotating coordinate system, or lunar flights may be classified into classes of missions according to the purpose of the flight. In general, the mission classification is broader since ,me mission, or one lunar flight, may consist of several trajectory classes. In this chapter, a lunar flight is defined as a space flight, on which the velocity at the initial point of the trajectory equals or exceeds the minimum velocity to leave the earth at the initial point and whose primary mission goal is in earthmoon space. Thus the boost or earth orbit phase of any trajectory will not be considered here, nor will any part of it outside of a region where the gravitational attraction of the earth and moon predominate. The table various Mission 1. Lunar below classifies mission and Class probes such trajectory lunar flights classes: Class into the
well lunar, Most used roles,
as of for
circumlunar lunar orbit, as the classes research as well as
missions, well as
or landing
for
circummissions.
of lunar missions may be and exploration, for military exploitation and colonization flight manual it is preferable class of mission of trajectories in the order of is esto and astheir
of
the moon. Since the lunar sentially missionoriented, discuss qualitatively each describe the various types sociated with the mission first appearance. Prior' to compare ments for to this classification
it propulsion missions
is
instructive requireearth
approximate typical lunar
from
launch. These requirements are given below in terms of the characteristic velocity increment _V, or the velocity the space vehicle would attain in gravityfree space if it were accelerated in a straight line rocket burning: Mission by the equivalent amount of
_V probe burning without near the
(kin/see)
Trajectory Trajectories mum velocities Approach Impact landing) Impact landing)
1,
Lunar rocket moon
near
mini
12.5 mission mission by verock16 a lunar 13.5 of a to earth lunar and 18 14.5 with ve20.0 velocities in missions burning return. in 3 through the The vicinity return 12.5
trajectories trajectories (bard
2.
3,
Circumluaar Circumlunur
trajectories
(soft
with deceleration ets to earth orbit locity 4. Establishment orbit Establishment orbit return deceleration to earth 6.
7.
2.
Circumlunar and allunar missions
Circumlunar (nonperiodic Allunar periodic
trajectories and periodic) trajectories and periodic) trajectories trajectories (non
of
5.
3.
Lunar sions
orbit
mis
Impact Approach
orbit on
by rockets w_lo<ib, the moon moon orbit
Circumlunar trajectories Allunar trajectories Orbits around tire moon 4. Landing missions Approach trajectories Circumlunar trajectories Allunar trajectories Orbits around the moon Ascent and descent trajectories Impact 5. _. Space
' !
Landing Landing return locity The
to
on the earth
higher
7 reflect additional rocket of the moon or during earth
tcajectocies point buoys
stations passages
Libration Approach (accelerating approaches)
Lunar to escape
trajectories or braking
to earth orbit and eventually to an earth landing base may be accomplished largely by aerodynamic maneuveritu_ and hence reduce the total propulsion requirements for a mission with earth retu cu. 2. Lunar Probes defined for vicinity behind as the the a oneway, collection of the moon. unscien
The
hmar
missions
in
the
classification
above a system eircum(pasorbits,
have been arranged chronologically, i.e., planned exploration of the moon and solar would at fh'st involve hmar probes, then hmar (passing behind the moon) or alhmar sing in front of the moon) missions, lunar landings on the moon, establishment space stations in earthmoon space, the use of the gravitational attraction to accelerate to the amount time the or decelerate space journey certain given
A manned tific which
lunar probe is space vehicle data passing toes not the pass
of
moon bat The tra
of longterm and finally of the moon vehicles on their be us a
jectory classes associated with probes are ballistic except for possible braking prior to hmar impact. Probes :ire used to obtain scientific data in earthmoon sl):ice , near the tTloon, an:t on the lunar surface measurements (1) as the name may include implies. (Ref. of the Typical 2): mass of the
planets. Of course there may of overlapping so that for any plan may call for lunar f)robes
A delermination
I?] oon.
IV 2
(2)
Measurement of magnetic fields, electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation, meteoritic densities and of other environmental data in earthmoon space. of very tire physical tenuous hmar properat
(3)
i)etermination ties of the tn o sphe re.
(4)
Determination properties, and radioactivity
of
the
composition. the variation, lunar surface. proper
l,x R
temperature of of
(5)
Determination ties of the lunar vehicles such control associated
hmar
the seismic interior. serve as
In
addition,
probes
may
engineerspace vehicle environ
VeA
ing test systems mental The
for the as tracking, and power trajectory
evaluation of communication, ,systems. classes
may
be: A subscript zero is used to conditions. Injection time must close tolerances since the earth, space spect vehicle to each It was shown tire tnininrutn corresf)onded all move other. in quite specify injection be held within moon, an, t with re
(i)
Trajectories near minimum velocities, or those which have just sufficient energy to eventually leave the earth, and will, at least initially, return to the vicinity of the earth several which are reach first times. have a
rapidly
(2)
Approach
trajectories,
that earth
Subsection velocily to
to
B2 reach of
Chapter the moon C 2 = 3. 34367 This vaIue in ttre roVRA, of the its tire
III froln
higher energy, and trajectories which of the moon on the miss (3) Impact strike it by some
defined as the vicinity orbit but
a value
distance. which directly without rocket
(km/sec) 2 for" the was related to the tating magnitude rection tween the with for of from (re_ and the xRaxis. this re& teA. 100 angle = 7378.2 However, km (tea E xRYtiZ of R
Jacobi injection
constant. velocity system, independent of _R/X variation order less in km) the for of
trajectories the moon
coordinate being
either
VRA nearly
dibeand VRA
braking or with rocket braking near the moon. Impact trajectories can be classified further. If the impact velocity on the lunar surface is of the order of tens of m/see, the impact can be classified as a soft landing while impact speeds of about 100 m/see and above are called hard landings. 3. Trajectories transit time tire near minimum velocities;
independent radius vector
angle =_eA of
initial The
maximum of km a the and change
was
0.1 smaller
m/see values altitude km VI{ 5
injection to 1000 minimum m/see. the _RA0
= 6478.2 decreased to 10233.2 to
= 7378.2 10942.2 It is now
kin) m/see necessary
In this section stricted threebody to this trajectory be discussed in injection velocities The completely velocity. conditions usually coordinates "" " " XeYeZe' Ve_' orbital sketch: Ye where and qe as velocity will
results discussion class, its detail, and be on transit illustrated.
the previous will be applied characteristics the strong effect time near minimum
of
rewill of
from
relate
injection (xRs0' non•
ve
locityin YR_0' rotating
° Z
rotating
l.{___ 0 )
coordinates, to tire velocity _, VeA 0 in
.
geocentric
o
ballistic trajectory of a space vehicle is determined by its initial position and These injection conditions (or initial for lunar trajectories near earth) are given either XeYeZe k in and (ix e = _t(for e ' or in terms in in the the of re/` , earthcentered velocity, components trajectory
coordinates
(Xe/_0,
Ye_0'
ZeA0)" velocity was
The general components given by Eq
transformation between the of the two coordinate systems (86) of Chapter III,
t)
 sin
(m +
0_<
t) 0
/
yeA(=
in
(_
+ _0<
t) cos (_ +_oo<
0
t) 0
1
trajectories
n]oon.s
plane)
illustrated
following
! Ze/d
i
0
]
]xRa
! k,,Zlt IV 3 _,
_C
(xHA YRA. + ro% _ v t (1)
where
%
is the _ rate and and the lunar unit or earmmoon threebody x 10 6 rad/sec distance problem, used for circular restricted
and
YRA
= rcA
sin
_e"
XRA
+ r®_
v
=
re_ = 2. 661699484 is the the the rotational which yield, 2 after V
cos
_e into 2 2 _$(_ Eq (2):
(4)
of the earthmoon _ is the initial angle rotating coordinate
line around between systems.
baryeenter, nonrotating
substitution 2
Ve
A
=
RA
+ reA
+ 2_$_
tea
(xRA
_in
_e
If the matrix 2 VeA is obtained
multiplication as:
is performed
+ _'RA cos ne )
In terms of the flight path angle relative
(5)
to earth Vc
YeA
2
= VRA
2
+ ,_¢
2
[y2RA
+ (XRA XRA sin _e + YRA of the cos _e = VRA cos Ye' to earth
+F,_
v)2_+
2,_0_
[*RA
yRA
so that the becomes :
square
velocity
relative
2 + YRA This expression reference to (XRA + Po_I transformed sketch: v)_ fvrther (2) by VeA 2 = VRA2 + reA _oq
2
the
can be following
+ 2_
SeA
VRA
cos
Ye"
(6)
For system imum cos
given the if cos ye =I
values velocity Ye (_e
of
tea relative
and
VRA to and earth
in
the VeA is a
earthmoon is a maxif
= 1 (Ye : 180°
= 0°) )' or
it
minimum
to
the
moon
EVRA
+ tea
2 _2

2_@_
reA
V R
A_
I/ 2 i/2
<
VeA
< [V RA
+ tea
_°od 22+
2_O_
tea
VRA]
(7)
For injection reA Barycenter 10925. 0 m/see <__ VeA 0 <_ 10959. 4 m/see, at 100kin kin, altitude: VRA 0 = 10942.2 m/sec,
0 = 6478.2
and
the
minimum
velocity
relative
to earth
for
sending a vehicle to the moon while for injection at 1000kin reA = 7378.2 km, VRA 0
is 10925. altitude: = 10233•2
0 m/see,
m/sec,
10213. The following relations can be obtained from and lunar In reA 2 = x eA 2+ 2 + YRA (3) YeA2 = (XRA + I$¢ 1 u)2 each the the previous sketch:
6 m/sec
<_ VeA
0<_
10252.8
m/sec
minimum injection case the occurs the direction in the at
velocity that maximum when of following altitude
relative is value VeA the 0 is of
to
earth 0,
for m/see.
10213.6 VeA
(VeA)max, teA in
perpendicular rotation as
to
moon's sketch:
illustrated
IV 4
YR
twobody 1 (i.e.,
ellipses when the
with initial eccentricities gravitational effect of the
near earth
is predominant). As the injection velocity is increased, the trajectories will approximate twobody parabolas and hyperbolas in their initial stages. The extent along the trajectory to the moon to which this twobody approximation can be carried will be discussed in Subsection Bic. Barycenter _
Egorov (Ref. 1) has made a systematic of trajectories in the MOP near minimum ities. These trajectories with a Jacobi
study velocconIID have
(_A) m_x
stant the time
of
C 3 (refer
to
Fig.
2,
Chapter
characteristic in the order trajectories coordinates
of an extremely of months. For with these )_e0
long transit example, In geocenclosely
consider tric The injection flight path angle Ye0 may be used XeY e
= 0°"
trajectories
to classify lunar vehicle trajectory moon orbital
trajectories. Thus, a space in the direction of the earth< 90 ° ) illustrated in the
motion(Ye0
approximate twobody ellipses with large eccentricities (near 1). The apogee of these trajectories increases slowly due to lunar perturbations as illustrated in the following sketch; only the first moon trajectory shown. several near orbits minimum of a typical velocity earthare
previous sketch is known Since the angular velocity _O the has a component _
as a direct trajectory. vector of the earth iem perpendicular a vehicle to in
cos plane
earthmoon
orbital
(MOP),
a direct trajectory can capitalize on the rotation of the earth as well as the orbital motion of the earth in the MOP as illustrated above. Trajectories with injection in a sense opposite to _( (_e0>90 °)
First
orbit
are called retrograde traject.ories. The AV penalty from launch for a retrograde trajectory as compared to a direct trajectory may be as high as 740 m/sec. The gravitational attraction of the moon on the lunar trajectory near injection is very small, and it is possible to approximate the first stages of a lunar trajectory by a twobody earthspace vehicle problem. In a twobody approximation, the escape or parabolic velocity at i00 km is = ___K_ _ tea = 11093.2 m/sec
Th
Second InitfLal
orbit
t
b_
e
rd
orbit
mth Noon
of
the
The space nearelliptical the constriction
vehicle orbits in
must the
traverse before it C 3 contour
can
many pass near moon III).
such through the and InVeA the tra0
Vep which body
compares velocity (VeA) rain of
with
a minimum
restricted
three
double approach crease as well
point between the moon of as Ye0 the will initial
the (Fig. increase apogee
earth and 2, Chapter the radius
required of
= 10925.
0 m/sec.
jectory.
The corresponding minimum two and restricted threebody velocities for injection at I000 km are:
The time required for a passage from the earth to the moon depends strongly on the injection velocity. It has been estimated (Ref. i) that trajectories at the minimum velocity reach the boundary This most of their region C 2 in about three
=
Vep
10394.6
m/sec,
(VeA)
rain
=
years. cal for
type of trajectory lunar missions.
thus is impractiA slight increase
10213.6 Thus, about
m/sec velocity twobody is only parabolic
the minimum threebody 170 m/sec less than the
in injection significantly trajectories jection and
velocity reduces the transit time as can be noted from the following to the moon in the MOP with an inof h®0 = 0°: = tea 0  R e = 175.7 km
altitude _e0
velocity. for near
This indicates that lunar trajectories minimum velocities will approximate
with
IV 5
Injection
Velocity, YeO 2 km kin reA h(_0
V.e_O = O° 0
(m/see)
_e0 reAO
0 o
mately 120 hr at 40 m/sec stricted threebody escape is approximately 50 hr at which is 170 m/sec above Transit Time to the Moon (Ill')
above minimum velocity. This parabolic velocity, the minimum re
retime
6478. 100
= 6553.9 = 175.7 10,932 10,943
km km
10,997 ii,008 ii, ii,278 ii,660 13,450 097
120 80 50 35 24 13
11,033 11,215 11,600 13,400
stricted threebody escape velocity, and it decreases to approximately 24 ilr at 500 m/sec above parabolic velocity. A further increase of injection velocity above the twobody escape or parabolic velocity will not reduce the transit time as markedly as was possible near the twobody escape velocity. Practical transit times for lunar approach and impact trajectories vary from about 30 to 80 hr, which seems to be a good compromise between rocket fuel requirements on one hand, and power and support system requirements on the other. Approach trajectories may miss the moon by small or large distanee, the major differences between an approach trajectory from a trajectory near mxmmum velocity bemg that the mltlal apogee" of the approach trajectory would be beyond the orbit of the moon and the transit time for passage to the orbit of the moon is less than five days. If the approach trajectory passes near the moon, the concept of "apogee" becomes illusory since the gravitational attraction of the moon modifies the Possible approach the moon are given selenoeentric constant dinates the moon, vehicle at entry and V trajectory shape trajectories in in the following XmYm, considerably. the vicinity sketch in where VmA cooraround moon along i.n of a
The injection velocity for an injection altitude of 100 km has been calculated from the energy integral of a twobody force model, Eq (9) below, to allow a direct comparison with tile minimum restricted threebody velocity of 10959 m/sec. An increase about 1% near in injection the minimum velocity of velocity 100 m/see decreases for
or
the transit time from five to about two days, Eut any further significant decrease in transit time the injection velocity must be increased considerably. Hence, for each lunar mission there is a tradeoff between a higher injection velocity and the correspondingly higher fuel toad and a longer transit time with larger power requirements and support b. systems. Approach trajectories
coordinates velocity into the is the
is
in selenocentric circular region velocity which of the
geocentric Approach near minimum class much time trajectories velocities differ in that moon may the latter. trajectories from with trajectories the former the negative
e( coordinates YmaXis:
is directed
the vicinity of the quicker than with for typical approach
be reached The transit is approxi
Ym
Ym
J
Xm
Direct Trajectories Around the Moon
_ V e_
_x _
Retrograds AroUnd
Trajectories the Moon
geA Velocity Diagram
IV 6
As canbeseen fromthis sketch,theapproach trajectoryleaves thevicinityofthe moon. It wasshown Egorov(Ref. 1)thatthemoon by cannotcapture space a vehicleonanapproach trajectorysince the vehicle energy corresponds to
that of a hyperbolic selenocentric trajectory the attraction of the earth is neglected. The if preceding sketch also shows that the closet' the approach to the moon, the greater is the "turning effect" of the moon on the trajectory. While in the vicinity of the moon, the approach trajectories may, he either direct or retrograde, depending on whether they pass around the moon in the direction or against tile direction of the lunar rotation, as illustrated in the preceding sketch. However, it is more common(Ref. 1, for direct at example) (7e0< to classify or approach retrograde trajectories (Ye0 > 90°) 90 °) near
The retrograde trajectories avoided due to the larger fuel Since interception of the moon arm has been shown to increase
are usually requirements. on a descending the required the are ascend
guidance accuracies by two to five times, most practical impact probe trajectories direct ones which strike the moon on the ing arm. Impact moon trajectories with a velocity will of hit the surface approximately
the
of 3000
m/see unless they are retarded by rocket braking (luring the descent phase, tlard landings, with impact velocities approximately between 3000 anti 100 m/see, can be used for relatively simple has to for soft periments ascending visible experiments, be braked to the while order the of impact tens of velocity m/see
injection c. Impact
earth. trajectories flight impact the first trajectory. trajectory Such Since the tra
landings of delicate equipment for exon the moon. Lunar impacts on the arm are essentially limited to the disk while impacts on the descending arm
In any considered
study of lunar is usually an simply the
occur essentially behind the moon. An impact trajectory with rocket burning before the landing will also require some control of the orientation of the vehicle before and during rocket burning. 3. Circumlunar and Allunar Missions
a trajectory is which intersects
an approach surface of the on the way four types to two types
trajectory moon. out or on of impact of approach
the impact may occur return, there are now jeetories as opposed t raje cto tie s :
The first type leaves intercepts the moon on second type leaves the the moon on a descending sketch the depicts geocentric the these (XeY e) injection two
the earth direct and an ascending arm. A earth direct but intercepts arm. The following types of trajectories system and t i the with impact in
The next missions of interest are circumlunar and allunar missions, which may be manned or unmanned. Specific lunar and earth return conditions are somewhat more difficult to achieve than for lunar probes because of the tighter injection tolerances. A very desirable feature for these missions is that the vehicle returns to the vicinity of arbitrarily nomenclature the earth close to of the ballistically the lunar associated after passing surface. The trajectories
coordinate time
is
t O denoting time:
analogous to the mission nomenclature exact definition of each trajectory class be given when it is discussed in detail.
and the will
Ye
X_t)
m
Of primary interest are the nonperiodic circumlunar missions since they allow reconnaissanee, surveillance and mapping of the back of the moon. The other trajectory classes are of less practical interest, but will nevertheless be mentioned briefly. Trajectories behind the moon that while depart from earth, pass crossing the earthmoon the moon, and are called or circumlunar again renonperiodic tra
_ Orbital
r
,
Moon (ti ;Q'"
/
/
line in the vicinity of turn to earth ballistically circumlunar trajectories jectories can leave following where approach A either t for the short. earth or time moon.
Basically, either direct retrograde of pericynthion,
these trajectories as shown in the (not shown), or closest
P
sketch, is the to the
circumlunar direct or
trajectory retrograde
leaving can return
the to
earth earth
by

