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Space Flight Handbooks. Volume 2- Lunar Flight Handbook. Part 1 - Background Material, Nasa-sp-34, Pt. 1

Space Flight Handbooks. Volume 2- Lunar Flight Handbook. Part 1 - Background Material, Nasa-sp-34, Pt. 1

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Published by MOUHIEDDINE
This handbook has been produced by the Space Systems Division of the Martin Company under contract NAS8-5031 with the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The Lunar Flight Handbook is considered the second in a series of volumes by various contractors, sponsored by MSFC, treating the dynamics
of space flight in a variety of aspects of interest to the mission designer and evaluator. The primary purpose of these books is to serve as a basic tool in preliminary mission planning. In condensed form they provide background data and material collected through several years of intensive studies in each space mission area, such as earth orbital
flight, lunar flight, and interplanetary flight.

Part i - Background Material
Part 2 - Lunar Mission Phases
Part 3 - Mission Planning
This handbook has been produced by the Space Systems Division of the Martin Company under contract NAS8-5031 with the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The Lunar Flight Handbook is considered the second in a series of volumes by various contractors, sponsored by MSFC, treating the dynamics
of space flight in a variety of aspects of interest to the mission designer and evaluator. The primary purpose of these books is to serve as a basic tool in preliminary mission planning. In condensed form they provide background data and material collected through several years of intensive studies in each space mission area, such as earth orbital
flight, lunar flight, and interplanetary flight.

Part i - Background Material
Part 2 - Lunar Mission Phases
Part 3 - Mission Planning

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SPACE

FLIGHT

HANDBOOKS

Volume 2

Lunar Flight Handbook
PART 1-BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Prepared GEORGE MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT

for CENTER

the C.

Huntsville, Under Contract

Alabama NAS 8-5031

_

0ffice of Scientific and Technical Information NAT, ONAL AERONAUT, CS AND SPACE AD M, N, STRAT, D.C. Washi,gto,, 1 ON

9

63

CONTENTS

Volume I II III IV Introduction Physical The Data

II,

Part

1 - Background

Material I-I II-i III-I ......... IV-I

..................... ..................... System in the .............. Earth-Moon System

Earth-Moon

Trajectories

parts

The preceding of Volume II

contents contain II,

are Part 1 of Volume the following: Part 2 - Lunar Mission

II.

The

remaining

two

Volume V VI VII VIII IX X Earth Departure

Phases V-I VI-I VII-I

.................... Transfer ................

Earth-to-Moon Lunar Descent Orbit

...................... Ascent Transfer from the Lunar Surface .....

to and

VIII-I IX- 1 X-I

Moon-to-Earth Earth Return

................

.....................

Volume Xl XII Mission Planning

II,

Part

3

- Mission

Planning Xl-i XII-I A-I B-I i

...................

Bibliography Appendix Appendix Index A B

..................... Glossary Symbols ................. ..................

.........................

FOREWORD

This the Space The volumes of space Martin

handbook Company Center various in Flight by

has under of Handbook

been

produced

by

the

Space with second MSFC,

Systems the and in George Space a treating to the books

Division C.

of

contract the National is

NAS8-5031 Aeronautics the by of purpose

Marshall of dynamics

Flight Lunar

Administration. series the mission is to form years orbital serve they of

considered sponsored of aspects

contractors, a variety The

flight and

interest of these In through such

designer as a basic

evaluator. tool in

primary mission material

preliminary data in each and present of three and

planning. collected area, flight. is concerned in

condensed several earth

provide intensive flight,

background studies lunar

space

mission

as

flight, II, the

interplanetary volume, parts

Volume The The volume parts

with three

lunar separate

missions. booEs.

consists are:

presented

Part Part Part

i 2 3

- Background - Lunar - Mission

Material Phases

Mission Planning

The Jorgen Martikan this material

Martin

Company George

Program Townsend direct

Manager has been

for

this

project Director. the

has

been Fred of of

Jensen; has with

Technical for

had he

the has

responsibility the responsibility

coordination the generation

volume;

shared Santora.

for

Frank

Additional Garceau, prepared preparing James have made Andrew by

contributors Jazwinski Kuhn and and for Markson,

were Lloyd Elsie

Robert Emery. M.

Salinger, The John

Donald graphical Magnus Pragluski, Foy of and this

Kraft, work has

Thomas has been in

Dieter

Smith.

assisted Don Novak, Tyler

the

handbook Edward

publication. Sidney during the

William Roedel, Wade writing

Porter,

James book.

helpful

suggestions

The the MSFC

assistance contract

given management

by

the

Future

Projects by

Office Conrad

at D.

MSFC Swanson

and is

by

panel,

directed

gratefully

acknowledged.

INT RODUCT

ION

I.

INTRODUCTION

The primary intent of the Lunar Flight Handbook is to introduce the engineer to the flight mechanics aspects of lunar missions. In addition, the handbook material is designed to enable the user to design this decade. a lunar mission for any date in

To fulfill this double purpose while presenting new material in compact form, several guidelines were established and followed in the selection and arrangement The Handbook of the material. for the Lunar Flight between textbooks of observational astronomy, in journals and reports. in the Handbook is in-

to re-entry into the earth's atmosphere upon return from the moon. Of special interest is the attempt to catalogue a major portion of circumlunar and approach trajectories to the moon and return trajectories to a degree of accuracy which has not so far been achieved in the published literature.

(3)

format selected is somewhere

Mission chapter material specific use in

planning. In of the Handbook, is applied to lunar missions preliminary

the

final technical the previous the design of two to illustrate its

design. chapter the data follow.

celestial mechanics and and the recent literature The material presented

tended to provide the link between these two types of publications and to provide a framework for the published articles and reports covering specialized aspects of lunar flight. The order of the presentation progresses from relatively simple physical concepts to a derivation, or tlle outline of the derivation, of more detailed results and concepts. More important and useful results are presented analytically, and if possible graphically, while results which depend on the vehicle configuration and operational concepts, such as the use of tracking and communication equipment, have been described in narrative form ber of sketches are included to permit a quick grasp and the concepts and techniques Frequent reference provided to enable the values to their source only. in the A large numtext in order of

The subject material of each technical and some general guidelines for use of presented in the Lunar Flight Handbook

Chapter Chapter

II.

PIIYSICAL II describes

DATA the environment factors describes the first constants the of the

space vehicles, gives the various systems lunar exploration the astronautical

conversion of units and In or

between the section, describspace bodws, vedata

programs. constants, force of

ing the gravitational hicle and the geometry

acting on lhe cele,stiul recently has been constants, determined

have been discussed. The on astronautical constants and with the best values a confidence of these interval

published summarized, together with the for all Thus, constants Future, astrothe Thus, preliminary of

easy visualization of lunar flight.

to outside material is reader to trace numerical and find references

Student's t distribution, have trajectory calculations in the a standard and nearly consistent based on recent data has been more accurate determinations nautical constants graphical trajectory the Handbook will design purposes. will

been used Handbook. set of adopted. of these any for

to further material. Frequent reference is made to material in the Orbital Flight Handbook, the companion volume to this Handbook, since the technical material overlaps to some extent. It was attempted to keep the technical level and notation uniform throughout the llandbook. This was no small task if one considers that a number of people were contributing to the Handbook directly and much outside material was reviewed, checked and integrated into the text. The ranged technical into three material groups: of the tiandbook is ar-

not change ciata significantly. retain its value

The atmospheric, thermal environment effect of this environment occupants near-earth environment

meteoritic, of the space on the

radiative vehicle vehicle data

and and the and its

are then discussed. The environment and earth-moon has been classified and to the as

on the space summarized Flight Handand lunar observa has been

with frequent reference book for details, while surface environment, tions and discussed as it is in much known more

the Orbital near-moon deduced from present,

(1)

Background material. This group, consisting of Chapters II, 1II and IV, gives the results of astronomy, describes the geometry, the environment, the force models for trajectory calculation, and and classifies missions. In in the metric to of the units lunar addition, trajectories since all

at the detail.

Since handbook data is given in the absolute MKS system of units, the various systems of chanical anti thermal units employed for trajec tory cah:ulations as well as conversion factors between metric, tems of units tabular form, mental tiples units have units. chapter status continues the U. S. with lunar a review exploration of the are but English given. basic common listed in

me

material is in the versions system (2)

Lunar system commonly is given.

Flight Handbook of units, conused English

and astrononiica] sys Much of the data is in definitions anti fundamultiples the text to the anti submulprovide for various sys-

with been

Lunar mission phases. consisting ofEh_pters ses all possible chronologically

This group, V to X, discuslunar flight departure

convenient tems of The current

conversions

between

phases of from earth

of

1-1

program to familiarize the reader with the project terminology and with the immense scope of the lunar exploration task. A list of announced space vehicle launches with lunar missions, their trajectories, completes results and the material attempted experiments of Chapter II.

ated. integration computer The

The

description of these round out

of

methods on

for the

numerical digital

trajectories this section.

Voice

(volume-of-influence

calculated which uses the geometry Voice tech-

envelopes) computation technique, a patched conic force model, and and nomenclature, peculiar to the

Chapter

III.

TIlE

EARTII-MOON

SYSTEM

Chapter III provides some astronomical background for lunar flight. The various coordinate systems centered at the earth or the moon and used for describing the position of space vehicles are introduced, and transformations between the various moon-centered and trajectory coordinate systems is also The are given. included. A list of available lunar' maps

nique have been introduced in the final section of Chapter IV. This special treatment is necessary since the particular trajectory geometry enables the efficient cataloguing of lunar trajectories to be discussed in the summary of Chapter VI.

Chapt('r This

V, is

I',AtlTII the of The first

I)EPAt{TURE chapter in the chronological lunar tech-

motion of a space as interpreted strieted three-body cussed. Conclusions astronomical results tic space-vehicle have been presented

space vehicle in earth-moon in the three-body and re problems of astronomy is disthat can be drawn from these in their application to ballisin earth-moon detail. space

description mission. nique, in specified at injection, technique,

the separate fixed translunar

phases

of a trajectory

trajectories in some

which the translunar trajectory has a inclination to the moon's orbital plane the variable translunar trajectory in which the i_clination of the transvaries with injection how the itself the use time are of of injection, discussed. or-

lunar trajectory and the translunar It is demonstrated

Since knowledge of lunar position and orientation is also required for lunar flight, brief descriptions of Delaunay's Hansen's and the HillBrown Iunar theories are followed by a listing of the available lunar ephemerides and by a method digital for including lunar programs. librations in trajectory computer

parking

Chapter ............

IV.

TIRAJECTO[{IE5 NT-OXSNS-YSTE

1N M

Tilt,;

EAtg'F[t-"

bits during earth departure increases the period in which space vehicle launch can take place (i.e., the launch tolerance) and hence provides additional flexibility for the planning of lunar missions. During the injection phase, abort requirements, or the requirements to return the space vehicle to earth as quickly as possible in the event of a malfunction, have been discussed. Abort requirements are mentioned for each phase of lunar flight in the Handbook since they are important for the selection of trajectories and vehicle hardware for manned lunar missions and aspect since of many lunar published missions. articles disregard this

the

This chapter nomenclature

introduces, in and classification

descriptive of lunar

form, mis-

sions and trajectories as well as the determination of the trajectories. The restricted three-body problem perrnits the use of many types of ballistic trajectories for lunar flights. If thrust is available to modify these ballistic trajectories at predetermined points, a wide variety of lunar missions are possible. described The underlying scribed The and force in most common illustrated by missions sketches in have the been text.

All graphical data for specific numerical examples in the Lunar Flight ttandbook reflects launches from Cape Canaveral, Florida, under appropriate launch azimuth restrictions. At present, NASA has announced plans to use this launch site for lunar flights, and in view of the long-range planning and expense of the launch support equipment, these plans are likely to be carried out. I_aunch from other sites with diffcrelK la_lnch azimuth restrictions rcquirl,s a different set of graphs since trajectories have a strong dependence on launch site location.

models, trajectory considerable

or the physical assumptions, calculations, have been dedetail in order to show the

assumptions involved in the use of particular equations of motion for lunar trajectory calculations. The description starts from simple two-body equations permitting closed-form solutions; it progresses through the "patching" of two-body trajectories around the earth and moon in order obtain a complete ballistic lunar trajectory; restricted three-body force model is discussed as a tool to determine trajectories; the n-bed) force model with earth oblateness and lunar axiality concludes gravitational mospheric is presented in detail; with a discussion of forces, such drag, meteoritic as and the the chapter effects of to the

('hapter

VI.

I,;AR'FII-TO-MOt)N

"FIgANSFt'_[{

trinon-

rocket drag,

thrust, at,_olar radiution

pressure, electromagnetic forces, special and general relativistic effects. In most cases the form of the equations of motion has been given or derived and the effect of including the nongravitational forces in lunar trajectories is cvalu-

Of special note in this chapter is the catalogue of a large portion of circumlunar trajectories to an accuracy which permits the preliminary selection of lunar mission parameters-a level of accuracy which is unique among presentations of this type. Use of the Voice patchedconic trajectory program, use of trajectory symmetry about the moon's orbital plane as well as a plane perpendicular to it, and use of two equations for extending injection parameters, enables the presentation of a major portion of the circmnlunar trajectories launched from Cape

I-2

Canaveral in only 83 figures. Typical comparis_o_ trajectories calculated by use of the Voice technique, the restricted three-body force model, and the n-body force model have been given frequently throughout the Handbook in order to illustrate the remarkable accuracy achievable with the Voice technique. Navigation during lunar missions has been discussed qualitatively and quantitatively, with examples given for a particularly useful navigation technique for position determination in cislunar space. Tracking and communications, on the other hand, have been described qualitatively, since the actual procedures depend to a great degree on the available equipment as well as on the trajectory. Several techniques midcourse guidance correc{ions and some typical fuel requirements for have determining been discussed are also given.

Chapter

IX.

MOON-TO-EARTH

TRANSFER

This chapter gives a catalogue of trajectories from the vicinity of the moon to the vicinity of the earth in 90 figures. Use of symmetry and reinterpretation of moon-to-earth trajectories as earth-to-moon trajectories again enables a significant extension of the catalogued data. The catalogues of Chapters VI and IX thus include a major portion of feasible circumlunar and approach trajectories. Impact as well as specialized periodic trajectories have not been catalogued since they most probably will not be used for lunar exploration in the 1965 to 1970 time period; however, they are described and classified in Chapter IV. Midcourse guidance during the moon-to-earth been briefly discussed. guidance techniques, and tracking requirements directly to moon-to-earth energy requirements transfer phase have The description of navigational techniques of Chapter VI applies trajectories. and

Abort cedures together circumlunar Chapter

requirements during the with abort mission VI.

and translunar maneuver conclude

possible abort trajectory graphs for the material

prophase a typical of

Chapter

X.

EARTtt

RETURN

Chapter

VII.

LUNAR

ORBIT

Artificial behave in in earth

the orbits.

satellites same Only

in fashion the

orbits as

around artificial

the moon satellites constants the

A description of re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and landing at a specific site completes the chronological description of the lunar mission phases. The problem of timing earth return provides the introduction to the chapter which considers two methods for re-entering the atmosphere and landing. The first method considers the space vehicle into the earth's from the transearth trajectory the parabolic speed speed). Equations re-entry trajectories, aerodynamic niques during considered. forces this of a direct entry atmosphere at speeds near escape by use techare of of of

astronautical

appearing in the equations and the magnitude of perturbing forces of the other celestial bodies are different. Hence, satellite data most commonly used in prelir_inary design such as period, velocity, as well lunar oblateness as reconnaissance of and the effects aspects on the orbit, of lunar orbits, the ef-

for earth (or earth motion, characteristics maneuverability guidance re-entry

are given analytically relative magnitude fects is presented. The effect been of for

graphically, and various perturbing

and various supercircular

finite entry discussed, data

rocket to

burning

time

on

fuel with

requirements orbits has

and exit from lunar and a comparison This entry supplements and exit

The second combination of rocket deceleration

method of re-entry atmospheric and to establish

employs rocket or a circular

a pure earth

Voice trajectory the fuel requirements

is made. for orbit

given in the trajectory catalogues of Chapters VI and IX, which is based on an impulsive change of velocity (infinite thrust-to-weight ratio). Finally, lunar orbit determination schemes are described briefly.

satellite orbit prior to re-entering and landing from circular orbital speed. The requirements on the guidance system and the materials are thus reduced, but a significant amount of fuel is required for the deceleration and deorbit maneuvers.

Chapter Chapter VIII. DESCENT TO AND ASCENT THE LUNAR SURI_ACE FROM

X1.

MISSION

PLANNING between the presented of a lunar period of 1965

the

In this lunar

chapter, surface

the has

vehicle trajectory been described:

the

near need

Chapter background in Chapters mission on to 1970.

X-l, provides the link and trajectory material II to X and the planning a specific date in the

to reduce the lunar approach velocity of the space vehicle for most landing missions, the descent burning and ballistic flight phases, any required hovering or translation, landing safety boundaries and abort during each descent or ascent phase are covered. In each case the equations of motion, some methods of trajectory optimization and the guidance trajectory as well phase. as typical results describe

The following material is necessary for the conversion from generalized trajectory data to specific mission dates: transformations from tim Voice coordinat_ system to the selenographic coordinate system, the illumination of the moon by the sun, lunar declination and distance from the earth, and some useful empirical relationships for extending catalogued

I-3

trajectorydata. Alsoincluded missionplanare ningenvelopes, graphs or whichgiveseveral geometrical trajectoryparameters sa function a of missionconstraints summary in form, thus enabling readypatching thetranslunar,lunar a of orbit, andtransearth trajectoriesintoa complete andcontinuous trajectoryfor themission. Theuseof thematerialin theHandbook andthe procedure planning of lunarmissions hasbeen

illustratedbytwosample missions thefinal in section the chapter.Onemission a manned of is lunarexploration mission witha stayofthree daysonthelunarsurface,whilethe otheris an unmanned photographic reconnaissance mission of themoon lastingonemonth. In addition to illustratingtheuseof theHandbook materialfor missionplanning,hesemissions t arerepresentative of thetypeof lunarmissions planned the for endofthis decade.

I-4

CHAPTER PHYSICAL

II DATA

Prepared

by:

F. Martikan and R. Salinger Martin Company (Baltimore) Aerospace Mechanics Department March 1963

Page A. B. C. D. E. Astronautical Environmental Systems Summary References Constants Data .................... II-i II-10 ........... and Results .... II-20 II-26 II-32 II-35

...................... Conversion Tables Programs

of Units and of Lunar

Exploration

................................ .................................

Illustrations

II.

PHYSICAL

DATA

The purpose of this chapter is to present background data for the discussion of lunar missions-to be more specific, the astrodynamieal constants needed for hnar trajectories, a discussion of the space vehicle environment, and of the absolute MKS system of units used in the handbook, together with conversion factors to English units. The astt'odynamical constants and near-earth environment have been discussed in the companion volume (Chapter II, Ref. 1), and data from that reference is given in summary form for the convenience of the user. Additional data needed specifically for lunar missions has been included in more detail in Sections A and B. A list of space vehicle launches with lunar missions, their objectives, and the present lunar exploration program of the United States is given at tile end of the chapter, in Suction D.

(1)

Collect constant. Assume particular same

all

recent

values

of

a particular

(2)

that

the constant

various are

of

values roughly

of

the the

accuracy. the sample, n n mean (x) and variance (2) of

(3)

Obtain this

X=n
i=l

xi' _- =n X
i=l 2 a_ x the

(xi-

n of values

n

1 for

, where constant.

n

is

the

number

A. The from

ASTRONAUTICAL of the solar observations

CONSTANTS system are determined accurate

(4)

Throw out all mean by more tion (la). Recompute as the the "adjusted

values than

deviating one standard

from the devia-

constants astronomical

(5)

mean mean"

and for of

use the

this

value constant. is

enough for the prediction of the positions of celestial bodies. However, for a successful lunar or interplanetary mission, better values for the astronomical unit (AU), the distances, diameters, figures, masses, and other data concerning the earth, moon, sun, and planets are required. As these values should be internally consistent, they depend on the physical model used for the trajectory calculation. In addition, some indication of the uncertainty in the values is necessary since these constants define the ballistic trajectory, and uncertainties in the constants are reflected in trajectory "errors" and "miss distances. "

The

"confidence

interval"

a constant

used here to indicate that the sample interval brackets the true mean or adjusted mean, as computed by the procedure above, some prescribed percentage of the time. For these small samples, the confidence interval has been obtained from the Student _s t-distribution. As this procedure has been fully discussed in Chapter II of Ref. 1, no further details will be given here. In nautical when their handbook sense, to some constants centric primary 1. the remainder constants of are this section, defined (and the end levels Since, influence of the astrodiscussed, the section, as used in the

In recent years, several articles on astronautical constants have appeared in the literature (Hefs. 2, 3, 4, 5 to name but a few). Of these, Refs. 2 and 3 have aimed at a standardization of the constants for astronautical calculations (although there seem to be small inconsistencies in the data, and no indication of a "standard deviation" or other 'honfidence interval" is given in the data). Reference 4 is restricted to a statistical analysis of geocentric constants, and the constants in Ref. 5, even though internally consistent, appeared too late for their evaluation and inclusion in the handbook. Reference 5 is reproduced in its entirety as Appendix B of Ref. 1. In addition, the calculation of the lunar ephemeris is based on a different set of constants, which is given 6). Since more become available of space vehicles, means, most of by more accurate In any case, the used in trajectory For companion data has the in the American accurate values in the future Ephemeris (Itef. of constants will from observations

necessary), values and

and at confidence

are summarized. all celestial bodies

in the broadest the trajectory planetocentric with the geowhich are

degree, heliocentric and wii1 be given, together and selenocentric constants interest for lunar trajectories.

of

Heliocentric

Constants

radar echoes, and by other these constants will be superseded values and smaller tolerances. best values available should be calculations. in 1, this the and handbook recently the best of The the and its

Planetary observations and theories of planetary motion permit precise computation of the angular position of the planets. Although angular measurements are quite accurate, no distance scale is readily available. Attempts to resolve this problem have ied to the comparison of large, unknown interplanetary distances to the largest of the known distances available to man, the equatorial radius R of the earth. In the process,
(2

solar earth' to the whose lized

paraliax was defined s equatorial radius sun from a fictitious mass and sidereal by Gauss in his

the ratio of the the mean distance unperturbed planet period are those utito of the solar

as

trajectories

computation

volume, Ref. been summarized,

published values procedure various

of the constants have used for determining constants is as follows:

been used. the means

gravitation AU). This revisions fundamental the unit length can be

constant (i. e., one astronomical unit, definition renders unnecessary the in planetary tables as more accurate constants are made available, since (in kilometers) modified. of the astronomical

II-

1

the

In the broadest ratio between

sense, the solar two sets of units:

parallax is (1) the astro-

duces off. The as the rotation, found 2.

a much

lower

end

figure

error

due

to

round-

nomical set utilizing the solar mass, the astronomical unit and the mean solar day (which has recently been replaced by the ephemeris day), and (2) the laboratory set, for which the absolute MKS system of units has been adopted in this handbook. Another important heliocentric quantity is the value of the solar gravitational constant, . p_ = • _2) GM©, stant stant where and can M O G is the universal of the in both grawtatmnal sun. the This concon-

sun's mean in

orbit

and

such

auxiliary

constants its rate years can (|_ef. 6). of be

obliquity and lengths the American

of the ecliptic, of the various Ephemeris Constants

Planetoeentrie

is the

mass

be determined

astronomical de

and the laboratory terminations are

units; results from both given in this subsection.

The mass of a planet is its most important property from the standpoint of trajectory analysis; only in the vicinity of a planet will its actual shape influence the trajectory to some degree. From the mass and its shape, some auxiliary quantities such as the radius of a sphere having the equivalent volume can be derived. Planetary tabular and form at some the lunar end of data this is summarized subsection.

In 1938 it was internationally agreed (IAU 1938) that to maintain the Gaussian value of the solar gravitational GM law O constant by or Gaussian Gauss from constant Kepler's KO2 third in

as determined in astronomical

units.

Table 1 presents the gravitational properties of the sun and planets--their masses and gravitational constants p = GM in absolute MKS, gravitational FPS, and astronomical units. In addition, the radius of action of the particular planet with respect to The radius the of sun is action given in the same units.

KO

_ _ - r

r@@ M 0

M S

_

+ MG AU3/2

2/5 r* (1) where r OP defines a spherical region around the planet p which approximates the sphere of influence of the planet in the dynamical system of the planet and the sun. (For more detail, see Subsection B-lb of Chapter IV.) The main significance of the radius of action lies in its use in the "patching" of conic trajectories; inside the sphere of influence, the gravitational attraction of the planet may be neglected as a first approximation to the trajectory, while outside the sphere of influence the gravitational attraction of the planet may be neglected. In the case of the moon, the tabulated radius of action is centered at the moon and defined with respect to the earth, while in the case of the earth-moon system it is centered at the masses definition columns revolution, the true a given distances 1/2 earth-moonbarycenter, of the earth of and moon and are the used combined in its last three period of sun, and earth on = distance from sun to planet = top

(%

(2)

0.017,

202,

098,

95

solar day

where

ros r M(D M S M®

= 1 AU = 365.256,383,5 = solar mass = 1 mean solar days

= ratio

of

earth

and

solar

masses

= 0.000,002,819 The this value definition. 2. The value of pQ = GM O (as KO is usually units) can best values to Ref. denoted when be determined for 2, G and M O. measured directly This in laboratory by use of the yields, if we of K© has nine significant figures by

refer

with respect to the sun. The Table 1 present the sidereal its mean distance from the distance of the planet from the date and to illustrate for typical the scale calculations neat' the 7 and 6, of

PO _O

= 1.3251 1/2 = 1"1511

(1

± 0.00101 (1 + 0"0005)

x

1020 x

Em3/sec 1010

2]

planetary of planetary

[-m3/see2]

gravitational data is taken

attractions from liefs.

earth. The respectively.

The ured three

latter

value,

which units, figures of the

corresponds is accurate as compared determination

to

KO

meas-

in laboratory significant figures units.

only to the to the nine of K@ in

significant astronomical

Table 2 presents the geometry of the planets. Most celestial bodies are very nearly spherical in shape, ttowever, an oblate elIipsoid can be assumed as a second approximation to the planetary shape, while, for the shape of the moon, a triaxial ellipsoid has been deduced from observations. The oblate eliipsoid is defined by its equatorial natively, radius by I{e, 1_
e

It is thus advantageous to compute nomical system of units, converting necessary. This procedure assures suits will become more accurate as for the astronomical unit are obtained

in the astroonly when that the rebetter values and pro-

its and

polar its

radius

Rp, f,

or, with

alter-

flattening,

R f = e g
e

tg p (3)

II-2

TABLE Gravitational
Gravitational Mass Planet Mercury 0 1024 3237 k g 0 02232 M 106 km 3 Isec 2 1016 ft3/sec 2

1 of the Planets

Properties

Constant i0 -9 AU3/solar day 2 106 km Radius 109 of ft Action r* AU

Sidereal Period Revolution of Mean from the Distance the Sun Planet O. 387 to

True from December

Distance Earth Epoch: 25 0. 8407 (AU) 0, 1963

(w')
o 2411

(AU)

6, 100,000 ±65,000

0

021,

725

0

076,

721

o o48,5o9
0 726,987

0 1117_
0 61696

o

36674

0

000,747,6

Venus

4.

8811

O, aa45

407,000 ± 1300

0

325,581

1.

149,

78

2

0241

0

004,

126

0

6156

0,

724

l.

4076

Earth

5.

9758

0.

40947

332,440 ±50

O, 398,

601,

5

1. 407,

64.___8

O.

890,033

O. 92482

3.

0342--9

0

006,

185,0

10000

1.

0000

0

Earth-Moon

6.

0484

0.

41444

328,400 ±25 M$ -Mt I 3,090,000 ±12,000 1j 047 ±0 1 3500 zl.7 22,800 :l- 100 19,500 ± 2 ()C, 350,000 ± 27,000 106 1 0000Ci 4

O. 403,444

1. 424,

75

0.

900,847

0

92933

3

04898

0

006,215,1.

Moon

0.

(}73451

0.

0050330

= 81.357±0.010 0004,899,4 0.042,883,0 O. 017,302,___1 0.151,440

O.

010,939,_8

O. 066282--

O. 21746o

0

000,443,3

O.

0748**

0.0025

OD

Mars

O. 6429

O. 04405

0

095,753,

1

0

57763

1

8951

0

003,

86_.._3

1.

8822

1.53

2.3554

Jupiter

1896

7

129

97

126

515

446.

783

282

493

48

141

157

943

0

321,

96

11.86

5.20

4.7246

Saturn

567

80

38.

89

37.

860,

4

133.

703

84

538,3

54

774

179

7I)

O. 366_

31

29.46

9.54

10.4871

Uranus

87.

132

5

970

5811,91

20

524,6

12

977,4

51

755

169

80

0

346,

13

84,0

19.2

17,9031

Neptune

I01

88

6

981

6

795,

75

28.

999,

0

15174,2

89

952

285

28

0

581,

51

164.

8

30, 1

31.0049

Pluto

5

676

0

3889

0

378,596

1

337,0

0

845,

364

38,

812

117

49

0

239,

5

247

7

39.

4

32.5967

Sun

1,9866

x

106

0

13613x

132,511

467,960

295,912

208.3

_

--

0.9835

*x

Jne erlined digits * Solar gravitational Period of revolution

are

questionable constant is is around

Gauss±an earth.

value

Table having

2 also the

presents volume

the

radius as the

of the oblate

sphere ellipsoid,

which

can IR 6--

be R e

expressed 1 -

to f sin 2 6

order + _

f2

as sin 2 2

same

R

=

(Re2

Rp )

1/3

(4) --_R e 1 - f sin2*, g sin 2 2 (6)

to facilitate Keplerian orbit calculations and illustrate the small planetary asphericities. Table 3 presents the circular velocity,

to where esthe flattening f is defined by Eq (3). I_ e is

cape velocity and gravity at the surface of the equivalent sphere (called "sea level") in metric, English and astronomieal units, as computed from the following equations:

the earth,s equatorial radius, latitude (as given on maps), centric latitude. These latter related by tan _, = (1 - f)2 lan_.

6 is the geodelic and 5, is _he geotwo quantities

are

(7)

Vc[rcular

=

A consistent = Vescape (5) t! e rC

expression

for"

Ue

is 2

given

by

Vparabolic

- Z.l 4

2

_

(3

sin 2 *,

-

1)

go

R 2 - gr,]4

Preliminary trajectory calculations use the spherical body assumption (i.e., that the celestial body is spherically symmetric in coneentrie layers} with the radius R given by Eq (4) and the the gravitational distance is from given potential byU =-_, where r The r negative sign bital data for can be obtained denotes an attractive foree. Orthe planets and auxiliary quantities from Ref. 6. Since the orbits and near the for orbits data on r is where earth system) attraction By g

"

-

(35 sin 4 -b, - 30 sin 2 5, + 3

)]

(8)

r G is (the

the

distance in ="e lhe is .12 and be

from geographic the J4

the

center coordinate

of

the

its center.

gravitational 0 where the

radius C'Me

gravitational are numerical in through terms (8)

constant coefof can f, be R ape ,

av : -- br

of

the

earth, which andre. to any

and can

ficients g_, plied

expressed (6)

Equations oblate planet.

of planets (with the exception of Mercury Pluto) are very nearly circular and are ecliptic plane, another common assumption preliminary calculations is that planetary are circular and in the ecliptic. Further planets of this ter III listed of 3. the

The

earth,s

gravitational to the earth

potential, must satisfy

%,

at

a

point exterior equation. -

LapIace,s

and their orbits, together with the sources information, has been presented in Chapof Kuiper (Ref. 8) and inthe references in the Bibliography of background material Lunar Flight Handbook. A solution separation Ue in written

_2[Je

+

O2Ue

O2Ue

0

Geocentrie

Constants

of this partial of variables

differential suggests harmonics

an

equation expansion which can

by of be

The approximation of the earth' s shape by a rotating oblate ellipsoid which in the interior is symmetrie in ellipsoidai layers is quite good for ascent and descent trajectories as well as shorttime orbits around the earth. The further assumption ellipsoid potential tential centrifugal 2 cos ¢, earth the of is made that the surface of the oblate ts an equipotential surface of the geowhich consists of the gravitational pothe earth, force , where its and ¢, co e axis, is the due is U S, to the and the the rotation, rotational the local potential _ rate radius latitude. 1 we of of 2 the 2 R_ the of

terms of spherical in the form

___._

y

(I{e

p

m

(sin,,)

-to
_C cos m becomes X is through coefficients, polynomial, polynomlaI the

&o,r-;,
mk + S n, the longitude Cn, P n m m' is in m sin

n
_'3 m_,]l (10)

L_ n,
where torial R e now radius, east

earth,s

mean (counted Sn, the terms m are

equapositive nu-

around earth,

R0p is

to

the

360°), and

geocentric

merical The a function loeal of radius geocentric of the oblate is elIipsoid given by R_ as Legendre Legendre

associated of the

latitude

defined P n by m

H_ 2 cos R e 2

2 _, +

R,

2 sin .... R 2 (I e

2 _, =I f)2 Pn m (x) = (1 _x2}_-dx dm m Ip n (x _ (Ii)

II-4

TABLE Geometry of the

2 Planets

Radius

of

Sphere (R 3 :

of R:

Equivalent RE)

Volume,

R

Equatorial Planet (km) (statmi)

Radius (naut mi)

i R| (ftx 107) 1/f (km) (stat

Polar mi)

Radius)Rp (naut mi) (ft x 107) (kin) 2330 ±10 6100 ±5O 6371.02 ±0.05 3958.77 ±0.03 3440.08 ±0.02 3790 ±30 3290 ±25 (stat mi) (naut mi) (ft x 107)

Mercury

2330 ±10 6100 ±50

1448

±6

1258

±5

0.7644 ±0.0032 2.001 ±0.016

_*

2330 ±10 6100 ±50

1448

±6

1258

±5

0.7644 ±0.0032

1488

±6

1258

±5

0.7644 ±0.0032 2.001 _0.016 2.09023 ±164 x 10 -7

Venus

3790

±30

3290

±25

_*

3790

±30

3290

±25

2.001 ±0.016

Earth

6378.16 ±0.02 ............

3963.20 ±0.03

3443.93 ±0.02

2.09257 -7 ±164 x 10

298.24

±0.01

6356.77 ±0.05

3949.77 ±0.03

3432.38 ±0.02

2.08555 -7 ±164 x i0

Earth-Moon

Moon*':'

a

1738.57 ±0.07

1080.30 _0.04 1080.14 ±0.04 1079.68 ±0.04

938.75 ±0.03 938.61 ±0.03 938.22 ±0.03

0.