0 goon (t i ) Arm
Descending
establishing either a direct or retrograde (and highly elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic) orbit around it or impact the earth as indicated in the following sketch. This would account for six different types of circumlunar general to achier,',
ttl](I oll
trajectories. t.ype
eaFt[l
the
The first
third two
and fourth except that
types they
are leave
identical the earth
lo
The easiest
the 111ool/
of l)tlt that
trajectory spcc:ific
F/'tLll'I] are
retrograde.
obtain
d_m
to
the
fact
_'rror
is one cnnditions difficult sensitivities
of
the at to are
IV 7
DrbitNo. Ye Moon _ (tO)
,/
Lunar \ \ Orbital Path tOilEarth 1
(re,5)rain (kin) 6,571
(rmA)min (km) 150 Remarks Lunar impact
2
42,203
825
Lunar impact
j _ I $
_
con i
,
3
82,824
1500
Lunar impact
4
116,371
2OOO
A possible periodic orbit does is Orbit not impact No. to about 4.
As the For
can moon, this
be
seen, (rmA)min trajectory is
the
only
case 1738
that kin,
the 20
closest earth
approach radii or
earth, one
(reA)min' third would pecially stable, space
almost
of the distance to the moon. Such an orbit seem to be of little practical interest, essince this class of trajectories is also unand small perturbations would cause the vehicle to depart from this orbit.** to the circumlunar classes of the cor
Opposed responding described pass only earthmoon feature on ordinates direct is
very injection by 870
high.
For velocity
instance, (at moon
an t O ) can and
error alter
of the km at
1 m/sec miss earth.
in distance Al
nonperiodic and periodic trajectories above are allunar trajectories, which in front of the moon while they cross the line in the vicinity of the moon. This most clearly seen in rotating sketch with x R YR of an coa im
km
at
the
6650
though highly are especially the back side
sensitive, these types of trajectories suited for photographic missions of the moon. These missions may
as shown nonpertodic
in the allunar
following trajectory
be manned or unmanned and may be highly desirable for future landing flights. In fact, actual landing missions may utilize such trajectories because of their inherent safety features (no lunar impact, ballistic departure and return). One drawback of circumlunar trajectories is the inaccessibility of higher lunar latitudes. This is due to the fact that their inclination to the lunar equatorial plane VI). The is limited to approximately 15 ° (see Chapter
pact return to earth. tive term "nonperiodic" allunar trajectories orbits to distinguish jectories.
Very frequently the descripis dropped, and periodic are referred to as allunar them from the allunar tra
_/Ear
tehnter
total
flight
time
for
circumlunar
missions
is rather limited by the nature of the trajectory and depends strongly on the pericynthion altitude. The following figures are quoted for injection at an earth altitude of 200 kin. For a pericynthion altitude of 200 km the total flight time to the moon and back can vary between 138 and 142 hr, for a pericynthion altitude of 1000 km it can vary tween 147 and 152 hr, and for a pericynthion tube of 2000 km it can vary between 155 and hr. In each case the vacuum perigee of the trajectory is at 50 kin. bealti165 return xR Lunar Orbital Path
.
An interesting problem of lunar trajectories is the possibility of establishing periodic orbits around the earth and moon which pass behind the moon, or periodic circumlunar trajectories. The existence of such orbits was established and several orbits were calculated in Ref. i. The closest approach (rm&)mi low from to ti]e earth, n, of several i*: (teA)rain typical , and to the is given moon, be
Analogous jectories one trajectories. lunar trajectory of the moon bits.
to the six types may distinguish typical mission is photography without the aid of A
of circumlunar six types of employing of the front lunar satellite
traallunar an alface or
orbits
Bef.
Although cumlunar ber of
there trajectories
is
but one ther(_ allunar A new
class of periodic are an unlimited trajectories, class of of described. orbits circumis
cirnum
<'These numerical values are based on Egorov's values of the earthmoon system constants and are to be regarded as illustrative rather than
accurate.
possible added in
periodic proof: recently of this
*<'Note
lunar orbits has brief summary as Section D. IV 8
been class
A given
Periods theseallunarorbitsvary from0.5 to of 1.5 me,andwhilelhcypassin front ofthe moon astheycrosstic <tirt}ln]ool]ine, their [art}lest l pointfrom eartilis well beyond themoon's orbit. Cir(umlunarandallunarperiodicorbits areof interest, butit is doubtful thatsuchorbits could beestablish('d a very longtim_duetotlwir for
unstable 4. Lunar I,unar i_att ul'c. Orbit orbit Missions missions arc complex from a tra
(2)
An entry mane'uver lunar orbit. A lunar several A departure el'bit. A moontoearth orbit phase revolutions. maneuver
into
the
desired
(3)
which
may
last
for
(4)
from
the
luuav
(5)
transfer
phase
which
jectory viewpoiilt since a single mission may consist of several phas( s, each utilizing a different class of traj_Pclorics. The characteristic feature of lunar orbit missions is that the primary purpose of the mission is accomplished during the lunar orbiting phas{. In other respects the hicle may be manned or unmanned; it a oneway trip to the moon or eventually to earth if this is a manned mission. The primary advantage almost unlimited time of that lunar the space may vemake return
may be the second half of trajectory, or an approach trajectory, and is illustrated lowing sketch in geocentric coordinates x v . e _e The circumlunar above. direct or circular but their different Lunar types trajectories orbits of may approach, have been be classified
a circumlunar or impact in the nonrotating
fol
impact, discussed either
or into
retrograde or elliptical actual shape
orbits; they with respect is continually
may be either to tlne moon, changing due sun, and the characteri(Chapter III,
the
orbits vehicle
lies can
in
spend in the vicinity of the moon, time which can be utilized for the gathering of scientific data, the reconnaissance, surveillance, and mapping of the moon. Also, no actual landing on the moon is necessary, fuel problems The whether launched responding and do all not the attendant appear. structural and
to perturbations moon's figure. zation of orbits Subsection A3). Entry orbits are acteristic 5. Landing to
of the earth, the A more quantitative is by their elements
and departure maneuvers generally characterized by velocity A V of the maneuver. Missions
from lunar the char
first question the moon can with a velocity to the Jacob[
in a lunar orbit mission capture a space vehicle higher than the one constant C 2 {see
is cor
Chapter
Closely related to lunar landing missions, is on the lunar surface
lunar orbit missions are the in which the space vehicle during one phase of the purpose will be accomare the most complex point of view. They oneway or round landing mission will trajectory in the and a lunar _'parking" primarily of landing of the cirtype As of
IlI, Subsection B2). It was shown by Egorov (Re[. 1) that it is impossible for lhe moon to capture a vehicle on an approach trajectory, no matter what the initial conditions. The question of lunar capture without thrust tories near minimum than one orbit around vicinity of is between constants the the remains open for trajecvelocities which make more earth before reaching the the the injection to the space velocity Jacobi can
mission where its primary plished. Landing missions missions from a trajectory may be manned or unmanned, trip. Most likely the lunar use a circumlunar or approach earthmoon transfer phase, orbit to because site and cumlunar mission reach of the because or is the desired flexibility of the
moon. When one corresponding C 4, then
C 2 and
vehicle
landing site, in the choice safety features
pass through the constriction near the point between the earth and moon (see Chapter III) after more than one orbit earth and become a temporary satellite moon before it returns to the vicinity earth.
critical Fig. 2, around of the of the
approach known as
trajectory. lunar orbital
This landing.
This class of trajectories is not very practical since (I) the possible range of injection velocities is about 1 m/sec (see table on page 21 in Chapter liD, and and other the trajectory perturbations, is very and (2) sensitive the transit to solar time is
propulsion systems become more reliable, impact trajectories with a soft landing may be used for landing missions in areas of the moon which are easily accessible for impact trajectories. The latter type of mission is a lunar direct landing. Lunar landing missions are used for exploration, supply lunar and bases. logistics, and for establishment of
very long and the transit time is very sensitive to injection velocity in the possible range of about 1 m/sec. Thus in practice a lunar orbit can only be achieved by reducing the velocity of the space vehicle through thrust application near the moon. ,\ typical lunar earth, illLlstrated next page. (1) will An orbit in the mission sketch of: transfer less the first likely, phase which with at the return top of to the
to
A typical lunar earth consists (1)
landing of:
mission
with
round
trip
An earthtomoon may be an approach, circumlunar, or, trajectory.
transfer phase which the first half of a less likely, an impact
(2)
consist earthtomoon
An entry maneuver orbit (this phase landings).
is
into the deleted
desired for direct
lunar
may be an circumlunar, t raj c_cto r) ,
approach, or,
half of a an impacl
(3)
A lunar orbit phase a fraction of one to (this phase is deleted
which several for
may last from revolutions direct landings.)
IV 9
v e
moon
(t o ]
X e
Note: path of _ the moon
the dimensions lunar satellite phase have exaggerated been
of the orbit
earthmoon transfer phase transfer phase
\ \
\
\
\.
\ \ \ Lunar
t e _
departure maneuver from lunar satellite orbit satellite orbit phase
/ O moon /
entry maneuver into lunar satellite orbit
(4)
A
descent
phase
to
the
lunar
surface orbit in the Moon (t o )
_e _e
and landing rendezvous following (5) (6) A An lunar ascent
(possibly concept paragraph). stay of phase arbitrary frorn phase of phase
using lunar as described
duration. I lunar surface. Lunar may several for ]ast revodirec_ orbital \ _ath
cos
iem x
(7)
A lunar fron_ a lutions landings).
orbit fraction (this
which one to is
deleted
Earthmoo_ transfer
\
\ \ \ x
(approach, or impact
circumlunar, trajectory)
(8)
A departure (this phase ings). A moontoearth may be the trajectory, jectory. landing The phase further
maneuver is deleted
from lunar orbit for direct land
/7 iescent "x/_ / /_ I phase landing (ti) .
(9)
transfer second half an approach
phase which of a circumlunar or h_pact tra
lu_ar(l _./
_" entry lunar maneuver orbit into
orbi,\\ 7(q) .... 7
For oneway (9) are deleted. lized for each be classified missions, phases (6) throuah classes of trajectories utiof the landing mission may as was discussed above. lunar the x orbital following v • _2 _e landing mission in cteocer,tric • phas,_ \ _ (fraction of _ revolution) _
A typical oneway has been illustrated nonFotatin_ coordinates A mission between the lunar orbit mission the
in
At the proper time a segment of the vehicle, called the shuttle vehich,, detaches itself, descends to and lauds on the lunar surface. After the purpose of the mission on tbc lunar surface has been accomplished, the orbit and makes space vehiclc. s[/uitle vehicle a r'( ndezvous 'I'h( _l_,,n and ascends to lunar with the orbiting any equipment arc
which may be regarded as a hybrid lunar orbit and landing missions [s the rendezvous mission (LOR). In thLs space vehicle establishes a lunar orbit.
IV 10
transferredtothespace vehicle,which thenreturnsto earthwhiletheempty shuttleis abandoned
in lunar 6. Space It has orbit. Stations been proposed by Buchheim (Ref. 2)
The maximum velocity increment that can be gained in approximately 148(/ m/see. The vehicle acceleration can be accomplished on a descending arm as well. Retrograde _rajectories can also be used, but are not really practical because of 1he h_i'_el" ",V reqllire_t ['oF earll? departure. In a(tdilit)n, the tnoon cart be use(l to {teve!erctle a space
passili_ Opposite
that space stations double points in vehicles libration points are in the barycenter earth and rotating Subsection with moon, x H YR B2
may be established at the five earthmoon space. He calls such center buoys. These double MOP, they rotate around the the same and their coordinate of Chapter angular fixed system II[. velocity location is given in as the the in
'_ehi(']e
()kit lO of [lie l[]e
l)eccleralh)n
nlo£)I]Ts luoonls
would ', [cinitv
[lll]]il}.i] [11(
in
)_[i(]t]
be oblaincd a direction
ar()[ll](] tile
b\
earlh. Tire fashion practicality is debatable o[' planning at this time probes due to in this the hitake of
creased guidance accuracy required. Full advantage of the gravitational tile moon, the following items are (1) The close approach to as possible. the moon
To attraction necessary: should
Three of the five double pohlts are on the earthmoon line, two fairly near _he moon and the third is on the opposite side o1" lhe moon about one lunar unit From earth. The double points on the earthmoon lines are unstable and lhe apace vehicle would have to make corrective maneuvers lo counteract tile double two double the earth a space nitely. chapter perturbing forces in order to stay near points for a longer time. The oiher points form equilateral triangles with and moon and they are stable. Thus, vehicle could stay The sketch on pa_e s}nows 1he location at these points indefiIII2l in thepre<edin,a of the double points. 8.
be
as
(2)
The pericymhion, or point of closesl proach to tlne moon, has to be controlled closely in order to turn lhc trajectory the desired direction (see the preceding sketch. The gent sun time launch since must of time bo_h be in pericynthion. and Characteristics o['a Cirtolerance the moon a {'avorabh: is and very strinor at
apin
(3)
planet position
Space stations at the double points have also been called synodic or selenoid satellites. TIney could be used for beacons in space, as astronomical observatories, for conducting longterm experiments in earthmoon space and {'or" space surveillance. 7. Lunar The Passages moon can to Escape to accelerate or decel
Nomenclature
c m{ff_
r Trajeclory
trajectories during transit plane of discussed to and reference above from for
The ballistic lunar belnave very similarly the moon. A fundamental
be used
erate a space vehicle for interplanetary missions or solar probes since the moon and most planets are very close to the plane of the ecliptic. Acceleration of the space vehich can be accomplished by planning the approach trajectory to pass very close to the moon and pass out of the vicinity of the moon in the general direction of the moon's orbital motion around earth. The following sketch in geocentric nonrotating coordinates illustrates this special ease.
such trajectories is the moon's orbital plane (MOP) used earlier in this section, b'or this discussion a circumlunar trajectory which is not restricted to the MOP is used as an example. The nomenclature used here in identical witI1 that given in the Voice discussion that describing all trajectory remaining chapters. of _cction (" and data throughout the
Ye to_,if_Ear Moon
I I
t h e
The outgoing trajectory to the moon is termed a translunar tra. eetory. It is assuYned that lhe injection of the space vehicle into the translunar trajectory occurs near earth, and a ser.ies of twobody force models is used in the approximation of the entire trajeclory. The connection or patching between the different twobooty tra. eetories occurs near the moon. The eccentricity of the translunar and transearth (a trajectory from the vieinily trajectories of the is moon larger to the than vicinity 0.95. of the earth)
(t o ) A/_pp _
_JOJ_C C t? "era Lunar \ Orbital Path /with roach lunar trajectory p_ssage
on
\
\ \ \
The space vehicle can leave the cartln in four directions, direct north, direct south, relrograde north, and retrograde south. These departure directions are illustrated in the following skeleh. These departure directions are based on whether the lrajectory above (north), at injection or' below is the plane _o _2 \e.N_) the define given is direct (south) the by the or retrograde, MOP. The ¢0 the which transis
the \ ..if.loon at
ascending vehicle
arm
injection is measured
position from
angle of MOP,
intersection with 1111' th,,
lunar the ._ _e31)
trajectory xt(axis, and
which The trajectory
injection
point.
LF['IIISILlUaI"
vectors
IV 11
_Tr _traJectory
anslunar
.I _//
f
"°"
/.4
plane The fro_n 2 to to re&0 the
where injection the local ) in velocity
re_
0
is
the path
radius angle (a of
vector _e0 is
at
injection. zE
flight
measm'ed
horizontal direction vector in The
plane the
perpendicular moon's motion plane is at the (see ditime of of
I
the
the
translunar xl::axis the is MOP the at earth being the earth. moon
Space
£_
preceding rected of the
sketch). approximately while plane In iVT L is by nears the
positive
toward iVT to the of L
pericynthion translunar
inclination the time
"72
_arth / BYE
injection. kin), primarily vehicle
vicinity
the
(re&<200,000 affected As krn), the the
essentially the the oblateness moon
constant of (re&. to a of This
2(}O,()01) greater' the is
trajectory is the gravitational causing in _, teA The moon the iVT following
influenced attraction L to change. sketch.
degree by moon, thet'eby demonstFaled /
t _.ioon
xE Consider and space by the a space a velocity vehicle lunar by At an vehicl_e vector wii1 gravity be Ve,__ with a position to earth. the from of the drift, moon the original directed is translunar toward the since plane, moon, gq and the rate as This increases increases. vector relative
a?celeratt.d gq. of l)urin_ tlne along
toward a short
approached
time interval be changed action By resultant Ve&l is and original lunar + a_\' of gq.
the velocity amount AV g that of plane that re/x the
vehicle will the line _ of
assuming velocity
g
remains space formed vehicle by by
unchanged, is Ve& and and h'on: _',iVT[ to .
the 2 =
drift has occasionally cusing el'feet of the of the space vehicle the moon is neared. the drift characteristic A similar drift to earth (transearth vehicle drifts into iVTI. 2 •
been referred to as the fomoon. In addition, the speed relative to earth increases as The following sketch shows of a lunar trajectory. experienced on the trip back trajectory) except that the the final return inclination is
.
The from
r_] re_l
V e' _1 • Ve,x2, the tlence,
different its
formed
translunar translunar gravity causes
inclination inclination the space
differs bv
vehicle
ch'il't
On return may appr'oach the case {'or
_o earth, the transearth it ft'om various directions. the tt'anslunar injection,
trajectory As was the directions
IV12
be discarded simply because tions. Different approximations
they in
are approximathe force model
Initial
tranelunar
trajectory
plane
vary in their sensitivity to different parameters, and a very crude approximation for one parameter may be an excellent or at least an adequate one for another, depending on the ultimate use of the generated trajectories. In separate smaller tory flown general, the relative trajectories of than the absolute using the given in the earthmoon force error a given error model environment. between two force model is between a trajecand one to actually Hence, a
raJectory
very simple force model may be used the range of each trajectory parameter required lunar mission as well as to allowable errors in initial conditions
restrict for the obtain the for success
Final
traneearth
trajectory
plane
ful completion of the mission and to obtain guidance sensitivities. Any conclusions drawn from trajectories obtained from the simple model may then be verified by generating a small number of trajectories using a more sophisticated force model. In the that have jectories cornplexity, the models i. Succession following text, various force models been employed in generating lunar traare discussed in the order of increasing and quantitative differences between are given whenever possible. of TwoBody approach the transit a succession In the initial to be in its of mass the earth to Trajectories lunar trajectory of a vehicle of restricted the phase of earth's Mzx is _Io
of ing the
return sketch, transearth
are
classified where iVT E
as is
depicted the final
in
the
followof
inclination
trajectory:
The simplest studies is to treat earth to moon as
_U
from two
body vehicle tional compared
problems. is assumed field alone to the
flight the gravitanegligible At some
and mass
_TH
point along the trajectory the vehicle a region where the moon's field is It will then be assumed to be in the alone the and mass its of mass the moon M A is M{I negligible . This
will pass into predominant. moon's field compared to allows into planar from for dy
approach
B.
FORCE TRAJECTORY
MODELS
FOR
LUNAR
CALCULATIONS
a splitting of the trajectory determination various phases, namelythe study of (1) namics of the earth's field, (2) transition earth to moon influence where the criteria passing from phase cussed, (3) planar and (4) threedimensional is not in the moon's acteristics of lunar logically and studied It is obvious that (1) to dynamics the
In the preceding section the characteristics and nomenclature of lunar trajectories were introduced. These trajectory characteristics could be introduced with very little attention to the physical and mathematical background of how the position of the space vehicle as a function of time, or its trajectory, is obtained. However, in any quantitative work, be it precise or approximate, it is necessary to know what physical model underlies the calculations and by what mathematical method the trajectory was obtained. The emphasis in the present section will be on the assumed force model for deriving the equations of cal and numerical methods tions have been discussed Various degrees in the description in the earthmoon motion since of solving in Chapter the analytithese equaIV of Ref.
next phase are disof the lunar field, effects when the vehicle orbital plane. Many chartrajectories may be introduced on the basis of this approach. this force model, like any
3.
of sophistication are possible of the forces acting on a vehicle environment. These force as does trajectories parameters approximations the ease as and obtainfor a given should not
other model, will be more accurate for short lunar missions than for longer ones, since the neglected effects (discussed below) result from accelerations acting over the entire transit time. This approach is expected to be reasonably good for lunar impact trajectories, and for circumlunar flight. However, prolonged flights near the moon, such as lunar satellites, should be analyzed by use of more exact models. a. Planar dynamics of the earth's field
models vary in complexity welt as cost of generating ing values for trajectory lunar mission. Rough
in a moon
For this twobody problem plane passing through the revolves around the earth
the vehicle moves earth's center. The in the same plane
IV13
withanangular elocitya_ at a mean v distance ro_ = 1 LU. Themoon treatedhereas a is massless pointwithoutinfluence onthevehicle trajectory. Thusanynonrotatingoordinate e systemat theearth'scenterof massis inertial. In inertial planepolarcoordinates , 0eA , as re_
shown motion in the of the following space sketch, vehicle the are: equations of
where total
t
is
the
total angle
time from
of reA
flight 0 to
and tel
00_
the
inplane
As is from Eq trajectory
well known, (8) is a conic with focus to orient with angle 00q
the trajectory section in at the center injection to the
the
obtained plane of the of the earth. on at this injee
It remains conic section tion by the =
the respect
point moon
Initial
/ /
Moon injection)
± _D4t,
(12)
f_
_(at
where the the positive
negative sign
for set is"
sign applies retrograde of constants
for direct trajectories. required
and
Final
Moon_/ (8) A consistent through (11) Pe _e_ r01 Inspection (9) reveals to a strong Ve& hand, a strong in 0. = = in Eqs
GM e
= 398,601.5 x km
km3/sec 10 6 rad/sec
2 (13)
2.661,699,484 384,747.2 of Eqs (Ref. the
\ ;£
Earth_ __e V_nO e_
/
Eq
(10) and (11) in 4) that the time flight of total energy inplane insensitive of Ye0" These path or
the light of flight angle burnout _e0'
of is
insensitive but is
burnout
function The is
velocity the and other is
angle to
00_ VeA
, 0
on
rather
function the
relations for a repkm.
•. rezx
•  re&0eA
2__ 
P't_ 2reA
are
depicted
following radius
sketches of tea 0
resentative
injection
= 6740
(8)
80
• •
o
•
reA0eZ Equation (8)
x + 2rezx0e2 yields two
x = 0 first integrals,
7O
Ee
=
eZX
+ (
cA)
2)
0 cos and
**
60
rez x
_' 50
VeA0 2" = re_0e/x