57040

....

±0.00002 0.57031 ±0.00002 0.57007 ±0.00002 .... -1737.58 ±0.07 1079.68 ±0.07 938.22 ±0.03 0.57007 ±0.00002 1738.16 ±0.07 1080.04 ±0.04 938.53 ±0.03 0.57026 ±0.00002

b I c ¢31

1738.31 ±0.07 1737.58 ±0.07

Mars

3415

±5

2122

±3

1844

±2

1.1204 ±0.0016

75

±12

3369

±5

2094

±3

1819

±2

1.1055 ±0.0016

3400

±5

2113

±3

1836

±2

1.1155 ±0.0016

Jupiter

71,375 ±50

44,350 ±30

38,539 ±25

23.417 10.016

15.2

±0.1

66,679 ±50

41.432 ±30 33,900 ±30 070

36,004 ±25 29,470 ±25

21.876 ±0.016 17.990 ±0.016

69,774 ±50

43, ±30

356

37,675 ±25

22,892 ±0.016

Saturn

60.500 ±50

37,590 ±30

32,670 _25

19.849 ±0.016

10.2

±

?

54,560 ±50

58,450 ±50

36, ±30

320

31.560 ±25

19.178 ±0.016

Uranus

24,850 ±50

15,440 ±30

13. ±25

420

8.153 ±0.016

14"

±

?

23, ±50

14,340 ±30

12,460 ±25

7.571 ±0.016

24.240 ±50

15,060 ±30

13,090 ±25

7.953 ±0.016

Neptune

25,000 ±250

15,530 _150

13.500 ±130

8.202 ±0.080

58.5

±

?

24,600 ±250

15,260 ±150

13,270 ±130

8.062 ±0.080

24.870 ±250

15,450 ±150

13, 430 ±130

8.159 zO.080

Pluto

3000 ±500

1860 ±300

1620 t250

0.984 ±0.16

....

3000 ±500

1860 ±300

1620 ±250

0.984 :0.16

Sun

696,500 ±500

432,800 ±300

376,100 ±250

228.51 ±0.16

....

696,500 ±500

432, ±300

800

376.100 ±250

238.51 zO.16

*Taken **Moon

from is best

K.

A.

Ehrieke by

(Ref. triaxial

7) ellipsoid--a: toward earth b: orthogonal to "a" and c: along axis of rotation.

presented

"c"

TABLE Planetary
Circular Velocity at Sea

3 and
Level (A U/solar

Circular
Level (AU/solar

and

Escape
Escape Velocity

Velocities
at Sea

Planetary

Gravity
Gravity at Sea Level

Planet Mercury

{km/sec) 3.05361

(ft/sec) 10,018.4

(statmi/hr) 6,830.73

day) 0.00176444

(km/sec) 4.31846

(ft/sec) 14,168.2

(stat 9.660.13

mi/hr)

day) 0.00249530

(cm/sec 400.212

2)

(it/see 13o1303

2)

(statmi/hr 32,228.9

2)

(AU/solar 0.199801

day

2}

Venus Earth Earth-Moon

7.30630 7.909773 ........................

23.970.8 25,950.7

16,

343.7

0.00422174 0.00457044

10.33266 11.18610

33,899.8 36,699.8

23.113.5 25,022.6

0.00597043 0.00646357

875.261 982.0214

28.7159 32.21855

70,484.5 79.081.88

0.436964 0.4902632

17.693.7

I

Moon

1.678900

5,508.2

3,755.59

0.00097010

2.374831

7.789.8

5.311.23

0.00137194

162.169

5.32049

13.059.38

0.0809608

Mars Jupiter Saturn

3.55141 42.5818 25.4511

11,651.6 139,704 83,500.9

7,944.27 95,252.7 56,932.4

0.00205208 0.0246047 0.0147062

5.02243 60.2196 35.9932

16.477.8 197,571 118.088

11.234.9 134,707 80.514.5

0.00290207 0.0347962 0.0207977

370.951 2598.63 1108.26

12.1703 85.2569 36.3601

29,872.5 209,267 89,247.5

0.185193 1.29734 0.853284

Uranus Neptune Pluto

15.4841 16.5308 11.23(?)

50,800.9 54,234.8 36.860{_)

34,637.0 36,978.3 25,1301'¢)

0.00894705 0.00955183 0.00649(?}

21.8978 23.3780 15.89{?)

71,843.3 75.699.5 52,130(?)

48,984.1 52,295.2 35.540(?)

0.0126530 0.0135083 0.00918{?}

989.073 1098.84 4209(?)

32.4499 36.0512 138.1{?)

79,649.7 88,489.3 338.900(?)

0.493784 0.548584 2.101{71

Sun

436.181

1,431.040

975.709

0.252035

616.853

2.023.795

1,379.860

0.356431

27.315.7

896.186

2.199,730

13.6371

Underlined

digits

are

questionable.

A

frequent

variant
,_

of the
co n

form

(i0) is
n

measurements forp$, the A. table The far The the J2 of through

in

Ref. J6'

4 Re

and and

elsewhere. 1/f at J2 of Jn" accurately For the the is, are end

Values given of in Section

adopted

constants coefficient coefficient

oblateness largest

numerically,

US

= _GG

+ _ n=l

Pn, m=0

m

(sin

_b,) •

by

value astronomical the

of _o@

is

extremely

known hand-

I An, where

m

cos

mk

+ Bn,

m

sin

mk_t

(12)

from books,

observations. value

constant

Pn,

m

(x)

= of of is of the expressions cases removes U@ by on U(_ to most

Pn (10) or (11) the bothersome the longito has riod

_@

= 7. 292

115

146

x

10 -5 turn with

rad/sec determines respect

(14) the pea fixed

A simplification axially symmetric time-dependence tude The k, which

been taken, of the earth,s

which in rotation

to

eliminating the rotating

defined k in

earth.

equinox or the sidereal day at The mean solar day, or period tation with respect to the mean 86, 400 see. 4. Selenoeentric Selenocentric Constants constants can

86164. 0989 see. of the earth,s rosun, is 24 hr, or

inclusion

requires

a transformacoordinates programs. before For be as written as

tion of the potential it can be used in the axially symmetric

inertial trajectory earth, holds to

U_) inertial

can

be

conveniently inthose

(in expression in rotating

which coordinates):

well

divided into two categories--those of primary terest in determining the moon,s motion, and determining its shape and gravitational potential. In the first category, L,, (Ref. been the 8) the lunar and constants inequality the in values at mass Chapter K_ , as ratio II of in this the

= rG

n=l

Jn

\rG/

Pn

(sin

*,

, (13)

lunar byW. M_

distance, de _ p@ _1_ and of Sitter have

defined

discussed

where US for

Jn an Eq

= -

Cn,

0'

Sn,

0 = 0.

Equation earth, is

(8), a special

giving

Me

oblate

ellipsoidal

case of expressions standard pressions

(13) restricted to n = 2 and n = 4. The (I0), (12) and (13) were adopted as notation by the IAU in 1961. Other exused in the literature for U$, as well constants Chapter in terms II of Ref. for is (12) consistent of to or is U_, give mean also is the of Jn' I. radius the complex gento have

Ref. 1, the table subsection.

the numerical adopted constants

are given the end of

the

The moon has earth, which

been means

captured that the

rotationally relatively

by strong

as the equivalent been catalogued An the eral derive. the face earth, forms It radius of the analytic Re, (10) is

in

expression which and customary geoid, (which

local with too

of

gravitational the longest an effect itational This has tational

attraction of the earth has aligned axis of the moon toward the earth in similar to the action of the earth,s gravtorque on a dumbbell-shaped satellite. the immediate consequence that the rorate of sidereal earth. value the moon about its axis, of the Flight ¢o_ , moon Handbook,

Re--describing an sea level surequipotential

of the earth

equals the around the the constant

mean motion For the Lunar

surface of the geopotential)--in by superimposing the deviations the oblate ellipsoid characterized a world than +50 trajectory (6) for R_, for done strictly map. meters Since at

graphical form of the geoid from by R e and f on are earth, simple U_ the less many form which trajectory. R$ and U_ is

_0_i

= _$¢

= 2.661

699

484

x

10 -6

rad/see

(15)
has been adopted, fixing the lunar month and the sidereal of the moon about its axis length period of the sidereal of revolution 11. s55,

these deviations any point of the retain the for of

calculations while the with using

a form

at 27 d 7h 43 m

adequate This are is not From lites, determined center system J2 Cm, have is of the

approximation the knowledge consistent. observations of Jn' n well, the and than together up origin the Jn'

or 27. 321 661 4 days. The clination of the lunar orbit torques moon in its of the to perform orientation sun and other a "wobble with respect

eccentricity and inas well as gravitational planets motion" to the cause the or librations earth at a librations Section in the C. solar

that

long-term values relatively mass and

of

earth have = 0

satelbeen the

= 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, where of the J1

if

given time in are discussed Other examples

its orbit. These lunar further in Chapter Ill, of rotational capture which Venus, Mariner has as

coordinate coefficient

coincide, much n and been larger Sm, n obtained

oblateness n__> with m, n 3.

system include Mercury, by the sun, and possibly the recent findings of of

the

been captured determined by II space vehicle.

Values

to

standard = 8 from

deviations gravity mined

Values for

of the

r_

, -_-,

and problem

_(t)_

have (i.e.,

been the

determotion

n-bo_y

II-7

ofthemoon undertheattractionof the sunand planets).If thesimplerrestrictedthree-body problemis used trajectorycalculationsspherfor ( ical earth, sphericalmoon a circular orbit in around theearth, massless pace s vehicle),then thevalueofoneconstant ustbechanged m for consistency withKepler,sthird lawfor thisforce model,asmentioned Subsection ofChapin B-2 ter IV. It is customaryo retainthevalues t of
p$, pC distance and of _ and use a mean earth-moon

Cartesian and YS of b, c and inertia and c axes zS

coordinate coincide axes, of axes, the

system. with the

Thus, selenographic Define I b and that

the

a,

b, x S,

respectively. moon and I a, assume

moments the is a,

I c about the moon

symmetric observation Consequently,

in concentric it has been Ia data

ellipsoidal determined

shells. From that a > b > c.

< I b < I c-

r_

= 384,

747.2

km

(16)

For (Ref. tions, given

Very little the manual, 9), which Jeffreys, in the

is available on the lunar shape. the data given by Alexandrov is based on Yakovkin.s observaand the has assumptions been adopted. depend have on been

instead The

of the lunar FOG

distance

r_

= 384, 402 the lunar

km. unit (LU)

calculations, previous paragraph, of the motion lunar of the

distance

is also

called

and is analogous to the astronomical unit (AU) on the planetary scale of distances. The value of r-_ is 0.09% larger force than r-4 , but the restricted cannot be ex as

The lengths the rigid-body calculated as:

semiaxes moon

and

three-body

model observed doesn.t

constants

Forced Libration Semiaxis Semiaxis a (km) b (kin) 1738.67 1738. 1 1737.58 21 + 0.07 ± 0.07 ± 0.07

Free Libration 1738.57 1738.31 1737.58 ± 0.07 ± 0.07 ± 0.07

pected to match the force model acting on the

quantities exactly, include all the forces

moon. of interest in connection with Semiaxis c (kin)

Another

item

the motion of the moon are the lengths of the lunar months, which have been obtained from Ref. 6 (data is for the epoch 1900.0): Synodic Tropical Sidereal Anomalistic Draconitic month month month month month 29.d530589 27.d321582 27.d321661 27.d554551 27.d212220 29d12h44m02.s9 27d07h43m04.s7

Values for free libration, adopted by Baker, have also been adopted for the Lunar Flight Handbook. These values are based on the dimensionless moment-of-inertia I -I
C a

parameters:

27d07h43mll.S5 27d13h18m33.s2 27d05h05m35.s8 1900 from can cal-

-Ib

= 0. 000, 626, ard error)

6 ± 0. 000,002,

7

(stand-

Ia - Ib --I-C

= 0. 000, forced

204.9 libration

i

0. 000,

000,

9 for

a

Any variation lunar theory and safely be neglected culations.

of these values since any observed difference for most astronautical

= 0. 000, 209, free libration. These were the observational of inertia I
a

8 ± 0. 000,002,

2 for

a

calculated data given by

Accurate orbital data for the moon, which involves several additional constants, can be found in Ref. 6. The hnar theory which has been used in obtaining the data, the comparison of theory with observation, and the variables given are discussed in detail in Section C of Chapter III. Some orbital elements--important spherical position coordinates as well as the illumination of the moon up by the sun--have year 1970 been to given the in Chapplanning ter XI of lunar to the missions. enable

byJeffreys of Yakovkin.

(Ref. The

10) from moments

are = kM

(b 2 + c 2)

Ib I
e

= kM = kM

(e 2 + a 2) (a 2 + b 2)

(17)

The second category of constants deals with the figure of the moon and its gravitational potential. The asphericity of the moon can be deduced from photographic measurements as well as from physical librations (the small wobblemotion of the moon due to gravitational torques of the sun and planets other than earth), and the data indicates that the moon may best be represented by a triaxial ellipsoid with semiaxes a, b and c. The c axis is assumed to coincide with the rotational axis of the rected to the mean center Subsection A-2 of Chapter and the b axis completes moon, the a axis point of the moon III for a definition), the right-handed is di(see

wherek the value

is the inhomogeneity k = 0.2 for a constant

factor, density

which has model of

the moon and sional model caused by the interior (Ref. the moments Moment Inertia Ia Ib Ic (1034 (1034 (1034 kg-m kg-m kg-m of

k = 0.199 for a modified compresof the moon having a density gradient pressure of the outer layers on the 9). For>, = 0. 199 (exact value) of inertia are: Forced Libration 2) 2) 2) 8. 8293 ± 0.0018 ± 0.0018 0.0018

Libration 8. 8298 Free 0. 0018 i 8.8312 8.8349 ± 0.0018 ± 0.0018 [

8.8317 8.8349±

II-8

Again, adopted The 2 Xs

the in

values for free this handbook. of 2 YS Zs the 2 hmar

libration

have

been

surface

ellipsoid

is

given

by

+_e

ii
1 + 2(1 Ic r S is (the the

rs

/-U

--2-+

a

7
-f

+

7
will the ,

= 1
be transformed to radius latitude, in order the spherical of a

(18)

-r S

c

(1

-

3 cos 2_¢)

This

expression R_k, point, the an of f, the 0_

coordinates surface and obtain ing k_,

selenocentric the selenographic longitude for R_k. as Define

+ c

- 3 sin2¢

_)

(23)

selenographic

to flatten-

where moon system),

distance in zS the denote

from

the

center

of

the

expression lunar b = 0.00015 equator

radius YS and

selenographic components and r S. Since for system. from the to the _ is the the YS U_

coordinate of r S in be rotates a non-

a = -a

selenographic (19) tween of the lunar prime meridian as with inertial the the YS moon, rotating

coordinates axis the and

angle axis is in

and

the

flattening
a c

expression

coordinate

f*

=
a

= 0.00057.

(20)

The coordinate

transformation system x_ III, y_ z¢ from is

selenographic lunar equatorial 2b of

x S YS given where:

zs in

The equation of the spherical coordinates,

lunar

ellipsoid

becomes,

in system Chapter SubsectionA

2[c cos2 0+
cos2¢_( sin2 ¢_ ] = 1 Since accurate by use order for R both to of the terms is . X_ f, and solve f* for are very R@. and small, binomial in f, and theorem, f*. The
P

I sin 2 k(i

YS

=

- sin

(A S +_¢

t)

x_

+ cos

(A S+

_

t)

y_

(i - f,)2 z S = z_ (21) where it is sufficiently expand only firstexpression the xff A S is and an x S arbitrary axes. The initial expression phase angle for Uff between in non(24)

subsequently retaining resulting

rotating substitution matical

equatorial of Eq (24) operations

lunar

coordinates into Eq (23)

becomes, and some

after mathe-

+>,

R0) ' (6_

)

_- f*

a

_

- f,

cos2d_

(i

-

cos2k¢ (22)

)

sin20_J the local radius of the oblate

2 The expression for + earth--R_ to first order--can be obtained from Eq (22) if f,--.0, f*--f, as can be verified by comparison with Eq (6). Altitude on lunar maps is not given with respect to the ellipsoidal surface. w---ril-c_is defined to first order by Eq (22), and it is not given with respect to a spherical moon, but _iven with respect to an arbitrary spherical lunar datum which is well below the lunar surface and face results features. in positive altitudes for all lunar sur1 3 (_ z_ 2 r_ 3
X_

2 y_ 2 rt 24 cos 2 (A S + _q t)

y_
2 sin 2 (A S + ¢o_ t))

+

re
Ic - Ia _ zd2_)]% (25)

3
(The

where It remains to obtain an U¢ shape model. (Ref. expression corresponding and for to the its 9) lunar gravitational triaxially compressional and Baker, potential potential ellipsoidal lunar Makemson in the following

r{

-= r S.

change

in

subscript

has the radius coordinate

been

for the modified A1exandrov (Ref. 10) give the lunar used form:

introduced in has components system. )

order in

to the

emphasize that lunar equatorial

widely

Another form of the lunar gravitational potential has been given by Jeffreys (Ref. ii, p 140). It is more useful than the forms (23) and (25) because it allows the expression of the lunar potential in a form analogous to Eq (I0) for the earth,s potential, with the polar flattening of the moon described by the numerical coefficient

II-9

J2 = - C2,0 andthelunarequatorial llipiieily e bythecoefficient 2,2" This form is givenin C theselenographic coordinale system,and,wi_h a slighlchange notation compalibilitywith in for Eq (10),it is:
2 (i c2, 2 cosY,
where the 1 J2Ic - 2 M{ (Is 2 a -6 (27) + Ib) 200 x 10 -6 values of

soon as they handbook will future changes to be reflected for relatively cant improvement

become remain in the in the short-term in

available. The data in the valid, as any anticipated constants will be too small graphical data, which is trajectories. A signifithe values for selenocentric as soon as longmoon can be

sin ,,>
(26) are:

constants is expected, however, term satellite orbits around the established and obserw_'d.

cos2
the coefficients

B,

ENVIHONMENTAL and in

DATA summarized effect determine the astrothe

Section A discussed nautical constants which

Ib - la C2, 2 4M{ The the that semiaxls largest Ull a used semiaxis, in the forms Eqs or 2- - 27 x 10

gravitational environment of the space vehicle Section B gives some background on other forces and the atmospheric, radiation, meteoroid, and thermal environment in which the sl_ace vehicle finds itself during lunar missions. Environmental (1) data pertaining which includes this body, the celestial interplanetary, space data. and data may directly near-satellite be subdivided to the celestial environment into body, of between data, two

the

a,

(26) in

and order

(27) to

should ensure to the

be

represents

potential

external

moon. Further ful for determining perturbation on in Chapter VII.

of the lunar potential the magnitudes of the a lunar' satellite orbit are

useearth.s given

(2) data pertaining to space bodies, such as cislunar space interstellar and intergalactic The dividing line between the

types of environment is not very well defined, especially for celestial bodies without a dense gaseous atmosphere, but the delineation will in the discussion of environmental data.

help

For the compressional lunar models, the origin coordinate system is at moon, the so oblateness for that J1 = 0.

of the As

and constant density the sclenographie mass center of the in the is case numerically (Jy)q). orbits VII. 2 given in Eq (27) of the earth, the

coefficient the moon, effects on further for in J2 with lunar in and

J2

largest Oblateness be discussed The are For given

(J2)_ satellite

will

Chapter C2,

For lunar' missions near earth, cislunar space and near-moon environmental data is required. As near-earth data has been discussed extensively in Chapter II of thef 1, this environment will only be summarized and its applicability to lunar flight discussed Near-earth data has been accumulated rapidly by earth satellites so a clearer picture of the environment is rapidly becoming availabIe. Much less is known about the cislunar environment (the region beyond the earth' s atmosphere) and the effect of its magnetic field, due to the small number of space probes and the relatiw_ly shor_ _ime that these probes are in cislunar space The effects of radiation and micrometeoroids have been discussed quite generally in Chapter II of Ref 1 and are also applicable to cislunar space The bulk of the data in this section is on the near-moon environment--the approximate with a brief mosphere. lunar surface, its appearance thermal characteristics, discussion of the tenuous and together lunar at-

values

rather crude, calculations by Krause

so no uncertainties the lunar handbook, 5), together with even though with the values the handbook.

will bc given. the values his his for unvalues a, b,

(Ref.

certainty, are slightly c, I a, I b, :

will be adopted, inconsistent I c adopted for

Krausc

obtains

-6 J2 C2, 2 = 212.5 = 18.8 x x 10 -6 10 ± 1.3 x 10 ± 2.9 x 10

-6 -6 (28)

5.

Summary The constants

of

Adopted needed given in 4. Note

Constants for this is trajectory section made of calculaare the sumsource

tative cation

Much of the environmental nature and intended and framework into and a and

data is of a qualito provide a classifiwhich the numerous

tions which marized in

were Table

sources References providing section

articles in this field can be placed giving a comprehensive survey and link between the material in this the actual sources have been indicated enable to its the tracing source of data required for

of each number. The values given, together wtm the uncertainty and the confidence level have been calculated by Townsend (Ref. 12); they reflect our present knowledge regarding such observations and measurements. The values have been adopted and in Better for uniformity the presentation values, with in trajectory calculations of results for the handbooks. smaller uncertainties and a level will in trajectory appear in the calculations future as

in order to lunar flight

The primary concern in this section is to describe the space environment with very Might mention of its effect on the trajectory, people and materials The modification of the force model ment IV (and hence of the trajectory) by the environhas been discussed in Section B of Chapter A recent survey article by Jaffe and Rittenhouse

higher confidence and should be used

II-10

TABLE Adopted

4

Constants

Approximate Confidence Quantity Best Value Uncertainty (%) Level b

General

Constants f299792.5 km/sec fo. 1 kin/see

Speed

of

light 3 in nt 0. sec 005 x l0 ll i]1 2

Universal

grav

constant

G

6.670

x

10

-11

--_ kg

kT-90

Heliocentric

Constants a6'i 798 b±o, 001

Solar

parallax unit

Astronomical 2 K O

a149,53

x

IO 6

km

aao.

03

90

Co.

2959122083

a±0"

010

-10

99+

AU3/solar

day

2

Planetocentric

Constants

Mercury Solar mass/mass Mercury a6, a2330 100, 000 km b±65,000 70

bel

1

70

Equatorial l/f

radius

?

?

?

Venus Solar mass/mass Venus a407, OO0 b±1300 90

Equatorial

radius

a61oo atmosphere)

km

(ind.

b±12

70

1/f

?

?

9

Earth-Moon a328, 450 b±25 81

Solar inass

mass/earth-moon

Equatorial l/f

radius

Mars a3,090, OO0 b±12,000 b±12 81

Solar

mass/mass

Mars

Equatorial

radius

a3415 b75

88 2 80

b±l

l/f

Jupiter Solar mass/mass Jupiter al047.4 b±0.1 81

Equatorial 1/f

radius

a7t, ai5.2

875

km

b±20

50

bio.

1

50

Saturn Solar mass ]mass Saturn a3500 b±2.0 b±480 70

Equatorial l/f

radius

a60, al0.2

500

km

5O

±?

? (continued)

NOTE: aBaker's value (Ref. 3)

bTownsendTs c Guusslan dEhricke_s

value

(Igef.

12)

value value (Ref. 7)

eKaula's fKrause' s

value value

(Ref. (Ref.

4) 5)

II-ii

TABLE

4 (continued)

A pproximate Confidence Quantity Uranus Solar Equatorial mass/mass radius Uranus a22,800 a24, a14.0 85(1 b±60 be50 i ? 50 ? ? Best Value Uncertainty Level b

(%)

l/f
Neptune Solar Equatorial 1/f Pluto Solar Equatorial i/f Geocentric _ g Constants (tad/sec) (km3/sec 2) mass/mass radius Pluto mass/mass radius Neptune

a19, a25, a58.

500 000 5 km

bi200 b±2100 ± ?

7O 5O ?

a350, a3000

000 km

be27, b±500

O00

70 20 ?

f7.29211514B e398601.5 a1082.28 a-2. a-2. a-0,20 a_l.0 radius (kin) e6378. e298.24 Constants x 30 12

x

10 -5

(exact) ±9.9 88 95 90 92 88 70 95 95

J2 J3 J4 J5 J6 Equatorial 1/f Selenocentrie _ Lunar L' : wq_

x 10 -6 x 10 -6 x x 10 -6 10 -6 10 -6 163

a±0. a±o. a_o. aio. a±o. e±0.

2 x 1(> -6 2 x 10 -6 5 x 10 -6 1 x 10 -6 8 x 021 10 -6

e±o. 01

(rad/sec) (km)

f2.661699484 a384, a6. b81. 402 4385 357 57 3i km km km x x 10 -6 10 -6 km

x

10 -6

(exact) all km 88

distance

ai0. bi0.01 a±0. a±o. a±O. f±2.9 f±l.

0015

92 90 50 50 50 50 50

Me I_
Semiaxis a (km) b (kin) c (km) J2 C2,2

a[738. a1738. a1737.58 f212.5 f18.8

07 07 07

km km km x 10 -6

3 x

10 -6

II- 12

(Ref. 13) discusses the behavior of materials in space environments; the 330 references at the end of this article may be consulted for more detailed information. I. Near-Earth a. Atmospheric types Environment environment of near-earth atmospheric, environment. environment can be

mate variability for preliminary engineering design, it is sufficient, in most eases, to introduce a certain percentage dispersion in density about the 1961 U. S. Standard atmosphere. The a space forces, main effects of the earth' s atmosphere aerodynamic it produces. on

vehicle' and the

s trajectory aerodynamic

are the heating

Three

distinguished--the and the meteoroid

the radiation, Due to the many

large-scale and local variations in the earth' s atmosphere, most trajectory calculations are based on a model atmosphere which is assumed to describe average properties of the actual atmosphere and to obey the perfect gas law PM R *T hydrostatic -godh, differential equation (30) (29)

The parameter relating these two effects is the atmospheric density. Expressions for aerodynamic forces have been given in Subsection B-4b of Chapter IV; they are important in designing parking orbits and waiting orbits (see Chapter V and Chapter V of Ref. 1). Aerodynamic forces and heating define a safe re-entry corridor for earth return, or a region of possible limits cussed tioned b. re-entry of the in in trajectories lunar vehicle. IX X. environment of within This Ref. the design aspect is briefly dismen-

Chapters Chapter

1 and

p

-

and

the dp=

Radiation

where 0 p T : the = the = the density pressure temperature moleeular x 103 in kg/m 3 2

Contrary to the atmospheric effects on the space vehicle, the effect of radiation is damage to man, electronic equipment, and structural components of the space vehicle. Of all the elements in a spaee vehicle, man and semiconductors have the lowest threshold of damage from ionizing radiation. The radiation dosage to be expected in a near-earth orbit, radiation damage thresholds, and the shielding (which is defined as additional structural material in the vehicle to absorb radiation before it can reach man and electronic equipment) have been dis-

in newtons/m in °K weight of air

_'I = the I%* =

8. 31439 sal gas

joules/kg-°K

is the

univer-

cussed

extensively Most of near-earth 1958, the when

in

Chapter

II

of

Ref.

1. in and

constant due to gravity in meters. model atmosin m/sec 2 the since data on penetrating environment has the first earth been radiation acquired

g h The

= the = the

acceleration geometric

satellites

altitude

physical

properties

for the

space probes carried radiation-measurement equipment aloft. Little penetrating reaches the surface of the earth, as phere mately ation represents shielding material

radiation the atmosof approxi-

phere have been calculated under sumptions and by use of satellite

additional asobservations.

They are tabulated as a function of altitude up to 700 km as the 1961 U. S. Standard atmosphere. This tabulation, the history of model atmospheres, and additional background have been presented in Chapter II of Ref. 1 and in the listed references of that chapter. Atmospheric effects on space vehicles with lunar mission objectives at altitudes in excess of 700 km are negligible over the short periods of time the vehicle is at these altitudes, and hence no atmosphere need be assumed for altitudes in excess of 700 kin. However, if density Nicolet mosphere with the good data at extreme altitudes (Ref. 14) can be used as is required, a guide. The at-

1 kg/cm 2, and, was not detected

hence, much until satellite In fact, The general many space types:

of the radiexperiments parameters radiation can

could be performed. are still poorly known. be classified into five (1)

Van Allen radiation, consisting energy charged particles which trapped in the earth' s magnetic An inner and an outer belt have distinguished; out as far particle by geomagnetic as flux the outer belt may 10 ER (earth radii). of these storms. two belts

of highhave been field. been extend The affected

is

up to 700 km can be assumed same angular velocity as the of accuracy. U. S. Standard model

to rotate earth to a

{2)

degree The 1961

atmosphere between cycle.

Solar flare radiation, consisting of highenergy protons and electrons which are ejected at certain times from the sun. Half an hour or more after a large chromospheric possibly earth (p flare, electrons) 62, Ref. high-energy can 15). be protons detected (and on the

represents the maximum

average atmospheric conditions and minimum of the sunspot

The actual atmospheric properties that the space vehicle encounters may differ quite considerably from the model atmosphere. This variability is due primarily to solar radiation and heating, gravitational effects of the sun and moon or tidal motions, as well as viscous and turbulent effects, which have been discussed in Chapter II of Ref. i. To approxi-

(3)

Cosmic nuclei numbers served) the

radiation, consisting of atomic (mostly of hydrogen, but atomic in excess of 30 have been obwhich move with velocities near of light.

speed

II-13

(4)

Auroral radiation, consisting of electrons and protons emitted by the sun and concentrated near the geomagnetic poles. The electrons supply the energy for the auroral light. Penetrating electromagnetic radiation of the sun, consisting mostly of X-rays and V-rays with energies as high as 500 kiloelectron volts and wavelengths as short as 0.02 A (IA been observed. = i0-i0 meter) having

c.

Meteoroid

environment

(5)

Meteoroids are small astronomical bodies which are generally in highly eccentric orbits around the sun. They range in dimension from several reuters (extremely rare) to dust particles or micrometeorites as small as one micron in diameter. Beyond the earth's present a hazard out by a sample Chapter IV, the atmosphere, to space calculation force on meteoroids vehicles. As in Subsection the space vehicle may pointed B-4d due

of to

and

More recent

detailed data of Ref. damage, these radiations material

can

descriptions be found includes as well radiations. which i as

in

of these radiations Ref. 15, while

Chapter II the type of ments from the l0 -6 space kg

data on radiation, shielding requireTable 5 summarizes at least This 70 to 71; data can are the and slope an of inthe as a (the enerKy as

meteoroids is relatively small and can be neglected in all but the most precise trajectory calculations. However, of major concern is the possibility of a meteoroid collision with the space vehicle resulting in penetration or even puncture of the skin of the vehicle or fuel tank. Puncture of the skin causes a loss of an abort pressurization of the mission. or fuel, which may require

penetrate centimeter.

per

square

table has additional be found types dication particle function of

been taken from Ref. 15, pp remarks and sources of the in this reference. Tabulatecl radiation, of the the integral energy or particle spectrum versus differential energy (the

Data concerning average meteoroid fluxes, encounter probabilities and penetration has been given in Chapter It of Ref. i. Also listed there are the more common meteoroid penetration models and a typical model for evaluating meteoroid effects on propellant storage vessel design Meteoroid showers are observed on earth and tend They result from swarms are roughly meteoroid meteoroids in the shower seem as It phenomena to recur of meteoroids which are annually. which

flux per of energy),

energy curve spectrum of of the energy)

distribution of particles of the particle flux in an well as the particle flux In the near-earth

as a function increment itself.

environment,

radiation

haz-

same solar is observed to come from its on can "quadrant. earth has be assumed in shower.

orbit. When a on earth, all the same area

in

ards occur mainly in the parking and/or waiting orbit phase, in any orbital phase on earth return, and in the near-earth portions of lunar flight, when the vehicle velocity relative to earth is about i0 kin/see. Radiation dosages and shielding requirements during Chapter II of Ref. orbit altitudes in phase selected during so earth as to that portion have been given i. The parking and waiting Chapter V as well as the orbital return be below in Chapter the inner X can be Van Allen in

the sky, known showers observed 99 of Ref. 15. showers value of and near 2. Cislunar

" Data on meteor been given on page that many other is and that enhanced the in

may be expected the micrometeorite the meteoroid Space space, the

space flux

Environment the solar the penetrating sun, and the flare radiation, electromagnetic meteoroid environ-

belt.