teA0
(9)
_°
30
he
= tea
0
VeA
"_e 0
20 +_i0800 I 10900 In_ectlon I ii000 Velocity, t Iii00 Ve_ 0 p 11200 (m/see)
where
Ee
and
he
are
its
energy per _he
the
magnitude respecintegrals Since flight moon the effect time and transfer approximate. near minimum of the moon has been ignored, total inplane angle for earthcalculated from Eqs (10) and This approximation (VeA)mi as (for the the some and more determination is n the (11)
of its angular momentum tiveiy. Equation (9) yields (see t_ef. 4, for example)
unit mass, final two
dr
teA0 reA0 2Ee + 2get her
are poor comes locity (10)
relatively and beve
velocities better
progressively VeA 0 is inereased approximate 5). For
injection comparison exaet of Eqs (10)
between these suits see Ref. visibility (11) are 2 b. The gravitational Perhaps IV14
reand
rol_ 00_ =_ teA0
h
dr
r$l = _ rezx0 2E
h e
dr
from earth, sufficiently Transition transition the fieId simplest
for instance, accurate. from earthtomoon the be is earth to in the
gv.e r r
influence the lunar ways.
2Pc +___ e r
h
r
e 2
from may
(11)
made to stop
various translunar
160
r@(_ tea r_ The mass,
= = =
earthmoon earthspace moonspace acceleration vehicle field
distance vehicle vehicle or to distance distance force per the moon, at the unit or space
=10825
m/see
gravitational on the has
space
due
the lunar vehicle =i1009
eA
gravitational the magnitude
intensity
m/sec GM_ f[_A (14)
Ve
=
11315
m/see its tude acceleration
=
g
r {A
due to the earth has the magni
GM_ f (_A = 2 ' (15)
and the gravitational to the earth I lO i 20 I 30 I 40 I 50 i 60 t 70 I 80
I
acceleration
of the
moon
due
9O f_ =
GM$ %rr _ disturbing the moon force of the is given by earth
(16)
Injection trajectory, tion, moon, as
Flight was
Path
Angle,
_eO
(deg) subsecto the = r@_ The the ratio attraction of
done
in the
previous distance
the of
to
at a radius and regard
r@_
, the
mean
these
conditions
at reA
as occurring at infinity relative to the moon. This approach has been taken in Ref. 4, for example, and it may be referred to as the massless moon assumption. However, a more natural transition from the earth's to the moon's gravitational field may be taken at the location in space when the ratio of the lunar disturbing force to the central force due to the earth's gravitational attraction becomes larger than the ratio of the earth' s disturbing force to attraction. This influence of the shaped with the than spherical. influence of the Define the central force region is called moon, although blunt The moon of the lunar the sphere it is slightly of egg
f.
(rej +re_ 2 ) (r_ 2 rOA ) (17) Similarly, moon to the ratio attraction of the disturbing of the earth force given of the by:
the
is
f4A
f_
=
r _A
end facing the earth, rather boundary of the sphere of can be found as follows. by the following sketch: where where
(ro_ •
+ r_a 2 r_A
) (r_cl 2 re4

r(_A
)
(18)
distances
the plane of the paper is the plane of the moon, and space vehicle at its entry into sphere of influence:
earth, the
GM_ fq_ = 2re_ acceleration sphere of of influence the earth of the
(19)
A
is to is
the the the
gravitational moon. The region
due moon
>,
IV 15
f_A
 f06 f_A
<
f_A
fsA
f(I$
(20)
and
its
boundary
is
given
by
fe±
f(_A
f(9_
_
f4±
feA
f(_@
(21)
or, if wesubstitute fromtherighthand sides of Eqs(17)and(18),theboundary defined is as: 2
r _zx (red (req = +tea +tea )(red )(%¢ r@A " tea +%a ) )
which
is
more
than
twice
the
mean
distance
of
the moon from the earth. The moon, as well as lunar trajectories, is within the earth's sphere of influence, which justifies the omission of the gravitational attraction of the sun as a first approximation When the influence, Ye&' be to the motion in earthmoon the lunar position _e/X , space. sphere _eA )
(22)
of
space vehicle its geocentric Ze /',) and to , YmA' its will be velocity
enters inertial
(XeA" will
(JCeA ,
transformed (XmA "ZmA)and field IV40).
a selenocentric ZmA) and in velocity the
inertial (Xm/,,, lunar the gravisketch
It can be deduced from the previous sketch that the disturbing effect is largest when the vehicle is on the earthmoon line between the earth and moon, of tive the the and moon smallest from the when earth. it is on Calling the opposite r(l _ posilatter, are: side
position ym A,
trajectory computed
tational on page
(see
in the former radii at these
case, negative two points of
in the conjunction
the
For typical velocity at
lunar trajectory the moon as at of infinity sphere
given is of
injection by the higher influence
velocities, method than by that
r@z x
=
r${ I

r(l A
of residual velocity given by the method about 1%. Another defined is region lunar
r{l A and Eq (22)
= can
r
_ be

r
A the around the gravisphere moon or that sphere has been inside
written: 2/5 1/5
of which the gravitational attraction of the space vehicle by the moon exceeds the attraction by earth• On the boundary of the lunar gravisphere, from Eqs (14) and (15):
(23) Equation boundary on the moon Me of W = 81. 357. As can be not seen a true from sphere Eq (23), but has It distance is more from convenient earth on the cosine sketch the rq_= (b (23) can be solved by iteration, of the "sphere of influence" earthmoon line is 51,870 km and 63,790 km behind the moon and the of the moon in front of the for a value fCZk Numerically, system to = f_A this ratio or r
2
=
M( _Z_ _ the
2 tea earthmoon radii of (26)
a
amounts in of the vehicle 1/2 = 0.1109
(27)
"sphere" a bulge It is influence
of influence is behind the moon. instructive of the to earth
to the
compute the in its assumed Equation the earth symbol by
sphere of circular be used by the sun symbol
replace RHS of
the Eq
vehicle (26) by shown
orbit around the sun. directly if we replace symbol and the moon in that equation:
(23) can symbol the earth
application of in the following
law in the triangle (not drawn to scale).
(
]VI
h
2[5
_r®@
4 r_z _
.i[5
(24) M O In ro® mating the sunearth r@A the and earthls .1.1t5 0 For kin, is a mean the solar distance of the of earth's ro$ = 14!), of 53 x lO 6 system the _@ spherical of 332,440. region influence 2/5 Hence approxiis given by
Lunar
sphere
"radius"
sphere
inflLicHce
r
OA
=
805,000
km,
2
2
2
r® A : re( [ + r_A
2rq)([ r([ A cos r_ m
IV16
to obtain
the
boundary
of the
lunar
grav[sphero"
influence to the radius a
in typical gravisphere, r v and center
lunar the at
trajectories. volume r_q+ of &r infIuence v, where
Similar has
1/2
 cos FI_A = _m + (M_ \Nf_ 2 sin qm)
i12
kvl
r
%¢ v
z
\EI__
7
%¢
k 2 v M@
1
(28)
From the at r the lunar + preceding gravisphere Arg, where sketch has a it can radius be rg seen and that center 69436.1
Me
(32)
r v
km,

 0.1804719LU
%¢ i/2
A r V
1
 %_
=
=
rg
=
r_
M_

1
Ar V
N
12147.7 43186.6 krn, gg = 0.1122467LU km,
 0.0315732 
LU
%¢
1
A r
the
At the boundary of the volume ratio of the lunar to the earth' on the space vehicle 2 is:
of influence s gravitational
g
= %¢
Me
Nkin,
 1
attraction
Am
f_A = 0. 0124445 e¢ (29) LU
Me
(r$
h_,
4788.0
_g
r
0.4014
(33)
The used by the in
volume the relation rCA Voice
of
influence computer
of
the
moon, is
which defined
is
from belief
The lunar gravisphere the standpoint of that it is sufficient
has little trajectories. to reach
significance The erroneous the point of of by
program,
equal gravitational attraction or the boundary the lunar gravisphere in order to hit the moon was revealed in trajectory calculations made (30) Egorov (Ref. 1). gion for trajectory ume of influence body force threebody much more calculations since it allows the best trajectories. A significant is the lunar the use of approximation
<
0.
175,
reA
a number which lunar trajectories. of influence is was given determined The boundary by 1/2 r_A 0. 175 = k , (31) empirically of thevolume from
revoltwoof
models for or nbody
At this point it would be helpful to illustrate the lunar sphere of influence, gravisphere, volume of influence as well as the boundary the closed region around the moon obtained the Jacobi integral problem (see also regions around the Fig. 3. However, minimum radii are table with below gives the EML and
and of from
rez x
where Hence, sphere lunar location k v the with = 1.578 volume a scale is of a
v
constant influence factor one k v, that from of is larger gives earth proportionality. a type than of gravithe
of the restricted threebody Fig. 2 of Chapter III). These moon are drawn to scale in since their maximum and on the earthmoon line, the the intersection their characteristics: of these regions
gravisphere, but for transforming
the best to moon
n
luenc,'
fm 57
(kin) 9 •
f
oon
t] (beh 48
nd (kin)
mou,, 3% Nv , thai
D,,scr_pti,,1, o ptica[ rt,_kt,t, ,h, cuh_ constant ar (:_
,,f
Region t _e I, i_ lll_m 2 ar,,l _¢'hneci iJq (77)
t,od_
triton
gr,,m
I
t
/l),
un: {so,
[
[unal
:)rl_it_
from
]ii1)[,[% rhe legio_
cs:a]_'
_l'ai_'¢'_,,cl_'s _o] I;_l'a_t'_ boron]at",
I_1 lhv [l_N_ [l_Eq
lph_r,' I
,,t
infku,,r,:e
5
,
70
63
790
af tuna )tt_r" IIll Near s >hericat
by t], (23) rlh,"
houiidar', _ilh
[}it"
the
F[_lt_
P 'I_pl) _iv,,n
of I c'
tes_
]_malLol
h,
tha_
_f
t!_o
lar_r
t:o_lv,
I
i
3_,
:/_R
_i
47,971
[;
!
57, 2g_ 4 :_:, _az a It ;s _ dl,'l':_a[ a'L1h Ltlltt t 1:!1t7 7 kill hehinl th*,
i
/
IV17
Ii shtmld remarked bc thatthesizeof lh('se M variousregions changes iththechanger M@ w o ¢ from thevalue81.357 adopted this manual in and withanychange in_a_ =2._;61 G!)948.t x 106tad/
sec.
w_
_r lily t't_ re]alive tional
]l: Ill
_S th( _ (m('m2V m()on. is
'
per
unit value
mass for
the
of
lhe
]unLtl'
vehicle gravi
io lhc constunl
The
km u( : GM(, = 48!}!).4 _
SCC
3 (37)
(c)
Planar
dynamics
of
the
lunar
fiehl All the r'csults ,)1' Kelherian i.e. to fut'ihe[, nlcthod (Hcf. i[]u._trated = the velocity inl'Jnit3 , infinitesimal the mass study of .t), of motion of t]w (restricted mass of lilt: mOOlQ trajectory. velocities parameters follow to inI4 the sketch: moon at at of inthe are twospace now body vehicle available When finity is orbit Vm_,,: the (34) problem, compared for the used arc
At the boundary of the lunar re/Son of influence (sphere of influence, gravisphere or volume of influence) the geocentric (and so fat" inertial) position and velocity are transformed to the selenocentric system by the equations
"residual" lwo in useful the relative
m_
=
re_

re
=
g
Vm_
e&

V_ b = m
In selenocentric coordinates, which are assumed inertial inside the lunar region of influence, the energy of the vehicle relative to the moon is positive and its approach traiectory in this re_i_m is hyperbola (see sketch on page IV6). The equation of this trajectory centered at in the h
m
the in,pact perpendicular asymptote (direction
pax'ameter, distance of the hyperI)olic and
which between
is the the orbit
of \mA.)
the
center
of
a ,
the
moon.
plane moon 2
polar is
coordinates given by
(rmA
0m&)
u¢
rmA = 1 +emA cos OmA
(35)
where per the the unit an_le
h
is m mass 0mA
the of is
magnitude the vehicle
of
the relative
angular lo the
momentum moon, and In the method the magnitude per unit mass
hill j mZ_Oo
measured is given by
from
perieyntlion,
eccentricity
of of of
Ill
"residual" the angular the vehicle
"_.
velocities momentum are _iven
at by
infinity and enerlty
=
b
V 111
era&
=
+
m
2
(36) E rn = i 2 9 Vrn A _
ug
(3a,)
ane
/ / iln_ecti°n_'_
X:,_n_
_ "eli!Jan /
f',,
X
equatorial plane
L_Ascending of the
node moon
IV  1 8
(d) It planar the
Threedimensional was seen in the previous were conditions the orientation the center of reA
effects _2 sections 0, VeA 0, that described )Je0" In the by In the from are following Ref. plotted In each is ¢0 = +28.5 sketches, parameters of 5q which 004 and have been taken , and iVT L = sin1 (c°s \cos iem_j 5
trajectories injection
completely
6, the as case °, the
, AX04 Ae0,
addition, focus at
of the the earth
conic (which
section with is determined
functions injection latitude i
e rn
respectively. at and Of
by the injection conditions) relative to the moon may be specified by the angle • (see sketch on page IV 14). Since the plane of the moon' s motion inclined to earth's equatorial plane, and the trajectory plane dimensional 6, and following Ae0 _0' z_0( 6_ i em 7). is, in effects general, must be is inclined considered portrayed to in both, (Refs. the three4,
is assumed of Cape
to occur Canaveral,
lunar course,
inclination in the
is assumed case, the
to be
20 ° .
general
injection the
latitude lunar
The sketch. = = = = =
geometry
may vary between inclination between
+90 ° and 18 ° and
90 °, and 28.5 ° .
injection injection longitude
azimuth latitude (geocentric) 1 difference declination of the moon
. _ IR_.C*IOI A.im.th,
%
instantaneous
inclination of the moon's to the earth's equatorial mum declination of moon
orbital plane plane or maxi6o 6O _i X_rthJr_
004 iVT
= L=
total
inplane
angle trajectory plane
0 , 2o io o LO
inclination of the translunar plane to the moon's orbital
Additional threedimensional injection the and longit<fde the moon
injection _, difference at of i
em
parameters trajectories the injection between A X0_ 6_ , , and
required are the azimuth the the the
to describe geocentric Ae0, point
18c [ A o. o No_t_
latitude
injection instantaneous inclination
impact moon
declination the moon From angle 00_
the
of
,,,,'
I trigonometry by the total inplane
!I i'
spherical is given
COS
00¢
=_in
dO_ sin
54
2
cos
d0_ coS
Ae0
(1 (39)
3 l _c j

sin
2
zo
.it
o
_c
zo (_,g)
Ae0
cos
_
sin
2
5¢)
1]
J
(1
sin
2 Ae0
cos
2 (?b)
:
!
*.o" c a,s Nort_
the
longitude
difference
AX0(
is
cos _Xoq
_
cos
°°_
cos
 sin _} cos
_°
5q
sin
611
(40)
and the translunar grees is iVTL where _l/COS 1 = sin _ = 180° 
inclination
angle
iVT
L
in
de
(_1
+ _2 )
(41)
_o
m
_ cos
sin Ae0 _)_ ' )
IV19
It is seen ft'omthefirst of the previou_ _hrc_, sketches,hat01Idecreases increasin_ t with declination themoon,for aninjectionin thenorthcm_ of hemisphere.Thetotal inplan('anglealsodecreases as theinjection azimuthis increased.Since. is it alsoa function VeA re& Te0, the in.]cotton of 0, 0,
time tions. depends also o21 the trajectory initial, condi
'kO YR
Vehicle /__'_m
Mzx _
I/" [./B XR
The to the middle sketches Ae0 last angle is the its
tongitudc inplane sketch the or shows L for in
difference angle shown abscissa an
GAO( ]
behaves
similuuly
as can be previously. coincides toward the impact orbit at
noted In with the
from the the first two the curve {_ + _ell t south. inclination when the is moon (In at to injection The
= 180", sketch iVT
injection that
minimum occurs zero
lunar its
soutilbound
declination. when it corresponds a given
other hand, impact maximum southern 00¢ and
at the moon declination for path angle losses
a larger velocity which
consequently flight gravity
a smaller means lower
at injection, during powered
The
transfol'mations
between the
tile various in Table
coordinah_s coordinate 1. In lhe r,q'er,,nce (center
o
and ah(_v(. s l_rs mass , YlI' eat'th
flight from launch angle in this case resulting in lower due to threedimensional
to injection. The inclination is somewhat larger, however, tolerances on initial velocity effects. Initial azimuths advantage of Thus some is necessary. the earth's compro
v_qocity systems sketch tern of of the with
componcnls of are sumlnarizcd r 0 (x0, orioin and rotates about rl_ z0, a of the _ystcms zt{ axes. Y0' at
moo_
z 0) th,_
is
an
inertial
of 90 ° (east) take greatest surface rotational velocity,. mise in these parameters
barycenter
syste2]l)
of (Xll lhe
earth
The same (up rate f,om
Conlnloll
t'l{ as lhc
This brief discussion shows that lhc geometry the earthmoon and vehicle planes plac(_s conslraints on injection conditions'and defines preferred launch times throughout the lunar' month. It nmsl be remembered that the above discussion does not consider the use of parking orbits to easp the afnrcmentioned injection constraints. Chapters V, VI, IX and XI present data reflecting more practical aspects of the injection into lunar trajectories. 2. Hestmcued ThreeBed) _ Trajectories
z H) and "l'l_u
s>stem moon r 0 and
at
the
z0axis have The
paper).
ol'i_itl and
a
coincident lem center z
the in
r e (Xc, with origin the
Yo' at r In vsilh
ze) the
s) s
is
nonrotatin_ mass is
of
system of the earlh
'
and
(Xnl_
}i/1'
) system
cellteF
;, _(,nrotatin
nlasS ()_ tilt'
R s.vst(*m
lll()()ll.
<,riKin
at
The simplified model discussed in Subsection BI, where analytical solutions of tbe equations of motion were possible, may be complieulud
In
see(Jtld
the
ia\g titaNS
i21ortial
r is
Felel'ence the
system, (.(tuations lhe space
where
NowtonWs a
vuli_t,
by
point
lej)l.es(_nting
of inoth)n of vehicle [t1'(!,
adding the moon to the earthvehicle, restricted twobody problem. The resultant restricted threebody problen_ was discussed in some detail in Chapter llI, Section B in terms of Jacobi's integral. An analytical solulion of the equations of motion is no lonltec possible and recourse must be taken to numerical methods. In this subsection, vehicle motion, in terms of the restricted threebody problem, will be considered, i.e., the mass of the vehicle is negligible in conlpal'iSoI/ to the mass of the earth and mool_, and with the earth and moon as spherical bodies so that they may be considered as point musses. The ear'thmoon S_'Steln is considered isolated in space, the two bodies revofvinff in circles about their center of mass with an angular in a_ain velocity conjunction in Sectiol_ in lhe _ .
.. r0/" = 3
2'{1,
(; ]\1¢
_ r(I, c&
(!
._
(I2) (; Mq
w he re
u0,
e 25
=
t'I)_

r_le
(1 :_)
r0, m _.5 r!)_ i_t i()
It/( _

r'I)ni Irunsforn_
(:noFdJn__lte
The coordinate with this model Chapter III in_ sketch. and
systems have been the/ are
used defined shown
A of followmntion
It
is
convetli(
('i 9 ) l()
lhe
C(]Utlti(}nS
svsten7
(}f
t'_H;_tin:4
(1'1{)
I'OI'
I}1(I
i)t4F!){)_{'
(>]"
I/UIH(JFiCal
cal(:Llitilit)t?s,
IV 20
because constant. rotation Chapter
in the latter system This may be done matrix III and T(_ the + w®( equations
several terms are with the aid of the t) given by Eq (47) of
duration change This formed new to and
may /',V in vehicle the
also inertial
be
simulated velocity
by _0A +
an of AV
impulsive the must vehicle. be transsysto
of motion
become,
velocity rotating x R,
V0A YR"
ZR
coordinate
• o

2
tern XRA
the
new
vehicle
velocity at the as new
components time initial of
XRA
 2_®
6
YRA
= WOq
gether with the position thrust can be regarded for a ballistic trajectory. Before values T®( of are Eq the (44) constants for can
the sinmlated conditions
GM® 3 rR,eA required the restricted threebody model. since sistent In reality• only four constants are needed G never occurs alone. The following conset of constants is given for this modeI: (XRA XR® ) be G, solved M®, numerically. NI_/ , w®_ , and
GM¢
3 rR,
°°
(xR& m_A
 XRl_
)
U® YRA + 2t006 kRA 2 = t0®¢ YRA (44)
GM®
= 398,
601.
5 km3/sec
2
u_
= GM_ = 2. 661
;
4899.4 699484
km3/sec x 10 6
2 (46) rad/sec
GM® 3 rR, e A The can be twobody YRA m_A
T
YRA
= 384• consistency checked (earth,
747.
2 km
1
LU
(lunar
unit)
by
GM_ 3 rR,
of the above Kepler's third moon) motion, 3
set of constants law as applied
to
2

(2 _r) 2 r®_
•
0¢ GM O
=
u® r®(_ is the In 27r
+ u_ period terms of of rotation angular of the earth
RA
ZRA
where moon
system.
velocity
GM 3 PR, compare with Eq rn_A (70) of Chapter III• where _3 roll ZRA • the
consistency relation
'
becomes
uO 2 c0®g
+ u(7 (47)
rR,
e_A
= rRA

fRO
'
rR,
m_A
= rRA

rR_ (45)
Since the angular velocity can be observed very accurately, it is customary to assume the anKular velocity as well as the gravitational constants of the earth and moon as known, and to determine a consistent value of lunar unit from Eq a circular ro_ The lunar
YRe The as the
=yRm terms components terms
= 0, 2w®l I
and
(XRe• and Coriolis
XRm) 2_®_ 2 td@_
are
constants. known and comThe equanumeriand
YRA the xRAand
xRAare acceleration, YRA are
of 2 w®_
unit to a earth mass served 3.
may be fictitious
regarded, moon
in
(47), as the distance orbit around the those whose ob
ponents tions cally velocity
of the centrifugalacceIeration. of motion, Eq (44), can subject to initial conditions XRA, YRA" ZRA' are may XRA"
(of mass as determined and Keplerian period for the moon. ManyBody moon} Trajectories
by experiment) coincide with
be
integrated on position YRA" ZRA"
(oblate
earth,
triaxial
In These equations vehicles, however, These can he included in two vehicle the different may be of for" ballistic be subject in the trajectory The by or flight. Space to thrust forces. calculations on terms of the in short els,
the discussion several forces
of the previous two have been neglected.
force modThese
ways: simulated motion,
thrust forces additional a large thrust
equations
can be conveniently divided into gravitational and nongravitational forces. Fxamples of gravitational forces to be considered in the earthmoon trajectories arc the attraction of the sun and planets, the oblateness of the earth, the triaxiality of the
IV 21
moon,
any
inhomogeneities effect moon's
in the
earth,
and
the
model,
numerical position of time.
integration and velocity Since the
is
necessary
to vehicle techas
dynamical tion of the
of the eccentricity orbit around the
and inclinaearth. Non
obtain the a function nique taining brief lunar this a.
of the integration
gravitational forces include solar radiation pressure, atmospheric and meteoritic drag, electromagnetic forces, rocket thrust, and relativistic effects. Many of these forces such as earth oblateness and atmospheric drag are strongly related to position, and are sigmificant only in the vicinity of the earth. The influence of these factors on translunar
can improve a trajectory discussion trajectory section. Equations
the speed and accuracy of obon the digital computer, a of several techniques useful for calculations will be included in
of
motion coordinate Subsection and
A
trajectories has been The integrated effect whole transit forces corrections earth below. tude of threebody VeA trajectory time, varies
investigated (Fiefs. 2, 8). of these factors over the shape of the The near" listed
Consider described origin
A
in the ,
the equatorial Chapter III, barycenter
A
system Al, with vectors
at
A
unit the
depends on trajectory and the actual ma_4z_itude throughout the trajectory AVe _ 0 to of the these to of initial effects velocity are
xo¢ mean parallel Let of
' YO_ vernal to MO the
zo_ equinox,
,
xo_ and
in
direction xttlq plane )O_ of earth, the
of
the
the
plane the earth. Mq vehicle, that
0 because are factor initial
the
mean the
equatorial mass mass of
They each
intended compared velocity
convey the magnito the restricted 10.7 km/sec.
represent and XI(I
the of
moon, M A < <
M A the '
where Pe Factor AVeA0 m/sec* r ce nt VeA0 unit i. Gravitational field of the Gravitational fields 3. of planets of 6.0 of (Ref. 8) 0. 06 ':_ 0. 006 sun 3.0 (Ref. 8) O. 03' Then,
M A < <
1_I_B
since of
_O an
' '% inertial
'
zo^
constitute system
the with
vectors
coordinate
2.
origin chosen at the center of mass considered in the. physical model, of motion of the space vehicle, or absoIute motion, are
of the bodies the equations the equations
of
Oblateness the earth Asphericity the moon Eccentricity moon's Inclination orbit of Solar pressure
M A
r O, 0_ /',
=
4.
5.
of orbit of moon 13.5 (Ref. 8) 0. 13 _:_
T i=O
,0_
r
3 A O,
O'0_i i +A
M. 1 M
!6.
6.0
(Ref.
8)
0. 06* (48)
7.
radiation 0. 012 disThe vehicle term r O , from the coordinates ;%, the i..A forces = r_ 0 + A in the radius (center with , O_ per origin A unit  r_ mass of vector of the mass) baryf_i to nA the are acting of the (Ref. 8)
B.
Meteoroid turbances
baryeenter
:q'ransit time, 2. 5 days. ity, 10.7 km/sec. Vehicle about 1 m 2 and weighing
Nominal with 1300
injection projected newtons
velocarea of
equatorial center', represents
, O_i" due and
It sun, orbit,
is
seen
that
the
AVeA earth, of
0 corrections eccentricity the orbit of
for of the
the moon's moon
asphericity the on
of the
celestial forces
bodies, per' unit
oblateness and the
of the inclination enough in the
nongravitational M A. To obtain the
mass
are significant of these effects ity in ity of jectory factors, this
to necessitate determination calculations. important These, as in some
the inclusion of initial velocThe asphericin nearmoon trawell as the other detail later in
actual trajectory the moon will be computations. will be discussed chapter.
equations Eq (48), in at the center
of a the of
motion
of the system Eq (49),
space with the the
vehicle, the origin equations gravitational M A << of
coordinate of the earth,
motion attraction 5'10),
of
earth (neglecting the space vehicle
since The equations of motion threebody problem could fomn, and with the present even not be more in the restricted integrated in closed complicated force
IV 22
n
•_z"0*S rs ,
=
%i=_
,0_S GMi 3 ris
,0_i
Tire acting
on
vectors
_ i=S to
L,
representing
the
forces
M A due i =$ , _,1,2
aspherieity .... n
of can
the be
i celestial written:
i =_ is to multiplied yield Eq by (50), rs _
,1,
2 ....
n subtracted of from relative Eq
(49) (48)
bodies,
M A and the A
<51)
Any asphericity n, is of the sun and in planets its effect fi' on i = 1, lunar 2 .... insignificant since small, as even can trajectories force is table. Consider the effect be seen in of the central the preceding
equations
motion,
n IVI A r_
A
_
G
I_'I_
M A
_SA
_ of the
first. earth's
It
arises gravitational
from
the
expan
•
f's
Mfl
i:_[
\r$
A
r iS/
sion
terms
potential In theory a should be inof the oblateis larger by
+
where r,A
=
,1,2....
n
(5o)
in terms of spherical harmonics. large number of harmonic terms cluded; however, the coefficient ness term (second zonal harmonic) three orders of magnitude compared all but than
the
others
(i. 10 6 term
e., for The earth also
of order 10 3 as the others). Thus
to the order the oblateness
rS,O_A
r,,O..
S
can be neglected in lunar trajectory effect of local gravitational anomalies on the lunar trajectory is very small be neglected.
studies. of the and will
ri S Actually have been change illustrated of any other chosen symbols in the
, O_S
, O_i If US represents then the tire expansion harmonics not yet can earth's of U_ gravitational in terms and of seetoral welI enough poas the with moon, could an appropriate geometry is
body, such as a reference in Eq following
tential,
(50). The sketch:
zonal spherical harmonics have for their inclusion)
(tesseral been determined be written

rs A n=l
Jn
Pn
(sin
d o
/
\
//
US
(52) is n the = 1,2 from and given radius geocentric Legendre form of U® has distance .... geodetic in of Chapter the earth are and II, of the vehicle from constants measurethe mean 163 do') is do'. the The Inter(Ref. comparim), the the
where
j 1, _p 61
r$ Jn'
a
earth, (determined ments) equatorial do' is the
empirical satellite R e is (R e and
= 6,378, Pn (sin sin by
latitude, polynomial been on
associated above
/ / 7 (s_ace vehi©il)
of adopted
national _®lO...z _ 9).
0 (lllu.ycenter)
Commission Let US Eq
Celestial U 3, where,
Mechanics by
= U 0 + U 2+ (51)
son
#%
with GM$
The
unit
vectors
_@
,
YS
'
Az$
define
the in which given.
geoU0 = rs A
centric equatorial the equations of ^ unit vector, x S, vernal equinox,
coordinate motion, Eq is and in the the xS
system (50), are of plane
The
direction y$
the forms
mean the U2 = Ghl_ rt_ A J2 (Re \r S AI _ 2 3 sin 2 do' 2 1 (53)
mean equatorial plane of the earth. defined in the preceding sketch are be resolved into components in this system.
All vectors assumed to coordinate U3 = GI¥I_ rs A =. n_ _ Jn (Re _ n Pn (sin q_')
IV 23
U0 represents spherically the symmetric earth,whichhasalreadybeen acounted by for r_ A
the term G 3r_A to gravity coordinates the M_ in Eq (50). UI, the term if the the corresponding center of origin of U 2 is harmonic) pansion, zonal lected above. J2 n = 1 in Eq (52), vanishes of the earth coincides with (Ref. 10, p 43). term the largest (or term the second in higher zonal the ex
The in the
term direction the center
a is of of force
the the the
semiaxis earth, moon
of rSA to the
inertia is the
of
the
moon,
distance U{ the spherimosymis diforthoIb and Ie 0
from is cally ment metry, a triaxial the
vehicle, from
central symmetric about and the
term moon,
arising U #1 shows
that
the by
center comes (i. axes from of
of
mass about
vanishes since ellipsoid mutually Ia, the the
U q2 ellipsoid
moon with
e., in the
an three
oblateness is
ferent gonal are the
semimajor directions moments
which while
center). about
U 3 represents earth
order
inertia
three
princisuch
harmonics of the for lunar trajectory The numerical = 1082.28 and f x
which studies value for 10 6 . be the by are x@, Eq given (50),
may be negas mentioned
pal semiaxes of inertia, that c is along the lunar earth's direction (excluding b completes equatorial The coincide the plane. selenographic with d_ the and principal [_q righthand
a, b and c of the moon, polar axis, a is in the small librations) and system in the lunar
Let
f_x, of these
f_y
@z
y@
z@
comThe
coordinate axes are then vector (or between the of
axes inertia
x S,
YS' a, b,
Zs c.
ponents Then
f@ as
defined
respectively. by
angles
defined to the
to
be
the and and
components
angle between the the lunar equatorial 0U 2 latitude), (54) the radius ships are and the
radius plane angle
the vehicle selenographic Ysaxis
OU 2 f_xax ' fsy :
_U 2 Oy ' foz
= Oz
vector, illustrated
respectively. in the
These following
relationsketch:
Next venient tation force fined
we to
turn find an
to_
.
To
obtain_ for the
,
it
is
congravi
expression and of define the
lunar"
potential as by the
Uff gradient
the potential.
gravitational U_ is de
Luoar
/polar Z" '
u_
= G ,¢dM¢ s
dM¢ is an element from integration The Legendre function 1
S
(:_5)
where s is and the terms _ the
of dM_
mass to over the the be
of
the
moon, vehicle, mass in of
distance indicates
space total
moon. of
can
expanded
polynomials,
u_
where (fief. Uq
=U¢o+U_l+u¢2+...
Alexandrov (Ref. given after the a ii) and Baker, values in
(56)
Makemson for notation*. U{0, Wolf
The
expressions 13) is in agree
for with
U_2 this by
given
by
Pines if
and their
(Ref.
expression R of M the (which present
12) 2 and
have U lr 3'
following slight change
symbol ponds ter). to
y VM 3 r SA
replaced the notation
eorreschap
GM¢ U q0 rSA
*Actually, a U¢I = 0 (57) _ GMq U¢ 2 2r3A YS5 rsh a2 radius ZSA unit vector
Baker' A rSA rSA the
and in
Makemson the direction components
(Ref. of
11) the XSD, Clearly,
define vehicle YSD'
vector along
with
selenographic
axes.
I +C
I
a
= cos
_¢
,
ZSA rSA