Figure i illustrates the early phases of a typical lunar mission launched from Cape Canaveral. The doughnut-shaped inner VanAllen belt is shown, with the proton flux indicated by eight cross sections and the geomagnetic equator shown on the earth. The shading indicates the proton flux-the darker the appearance of the shaded area, the higher the flux. The illustrated trajectory (with a relatively high parking orbit altitude) intersects the fringes of the inner Van Allen belt after injection, but the time spent in the re,ion of high proton flux is very small due to the high initial space vehicle velocities. Solar pecially tection cosmic flare radiation occurs sporadically, esduring sunspot maxima. The only proagainst this type of radiation and against and solar electromagnetic radiation is of the space vehicle so as to provide vulnerable men and and the maximum electronic layout pro-

In cislunar cosmic radiation, radiation from

ment must be considered. The qualitative description and summary of Subsection B-1 regarding these areas apply, as does the referenced quantitative material in Chapter 1I of Ref. 1 and in Ref. 15. In general, increasingly less reliable data is available than for the near-earth environment. In the list of lunar hicle-borne listed. 3. Lunar The probes in experiments Section and D, some of results have the vebeen

Environment figure of the moon has been discussed in

the shielding of the equipment tection to the equipment. the auroral parking and regions near

some detail in Subsection A-4 of Chapter II and its motion in space in Section C of Chapter III. Still to be discussed are lunar topography as deduced by observation of the rnoon with telescopes, the photographs and maps which have resulted from these observations, the thermal environment on the hnar surface, lunar atmosphere. have been made by the smallest lunar' the type of surface, and Since many lunar observations telescopes, Table 6, showing features visible from earth viewing Ref. 16, surface the

For launches radiation can waiting orbits the geomagnetic

from Cape Canaveral, be neglected, since will not reach the poles.

the

with perfect optics and under" excellent conditions (see Wilkins and Moore, 349) gives an idea of the finest lunar that can be observed.

p detail

I1-14

TABLE Penetrating

5 in Space

Radiations

Radiation Protons Auroral--altitudes > 100 km Integral key, Van titudes krn Solar-flare--relativistic E > i Bev Allen--±40 from ° from equator, 103 to 8 x inal103 E -0'8 varies

Particle or Photon

Energy Energy

Flux (protons/cm2-sec)

spectrum, between

100 E -1

kev and

<t£

<B00

E -4 40

Normally 104 to with E > 100 Mev

106

integral

spectrum observed

above with

Up

to

_104

tegraI-invariant

Mev; no radiation E > 700 Mev

and

usually'

< i0 Bev

Usually occasionally

10 to to 102 to but

102; _ 104 oc-

Solar-

flare

- - nonrelativis

tic

From integral large tensity' be

30

to

300

Mev, for event, spectrum by' 3 x where Mev; 30 spectrum

E -1

to

E -6

Usually casionally

spectrum; solar-flare integral

typical max-inmight 1010 E -4

_ 104

represented 2 sec, energy below m

protons/era proton be applied Cosmic space rays--interplanetary E -1"5 integral E > 10 Bev

E is should not

Mev for 2 ± 0,3 for E>40 Mev near max of sunspot cycle; ably' increases near sunspot probto _5 min of at-

Cosmic-ray bedo-<10 Electrons Auroral--from km altitudes

("splash") Earth radii

al-

1 to

I0 Mev

1 near mosphere

top

(electrons/cm2-sec) 100 to 1000 <50 integral E -I nearly and key; spectrum spectrum E-2"5; highly >4 kev I observation 6-key ranges from variable; between showed stream E -3 Up to kov Probably _108 for E >20 Up to 1011 to 1013 to 10 7

average

_105

mono-energetic spectrum

Van

Allen

radiation

Integral to E -6 100 Mev

Solartudes Neutrons

flare> 60 °

- magnetic

lati-

< 102

(neutrons/era albedo E -0'9 0.1 ential Bey ev differential < E< spectrum 100 kev, for spectrum E -2 for differ<1

2

-sec)

Cosmic-ray

1 Mev<E

X-

and Electron Auroral

Y-Rays bremsstrahlung zone _E -4 kev visible below km, aurora radiation usually E -2'5 10 be50 to integral spectrum for E> 30

(photons/cm2-sec)

10

to

103

above atmosphere

ab-

sorbing integral 500 key; spectrum, theoretical _100 key l03 _104 to

Low-latitude Atmosphere belt near

105

spectrum,

100

tween magnetic and 60 ° Van Allen belt

latitudes

20 to 50 l0 -7

kev

erg/cm key

with an 2 -sec

energy

flux of

Nuclear mosphere

Y-rays above

from polar

atcaps

E > i00

_i03

initially

Solar flares Ahove 100 hemisphere

km

on

sunlit

5 to 10 -2

80 to

key 10 -a

with

an

erg/em

energy 2 -sec)

flux

of

500 10 -4

key

with

an

energy

flux

of

erg/cm2-sec

II- 15

TABLE Smallest Lunar Features

6 Visible from and negative of the moon with a photometer and noting the brightness (photometric method), by making direct measurement at or near the limb, or by other methods. (2) Determine absolute heights the selenographic locations very accurately and correcting projection and the refraction atmosphere. by of measuring these points for the of the earth'

Earth Assuming Perfect Optics Excellent Viewing Conditions

s

For more detail, Fielder (Ref. 20) can suited. From these observations, the lief of the lunar surface has been found However, the necessary excellence of the view-

be convertical reto be high.

ing conditions can be illustrated by the fact that photographs have not shown craters less than 1 km in diameter on the moon,and hence visual observations are the primary tails on the lunar surface. a. Lunar topography formations described. the features on the In order surface of to discuss in in general this subthe source for small de-

moon these use

About have

100,000 been

Some peaks near the lunar south pole exceed an altitude of 9000 meters above the neighboring valleys. This compares with an elevation of 12,000 meters of the Island of Mindanao above the Philippine trench on earth, which has almost four times the radius of the moon. The slopes are usually gentle, with angles less than those on earth, tIowever, in the Jura mountains, slopes average as much as 45 ° . The maximum elevation in this region (Ref. is about 21). 6000 meters above Sinus Iridum

formations, for lunar

nomenclature is introduced

section. The problem of classification has been taken up by Blagg and Saunders (Hcf. 17) and Blagg and MUller (Ref. 18) for those wishing more detail, and another system has been proposed by Bobrovnikoff (Ref. 19), which is claimed to be more detailed than those of Refs. 17 and 18. The moon as dark viewed areas. of the from In lunar earth general, surface, is characterized the the lighter l_igher its

Very characteristic features of the lunar surface are the "wailed enclosures", the larger of which have been referred to as "walled plains" and the smaller of which are called "craters" by Bobrovnikoff. Wailed enclosures consist of a plain surrounded by n_ountains which slope relatively steeply inward (up toa 20 ° slope, which locally may exceed 45 ° , as for Copernicus, Ref. 21) and somewhat more gently outward (5 ° to 10 ° overall for Copernicus, t%ef. 21). They are named primacily but smaller craters after are scientists named and after philosophers, a larger one

by light and the appearance elevation. The dark

areas

are

called

"maria,

" or'

seas.

They are, in general, low plains with some small irregularities (compare the surface elevation contours as given on the USAF lunar aeronautical charts, one of which is reproduced as Fig. 2 in the present chapter). The term "maria _' is restricted to larger areas. The terms "lacus" (lake) and "sinus" (bay) are applied to smaller dark features on the lunar surface, while the term mediate The "palus" (marsh) coloration. boundaries describes regions of inter-

in the vicinity by suffixing a capitai Latin letter, i.e., "MtistingA." Wailed enclosures may have one or more central peaks, or they may be without one. The walled plains are quite irregular in shape--hexagonal, quadrangular, triangular, or oval--with the maximmn linear dimension from about 300-60 kin. Craters are much more circular down which in shape, and to the limit of is of the order range in diameter from 60 km the present optieaI resolution, of 1 km. The craters may

between

the

dark

maria

and

the are

lighter-colored generally been given jut out into

"continents" and "mountains" quite sharp. The continents have names, except for a few "capes the maria. moon or usually are after scientists; by suffixing of a large named

be large and submerged, as is Stadius, large and partially filled, or small craterlets ranging in size down to blowholes or "pits, " which are the smallest observed craters. There are also such features as confluent craters and crater chains. Associated with some craters, and named after

not _' which

Mountains terrestrial mountains Greek letter

on the mountains are

after smaller in

them, are "fractures, large valleys to fault the lunar surface has surrounding), consist of together in a

"which range in lines (caused when subsided relative rills, of and small cracks, craters

size from part of to the which joined

designated to the name

a smai1 mountain

eiefts or large number a chain.

their vicinity, i.e., Stadius _. They occur as "chain mountains" in mountain ranges, "ridges, " "cellular ring formations" or "domes, " which are small, rounded mountains. The vertical relief of the lunar surface can be determined in two steps: (1) Determine ing the technique as there region altitudes the relative height by measurlength of a mountain' s shadow (a which is quite accurate as long are mountains in the particular of the moon by scanning by determining the photographic the

At the time of full moon, "rays,,, or white streaks which seem to originate from a crater can be observed on the moon, their brightness depending on the phase of the moon. The most prominent is the system of rays associated with the crater Tyeho. These ray systems can be classified as radial ray systems, tangential ray systems, ray systems " bright spots." Lunar surface another, as in the in certain directions, may merge sequences or as

features following

ingo one of features

II-16

listedby Bobrovnikoff (Ref. 19),fop example: Maria, walledplains,craters, craterlets, crater chains,valleys; Mountain ranges,isolatedpeaks,mounds, domes,pits. Ina similar fashion,mountain ranges onthemoon are connected withmaria, whileisolated peaks occurin or nearwalledplainsandcraters, as mentionedreviously. p Duringthehistoryofobserving themoon (since
Galileo's time), no clear-cut surface have been observed. lunar surface features (those changes Changes severalkm of the lunar in small in extension)

Bobrovnikoff

on

p 67.

The

albedo,

or

reflecting

power of the lunar surface, can be defined in two ways: (1) the spherical albedo of the moon or the ratio of the light of the sun scattered in all directions by the lunar hemisphere to the total light, is 0.073; (2) the average geometric albedo of the moon, or ratio between the average brightness of the disk at full moon and the brightness of a white screen of the same size normal to the incident solar In from rays, detailed a small is 0. 105 (Bobrovnikoff). emission Actually, of light this

photometry, the area is measured.

depend on such conditions of visibility as the phase of the moon, the libration, the resolving power of the telescope, atmospheric refraction, cloud cover, and the subjective interpretation of the observer. These changes are mostly observed as variations in the brightness and color of small craters, the observation of something looking like a mist, and the appearance of flashes, i.e., any apparent changes in physical relief. Real changes of physical relief must occur due to the impact of meteorites, but no such observation can be safely attributed to that cause (Ref. 19, p 62). The lunar surface must also change due to the pressure of tidal motions inside the moon (Ref. 20, p 127). Much nature more material of the lunar on lunar topography surface can be found and in

is to be regarded as the average emission of light over the various surface materials, slopes and the microfeatures or unevenness of the surface in that small area. The moon can be studied in detail due to its nearness to earth, and many photometric made. feature to the metric whose following Of studies course, on on of the lunar details brightness of have the been lunar sun and photopoint P to the

depends observer coordinates brightness sketch:

the directions earth. If one (ap, is measured (p, ip) by

to the defines of a

reference

P

the

Bobrowlikoff (Ref. (Ref. 21), and the these references.

19), Fielder bibliography In addition,

(Ref. 20), Firsoff listed in each of the present theories To Sun To Observe_. On Earth /

on the origin of the lunar features, and questions of selenology (which form the lunar counterpart of geology on earth), such as the composition of the interior, the type of surface, the pattern of tectonic grids, and the divisions of selenological time are discussed in Refs. 19 through 21. Our knowledge of the moon' s topography and interior will increase vastly in the near future as the planned lunar missions of Ranger, Surveyor, and Apollo spacecraft return scientific data to earth. Until such time, many of the present theories should be regarded as provisional. An illustration of the actual photographically observed lunar topography can be found in the Lunar Aeronautical Chart, which has been reproduced as Fig. 2. Other lunar maps and series of lunar maps prepared in the same fashion are listed in Subsection A-2g of Chapter III. b. In Lunar photometry the total emission The brightness conditions is (mag).
o

where rays, to of of the the P

ipiS epiS observer sun can p*= be

the the

angle angle on respect

of of earth,

incidence reflection and to in earth, the )" form a P is

of of

the these

solar rays angle

the

phase the

with

then

brightness

expressed { _

p;',-" f " 0 (tp,

p,

P

(31)

of of

integrated photometry, a celestial body is measured. the full moon under standard given in stellar

In Eq (31), p* is called the ratio of the brightness

the

,,brightness of the diffusing

factor,;' surface of it of f P such

or

usually visual latest finds (average

magnitudes wavelength is by Nikonova

In

the

at point P to the brightness of the same size placed normally can be directly compared with terrestrial depends that Hence f on objects. The the photometric ip the = 0% normal (p

a white screen to the sun, and the brightness factor of

region (average determination -12.67 mag, wavelength value of the and

5280 A ), the (1949) who region gives mag; the between

normalized coordinates = 0 ° and albedo, is

in 4250

the

photographic

= 1 when P0' or

C_p = 0 °. the value of

A ) Bobrovnikoff mag, or the _-0.09 difference

an average color index the two, the full i 0.011 curves brightness

of -11.55 moon,

is +1. 12 mag. The moon under standard lux (Bobrovnikoff, p of the moon, with the

amount of light from conditions is 0. 342 66). Integrated phase of the lunar given by

p for an object near the center of the full moon. It should be remarked that the brightness of every detail of the moon reaches its maximum at full moon, and at that time the brightness of structurally similar details does not depend on the solar position with respect to them, i.e. , f = i when i = c

or the variation phase, have been

II- 17

(seeBobrovnikoff, Ref. 19, p 68).
table been obtained albedos of taken normal from from which Location Darkest Proeellarum Maria Palude Mountain Crater Bright Brightest The and 1.34 ratio darkest stellar One is (seas) s (marshes) regions bottoms rays spot of (Artstarehus) spot (inside Oceanus (b_ = +27 °) albedos Kuiper a catalogue were reduced p_ (gel. of Of lunar' 8, p

The features 236)

following has and was

power is 4_

crossing --2 r¢)O S. -

a From 2

sphere

of

radius of

tOO energy,

:

1 AU

conservation

104 normal to absolute

visual values: PCi: I

w_

\ro_

/ s
of the lunar surface area

(33)

kl_ = 60 ° ,

0.051 O. 065 O. 091 O. 105

and the temperature be e oi_[le s

=

rc) _

,

(S)

1/4

(34)

For r¢)¢

S = 1379 =-_O$ it

watts/m follows that

2 (Allen, T = 394.5

Ref. ° K

22)

and ° C.

= 121.5

0-112 I 0. 131_ 0. 176[

This value should temperature that since in practice interior fleeted. of the

be regarded as the maximum the lunar surface can attain, some energy can flow to the and some energy is re-

moon,

brightness points is magnitudes.

between the brightest 3.45, which corresponds

to

this

can observe sunlight which

the ashen reaches

light on the the observer It after is

moon; from

the dark hemisphere been reflected from

of the moon the earth.

having about 4000

The temperature of the moon is a very difficult quantity to measure. Lunar" temperatures have been determined by investigating the emitted light of the moon at various wavelengths (radiometric measurements). Problems arise with the resolution of the measuring instrument and the penetration of the radiation into the lunar surface as well. Thus one can at best obtain an average temperature over some area at some estimated depthbelow the lunar surface, and the temperature of certain lunar rocks, i.e., a specific local temperature, cannot be determined. Variations depend on of the thermal lunarsurface temperature inertia constant,

times fainter than moonlight. Seasonal and diurnal variation has been detected in the brightness (see Fielder, Ref. 20, p 55). In addition, there is observational evidence from spectroscopic data that there are luminescent substances on the moon. surface of the moon seems to be quite varied in color. These coIors range frmn the greenish tint of the maria to yellow and orange hues on the continents and mountains. These shades have also been photographed and are represented on many of the lunar maps tisted in Subsection A-2g of Chapter III. Itowever, measurements of lunar color by photography through filters yield a surprisingly small coloration range e. (see Bobrovnikoff, of the Ref. lunar to be a temperature : 19, p 71). The

the

K = (x p c)-I"2:
where of the X (cal/cm2-sec) surface material, (cal/gram) all measured indicate is the 0 thermal

(35)
conductivity is its Optical How-

(grams/cm3) is the in that specific cgs units. K = 1000.

density, and e per unit mass, lunar observations

heat

Temperature

surface black is body given in by

If the moon is thermal equilibrium, the Stefan-Boltzmann

assumed its law

ever, Muncey (Hcf. 23) has postuiated that Xand c vary with the absolute temperature in vacuo, and K for 300 ° K -_ 27 ° C should be between 200 and 300. Radiometric observations of lunar surface

WI_

= a T 4

(32)

temperatures indicate of about 130 ° C and of -153 ° C depending Some (Ref. perature Lunar

a maximum a very unreliable on the phase by

temperature minimum of the moon. and Strassl tem-

where

W_

watts/m by is in unit to °K,

2 is

the

total

amount area the

of

radi-

recent measurements 29) indicate a subsurface which surface

Mezger equilibrium of the were

ated power temperature temperature m2-(°K) r¢)_ The of tion be total radius of the 4 is the

area of the be calculated, and _ = 5.67

lunar T x

is

whose absolute watts/ Let sun. a sphere defini-

is independent isotherms which

phases. obtained given Ena of function month 3. The = as

10 -8 constant.

the distance

Stefan-Boltzmann of solar 2 is 4 _. ro( constant [ the moon

from crossing , and, total

the

by Geoffrion, et al. (gef. 25) have been a function of phase in Space and Planetary vironments (Ref. 26). A rough estimate average lunar surface temperatures as of the lunar 12 h 44 m day 2.s9) (1 lunar h_s been day = 1 synodic given in and Fig.

radiated to( l solar

power W(_ S, the

29 d

by

radiated

data in Fig. 3 is based on Pettit data (Ref. 27) under' the assumptions temperature variations in latitude

Nicholson,s that the and longitude

II-

18

are identical(i.e. ,
circular) planes subsolar constant, d. The space field. on the and coincide; point that has the the

the

surface ecliptic

isotherms and lunar

are equalorial at the by the solar

solar irradiation been taken as given watts/m field on the a Soviet lunar put an 3 x 2.

the lunar surface. could be water. of water at -150 state Such at zero surface

Due ° C,

One of these useful materials to the low vapor pressure it could remain in the solid for millions exist in of some years. lunar areas

S = 1396.4 Lunar magnetic

pressure conditions

instrumentation vehicle These lunar

I,unik

II

which remain in pcrpelual also be large ice deposits lunar surface. It has been volatile materials associated such centrated g. The rarefied, evidence occultation ena able that, square as H20 near Lunar lunar as as , H2S, the

shadow. There might sealed off benealh the predicted that the with earlh volcanism SO 2 have of the been conmaria.

did not detect measurements magnetic field

magnetic upper limit 10 -4 gauss,

CO 2 and margins

circular

of

which compares to a field in the polar region of the field is very weak compared ever, one can still assume on the lunar due rising of lmnar structure to to high surface the a is general maximum activity of

strength of 0.6 gauss earth. Thus the lunar to the earth's. Howthat the magnetic field the order of 2.5 x 10 -5

atmosphere atmosphere determined sharp surface and the absence eclipses. considerations assumptions, _(_) atmosphere or of the is must from be such extremely observational

shadows, sudden star of refraction phenomJeans (Ref. 32) was _t' kinetic theory if the root-meanmolecules where Vp

gauss, field, periods e. The face tains

interplanetary of 4 x 10 -4 26,

magnetic gauss p 102). at

during solar to show from under certain velocity

solar surface of

(Her.

individual 0.2 Vp,

characteristics the surface to continents, different and the and theories subsurmounabout

of

a planet's

layers varies

of the maria, according major the another

is the parabolic then atmospheric years can be 2. 375 earth's suggest lar weight kin/see value that

escape velocity of dissipation periods expected. The low value for the moon as compared of V = 11. 18g kin/see P only molecules with a high as SO2, C02, It2S can

the origin of the theory postulates features, while

surface features. One volcanic origin of these postulates meteoritic

the planet, of i00 million of V = P to the would then molecube re-

origin. The spectroscopic, radiometric, radar and radio data on the moon suggest a surface cover of dust or finely ground powder, but there is disagreement on the thickness of the dust layer. It is assumed to vary in thickness from a few millimeters to several meters, although some small areas on the moon seem to be substantially free from dust cover (Bobrovnlkoff, Ref. 19, p 106). predict a Both layer the of meteoritic dust. and volcanic theories

such

The behavior of the dust is also open to question. Theories range from an extremely loose top layer held in suspension by electrostatic forces and subject to migration (Gold, Ref. 28) to a layer of dust grains cemented together (Whipple, Ref. 29). The vacuum welding effect found by Roche (ttef. 30) predicts a strong tendency of particles to adhere to each other when disturbed by seismic quakes. In Ref. 26, p 111, it is stated that theoretical considerations suggest "dust on the lunar surface which is cemented into a porous, sedimentary to earth The features) low-density matrix, rocks on earth dust and not subject microfeatures of the lunar (i.e., surface but to weak compared strong compared migration. " smali to to

tained by the moon for hmg periods of time. Some radiogenic krypton, xenon, argon, radon and helium should be continually released from the lunar interior, and some gases may be released during the vaporization of ice deposits. However, the latler would escape rather rapidly due to the low value of V . Hence, the compoP sition of the lunar atmosphere is open to question. The following table, taken essentially from Fielder (Ref. 20 , p 115), gives maximum densities of the lunar atmosphere as established by various methods:

_{aximum <if the :Observation Method Absence twUigh, Photography of twilight in green light with polarirneter Photography of twilight in yellow light with a 20-ern coronograph Photography of twilight in orange light, with a 20cm coronograph and potariscope Refraction of radio a of Source Russel. Stewart Lipski Dugan (Ref. (Her. and 33i 341

I)ensity Lunar

Atmosphere (atmospheres) < 10 -4

<

10 -4

a < 10 -8 35)

unobservably are also

Lyot and Dollfus (Hcf.

open

question. Radar measurements seem to indicate both a smooth and rough surface on the decimeter scale (see Ref. 26, p 112), while the photometric interpretations of Sytinskaya (Ref. 311 indicate mean dimension of these microfeatures of the order of several millimeters to several centimeters. f. Natural resources on the moon

DoUfus

(Ref.

36)

i0 -9

a

Elsmore Whitfield {Ref. 37)

and

< l0 -12

waves ill the lunar ionosphere Refraction of radio waves in the lunar

A good reference on lunar natural resources is Ref. 26,pp 114 to 121 and the listed sources. The conclusion in that reference is that limited amounts of useful materials may be present on

Costain, Elsmore and Whitfield (Her. 38)

< 10 -13

ionosphere

II-19

In general,theminimum densityonthelunar surfaceis assumed bethe same thatof the to as interplanetary edium. However,Eipik m i and Singer (Ref. 39)have postulated zeropressure dueto therepulsion ionized of gasmolecules y b thepositivelychanged lunarsurface. Under these circumstances maximum a lunaratmospheric density 10 atmospheres of -12 canbeassumed (Bobrovnikoff), compared 10-13 to atmospheres assumed Ref. 26. in Locallytheatmosphericensitymayexceed d thesevaluesduetovery rare gaseous discharges. Therehavebeen observations haziness of near somefeatures,notably a "volcanic of eruption" in thecrater Alphonsus bserved o byKozyrev (Ref.40). Again,fromkinetictheoryconsiderations,mostof thesegases quicklyescape fromthemoon. Dueto theabsencef a lunaratmosphere, o the surfaceof themoon bombarded uchmore is m frequently meteorites,mtcrometeorites, by cosmicrays andhigh-energyolarradiation(such s as X-raysandy-rays)thantheearth. Theradiation andmeteoriticenvironment nearthelunar surfaceis probably notmuchdifferentfromthat in cislunarspace,sincesuchanatmospherean c providenoshielding. h. Summary Thelunarenvironmental datahasbeen discussed narrativeform for this handbook in because its importance lunar flight. The of for majorreferences used this discussion ave for h been Refs.8, 19, 20, 21and26, andthesources indicated thesereferences. If it is desired in to tracethelunar environmental information to thesource,themajorreferences which givethe source should beconsulted.All numerical ata d onthelunarenvironment hasbeen eitherreferenced themajorreference tothesource to or itself to allowfurtherchecking ofnumerical ata. d
Our present ideas about the moon can be summarized also Bobrovnikoff, (1) The relief sions The high, lunar with and vertical but lunar the Ref. 19, surface conditions as follows (see p 108): has small a rough pits, microdepreson

(5)

Locally, seismic mon.

gases quakes

must must

be escaping, be rather

and com-

(6)

The temperature variations are tremely great, from a maximum about +130 ° C near the subsolar to a minimum of about -150 ° C. There netic There face orites, radiation texture is no field. is from appreciable lunar

exof point

(7)

mag-

(8)

no shielding of the bombardment micrometeorites, which affect and composition the

the

lunar surof meteand

particles structure, of the surface.

Some quired

lunar environmental data, as by the space vehicles listed

it was acin Section

D

of this chapter, has already been incorporated in the present writeup. It should be mentioned again that planned space vehicle flights into the vicinity of the moon and exploration of the lunar surface will yield much more data and may modify our present ideas on the near-moon environment.

C.

SYSTEMS CONVERSION the system Lunar of

OF

UNITS TABLES

AND

Throughout absolute MKS on the kilogram ond as order with units tween in this meter as

Flight units,

Handbook which is

the based

as the the basic to be able presented common

the basic unit of length, the basic unit of mass, and the secunit of time, has been used. In to compare the handbook data use elsewhere, the and conversion systems factors of beform and 41). be of the have

that in

the units section.

are presented in More information

summary on units

conversions can be found in Judson (Ref. It is important that this or later references consulted, since the metric equivalents U.S. foot, and U.S. pound (avoirdupois)

surface many elevations. relief slopes

recently been changed slightly by act of Congress. Another good reference on units of measurement is Green (Ref. 42), who aiso discusses electrical systems of units. Astronomical units have been discussed to some extent by Herrick, Baker, and Hilton (Ref. 2) and in the standard textbooks of astronomy. gentle. 1. Systems The gives unit the of Mechanical and absolute to unit to Astronomical system of mass, while system of units mass (see Units. units the gives Table 7).

(2)

(maerorelief) are consists generally of dust ce-

is

(3)

The

surface

(probably mented matrix (4)

radioactive) into a porous, not subject to

which is low-density migration.

unit force in an unit acceleration force in a gravitational of go

aGceleration

a unit

There is the upper being 10-

no appreciable atmosphere, limit on atmospheric density 12 atmospheres.

There are two types of gravitational units; choice of either depends on whether the unit of mass is numerically equal to the unit mass in the absolute system (Type (Type 1). 2) or differs from it by a factor go

II- 20

TAt3LE Systems of

7 Units

Mechanical

Pr,,p,,it}

Mass

gram

(g)

Time

Force

Enc

r_y

N_ -3 {mh)

millibar =

(1)

The absolute MKS system of units in column 1, which is used by physicists, has been employed throughout the Lunar Flight Handbook. Auxiliary units, related to the units in the table by powers of defined by the following standard prefixes and abbreviations tera: giga: mega: kilo: hecto: deka: deei: eenti: milli: micro: nano: pico: femto: atto: 1012 199 106 103 102 10 t 10 -1 10 -2 1010 -6 10 -9 -12 10 10 -15 p f a will the be are 3 T G M k h da d e m _t n basic 10, are pre-

as a unit of mass or force is usually clear from the context. To avoid confusion, it is desirable to denote the basic unit of mass by "kilogram" and the basic unit of force by "kilogram force" as has been done in the table above. The derived units tons " etc. same such remark applies to as "gram," "metric

(3)

The gravitational in column 3 of used by European neers.

the

MKS system preceding aeronautical

of units table is engi-

(4)

The gravitational in column 7 is in The word "pound"

FPS system of units general use in the U. S. is very often used

interehangeabiy as a unit of force and mass, and consequently its meaning is ambiguous. To avoid confusion, the basic unit of mass has been designated "pound" and the basic unit of force has been designated "pound force" in the preceding table. Again, the same remark applies to derived units such as "ounce" and "ton. "

(5)

10-18

The gravitational FPS system in column 6 is used by American onautical engineers. The basic of mass in this system of units slug. pounds pressed the mass One slug corresponds so is that M/g0, in the to mass where pounds

of

units aerunit is the go M M exis

Both basic and auxiliary units used in the Itandbook, whichever more convenient in describing quantity in question. (2)

(mass), in slugs expressed

(mass).

The gravitational MKS system of units in column 4 of the preceding table is in general use in Europe. The word "kilogram" is very often used as the unit of both mass and force. Consequently, the is ambiguous, expression although "kilogram" its meaning II-21

Astr(momers frequently use systems (>funits which are adapted to calculations in dynamical astronomy. A comparison of two common systems of astronomical units with the absolute MKS system is given in Table 8.

TABLE Systems

8 Units

of Astronomical

Absohle

MKS Type i M 2 r Astronomical *1 AU = 149.53 unit x (AU) 109

Astronomic

al ]ype 2 2

G M 1 M ,_ i¸ = Property Lenglh Met,-r (m) r

K2

b

= KO r 2

M2

m **M O

Mass

Kilogram

lkg)

Solar *1 M@

mass

(M O ) x 10311 kg

_ 1.9866

Time

Second

'see)

Mean sotar day L MSD = 86.4(l(_ × ll_ -I1 m3,_kg sec 2 *K O

(MSD} sec (AU)3/2

*10

= 5_1. 1324401_7

MSD

Universal constanl tational Force

G

gravitational or solar KO

*G gravi-

= 6.67O

= 0.0172021l_815

I,:_

= 1 (AU)3/2 tC) M O (AU) 2 tQ

constant

Mo Newton _ 1 kg i:_./s_,c 2

(AU) 2

**

(MSDi radian 5_rww-

Angular

velocity

Radian/sec

r'adian

T

*Value

adoplcd

in the

handbook,

b'or

[ur(her

details

see

Section M2 "_O >

\. lr_ 6

**If then and

the

mass quite the unit

M 2 is frequently of force

all

appreciablu the unit of

frac!i,m mass is .

:_1' M O , ctl_se_l as

i.e.. M

= (M O + M2)

,

becomes

M(AU) t 2 0

The astronomical been defined because planets and moons accurately As long as by all the

system of units, Type the angular motion of can be determined much than are their distances. performed in accurate. make

1, has the more

*T M® *M_

= =

27.

3216614 mass

mean

solar

days

1 earth

observation ealcuiations units, they calculations the

astronomical the end of transformation units (see

are very one can MKS

At the The is

....

=

M$

81.

357

-

0.012291505

(exact).

to Subsection

absolute A-1). system order

laboratory unit ill ) = 4. of time 37501990 in a Type 2 astronomical therefore, the system graviMSD_

has

The astronomical been introduced average the sun

in

of units, that the of

Type mean the earth

2, motational 2. constant Length, Capacity a. Meter Defined of the earth becomes and K® = 1 (LU)3/

tion (or around

angular velocity) has magnitude 1.

-%

In both systems of astronomical units, the dynamical system consists of a spherical earth in an elliptical orbit around a spherical sun, so that two-body results apply. It is also possible to construct other sets of astronomical units by use of other planets or comets and the sun, or of moons around particular interest when applied to ical moon in an For the becomes earth-moon the lunar the planets. The earth case is of in lunar flight problems the dynamical system of a spherelliptic orbit around the earth. system, unit (*1 earth's The unit is the constant the LU unit of = 384,747.2 length km) = Type

Velocitvj Acceleration Unit Conversions relations wavelengths Krypton-86: of length. the

Volume/

(m) = 1,650,763.73 orange-red radiation fundamental metric (ft) U.S. = 0.3048 unit of m length.

of

of unit (exact):

the the

Foot

fundamental

Second (see) fundamental 1 Velocity Acceleration Volume The (or fundamental meter cube The units:

= 1/86400 unit of length/time. units: capacity) unit or the lm

mean cirri

solar time.

day:

the

and unit of mass 5. 9758 x 1024kg).

mass (*M® of time in a mean of

astronomical system and the gravitational corn es :

solar day (MSD) the earth be-

length/ units: of unit in

(time) (length) is volume

2. 3. one cubic equal to a

volume of

*K®

-

'r

|l

M-

M_

V
0. where 228570389 (LU) MSD 3/2

(m 3) with

edges

length. is the of 1 kg near pres-

fundamental metric unit of capacity iiter (_), which is equal to the volume of pure water at its maximum density 4 ° C and under standard atmospheric sure of 760 is a mm unit Hg. of (in 1 f liquid 3). = 1000. capacity 028

(era3). equal to

%¢ *The been values used

=

1LU in the calculations. lunar handbook have

The

gallon 231 cubic

adopted for the

inches

II-

22

b.

Length

conversions conversion factors for standard units of length,

Table

9 lists

TABLE Len_th
International Astronomical Units Nautical Miles Statu;e Miles

9

Conversions
In,, Meters E rlat_r,nal In_e rna[Lomd In_erna!L mat

I I 1 i 1 1 1

As'i, _r._,,,, S: ,* _',

,,, ,,, L ,

L ,_ ,:

_r:_' "_l,i_:,_,t _ Mii,' =

1 1.238.575xl0 1. 07G, 292x -B It) -8 "11 "11 3x 4x10 10 "11 -12

80, 1 0.

737,

9_x

106

92. 1.150,

911.

52 779.

× 106 447

149. 1_2: I f,_)_.

52_6

x

10 _

1_:_.524,3xt_) 2025. _71, ¸ 61], 29S _2_

F_ _0.572_!x1() f_17_. 52_{_ 3 2_0. ¸ _39, _, 115, 4,_5

9

_,_.{_7.4×10 72, _; _ _% gl _6_ _70. _. :lf_5, ¸¸ 07_L 740

l_ R2_

".[, h -

868,

978,

2'_2 80:_x10 501x10 -3 -3 x 10 -3 -4

1 0,_1,:_71, 0,568, O, 1Bg. 1_}2×10 1_1,81a×10 39:_, g:_9× 282x1_ in _ -¸_ -4 ¸_

_44'

17_;n 1.09:_,

M_'_,-r

0._68,777.3x10 Yard F_O_ Inch = = = 0.811,52B,_X10 0.20a, 0.169. 843, 869,

0.539,956, 0.493,736. 0. 164, 578,

I _,_}t44 _. tL _(/4_ 0254 _¸ ¸: ,_

IrL_e,r,:,'_,,n:Ll Interna:ional International

833

0.137.149,028xlD

0.157,82_,

O.O27.777,777

0._B3,333,33:_

]

1 micron c. Table Velocity 1 0 lists

= 10 -6 conversions

meter,

1 Angstrom

unit

= 10 -10

meter

conversion

factors

for

standard

units TABLE

of

velocity. 10

Velocity
International Astronomical per 1 A.stronomtcal Mean I Solar Day Unit = Unit Day = 0.997.289,57 l International Mile i Statute per Hour Ml/e per Nauti6al = flour = 0" 297' 258,-__ 2x 10-6 l0 "6 0.298,072, 0.259,017,5x lxlO-6 10 -8 ! I 3.354.892 per per i 1,002,737,90 3.364, OT_x Mean Solar Units Day AstronornieM per Sidereal Units Day Nautical per

Conversions

Miles ]tour

Statute per

Miles Ilour

Kilornelers lIour

per

Meters _econd

per I"pet per" Second

106

3,871.313

x

106

G.230,27_x

105

1.730,632

x

1[/i

5,577,928

x

it3 _

AstronornicM Sidereal

x

108

3.860,743

x

106

6.213,260x

106

1.725,907

x

106

5.682,424

x

106

[. i

150,779,447

1.852. 1.609,344.

0.514,4t4,444 0.447.040*

1.687,

809,

856

0.258,310._x

0.888,978.242.6

1.466.866,G66

I

Kilometer

per

Hour

=

D. 160.5D8,_

x

ID -6

D. 160. S46,__.

x

1O -6

O. 539,956,803,

,i

0.82[,371,192

1

0.277.

?77,777

0.911.

344.415

I 1

Meter Fool

per per

Second Second =

:

0. 577,823,_ 0. ]TO. 210_z__x

x

I0-_ 10-6

0. 579, 0.:76,

4051_,5 S02,8

x x

I0 -_ i0 -6

1.943,

844,491 80[}

2. 236,936,288 0.681,818, 1St

3. 600_ 1.097,28(I*

I O. 3048.

3. 280,839, I

895

0. 592,483,

--Underlined *Denotes exact

digits

are conversion

questionable. factor,

d. Table

Acceleration 11 lists

conversions conversion factors foe standard units of acceleration.

TABLE Acceleration

11 Conversions

%stlonomi,'al p,, A.s_r per onomit '_ohc _1 lkc: Vrnt 2 t '_1, _,, Solar

l'ntts Da:, '_

Asttnn_mical p,,r Sld_., ,._d

tlnils D_v g

lilt,,

,;al[,,llaI Mi_,.s p,_,

Natti,-M I{ouE ¸_

5tatut,,

Mito IIo_J_ Z

p_,r

[.O05,4B;L

K:

l.t01,701o

*

105

t

_1_.(147

*

I(_ 5

p_ t hit,: M;I,

Sial,:

_;d

DC,74 ,,:_J, i1

t,

_=,1,

54;,

*,'J

1

i.

:_94,

[95t_ ×

10 a

1. _04,

25_

*

I,l:'

_,ae/,,,kal p+,

l{t,<lr-

,I 7L_,4[)14.

]l} 5

O. 717.331.Ix

I0

5

i

i. lSt_,77[t,.147

}tour

2

p,.r

0._,t_L944.7

x

10 ,5

0._23.:_44,22

x l_

5

0.8_8,97_L

242,_

1

_.609,

]4t

[.2;I,

.:,..

H :< II,

4

4

(l,4

,if4

,ll

4 K Ill

Kit amee,,t tie,It Me_'/ Lnte* per 2 " p_r nat tonal Second

[L _85,209, S_,,_)rld _oot 2 = 0.015,216, 2 • D,(I,19,923,9_

f, x

2_

5

0.3_7,:_2t,_9 0.050. 197,70

x 10

5

[),5"_[+,f_SG, 0,_39[I,784,f_17,_

gfl:q

4 × 104

I)._:2L, D. goS,

_7L, 297,

t_2 t161,ft × 104

S2

0.015,300,

a_

0.211,294,

IRg,

6 x

104

0.245,245,245,

a _

104

II-23

e. Volume andcapacity conversions Table12lists conversion factorsfor standard nitsofvolume u andcapacity.
TABLE Volume and Capacity 12 Unit Conversions

Cubic 1 Cubic 1 Cubic 1 Cubic 1 Liter 1 Gallon *Denotes (U.S.) exact Inch Foot Meter 1* 1,728* 61,023.74 61.02545 231" conversion

Inches 5. 1 ,,_ 35.

Cubic 787037

Feet x 10 -4

Cubic 1.6387064

Meters x 10 -5

Liters 0.01638661 28.31605 999.972

Gallons 0.004329004 7.480519 264.172 0.2641794 1

0. 028316846592. 31467* 1 1.000028 3. 7854118 x x 10 10 -3

0.03531566 0. factor 1336806

1 3.785306

3,

Angular Table 13

conversions lists conversion factors for standard units TABLE Angular Unit of 13 Conversions
Minutes Revolutions Radtans 6.283,185,307 I x x x 10 -4* 10 -3 10 -5 10 -7 1.745,329,252 2.908,882,096 4.848,136,812 9.817,477,040 x x x x 10 -2 10 -4 10 -6 10 -4 360.0* 57,295,779,511 1 1.666,666,666 2.777,777,777 5.6250 x 10 -2* x x 10 -2 10 -4 _ of Arc Seconds of Arc 1,296,000.0* 206,264.806,236 3,600.0* 60.0* l 202.5* 6400* 1018.591636 17.777,777,77 0.296,296,296 4.938,271,605 1 x 10 -3 Angular Mils

angular

measurement.

1 1 1 1 1 **1

Revolution Radian Degree Minute Second Angular = = of of

1 0.159,154,943 2.777,777,777

21,600.0* 3,437.746,771 60.0* 1 0.016,666,666 3.375*

Arc Arc Mil =

= •

4.629,629,629 7.716,049,382 1.5625 x

*Denotes

exact

conversion

factor. from and inch. the milltradtan, the "mi]" which From the table,

**The "angular rail" should be differentiated which is often designated "mU" in targeting, is a unit of length corresponding to 0. 001 1 angular rail = 0. 981,747,704 miUiradian

4.

Mass a.

and Defined

Force relations

Unit

Conversions

go

= 32.

17404855 force nt force (lbf)

+ ft/sec 2(kgf)

(derived = 9. 80665

value). kg-m/sec 2

1 kilogram = 9. 80665 protounit units 1 pound = 32. b. Table units. of units to unit 2 2 system by go' is the where the adopted In U.S. of units go = acsea units is a 1 newton 1 newton 1 newton is a mass: unit c. Derived

Kilogram (kg) the type kilogram: of mass in the Pound the avoirdupois fundamental FPS

mass of the international the fundamental metric absolute MKS system of (ib) = 0.45359237 U.S. unit of mass system of units, kg in

= 32.

17404855

+ lb-ft/sec

2

17404855 Derived 14 lists mass

+ pdl unit conversions factors for mass

(exact): the

absolute Unit force which 1 newton I poundal Unit force mass 9. 80665 celeration level value in unit

conversion

in an absolute system gives unit acceleration (nt) (pdl) a = I kg-m/see = 1 Ib-ft/sec

force = =

and

mass +lbf kgf

unit

conversions

I kgf I Ibf

2. 204622621 0.45359237 newtons 105 g-em/sec

= 4.

448176256

+

gravitational

multiplied m/sec due for 2 (exact)

= = =

2 +kgf

= 105

dynes

standard

to gravity, 45 ° latitude.

0.101972661 0.224811235

+ lbf

II-24

1 newton= 7.23301387 +pdl 1pdl = O.1382549543 +newtons 1pdl = 0.31080950ibf +
TABLE Derived Mass 14 Conversions

1 kg 1 lb

= =

0.

101972661

+ kgf + lbf slugs.

sec2/m see2/ft =

0.0310809501 0.0310809501

Pau:Ms _Lac Mass Na:th M_ Moon 27.54_;, 81. I 358 __ Mass {_)c} 1. :_1, 4. L_t_4, m 25 2 x x ?ugs x 1029 I_12J l021 5.975,0 x 1024 _3.(72. fix i[* 2"t 2!(I.7_; K_log2a r2_• (a vdp)

oum:_ (a, dl_!

i 1 i

fiola_ I:artt_ Moon

Ma_s Ma_ Mass

" = =

1 3.0BS,06_x 3.697,320 x l0 10 6 .8

332,440 1 1.229,14 x 10 2

×

1(' 24

5,_32,3

7.344,_1 14. :%iKI,

× ft02,

1022 1_76

16. 2_2,

]i)(,(_ 174,

x (]4_{,

[(I 22 55(;

'2q 514,

¢_; 7B4,

x

11_ 22 777, (1

1

Sl'Jg

"

7.346,

l_x

10

29

0.244,25

x

10

-23

0.198,72

x

1(_

21

1 l

Kilogram Poured (avdp)

= =

5.

043,

7_

x

1() -:_I 10 -31

0.

167,

36

x

10 10

.24 25

0.136,15

x

10

22

[_.852,

17f_,_2

x

OI -2

1

2.2(4

622

62]

_;5.27L_1,I)4

2.28:_,2_x

0.759,15x

0._;17,_ _. _1;, _)1 v

x x

10 i(_

-23 24

3. I.

1_8, 942,

095, 55_,

016 :;_5

x x

l0 1,_

2 3

O.

45:_,

5F+2.37 x lO 2

1 0.0_42,5:

l(i. i

(} :

0.283,495,231

1

Ounc_

(avdp}

=

1.427,

i)4

x

10

:t2

_.474,47

x

10

26

--Und+._linvd :, D{.r_ote_

digits exac_

am_ cow¢or._ion

qm.stionahh.. factm'.

1 metric 1 ton =

ton 2000'::

= 1000" pound = = = =

kilogram (avdp) 426.8579495 3087. 469937 = 907. 18474* kilograms

g0 5,

z

N8(}fi65:

mete: _

s = 32. 174,()48,555 rtl._ 2

Energy a. Derived chanical 1 joule 1 joule 1 joule 1 joule 1 erg 1 pdl 1 pdl 1 kgf 1 lbf 1 lbf b. ft ft m ft ft

Unit

Conversions conversion units of factors energy between me-

lkg-cal 1 kg-cal 1 Btu

+m-kgf + ft-lbf +kg-cal +ft-lbf ÷ lb+ joules +x +x 10 -4 10 -4 kg-eal Btu ft2/sec 2

0.2519957611 778.0292165 34980 866068

-= = = = = = = = =

1 nt-m 107 erg

= 1 kg-m2/see = 107 g-cm2/sec +kgf + lbf m

2 1 Btu 2 1 Btu = 25032. = 1054.

0.101972661 0.7375621493 10 -7 joule

1 Btu ft 1 joule = 10 -Tkg-m2/sec +joule d. 0.0310809501 9. 80665 32. joules +pdl + joules factors units or kilogram hours of energy 1 kilo-electron 1 kilocalorie 1 860 kilowattcalorie (kwhr) (kgcal) = 1 mega-electron 1 billion Btu = 3. 98320719 +Btu 1 erg 1 watt-sec e. Derived to 1 kwhr 1 kg-eal lkg-cal = 1 joule conversion units 3.6 1000 x 106 calories = +kgm2/sec 2 and under go One pressure atmosphere (of the factors of energy 6. from thermal 1 lbf-ft 1 kg-cal Pressure a. = = Defined from thermal ft + lbf ft The of work ference taken charge. "electron Atomic 2 1 joule 0.04214011007

= 2. =

388888888

9. 479876444 units is defined

energy volt"

as

the

amount difis of

17404855

done on one electron by a potential of 1 volt; the charge on the electron -10 as 4. 80286 x 10 electrostatic units

1. 35581794 conversion

-12 Defined to 1 electron volt (EV) volt volt volt x x x = (kEV) (MEV) (BEV) 11 = = = Unit units is earth defined as _ s atmosphere) m/see 2. the standard at sea corresponds 6. 24196 8. 46297 2.6116 10 10 1022 18 EV EV EV 1.60206 = = = x 10 103 106 109 EV EV EV erg mechanical

1 kg-cal

1 = 0. 45359237

electron

mechanical =

joules

Conversions

4186.046511+joules 4186.046511

level

= 9. 80665

It

11-25

to the sea 1961 U.S. One pressure (10-3m) 9.80665

level pressure Standard Model

of the 1959 ARDC Atmospheres.

and

the

T(OR) t(OF)

=

1.8T(°K) ) = T(OR) - Ti(°R )

- ti(°F

millimeter of mercury (mm that a column of mercury in height m/see of 2. mercury of mercury go unit dynes Usually, (rob), factors = = = = 10 -4 10 -2 0. of (in. Hg) 1 inch = 32. 17404855 exerts at 0 ° C and

Hg) is the I millimeter under g0 =

where T. (°K) = 273.16 ° K

that at

One inch a column 32 ° F One and bar of nt/m2). of b.

is the pressure in height exerts + ft/sec corresponding centimeter is 1 mb given -3 = 10 in bar. 2. b.

t.(°F) 1

= 32 ° F

under is a l06

Derived t. (°C) 1 T i (°R)

relations = 0o C

pressure per square pressure where between nt/cm millibar

to (or

a.force 105

=

491. -

688 ° R T i (°R) t(°F) 1.8 t i (°F)

terms

millibars

T(oR) t(°C) = 1.8

Conversion 1 nt/m i nt/rn 1 nt/m 1 nt/m 1 nt/m I nt/m 1 kgf/m I I pdl/ft ibf/ft 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

pressure 2 (rob) + kgf/m pdl/ft + ibf/ft x 10 -4 nt/m 2 2 2 Ibf/in. 2 2

units T(°R)

1.8

t(°C) + 273.16(°C)

= t(°F)

t(°F) - ti(*F) = 1.8t(°C)

+ 491. 688 ° R = 1.8 T(°K)

I01972661

- 32 ° F -

0.67196908 020885437

273.16(°K)

= 0.

where 2 °C = degrees (Celsius) in thermodynamic scale in in thermodynamic thermodynamic Kelvin Rankine scale centigrade

= 1.4503776= 9. = 80665

(exact)

°K 1.48816371 8802515 756 + nt/m - nt/m + nt/m 00 nt/m kgf/m 267 pdl/ft lbf/fi + ibf/in. 2 2 1 atmosphere i atmosphere 1 atmosphere 1 atmosphere 7. Temperature a. Defined Unit relations = = = = 14.695951 760 29. 1013. mmHg 921260 2500 in. mb fig 2 2 2 2 D. °R = 47. = 6894. = 101,325. = 10,332.275 2

= degrees = degrees scale

1 Ibf/in.2 1 atmosphere 1 atmosphere I atmosphere 1 atmosphere

the subscript of water.

"i"

denotes

the

freezing

point

= 68,087. = 2116.2170

SUMMARY OF PROGRAMS United

LUNAR AND the

EXPLORATION RESULTS National Aeronautics

In the

States,

and Space Administration has been established by Congress to direct the nation's civilian space program which up to the time of writing includes the entire announced U. S. lunar exploration program. Table lunar spacecraft all announced launches presented from Ref. has been many lesser 15 U. summarizes the current U, S, programs, while Table 16 lists S. and Soviet space vehicle

Conversions

with lunar mission objectives. The data in the first table has been taken partially 43, while the data for the second table obtained from Refs. 43, 44 and 45 and sources.

t(oc)

=

T(°K)

- Ti(OK

)

II-26

TABLE Current _ect Apollo, NASA Contractors North American, command and mission modules, systems integration; MIT, guidance development; Collins Radio, telecommunications; Minneapolis-Honeywell, stabilization and control; AiReseareh, environmental control; Radioplane, parachute recovery; Lockheed Propulsion Company, escape tower rocket; Marquardt, reaction controls; Grumman, lunar excursion module (LEM); Avco, heat shield, etc. U.S. Lunar

15 Spacecraft Programs Status Earth uled orbits 1967 orbital 1964 to 1966, to 1968. been shots sched-

Description Three-man earth-orbitaL and landing Boosters: spacecraft for lunar-orbital missions. Saturn for earth

1965, lunar lunar landing Lunar orbit mission selected. pro-

orbits, Saturn C-5 rendezvous, NOVA flight. modules: 4.5 x Spacecraft command newtons,

for lunar for direct has three module, 3.5 m 20.5

rendezvous file has

104

high; x l04 lunar 13 x

service newtons, excursion 104

module,

7 m high; vehicle, 6 m 104 high;

newtons, 38 x

total weight

newtons.

An idea of the magnitude of this lunar program may be gained in that, by the first launch, about 20,000 companies and 150,000 to 200,000 scientists and engineers will have been involved. The total cost is estimated at $20 billion.

Lunar Vehicle NASA

Logistics (LLV),

Grumman, Northrop Space Technology Laboratories submitted feasibility studies, contract award expected early 1963; Pratt and Whitney, variablethrust RL-10 liquid hydrogen engine.

3300-newton spacecraft "bus" to carry support payloads to the moon, initially boosted by Saturn C-IB; later 9 x 104-newton "bus" will

boosted by Saturn C-5. Seven specific payloads be studied.

Development expected to begin in 1963 after congressional approval of fiscal year 1964 budget. Cost is expected to run to $500 million.

Ranger,

NASA

JPL, prime Aeronutronic, Hercules,

contractor; capsule; retrorocket.

1300-newton instrument sule with seismometer be hard-ianded on the Before tapes surface. impact, pictures The a TV of the booster

capwill moon. camera lunar is an

Research

and

develop-

Atlas-Agena

B combination.

ment stage. First two Rangers failed to launch from earth orbit; Ranger III launched January 26, 1962, but failed to impact the moon and is in solar orbit; on the 1962; October power hours Ranger IV impacted moon April 26, Ranger V, launched 18, 1962, had a failure after 8 and 44 minutes; it the orbit. moon A

failed to impact and is in solar total are 1963, many Ranger time gram halted review of 9 more planned for and as

Rangers 1962 to

there may be as 15 additional shots. At the of writing, the prohas been temporarily for an extensive of the many failures.

Surveyor, NASA

Hughes, Martin, power

prime SNAP generator.

II

contractor; nuclear

3300-newton spacecraft lands 400 to 1300 newton instruments on the moon. Booster: Atlas-Centaur lunar orbiting vehicle is planned.

First for

lunar 1964--seven

flights soft

planned land-

ing vehicles and orbiting vehicles mitting pictures surface.

five iunar for transof' the lunar

II-27

'FABLE Data on U.S. and Soviet Space

16 Lunar Mission Objectives

Vehicle Launches with (Chronological listing) failure are given below:

Definitions Success: Partial Failure: I. 2.

of success, major mission yielded

partial objective

success, was

achieved.

success: yielded O I I, to

scientific

information on major failure. partial mission Propulsion success. of the 113,000 returned km from earth. It carried an ionization data gave a qualitative peak of radiation objective. failure No mission will be stated for failures.

no scientific (U.S._ (U.S._ a lunar measure

information 1958, 1958,

Pioneer Pioneer Pioneer chamber space.

17 August 11 October

of the

first stage.

probe, reached a cosmic radiation,

distance and

in

3. 4.

Pioneer Pioneer

II III

(U.S.),8 (U.S.),6

November December

1958, 1958,

failure. partial success. payload earth on an escape earth escape velocity; trajectory achieved into the a maximum vicinity dis-

The mission of the moon. tance of about On-board vealed

objective was to place a The space vehicle failed 100,000 km from earth. included a second earth. 1959,

scientific to achieve

it

the

instruments existence

of

two Geiger-Mueller Van Alien radiation The region of

counters. belt at

Cosmic a higher radiation

ray altitude _as

data than found

from that to

Pioneer discovered of

III two

reby

the Explorer concentric
5.

I earth satellite. belts around the 2 was was orbit January probably achieved between

high-intensity

consist

Lunik This moon) went

I (U.S.S.R._ lunar of into probe 7500 km a solar Period

success. to impact. Pericynthion hr after launch. After Mars with the following distance lunar passage, characteristics: (closes the approach to space vehicle the

an attempt about 36 earth and = = = = = 450 d

Eccentricity Inclination Perihelion Aphelion On-board instruments included:

0.148 15. 18 ° 146.4 197.2x x 106 106km km= = 0.9791AU 1.319AU

Magnetometer Twin Geiger-MuelIer counters Nitrium spectral analyzer Skin and chamber temperature thermocouples Mtcrometeorite erosion gauge Sodium vapor discharge device (which released, 100 km in diameter at a distance of 115,000 The total vehicle weight was 14,435 was to magnetic craters, newtons. measure intensities field strength, properties of

for tracking km from earth)

purposes,

a sodium

cloud

The purpose of the ments of the moon ment evaluation of sion of the moon's 6. Pioneer This velocity orbit lunar was between IV (U.S.),3 probe

vehicle included the lunar surface. March passed the

of radiation gravitational the moon's

and cosmic rays. forces, cosmic ray inner strata and optical

Actual measureintensity, sediteletransmis-

1959, moon

success. at a distance velocityof following of approximately m/see. 60,000 "['he km because the injection on to a solar

84 m/sec below earth and Mars Period Eccentricity Inclination the earth' equator to s

the planned with the = = 397d75 0.067

11,166 characteristics:

vehicle

continued

=

29.9

°

II-

28

Perihelion Aphelion Inclination ecliptic On-board instruments included:

= = to =

147.6 173.7
1. 5 °

x x

106 106

km km

= =

0.9871 1. 162

AU AU

2 Geiger-Mueller counters A photoelectric sensor A despin mechanism The total space mission vehicle objectives an weight was were 60 to: trajectory limits of of radiation a photoelectric this payload indicating newtons.

Primary

Achieve Determine Determine Test the During nature altitude The while Data
7.

earth-moon the physical the extent operation of life, space, belt. belt

the in

Van Allen the vicinity sensor

radiation of the

belts moon

the 8 hr of its battery of cosmic radiation Van Allen radiation first the was II Van second received (U.S.S.R.), imImcted and on Mare launch and Allen belt to radiation consists a 12 range

in

transmitted variations

to on

earth new information both the extent and

on intensity

the of

extent and the high-

was

found of km.

to low

consist energy

of

high

energy after

protons shielding.

and

low

energy

electrons,

primarily of 650,000 1959, in

protons

Lunik

September

success. area the bounded earth-moon velocity m/see. The by the Mare distance of the space last stage Tranquillitatis, of r_¢ = 381,100 vehicle of the 5 hr rocket Mare km

Lunik II Serenitatis,

the moon Vaporum to at impact. impact

a triangular after covering The was

in

35h2m24 s from was 2317 m/see, on the moon. The The guidance mission

it

seienoeentric about 3315

before impact also impacted

system objectives

of

Lunik of Lunik

II

functioned II were the the to earth earth

only

during

the

initial

powered

phase

of

flight.

investigate: and moon radiation substance

The magnetic Radiation belts

fields of around

Intensity and variations in cosmic Heavy nuclei in cosmic radiation Gas components of interplanetary Meteoritic particles The results of the (1) (2) flight The The an 8. Lunik Lunik vicinity that [s III III (U.S.S.R.),4 carried scientific moon. from continued were Side. It the included moon moon ionosphere. October 1959, equipment, passed earth. close to success. including it, so has is discovery no magnetic by that

field a belt

or of

radiation low energy

belt

of ionized

charged gases

particles. which might resemble

enveloped

both oriented

photographic as to photograph

and

television the part of

systems the lunar

to

the surface

of the hidden

Photography interpretation Moon' s Far Lunik Its III initial

for 40 subsequently

minutes and published

images by the

were later U.S.S.R.

televised Academy

to earth. of Sciences

The as

plates an Atlas

and of

their the

passed orbital Nodal

within parameters period

7000

km

of

the

moonfs

south

pole

at

its

pericynthion

on

6 October

1959.

were: = = = 16d2 0.8 76.8 °

Eccentricity Inclination

II-

29

Perigee Apogee 9. Lunar The 10. Pioneer The the primary earth. Orbiter booster for V (U.S.), mission went Period I (U.S) all 11

distance distance 26 Lunar March of into a November Orbiters 1960, Pioneer solar = = to = = = included:

= =

40,671 469,306.4 1959, was success an

km km failure Atlas-Able combination.

It

V was to record orbit between Earth 311d6 O. 104 3.35 120.5 148.5 ° x x 106 106 km km

space and

data Venus

within with

approximately the Following

80 x 106 characteristics:

km

from

Eccentricity Inclination ecliptic Perihelion Aphelion On-board instruments

= 0.8059 = 0.9931

AU AU

High energy radiation counter to measure Ionization chamber and a Geiger-Mueller encountered Micrometeorite counter Search coil magnetometer Photoelectric cell "aspect faced the sun The Important experimental (1) total weight of the indicator" spacecraft of electrical 5 million this was

high tube

energy radiation, to measure the

total

particularly radiation

from flux

the

sun

designed I00

to newtons and system 40,000

send

a

signal

when

the

device

directly

accomplishments Discovery of "ring" current from earth. Discovery and oscillates Discovery to solar Achievement Discovery angle with Discovery netic field. Discovery that radiation (U.S.),25 (U.S.), August 15 that the that that large of

cislunar

interplanetary in the km in

space

probe

were: namely, a 65,000 km

current amperes,

outer atmosphere, diameter, exists

(2)

the with

earth's solar

magnetic flare activity. magnetic

field

at

times

extends

out

as

far

as

i00,000

km

(3)

of flare

interplanetary activity. of the the plane the first planar of the Forbush radio

field

which

fluctuates

in

intensity

in

relation

(4)

communication the interplanetary

over

interplanetary magnetic field

distances. forms a large

(5) (6)

angle of ecliptic. decrease

does

not

depend

on

presence

of

earth's

mag-

(7)

of

penetrating will be

a 1960,

radiation beyond major hazard for failure. failure.

the Van Allen manned flight

belts. between

The earth

conclusion and Venus.

is

11. 12. 13.

Lunar Lunar Ranger

Orbiter Orbiter

II III

September December 1961, failure

1960,

I (U.S.),23

The mission objective was to make highly elliptical earth orbits near minimum three-body velocity for earth escape. Ranger I was injected into a parking orbit around earth. It was planned to inject the space vehicle from parking orbit by a velocity impulse of about 3200 m/sec into the desired irajectory. However, the actual velocity impulse was only 73 m/sec, which resulted in a low altitude earth orbit and caused the vehicle to re-enter the atmosphere after one week. During this time, the on-board The planned instruments experiments Subjects Fields, and solar of functioned and flawlessly. instruments for Rangers I and II are: and for solar and Measurements plasma thin-walled Geiger-MuelIer

Experiment particles Electrostatic Semiconductor counter

Instruments analyzer detectors

charged X-rays

II-

30

Subjects

of

Experiment Ionization Triple-coincidence Rn X-ray vapor

Instruments chamber telescopes

and

Measurements

magnetometer scintillation telescope composite detectors detectors

Hydrogen Interplanetary 14. Ranger Ranger from 15. Ranger The II II earth III mission (U.S._ had the parking (U.S._ of used 51 1872 Period Perihelion Aphelion The mission objectives (1) (2) (3) Collect Relay Place surface (4) (5) The 16. Ranger weight IV of 18

geocorona dust 1961, failure.

Lyman-alpha Micrometeorite

Novernber mission failed

same orbit 26

objectives and and it re-entered 1962, IV and partial V was

on-board instruments the earth's atmosphere

as

Ranger after

I. Its 9 hr.

injection

rocket

January IlI,

success. to impact the the at orbit moon to land velocity was a scientific too km package. high. and Pericynthion selenocentr[c

Rangers an hr earth after m/see.

Ranger Ill was reached velocity was

parking launch. It

orbit. The continued =

However, lunar distance into 406d4 147. 173.90 planned in flight and TV 12 x x 106 106 for in a solar

injection that time with the

was 36,785

the

following

characteristics:

distance distance and experiments "t-ray to an to earth, data by

= =

km km

= 0.9839 = 1. 163 III, of

AU AU IV the of and V were moon. the lunar surface on the lunar to:

Rangers the vicinity

a vidicon

camera, capsule

photos

instrumented relay the spacecraft seismic radar

transmitting data refleetivity and space in the to earth. of flight vicinity

containing

a seismometer

Determine Develop III, April

the

moon

by

a radar

altimeter.

technology. of :{000 newtons.

Rangers

IV 1962,

and

V was partial UT, It

(U. s. ), 23

success. 23 April failed to 1962, perform and impacted any of its on the planned moon at experiments. 1250 UT, 26 April

Ranger IV 1962, after 17. Ranger The space

was launched a flight time

at 2050 of 63 hr. 1962,

V (U.S.),18 vehicle

October was launched

failure. at 1659 UT. Ranger Vhad a power faiiure 8h46 The were m after launch, program failures or, and was at

it missed the moon by temporarily halted for best, partial successes.

725 km on a program

21 October, review in

continuing view of the

into a solar orbit. fact that 5 firings

Ranger either

II-

31

E. REFERENCES 1. "OrbitalFlightHandbook," 12684, ER Martin Company, Space Systems ivision, D (Baltimore),1963.
2. Herrick, Hilton, Constants S., C. Baker, R.M.L., G., "Gravitational for Accurate Space Astronautical (Proceedings), 1958, pp 197 to Jr. and and ReIated Navigation, Congress, Springer 235

14.

Nicolet, M., "Density of the Heterosphere Related to Temperature, " SAO Special Report No. 75, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (Cambridge, Massachusetts), 1961. Johnson, F. S., editor, "Satellite EnvironPress

15. " 16.

ment Handbook, " Stanford University (Stanford, California), 1961. Wilkins, Macmillan Blagg, List of 1t. P. (New and Moore, York, 1955. P., "The

Eighth International BarceIona, 1957 Verlag 3. (Vienna), M.

Moon,"

Makemson, and Westrom, ardization Journal of No. 1,

W., Baker, R.M.L., Jr. G. B. , "Analysis and Standof Astrodynamic Constants, " Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 8, 1961, M., "A pp Geoid 1 to and 13. World Geodetic

17.

M. A. Lunar

and Saunder, Formations

S. A., "Collated Named or Lettered "

Spring W.

in the Maps of Neison, Lunar Nomenclature International Association 1913, p 196. and

Sehmidt, 1V_dler, Committee of the of Academies,

4.

Kaula, System metric, Journal 1961, Note

Based on a Combination Astrogeodetic, and of Geophysics Res. pp 1799 to 1811; also TN D-702, May 1961. G.

of GraviSatellite Data," VoI. 66, June NASA Technical

18.

Blagg, Lunar nomical

M. A. Formations, Union,

1Vffiller, K., " International 1935. T., "Natural " WADC Phase Air

"Named Astro-

19.

Bobrovnikoff, ment of the

N. Moon,

EnvironTechnical Center Document

5.

Krause, H. Astrodynamic shall Space VE-F 62-12 1963.

L., "Ona Consistent Set of Constants, " George C. MarFlight Center Report MTP-P & (NASA) (Huntsville, Alabama), 20. " 21.

Note 847-3, Wright (Dayton, Ohio), June No. AD 242177. Fielder, Surface, 1961. Firsoff, Structure Company, 22. Allen, (London), 23. Muncey, Temperature, 1958, pp Mezger, Thermal MC/S, Vol. " 1, R. C. G., "Structure " Pergamon

Development 1959, ASTIA

of Press

the Moon's (New York),

6.

"American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, published annually by the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. (obtainable from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.). Ehricke, trand deSitter, System of the lands, 213 to K. A., (Princeton, W. and "Space New Brouwer, Flight, Jersey), D., " Van 1960. "On Nos-

V.

A.,

"Surface

of

the

Moon, and

Its

and Origin, " Hutchinson Ltd. (London), 1961. W., 1955. W., "Calculation " Nature, Vol. 1458 to 1459. P. S. and Radiation Planetary 1959, pp A. R., "Isothermal Observatory Strassl, of the "Astrophysical

Quantities"

7.

8.

the

of Lunar 181, 24

May

of Astronomical Astronomical Vol. 231. VIII, No.

Constants, Institutes of 307, 8 July

" Bulletin the Nether1938, pp 24.

H., Moon

at

"The 1420

9.

Alexandrov, Potential, Sciences, 1960, pp

I., "The Lunar Gravitational " Advances in the Astronautical Vol. 5, Plenum Press, New 320 to 324. Jr. and Makemson, to Astrodynamics, (New York), 1960.

and Space 213 to 226.

Science,

York,

25.

10.

Baker, R.M.L., "An Introduction demic Press

M. " Aca-

W., 26.

Geoffrion, W. M., Lowell 1960.

Korner M. and Sinton, Contours of the Moon," Bulletin No. 106,

11.

Jeffreys, H., "The Earth, Its Origin, History, and Physical Constitution, " Fourth ed., Cambridge University Press, 1959. Townsend, Planetocentrie, Constants," Space 1962. Systems G. E., "Analysis of Heliocentric, Geocentric and Selenocentrtc ER 12201, Martin Company, Division (Baltimore), June 28. 27.

Valley, S. L., editor, "Space and Planetary Environments,"AFCRL-62-270, Air Force Surveys in Geophysics No. 139, GRDAir Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Bedford, Massachusetts), January 1962. Pettit, Radiation Journal, physical Gold, Q., Astronautics, Whipple, Layer," 1959, E. and Nicholson, Temperatures, VoI. 71, 1930, Journal, "Dust Vol. Vol. on S. B., "Lunar " Astrophysical p 102, and Astro91, 1940, p 408. in 266.

12.

13

Jaffe, havior ARS pp

L. D. and Rittenhouse, of Materials in Space Journal, Vol. 32, No. to 345.

J. B., "BeEnvironments, 3, March 1962,

the Moon, 2, 1959,

pp

" Vistas 261 to Dust Vol.

" 29. F. L., Vistas pp 267 to "On the Lunar in Astronautics, 272. 2,

320

II-

32

30.

Roche, Vacuum Vistas

R. A., "The Importance of High in Space Environment Simulation, in Astronautics, Vol. 2, 1959,

39. "

Opik, Gases sical 3070.

E. J. and Singer, S. F., from the Moon, " Journal Research, Vol. 65, 1960,

"Escape of of Geophypp 3065 to

pp 22 to 27. 31. Sytinskaya, N. of Microfeatures ARS No. 32. Journal 3, March N., "Probable of the Lunar Dimensions Surface, " 32, 41. Jeans, Dover J., "Dynamical Theory of Gases," Publications, Inc., 1954. and Stewart Company, 42. 34. Lipski, Y. N., "On the Existence Atmosphere, " Dokl Akad. Nauk., 1949, pp 465 to 468. Lyot, B. Atmosphere and of a Lunar Vol. 65, 43. 35. Dollfus, A., "Recherche au Voisinage de la Lune, d'une " 40.

(Russian 1962,

Supplement), Vol. pp 488 and 489.

Kozyrev, Process Vol. 18,

N. A., "Observations on the Moon, " Sky and 1959, pp 184 to 186.

of a Volcanic Telescope,

Judson, L. V., "Units of Weight and Measure (United States Customary and Metric), Definitions and Tables of Equivalents, " National Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publications 20, 1960. Green, Units ing 233 (Washington), December

33.

Russell, H. N., Dugan, R. S. J. Q. , "Astronomy, " Ginn and 1945.

of

M. H., "International and Measurement, " Chemical Inc. (New York),

Metric Publish1961.

Company,

Comptes Rendus Vol. 229, 1949, 36. Dollfus, A., AtmosphEre

d'Academie de Science, pp 1277 to 1280. 44. Recherche d'une de la Lune, "

"Astrolog--Current and Space Programs Satellites," Missiles No. I0, 3 September

Status of U.S. Missile Plus All Orbiting and Rockets, Vol. II, 1962, pp 19 to 30.

"Nouvelle, au Voisinage

Comptes Rendus Vol. 234, 1952, 37. Elsmore, Occultation of an Lunar 1955, 38.

d'Academie de Science, pp 2046 to 2049. G. R.,"Lunar and the Derivation 45.

Stafford, W. H. and Croft, R. M., "Artificial Earth Satellites and Successful Solar Probes, 1957 to 1960," NASA Technical Note TN D-601, March 1961.

B. and Whitfield, of a Radio Star

Upper Limit for the Density of the Atmosphere," Nature, Vol. 176, pp 457 to 458. 46.