cos
(90

_¢
) =
1
C
sin
_)q
.
IV 24
Theformof U( 2 in Eq(57)is givenin the selenographic coordinateystem s whichrotates withthemoon (seeprecedingketch).From s this pointonemayproceed twodifferentways. in Thefirst would betotransformU(I2 tothe geocentricequatorial oordinatessed theequac u in tionsof motion,Eq (50). Since influence the of U{ 2 onthetrajectoryis strongest earthemoon, n it is morepracticalto writethe equations moof tion in a selenocentricquatorial preferably, e or, lunarequatorial ystem s andconsequently transform U _2to thatcoordinateystem. If the secs ondapproach taken,andthenewperturbative is expression denotedyU'_2,thenthecompois b nentsof theperturbative acceleration_ in the f lunar equatorial ystem given s are formallyby
au' ¢2
f( f =
and planets must be known in coordinates. These positions the yearly American Ephemeris oblateness and the triaxiality cluded in the physical model, ues for certain other constants density required distribution as described of these in the
geocentric equatorial can be obtained from (Ref. 14). If earth of the moon are inthen numerical valof the shape and celestial previous bodies are subsection.
For lunar trajectories, the differential equation, Eq (50), is solved numerically on a digital computer. There are several methods of integration available (Cowell's method, Encke's method, for example), each with its own advantages and disadvantages for a specific physical problem. In addition one can use various numerical integration techniques (RungeKutta technique, for example), in which the integrand is represented by a polynomial of finite order at each computation step. Two types of errors arise from the integration technique, one due to the finite number of terms in the series, called the truncation error, and an error due to the finite number of digits carried on the computer, called the roundoff error. In general it can be stated that the fewer the total number of computation steps in a given physical problem, the less the error. The term special perturbations is given to the determination of a trajectory by numerical integration; a more complete discussion of special perturbations can be found in Chapter IV of Ref. 3. The numerical integration of space vehicle trajectories and the orbits of celestial bodies is based upon one of three methods, and variations thereof. The most direct in concept is Cowell's method. In this method the rectangular components of acceleration in the equations of motion are integrated directly, yielding the rectangular components of velocity and position. One disadvantage of the method is that the acceleration term in the integration changes rapidly with time, thereby necessitating the use of small computatior steps (or time intervals). A second method, and the one most often used in ballistic trajectory computations, is Encke Ts method. of obtaining the actual position and nates, the difference between the and velocity coordinates and that orbit are computed. Some time, epoch of osculation, is utilized to erence curve. This implies that the epoch of osculation, the effccts bations are small and can thus be Itere, instead velocity coordi actual position of a Keplerian designated the define the reffor times near of the pertursummed over
au'(
2
o
U' _2
(58)
Expressions Chapters VII for and _q II. the knowledge distribution beyond (56) are U _2 too of inside in the of the lunar shape the moon is expansion for U_ a, on that , b, Eqs c, their (56 I a, I b, of and U'_2 will be given in
and slight U_
At this time the density and given terms by In the in moon is UI_ constant accurate together Eq
uncertain for
inclusion. and I (57), given
the
expressions values II, the are based
numerical
of
c of the sity More
Chapter and
observations the lunar den
assumption
over concentric numerical values with available be observed local as lunar soon from
ellipsoidal shells. and expressions gravity anomalies
for
will become satellite can and the when moon. b.
as a longterm lunar the lunar surface can be made on
gravity
measurements
Brief discussion and techniques
of
integration
methods
Expressions for all gravitational terms equation of motion of the space vehicle, Eq have been given previously. Before turning the nongravitational force term __n A M_in Eq
in the (50), to (50), of
it is helpful to discuss the method of solution this vector differential equation which corresponds to three secondorder scalar differential equations, or order differential The vehicle tion and problem as velocity an equivalent equations. is at to find of some time initial the system of six first
relatively large time intervals. A disadvantage lies in the fact that a new epoch of osculation must be introduced when the effects of the perturbations known Another as become rectifying method large. This the Keplerian the Variation procedure reference of Parameters Clemence studies 17, for is orbit. (Ref. (Baker exam
is
position subject time to
of its
the
space posior
which is discussed 15). There have et al., Ref. 16, ple) of methods bility and the in advantages terms
by been Pines of
Brouwer and some recent et al., Ref. of the simplicity, time, as various area well
a function
t = t O,
integration of applicaas accuracy
its motion or trajectory. Mathematically ing, this is an initial value problem differential equations with time t as pendent variable and the coordinates
speakin ordinary the index_ , y$ , z
and computing interpretation. For longterm artificial
term
ephemerides, satellites of not
the
such earth
as and
longmoon
as the dependent variables. In order with the solution, the positions of the
to proceed moon, sun
and periodic numerical
circumlunar methods are
and allunar well suited
trajectories, since a
IV 25
very largenumber f computation o stepsarerequiredandhence accumulated the error becomes excessive.In thesecasesonemustresort to general erturbations, hichis theanalytical p w integration seriesexpansions theperturbing of of forces,or a combinationf specialandgeneral o perturbations.Examples f general o perturbations are thevariouslunartheoriesdiscussed Chapin ter III. A discussion general erturbations of p canbefound Chapter Vof Ref. 3. in 1
For short transit trajectories as envisioned for approach, impact, lunar landing, the accuracy afforded by general perturbation theory is offset by its following inadequacies: (I) the theories have not yet included a complete analysis of all perturbing accelerations such as solar radiation pressure, and (2) the theories are very complicated to program (although short in machine time) and almost impossible to check. For these reasons general perturbation theories will not be discussed any further in this chapter. In order to compare turbation methods, the marily from page F2 Method Cowell's the various special following table taken of Ref. 18 is useful: perpri
choice is between use of a single computation step technique such as the RungeKutta, a fourthorder multistep predictor'corrector technique such as Milne's and AdamsMoulton's or a higher order multistep technique such as Adams' Backward Difference, Obrechkoff, and GaussJackson. There exist also special techniques for secondorder differential equations such as the special RungeKutta and MilneStorrner. For each multistep technique special formulas (for example, a RungeKutta technique or a Taylor series expansion) must be devised for starting the scheme at the given initial conditions. The most important factors in the choice of an integration technique for space vehicle trajectories are high speed and good accuracy. The latter involves low truncation or roundoff error, ease of changing step size and little error growth. The roundoff error can be reduced by using a double precision process, i.e., by carrying all dependent variables in double precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various schemes are discussed more fully in Chapter IV of Ref. 3 (see also Refs. 15 and 18). For ballistic lunar trajectories Encke's integration method or a variation thereof seems to be best suited due to the smallness of the perturbations throughout the trajectory (this can be seen by the way successive twobody problems can be used to describe the trajectory relatively accurately). The epoch of osculation should be changed whenever the sphere or volume of influence of the moon is entered or left. For an accurate simulation of large thrusts during the flight, Cowell's method is preferable during rocket burning. Of the various integration techniques Ref. 18 seems to favor slightly the GaussJackson scheme over the others, while the Obrechkoff scheme ires been found useful in the reduction of computing time. The interplanetary (and lunar) trajectory program described in Ref. 13 uses a modified Encke's method with an Adams' sixthorder nique which backward difference integration techis initiated by a RungeKutta scheme. its widespread use in Encke's method will This method is
Advantages Simplicity in pro gramming and analysis Universally applicable Coordinate conversion unnecessary
Disadvantages Increased number
of integration steps Excessive error accun_ulation Increased computin_ time Detection of small perturbations di[ficult
Encke's
Smaller
number
Increased
co ill 
of integration steps than Cowell' s method Reduced computing time as compared with Cowell' s method hnproved racy Detection small tions Variation Parameters of Smaller accuof perturba
puting time for each step Complex program Special program for nearparabolic orbits
Encke's method. Due to ballistic lunar trajectories, be described in this subsection. used with program program, modifications trajectories
some modifications in the trajectory described in Ref. 13. This trajectory in turn, has been used with some minor for the calculation of nbody lunar in this manual. the discussion of the basic Eq Encke's (50) method repeated
number
of integration steps than Cowell's Reduced computing time relative to Cowell's hnproved accuracy as compared with Cowell' s (about same as Encke's) Detection of small perturbations
Most complex to program Most computing time Most useful for earthsatellites of moderate eccentricity
For without here:
modifications,
consider
.. M A rq)
A
= G
rsA Tr$ A
M@M
A
+}(9 MA
[VIi M A
+ fi M Another tions is the consideration integration in numerical technique to be calculaused. The
+ nAM
A,
i :{,1,2
....
n
IV 26
n
Dividing this equationy MA b
A
and
taking
the
dot
+_ i=_
(G)(_ \rOA i =q ,1,2
_
 __ rio/ n
M i.
product the The comes xO
with YO
xo, zO
_O
'
_O'
respectively, of vehicle acceleration
yields acceleration. beand
components of vehicle
....
(62)
°,
x O component
similar Consider
expressions the first term
hold in
for Eq and
r_ OA (62).
and
_'O/',"
•. xo/,,
= G
XOA _ ro A
Taking by
1VI O
+ fox
only (1),
the it
term in parentheses can be written
multiplying 3
Ou +_ _Jq i : ff with similar Here x YO zo terms and of the all fix , 1, 2 .... expressions represents coordinates, of nAx the is ith the the of _G)('x_ \roA n for Y'O A and z'o A" in gravivehicle of the reactNow, _0A' expressing n0A' g0A roA in terms of _ _ rio/ Mi+fix 1 +mA x rou rOA/ rou
 _y_ roA
xO
3 (59) = _3_ 1 rou tx OA _O,,X 3 rou rOA xo
_
x O component, the aspherical affecting
= 
_rou
r OA
xo/x

_0
tational motion, sultant ing on
body
(63)
xcomponent
nongravitational in xO YO zo
accelerations coordinates.
x_0,
Y00,
zo0,
vehicle
For brevity tational terms, other may be (59) become:
neglect all but the spherical gravii.e., nbody motion, since the superimposed at the end. Then Eqs
2 rOA
= x 2OA
+ y2
A +z
2OA
n
= (Xou+
_OA)
2 + (you
+ 0OA)
2 + (Zou+
gOA)
2
xo :
r • A i = _ with similar
% +_
i_=Jq , 1, 2 .... n for Y'O& and Z'OA. rOA io
Mi,
2 = r OU (60) + _2A+ r_2A+ _'2_A (64) + 2x Ou _ OA + 2You r_OA + 2z Ou _OA
expressions
Then follow of its comunperXou' 2 rOA 2 _=I+2 rou for Put + i/2 rlOA)r_OA + (Zou 2 rou + i/2 t2OA)_jOA
Consider if acted on the earth. ponents turbed YOu" The this of
the path that the vehicle would only by the gravitational attraction Let the vehicle radius vector, position
..
(Xou+
1/2
_OA)_OA
+ (You
and twobody
..
acceleration motion
,,
in be
this r Ou,
restricted Zou' unperturbed case are: and
Xou, vehicle
YOu'
Zou' equations
respectively. of motion
(65)
OXou _:" Ou r'_ Ou
°° .°
(Xou+ IVIo (61)
1/2
_$A)_OA
+ (you
+
1/2
NOA)rTOA
+ (ZOu q=
+
r
and
similar
expressions
for YOu
and
Zou.
1/2 2 Ou
_OA)_OA
Subtract new tions ZoA Then
Eqs
(61) from gOA' = _O/x'
Eqs
(60),
and
define Then rela2 roA_ =l+2q
(66)
coordinates XOA  Zou  Xou
T)O/',' _OA YO&
by the
 YOu
= r_o/',' r O uj and 3
= _OA"
""
:
( xOA
Xou Ou
"_
rOu'} rOA/
= (1+
2q)
3/2
IV27
Assume differ so that
that the true much from the _OA,_OA, to of Xou, the You, increments _A'
orbit, Eq Keplerian are Zou. In can very
(60), does orbit, Eq small case neglected. in the
not (61), com
+f OY
M. 1
parison squares Thus,
that be
(71) + fiyl+ nAy
q
_
Xou
_OA
+ YOu r
2
rio&
+ Zou
_'OA
(67)
Ou n
Ou Further, assume thus enabling the expansion in Eq (63). These method. ing been h arc the Sometimes multiplied to q is first small few compared terms of tile term to unity, binomial (r®u_3/_ \rOA/
+ fo +
i={ _J + fi; + nA z
EG) (L k
\rok
rio/
Mi
tile rh
approximate
L
Then,
fundamental they by tile
witlbe
equations of encountered factor,
Encke's havh 2, this
constant of
If
RrOA/
5
3/2
(68)
where interval. method
represents An actual is given by
the width numerical Brouwer
the interpolation example using (Ref. 15, p 179).
Thc
series
used converge
in
the for
expansion  ½< of q<
of
Eq
(68) is in
can well the
be
shownto outside nbody Define
½ which
The reference orbit used in this description of Encke's method is the restricted twobody orbit, Eq (61). The method may be modified to use other' types of reference orbits which would be more advantageous for' the particular geometry and force model. d. Description gram of the nbody trajectory pro
its practical trajectory
limit program.
applicability
f
=
1 
(1
+ 2q) q
3/2
(69)
Note that f changes much less staying very close to 3 when thus easy to interpolate giving of f. Equation and (69): (63) then becomes
rapidly than q, q is small. It is q as a function
The trajectory body integrated is described in have been made, is able to give mass M,X gravitational triaxially and Jupiter. bodies as tory are
program used for obtaining nlunar trajectories in this manual detail in Ref. 13. Some additions so that the program at present the motion of a point mass with
by
use
of
Eqs
(64),
(67)
(simulating the space vehicle) under the attraction of the oblate earth, the ellipsoidal moon, the sun, Venus, Mars The positions of these celestial obtained from the U. S. Naval Observastored in tim program in geocentric equa) for inter
Xou rou
x_)A rOA
i fqxoA rou of fol_OA) (70)
torial 12hr
rectangular intervals
coordinates for the moon
(x O , YO ' z_ and for 24hr
Substitution of Eq (70) into Eq (62) and addition the terms that have been neglected yields tb_, lowing perturbation equations of motion:
GM O _'$A = rT Ou (fqXOA {OA )
vals for the sun and planets. A special input variable allows the use of this position data for the specified time period. In addition a subroutine for computing lunar librations from the rectangular tx)sition coordinates of the moon exists, and is described in Section C of Chapter III. It will be incorporated in the program as soon as a satisfactory interpolation routine can be established. The force model for this trajectory has also
+ fox
+i_• n q _ G) :
(_'_ \roA
provisions for including symmetric atmosphere The atmospheric drag motion are described There sure aI'e plans and other
drag due to a spherically rotating with tile earth. terms in the equations in the next subsection. solar radiation forces. pres
of
+ fixl+
nAx
to include nongravitational
n
OA
=  _
r
qYOA Ou
The nbody Encke numerical in Subsection twobody of the orbit pcrturbative
trajectory program integration method 3d. The unperturbed is rectified distance, as soon speed,
uses a modified as described restricted as or the ratios numerical
IV 28
value
of acceleration
exceeds reference as follows:
i%
of the
respective proce
restricted twobody dure is essentially (1)
orbit.
Tile
The most significant body in the system is selected (initially this is the earth, and if the trajectory approaches the moon, the moon); Eqs (61) are solved numerically on the computer. This numerical solution can always be checked by the known analytical solution. Equations sixthorder (60) are Adams is then solved backward started by using difference a Rungea
cular due to solar slowly spiraling vestigators have on satellites and,
radiation, into the sun. studied the have found M __
while simultaneously, More recently ineffects of this force that for a vehicle
mass
to
area
ratio)\_
< t). 0t
_m/cm 2"
,
a
sizable
(2)
perturbation occurs in the orbital elements (see Ref. 12). The essential qualitative effect of radiation pressure is a displacement of the center of the orbit, which is especially evident for circular and nearcircular orbits (Ref. 19). In these studies one of two possible approaches is taken. Either this force is obtained neglecting those times when the space vehicle is eclipsed by the earth or moon and hence the radiation pressure does not act (this is termed tbe shadow time), or the force shadow time as a function is included of the orbital by expressing elements the of the the
technique which Kutta scheme. (3) The are x@& z_& corrected then
coordinates by using Y@zx and
of the body the = Y_u relations: + n_/x, ones for
obtained _@_, _ _A
= X@u+ = Z_u+
similar
velocity and acceleration When the perturbations limits, new solutions Eq (61), and the orbit 4. Nongravitational Forces
components. exceed the are obtained is rectified.
above for
vehicle (i.e., of parameters For the be neglected the radiation vehiclecentered essentially Let photon, and c the P and Ep where constant From = hvp h = mc P be Ep
as a perturbation method).
in
variation
Having pearing in trajectories, gravitational resultant It should of be
discussed all gravitational terms apEq (50), which are significant for lunar let us turn our attention to the nonforces acting on the vehicle, the which noted to be was that used they equatorial termed ff the in must nAi_}x forces Eq (50) in Eq (50). subtracom
present analysis, the shadow time will and the rectangular components of pressure will be given in terms of coordinates. This analysis follows Kochi and Staley (Ref. 20). the its speed magnitude energy, of light; m of its the momentum mass, of a
equivalent
then (73)
discussed and the
sequently jectory ponent Let
are program, form in
be expressed in geocentric coordinates.
= mc x
2
(74)
nAMA where = = = =
= _s
+
D+
D E + _)M + T + Rre
1
(72)
= 6. 625
10 39
joulesee of
is the
Planck's radiation.
and v is the frequency Eqs (73) and (74) hvp
S
force
due
to
the drag
solar force forces
radiation
pressure
P
C
(75) magnitude pressure, of the Ps' force then per is unit area due
atmospheric electromagnetic meteoritic rocket relativistic of motion, will the thrust
The to radiation
drag
force Ps force where
hv = P e
N
(76)
¥
Rrel
=
N vehicle
is
the per
number unit power time
of
photon on a unit at
collisions area. the space WA If
with WA vehicle WA = h Vp
=
corrections
to
the
equations
the is
the
radiated
arriving
These above a.
forces order Solar
in
be discussed following pressure
more subsections.
fully
in
the per unit area of the vehicle, then
N = _p
radiation
and h Vp PS = e WA "_= WA c
Outside the confines of the earth's atmospher% the most significant natural nongravitational force acting on a vehicle arises from solar radiation pressures can be seen from the table on page IV2_.. It is due to the absorption and emission of photons by the space vehicle and is a consequence of the photon nature of light. Studies have been made previous to the launching of space vehicles coneerning the effects of this solar radiation pressure on the orbits of micrometeorites around the sun. These studies that the orbits by of Poynting and micrometeorites Robertson became indicated more cirmust
The also a factor
type be qs
of photon collision with taken into consideration. be introduced total black qs such
the that
vehicle To do 0 <qs
this, < 1
will
where qs or perfect photon
= 0 represents absorber, and
momentum body, i.e.,
transfer, an inelastic a perfect
collision,
= 1 represents
IV 29
reflector, Hence WA PS = _
i.e.,
an elastic
photon
collision.
reflectivity, perfect pendicular
zero reflector, to th_
for A
s
a black the area
body and 1 for of the vehicle line, vector ,O M A its of A the : rOA
a permass,
vehiclesun tile radius write
(i + qs )
(77) and ,_r_ ,6) the that Eq __.& is sun. (81) vehicle ro0
Let
W O
represent 2 per
the
total
radiated of the
power sun
(in
from so
Next becomes
watts/era
hemisphere) Then by the
at all Law:
frequencies.
StefenBoltzmann
_ Ps0 W6) where = _ cr T 4 A6) _ is the total sun empirically (_ = 1.0, x determined i.e., the sun is a (78)
(1
+ qs ) A s
_