Cummings, C. I., et al., "The Ranger Program, " JPL Technical Report 32-141, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, California), September 1961. Kuiper, "Planets Chicago G. and Middlehurst, and Satellites, Press (Chicago), B. " University 1961. M., of editors,

Costain, C. H., Elsmore, B. and Whitfield, G. R., "Radio Observations of a Lunar Occultation of the Crab Nebula, " Monthly Notices of the Royal Vol. 116, 1956, pp Astronomical 380 to 385. Society,

II-33

ILLUSTRATIONS

If- 35

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Inner Van Allen

Title Belt Proton Trajectory Flux and Initial Portions

Page

of a Typical 2 3 Lunar Chart

Lunar

................ Region ....... . .

II- 39 II-40 II-41

of the Mare

Humorum Surface

Estimate

of Average

Lunar

Temperatures

II-37

!
J

!
/

!

_0

\

\

\
i

/
/

.....
i

//

/

Fig.

I.

Inner Van Allen Belt Proton Flux and Initial Portions of a Typical Lunar Trajectory

LUNAR

CHARt

Y MAR_ HUMC_UM LAC 9_

• i_ ¸_¸ i:!

. I

L

Cb

_c

93

Fig.

2.

Lunar

Chart

Of

The

Mare

Humorum

Region

F_.

3o

Estimate

Of

Average

Lunar

Surface

Temperatures

3oc
o_ /
/

Q

,/ /
/

\

\

/o_

Zcl

CHAPTER III
THE EARTH-MOON SYSTEM

Prepared F. O.

by:

Martikan, F. Santora, and R. Salinger Martin Company (Baltimore) Aerospace Mechanics Department March 1963 Page

Ao

Geometry Motion Motion References Tables

and Coordinate in Earth-Moon of the Moon

Systems

................

III-i III-14 111-22 111-34

B. C. D.

Space

....................

..........................

................................ and Illustrations .......................

III-37

III.

THE

EARTH-MOON

SYSTEM

This chapter is an introduction to the kinematics and dynamics of the earth-moon system. This introduction is necessary before any actual trajectory programs or trajectories can be discussed, in order to present a clear understanding of the geometry, the various coordinate systems, the vocabulary and previous work in celestial mechanics peculiar to the earth-moon system. Section A for various introduces aspects coordinate earth in space, attitude systems usemoon flight guidance, control. Em-

civil time is defined with respect to the position of a fictitious mean sun which moves uniformly along the equator and hence is a function of the earth's rotation and its orbital motion as well. The difference between mean solar time and apparent solar time, the latter being based on the apparent position of the sun, never exceeds 16 minutes. Universal time (UT), sometimes referred to as Greenwich mean time, is the mean solar time referred to the Greenwich (prime) meridian. However, the above listed clock times reflect the variability in the rotational earth due to tidal friction and irregularities unknown sources. A uniform mathematical which is defined by the apparent annual the sun in true orbital longitude rather rotation of the earth, is the ephemeris or Newtonian time. The mathematical of ephemeris time has been developed, values AT = ET UT rate of the from time

ful such lunar

of

to

as tracking, reconnaissance is

motion and

phasis centered formation inertial current troduces

placed on the selenographic or moonrotating coordinate system and transfrom geocentric or earth-centered to selenographic coordinates. A list of lunar maps is also given. Section B inthe classical three-body and restricted

motion of than the time (ET) theory and the

three-body problems of astronomy and their application to the dynamical system of the earth, moon, and space vehicle. Valuable qualitative as well as quantitative trajectory information can be obtained from the restricted three-body problem. However, the application of the restricted three-body problem to the classification of lunar missions and its adaptation for trajectory calculations will be deferred to Chapter IV. Section C discusses the some theories adaptation ephemerides the moon grams. of in very used complex to find motion of this motion, in the and moon, the lunar of pro-

(I)

are given in the American Ephemeris (Ref. I), which is published annually, or in the Explanatory Supplement (Ref. 2) up to the year of publication. The fundamental epoch from which ephemeris time is measured is 1900 January 0, Greenwich mean noon in UT which is simultaneously 1900 January From +35 s less in than past 1962 0, 12 h ET observations and the in ET. AT change years systems Coordinates system of the center geographic and the coordinate fundamental system plane is At is in (Ref. is given that instant AT _-- 0.

these theories for observations accurate trajectory

generating and simulation computer

approximately AT 1, is generally page in Ref. vii). 3. A

1 s between of time

discussion A. GEOMETRY AND SYSTEMS COORDINATE 1.

Earth-Centered a. Geographic

In the description of the motion of the moon and of vehicles in the earth-moon space many different coordinate systems have been employed depending on the particular problem of motion to be solved. Several coordinate systems are used in lunar flight problems since several different disciplines such as geography, astronomy, aerodynamics, kinematics, dynamics, and numerical analysis enter into the problem with each discipline having evolved its own techniques and sets of coordinates. Some of the more commonly employed coordinate systems are described in the following pages according to their origin of coordinates, the principal directions and the fundamental plane; transformation equations between the major systems are given. The coordinate systems are further classified into (I) earth-centered coordinates, (2) selenographic ordinates, and Before (4) coordinates, vehicle-centered discussion (3) trajectory coordinates. the various co-

is

The origin the earth's

the equatorial plane. Longitude A is measured either east or west from the Greenwich (prime) meridian and the geocentric latitude 4' is the measured along a meridian from the equatorial plane, positive if north and negative if south the equatorial plane. The local radius of the earth, following Re>, is sketch. the ) used on maps is the defined as the angle and a normal to the most nearly describes of the earth. The 4' and _ is approximately there is an angle between by the local third spherical coordinate.

angle of

(See

The latitude tude _ which is equatorial plane ellipsoid which sea level surface ference between at 4' latitude vertical

geodetic latibetween the reference the mean greatest dif0. 19 ° astronomical the local gravitational

a detailed

of

co-

ordinate systems is attempted, some basic definitions of the principal time systems will be given since time usually enters the description of motion or observation of celestrial bodies and space vehicles as the independent variable. mental time unit is the sidereal of revolution of the earth about spect sidereal to the stars. time (ST). This Mean The fundaday, or the period its axis with reis known (MST) or as

= 45°. In addition, ¢>* which is the (as determined

field and affected by the centrifugal force) and the equatorial plane. The difference between _ and _* is called "station error" and is usually negligible. The geographic coordinate system is not an inertial one since it rotates around the earth's axis z G at a constant angular velocity _G' A

time system solar time

III-1

rectangular origin in the the at the

geographic center of)t and

coordinate earth has

system

with

of the = O, the

its xG-axis zG-axis toward the .. //\\ _

direction pole,

_ = O, the

_Zh
Zenith i_ dN°rth

A

north

YG-axis system

completing in the

right-handed plane.

coordinate

equatorial

,
I//

-L .J
[ \. /'IVehicle

w • z_

Local vertical

_

_ _1/z_emm

.._

£1)-

Meridian

_-_

. A..st
k\
South -h YG the zb-axis directed toward

/
the north celestial

pole (unit vector _'m/ and the y5 -axis directed
kL2

so (unit

as

to vector

form _h

a

right-handed }' Since the

coordinate equator and

system the vernal

Equator

equinox are not inertially fixed due to the precession and nutation of the earth's axis, the "equator and equinox " of a certain " date should be specified in precision work. The true equinox takes into account the nutation and precession of the earth while the mean equinox ignores the nutation. Deb. Topocentric system fine a origin Electronic and optical observations of space vehicles will be generally made from the surface of the earth. It is therefore advantageous to define a topocentric or local coordinate system with origin at the observer and the plane of the horizon of the to the rected is directed The of the as the fundamental topocentrie vector (unit plane. system The xh-axis is directed is diPosition of the vehicle celestial Nor, th Pole

coordinate as the x_, points

system Yb' toward

x(_ z'_

YO' system,

z_with except equinox plane

the

same

that and of the

the

x_-axis

the

mean

x_y(_-plane earth (see

is the mean equatorial followin_ sketch).

rectangular south to the to (unit east the

_h ), the vector

Yh-axis

_h ), and zenith _h the is in

the (unit the is A,

zh-axis
/ ] \ \_ projected onto

astronomical zenith and to z h.

vector direca is

_h ). tion plane

astronomical local vertical

horizon azimuth,

perpendicular

The

defined as the angle from clockwise in the horizon c, as the angle measured the zenith. to The range rp,

north plane from or

measured positive and the elevation, this plane toward distance from the

observer coordinate topocentric with the e. The center torial toward

the vei_icle, is the third spherical (see the following sketch). The system is not inertial since it rotates earth. Equatorial origin and the system is generally fundamental the earth. taken plane The equinox at the is the x'@-axis (unit earth's true is vector

Tmle

vernal

equinox

Celestial

sphere

= right ascension, vernal equinox right ascension grees or hours equa= declination, ) equator toward to the

measured east along the celestial may be measured (i hr = 15°). from the

from the equator. either

true The in de-

plane the

of true

directed
A I

measured

true

celestial positive south.

vernal

x

the radius vector north, negative

of object, toward the

II[-2

In Ref. I the coordinates are usually referred to the mean equator and equinox of the beginning of the appropriate year. For the ease of the sun, the celestial longitude referred to the true equator and equinox of a certain date is not given but is obtained by applying a reduction factor, which is tabulated in the Ephemeris, to the celestial longitude referred to the mean equinox and equator of the same date. This reduction is the sum of the precession in longitude from the beginning of the year to date, the nutation in longitude and the correction for aberration. For a definition of celestial longitude see the next coordinate A standard reference for the mean equator equinox used for comparison of data from sources is 1950. 0. d. Ecliptic system system. and various

double position script

subscript without the comma indicates of the object denoted by the second in the coordinate system of the first. coordinate place, then whose system a third is has been subscript given. from

the subIf transwill Thus

the origin of the lated to another denote the object

position

rOA is the of the earth system vehicle centric while from

distance of the in a geocentric r O,_/,, the center system. between is of

vehicle equatorial the the

the center coordinate of the a seleno-

distance moon

in

equatorial

Transformations centered here since in Chapter 2.

the

various

earth-

coordinate systems will this subject is treated XI of Ref. 3. Coordinate System

not be given more properly

Selenographic a. Definitions

The origin is generally taken as the earth's center and the fundamental plane is the ecliptic, or plane of the earth's orbit around the sun. The x{ -axis (unit normal and the is directed _{), the to the true vernal equinox along _ { ), the lunar the with north

vector

z(-axis plane

is directed (unit vector so as to form

The selenographic coordinate system is fixed respect to the moon and rotates with it. The pole of the moon is toward the direction of lunar angular velocity plane latitude is qb_ vector perpendicular is measured _(_, and to from the _,_. the

to the y{-axis

ecliptic

is directed system

a right(see the

equatorial

banded coordinate following sketch).

(unit vector

_()

Selenographic

North of ecliptic

Pole

' -G

lunar equator, positive toward in the hemisphere containing and negative toward the south. longitude the lunar _(_ prime the positive mean is measured meridian center direction east I(_ point for

the north, i.e., Mare Serenitatis, Selenographie and west from passes moon. toward East, the

= 0 which of k(_, the is

/

_

Celest:al

/A2
J'_G
Vernal equinox

through or the

hemisphere containing Mare Crisium. Tile mean center of the lunar disk is the point on the lunar surface intersected by the moon-earth line if the moon is at the mean ascending node when the node coincides either with the mean perigee or mean apogee. It is located in the Sinus Medii, a specified distance from the crater MSsting A (see Fig. i). Orientation of these cardinal directions for astronautical calculations is in accordance with a resolution adopted by the International Astronomical Union general assembly, 1961. Sometimes, notably in the American Ephemeris (Ref. prime i), k(_is measured through eastward 360 ° . For from the the primary

meridian of moon prime 360 axes

k e

= celestial along equinox

the

longitude, ecliptic

measured from the

true

positive vernal

east

purpose on the lunar through

astronomical is sometimes meridian ° . in the

observations, measured positive toward

longitude from the the west

_

= celestial to the

latitude, radius vector and terms the of

measured of the ecliptic directions

from object coordinate from

the

ecliptic The selenographic by moon. the moon's lie being and YS Unit of in x S, YS' The Zs zs-axis equatorial the moon's to the the _S' Xs-, YScoordinate with origin points plane. equatorial lunar right-handed X_S' and _S are zS to sysat tem the the The plane, prime coordinate defined axes. in are center north x Sdesignated of pole and the the of Ys-axes xs-axis

are origin taken

The equatorial defined in

systems a particular be the

and not by at the earth's

origin center,

itself, which may the sun's center,

moon's center, or translated anywhere. We introduce a double subscript notation to define the coordinate system as well as the origin. If the origin of the ecliptic and equatorial coordinate systems is taken at the center of the earth, then there is a single subscript "_)" or "{". However, if the origin is taken at the center of the moon, for instance, then we use two subscripts separated by a comma "_, (_" or "{ , (_" respectively. A

directed completing vectors the

meridian system. the

direction

III-

:3

b.

Transformation selenographic

from lunar coordinates to define

equatorial

to

In addition lunar equatorial rotate with the are designated of the The

it is useful coordinate moon. The by xc, moon. y_, The

a selenocentrie not

=

-T(A

S+

w(_t)]

-1

YS

(3_

system which does axes in this system z(_ with z_and moon's origin Zs-axes at the coin-

center cide.

x(_-axis

is in the

equatorial direccoordi-

plane directed toward an inertial tion which will be specified each nate the ing system is used, and the

reference time this

The origin of the lunar present case was taken but it may be translated equatorial and ecliptic section le and ld) c. Rotation coordinates rotation x'_,_, coordinates about about _N about sketch). system z_,(_ through _S from

equatorial system in the at the center of the moon, anywhere just as in the coordinate systems (sub-

y(_-axis system.

completes (See follow-

equatorial

to

selenographic

right-handed sketch. )

coordinate

The coordinates graphic kz¢ rotation tation a rotation

from

selenocentric ' z' y(_,(_, (_,_, x S, YS' Zs the angle the

equatorial to selenoconsists angle i_, angle _', and AM to z(_, of a a rofinally (see an _ inerwith

through the

through A further xo,

following tial

rotation (_, YO,(_'

coordinate

the x-axis directed to the mean equinox of date or to the mean equinox at epoch (a specified date) may be performed, but the difference between true equinox and mean equinox of date or of a recent epoch is smalI and can usually be neglected in preliminary design work. The matrix Inertial reference direction rotations ec uation: are defined by the following

If the

angle

between

the

x(_- and subsequent

xs-axes time

at time t it will from

t = 0 is A S , then be (A S + ¢0(_t). elenocentric oordinates

at any Hence

()
x S YS = zS and the selenographie by matrix nates by

cos

AM

sin

AM

- sin

AM

cos

AM

0

0

!]
0 •

I° °l
cos i(_ sin i(_ - sin i(_cos i

the transformation equatorial by

lunar is given

to selenographic _COS a' " /ok sin a' sin 0c°s a' f_' 01 01

"Xs "i YS

zS

[l
the

cos - sin

(A S + ¢0C t) (A S + _ t)

sin (A S ÷ _C cos (A S + _

t)

0

9
] • [T(fl')] .ly_,(_ _

t} 0

0

0

1

= [T(AM)]

[T(ic)

(ii}
and inverse transformation is: III-4

transformation coordinate multiplication unit vectors in

to

unit system

vectors can

in be

the obtained

and replacing the coordinate

the coordidirections:

_S

= x_,(_(cos ^' (cos + y_}_ ,(_

A M

cos sin

fl' - sin

AM

sin

fl' cos

i(_ i(_) [5)

AM

f_'

+ sin

AM

cos

gl'

cos

+

_._,(_(sin

A M

sin

i¢)

A

}S

:

x_,<

(-sin

A M

cos

a'

-

cos

AM (

sin

_'

cos

i_) _'

^, + y_),< + cos
A

icos sin t;0
sin fl' cos 0 fl' . cos sin i< 0 i{ (5) • sin AM cos AM YS 0 0 Zsj The values of i{ and fl' are _,6[ cos i([ equinox of date. to carry or in (6), out values the of tabulated as the x S, YS' coordinates Zs coordiis given Eqs inorder: In order (4), (5) sin are needed is convenient the displacement mean center moon Ref. latitude sents tions of the in I as terms of to choose of of the the earth-moon moon, or libration

-

sin cos

(6)

-sin cos

AM

sin

A M

f_' cos

i_}

+

z_,(_

(cos

AM

sin

i(_)

z S : A

,<(sin

[2' sin i(_) tabulated to the nearest 0.001 ° inRef. I for intervals of i0 days and referred to the true equator of the earth and

+ _,(_

(-cos

9'

sin

i{)+

The nates by the matrices, verses to

inverse x_,<,

rotation y_,{,

from z_,(_

transformations A M and cos quantity of from the the AM It

inverse of

of the product of the transformation which in turn is the product of the the individual matrices in reverse

quantities. tabulated line

z., j

i

longitude and latitude. This is given in the earth's selenographic longitude and (2, b) to the nearest 0°01, which repre300 meters on the moon's surface. Librawill be discussed in detail in Section C-2 present chapter.

Moon's plane

equatorial

N True vernal equinox Moon's

Earth's plane prime

equatorial

meridian

i

right ascension node measured of date. = inclination earth's of equator. the

of the from.the

moon's true

ascending equinox

lunar

equator

to

the

A M

=

angle in the the ascending meridian.

lunar node

equatorial to the

lunar

plane from prime

III-

5

Let L bea unit vectoralongtheearth-moon line. Thecomponents _ in the selenocentric of
equatorial
are:

1 sin i< sin 6I

coordinate

system

x'

"®,C'

Y_9,C' z@,<
cos AM sin i cos_ sin

K

cos

6 cos

([I' - _)

(10)

L x Ly h z where c_ is the declination

- cos - cos the sin

6 cos 6 sin c_ 5

[ _c°s i< sin

iQ_ cos 6 J

6 sin

(fl' - a)

(7)

cos rigilt ascenmon of the moon. of the moon If the librations and in sketch), to the = b The tal right parallax, ascension _C'

b

cos o_, of the

6

cos

(f2'

- o_)

]
horizonfrom

(11)

declination moon are

6 and obtained

longitude are f and latitude b (see following then we obtain, by applyint{ the law of cosines spherical triangle with sides b, f, d, cos d cos b cos f so that
A

Ref. 1 and eOCentric ee sketch

can be equatorial on the

used

to find the coordinates following page).

rectangular of the moon

xS • _

: cos

d : cos

b cos

J[

(8) Let the magnitude of r@(_ be r@_, then:

9S

• _

:

cos

b

sin

_

(9)

X_c
ygj)<

: r®<
: r@<

cos 6 cos _
cos 6 sin

If from {9) and

we Eqs

take (5) simplify

the and for

expression (7), the sin substitute results, AM are and

for

_S it in the AM

i_ Eqs

and {8) terms

^ YS
and of

"

then cos

following in

expressions tabulated

z_(_

: r(_<

sin

6

(12)

quantities

obtained:

and

r(_(_ is found

from

the

tabulated R
: e

lunar

horiis

sin A M

: cos

b f

[c os i(_ cos

5 sin (fl' - a)

zonta]

parallax

,_<

by:

r_t_

n(_

where

R e

Plane parallel to earth's equatorial plane

zS

line

-5

/--Moon's True Moon's equatorial vernal plane equinox

prime

meridian

Ili-6

d.
T _ZIt )

Vehicle nates

position

in

selenographic

coordi-

The nearly 5,I oon axis ,_r_6 system. in the lowing and from

selenographic constant its origin the origin the are angular is

coordinate velocity translated of tile

system _'(Cabout by the

has the

a
Z S

vector equatorial be the given folto the

geocentric

Earth

Before selenographic quantities sketch:

vehicle coordinate defined

position can system, by reference

A
"r

y'®

following The tric --

position equatorial :

vector of system, ^

the

vehicle

in

the

geocen-

^

^'

(15)

The the

position geocentric

vector

of the

center system,

of the

moon

in

equatorial
^i i

AI

AI

the earth's equatorial necessary substitutions and cos 6 Eqs (10)

and

radius. for (11)

By sin a, become:

making cos c_,

the sin

6

The position selenocentric equatorial the moon,

vector of the vehicle referred to the equatorial coordinates, i.e., in coordinates translated to the center of

sin

AM

r@<

cos

cos

£

b

Ecos

i(_

(x_)

C sin

f2' AT r®,6__: x_,<_z_x® + A, z@ the vehicle
A

- y(_(_

cos

[2')

-

z_6

sin

i(_

]
(13)

I Y®,6

_A_(

_ (17)

+ +

z_,

6 _,, of

ro<

sin£

cosbsin fl'

[

x

_

C cos fa'

+ )0(_

]
[ cos i< z_3(_ (x_< sin i< sin ] fl'

The position coordinates, rSA: XsAX the

vector
m

in

selenographic

A

S + YsAY sketch

S+ below

zsAZ that

S

(18)

cos

AM

:

r@(_

sin _ cos cos

b

Note

from

y_(_

f_')-

%,<
and (14)

r% ".6
,6 _i of (XsA, the YSA' vehicle Zs&)' in in selenographic terms (x_3,6 the rotation of _A' given seleno-

(19)

cos _
r@(_ + y_)_ cos sin b 9']

[x_<eos

The

rsA

:

rO

(2o)

With

sin

AIr I and (4), 4),

cos

AM

known,

the

rotations

inout. in

position

dicated by Eqs This transformation Koskela (Ref. (iRef. 6).

(5) and (6) can has also been Baker (Her. 5)

be carried discussed and Kalensher

coordinates, centric Z_,(_+A Eq (4) equatorial ), can

coordinates, be found by

Y_,<-+A' in

Zs

_ A -= rSA

True

vernal

equinox

III-7

/meridian
\"NI_

/-Lunar

prime

_/

equat°rial/N /
plane / _

Lunar

_

/

I

I
I

Vehicle df'l

/l
HAA_ !

z ,'J
and in by use terms of Eqs of geocentric (15) through equatorial (18):

U.,c--,,J
(21)
coordinates

1

l
The matrix multiplication can be performed to yield the cle in selenographic coordinates of the vehicle and of the moon torial M r, coordinates AM (a, 6, _(_, f, as b) well of the as indicated by Eq (22) position of the vehiwhen the position in geocentric equathe moon pararneters are known: i(_,

z, 9
(22)

Selenographic

longitude:

k(_

=

sin-lQ

[X2A+

YSA .y2A

] 1 ]2 )

:

cos

--

xSA+ Altitude of the vehicle

YSA

]'
RC
of vector

,
surface

- 180 ° <

_,_
moon:

X <

180 °

(27)

above

of

XSA

= (X_t_A

- X_)(COS

A M

cos

a'

hC :
sin A M sin _' cos i(_) + (Y_A where y_)(cos + (Z_AAIr I z_(_)(sin sin f_' + AM sin sin A M i(_) cos f_' cos (23) e. Vehicle nates velocity i C) rsA is R(_ the is the mean

rSAradius of the in

(28)
the moon rZA. coordiand

magnitude

selenographic

YSA

= (X_Acos

x_(_)(-sin AM sin f2' AM COS f2'

AM cos sin COS sin if) i{) _'

cos

a' + (y@& hicle tation

Before we give an expression velocity, we have to introduce and make some definitions. Let a dot respect • dx
-

for

the some

veno-

y_(_)(-sin AM

with + cos -

over a to time, ""
X -

symbol i. e.,

denote

differentiation

i(_) + (Z_A
d2x dt=2-" (24)
X

z_C)(Cos

A M

dt

'

zSA

= (X_A+ (Y_A+ (Z n ® a

x_(_)(sin y_)(-cos

tl'

sin f_'

i_) sin i(_)

In

addition,

define velocity coordinate
A .

the

following vector system,
/_

velocities: in the geocentric

The vehicle equatorial

Z_<)

COS i<

(25)

f-_

.

.

At

r(_A : x_x '
The velocity equatorial

' O+
vector system,
A

Y®AY®, ,
of the

+ _A_
moon in the geocentric

(29)

The vehicle moon's sketch (22) as

selenographic longitude and latitude of a and the altitude of the vehicie above the surface are illustrated in the following and can be calculated from Eqs (21) and follows: latitude: -1 _ZsA_ \rSA ] ' -90° < _ ,_< (%-+ 90 ° (26)

/k

Selenographic = sin

The velocity vector centric equatorial
_. .

of the system,
A I •

vehicle

in

the

seleno-

A

I

r® ,_ _,

: x_,_

_A_

+ y_,¢

--AY_

III-8

°

°

The velocity vector graphic system is "_ rSA= • ^ +A XsAX S YsAYs of Eq

of the

vehicle

in the

seleno-

YSA

:

(x'o/X-

X'_S)

(-sin

A M

cos

f_ '

+.

ZsAZs

,,

(32)

-

cos

A M

sin

fl' cos

i<)

Differentiation

(19)

yields + (}'@&}OC) (sin A M sin a' (39)

r@A However,

=

r(_(_

+ r(_,(_---h

(33) + cos A M cos f_' cos i(_)

,¢_A due to the with respect system. coordinates

= rSA

+

_x

rSA

(34)

+ (z'(_A-

z'_)C)

(COS

AM

sin

i(_)

- coS xSA

rotation of the selenographic system to the geocentric inertial coordinate Hence, the velocity in selenographic can be written,

ZSA:

(K'(_A-

J{'0S

) (sin

f_' sin

i C)

+ (Y(_A "' rsA: rOCr(_ A_'(_ x rsA (35)

- Y'O

S)

(-cos

f_'

sin

is)

(40)

+ (_'@/xwhere f. (36) Vehicle coordinates acceleration

_'(9S) (cos i<)
acceleration in selenographic

I
_{ x rsA = cos = -_(I YSA Xs

The equatorial entiation

of the

vehicle

in selenoeentric by differ-

00
xSA The velocity selenographic terms nents graphic

coordinates of both sides
°. °.

can be obtained of Eq (33).

YSA

Zs

+ _¢ xSA_S
rOA= vehicle

r@c+

r®,([

__/X

(41)

components

of the
.

in in where, to time by in differentiation the and geocentric if we assume of Eq (34) with respect

coordinates

(Xs/x, YSA'

Zs2

of geocentric equatorial of the moon and vehicle vehicle position are:

velocity compoas well as seleno-

equatorial that _C

coordinate = 0

system,

_x'e/x-%<1
YSA 1 :

r(_,C

-_A

: rSA+

2 _(_ x rSA+

_(_ x (co([ x rs2. (42)

Zs/xj
(37) ° C YSA_

The coordinates ,. rsAfrom L2 22

vehicle can Eqs

acceleration be obtained and (42):

in by

selenographic solving for

(41) ":

\pxd
which kSA can be multiplied k'Oc)(cos to yield: = (>:'@&AM cos _' sin AIr I sin f_' cos i(_) + (Y''OAy'_<) (cos A M sin f_' (38)

2,.

--

--

rSA=re/x r®¢ - 2 5"_ rs/x _ _ (_¢x rs2 × where (43)

x -rs/x and

: -_(_

YSA

_S + _([ XsAYs

(44)

% (co< :x%/x)
The selenographic components of coordinates the moon's and vehicle (kSA, vehicle's

_
"Yss

y /xys •
in "zSA ) in

acceleration

+ sin

A M

cos

f_'

cos

i(_)

terms

of

geocentric as velocity well as are:

+ (Z'(_A-

z'(_([)

(sin

AM

sin

i(_)

+ w<

YSA

equatorial selenographie

components vehicle

of acceleration position and

III-

9

Ii' :i
SA XS A YSA + _/n2¢_(_ xSA C

Atlas issffe-_l,__, published Publishers, connaissance

of in

the the giw_s of

Moon's Far R Academy Ignited States the results the lunar far

Side. This of Sciences by Interscienee of the Lunik side. The

atlas, and III r'evolume

A-

(46)

gives a description of the interpretative technique used and 30 integrated photographs of the moon's far side obtained by the space vehicle camera. The results include a catalog of 498 formations classified according to the reliability of the observation and 4 maps drawn to scale l:10, 000, 000. Topographic maps, prepared a scale of 1:2, by a tones combination representing is 988 assumed km and I,unar]3-y__y 500,000. of to the Maps. It This series Map Service, shows surface relief, color contours variations. with datum of R(_ the = 500-m of is on features and The

g,

Lunar

maps lunar map surface series to the exist best which our' reprepresent

shaded surface be

Several sent the knowledge:

moon 1737.

a sphere

lunar

of

vertical

USAF Lunar Atlas (edited by Dr. Gerard P. Kuip_6-_'). This atlas contains 280 photographs of life moon, sheet size 16 x 20 inches, scale 2.54 m to the lunar diameter or about 12.7 km to the cm and bound in a looseleaf ring binder. The photographs were from a collection of lunar plates taken at Mr. Wilson, Lick, Yerkes and McDonald Observatories in the United States and the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. 9rthographic Gerard Lunar Atlas of the Moon (edited P. Kuiper), supplV-m_-n_ No. Atlas. This volume contains the U_KAF grid Lunar Atlas established which from a by 1 to 60 carry control

approximate contour tion of 7000 m at the A. A complete listing from "Named I,unar Blagg and K. MLi_ler the map. One street, brium, 113 x 134 cm

lines is based on an elevacenter of the crater M0shing of lunar formations derived Formations" (1935) by M. is included on the back of Mare Neetaris--Mare Imhas been published.

3.

Trajectory

Coordinates

Dr. _F

the

The position of a vehicle in earth-moon space can be given either in geocentric, geographic, or topocentrie coordinates. Similarly, its position and velocity may be given in the selenocentric, selenographie or topocentric when the vehicle is near the for instance, it is convenient coordinate systems moon. For tracking, to use a topocentric

plates YF-_ the orthographic

net of 5000 points. Grid 1.25 em on the published parallels are printed in each of the sheets which 24 in. post-type hardback

spacing is approximately copy. Meridians and color at 2 ° intervals on are bound in an 18 in. x cover. supplernent atlas No. consists 2 to of of 91. 4

the

Rectified USA F

Lunar Atlas, Lunar 5_tlas.

system centered at the station since the tracking measurements and errors are given in that system. In the same manner several specialized coordinate systems have been evolved for various trajectory digital computer programs. a. Typical rectangular of coordinate systems.

This

p/o_-aphs of the entire visible hemisphere the moon, rectified by projection on a globe cm in diameter. Each of thirty fields on the globe were rephotographed at tilree different illuminations, morning USAF composite and late corresponding afternoon, The from Mt. to full moon,

tory the early

The choice computations force model on

coordinate systems for trajecdepends to a large degree on and the dynamical system as used for" integrating A great simplification the of in

well as equations

the method of motion.

Lunar Mosaic. phoi_the

lunar moon

mosaic made from

is

a the at

motion in earth-moon the dynamical system moon are assumed to

space is achieved when the spherical earth and move in circular orbits

best imagery selected Yerkes, McDonald and The photography projection which

photographs taken Wilson Observatories. fitted to the moon

has been portrays

an orthographic at mean librapub-

around the common center of mass (barycenter) which is taken as inertially fixed. The coordinate systems of the Martin Simpiified Lunar Trajectory Digital Program, Ref. 7, which uses the force A gram at the model basic has described coordinate origin rate sketch). moon, the above, will be given digital and here. prorotates system directed with lhe sys-

tion as a sphere in lished in two sizes, (lunar diameter 69 l:10, 000, 000 (lunar Lunar Thd-I_unar coordinated Aeronautical Aeronautical series

true perspective. LEM 1, scale cm) and LEM diameter 34 Charts Charts requiring

It is 1:5,000,000 1A, scale cm).

its

at _@_

system in the the barycenter of The zR-axis of the

(LAC Series). consist of a total of 144

constant following the

earth-moon is

a charts (see toward angular tem, a_d Cartesian xR-axis coincides the earth-moo_ the right-handed

to cover the entire moon. charts can be produced of (59% of the total). Surface by a combination of shaded tones representing spherical figure radius of R(_ of = 1738 surface the moon km.

Approximately 80 the visible surface features are shown relief, contours and color variations. is assumed are with shown A a

momentum the Yl'-;_xis coorc_inate

vector

completes svstem.

Elevations

Consider oriain at t the the = 0 x0

another berycenter the -axis, xl,_

coordinate and -axis and is axes

system x0, Y0' by

with z0' an angle angular

by 300-m approximate to the datum which scale is 1:1,000,000 sheet size is 22 in.

contours and referenced was taken at 1735.4 kin. (10 km to the cm). and x 29 in.

The the

At

time from

rotated

subsequently

the

III-

t0

Y

_

XR

Y e

Barycenter

Xo

Earth

_x

e

displacement axis

of the t).

rotating A third

xi{ -axis coordinate

from

the

x0

is

the

ratio of the

of

the

mass and

of moon.

the

moon

to

the

total

mass

earth

is (_ + _G(_ to the at the

systern, but Ze" the It remains geographic the zG _(_). -plane) plane to relate x GyG -axis The ZG at the the x e Ye Ze system which to

parallel centered and

nonrotating earth,

x 0, Y0'

z0 system

will be denoted

by x e, Ye'

system constant

rotates

a fourth, has

moon-centered axes x m, Ym' Zm

nonrotating (see the

coordinate

about

angular plane s equaangle

system sketch).

preceding nonrotating invelocity (Xe Ye torial earth-moon to the at the orbital earth'

Transformations rotating rotation the =

from

systems to the volve the same (_ + _@_ IT (_+

coordinate system through the angle given by the

is inclined

(x G YG-plane)

constant does not

t) about wff)(it) ]

z-axis

matrix i and their line of intersection em rotate in inertial space. Since the initial value of _ is arbitrary, we may assume that the intersection between the two planes is coincident with the Ye -axis. Thus t = 0. (x G _ locates Similarly -axis) the the the we moon locate in the

its orbit in and the IV). lated (¢ + u@_t) 0 cos (_ 0 + _(]_(rt) be (47) Greenwich

at time

meridian at time as the in the

relative an_le Ye

to this A G which to the (see

a translation definition Position to position

of in

which can the barycenter the nonrotating in the rotating

obtained by using (see also Chapter systems system is by re-

intersection is defined YG -axis

t = 0 by from

angle

- axis plane

earth'

s equatorial

following The J0
I =

sketch). transformation systems from to the xG the YG the x e Ye ZG Ye Ze conthrough the

z0 _

_@<

coordinate sists

system -axis

first of a rotation (-iem) through and the

about

the angle zG -axis

then angle

of a rotation (A G + %_

about t).

zI{

(48)

With coordinate coordinate

[T(-iem)] transformations systems are

=

IT

(tern) between

I-l, the

the various

given

by,

YG where Y is the mean distance between the zG

=

®<
of the earth and moon, and v=

_<
IT M(_ + I%.I@ (AG+ coot) ] IT (iem)] -1 (Xe
Ze.

centers

}

III-11

Earth-moon _ZG _ orbital plane

e
_--v<.-'_--I .... /( l/ Ear h_/_2ar t

/

/Moool
_ Earth's

-_

/

/--

equatorial

YC ent e 7

-'_

YG

-1 = IT (AG+ _oGt)] ET (iem) J

{'}
zR where [T (AG+_t)] = iOS (A G + _Gt) sin (A G + _ot) 0 sin (A G + ¢o(Dt ) cos (A G + _t) 0 i]

the trajectory planes with the MOP as reference directions. The earth-moon line as well as the earth and moon equatorial planes are defined with respect to this basic system. c. (49) Consider the dynamical system of a vehicle with negligible mass and one central spherical attracting body. It can be shown that in this case the vehicle the center of the as the orbit plane. moves attracting in a fixed body plane which through is known Orbit plane system

(50)

The Cartesian coordinate systems given in Subsection 3a are essentially orbit plane systems with axes in and perpendicular to the orbit plane. Let us define an additional coordinate system with origin at the center of the attracting body and the -axis Zp -axis may approach , or to yp complete }p, the -axis be normal directed to the to to central node in the orbit the orbit plane. the and denoted denoted by directed The yp, sketch). The

T

(iem)

] - 1

=

Xp

perifocus, body, and

closest byx

ascending is the 9p

[co,em o o%'em] 1 ,
Lsin
and T [_+ The iem 0 cos iem J _G(t)]isgivenby angles iem , _ and Eq A G (47).