)
(82)
_
XL_Ir*z_
%0
13
(r*zx
%0
emissivity perfect is the
of the radiator)jc_
= 5.67
I0 8 watts/m
2 (°K) 4
Since the position of the vehicle is continually computed during a trajectory run on the computer and since the positions of the sun are stored, Eq (82) may be solved as soon as A is specified.
S
StefanBoltzmann
constant_
a constant
of'proportionality and T defined by Eq
determined (78)j
experimentally
For tion tion
all of
but spherical space vehicles A requires a knowledge of s with respect to the vehiclesun can Yb' be Zb given with with origin respect at the to vehicle
the vehicle line.
computaorientaThis
is the
absolute
temperature
in °K,
line Xb'
body
axes center of
A(D
is the Now the
surface radiant
area energy
of the per
sun. second, vehicle sun, distance W A, perpenwhich is r@ ,6)
impinging dicular regarded is given
to
upon a unit the lineofsight a point
area
of the to the at a
gravity, and these axes can be transformed to the geocentric equatorial coordinates by the transformation given in Table 2. The folIowing sketch illustrates the geometry in this case.
as by
source,
Equation(82)
shows
that_s MA
depends A
S
very
W6) WA= _r 2 • ,6) ,_ 
_ o T 4 A O 2 7rrt_,6 ) _A
strongly (79)
on
the
areatomass moon
ratio
_AA"
It
is
quite negligible for the for dense space vehicles, for light and unorthodox D
S
and planets, small and becomes sizable vehicles such as balloons.
The point source since any trajectory is more than 100 Hence the solar is given by T 4 2 7r er@, where along factor value distance blaekbody The radiation Ps the from for the of the space acceleration pressure, is in O the
approximation is reasonable in the vicinity of the earth solar diameters from the sun. radiation pressure per unit area
The thus metals.
term qs
_7A also m may The approach shadow
depends 0.98 time
on for may
the
type
of
surface
highly be
polished neglected for will and earth approach orbits.
_o Ps =
A 0 (1 _A opposite line, to dyneera sec radiation is Ps direction and 107 An pressure = 4 •5 x (Fief. the iS vehicle given by 21). due to the solar 10 5 is + qs ) x 107 _ cm from the sun (80)
lunar trajectory studies since the trajectory be in sunlight during most approach, impact, circumlunar trajectories. However, during or moon orbital phase the shadow time may half of the total time in orbit for lowaltitude A discussion and graphical time as a function of orbital Chapter XII1 of Ref. 3. b. Atmospheric drag and presentation elements is
vehiclesun watts solar earth
a conversion
of shadow given in
approximate at the dynes 2 em for a lift
vehicle of _s,
Ds MA where

Ps0
(1 MA
+ q) r2,6)
A s A
%
r_
,6) ,0
_A A
(81)
In connection with lunar trajectories, the contribution of atmospheric drag need only be considered in the short time period when the vehicle is in the immediate vicinity of the earth. Thus, its significance is much less important than in the case of earth satellite vehicles. However, during parking orbits around the earth, atmospheric drag becomes of decisive importance in the selection of orbital radius and eccentricity; a discussion of this force wit1 be included here, The acceleration force can be of a expressed space as vehicle due to the
drag
_T PsO =
4 A6) 7rc
x
107 'Y 1
022 dynes
1
divided vehicle
aa
Va2 V_ (8_)
M :  _c D _0 2
is by
the %
total qs'
force 0__< qs<
due 1,
to is
solar the
radiation space
IV 30
Space vehicle
xb
Yb
2
where CD free and A
a_
equatorial of the is the drag coefficient flow in the (usually case the one for satellites molecular space is the
a
system
frame _O a'
VO
_5 and
the
velocity
atmosphere
Thus,
of earth
vehicles) area of the space vehicle perpendicular At altitudes below be assumed to rotate this with relative to the V(1)a = _'0 x rOA studies it is useful C A D a = _ to introduce (86) 500 with kin, the atmosphere can the earth so that under by
to V Pa is the is the
a
density velocity
of the of the
atmosphere vehicle
assumption the velocity of the aimosphere respect to the equatorial sysiem is given
atmosphere. For parametric Substituting for (86) into (85)
a ballistic the drag
coefficient
B
which
gives
Va : _eA
In order to
 5e x Fe_
express note that V a in rectangular
(sv)
geocentric
acceleration
_[Z
:
BpV
a
va
C D can assumption be in calculated the kinetic
coordinates, (84) * VOA
The free
drag
coefficient flow
from
. : xOAxo A
+ YO_
>Ai_ +
zoA
_O
(88)
molecular
theory of orientation of the air of C D is for
gases. of the molecules 2. 0 for other vehicles orientation of a
It depends vehicle as with its spherical vehicle A a as of vehicle tumble to the in
on the geometry and well as the interaction surface. The value _O x rOA = and For as all slightly but vary_, to Va . with If Eqs (88) result into acceleration are Eq
vehicles, shapes. well
larger spherical with In tile the
AAA t
O _b
0
zo
A
_oO
= _a O
xOAY
O
C D will relative tumble
xOAyoA
zoA Eq
 _O y@A
x@
vehicle a random
case
a short period of period or compared for lunar trajectories, Aa A A =4' where
compared to the orbital the time in the atmosphere a good approximation is the surface area of the
substituted into (34), the magnitude is given by:
(87) and the of the drag
D = MA
A/, is
g
p
(_2 OA
x_A )

2_° O
xoA
YOA
+ 2_0
xo_
_'OA
vehicle. V a vehicle velocity with respect to the geocentric can be written as tile difference of the
+ _)
(89)
IV31
The
number
of molecules
per
unit volume.
NO,
('.an
be oblained from the kinetic theory the case of an isothermal atmosphere and constant molecular weight and
of _ases. In (T : constant) composition
geocentri( Table 2
can
equalorial coordinates be performed.
as
given
in
N O : where m h : :
N 1 exp
I
_'P'
(he

helj
(90)
the
constant above
mass earth
of
each
molecule
Atmospheric lift will be neglected for" parking orbits and lunar lrajectories since it is several orders of magnitude less than the drag at orbital attitudes, I{owever, during the intermediate stages of ascent to orbil or injection, and in the initial stages of a nonballistic reentry, tiffs force becomes important. The magnitude of the lift I, is defined, analogously to the magnitude of the drag D, by tile equation
e
altitude
L : = the constant acceleration 1. 380 constant x 10 23 value of" the gravitations] where jou,es/°K, Boltzmann's
:
C L
A a 0 Va 2
(92)
g_ k
C L
is
the
lift
coefficient to C D from theory
which free of
can molecular gases. to
be
computed assumption
similarly in the
kinetic plan_
Tile < by
T h
: =
absolute altitude,
temperature
in '_K lift force f_is irt a perpendicular in g. lhis plane Consider to rod _ definition, specified reference condiis then given b3 poor' approximaa variation of weight pressure, from this atmosphere" which is vector namely in and its dir'eclion by the bank angle this planeperpendicular r(B A f = "w .r@, 5 V x V" a a is a unit and V a,
Subscript I designates some tion. The atmospheric density P = N0mtion of the temperature However, atmosphere, T, g@, this as is and well
a very usually as
A
unit
vector
orthogonal
molecular
is assumed with altitude and any other quantities assumption. The latest is the 1961 U.S. Standard used in all work in this this atmosphere varies to an altitude of 700 kin. varies additionally with dependence of the earttFs
and the density, are computed such "standard Atmosphere,
a
a
to
Yw is
given
. by
_w _ _
x
A x \_ro a
manual. The density in with altitude and is given Actually the density latitude due to the latitudegravilational potential
The axes, as tile
unit
vectors a angle of is attack the yaw
_w rotation _.
__
a V_a
'
*, Ywand the x
_w w
define is
wind defined is
where the angle bank
about a rotation and a l]. and
W
axis the about
about rotation Wind _ are
Ywaxis the and the in
U_ by, about _2% and with the solar activity (which at the higher altiludes may cause very large deviations from the standard density). These variations from the standard atmospheric density may be neglected, however, as long as only hmar trajectories or a few orbits near the earth are considered. Jusl as in the case of solar lhe drag acceleration is small lllass ralio or dense vehicles significant for light vehicles The drag force decreases altitude and may be neglected time operations above 700 For vehicle venient form accurate orientation to along 1 1) x : _ C x Are f P V a (91) express the body drag is the axes 2 very km. and il force x b, Yb' is when tnot'e lhe conradiation for small and becomes such pressure areatomore
(_,
ZwaXis bank the angle
angle az
axes
_ between sketch:
illustrated
following
Perpendicular _Plane
as balloons. substanlially with for all but long
computations significant drag
D i_ Zb'
c()lnponeltl
l)y
= ½Cy 1
Aref
P
a 2
D z where in the slant vehicle. known,
: _
C z Are
f p Va2 in , C x , the C force and are A absorbed is a conis
l he in the
drag
at.(
,:1_ rat _
W
ion
_
as
given
b>,
Eq
(_3)
all the variations coefficients C reference Once the
negative
direction.
) z area characterizing the orientation ol from
the body
ref _hc spacc vehicle axes [o
is
transformation
IV32
e.
Electromagnetic
forces
V P
=
speed of the plasma
space
vehicle
relative
to
In most trajectory a lunar trajectory neutral, and beyond which is regarded phere, ideal it is condition assumed does
calculations the vehicle on assumed to be electrically some altitude (700 km), as the upper limit of the atmosis to not move exist in a vacuum. in space, and This the where
Vef
=
the average electron in
thermal speed of an the medium, given by
Vef m
= is
O. 145 the atomic
T/m
e weight of an electron. Eq (93) cases,
effects of several will influence the
electromagnetic vehicle trajectory
phenomena very slightly. limits be in a
e
Even though these effects are small, upper to the deceleration of space vehicles should determined and they should be considered detailed trajectory analysis. The moves (Ref. contains medium consists 12) states between
This negative amounts to
only
potential a few
obtained volts in
from typical
through which the space vehicle of charged particles. Baker that even interplanetary space 100 and 1000 charged particles which solar originate winds), of neutral from cosmic particles solar ray
Singer and Walker the ejection of electrons solar radiation striking considered due to the electrons surrounding any further electron
(Ref. 22) have proposed that caused by highenergy the vehicle need not be buildup of a screen of ejected the vehicle, thus reducing ejection.
per cubic eruptions ionization
centimeter (flares and (the ionization
An vehicle
expression which
is
for the electrically
total
force conductive
on
a space and Z.
caused by cosmic rays and gamma radiation), Higher concentrations of charged particles near earth in the inner and outer Van Allen which consist of solar particles trapped in earthts magnetic field. Recently a temporary radiation belt was created by a highaltitude hydrogen is expected bomb to explosion last for of several July 9, years. 1962
occur belts the
magneticaily permeable has been given by M. V. Krzywoblocki, et al., in f%ef. 23. Starting from Maxwell' s equation for moving media he derived the force on a body due to the electrostatic field, the magnetic field and a final expression for the force acting on a moving body in an electromagnetic field. Due to our" interplanetary scant knowledge medium and of the cislunar the large and
which
A space station in a stationary plasma (an electrically neutral medium containing charged particles) will collide with both slow moving positive ions and fast moving electrons and build a small excess of net negative change on its surface. Another vehicle, to the As 0A, plasma. the vehicle travels at several km/sec, its factor stems affecting from its the potential with of the
and
up
motion
respect
unpredictable fluctuation of its numberdensity with solar eruptions, the material given in this subsection has been primarily of an illustrative nature. The presence of these particles and the radiation will influence the trajectory of the lunar vehicle only slightly; their pressure, however, is of primary importance from the standpoint of shielding requirements for any human occupants in the space vehicle. d. Meteoritic drag
collision rate with the positive ions, which move more slowly, increases as compared to the stationary plasma collision rate, whereas the collision rate with the electrons, which move much faster than the positive ions, remains unaltered. Thus, vehicle motion tends the induced negative voltage from the cussed above. Beard expression moving is: and for through Johnson(Ref. the such potential, a plasma 21) OA' with have of a essentially to decrease source dis
In the attempts to analyze the force acting upon a space vehicle due to meteoritic drag, experimental evidence is taken primarily fr_om past observation of meteoritic contact with the earth (l_ef. 20) to which some space probe data has been added recently. Due to the rarity of large meteorites impinging even upon a body the size of the earth, it can be assumed that the probability of a small lunar vehicle being hit by such a meteorite would be extremely small; therefore, it will be neglected. Ilence, it will be assurned that micvometeorites contribute the only significant meteoritic drag perturbation. Ideally one would like to know meteor density, mass flux, velocity and spatial distribution as a function of position and time for the sporadic background as well as for meteoritic showers. Only the sporadic background flux can be considered here. Estimates of the accretion of meteoritic material by geophysical experiments of meteoritic is 2000 tons to a meteoritic of the that the earth evidence indicates material (Refs. 20, density atmosphere. micrometcoritcs vary widely, but from both optical that the maximum hitting the earth 24). This would of 0M = 5 x Furthermore, (i.e., extensive and radio arnount per day correspond g_cm 31 it meteorites is
derived satellite V P .
an
speed
It
_/,,
= _
qek'I" fn
( _
_Ip
/
(93)
where k = 1. 380 x 10 23 joules/° K, Boltzmann's
constant T : absolute o K temperature of the plasma in
l0 21
qc
= 1.602 x 10 19 an electron
coulomb,
the
charge
of
outside believed
IV 33
withmagnitudesetween b theranges 20and30or radii lessthanabout100 microns)constitute 95% of themeteoriticmaterialhittingtheearth(Ref. 20). Also, meteorites canenterthe earth's atmosphere onlywithvelocitiesbetween1and 1 72kin/seerelativeto theearth. Thelowerlimit onvelocitiesof entryis dueto the gravitational acceleration ofthe particlebythe earth, while theupperlimit is thesumof theparabolic velocity for a solarorbit at thedistance ofthe earth (42km/sec)andthe earth's orbital velocity(30 km/see). Assume thatthedirectionof motion the of meteorites random is alongthelunartrajectory (this hypothesis invalidnearthesurfaceof the is earthor the moon whichshieldthevehiclefrom below) ndthatthemeteorites a areso smallas to evenly distributedin space. Thenthemass,MM of meteorites strikingthevehiclein thetime intervalAt from any one direction is:
MM where = is the material the average in density space area to the of meteoritic 1 = _PM AM V_M At (94)
the magnitude hicle becomes
of
this
total
force
on
the
space
ve
4 D M = 2DM1 = 4 x 10 dynes. on the other stay with the veto its speed. In total force on the
In a perfectly inelastic collision, hand, all the micrometeorites hicle and must be accelerated this case the magnitude of the space vehicle becomes DM = DM1 PM AM V_M
VIBA
=
4DM1
= 8 In the case it,
x
10 4 the skin with
dynes. micrometeorite of the some space satellite drag blasts vehicle, material, force should and
where from the together
material where is left probably This of
behind, be
the meteoritic decreased. shows even that for
type
discussion collision
and
regardless the maximum
of
the
PM
meteoritic density assumed for these caleulations the force on the satelIite is extremely small. The major importance of meteoritic impacts lies in their effect on the material of the satellite skin, i.e., the probability of puncture with resulting vefuel or gas losses, or damage to some subsystem, and the sandblasting or pitting of the skin or of optical surfaces such as lenses, windows, etc. The probabilities of a catastrophic encounter between a space vehicle and a large meteor are extremely small. A more complete discussion of meteoritic densities, representative values for fluxes, classifications, models, and the effect of rnicrometeorites on space vehicIe materials is given in Chapter II and Chapter II of Ref. 3. e. The force Rocket thrust acting thrust due to rocket burning is the space vehicle which of another must a
A M
=
crosssectional
of
the particular
hicle perpendicular direction
VSM
=
the
average
speed
of
the
rneteo_'ites
and it has been assumed that the velocity of the micrometeorites is much larger than the velocity of the vehicle. The net momentum imparted to the vehicle sides per second is zero since the momentum of the micrometeoritic hits from the left is similarly However, vehicle (V@M those  (VsM fer, due cancelled for the from V@A) the the by those top and from bottom a the of right, and the vehicle. the velocity space of and of transvehicle
micrometeorites behind have with front The respect have net
striking relative to the
on
be
vehicle, velocity momentum on the
from
a relative rate the is of force
considered trajectory. sible to
in the complete analysis As a first approximation assume that the vehicle is thrust during injection approaches
lunar it is posaccelerated stage and that balbe
+ V@A).
or the magnitude of to meteoritic impact 1  _PM
by an initial large to the predetermined the lunar trajectory listically conditions. considered. on
the boost velocity, the moon
DM1
=
AM
V$M
VOA
(95)
a path determined by the injection In this case thrust forces need not However, even the earliest lunar
where is
the
negative against
sign the an g/cm
indicates vehicle
that geocentric example,
this
force velocity for cm 2,
directed VOA. = 5 x
vehicles had provisions for applying corrective accelerations by both midcourse and terminal thrust to overcome any errors in initial conditions and due to our imperfect knowledge of the physicaI environment. More sophisticated missions such as lunar orbit and landing missions require one or severa/ large decelerations and accelerations of the space vehicle during the mission. Thus at some time simulation in of the planning thrust becomes of any lunar necessary. mission the
vector PM
As
illustrative 3, A M = 10m
10 21
2
= 105
an average = 4 x 106 speed of 2 the x of force 10 4 to
meteoritic cm/sec and 3 krn/sec due dynes. be considered to
speed of VOM a representative 105 cm/sec, impacts
= 40 km/sec vehicle the is magnitude DM1 =
= 3 x meteoritic
Also impact, micrometeorite the same
is
the
type
of
meteoritic
In most eases the thrust force is large and time for rocket burning is small compared to transit time. Then l_:ncke's integration method should be stopped at the onset of rocket burning (since the perturbing force is too large), tegration shouId be acceleration and Cowell's used to simulate
the the
In
a perfectly elastic collision the will leave the space vehicle with relative speed as that at which it hit and
by the thrust method of invehicle motion
IV 34
duringrocketburning. Theendconditions,. e., i
the used time to when define the thrust is a new rectified terminated, orbit and can the be numerical calculations of the subsequent trajectory can be continued by use of Enckefs integration method. Since the trajectory after injection is outside the denser parts of the atmosphere, lowthrust propulsion by ion engines or other devices is possible. The thrust perturbation will then act during the major part of the lunar trajectory, but it will be small enough so that Enckefs method of integration small thrust arising from Let vehicle. through where neous of mass burning. variation T may be used accelerations, rectificqation. throughout without for large some errors mtgle is
Define north and as can be
thrust east seen
components directions, from the Tv where and
T 6 and respectively. preceding well the as
T sketch, Tu
in
the Then, the
between
T 6 as A e is from the
and of the
Tel T v A
(360°Ae),
azimuth
direction rotation from ponents. (906) (270a) T u,
measured about T v, Further = 690 will yield and T w by
geographic angle A e will to about about Tc_, T
north. transform T6, by the the angle Tc0
T w components rotations then the
comangle
T z by
folIowing
transformation
be the thrust It enters_the term mass n A M A which
force equations which of the is
acting of defined
on the motion by is to its the
space Eq (50) Eq(72) instantaexhaust
equations:
the the mass, in
vehicle due
decreases
a stream of Thg magnitude, of T must be
particles direction, specified.
during A
rocket and timenatural co
ordinate system in which the components of T might be given is the bodyaxis system defined in Chapter III since the rocket engine is mounted in the body of the space vehicle. With the orientation of the vehicle known, it is p_ssible to obtain the x of , YO ' Table In zation into trajectory thrust _4 is z 2. components of T by the transformation
os
c_ 0
sin
c_
sin cos
6  cos 6 sin 6
some studies components
cases the in plane.
such thrust and The to
as
in lunar force will to
landing optimibe resolved the vehicle from these of In the above
cos
A e sin
A e
_Fu_
(96)
normal transformation x O, y@ ,
o
equation
l<w j
components given Define below. a coordinate
zO
components
system
xv
Yv
Zv
with the (or in YO A sin c_ = (97)
origin at the center of gravity z axis in the direction of the v up), the x V axis perpendicular the general direction plane, and of the vehicle YvaXis
of the radius to the
vehicle, vector z
V
axis in the
motion
trajectory
perpendicular to complete system.
cos o/ =
to the instantaneous the righthanded Denote directions problem, components x(_, y_), following the thrust by then, to T u, is
trajectory Cartesian components T v, to Tw transform Ty, Tz
plane coordinate in the
xo
A
XvYvZ
v The
respectively. the components (see T u,
(x2, +y
Tw z_)A sin 6 roA
2
\i/2
T v, in the the
T x,
z 0 directions, sketch):
respectively
COS
(5
=
ro
A
(compare to give cos We
with
the
preceding sin A e in
sketch). terms of
It xoA
remains YOA
A e and have
zoA.
IV 35
COS
A e
=
cos cos
1VE 6 2 cos iv _
specified
explicitly• effects effects of the various deal with the are mentioned, of of bodies a on
112
(98)
f.
Relativistic relativistic
Before
brief description mechanics which where
systems motion
_
A
x
z0
cos
=
x
xe_ Yon
the astronomical scale is required. The earliest formulation of mechanics in mathematical form is due to Newton. Two postulates underlie his formulation of the laws of motion: (1) there exists a universal absolute time _ in terms of which all events can be described, (2) any particle can be placed in an absolute euclidean threedimensional space. The metric, or distance ds between any two neighboring points, of this space is given by ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 where x, y, z are of this space, and An inertial system fined as a coordinate (102)
 X_gA + (zo A XOA
Y_gA zoA x_gA) 2
+ The expressions (98)
(X.A
_}OA
XoA by use
Y_BZ_) of
21
1/2
the three cartesian coordinates time t is regarded as a parameter. in newtonian mechanics is desystem in which Newton' s
become,
(99):
cos
A e
=
0A
Y0A
 X_)A
Y_)
r_
laws of motion preserve their mathematical form during a transformation of coordinates. Newton avoided complications by not specifying this absolute space and this absolute time (i. e., the inertial system), They have to be specified for each experiment that is performed. Newtonian mechanics was very successful in
((X2_gA
+y2$A
/
2n_ 1 / 2
+ (x*n)*n
_n
Y*_) J)(100)
sin
A e
=

@A
5}OA
kOA
Y_
interpreting experimental data, and it was not until two centuries later that this theory was modified by Einstein. Einstein's special theory of relativity is based on (1) the postulate of relativity, which states that it is impossible to detect unaecelerated motion through space and (2) the velocity of light in vacuo is the same for all observers, regardless of the relative velocity of the light source with respect to the observer. The most striking distinction between special relativity and newtonian mechanics Ks the introduction of a finite maximum velocity c in special relativity while the maximum velocity in newtonian mechanics does not have any limit. As a tribute to the success of newtonian mechanics the absolute euclidean threedimensional tained by special relativity. of an absolute time which way been by two observers abandoned. at Each space has However, could be fixed two event different now needs the been the in places four renotion some has numbers
%}OA
z_gA)
2 2
+
(z_gA
xoA
z$_x@z
•
_
)(
and
+ XsA
}e__eA
to specify it: three space coordinates and they can be plotted as points in sional spacetime with metric.
and time, fourdimen
ds 2 = dt 2 (Eq Equations define T x, instantaneous x$A' YSA' (96), Ty, (97), T z in position xsA' (i00) terms and (i01) completely Tv, T w and coordinates This of the vehicle explicitly the T u, of T v, thrust be T win where parallel relativity latter the 103 is called
_I the
(dx
2 + dy2
+ dz 2) spacetime.)
(103)
Minkowski
of Tu, velocity YSA' 2OA'
Similar to its definition in newtonian chanics, an inertial system in special is defined as a coordinate system in laws of mathematical i)hysics retain
merelativity which the their form
zsA'
method of determining the components thrust force is advantageous since the orientation does not enter the computations but rather implicitly as an input through specification When the one body starts axis, the of the with time the variation components orientation of
during a transformation of coordinates. The most general transformation between two inertial system S (x, y, z, t) and S' (x', y', z', t') in newtonian mechanics is given by the Galileo transformation t' = t, x' = x Vt, y' = y, z' = z S' In (104) moves special between
vehicle
must
V is the uniform speed with _hich to the xaxis with respect to S. the most general transformation
IV 36
SandSt is givenbythe Lorentztransformation
t' = _(t  _x)
C
The
folh_wing
lable
Mlc_xvs
that
special
, x'
=
_(x
 Vt),
yl
=y, 2
z v = z, 1/2 , and c is the velocity
(105)
t _lativistie effects on a space vehicle become important whell its velocity or the velocity of the exhaust _ases are an appreciable fraction of the speed of light, c = 299792.5 km/sec. It shouht be noted that by letting e _ _ , _ 1 the ab_ve relativistic rocket equations reduce to the nuwt.oniau rocket equations. For lunar vehicles these relativistic corrections arc very smart and can be neglect..'d in most l_ractieal cases.
whece light are and the
_
= (1

V_)
C
of Since the theories nol employ mechanics relative of special nor general time of be
in vacuo, invariants, unprimed form o[
Both i.e., coordinate the equations.
of these we may
transformations exchange without
the
primed altering
systems
relativily do as newtonian clocks moving
a universal absolute does. the readings to each other and/or
The theory of general relativity tend the postulate of relativity to of motion (not only" to unaccelerated special tional relativity) field, The such as euclidean to motion geometry
attempts accelerated motion in of
to extypes as in
a gravitathe previous
ing in a differenl gravitalional fieht will no! agree. It is therefore possible to employ the different gravitational environment and the relative velocity between an earth ol)set'_eF and a space vehicle to measure special and general relativisIie "lime dilation" effects.
systems of m _chanics events can be plotted m<nsional riemannian the m,,trie
has been as points (curved)
abandoned, and all in some fourdispacetime with
TIw
problem
of
rocket
motion
has
not
yet
been
4 ds2 = /__ i= whcr'e x i are of 1 the the the The jI
4 gij (xi) dx.1 dx.,j (10(1)
coo_'dinates fundamental particular coordinates
and
gij
(xi)
are
the hr
components characterizing ttle pr'oblem.
metric spacetime x i are
tensor used not neces
attacked in the t w.ory of general relativity, tlowew'r, equations or motion analogous to the nbody and t'estri cl ed n body i)roblem s of newtonian mechanics have been obtained in general form by Einstein, 1,'oek, and Papal_etrou amon_ others. The general relativistic equations of me1 iotl are so compliealed that no method of soltdiou has as yet been given. By using a simplified dynamical system of a massive body and a space \chicle analogous to the classical restricted twobody problem of newtonian mechanics, three _,eneral relativistic effects have bee_ deduced: (1) The advance approach to The deflection fields. The redshift of the perih_,lion sun) of of light (closest plane.ts. grav!tational
sat'ily known a priori but will be assigned in some way later', the only restriction being that the same method of assigning coordinates be used throughout, The laws of physics are assumed to be unaffected by the choice of coordinates and {:an theref'ore be expressed in an invariant form. This means that as a guide one uses the principle of covariance: There must be no preferred coordinate can be equations ordinate The system. insured which systems. equations This principle by use of tensor's have the same of covarianee and tensor form in all co
the by
(2)
(3)
of fieht Ref.
spectral near its
lines source.
by
the
gravitational Krause simplifying periodic elements decived in assumption, perturbations of a nearearth
25, b 5 use of the above the secular and longin the osculating orbital satellite.
of
mathematical
physics
in
special relativity and general relativity should reduce to the corresponding equations in newtonian mechanics ii' the finite maximum velocity c in the relativistic equations is replaced by an infinite one. Thus, in the problem of space vehicle motion, special relativity may be regarded as a "corceetion" to newtonian mechanics at high space vehicle . u speeds and general relativity as a "eorrectmn to NewtonWs taw of gravitation. Contributions to special relativistic made rocket by equations for example
The theory of general relativity gives the effect of gravitational fields, and the stronger the field. the more pronounced i's effect on the trajectory. But, just as in the case of special relativity, gen_,ral relativistic effects are very small for lunar vehicles and call be neglected in practical trajectory calculations. For example, the advance of perigee of a nearearth satellite, as calculated by LaPaz (Ref. 26) amounts only to several hundreds of seconds of arc pe._' century. 5. Accuracy/ of closing Computed Trajectories models suman in
kinematics and dynamics many investigators and have been presented hy by Krause relativistic equations line and has been in
have been the fundamental many authors,
Hell 25, To illustrate special effeets, lhe lollowing summary of for the motion of" a _.ockct in a straighl without any extem_al ['orces acting on it taken fFon'l tlef. 25.
Before and trajectory marize the
the discussion on force calculations it is helpful to _leviations of n c,mnputed frmn The main are: sources _f
actual trajectory. a computed trajectory
erFor
IV  3 7
Rocket
in
Rectilinear
Motion
Express System Quantity Earth
ion S(t _
in of
Coordinate Stationary
Expression Fixed Coordinate S Centered A Moving
in
BodySystem in the
Observer"
Rocket
Velocity
V
Mass
__/I
=
=
;_ M A
M A
v2
1/2
Time
element
{it
: i_ dt A
(tl 5
Acceleration
f c
=
1 I_>,I_2
f (1  _) \_ f_" _]
A
V Exhaust velocity V
ex
:
I _ V
_
t)
V
_ 1
exA V 2
\
re t
1
V
exA
_
<:
Element flow after
of
mass ejection dM =
dM.5
dM A d \I
(? X =
V
d M 1 Mass flow rate dM dt A d M A dt A Vex 2
C <:
A
_ 77 _tTZa 2)i/2
1 _ d M A dt A 1/2 Vex 
dt A 112
d \I '% : dr& VexA :
Thrust
force
_F
=