(51)

x_. so unit Zp as

The to vectors directions,

plane, system. in the following Xp,

right-handed and _p are (see

respectively

zp,

z_,

z,

z R

are

determined the

for

any specific of the earth b. The VOICE

launch time and moon. coordinate system

t = 0 from

ephemerides
/ SVehicle _/A Direction of perifocus

system and force model used

coordinate

in the VOICE lunar trajectory program will be discussed in detail under that heading (Section IV C). Like the previous system, it is essentially based on the moon' s orbital plane (MOP) as a fundamental plane and the lines of intersection of
True

_///_-_'_x__e

I,_

){eference

plane

vernal

equinox

x_ Orbit

plane

III-12

The

orientation

of the

orbit

plane

may

be

while required

for

a at

circular epoch

orbit t O,

only

four

elements

are

given in terms of the orientation angles i, 0 < i < 180 °, inclination between the orbit planeand th_ reference plane measured from due east on the reference plane, _', longitude of the ascending node measured from the true vernal equinox, and _, the argument of perifoeus as measured from the ascending node. The angles similarly lem, • _G'

t2' i r

longitude inclination orbital

of

the

ascending

node

radius

and _ given in Section garded as orientation

3a can angles.

be reT_ since of the time of ascending vanishes nodal and crossing the argument

Since there are three second-order equations of motion for the vehicle, there are six constants of integration which enter into the solution of the equations given of motion. These constants Xp, may yp, be Zp and

eccentricity is undefined.

perigee These

elements

remain

constant

for

the of of act

in terms

of initial position Xp, j_p, _p

initial velocity

at time

tO or in terms

dynamical system described at the beginning the present section. In astronomy the concept orbital eIements is used even if other forces on the vehicle, provided that they pared to the central force directed attracting body. In this case the slowly with time, and osculating t O are defined as the orbital the body are small toward elements elements of force removed the

of six orbital elements, which do not involve the coordinates, velocity components, or time. In case of elliptic orbits customary sets of elements at epoch,
I

tO , are: longitude inclination of the ascending node

comthe change at time vedue at to

elements central were

[2 i 0_ a e T
CO

hicle the to •

if all spherical

forces except attracting

argument semi-major eccentricity time of

of perifocus axis It has been found through experience that the orbital elements of a space vehicle are useful for descriptive purposes and to caIeulate approximate energy requirements only, but not suited to the analytical development of orbit determination and to precision work. In the iatter case rectangular Vehicle--Centered In problems involving coordinates Coordinates aerodynamic forces, vehicle, bodyare more useful.

perifocal

passage

The placed an t 0

time as

of an

perifocal element chosen where its orbit

passage, by t 0, the t O, the

T mean which mean Another

may

be anomaly is

reat by of of

4.

arbitrarily =n(t O - Tw), in is:

epoch nis plane.

given

stability, control it is sometimes axis system its instantaneous along the fixed

and guidance convenient to in the center axis the the

of a space introduce a

motion set

the vehicle elements a' i
%

vehicle with of gravity, of the

origin at the xb-axis in the

longitudinal direction,

vehicle directed

longitude inclination = _ mean + co,

of

the

ascending

node

forward to the

Yb-axis

laterally the rightdown-

right

and

zb-axis system sketch). by

completes being

handed co n e e0 Typical orbit at _ i co q e T
CO

Cartesian (see following

directed

longitude

of

perifoeus

ward

motion xb

eccentricity = co + i O, elements epoch, longitude inclination argument perlfocus eccentricity time of perifocal passage of perifoeus Additional distance required such as specialized sets of axes in which the vehicie rocket are for particular aeeelerometers, equipment telescopes, mean of t o are: ofthe ascending node a longitude parabolic or at epoch hyperbolic

engines, etc. the body axes be discussed

as well as transformations between and other coordinate systems wiil when they are used in the manual.

[II-

13

B. MOTION EARTH-MOON IN SPACE Thediscussion this sectionis based in essentiallyonresultsof classicalastronomy ith w MoultonsCelestial _ Mechanics (Ref. 8) used as
the primary reference. Derivations that are important in the discussion of various force models used in the lunar trajectory digital programs, as well as special solutions of the equations of motion useful for space vehicle missions in earthmoon space are given. The material here is also introductory to a more complicated description of the motion of celestial bodies and vehicles in space jectories. Assume a dynamical system of n bodies, which are homogeneous in spherical layers and move under the influence of their mutual gravitational attraction. The determination of the motion of these bodies reduces to finding 6n integrals an second-order simultaneous differential tions, and is known as the n-body problem. gravitational is the most due to their attraction important enormous of the equaThe which may be necessary for precision tra-

I0 integrals are has proved that, coordinates are bles, there are existing functions. strated that use

the only ones known since Bruns when rectangular Cartesian chosen as the dependent variano new algebraic integrals of Also, Poincare _ has demonof orbital elements as the deyields no new uniform transeven when the masses of all are very small. However, can be reduced still further trick of eliminating nodal the requirement n=3.

pendent variables cendental integrals bodies except one the general system by the mathematical position and to e further 1. Three-body

time which reduces integrals in the ease Problem

For lunar flight three bodies, n=3, motion of a vehicle earth-moon though a requires

trajectories the which is concerned in the environment

problem of with the of the

system, is of primary general solution to the 18 arbitrary constants

interest. Alproblem (which or integrals) has

between celestial bodies force affecting their motion size and mass. The as-

sumption of spherical celestial bodies is actually quite a good one. The equatorial semiaxes of the ellipsoidal earth model differ by only 21.4 km from the polar semiaxes with the radius of the equivalent sphere being 6371.02 km. The three dynamically determined semiaxes of the moon differ by at most 0. 7 km from their arithmetic mean of 1738.5 kin. The effect of aspherieity of the earth on the motion of the moon at a mean distance of 384,402 km from the earth is thus very minor, even for comparatively long periods of time. effect of the asphericity of the earth and moon on the space vehicle will be important only when the space vehicle moves in the vicinity of these celestial bodies as will be shown later. Any irregularities in the shape of the sun and planets are completely negligible in earth-moon space over time periods of a week since these bodies are millions of kilometers away. Consider the twobody problern, n=2. Six integrals of the differential equations of motion can be found by considering the motion of the center of mass, and the other six constants of the equations other. The three integration of motion introduced of one body by integrating relative to the The

not as yet been found, there are a numoer of important results which have been established if the initial positions and velocities of the bodies satisfy certain conditions. While some of these special cases have not been found in nature, there are nevertheless some applications, for instance the libration point satellite buoys proposed by Buehheim and discussed further in Chapter IV. These special cases can be classified into: (i) study of the properties of motion of an infinitesimal body (i.e., one that is attracted by finite masses but in turn is assumed not to attract them) when it is attracted by two finite bodies which revolve in circles around their common particular bodies tances The center of mass; (2) construction solutions for the motion of three such that the ratios of their mutual are constants. former method while, for be described will the be discussed of finite dis-

in

the

next section methods will be given There 3 finite here.

latter case, and references

special will

of

are three bodies:

special the three

solutions bodies

at

for the

the case vertices

initial

coordinates

and

the

initial

velocity of one body with respect to the other, or 6 orbital elements, determine the motion of the two bodies completely. The motion of the smaller body takes place in a fixed plane through the center of the massive body which is known as the orbit plane. For n> 2, however, only ten of the 6n integrals which are required in order to solve the problem completely have been found. If the dynamical system of n bodies which are homogeneous in spherical layers is subject to no forces except their mutual attractions, six of these integrals show that the center of mass {barycenter) exhibits tilinear motion at constant speed, three more that the angular momentum of the system is stant, and tile tenth is simply an expression conservation of kinetic and potential energy. recstate conof the These

of an equilateral straight line, and bodies all at one lutions are described Moulton (Ref. 8) Freundlich (Fief. a. Conditions

triangle, three bodies in a the trivial case of the three point. The two nontrivial soamong other piaces, in on pages J09-318 and in Finlay9). for circular it three-body orbits

Lagrange has shown that three finite bodies to move around their common center cial case of circular orbits Ref. sume plane. common x0Y0-plane of the three 8 will be presented that the three bodies Take the origin center of mass as the plane be in

in

is possible for elliptical orbits of mass. The spediscussed in

the following. Asmove in a common at and Let M 3 and the the the let masses G deThen

of coordinates (barycenter) of M 1, motion. M 2,

bodies

note the universal the differential

gravitationai (equations of

constant. motion are:

II[-14

i x0i =W
1
l

aU
OU

,

i=l,

2,

3 (56)

-

2 _R

(xR3 XR3 + GM1 3 rl,

-

XR1) 3

Y0i=IV[Y-. _Yoi where U=G M (xR3 + GM2 1 M 2 rl, 2 +G-M 2 M 3 r2, 3 +G-M 3 M 1 r3, 1 and three similar 3 r2, XR2) = 0 3

equations

with

x R replaced

by

(57)
is the gravitational gravitational system, the motion YR with the the centers of the origin uniform x 0 Y0 axes and of potential, potential ri, work energy, • denotes J Mj. can the be referred and to rofunction, of the the distance or negative dynamical between The axes tating respect x_

YR" The equations bodies the converse is also are true, satisfied, around i.e., the if the then origin The six

(Eqs (60)) move in circles angular

the with system by

uniform

velocity can that be the

c0R. reduced origin

M i and system at

equations use of center

(Eqs (60)) the condition of mass

further is at the

baryeenter veIocity the transformation

with to

angular by

co R with M 1 Xli 1 + M 2 xR2 M1 YR1 + M2 YR2 + M 3 XR3 + M3 YR3 = 0; = 0 (61)

J

to yield

after

simplification: (XR1 3 rl, (xi{ 2 XR2)

Yoi

l=

[sin

c°s0co

Rt

-_g 2

+ GM 2

(58)
Substitution after simplification: of Eq (58) into Eq (56) yields, + GM3

1 - XR3) 3 rl, -0 3

2 xRi -2c°R xRi -c°K_ xRi _i aXRi -c°R xR2 + GM1

(x[<2 3 rl,

- xR1) 3

• . YRi If origin nates stant tions the and indicated YRi' the with +2c°t{ bodies the

• Yai are angular to

2 -coRYRi moving velocity in _

1

0U

(59)
around coordithe

(XR2 + GM3 3 r2,

- XR3) 3

=0

(62)

circles ca , their R

with respect and their time (59) become, potential and with drop

the rotating axes are conderivatives vanish. Equaif we take the derivatives of to time the coordinates of as XRi derivatives

2 -co bl YR1

(YR1 + GM2 r 3 1,

- YR2 2

)

respect the

(YR1 + GM2

- YR3 3 rl, 3

)

-0

2 - coRXR1 + GM2

(XR1 3 rl,

- xR2) 2

/
0 (60)

2 -co R YR2

(Ya2 + GM1 r 3

- YR1 1, 2 )

)

(XR1 + GM3

3 rl,

xR3) 3

(YR2 + GM3 Equations and sufficient solutions in are circles. b. r3,

- YR3 3 (62) for orbits

= 0 are the necessary the existence of the three

-

2 c0_%XR2

(xR2 + GM 1 rl,

- xR1) 3 2

(61) and conditions which the

of bodies

+ GM3

(Xl{ 2 3 r2,

XR3) 3 0

Equilateral

triangle

solutions

It remains to find solutions to the system of algebraic equations (Eqs (61)and Eqs (62)). It can be shown that the system is satisfied if the three bodies lie at the vertices of an equilateral triangle.

III-15

In thatcaser
system becomes: M 1 xR1

= rl,

2

= r2,

3

= rl,

3'

and

the

system

of

equations

(Eqs

(61) 1 + r) +

and

(62)

become: = 0

M 1 XR1 + M 2 xR2 + M 3 XR3 = 0 M 2

+ M 2 (xig

M 3 xR3

M 3 + 2

(r _

+_ M3

- _--)

xR1

M2 - _xa2

7

2 c° R +-_-XR1

= 0 (65) 2 _R

M1 M 3 - -_ XR3
r

M3

= 0

-7 +
Elimination of xR3 and xa2 M1 - --'3r xR1 (63) M 2 + (M 1 + M 2) XR1

9
2 yields co R + (MXR1 +M2r) 2

=0

(r _

M3 + r'_

- _)

M 3 - --3r

XR3

= 0 M_ xR1 + M3r)2 whose coefficients = 0 (66)

M1

YR1

+ M2

YR2

+ M3

YR3

= 0 MXRI a quintic equation + M2r for XR1

+r-YM 3 - -3YR3
r

Yal

- r--'J- Ya2

are all positive. Therefore, positive root but there is tive root, and consequently of the problem. of - xR2 expressed among adopting may be in XRl used. terms XRl,

there is no real at least one reaI negaat least one solution

= 0

Instead M/7 + --T M3
r

as

the The of this

unknown, distance new and XRl variable. A are

- _)

YR2

- W M1
r

YR1

A

-- XR3 be

must The

relations

XR2,

xR3

M 3 - ---3-YR3
r

= 0 M 1 XR1 + M 2 x R2 + M3 XR3 = 0 equations XR2 exist, vanish. condition ..... the By (Eqs (63)) YR3 determinant defining turns out to be from which is linear for of xR3 - xR2 = A a and XR2 xR1 = r

The homogeneous nontrivial the M

system in solution

of

XR1, to must

and

coefficients = M 1 + M 2 w

+ M 3 this r3 RG 4

M23 2 R =

= 0 from

which XRl (64) r -

[r
Substitution of = 1, and subsequent Eq

+,%) + 3"1
M (67) into Eq simplification (66) letting yields:

MG -_
r

Then

two

of

the

XRi

and

two

of

the

YRi

are

arbitrary, (M1 + M2)A 5 + _ M1 +2 M2)A 4

and the equations have a solution compatible with r. = r. Therefore, the equilateral triangular 1, j configuration with proper initial components of velocity is a particular solution of the three-body problem. c. We equations YR2 axis. from tive. Xgl = Straight can find (Eqs line a (61) i.e., Iie in end XR2 solutions special and all the of solution (62)) bodies order the axis and by to the system YR1 the x RM 3 the 2 = XR2 posi= which

(68)

assuming are M 1, toward rl, on

+
is Lagrange' only s quintic equation in A. Equation (68) has coefficients valid in masses is unique one real positive root since the change sign only once. The only A the problem for the chosen order of the is positive; hence,the soIution of Eq (68) and gives the location of the three bodies

YR3 -- 0,
Let the Then them negative XR3 the

M 2,

>x R1

= r,

and

II}-16

in the straight line solution. Two more distinct straight line solutions can be obtained by cyclically permuting the order of the three bodies. Moulton (Ref. 8) also discusses in which the orbits of the three sections with e _ 0. Restricted If the mass Three-Body of one Problem of the three bodies is small special bodies soluare Note

rc/, 2 + z0A
that the vehicle

+
] i/2
is not (See restricted following

,0 1
to motion ) sketch.

tions conic 2,

in the x0Y0-plane.

Then

the

equations

of motion

of the

vehicle

are:

compared to that of the other two, in fact so small that it does not influence the motion of the more massive bodies, then the determination of the motion of the ted three-body space of 105 of the vehicle kg small body problem. in earth-moon is very x is known as the Since the mass space small i024 restricof any Y0 I MA (x0A' Y0A' z0A) M ¢ (x0_' YO¢' 0)

( MZN-- order to that of the

or less)

compared kg) or that

earth

(.MI_= 5. 9758

moon (Mff= 7. 3451 x i022 kg), this approximation is permissible for the study of motion in earthmoon space. In addition,we assume that the earth and moon rotate in circular orbits around their common _O(_ center This of the of mass is not moon' with the angular the earth ,_ Barycenter x0

velocity

quite s orbit

true

since the

eccentricity

around

is about 0. 055 and,hence, the angular velocity varies with the moon's orbital position. Nongravitational forces such as atmospheric drag, electromagnetic forces, meteoritic drag, and solar radiation pressure may become important for unorthodox space vehicle shapes even though they can be utterly neglected in the motion of celestial bodies. Thrust forces will also be neglected in the following discussion. The equations of motion of the space vehicle and some results of the restricted three-body problem will be presented in this section with the discussion following that given by Moulton (Ref. 8, pages 278-307). General' characteristics of lunar flight trajectories have been deduced from the restricted three-body problem, notably by Egorov (Ref. i0) and Buchheim (Ref. ii). We will discuss these applications in detail in the next a. Let of mass and let the (See Equations the origin (barycenter) the direction is A-3. of of to chapter. motion lunar flight missions

/Mo

(x00'

YO@'

O)

x0A

-GM(_

(XOA '3

x0(_)

GM(_

(x0/'

3

x0@

oa

= _GMG(YoA

3- Yogi))

-

GM(_

(Yo A

3 yOC)

r_
"" -GM z0A GM_-_

r(2zx
(69)

Zozx =
Let new origin the motion of the

_)r-r-_A
of the (xR, and bodies YR"

rCA
be zt_) in referred having the the to a same

system as same the

axes old,

rotating as the

x 0 y0-plane system The moving After in the into vehicle

coordinates be at the center of the earth-moon system, of the axes be so chosen that plane the of their masses the the universal coordinates motion. of the earth

in with

the

direction angular

earth-moon w(_.

uniform

velocity

x 0 y0-plane Section

the

) Denote

and moon by MOand tational constant by M@, M(_and the

M(_ and G. Let be

graviof

vehicle and (x0±, of

(x0(_,y00,0); Y0L" z0/')' from respectively, the earth

transformation from the inertial to the coordinate system is given by Eq (58). computing the velocity and acceleration rotating coordinate system and substituting Eqs (69), the equations of motion of the in the rotating coordinate system became:
• " " 2

(x0( C, y0(_,0); so and that moon the

distance is,respectively:

the

vehicle

XRA

2_(_YR/x

= _o(_)(_XRz

x

_ G%(xR ,-x e )
3 + (Y0AY00 )2

oM (xR -x<) e
3

roA

=

[(x0A-x00)2

+ (z0 ) 2] 1/2

I[I-17

GMQ(YRA 3

b. YR@ ) GML_(YRA 2 -YR(c )

Jacobi's

integral

and

implications

(7O)

Equations (71) admit an integral first given by Jacobi and which has been discussed by Hill in his Lunar Theory. Let

•. z R,A

GM@z = 3 r@±

RA

GM( 3

z Rr, r(QA then

W

i 2 = 17 _@(_" ....

@2

I_A

2) + YRA

+

GM@ r@_'_" +

GM(¢ r_A" '" (74)

Eqs • •

(71)

can

be •

written _)\V :0_[1

in

the

form

The

direction

of the

xi{ YR-axes

can

be

chosen moon

so that tile xR-axis (see sketch on page

is in the 11); then

direction YR@:

of the

x[% A

- 2_@(yRn

A

0, YI{_[ : 0, vehicle sim• . YRA + 2c°@_x PW • RA _ _w _YlgA (75)

and the equations plify to:

of motion

of the

• •

2

"z'RA xRA - 2cao_YRA GM@ (XRA 3 %A = co@(xRA - xR@) _ GM(_ (xl{ A 3 r_A - x[{,_) If these 2_RAand suiting function
• ° • 2

= 5z t{A

equations 2zRA

are

multiplied and integrated, and ZRA

by added, since alone,

2xRA, the W is and this rea

,respectively, can ytgA, be

equation of Jacobi' xlg A,

Y_A

+

2_°_xRA

= °a@CS]%A

(71)

gives

s integral:

GM@

y [_A 3

GIVI C yl%/X 3

XR

+

YR

+

zR

= VR/x

= 2W-C

•. zRA

= -

GM@ZRA 3

GM(_

ZRA 3

van2

=_®242
+ 2GM rCA

an

+ ya2A)
-(7

+ --r®a 2GM@ (76)

%n
where

rC_
where 2 + z[2 11/2 VI_ A the

is

the

magnitude

of

the

velocity

of

the

vehicle in the Jacobian tative in the

rotating constant. system

coordinate We can information from

system and C is obtain some qualifrom Jacobi' trajectories s integral.

and quantitative earth-moon the constant numerically zRA' the in the velocity rotating for points VRA relative the

r(_± b'or the of earth coordinate axis xRchave motion The vehicle grals sional do along

= particular and moon system the become not

RA

-

xR(

+ YI_A

+ zRA

(73) orbits and the

When determined xRA' termines points

of

integration from the Yt{A" of

C has been initial conditions, (76)deat and gives vehicle. surfaces of and these on the the In all

force about (rotating

model (circular the barycenter) system line) and explicitly, (Eqs (71)) and require of last four the if it chosen the with

YRA'

ki%A' VRA

Zl_/x'Eq the vehicie system; Eq the (76) space defines side real

the ' x l.._and ,e_

x R-

coordinate VRA, to Eq

earth-moon constants, involve of sixth time motion order

conversely, of locus particular, of zero of

a given accessibie = 0 in velocity.

equations

(76) On one

equations are of for the motion

of the space six intethe F;q> re-

surfaces other space surface velocity space

velocity

VI_ _

will

be

determination of the vehicle; plane,thenthe and only

three-dimenmoves in of are

earth-moon (71) vanishes, quired sional tions tained hicle case and of

equation integrals of

side imaginary; or, in other words, vehicle can move on the real side only. Thus the surfaces of zero indicate the regions of space to vehicle is constrained. of the surfaces point can of xRA, be zero yR/x, obtained

the of this relative which

the

for the motion

determination of the vehicle. of

the two-dimenIn general, soluob-

the equations by step-by-step initial conditions as well as the moon given,

motion (Eqs (71)) are integration with six vein the three-dimensional initial positions of the earth

The velocity denoting letting

equation for" the VRA an

relative zRA by

arbitrary vehicle t£q (76):

space = 0 in

Ili-18

®
where {73). enter

2 +yiA ) + 2GM@+ GM([ C 2 _- = C(x aa r@--_ rC----- _77)
cCA only Eq the are given by Eqs (72) and and zl% A squares the of YI<A

the and cluded of

contour when from C

also

begins only of a

to

open portions

behind of are and to to a

the the the

earth plane ex-

= C 7 the motion

vehicle above further shrink

interiors the of points, the is

2 kidney-shaped As regions

regions C decreases of an No exclusion equilateral region

below value two with

r@Aand Since into

xR-axis. C8, the

(77), with

surfaces to the

defined x R YR

are and xR

each earth excluded

completing and moon. if

triangle of the

symmetricaI :R-planes. surfaces trace that in (Eq the

respect the the

x R yR-piane

We

obtain witit

intersection xR, by YR-plane zRA

of the or the

C < C 8" at C 4 and which which the contours together called corresponding with double of zero traces and the points. relaof

(77))

x RyR-plane

letting

= 0 in to 2

The C

points

equation:

= C 2, for

C 6 coalesce C = C 8 are for (77)) the and

points

_ _:_,C( x 2 RA

+ YRA 2

)

From the equation tive velocity (Eq these surfaces such points to as are in

surfaces from

the

the

x R Y[{' 2, it can

xRzl% be seen

YI% zl{that [tence all the it

2GM@ + [(xl%A - XFto) 2 +yI%A 2] I/2 (78)

planes double it

Fig. in

the

x RyR-plane. the trace in tile

sufficient

consider

x R YRof the interest

+

2GM(_ 1/2

=C

plane, Eq (78), for double points. These as critical points of

the determination double points the curves:

are

of

2 The curves (Eq and from in the

2

2

(78))
ttmm moon'

are

shown,

not

to

scale,

in de-

(_, Y) : _®c(xa_

+ Ya_)
2GM O

Fig. 2, of motion duced. The the ditions move order

the general characteristics s orbitai plane can be

+

values CI>

of

C in

Fig. ....

2 are For

numerically initial the vehicle the it If the earth con-

in 2GM_ can or a The condition of zero, for Eq i.e. a critical with point respect is that to the XRA first and can + [( xRA - x t<_) 2 +YRA 2] 1/2 -C = 0 (7!,)

C 2>

C 3> to

corresponding either of in a closed

C = C 1, region the the

about moon; moon.

in a dosed satellite conditions move moon moon earth earth For tirely gion the :noon

region about the earth or correspond to

remains the initial vehicle the earth-

C = C 3,

derivatives YRA be

(78)

within

a closed

contour

around

system such that motion from is possible. The limiting case or moon orbits from earth-moon trajectories the value C is = C 5, earth-moon vehicle value C represented the vehicle system motion is = C4 separates by can

earth to separating or moonC C 2. escape enreearth-

2

GM@(xRA

-

xR(_))

from the of possibie moon. or The moon-earth

since the open behind the

- x,<)
3/2 = 0 (80) 2 c°@cY GM@yRA RA 3/2

trajectories

from

possible

escape trajectories from the earth-moon system. Besides these inner bounds of vehicle motion there are, for the same C values, ciosed outer boundaries around the earth-moon system beyond which motion is also possible. A vehicle coming from the very earth far or of away moon the inner C with any C> closer C 4 cannot than of the Fig. of For approach outer 2. the When curve

boundary C of = C 4 the zero

= C 4 contour and outer

GM C YRA -[(xit A be - xR_)2 that motion written: +YRA2] Eqs (Eqs (80) (71)) 3/2 are

= 0

branches coalesce.

relative

velocity

C :

C4

a It to and the should equations can be noted of identical with ZRA =0,

vehicle starting near the earth cape from the system and one remote point can reach either creases to Cand beyond, the a contour behind the moon widens.

or moon can esstarting from a body. As C deopening in the When C = C 6

which

Ill-if)

M_

XRA• o

in 2_@(_yRA = ]_ 'OxRA '

LU,

and

where

v

=

_

= 0.01214226.

(s I)


2 _@(_xRA at the critical

1
1 2-

Since terms of

xR( _ distances

= (1

-

v)

LU, the

the

double

points are:

in

8F

(XRA, _yRA

yi along xR-axis

YRA

Since

points

xRi

= 0. 83741

I_U

8F

OF

-0

XRM

= 1.15524

LU

_a_
and locity VRA we obtain
..

- 0, Wa _
XRe = 1.00506 LU system value MKS units we are on a surface of zero relative veFor this force model of the earth-moon (see Chapter IV, Section B), a consistent is 1 LU = 384, 747.2 kin. Hence, in XRi = 322,190 km

since

• 2 = [xRA from Eqs
°°

"2 +yRZ_] (81)

1/2

:_ 0

XRA Hence critical it will disturbed system. The and line

= 0, the

yRA coordinates

= 0. of the vehicle at the

XRM

= 444,480

km

points remain by We

satisfy at the forces proceed equation points to the

the differential equations and critical point unless it. is from outside of the dynamical to obtain the critical points. of on Eq the (80) is satisfied or the by: by YRA = 0

XRe

= -386,690

km = o,

Substituting C 2, C 4 and

these (I6 can

values be

into Eq

(78) with values

y RA are:

second the double

found. km (_-_)

These 2

x R -axis are given

straight C 2 = 3.34367

solutions

problem

2

GMo(xRA

-

XR_)

C 4

= 3. 322621

(km) _-_

2

C 6

= 3. 15895

(km) _s--e_

2

(82)
GM_ (xR/, ' xR(_) 0 From C 8 are Eq (80), to the be double equidistant points corresponding from triangle the earth with to and these found

moon, and form an equilateral two and with coordinates If, that and lunar double Let by C4 (gef. the XRi, and 8, as the the in Ref. 8, the units are normalized the earth such XRS or YRS = +333,201 km = 187,702 km

sum M = MG+ distance between

M(_is the

unit of mass and moon

unit (LU) is the unit points can be given double XRM C6, points and XRe on the

of length, then in a convenient xR-axis correspond Then for v, the by from M(_small three be

the form. denoted The value is:

of

C 8 from

this

equilateral

triangle

solu-

which

to Moulton

C2,

tion

respectively• 292-293), small

pages

compared straight them the 2/3 " 1 line as These

C8

= 3.13365

(km

to M@and solutions

hence can

\sec/

_ 2

be obtained

expressing

I/3
power series coefficients. in v The and result i/3 determining is:

values

of

C2,

C4,

C 6

and

C 8 can

be

made

xRi-xR =(-;)
1/3

3 (-;)
2/3

1

+..

more meaningful if the velocity of a vehicle the earth is calculated using these values. the calculations, the positions of the vehicle be chosen as 100 km and 1000 km from the of the to earth on the xR-axis both adjacent radius coordinates and of

near For will surface oppothe

x MxRe - XR_

: (-;)
-- 2- .-23

+

1

v

-

1

site earth are:

the moon. If the equatorial (6,378.2 kin) is used, these

(71-- . , . 2 v 3+ 124
(83)

xA

1

= 1, ou6.5

km

Case

I:

100 km surface adjacent

above of earth to moon

III-20

xA2 =2,706.5km Case II: I000 kmabove surfaceof earth adjacent moon to III: i00kmabove x±3 =-ii, 149.9kmCase surfaceof earth opposite moon to xA4 -12,049.9km Case IV: surfaceof earth i000kln above opposite moon to Thefollowing sketch shows theposition the of five double points. YR
1LU• (xRS, YRS )

VRA. lowers m/see, jection sensitive The responding ing to

A change the values

in of

altitude the

from critical

100 VRA

to

1000 709

krn

' s by required is quite

indicating velocity to the table to C6; also

that for lunar injection reveals

the

minimum trajectories altitude. that than easier the

in-

velocities those to

cor-

C 4 are

lower it is

correspondescape from the moon.

therefore, the it is by qualitative C = C 4, of of

the vicinity moon than The large C C = C 2 and

earth by projecting toward projecting away from the difference between the as Fig. well 2, of as should in the C be = C6

and

= C 8 contours

compared

with the small indicating the initial velocities.

differences sensitivity

projection velocities, lunar trajectories to

The sured tem and in

velocities the are rotating defined

VI_ A

given

in R

table coordinate

are

measys-

xt%YRZ as

XReq -1LU

XRi=

5', ILU

• xRm

x R VRA

2=_:

RA

2

+ YRA

2+.

ZRA

2

(84)

while given • (xRS, -1LU-YRS ) system

velocities in the defined 2

in

lunar

trajectories XeYeZe

are coordinate

usually

earth-centered as . 2+ = XeA . YeA 2

Ve± The ponents The integral velocities to be: I C 2 = 3.34367 10942.2 II 10233.3 III 10942,2 IV 10233.2 are then found from Jacobi' s

+

ZeA

2

(85) velocity com-

transformation is

between

the

C 4

= 3.32621

10943.4

10234.6

10943.4

10234.6 where iT (_+ (84) the of in to the each =o_t)l to (86) of . is show the Since table value of the values double of given that vehicle, the is by V e_ as magnitude independent VRA, of VeA. there Eq (47). depends well as of of on the each di-

C6

= 3.15895

10951.1

10242.8

10951.1

10242.8 Equations

C 8

= 3.13365

10952.3

10244.1

10952.3

10244.1

VRA, direction

position VR±

The

magnitude

of

VR&

is

the

same

regardless VRA rection correspond c. Stability previous such wouId

of direction although it is seen to vary from point to point (Cases I to IV correspond to different points). From Eq (76), Fig. 2 and the preceding sketch, it follows that on a circle with small radius about the earth, the velocity is relatively insensitive to position on the circle. This is also evident from the table by comparing Cases I and II (altitude i00 kin, radius 6478.2 km with positions adjacent and opposite to the moon) where the difference is too smallto detect. According to Egorov at an altitude of 200 km (radius 6578.2 km), the variations in VRA are of order less than IV 0.01 m/see

a range of

points

and by comparing radius 7378.2 km site to the moon), 0. I m/see. The earth has a very

Cases II and with positions the variations radius of the pronounced

(altitude i000 km, adjacent and oppoare of order circle around the on the required

The five double points given here are special soIutions of the equations of motion and are analogous to the special solutfons of the threebody problem (see Section B-I). The question of stability of these five points is of importance; i. e. , will the vehicle stay near the point if given a small displacement and velocity (stable solution) or will it rapidly depart from that point (unstable solution)? These smalldisplacements and velocities forces neglected may in be regarded the present as due model, to small which

effect

IIl-21

means thatthe space vehiclewill actuallyremain neat'thestabledouble pointsbutdepartrapidly fromtile unstable ones. It canbeshown (Ref.8, pp299to 305andRef. 11,pp7-25to 7-28)that the straight-linesolutions unstable, hilethe are w equilateral trianglesolutions stable. are Equilateralrianglesolutions t have been observed in the solar system. With the Sun and Jupiter considered as the massive bodies, asteroids have been discovered at approximately the. equilateral point and with a mean angular' velocity equal to that of Jupiter (Ref. 12; p 243). Buchheim (bid. 11) has proposed to establish satellites at the equilateral triangle points of the earth-moon system which could serve as space buoys. It has been suggested by Moullon (l{ef. 8) that the phenomenon of gegenschcin, a hazy patch of light opposite to the sun, is caused by meteors t(_mporarily trapped in unstable periodic orbits around the straight-line point opposite to the sun in the sun-earth system.

a brief

discussion

of

lunar'

librations

and

to

an

approach for determining librations in a digital computer trajectory program which has stored positional data of the moon in geocentric equatorial coordinates. 1. Lunar Theory

Lunar theory in celestial mechanics is generally understood to bc the analytical theory of the motion of the moon. The gravitational attraction of the earth and sun, and the earth's and lunar aspherieity, as well as gravitational attractions tion of employed at present ttansen, of the the moon planets as they aJ'e considered. affect The the momethods

in various lunar three methods, and ttill-Brown, A detailed theories 13 can of

theories differ, but those of Delaunay, are referred to most of these in Ref. and 13. 2.

frequently. other lunar" The here

discussion be found

brief discussion follows Refs.

lunar and 14,

theories as welt

given as Ref.

The discussion of lunar theory, of astronomy the spherical traction of the

is restricted to the "main problem" which is the three-body problem as applied to finding the motion of moon under spherical lunar the earth theory gravitational and sun. at-

C. The space

MOTION

OF

TIIE its

MOON orientation in lunar in flight:

position of the are of paramount

moon and importance

a. Choose coordinate mass of and be tion nate of The pare the axes M@ of

Delaunay's

the position is important in determining the required injection conditions, as well as the exact value of the gravitational force of the moon on the vehicle during flight, and the position together with the particular orientation of the moon arc important for landings at specified lunar sites. For these reasons, the orbit of the moon assumed in the discussion of the body problems sion trajectories, forces in that nomical It has moon' sidereal three-body and restricted is not accurate enough and a consideration modei and a comparison threefor preciof neglected with astrothe

an inertial right-handed Caztesian system with origin at the center the dynamical system earth, moon, x' 0y'0 with z0 Let x0@ with giwm mass of Eqs 56 motion and 57): mass
t

of sun

the Y0_t_

mass z0_]_" in
i

of

the The

earth posi-

position moon is with

the

M(_

this
i

eoordiand z0@ (comthat

system sun equations with

by

x0_,

Y0_' x0@, the moon

z0_ Y0@' are

M@by of

observations of the moon is necessary. been observed that the mean period of s rotation about its axis is equal to its period of revolution around the earth.

Because of this fact and since lunar vehicles originate and are observed from earth, it is advantageous to define the orientation of the moon with respect to earth. The moon rotates at a very nearly constant rate about its axis while its orbital angular velocity varies slightly due to the eccentricity of the lunar orbit. Thus, during different orbital positions of the moon, some areas on either side of the moon become visible. Similarly, the rotational axis of the moon is inclined by about 6.7 ° to the normal of the moon' s orbital plane and areas beyond the north and south poles of ttw moon become visible from earth at various times. These apparent side-to-side moon which occur tical librations. tractions of the ellipsoidal figure of the rotational and tilting movements periodically, are known In addition, the gravitational sun and of the axis of of as the opat-

x°c - MC _0 •., 1 01L
•., yoc _, _ 1 MC 1 01J b_oc OU

1 k ,--1 .[ (87)

0C
where

MC

0C

J
+
GM(_ M@

U -

GM@M_ r0,

+
_

GM@M@ r0,

(88)

®

C

® -_0

r°'¢

-_@

planets on the triaxially moon cause a slight wobble the moon which is called

is the gravitational potential which is the negative of the tiai energy of the dynamical Since (Eq (87)) cessive solutions In r0, r0, @ the __(_ the three-body cannot be solved approximations in analytical moon, small M@is

(work function) gravitational potensystem.

__h,ysieal libration. At any given time, lunar librations are determined by the moon's precise orbital motion, its rotational rate, and dynamical effects of its asymmetrical figure. first part briefly the methods tion of the moon, puted and observed lunar ephemerides. The of this section discusses very used for computing the posithe comparison between compositions, and the tabulated The latter part is devoted to

equations of motion in closed form, sucmust be used to obtain

form. sun configuration
or

earth, is

compared large

to

r0,(_

_@ to

C -_ @ while

compared

III-22

Mq:_+ M(_, and
proximates very well. coordinates

the

earth-moon

barycenter

apM@M C (M@+M(_)M@

unperturbed motion around the sun It is, therefore, helpful to introduce of the moon relative to the earth,
! !

U=G[?-_
M@M

+
C M@

re@
2 r@(_ P2 (cos S)

x@< = Xo< - Xo@
YOC = Y0<
I

+
(89)

M@+M

C

--3_ r@@
3 r[@__C P3 ro MoM C + M_ @ ) (cos S) (92)

- Y0@
I

M@M

C Mo(M@-M_) M(_) 2 +

z@c = z0c - z0@,
and moon coordinates barycenter,
I

+ (M@ relative to the earth+ M@M

of

the

sun

cM@(M_)-

(M@ + M<) 3

, xo _ = Xo@

M@x0@+M M@
I

C x0¢ + M(_ _<_P4
I

r @Q

(cos

S)+

• . •1

M@ Y0 @ = Y;@ -

YO_ M@

+ MC + M(_

YO_[ (90)
I Zlt) q /0

I

M®z_® M®+

+ M< z0® MC
the x@_, axes but, need not for agreez@c

_0 G = z00The precise specified for with previous

be ment

orientation of this discussion, notation,

/!
r_ O of -I/

Y@C'

are equatorial to the mean the necessary motion (Eq

coordinates equator and transformations, (87))become M@ + M C C M C M<

of the equinox.

moon referred After making the equations

3U x_< OU 8Y@c

I/ I/

k@C

=

M@M M@+

(91)

Y@C

M@

M(_

+ M<

@_

K

M@M C
to express Let r 2 OC

a @C
U in terms 2 + Y@C of the new be

oU z

(91))

The equations can now be

of motion written in

of the

the moon form

(Eq

It remains coordinates. the

•. x_<

+

G(M@+Mc) 3

x@<

3R = )N

2 = x@c

2 + z@(_ earth the sun

square of the distance 2 2 2 moon, r@@ = x0@ +y0@ distance from the

from the 2 + z0@be earth to the

to the _)OC +

G(M @_M¢)
r 3 Y@C

OR
= 8y@£

square with

(93)

of the

®<
., z@<
where, Legendre if we

components in the respective coordinate systems (the earth-moon barycenter is very close to the earth), and S the angle at earth between the earth-moon and earth-sun lines (see following sketch). -1 r0,@_ C, pressed polynomials the gravitational in Then, as in Ref. 14, page 270, -1 -t r0, @ ,@ andr0, C __@ eanbeexterms of cos of S, potential: r@C, Pn r@@and (cos S), Legendre toyield for R

G (M_)+ + ---3 r_<
substitute

M(_ ) z@<
the

OR : _®<
for the

expressions

polynomials,

= G M@[{r@c_

2

(94)

IIl-23

4 /_ - T 15 COS 2 S (94)

for the constants

intermediate of the

orbit motion.

of the In actual

moon which motion R

are ¢ 0

- -_- cos

+

. .

.

and the orbital elements vary with time for the true orbit. The requirement of the method is that the coordinates and velocity components expressed in terms of the elements and time have the same form for the intermediate (R = 0) and the true (R ¢ 0) orbit. For the actual motion, one can obtain six first-order differential equations (called wtriation of parameter equations) which give the time-variation of the elements and are fully equivalent to the equations of motion (Eq (93)). The procedure calls for integration of the variation of the orbital elements pressed as sums the coordinates may be obtained nate transformation. Delaunay the system canonical parameter equations as functions of time to obtain and ex-

G(M@+Mc)M(9
In this has y@,_ The expression omitted z O_ second " term on the left-hand side of the for since R the term --%-_[_ r@o of x 0_"

been and

it is independent

of trigonometric series. Finally as well as velocity components as functions of time by a coordi-

equations of motion tational attraction R is the disturbing due to the gravitational the earth. If R z first approximation ellipse. The by using earth-moon

(Eq (93)) is due to the graviof the moon by the earth, and function which in this case is attraction of the sun by 0 the intermediate orbit, or to the path of the moon, is an

chooses of differential form:

a

set

of elements equations

so takes

that the

dL R may be modified law for the motion further of the

OF

d_

-v OF

expression for Kepler's third barycenter,

-ai- : ae "_- : -_E

da
2 3 (95) dH M C) = noa@,

OF dg_
8F dh

£"
8F

(97)

G(M

0

+ M O+

_i- = Fff"_where n@ and a O are the sun's mean motion and These canonical are, in terms in section A-3. of elements and or Delaunay variables elliptic eIements given semimajor axis, respectively. If we ignore the mass of the earth and moon compared to that of the sun, and that of the moon with respect to the earth, then we obtain after some manipulations: 2 3

the

L

= (_a)

1

/2 /2

R

=noa_

\a(_ 3

/ 4

(__+_i

3 cos2S)

G = (ua) 1 H : (.a)
h =[2

(1-

e2)

1/2

1/2

(1-

e2)

1/2

cos

i (98)

(96) 2 4 5

+

(-

-

T
+

cos

S

_0

: A ndt time

+

,

the

mean

anomaly

at

any

-8-35 cos4S)

+ ......

]

= R1

+ R2

+ R3

and 2

In earth

Delaunay' around

s lunar the sun is

theory a fixed

the orbit ellipse

of in

the a fixed is the

+ 2 L2

R

(99)

plane. The expression (Eq (96)) for R can now be expanded in terms of elliptic elements of the moon's and sun's orbits. Delaunay's series for R consists of one constant and 320 periodic terms (Ref. 13). The method of known as variation variation of of elements parameters, and variation also of of the case and

Hamiltonian variation be solved of in

of

the

system. equations just (Eq one (97)) cannot

The cannot

parameter closed

form,

as

solve in closed the three-body procedure has the disturbing

form the problem, to be used. function 1 2 . l_m'

equations of motion of and some approximation The coefficients of R are e@ expanded a and in power not ex-

arbitrary constants, is used lunar equations of motion. R = 0. Then the instantaneous velocity mination components of a unique of the set of

in the solution Consider the coordinates moon allow six orbital

series plicitly

in e(_,

sin

the deterelements

in canonical

elements),

_(and <27 while the

general

III-24

argument ferring anomaly powers series.

is a function to the moon's of the of n__ sun appear

of the angles h, g, ! reorbit, and the mean the of the integration, power

d_ H{-=

(1 --F na 2

-e2) e aR

1/2

8R _Ye

cot na 2 (1

i 1/2 - e 2)

_R _{-

IC)' During as part

nC

da

_imethod consists de

= h-& _F_o
1/2 1-e 2 e aR (1 -e 2) e _R

The principle of Delaunay's of introducing a force function 2 = P + P1 +Q1 cos0,

Hi- =-T na
(100) dl0 2

9_0

_m_

a7

8R

I - e2

aR

_Y-=
where P1 denotes of R, term the and nonperiodic cos from terms in the These IV of In need expansion periodic QI 0 is one the single of R.

- n-_
equations Ref. 3.

_-£

- --2-na
have

e been

_derived in Chapter

"
(continue

(101)
d )

selected

expansion

Delaunay then integrated the canonical equations by using _ instead of F by applying a canonical transformation to new canonical variables L', G', H', _', to _ g' and and h' This Ql transformation cos @ has disapis

Hansen's method, not be fixed, and

the

the plane of fixed plane

the of

sun refer-

applied

the term

peared from R. Delaunay canonical transformations

used a succession of (or contact transfor-

ence may be chosen as the ecliptic of a given date or any other plane inclined at a small angle to the ecliptic. However, the motion of the sun must be known. Consider instantaneous orbit in the orbit and constant nz the _3 a where elements = G (M(_% first the motion of the moon in its orbit plane. Define an intermediate plane of the moon's instantaneous at n, theorigin. a, e and with Let mean units of orbit its perigee it have anomaly time. satisfy have a Let
" 2

mations) until the coefficients of the periodic series became sufficiently small to be neglected. By use of this method Delaunay has obtained a literal solution to the main problem of lunar theory which was presented in two volumes. His results may be readily extended to include other effects on the motion of the moon (Ref. 13). The utilization of systems of differential

one focus elements z is

a variable of the

intermediate let

n

+ IV[(( ) and

equations in canonical form has the advantage that general rules can be established governing transformations from one set of variables to another, which is helpful if one large number of transformations drawback to Delaunay' s method vergence of the coefficients of the parameters in moon. is considers the required. One is the slow con-

forward motion where y is an the attraction

_y in the plane of the orbit unknown constant depending on of the moon. Impose the addion the intermediate radius r lies on If the true put (102) of the lunar radius and lunar orbits. beThe

nO
powers of n(_ 0. 00748 in the case terms of the other factory. b. Ilansen's lunar theory the motion of the moon in Convergence generally in satis-

tional condition that the _oint orbit with true anomaly f and the actual radius to the moon. radius to the moon is r, then r where tween =r (1 + k),

k is the fraction the intermediate

Hansen

considers

motion of the moon in the instantaneous plane of the orbit can be given as soon as z and k are determined in terms of time and the introduced constants. In tb_e determination of k and z a

its instantaneous orbit variation of parameters For the orbital elements

plane and starts with the differential equations. 12, i, w, a, e and I0

these equations, which are equivalent to Delaunay' s canonical equations (Eq (97)) (Refs. 3 and 14), become d_/ _= na 2 (1 1 - e2) 1/2 sin i 8R h

single function W of the variable elements is used. Hence, in Hansen's method, the angular perturbations in the plane of the orbit are added to the mean anomaly of the intermediate orbit and the radial perturbations are expressed by the ratio of the true and intermediate radius vectors. Next the differential equations for the latitude of the moon above the fixed reference plane are obtained by considering the motion of the instantaneous orbit plane.

_F-

di _i= na 2

cot

i 1/2

_R

(1 - e2)

(1oi)
The motion of the instantaneous orbit plane is independent of the motion of the moon in that plane. Finally, by a transformation of coordinates it can be shown that some very small corrections have to be added to the true orbital longitude in the instantaneous orbit in order to

1 na 2 (1 - e2) 1/2 sin i

8R

111-25

obtain thetrue orbitallongitude _ +f) re(i_+ ferredto a fixeddirectionin a fixedreference plane. Thedifferentialequationsre solved a by successivepproximations, a withtileexpansion of'R in termsof elliptic elements andtime being nowsomewhat differentfromthe formused by
Delaunay The powers since slow the sun's orbit of the is not fixed. in convergence been coefficients bv all startin_

The results of Section C-la carry over directly since the orientation of the axes was not specified rigorously" in this development. With the other assumptions the equations of motion (Eq (93)) become, by use of Eq (96) and a change in notation,

G(M@

+ M(_

)

OR 1

cC +
of" n@_ has overcome values of as obtained improve, have to be

3
Z' E_

x_C
+ M(_) Y_(_

=
(103) aR 1 = axcc

nC
with assumed numerical entering into the theory vation. If the observations changes in these values parameters from obserthen small taken into lunar of the theory lunar where G(M 5;_ C + 0 _.3-

account. Tables based on Hansen's were introduced into the calculation ephemeris in 1862 (Ref. 14). c. Both consider plane, ttill-Brown Delaunay' the or the motion plane lunar s and theory Hansen' moon at each s in

R 1 2 lunar" the instant theories osculating contains

=

n@r@(_ 2 2

-g+_

cos2S (104)

r cC = x_c +YEc
Introduce rotating xR-axis The a with is equations coordinate angular ahvays of in motion system system velocity the direction of the moon x R YR n@ so of ZR that the become with Eqs the sun.

of the which

the origin of coordinates, the radius, vectors of the moon. The method of parameters is then used to obtain the

anti velocity variation of motion of on the referred velocity in

the moon. The Hill-Brown lunar theory, other hand, uses rectangular coordinates to axes moving with the constant angular of the sun's mean motion, n@. Advantages

in this coordinate (74) and (75)):

(compare

using rectangular coordinates are: the development of R in terms of elliptic elements is unnecessary, and the perturbations are obtained a form more immediately suitable for ephemeris calculations (Ref. 14). The perturbations ing simplifications theory begins that with depend in disturbing (see neglected Eq the the on expansion of the those

in

XR( _ ..

-

2 n ._>13}H'< .

= _-x_ _W

(105)
J

, w ith G(M@+ W = r _ M_r) I 2

OW

nO -n((

with

follow-

original function (96)) in the

equations: R is which series given means expanby that

2

2

gnO(XR_+YR_)+R1 (106)

(i)

The

R 1 only

aC aO
---

is

Introduction pression G(M@
W =

of (Eq

r_/_

cos for 3 + g n

S = xt:l,(_ R 1 permits 2 @ x 2 R_'

into us

the to

exwrite

sion.

(104)) + M,_)

(2)

The plane

moon of sun's the

is

assumed ecliptic

to (icm

move = 0).

in

tile

r

(107)

(3)

The

orbit is

about circular

the (e@

earth-moon = 0, a@, =

and ..
Xu_

yields

for

the

equations

of

motion:

baryeenter

r@G)The remaining differential equations thus give all

-

2 nO._RC

+

G (M q:)+ M (_) ....
r

xI_

no
terms depending on e C on may n_and e(_ , and the terms depending a particular Choose origin at A-1 the and ecliptic. an the the x be eliminated of those coordinate the earth axes in (2) by obtaining

2 3n_xR_,Q).

2 = 0

(1o8)

solution ecliptic center

equations. YRC +2noxlU system with as in Section the fixed plane zc_ :_ of 0. on-n C To obtain only,


_ +

G (M ®+ M C)
3
r

yR_

= 0

of

_C
to the Eq initial (108) that conditions depends

(_ , Ye(_ By

a

solution

assumption

above

n O
consider

III-26

XRC(t=t0)=c1
YRC (t =t o) = 0 ;=Rcit=t o)= 0 YRC it =t o) = c 2
that is, t = t0. Poincare' (Eq 1109)) a periodic has shown that the initial conditions coordinate system the moon is in conjunction with the sun at

motion

of

the

moon

for

the

main

problem and secondly due to the attraction

of of of

(109)

lunar theory as outlined above the perturbations of this solution direct and indirect gravitational

the planets, the shape of the earth and triaxiality of the moon. The obtained coordinates of the moon are expressed as explicit functions of time. Thirdly, Brown (Ref. 15) computed rabies deriving coefficients of all periodic terms to an accuracy of the order' of 0". 001 in true orbital longitude (52 + . + f), celestial latitude q)E' and 0".0001 in sine parallax (Ref. 6 n@)n_, 16) by

yield in the rotating solution of the form - n@)

keepingterms

°fthe

°rder

(

ec'6

Co'4

x Re

= A 0 cos

(n_

(t-t O ) + A 1 cos

3 R for

g

1E m' the main

a-_ problem

in

the in the

disturbing lunar used from obtain

function theory. for the cal1923 to the position

(n(_

-n@)

(t

-t 0)

+ A 2 cos

5 (n¢

-n@) Brown' s tables culation of lunar 1959. However, >{110) have been ephemerides in order to

(t - t 0)

+ . . .

YR(_

= B0

sin

(n(z

-n

O ) (t-t

0 ) + B 1 sin

3

(n(_

-n

O ) (t-t

O ) + B 2 sin

5 (n¢

-n@)

it - t o) + . . .
J

of the moon to the desirg.d precision of 0 s. 001 in right ascension and 0 . 01 in declination, the lunar ephemeris since 1960 is based on values of true orbital longitude, celestial latitude and horizontal parallax calculated directly from the trigonometric series obtained from the tlillBrown theory, not Brown's tables. It has been shown in Ref. 16, pages 364 through 417, that there exist discrepancies in the calculation of the the moon's tables positiorr from which amount t5 in to the theory an amplitude and from of 01

where

A. I and

B i,

i

= 0, is

i,

2,

. . . are

constants. intermediate The interthe coefficircumin

This periodic solution orbit in the Hill-Brown mediate orbit allows cients vents the in with the expansion Delaunay' The lunar any slow accuracy

taken as the lunar theory. one to determine in

approximately tude, 0". in sine

0". 1 in lunar lunar celestial

true orbital longilatitude and 0".

nO
-n(_' of the
n

parallax.

which

convergence of R in powers theory solving of the

coefficients

At present the position of the moon for ephemeris calcuIations is expressed in the form of a trigonometric series as given in explanation in Brown's argument is a linear secular and periodic netary attractions. series is a constant lunar theory additions due

the

of (Ref.

-@---- encountered

nc

s lunar

13). problem the interA i, B i in

of

first step for theory consists orbit, i.e.,

the main determining

tables (Ref. 15). Each function of time with small additions due to the plaEach coefficient of the for the main problem of and periodic of the planets. of lunar expression argu-

mediate

coefficients

with small secular to the attractions

nO
Eq ill0) in terms of the parameter a numerical Next the equations in R whose m = n(_ for which Hill adopted m = 0. 080848933808312. solution of the differential obtained, pend on m i.e., and terms e_ e@ R whose are = 0, value general (Eq coefficients Then is lifted on is coefficients well a m, -1 O as m and the and m and of (108)) is de-n o

Consider only the main theory. Each argument in is in turn a function of four ments "_',-" = (_ - p, mean

problem the series fundamental

anomaly

of

the

considered. a O = re@

J

©'

go

L

F,

mean

anomaly of

of lunar of the

the perigee) moon of the

I

simplification terms e@ by pend are in

F

coefficients This terms in sing e C,

depend procedure R whose 1

=C - t/, argument plus mean anomaly = (2 - L, mean moon from

considered.

continued deand (111 *The notation with one adopted the used in Her. 1 has notation tables been used D elongation the sun
!

/
| J

considering on m, a_; of

m, co, thereof.

. • as 1 m, 1 sing . 1

combinations higher powers

the

The tlill-Brown development

of

lunar theory a solution to

consists first the equations

of of

here, as the

astronornical in Bro,.vnVs

as well indicated.

III-27

<

(L)

=_

+_ + _ is the moon, measured the mean equinox ascending node,

mean longitude in the ecliptic of date to the then along the

of the from mean orbit

L (L')
= _°O + _ O (g@) is the of the sun, measured equinox of date mean from longitude the mean

The independent variable is time counted from the epoch 1900, January 0.5 ET (Greenwich mean noon) which corresponds to the Julian Date 2415020.0. The position of the moon is usually given in spherical coordinates , i.e., true orbital longitude (f2 + c_ + f), celestial latitude is a dO , e measure and of hSrizontal _<). Its parallax position in _(_ (which

geocentric

(_)

= the mean measured date along ascending = the mean measured

longitude of lunar perigee, from the mean equinox of the ecliptic to the mean node, then along the orbit longitude from the of solar perigee mean equinox

rectangular, can then The calculation periodic together mental

be

or any obtained

other coordinate system by suitable transformations.

of

date

f_

trigonometric series as used for the of the lunar posittoncontains 1629 terms which are tabulated in 1Ref. 16, with 50 additive terms to the fundaarguments. terms are very small ones, all due to the sun, have sizable known terms are: perturbation in the with a coefficient +39' mean synodic

= the longitude of node of the lunar measured from date

the mean orbit on the mean

ascending the ecliptic equinox of

The series

arguments of can be expressed

each in

periodic the form

term

of

the

Most of these periodic but some of the principal disturbing effects of the coefficients. The better The variation is a periodic moonls mean longitude< 29". 9 and a period to of

one-half

Pl _ where

+P2

go

+p3

F

+p4

D

(112)

month mately periodic

(new moon 14.8 days. perturbation

new moon), or approxiEvection is the largest in < due to periodic

Pi

= 0,±I,

+2,

+3 .... taken terms for each is a linear the argu-

If the attractions of the planets are into account, then secular and periodic are added to the solar arguments and planet a new argument appears which function earth ments. of and time. moon are Effects included of the in

variations in the osculating eccentricity and longitude of perigee _ of the moon's orbit. Its coefficient is +1 ° 161 26".4 and the period approximately 31.8 days. This term was known to Hipparchus from observations of the moon. The annual equation is another perturbation in <with coefficient -11' 8". 9 and period of an anomalistic year (the time between successive solar perigees in the orbit of the sun as seen from earth) of approximately 365.3 days. This perturbation is due primarily to the eccentricity of the earth's orbit around the sun. The parallactic inequality is a secondary perturbation in (_ (t. e., it comes from a term of 1R2) with a

shape of the solar

The coefficients for the position of the lunar and

in the trigonometric of the moon are functions solar orbits:

series of four

e,

e<

= o. 054900489, tricity of the = sin of 1. _-I the m

constant of moon' s orbit

the

eccen-

coefficient -2' 4". 8 and period of mean month (approximateIy 29.5 days). The perturbation in latitude has a coefficient 23". d. From coordinates This lunar compared corrections to be applied accurately. 7 and a period and of approximately 32.3

synodic principal of +10' days.

y

= 0.044886967, of of the the sun'

constant moon' s orbit of sine parallax (113_ s orbit

inclination

Theory lunar of

observation the true of time.

e'

, e_ = eccentricity _v = 3422". 5400,

constant

theory one can obtain the moon as a function by


The obtained introduced coefficient numerical characteristic, form numerical very at of value accurately the beginning the periodic multiplied which can of_, by which can is Each of a the be observation, of the theory. terms consists by the principal be expressed in

position given with observation and coordinate before this

theory must be and usually several transformations have can be made

comparison

factor

ql e< e@

q2 y

q3 a

q4 (114)

The geometric the actual or true times. However, observed directly takes a finite time observer (correction this time the body been (stellar displaced from aberration).

ephemeris is a table giving position of the body at various actual positions cannot be since light emitted by the body to travel from the body to the for light time), and during as well as the observer have their original These two position corrections are

where attraction periodic

qi

= 0,

1,

2,

3 ....

The

gravitational secular e and y.

of the planets terms in the

introduces parameters

known as planetary aberration, to the observed or apparent they yield its true position. apparent position of the body

and if applied position of the body, A table giving the as a function of time

O'

I11-28

is known as an apparent ephemeris. Ephemerides of the sun, the principal planets, and the moon are usually apparent ephemerides. In the case of the moon the entire planetary aberration consists of the correction for light time which amounts to approximately 0". 7 in geocentric mean orbital longitude C with a variation of 0". 05 due to the eccentricity of the moon' s orbit (Ref. 14), and will be neglected in this manual. For observations of the moon from the surface of the earth, such as moonrise and moonset, three additional corrections, the diurnal aberration due to the earth' s rotation which is a part of the stellar aberration, the atmospheric refraction, and a parallax correction, must be applied to reduce the observation to an apparent ephemeris. Formulas for these corrections are given in Ref. 2. Furthermore, the fundamental reference

ascending node on the true equator of the earth its ascending node on the ecliptic of date; f_C' right lunar ascension equator" of the measured

to the

ascending node of the mean from true equinox of date.

Mean lunar

I

_

Ecliptic

planes in celestial mechanics, the ecliptic and the celestial or earth' s equatorial plane, as well as one of their points of intersection on the • celestial sphere, the vernal equinox, are in constant motion. Hence, the geocentric coordinates of the body vary due to this motion. The secular terms of this motion, which are independent of the positions of the earth and moon, are termed precessional terms. There are also periodic terms in this motion with arguments _ , _Q, The has F, D, f_which are termed nutationalterms.

/
True vernal equinox

e?Ue t°fh

On items

pages 52 to 67, Ref i tabulates for every half day: the apparent

the following true orbital

principal term in nutation depends on f_ and an amplitude of 9".210 and a period of 18.6

longitude apparent of date;

referred to the mean equinox of date; the celestial latitude referred to the ecliptic the horizontal parallax, the semidiameter

years, The tabulated positions of the sun, moon, and

planets in the ephemerides are usually apparent positions, that is, the coordinates of the--6--6-d_s an observer at the center of the earth would see them, and referred to a coordinate system defined by the instantaneous equator, ecliptic, and equinox. If the corrections for planetary aberration are applied to apparent positions, tru__._ee positions nutation tained, referred are obtained. are neglected, If the periodic mean positions of the defined effects of are obbody by the

and ephemeris transit (time of crossing of the ephemerides meridian which is I. 002738 A T east of the Greenwich meridian). In Ref. i, pages 68 to 159, the apparent right ascension, the apparent declination referred to true equator and equinox of date, and together with differences for interaberraand 0".01,

polation tion, are

fully corrected to the

for" planetary nearest 0 s.001

tabulated

which are the coordinates to a coordinate system

respectively for each hour of ephemeris time (pages 68 through 159). This accuracy has been recommended for national ephemerides by a resolution of the International Astronomical Union in 1952 and has been introduced into the lunar ephemeris from 1960 on. The phases of the moon and lunar on perigee 159. for physical observations on the apparent coordinates of and apogee have also been tabulated

mean equator, ecliptic and equinox Sometimes the effects of precession for some time in order to provide ence for theoretical calculations.

of date. are removed a fixed referThe selected

page

epoch is usually chosen at the beginning of the year 1950.0 in order that data from various sources can most easily be combined. In l%ef. 1 some positions are referred to the mean

the

The ephemerides moon are based

given above usually

in the fundamental ephemerides and tabulated to a lesser degree to 0.01%

described of accuracy,

equator and equinox at the beginning of the year for which the ephemerides have been published. Transformations between the various reference systems are given in Ref. e. Available lunar ephemerides

new 6.

The age, or number of days since the previous moon, and the fraction of the illuminated sun's selenographic librations, and the bright (UT) limb, of each coorposition

disk, the earth's and dinates, the physical angles for of the axis and Time

tabulated day, are

Oh Universal

The principal is the American

reference Ephemeris

for lunar ephemerides and Nautical Almanac

(Ref. I) which is published annually about two years in advance. On page 51 of Ref. I the following items are tabulated for every tenth day: the values of the fundamental arguments F ', _, C, and D (see the following sketch); i_,

given in Ref. i, pages 310 through 317. The earth's selenographic coordinates are the sum of the optical and physical librations of the moon. They are the coordinates of the point on the lunar surface where the moon-earth line intersects it, and are given in the customary selenographic coordinate system described in Section A of _his Chapter. The sun's selenographic coordinates are the coordinates of the point of 2

lhe inclination of the mean equator of the moon to the true equator of the earth; z_ the angle along the mean equator of the moon from its

I[I-29

intersection themoon-sun withthelunar of line surfaceandaregivenin termsof selenographic latitude(seeSection A-2) andcolongitude. he T selenographic colongitude, , 0 o < k, C < 360 _, ).,(_
can be obtained by subtracting longitude, 0° < k < 360 °, from sun,s selenog_aphic colongitude illuminated regions of the lunar the seqenographic 90 ° or 450 °. The determines the surface because

position

of the

moon

can

be determined

with

essentially the Nautical

ephemeris Almanac

accuracy for decades and Office of the United States I for

Naval Observatory is prepared to supply ephemerides outside of the scope of Ref. special purposes. To ner, a future addendurn rectangular coordinates mean 1965 equator through and 1969

aid the lunar mission planwill give the geocentric of the moon referred to years The z_ are

the sun,s selenographic latitude is small I _ CI < 2°: at new moonX,(_: 270 °, at first quarter ).'C -z- 0 °, at full moon k,_: 90 °, and at last quarter k,_= 180 ° . The terminator is defined as the ortliogonal projection of the great circle bounding the of the moon illuminated on a plane (by the perpendicular sun) hemisphere to the line

equinox of date for the in half-day intervals. x_, y_,

components of lunar position given in units of earth radii. Woolston (Ref. 17) gives for the years 1961 through mission planner: the phases

of sight from the center of the The selenographic colongitude be regarded as the selenographic

earth or EML. of the sun can thus longitude of the

additional lunar data 1971 useful for the of the moon are

terminat°r" The selenographic longitude enin_g terminator differs by 180 ° from that of-_morning terminator. The position angle of the axis is the angle between north on the lunar meridian which passes through the apparent central point of the lunar disk and the declination circle through this central point, measured positive eastward from the north point of the disk. The position angle of the bright limb is the angle between north on the same lunar meridian and the moon-sun line. Both position angles are analogous to the azimuth of topoc_ntric coordinates. In addition to the selenographic coordinates of the earth, the physical librations in longitude, latitude, and position angle are tabulated separately. For lunar mission planning purposes, of the moon are often needed in advance published ephemerides. In principle, sible to determine lunar ephemerides Hill-Brown Lunar Theory for all time. positions of the it is posfrom the However,

tabulated to within approximately one minute of time. and graphs giving the declination of the moon with phases indicated as well as its radial distance are presented for a rapid visualization of trajectory and solar illumination data. From the graphs the declination can be obtained to @ithin approximately 0.5 ° and the radial distance to within 600 these graphs 2. Librations km are of for any presented the Moon given in date. Chapter Some XI. of

An important whether they be or landing flights, or its orientation is defined as the with This respect mean

factor in planning lunar circumlunar, reconnaissance, is the libration of the with respect to earth. 'position of the moon-earth is Mean Center the fundamental of The the

missions, moon, Libration line point." base following mean

to the Moon,s center point* of

for the sketch

mapping illustrates

lunar features. the orientation

center point are measured

(MCP) and how latitude in the selenographic

and longitude coordinate

rth

Pole

equator

ime

a
or mean apogee.

some

parameters

such

as

orbital

elements

and

the masses of the planets must be supplied by observation, and due to observational inaccuracies, the position computed from theory by use of these observed parameters will differ more and more from the true position at the same time the farther ahead one tries to predict. However, the

*Definition of MCP: The mean center point is the point on the lunar surface where the surface is intersected by the radius of the moon that would be directed toward the earth,s center, were the moon to be at the mean ascending node when the node coincided with either the mean perigee

III-30

system. Thelunar equatorial planeis perpendicularo themoon,s t spinaxisandthe magnitudefthemoon' angular elocity_o(_ o v is practicallyconstant. s Selenographic longitudes remeasured a from theMCP(located Sinus in Medii-Central Bay) positivein thedirectiontowardMareCrisium (Sea Crises). Selenographic of latitudes are positivein thehemisphereontaining are c M SerentatisSea Serenity).Alsoin thesketch, ( of thepositivelibrationsin longitude (+I)and latitude(+b) shown theselenographic are in system. These coordinates rethesumof boththe a opticalandphysicallibrationsin longitude and latitude,respectively Therefore astheposition of themoon-earth (MEL)changes ith line w respectto theMCPsodoesanyspecificlunar featurevary withrespecttothe MEL.
The causes of lunar librations are essentially twofold: First there are the optical librations which are the result of the dynamical properties of the moon,s orbit about the earth, and secondly, the physical librations which are caused by the motion of_(_in inertial triaxiality in the moon,s space due figure. to the small has

fa'¢

/

Center MEL

of

earth

___w@

to \

MCP

0

_\ \
\ \ Orbital motion

_

MEL

MC

P_

a

constant

rotational

rate

w(_and

rotates the is

through orbital

an angle 0, = (t 1 - to) _0 C. Because motion of the moon about the earth

The following sketch is a view of the earthmoon system as seen from a point in the ecliptic plane. Effects of physical librations on I (p < 0. 045 ° ) are ignored for the purpose of this demonstration.

elliptic, the central angle0 # 0% The difference (l,) is called the " optical libration in longitude" with a variation from approximately + 8 ° to - 8 ° in a period of approximately 1 lunar month. The of 0.04 much ° ) are smaller the result physical of rigid librations body (order dynamics

I = 1.535°_

-_r,

_'___Moon

"r
_
• i I _ Ecliptic _ /

_
i (m

_
I

_
I, [

l. Lunar
equator

_ 5.2°

_ Moon I I

_

Moon's

orbital

plane

(MOP._.!..._ )

The inclination of the mean lunar equator to the ecliptic is denoted by I and is constant (1.535°). Now an observer at the earth,s center would note at (I + i em a more exposed northern hemisphere = -6.7 °) and one-half month later

and the moon,s characteristics

triaxial cause

characteristics. the direction

of

the

These moon,s

would view a more exposed southern hemisphere (I + i = +6 7°). This apparent oscillation of em the moon is termed the "optical libration in latitude " with a variation from approximately + 7 ° to -7 ° in a period of approximately 1 lunar month. The moon ecliptic. following sketch system when viewed During the illustrates from (t I the above earththe moon

spin axis(_(_) to oscillate in inertial space about a "mean" po-sition. The periods of the physical librations in longitude and latitude are approximately i year and 6 years, respectively. If these minor librations are ignored, an uncertainty of i000 m can arise for any given surface coordinates. Thus it can be seen that for preliminary can be eliminated "landing" mission planning, the physical librations disregarded. However they cannot be from detailed planning, especially for type missions. This becomes more

interval

t o ) the

1I[-31

evident vehicles

when considering the fact that landing within this decade will be severely

limited in hovering and translational capability. Furthermore, guidance inaccuracies may demand a large part of this capability. Physical librations can be compensated for prior to leaving earth or at a later time during flight depending on the guidance scheme. From the above discussion, it is seen that the librations are continually changing i___n magnitude. Also, the path traced

data of the ordinates. simulating

moon in geocentric rectangular coThus, the following approach for or determining librations on the com-

puter is practical. The object is to obtain librations in longitude and latitude beyoncl published ephemeris data from geocentric equatorial coordinates of the moon using transformations of coordinates in terms of fundamental arguments. First, the reference coordinate Systems are shown in the following sketch. The numerical values in the following equations have been obtained from Ref. I: EML (x_, (earth Y(I ' z_) moon in line) has geocentric components equatorial

by the MEL about the MCP is complex.____This is evidenced in Fig. 3. In this figure the MEL loci are shown for the month of October in the years 1966 and 1967. Note the almost complete change in the trace characteristics and particularly the rapid movement across the moon,s equatorial plane (up to 2°/day). This movement has considerable influence on

coordinates (mean = obliquity 23.462294 - 0.164 0.0503° of the ecliptic) ° T

the planning of translunar and transearth trajectory orientations. Even during an earth launch time tolerance of 2 hr, a landing site can be displaced from a planned translunar trajectory to the site by 5000 m if librations are not accounted for during on the this time. moon will Aborts markedly occurring influence during a stay the earth

_ - 0.0130125 ° • 10 -5 T 2 + • 10-5 T 3

(115)

return trajectories as compared flight plan. Thus, the librations both position and time constraints mission.

to the original of the moon add to the lunar

T

denotes

the

time

measured

in Julian

centuries of 36525 ephemeris days from the epoch (1900 Jan 0.5 ET). See Table i for Julian 2000. day numbers for the years 1950 through

Methods given in literature (Refs. 2 and 6) for determining librations can become cumbersome because interplanetary digital trajectory programs do and will most likely use stored positional

Z

O

Center

of

earth

• _

Moon

Mean equinox of date

x_

l II-

32

,q (the longitude of the mean ascending node of the lunar orbit on the ecliptic, measured from the mean equinox of date) fl = 259.183275 + 0.002078 d denotes from the The ecliptic ° - 0.052953922 ° d 3 days (116)

° T 2 + 0.2 ° • 10-5T of ephemeris

the number epoch.

transformation matrix reference frame is:

giving

EML

in the

(EML)f2

=

I!i! (sl
xf2 _ Icos y_= s f_lcos I l-sin

sinf2sine

sinai e cos c _J\z YO G (_/ (i17) Mean lunar equator

_ costilsin I _ Icos

In Ref. 2, optical librations are calculated using Hayn,s value of 1. 535 ° for the inclination (I) of the mean lunar equator to the ecliptic. The ascending node of the mean lunar equator on the ecliptic is at the descending node of the mean lunar orbit (_ ¢ 180°). From the following sketch the _ relative to the mean equatorial plane of the moon can be found.