(it
Vux
(,
\1A <: is the v()cket, 1
........ 7} j
m5
(I \l dl A
A
_where if M A ()r the rest mass (i • e. , mass
Vex2,lc2'_Z/_'exA
%_= O) of
._
:
c
is
the
speed
of
light
i.u
I vacuo, wdoeitv \F
ex
2
t
is the
the
exhaust and
velocity, f its thrust
_
is
the
of
r,_c:ket
acceleration.
IV  3 8
a. Useof simplifiedforcemodels Inthediscussion thevariousforce rnodels of it is pointed outwhatapproximations havebeen made each. Onewouldexpectousea simpler in t forcemodel or preliminarytrajectory f selection
and some then use more a more desirable complicated trajectories. model It to is to verify be expected that the manybody inclusion of nongravitational most accurate trajectory. force model with the forces yields the V_ith each force model,
f. Last, human
}luman
error there handling input is to the possibility of the data the evaluation
of
but not least error in the machine output.
from
assembling the of the trajectory
C. The discussion
THE
VOICE of the
TECIINIQUE accuracy of computed
many questions of computer simulation arise, such as the type of buildup and tail off of thrust, the drag and lift coefficients, the reflectivity of the vehicle skin, the type of interaction between neutral and charged particles witt_ the skin, etc. The computer simulation of some forces presents major problems and computation b. With associated tional earth/a@ the moon of Use each of and may time. approximate there Thus the the moon_ mean be costly in programming
trajectories in the preceding subsection pointed out the need of a simplified force model for parametric studies of lunar trajectories. The nbody force model is very complex because of the number of trajectory variables involved and the lack of exact solutions to the equations of motion. In fact, even the restricted threebody model (Subsection for lunar trajectories puter programs by use of various to these programs velocity of the lunar trajectories initial conditions, Bl) does not efficiently. afford solutions Althougb com
physical are
constants some gravitathe of ex
force constants. of GIVI_,
in general we need the = angular GM([,
constants = co_, the
exist that determine trajectories integration schemes, the inputs are the unknown position and spacecraft at some time. Since are very sensitive to these these unknowns must be accurately. For example, a that passes behind the moon earth (circumlunar) requires an earth this of approximately speed by 1 m/scc 11,000 can
velocity with the
constants earth' s and
associated the of moon atmospheric with altitude
estimated very typical trajectory and returns to initial m/see. change altitude return systematic
pansion potentials, ture and earth force
I s gravitational temperaabove the on is in the be a constants the known com
the variation molecular weight more Each fact our
speed at the Perturbing pericynthion by hundreds perigee by studies
and many model.
constants one of these
depending constants
(closest approach to moon) of kilometers, and the thousands of kilometers. Thus, using computer programs that
imprecisely; this puted trajectories balance between and the type puter. The be consistent
will cause errors There should ideally knowledge of these
of force constants among of
model to be used on the comin any force model should each other; and if they are each such departure should
integrate numerically can become long, tedious, and expensive, if the initial conditions are determined by a trial and error approach. The most desirable means around this problem is via a simplified technique that is relatively accurate and free 1. of integration logic.
not, a justification be given. c. Errors positions The obtained coordinates at the in
Description To this end, a threedimensional patched
the
lunar,
solar,
and
planetary conic program trajectories, to the gravisphere was developed, or sphere fluence" points that This of is using a succession of twobody and with a transition region similar transition to lunar influence ftowever, instead of a gravisphere a lunar is defined E = 0.175 "volume by the (see of inlocus Subsection to shown of
US
of celestial bodies Naval Observatory theories which constants
have by use
been of
general perturbation of physical constants values of the same jectory d. The celestial used in c. The program cumulation gration errors program, Errors in
with certain values may differ from the used in the tra
influence, used which rM/r
satisfy volume, results,
initial
conditions vehicle, the site on earth as may be in error.
Blb).
empirically is a subsection. sphere
determined as was
initial conditions of the bodies and the launch the computer simulation Computational programming requires of error of the include of errors
give the best in the referenced The following
assumptions
are
made
in
any
of a trajectory computer careful attention to the acduring the numerical inteof due to motion. roundoff, and due Computational truncation, to the
equations those
patched conic program: The earth and moon are spherical homogeneous bodies with the moon rotating about the earth,s center. Motion within the lunar volume of influence is free of gravitational forces from the earth and sun. Likewise, motion toward or away from the volume in free of forces due to the moon and sun. Thus, a trajectory by the "patched" influence. in classic at this earthmoon twobo:]y the boundary model equations of the can be described of which are lunar volume
approximation, presence
cancellation, small divisors.
IV 39
the
Figure coordinate
4 presents system
a
definition used in
the
of the Voice
terms (Volume emthe
and pro
The
relatiw?
inclination iVT L and MOP
of
the the are
translunar transearth determined of influence
tratrajectory at exit, the
jectoryplane plane iVT E to
of InfluenceCalculated gram. A geocentric ployed vector lunar plane with lying trajectory in the to the positive the plane
Envelopes) coordinate x Eaxis intersection and the of the
trajectory system is defined of moon,s by
the and
along
the transorbital Tile z Eaxis i.e., vector the angle xEaxis of injection. in rightof to
time of injection respectively. The program
volume
first
computes
the
translunar volume and to the
direction the of with in *, of is the
moon.
is normal the direction of the moon
moon,s orbitalplane, the angular momentum the the YEaxis MOP. completing The from at the time lead the
trajectory to the point of entry of influence, at which point the position vectors are determined
into the velocity relative
handed the the moon,
system _
geocentric coordinate system. At volume entry the velocity and position vectors are transformed to a selenocentric reference frame as illustrated in the following in the sketch MOP for (iVT the L simple = 0): case of a
measured moon
position
trajectory
Y_
Lunar% Motion
_
x
where and VE(
VEA [ is the of is
is that
the of
velocity the moon sketch vehicle VMA vehicle
of
the relative
space to
vehicle earth.
into are system
the
lunar
volume to ZM'
of
influence
(rEA
,
VEz x )
transformed x M YM
a selenocentric i,c. to around system (rMA the is ,
coordinate VMA moon. illustrated } for The in the the
From velocity VMA The
preceding the space given by
it
can be relative  VE_ and
seen that the to the moon . velocity at entry
trajectory = VEA position XM YM ZM
computation coordinate sketch:
geocentric
following
Dl/u
'1 "M
i'm
I
IV 40
The or the
zMaxis
is in the to tim axis or with
direction trajectory defines the
of \:MAx plane
rM
(i)
Injection latituJ.e position
position and _0 longitude. is
_0
anti The
geocentric injection from the
perpendic_dar moon. he The
around
YM
intersection and MOP
measured
between (or the
trajectory
x M YMplane the x M axis the
MOP plane (2) (3) Injection Lunar Position vehicle
along the translunar trajectory to the point of injection. velocity lead angle and velocity pericynthion. i VEA0 ,_, _:: at of " injection. the space
x E yEplane), of inside = cos1 the \ earthmoon
completing The inmoon,s is (4) the at to rate of the the reach about lunar line (6) at
the righthanded clination i orbital given direction by plane im of
m
coordinate the trajectory th(_ volume
system. to of
influence Knowing
M
E / line
EML
(5)
Inclination to the MOP influence.
time of entry pericynthion the earth, at _1I
into the volume, and the moon,s ' the orientation to can the be
the time rotational 0 M earthmoon found. of are
of the vehicle m in the lunar volume
trajectory of
trajectory EML
with respect pericynthion leaving the position
Orientation respect to the
0M
of
the at
trajectory pericynthion. at return
with
EML velocity
the
Upon vehicle to
hmar volume and velocity ZE coordinate is then
influence, again transsystem and
(7)
formed the
the
x EYE trajectory
Position perigee. Flight return
and
vacuum
transearth
computed. the reader understand can do, one in The the following input for
(8)
The above discussion with the technique. In exactly what tile Voice must look trajectory circumlunar (1)
acquaints order to program
time to vacuum
pericynthion perigee. two
and
to
(9)
at the inputs and outputs. variables are specified mission trajectories: Earth latitude Injection angle "%0 launch and base position longitude). he0 the altitude to vacuum moon. perigee
Longitude the return
of first trajectory.
intersections
of
(10)
(geocentric
t_ange angle in parking to return base latitude perigee to the return
orbit and range extended beyond base latitude,
(2)
altitude for
and
flight
path trajectory.
translunar hpL ,
(3)
Pericynthion approach
closest
Another program exists using the same principles as the Voice technique wherein oneway transearth trajectories from lunar orbit can be determined. Entitled, "Ejection from Lunar Orbit, " this program has tile following inputs and outputs which are illustrated in the following sketch: Inputs:
(4)
Return
altitude
hpE if (I) Inclination to the moon,s program orbits. of to of the orbital is restricted circular plane to lunar im circular orbit
or the closest approach the earth,s atmosphere (5) Translunar iVT (6) L to the trajectory MOP.
to the earth is neglected. inclination
The lunar (2)
Transearth iVT E to the
trajectory MOP.
inclination
Orientation with respect 0M . of • point path
the circular the earthmoon
lunar
orbit line
(7)
Declination craft is Return be seen,
at base
of the moon pericynthion. geocentric major
when
the
space
(3)
Altitude hpL
the
circular
lunar
orbit
(8) As can
latitude. (4) Ejection Flight Desired from at lunar ejection altituJe orbit YM0 i_M0 " bpE • . characteristics of The of satisfy state (1) Ejection Transearth velocity inclination VM/X 0 " E . (5) (6) Outputs: angle
the
the entire lunar trajectory essence of the program is Peration within the program these desired characteristics variables, mission The quirements pertinent thus parameters program to data allowing as output fulfill the as listed one input.
are specified. thus a matter in order to or trajectory to explicitly
vacuum
perigee
consists mission below:
of other reand additional
(2)
iVT
IV 41
(3) Timeto returnto vacuum perigee. (4) Position andvelocityatperigee. Withproperinterpretation program this is alsousedfor oneway translunartrajectories. Againnotetheeasebywhichspecificmission requirements anbeobtained. c Earth To
2.
Com:_ari._rm
with
Inte.gzated
Trajectories approxicompares
The mation very body table
Voice technique, although an to a complex physical model, with integrated trajectories. this point
favorably and nbody illustrates
by
restricted threeThe following comparing two
typical integrated trajectories (one restricted 3body and one nbody) with their respective Voice trajectories. The inttgrated trajectories were obtained by an iterative scheme utilizing the Voice program. The tabie, which is selfexplanatory, shows that there is good agreement between the initial conditions obtained with the Voice technique and the initial conditions for the actual integrated trajectory. All mission constraints trends Thus reasonable are established the closely by matched, Voice. thereby proving
Voice accuracy
technique can to perform characteristics. be used for trajectories. between
be used parametric In
with studies addition actual
lunar
satellite
of lunar trajectory the technique can nbody Further integrated
obtaining
comparisons characteristics 3body and types of lunar VI and IX.
Voice
tra
I
I
A
jectory restricted various Chapters
and those using the nbody force models for trajectories are given in
Comparison
oi
Voict_
Trajectories Restricted
with 3Body Comparison I
Integrated Force
Trajectories Model Voice 182. nltody Coin Force Model _arison Integrated 88
Inject
NorthDirect Item Voice
_
I
1
Integrated
.......
10963.786 32 2.6682 _* 29.3822* 13.198678
Altitude Velocity Injection translunar into orbit Flight Inclination Injection
(he0) (VEA path
0) (,re0) (iVT (40) L)
km ,' st'c m d_ g deg deg
2_I. 10905. 648 545 t 30. 12, 259 0
231. 10903. 048 951 3. 30. O
182.88 10!162. 2. 6682 2495
angle to position MOP
29, 13. ll. 94
502125
Lunar
lead
angle
(,$ *)
deg
44.
0596
L
45,
0258
37.
3314
38.
02945
/
At moon Pericynthion altitude (hpi) km 1852. 1851.44 185. 015 186. 867
t
Va .... Total
perigee flight time
altitude (t)
(hpF)
km hr
/45.72
/
46.086 31 154. 3
35.81 i 147.73g
:
.5 078
, 154.
147.
_ [ L _ .
Di .... *iVT 1_ VE
i .... L and and
d iVT
mode F are
of
return to earth .qLt
I i)irect _toria[ !Jiallc,
f ...... i.e., _
th they _
L a 'e
Direct actually
f .........
th
[
l)ireet
f ......
th
j
I)ire,
et
f ........
th
relative
1V'I'EQ"
resl)eettvely.

_
D.
ADDITIONAL CIRCUIVILUNAR of circumlunar
CLASS ORBITS orbits,
OF
only one orbits as ted below i.e., peritem in
primary calculated for the
body. Two typical circumlunar by Arenstorf have been plotearthmoonspace vehicle sysXRYlR coordinates:
A
new
class
rotating
odic circumlunar trajectories, has been described and an outline of the proof of existence for these orbits had been given by Arenstorf (Ref. 27) just as the Lunar Flight Manual went to press. These orbits were obtained for the restricted thrrebody problem, and they exist for' small mass ratios of the two primary bodies. The circumlunar orbits exist near Keplerian, or restricted twobody, ellipses which represent a zero mass ratio between the two primary bodies or the existerlC_ of
By a judicious choice of trajectory parameters these orbits can be made to pass arbitrarily close to the earth and moon, and small perturbations from forces arising outside of the framework of the restricted threebody problem can be counter'acted by thrust. of circumlunar materials from cinity of the Reference orbits for the vicinity 27 suggests the use shuttling passengers and of the earth to the vi
moor_.
IV 42
12.
Baker, M. W. Academic
,
R. M. L., Jr., "An Introduction Press, S., IBM New
and to York,
Makemson, Astrodynamics," 1960.
13.
<
(
E. REFERENCES 1. Egorov, V. A., "Certain Problems Flight Dynamics," The Russian of Satellites, Part I International Index, Inc., New York, 1958. Buchheim, tories," January Flight "Space Inc., 3. R. W., "Lunar 1268, Also Flight of Moon Literature Physics
Pines, Trajectory for the Corporation,
and Wolf, H., by the Enckes 704 and 7090," New York.
"Interplanetary Method Programmed Republic Aviation
14.
Anonymous, "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, " published annually by the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Observatory, Washington, D. C. (obtainable from Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.). Brouwer,  Methods demic Press, D., and of Celestial New Clemence, Mechanics, York, 1961. G. B., ComputaAugust G. M., " Aca
15.
16.
Baker, bL M. L., Jr., Westrom, et al., " Efficient Precision Orbit tion Techniques, " ARS Journal, 1960, pp 740 to 747.
17. 2. TrajecReport P 30, 1958. Trajectories," Technology," New York, Rand Corporation, Chapter 7, "Lunar in H. S. Seifert, ed. John Wiley and Sons, 18. Manual," Corporation, Baltimore, 1963. 19. 4. Mickelwait, ARS Journal, pp 5. 905 to 914. C., Jr., of ThreeMoon, " Vol. 27, R. 20. A. B., Vol. "Lunar Trajectories," 29, December 1959,
Pines, S., Payne, M., and Wolf, H., "Comparison of Special Perturbation Methods in Celestial Mechanics," Report No. 60281, Aero Research Laboratory, WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio, August 19S0. Anonoymous, for Orbital Laboratories, September Parkinson, Shapiro, Pressure Science, Kochi, K. for Analysis Aeronautical I. on Vol. C., ,,Flight Operations, Inc., 1961. R. J., W., Jones, of pp H. M., and Radiation " and 921. "Methods " Performance Handbook " Space Technology Redondo Beach, Calif.,
1959.
Anonymous, ER 12684, Space Systems
"Orbital Flight Martin Marietta Division,
" Effects Earth Satellite 131, 1960.
Solar Orbits, 920
Mickelwait, A. B., and Boo[on, "Analytical and Numerical Studies Dimensional Trajectories to the Journal of Aerospace Sciences, August 1960, pp 561 to 573. Koelle, H. of Astronautical Hill, New H., York, EditorinChief, Engineering, 1961. Pauson, W. Trajectories," D866, August W., "Motion Space," RM 4, 1956. Recommendations Potential," 67, February M.,
and Staley, R. M., of Satellite Trajectories, Research Laboratories, Ohio,
WrightPattersonAFB, 1960. 21. Beard, Magnetic Journal No. 1, Singer, static of the Maryland, 23. D., and Johnson,
September
6.
"Handbook " McGraw
F.,
Charge Satellites, Vol.
and " 65,
Field Interaction with of Geophysical Research, 1960, pp 1 to 7. S. F., Screening Physics and Walker, of l?odies l_epartment, Park,
7.
Weber, R. J., R. R., "Lunar nical Note TN Buchheim, in EarthMoon ration, June Hagihara, tion of Journal, R.
and NASA 1961. Small Rand
Burley, Tech
in
E. tI., Space, University
"Electro" Report of 1961.
8.
of a 1726,
Body Corpo
College
September
9.
the
Y., Earth Vol.
on Astronomical 1962, p
Nota108.
Krzywoblocki, M. Z. v., of Special Interplanetary Report No. 2, PtlI)W5843, Engineering Experiment Engineering Illinois, Department, Urbana, June A. C. B., Press,
et al., "A Study Flight Problems, IOD 244658, Station, Aeronautical of
"
University 1959. Astronomy," 1954.
10.
Heiskanen, W. A., F. A., "The Earth McGrawHill, New Alexandrov, PotentiM,
and VeningMeinesz, and Its Gravity York, 1958.
Field,"
24.
Lovell, Clarendon Krause, Report
"Meteor Oxford,
iI.
I., "The Lunar " in "Astronautical Press, New
Gravitational Science, " York, 1960,
25.
H. G. MTPP
L., "Astrorelativify. h Vl,]I:(;24,
' NASA,
Vol. 9, Plenum pp 320 to 324.
George C. IIuntsville, Chapter II, ,' tIandbook Mc(_rawlIk[l,
Marshall Space Alabama, May th Ih Koelle, of Astronautical N_w York.
Flight Center, 22, 1962. Aiso EditorinChief, Engineering, " 1961.
IV 43
26.
LaPaz, L., "Advances of the Perigees of Earth Satellites Predicted by General Relativity, " Publications of the Astronautical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 66, 1954, pp 13 to 18.
27.
Arenstorf, Solutions Rt,str'ictxd Journal, pp 238 to
H.
1%,
"Existence
of
Periodic the
Passin_ ThreeVol. [, 210.
Near Both Masses of Body Problem, '_ AIAA No. 1 (January 1963),
IV 44
TABLES
AND
ILLUSTRATIONS
IV 45
LIST
OF
TABLES
Table 1 Transformations ponents 2 of the Between Restricted
Title Position ThreeBody and Velocity Problem VehicleCom.....
Page
IV48
Transformation Between BodyAxes and Centered Equatorial Coordinates ...............
IV49
LIST
OF
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1 Typical EarthMoon
Title Trajectory in Nonrotating
Page
IV51
Xe Ye Coordinates 2 The xR 3 4 EarthMoon YR Coordinates
......................... Trajectory of Fig. 1 in Rotating
IV52 IV53 IV54
........................ Around the Moon ..........
Gravitational Voice Geometry
Regions
..........................
IV47
TABLE Transformations Velocity Restricted Between Components Three Problem
1 Position of Body the and
Define
the
following
rotation
matrices:
{xm}
Z m
R
I!OS in
(¢ + _o®_t)  sin (¢ + _o(_ t) cos
(¢ + _o_t) (¢0 + _e_t)
!1
• {.
Ym = YR
+ ¢°_ q [xR
 %4
m
_R
and the inverse transformations since the initial conditions are nonrotating coordinates, while is performed in rotating
must be given usually given in the computation
coordinates:
os (¢ +_(_ t) sin ($ + _o(_ t)
sin (¢ + _@_t) COSo ($ + _o(_ t)
O] O1
J
YR
=
Y0
R
z0
Position and velocity components nonrotating coordinate systems are rotating systems by the transformations:
in the related
three to the
;'R
.
×0 + _e_ Yo
= YO  _¢ x
YR
_R
Y0 = YR
o
0
xH YR = ,
e
zR YO =
_o
Xe}
Ye = "t ze
o
YH
zR
YR zR
=
I T 2l
Yrn z m
'
Ye
=
ze
IV48
xI
xm +_® C
'Wl'he sketch
coordinate on page
systems IV20.
are
defined
I_y tile
TABLE Transformation t_ctween BodyAxes and
2 VehicleCentered Equatorial Coordinates
The of with relations mass
coordinates of the at (where vehicle the
in
the are
bodyaxis related to center of rotation
(x b,
Yb'
Zb)
coordinate coordinates and axes
system (x_, parallel the z, y, to _,
with _O, the x
origin 5' ,_O,
at z(_, zo
tile 5
instantaneous ) fixed directions in the by
center vehicle the
nonrotating of is mass 4, 0,
origin
instantaneous the order
x G, axes,
_b around
and
respectively)
f Xb zb
x_,/x_ Y@, A( z_, AJ
oF
Yb
0
zb The inverse
1001 0sin010]Ix. i:os .rc°s }
cos ¢ sin cos 9 _ I 0 0 /sin ¢ cos 0 ¢ 0 < Y@,A z@, 0  sin9 L sin 0 cos 0 L 0 I is given by (¢t 1 IT(e t 1 _F (¢_1 Yb
transformation
']
Y®'ff
=
_i,
tZe,
or
__j
_b
Ix I:' I[: I{} :J k
Fcos _ sin_ 0 cos 0 0 sin 0 1 0 0 xb y@, = in¢ cos_ 1 0 cos ¢ sin ¢ Yb _z@, 0 sin 0 0 cos 0 sin ¢ cos ¢ z b or, when the matrix multiplication is performed, (COS_P sine cos ¢ + sin<P sin q))]_x_ I
Ye, X_D'
'A_
=
sin@ cos ¢ sin
cos cos U)
0) 0}
(sin (cos
¢ +
sin sin (cos
0 0
sin sin 0 sin
¢+ ¢ o)
cos sin
¢ cos _J cos
Q) _)
(sin
_b sin
0
cos
o
eosd_
sin
¢)_tfl
t %, _J
(cos 0 cos o)
J_h)
IV49
This
can
also
be written
formally
in the form
of direction
cosines
x@,
A
_Y@ LZ®
/x_ /,J
=
li
mll _12 m12 m13 13 comparison _ _ 0 cos cos 0 O _ sin 0 sin 0 sin ¢ O cos_ 0 cos + @ sin 0 sin ¢ sin ¢ +
n12 1 nl3_J
Yb Zb
which are preceding
given two
by direct equations
of
the
Ill _12 _13
= = .
cos sin  sin
mll m12 m13 nll n12 n13 and must _112+ I12
= = = = = = satisfy
cos sin cos cos
_  sin cos
_ _
cos cos
¢ ¢
sin#
sin _ sin
¢> ¢
sin _ sin cos 0 cos
¢>  cos
2 roll 2 + nll 2 = = = 1 1 1
2 + m 1 2 2 + n12 +
_13 2 + m132 and
n13 2
fll mll roll nll nil
+
_12 m12 n12
+ _13 + m13
m13 n13
= = =
0 0 0
+ m12
_11 + n12
_12 + n13
_13
_11
_12
+ mll
m12
+ nll
n12
=
0
_12
_13 + m12
m13
+ n12
n13
=
0
113
t11
+ m13
mll
+
n13
nll
=
0
_ii
_12
_13 = 1
mll nil 2 ell
m12 n12
m13 n13
+ _122
+
_132
=
1
mll
2 + m122 2
+ m13 2
2
=
1
n11
+ n122
+ n13
=
1
IV50
Fig.
i.
T
ical
EarthMoon
Trajector
in
NonrotatinK.
x _ e Coordinates
Ye (tO3ka)
iOO 200
300
_0
O

.
,
,_Earth
<
I O7
_I00 o 20
N
hr
30
hr
/
50 200 _'_
hr 60 hr//
.,
/
/
M
on
at
70
hr
/
/ ; / / / ,_ Moon st _C hr Moon at 60 hr
i in Rotatin 6
x _
Coordinates
............
! ".
...........
[
IQO_
_
J_._
)0 hr
40
h_
20 hr ...... .._D....... _ .._
rol 0
,=4 ! C_ DO
....
&0
%
Eart
\
0
<
2hr
/ 2OO 3OO Moo.
70 hr _00
u_
II
lJ IB
\
I CXI
\
\ \
F_G 4
Yo_c_" _EoI,It:T_,'I"
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