The symbols f' and b, are the optical librations in longitude and latitude, respectively. The mean longitude of the moon C, is given by the following series from Ref. 1. (_ = 270. 434164 ° + 13. 1763965286 10-5°T ° d 3 (119)

iF

/
/ / x m'e MEL The

za_

tz.,

a

- 0.001133 and is measured equinox of date lunar orbit and meridian rotates orbital libration

° T 2 + 0.19.

in the ecliptic from to the mean ascending then aIong the orbit. at a rate motion in latitude (c0(_) which n_of is the

the mean node of the The prime is equal The to

Center moon

of __

I !

/_ MEL

the

mean

moon. by:

optical

given

b : 900- cos-l[Z_' M-- LI \i _ t
Now 4 = X_quato plane (moon-earth transformation line) = - EML is given by: of moon -1 • x (_, f_ YrYiaql '_2 triple fore the vector product @, the angle B is found (MEL by taking x z(_,f2). from x(_, f_ to

(120)
the vector There-_, B is

z(_,_x measured

,
or

cos

I _1

(121)
= COS

\I BI-I
_ _. f_/ sinI cos z Thus, the _' = optical ; - (Clibration in longitude equals: (122)

From the following sketch and the aforementioned definition of the MCP (the condition that the center of the apparent disk of the moon be at the mean center), the librations in longitude and latitude vanish simultaneously when (_= _2 and [_ = 180 o.

f?) - 180o •

for the

These librations must be adjusted to account the ,wobble, motion mentioned previously of lunar north pole (_). Because of this

IIt- 33

motion, the actual of the lunar equator _? + or. It is well to librations are made

inclination and descending node on the ecliptic are I + O and note here that the physical up of forced and free librations.

Free libration of the moon due to the gyroscopic motion has not been detected with certainty by observation and is neglected. The above equation represents the forced librations due to external torques (sun, earth, planets) on the moon. From the physical by the use the Explanatory Supplement, librations (5_ and $b) of the following formulas: Ref, 2, be found

the years 1965 to 1969 and stored in the interplane tary trajectory program (Ref. 18). A continuous readout of librations can be obtained by curve fitting the positional data of the moon and utilizing the formulas presented in this section.

D.

REFERENCES

1.

can

"American published

Ephemeris annually

by

and Nautical the Nautical

Almanac," Almanac

5f

=

0.003

sin

((_

-F,)

- 0.005

sin

2

(F'-

_2)

Office, United States Naval Washington, D.C. (obtainable of Documents, U.S. Govt. Washington 25, D.C.) 2. "Explanatory nomical Ephemeris Majesty's 3. Supplement Ephemeris and

Observatory, from the Supt. Printing Office,

5b

=

- 0.016 sin M+N sin _'

g@+

0.018

5Cb,

I

(123)

to the Astrothe American Her 1961. Company, Md.,

and Nautical Almanac," Stationery Office, London, Handbook," Division, Martin Baltimore,

where
T

"_

the mean perigee, from the the mean orbit, and 334.329556o+ 0.010325

longitude of the lunar measured in the ecliptic mean equinox of date to ascending node of the lunar then along the orbit 0.1114040803Od ° T 2 0.12 ° 10-4T 3 (124)

"Orbital Flight Space Systems ER 12684, 1963.

4.

Koskela,

P.,

-Selenographic Lunar

Coordinates Pro-

for the Air Force gram, " Aeronutronic TechnicaI January 5. Baker, 6, R.

Trajectory Systems Interim Publication

I _

I

=

Note 3 ASI 1959. M. L., and

U-325_

Makemson, 1960.

M. ,,

W.,

_@

"_

mean

anomaly

of

the

sun 6.

"An Introduction Academic Press, Kalensher, ordinates, Pasadena, February Novak, Digital Space Moulton, lestial 1914. 9. (126)

to Astrodynamics, New York,

l@

=

358. -

47583

+ 0.98560267 ° T 2 - 0.3 ° •

°d 10-5T 3 (125) 7.

0.00015

[3. E., " Selenographic ,, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif., Technical Report 24, 1961.

Co32-41,

5C M

= =

M

sin

_'

- N - f2) - 0.003 ° sin

D., "Simplified Lunar Trajectory Program,., Martin Marietta Corp,, Systems Division, Baltimore, Md. F. 1t., "An Introduction MacMillan, to New CeYork,

0.04 ° sin (F'

(_ - _)
N = 0.02°eos(F , - f_)+O. OO3Ocos

8.

Mechanics,"

(C - a)

Finlay-Freundlieh, ics,,. Pergamon V. A., Dynamics, Part 1958. Press,

E.,

"Celestial New York,

Mechan1958. of Index, Moon of

The Eqs

values (115),

of the (119), the are in

fundamental (124) and of and longitude) latitude)

(125)

arguments have

been and

given in calcuThe actual physical

10.

Egorov, Flight

"Certain ', Russian 1, Intern.

Problems Literature Phys.

lated from librations librations

Hill-Brown the sums longitude in in

lunar theory. the optical latitude, = _' = b'

Satellites, New York, 11. Buchheim, tories," January Also: nology, Chapter 12.

respectively + 6f (127) + 6b purposes, libra-

(libration b (libration For a future tions As addendum coordinates equinox components of in reference addendum one-day mentioned will of date

R. W., The Rand 30, 1958.

"Lunar Corp,

Flight Report

TrajecP-1268.

and mission will contain intervals. in Section C-I

planning the actual

Sei.fert, H. S., ed., "Space Tech', John Wiley and Sons, New York, 7, 1959. It. C., "An Astronomy, York, 1960. "An Theory, 1960. Introductory ,. Dover Treatise Publica-

above, to

a

future 13. for

Plummer, on Dynamical tions, New Brown, E. on the Lunar New York,

present the moon in one-half

the geocentric referred day are

rectangular the mean The radii

W.,

intervals. in earth

Introductory ,, Dover

Treatise Publications,

(x@_,yo_,zo(_)

III-34

14. Brouwer,D., andClemenee, M., G. ',Methods f CelestialMechanics," cademic o A Press,New York, 1961. 15. Brown,E. W., ,,Tables oftheMotionofthe Moon, YaleUniversity " Press,NewHaven, Conn.,1919. 16. Anon., "Improved LunarEphemeris 1952 to 1959, Nautical lmanac " A Office,United States NavalObservatory, Washington, 1954. 17. Woolston, . S., ..Declination, D Radial Distance andPhases ftheMoon the o for Years1961 1971 Usein Trajectory to for Considerations," NASA Technical Note D-911,Washington, August 961. 1 18. Pines,S., andWolf, H., ,,Interplanetary Trajectoryby Encke Method Programmed for theIBM 704,"Republic Aviation Corp., ReportRAC-656-450, December 1959. 15,

III- '35

TABLE

AND

ILLUSTRATIONS Page

Table

1

Julian Day Numbers 2000 ................................. Selenographic on a Lunar Curves Plane Lunar October

for

the

Years

1950

to

III-39

Fig.

1

Coordinate Photograph

System .................... Velocity

Superimposed

III-40

Fig.

2

of Zero Relative ................................ Librations During 1967 ..........................

in the

xRY R

III-41

Fig.

3

October

1966

and

Ill-

42

III - 37

TABLE

1

Julian Day Numbers for the Years 1950-2000 (based on Greenwich Noon)

Year 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1_77 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Jan. 0. 5 243 3282 3647 4012 4378 4743 5108 5473 5839 6204 6569 6934 7300 7665 8030 8395 8761 9126 9491 9856 O222 O587 0952 1317 1683 2048 2413 2778 3144 3509 3874 4239 4605 4970 5335 5700 6066 6431 6796 7161 7527 7892 8257 8622 8988 9353 9718 0O83 O449 0814 1179 1544

Feb. 3313 3678 4043 4409 4774 5139 5504 5870 6235 6600 6965 7331 7696 8061 8426 8792 9157 9522 9887 0253 0618 0983 1348 1714 2079 2444 2809 3175 3540 3905 4270 4636 5001 5366 5731 6097 6462 6827 7192 7558 7923 8288 8653 9019 9384 9749 0114 0480 0845 1210 1575

0.5

Mar. 3341 3706 4072 4437 4802 5167 5533 5898 6263 6628 6994 7359 7724 8089 8455 8820 9185 9550 9916 0281 0646 1011 1377 1742 2107 2472 2838 3203 3568 3933 4299 4664 5029 5394 5760 6125 6490 6855 7221 7586 7951 8316 8682 9047 9412 9777 0143 0508 0873 1238 1604

0.5

Apr. 3372 3737 4103 4468 4833 5198 5564 5929 6294 6659 7025 7390 7750 8120 8486 8851 9216 9581 9947 0312 0677 1042 1408 1773 2138 2503 2869 3234 3599 3964 4330 4695 5060 5425 5791 6156 6521 6886 7252 7617 7982 8347 8713 9078 9443 9808 0174 0539 0904 1269 1635

0.5

May0.5 3402 3767 4133 4498 4863 5228 5594 5959 6324 6689 7055 7420 7785 8150 8516 8881 9246 9611 9977 0342 0707 1072 1438 1803 2168 2533 2899 3264 3629 3994 4360 4725 5090 5455 5821 6186 6551 6916 7282 7647 8012 8377 8743 9108 9473 9838 0204 0569 0934 1299 1665

June0.5 3433 3798 4164 4529 4894 5259 5625 5990 6355 6720 7086 7451 7816 8181 8547 8912 9277 9642 *0008 0373 0738 1103 1469 1834 2199 2564 2930 3295 3660 4025 4391 4756 5121 5486 5852 6217 6582 6947 7313 7678 8043 8408 8774 9139 9504 9869 0235 0600 0965 1330 1696

July0.5 3463 3828 4194 4559 4924 5289 5655 6020 6385 6750 7116 7481 7846 8211 8577 8942 9307 9672 =_0038 0403 0768 1133 1499 1864 2229 2594 2960 3325 3690 4055 4421 4786 5151 5516 5882 6247 6612 6977 7343 7708 8073 8438 8804 9169 9534 9899 0265 0630 0995 1360 1726

Aug. 3494 3859 4225 4590 4955 5320 5686 6051 6416 6781 7147 7512 7877 8242 8608 8973 9338 9703 *0069 0434

0.5

Sept.

0. 5

Oct. 3555 3920 4286 4651 5016 5381 5747 6112 6477 6842

0.5

Nov. 3586 3951 4317 4682 5047 5412 5778 6143 6508 6873 7239 7604 7969 8334 8700 9065 9430 9795 .0161 0526

0.5

Dec. 3616 3981 4347 4712 5077 5442 5808 6173 6_38 6903 7269 7634 7999 8364 8730 9095 9460 9825 _0191 0556 0921 1286 1652 2017 2382 2747 3113 3478 3843 4208 4574 4939 5304 5669 6035 6400 6765 7130 7496 7861 8226 8591 8957 9322 9687

0.5

3525 3890 4256 4621 4986 5351 5717 6082 6447 6812 7178 7543 7908 8273 8639 9004 9369 9734 *0100 0465 0830 1195 1561 1926 2291 2656 3022 3387 3752 4117 4483 4848 5213 5578 5944 6309 6674 7039 7405 7770 8135 8500 8866 9231 9596 9961 0327 0692 1057 1422 1788

243

243

7208 7573 7938 8303 8669 9034 9399 9764 _:_0130 0495 0860 1225 1591 1956 2321 2686 3052 3417 3782 4147 4513 4878 5243 5608 5974 6339 6704 7069 7435 7800 8165 8530 8896 9261 9626 9991 0357 0722 1087 1452 1818

243

244 244

0799 1164 1530 1895 2260 2625 2991 3356 3721 4086 4452 4817 5182 5547 5913 6278 6643 7008 7374 7739 8104 8469 8835 9200 9565 9930 0296 0661 1026 1391 1757

0891 1256 1622 1987 2352 2717 3083 3448 3813 4178 4544 4909 5274 5639 6005 6370 6735 7100 7466 7831 8196 8561 8927 9292 9657 *0022 0388 0753 1118 1483 1849

244

244

244

244

244 245

245 245

*0052 0418 0783 1148 1513 1879

1900 1950

Jan Jan

0.5 0.5

ET ET

: Julian = Julian

Day Day

2,415,020.0 2,433,282.0

= Greenwich = Greenwich

Noon, Noon,

January January

1, 1,

1900, 1950,

a common epoch another common first entry in this

epoch table

and

III-39

Fig.

1.

Selenographic

Coordinate

System

Superimposed

on

a

Lunar

Photograpb

III-40

YR

C8.

2

xR

(a}

Drawn

to

scale.

YR

XRs, YRS C 8

C 1

Xl_e,

• RS, x 8 C

- YRS 1 C_

(b)

Not

drawn

to scale.

I
Fig. 2. Curves of Zero Relative Velocity in the xRY R Plane

[II-41

N

(+) latitude

22nd 10th

6 °

15th

4 °

Moon-earth October 1st,

line midnight

28th 17th
2 o

2nd

_th

Mean

center Lunar equator 4o longitude

-4 ° October 31st

_2 °

2° (+)

(midnight)

20th

31st

14th

_1966 0 October midnight 1st, - 6° _1967

25th

10t 11 Prime meridian 8o

Fig.

3.

Lunar

Librations

During

October

1966

and

October

1!)67

III-42

CHAPTERIV

TRAJECTORIES

IN THE

EARTH-MOON

SYSTEM

Prepared
Fo

by:

Martikan, L. Emery, F. Santora, T. Garceau and A. Jazwinski Martin Company (Baltimore) Aerospace Mechanics Dep_rtment March 1963

Page Classification and Trajectories Force The Models Voice and Nomenclature ........................... Lunar Trajectory of Lunar Missions IV- 1 Calculations ...... IV-13 IV-39 Orbits ............ IV-42 IV-43 ....................... IV-45

Ao

for

C. D. E.

Technique Class

......................... of Circumlunar

Additional References Tables and

............................... Illustrations

IV.

TRAJECTORIES

IN

THE

EARTH-MOON

SYSTEM

This terial on

chapter kinematics

will

apply the introductory and dynamics of the

maearth-

(2)

Atmospheric

drag

is

neglected

during

moon system trajectories models and motion will

from Chapter III to space vehicle in earth-moon space, The force methods of solving the equations of be discussed with emphasis on the the usefulness of Some typical trawill be sketched to illustrate the contemplated in

the brief portion of the lunar trajectory in the earth,s atmosphere, since the space veilicle reaches tile required velocity for passage to the moon while it is more titan 100 km above the surface (3) of the earth. balon the when

approximations introduced and various trajectory programs. jectories in earth-moon space and described briefly in order types of succeeding Section lunar missions chapters. to be

Lunar trajectories are assumed listic, i.e., no thrust forces the vehicle. Lunar missions, other hanfl, may include phases large thrust forces alter quent vehicle trajectory. sions with a continuous not be considered here.

act on

A gives

a classification

of

lunar

tra-

jectories, and introduces the nomenclature of lunar trajectories to facilitate their visualization when results will be presented later in the manual. Section B describes the various force models that are used in lunar trajectory calculation, i.e. : (1) the analytical restricted solutions two-body are trajectories available, (2) for their which patch-

the subseLunar mislow thrust will

(4)

The earth and moon are in orbits around the earth-moon center (the small eccentricity lunar orbit can be neglected tative trajectory discussions). use

circular baryof the in quali-

ing to form (3) restricted trajectories of the moon nongravitational the digital a description technique taining

a complete three-body with earth incluJed,

earth-moon trajectory, trajectories, (4) n-body oblateness and triaxiality as welt as a discussion of

forces and their simulation on computer. Finally, Section C gives of the Voice trajectory computation which has been used extensively in obtrajectories in this manual.

These facts suggest the three-body problem discussed a force model for discussion tortes. Sometimes an even may describe the trajectory:

of the rest, ricted in Chapter III as of lunar trajec simpler force model

lunar

A. OF 1.

CLASSIFICATION LUNAR MISSIONS Considerations

AND AND

NOMENCLATURE TRAJECTORIES

Two-body are used on and at some to selenocentrie

equations (cacti1-space vehicle) most of the trajectory to the moon, point near the moon a transformation coordinates is performed and veilicle) are near the moon. be discussed further present chapter. will be made XeVeZ e with nonrotating at the center xRYHZH x R-axis

General

two-body equations (moon-space used to describe the trajectory This last simplification will in Sections B-1 and C of the Any either origin coordinates of with the moon, origin at in at sketches nonrotating the center XmYmZm or the in of trajectories coordinates of the with rotating barycenter

broad tories.

Trajectory studies can be groups, feasibility and Feasibility trajectories

divided precision are

two trajecused for

into

preliminary vehicle performance studies such as injection requirements, maneuvering requirements, tolerances on flight parameters, guidance accuracies, observational constraints. Precision trajectories, on the other hand, are used for the detailed planning of an actual flight, In this latter approach the best values of parameters influencing the trajectory may be used to compute a nominal path, or to include correctional information, based on observations of the vehicle, in the trajectory calculation to obtain a path that is frequently updated during In this handbook most of the computed tories are of the feasibility type For the present qualitative and discussion the flight. trajec-

earth, origin

coordinates and the

along the earth-moon line in the direction of the moon (see sketch on page IV-20) A typical lunar trajectory is ptotted to scale in geocentric nonrotating coorttinates in Fig. 1 and in barycentric rotating coordinates in Fig. 2 with the time from injection indicated on each trajectory. Ti_e nonrotating trajectory shows the characteristic shape of a two-body conic section near the earth, and it is not until the moon is approached closely that the moon,s gravitational attraction modifies the shape of this conic section. The path in the rotating coordinate system is approximately as it would appear to an observer at the center of the moon, since the moon,s mean orbital ,notion is equal to the rotational rate qualification ,,approximately" cause the difference between orbital small orbital cause trajectory motion inclination due of to about is the its axis. included true and e_ spin axis anti to The bemean the its different

of

lunar trajectories sary to consider space vehicle, the characteristics The assumptions

missions it is not necesall the forces that act on the but only those which determine of the lunar trajectories. made in this section are: effects of the sun and

(i)

Gravitational

planets on lunar trajectories can be neglected because the region where the gravitational attraction of the earth and moon predominate extends in all directions about three times the earth-moon distance from earth.

eccentricity the hmar by to

plane (both given the lunar observer as the xRY

optical librations) see a slitthtly trace.

R coordinate

IV -1

As the title of this section indicates, lunar flights may be classified either into classes of trajectories, as was done notably by Egorov (Ref. l) and Buchheim (Hcf. 2), i.e., the trajectories are subdivided by their shape in an inertial or rotating coordinate system, or lunar flights may be classified into classes of missions according to the purpose of the flight. In general, the mission classification is broader since ,me mission, or one lunar flight, may consist of several trajectory classes. In this chapter, a lunar flight is defined as a space flight, on which the velocity at the initial point of the trajectory equals or exceeds the minimum velocity to leave the earth at the initial point and whose primary mission goal is in earth-moon space. Thus the boost or earth orbit phase of any trajectory will not be considered here, nor will any part of it outside of a region where the gravitational attraction of the earth and moon predominate. The table various Mission 1. Lunar below classifies mission and Class probes such trajectory lunar flights classes: Class into the

well lunar, Most used roles,

as of for

circumlunar lunar orbit, as the classes research as well as

missions, well as

or landing

for

circummissions.

of lunar missions may be and exploration, for military exploitation and colonization flight manual it is preferable class of mission of trajectories in the order of is esto and astheir

of

the moon. Since the lunar sentially mission-oriented, discuss qualitatively each describe the various types sociated with the mission first appearance. Prior' to compare ments for to this classification

it propulsion missions

is

instructive requireearth

approximate typical lunar

from

launch. These requirements are given below in terms of the characteristic velocity increment _V, or the velocity the space vehicle would attain in gravity-free space if it were accelerated in a straight line rocket burning: Mission by the equivalent amount of

_V probe burning without near the

(kin/see)

Trajectory Trajectories mum velocities Approach Impact landing) Impact landing)

1,

Lunar rocket moon

near

mini-

12.5 mission mission by verock16 a lunar 13.5 of a to earth lunar and 18 14.5 with ve20.0 velocities in missions burning return. in 3 through the The vicinity return 12.5

trajectories trajectories (bard

2.
3,

Circumluaar Circumlunur

trajectories

(soft

with deceleration ets to earth orbit locity 4. Establishment orbit Establishment orbit return deceleration to earth 6.
7.

2.

Circumlunar and allunar missions

Circumlunar (nonperiodic Allunar periodic

trajectories and periodic) trajectories and periodic) trajectories trajectories (non-

of

5.

3.

Lunar sions

orbit

mis-

Impact Approach

orbit on

by rockets w_lo<ib, the moon moon orbit

Circumlunar trajectories Allunar trajectories Orbits around tire moon 4. Landing missions Approach trajectories Circumlunar trajectories Allunar trajectories Orbits around the moon Ascent and descent trajectories Impact 5. _. Space
' !

Landing Landing return locity The

to

on the earth

higher

7 reflect additional rocket of the moon or during earth

tcajectocies point buoys

stations passages

Libration Approach (accelerating approaches)

Lunar to escape

trajectories or braking

to earth orbit and eventually to an earth landing base may be accomplished largely by aerodynamic maneuveritu_ and hence reduce the total propulsion requirements for a mission with earth retu cu. 2. Lunar Probes defined for vicinity behind as the the a one-way, collection of the moon. unscien-

The

hmar

missions

in

the

classification

above a system eircum(pasorbits,

have been arranged chronologically, i.e., planned exploration of the moon and solar would at fh'st involve hmar probes, then hmar (passing behind the moon) or alhmar sing in front of the moon) missions, lunar landings on the moon, establishment space stations in earth-moon space, the use of the gravitational attraction to accelerate to the amount time the or decelerate space journey certain given

A manned tific which

lunar probe is space vehicle data passing toes not the pass

of

moon bat The tra-

of long-term and finally of the moon vehicles on their be us a

jectory classes associated with probes are ballistic except for possible braking prior to hmar impact. Probes :ire used to obtain scientific data in earth-moon sl):ice , near the tTloon, an:t on the lunar surface measurements (1) as the name may include implies. (Ref. of the Typical 2): mass of the

planets. Of course there may of overlapping so that for any plan may call for lunar f)robes

A delermination
I?] oon.

IV -2

(2)

Measurement of magnetic fields, electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation, meteoritic densities and of other environmental data in earthmoon space. of very tire physical tenuous hmar properat-

(3)

i)etermination ties of the tn o sphe re.

(4)

Determination properties, and radioactivity

of

the

composition. the variation, lunar surface. proper-

l,x R

temperature of of

(5)

Determination ties of the lunar vehicles such control associated

hmar

the seismic interior. serve as

In

addition,

probes

may

engineerspace vehicle environ-

VeA

ing test systems mental The

for the as tracking, and power trajectory

evaluation of communication, ,systems. classes

may

be: A subscript zero is used to conditions. Injection time must close tolerances since the earth, space spect vehicle to each It was shown tire tnininrutn corresf)onded all move other. in quite specify injection be held within moon, an, t with re-

(i)

Trajectories near minimum velocities, or those which have just sufficient energy to eventually leave the earth, and will, at least initially, return to the vicinity of the earth several which are reach first times. have a

rapidly

(2)

Approach

trajectories,

that earth

Subsection velocily to

to

B-2 reach of

Chapter the moon C 2 = 3. 34367 This vaIue in ttre roVRA, of the its tire

III froln

higher energy, and trajectories which of the moon on the miss (3) Impact strike it by some

defined as the vicinity orbit but

a value

distance. which directly without rocket

(km/sec) 2 for" the was related to the tating magnitude rection tween the with for of from (re_ and the xR-axis. this re& teA. 100 angle = 7378.2 However, km (tea E xRYtiZ of R

Jacobi injection

constant. velocity system, independent of _R/X variation order less in km) the for of

trajectories the moon

coordinate being

either

VRA nearly

dibeand VRA

braking or with rocket braking near the moon. Impact trajectories can be classified further. If the impact velocity on the lunar surface is of the order of tens of m/see, the impact can be classified as a soft landing while impact speeds of about 100 m/see and above are called hard landings. 3. Trajectories transit time tire near minimum velocities;

independent radius vector

angle =_eA of

initial The

maximum of km a the and change

was

0.1 smaller

m/see values altitude km VI{ 5

injection to 1000 minimum m/see. the _RA0

= 6478.2 decreased to 10233.2 to

= 7378.2 10942.2 It is now

kin) m/see necessary

In this section stricted three-body to this trajectory be discussed in injection velocities The completely velocity. conditions usually coordinates "" " " XeYeZe' Ve_' orbital sketch: Ye where and qe as velocity will

results discussion class, its detail, and be on transit illustrated.

the previous will be applied characteristics the strong effect time near minimum

of

rewill of

from

relate

injection (xRs0' non•

ve-

locityin YR_0' rotating
° Z

rotating
l.{___ 0 )

coordinates, to tire velocity _, VeA 0 in
.

geocentric
o

ballistic trajectory of a space vehicle is determined by its initial position and These injection conditions (or initial for lunar trajectories near earth) are given either XeYeZe k in and (ix e = _-t(for e ' or in terms in in the the of re/` , earth-centered velocity, components trajectory

coordinates

(Xe/_0,

Ye_0'

ZeA0)" velocity was

The general components given by Eq

transformation between the of the two coordinate systems (86) of Chapter III,

t)

- sin

(m +

0_<

t) 0

/

yeA(=

in

(_

+ _0<

t) cos (_ +_oo<
0

t) 0
1

trajectories

n]oon.s

plane)

illustrated

following

! Ze/d

i

0

]

]xRa
! k,,Zlt IV -3 _,

_C
(xHA YRA. + ro% _ v t (1)

where

%
is the _ rate and and the lunar unit or earm-moon three-body x 10 -6 rad/sec distance problem, used for circular restricted

and

YRA

= rcA

sin

_e"

XRA

+ r®_

v

=

re_ = 2. 661699484 is the the the rotational which yield, 2 after V

cos

_e into 2 2 _$(_ Eq (2):

(4)

of the earth-moon _ is the initial angle rotating coordinate

line around between systems.

baryeenter, nonrotating

substitution 2

Ve

A

=

RA

+ reA

+ 2_$_

tea

(xRA

_in

_e

If the matrix 2 VeA is obtained

multiplication as:

is performed

+ _'RA cos ne )
In terms of the flight path angle relative

(5)
to earth Vc

YeA

2

= VRA

2

+ ,_¢

2

[y2RA

+ (XRA XRA sin _e + YRA of the cos _e = VRA cos Ye' to earth

+F,_

v)2_+

2,_0_

[*RA

yRA

so that the becomes :

square

velocity

relative

2 + YRA This expression reference to (XRA + Po_I transformed sketch: v)_ fvrther (2) by VeA 2 = VRA2 + reA _oq

2

the

can be following

+ 2_

SeA

VRA

cos

Ye"

(6)

For system imum cos

given the if cos ye =-I

values velocity Ye (_e

of

tea relative

and

VRA to and earth

in

the VeA is a

earth-moon is a maxif

= 1 (Ye : 180°

= 0°) )' or

it

minimum

to

the

moon

EVRA

+ tea

2 _2

-

2_@_

reA

V R

A_

I/ 2 i/2

<

VeA

< [V RA

+ tea

_°od 22+

2_O_

tea

VRA]

(7)
For injection reA Barycenter 10925. 0 m/see <__ VeA 0 <_ 10959. 4 m/see, at 100-kin kin, altitude: VRA 0 = 10942.2 m/sec,

0 = 6478.2

and

the

minimum

velocity

relative

to earth

for

sending a vehicle to the moon while for injection at 1000-kin reA = 7378.2 km, VRA 0

is 10925. altitude: = 10233•2

0 m/see,

m/sec,

10213. The following relations can be obtained from and lunar In reA 2 = x eA 2+ 2 + YRA (3) YeA2 = (XRA + I$¢ 1 u)2 each the the previous sketch:

6 m/sec

<_ VeA

0<_

10252.8

m/sec

minimum injection case the occurs the direction in the at

velocity that maximum when of following altitude

relative is value VeA the 0 is of

to

earth 0,

for m/see.

10213.6 VeA

(VeA)max, teA in

perpendicular rotation as

to

moon's sketch:

illustrated

IV -4

YR

two-body 1 (i.e.,

ellipses when the

with initial eccentricities gravitational effect of the

near earth

is predominant). As the injection velocity is increased, the trajectories will approximate twobody parabolas and hyperbolas in their initial stages. The extent along the trajectory to the moon to which this two-body approximation can be carried will be discussed in Subsection B-ic. -Barycenter _

Egorov (Ref. 1) has made a systematic of trajectories in the MOP near minimum ities. These trajectories with a Jacobi

study velocconIID have

(_A) m_x

stant the time

of

C 3 (refer

to

Fig.

2,

Chapter

characteristic in the order trajectories coordinates

of an extremely of months. For with these )_e0

long transit example, In geocenclosely

consider tric The injection flight path angle Ye0 may be used XeY e

= 0°"

trajectories

to classify lunar vehicle trajectory moon orbital

trajectories. Thus, a space in the direction of the earth< 90 ° ) illustrated in the

motion(Ye0

approximate two-body ellipses with large eccentricities (near 1). The apogee of these trajectories increases slowly due to lunar perturbations as illustrated in the following sketch; only the first moon trajectory shown. several near orbits minimum of a typical velocity earthare

previous sketch is known Since the angular velocity _O the has a component _

as a direct trajectory. vector of the earth iem perpendicular a vehicle to in

cos plane

earth-moon

orbital

(MOP),

a direct trajectory can capitalize on the rotation of the earth as well as the orbital motion of the earth in the MOP as illustrated above. Trajectories with injection in a sense opposite to _( (_e0>90 °)

First

orbit

are called retrograde traject.ories. The AV penalty from launch for a retrograde trajectory as compared to a direct trajectory may be as high as 740 m/sec. The gravitational attraction of the moon on the lunar trajectory near injection is very small, and it is possible to approximate the first stages of a lunar trajectory by a two-body earth-space vehicle problem. In a two-body approximation, the escape or parabolic velocity at i00 km is = ___K_ _ tea = 11093.2 m/sec
Th

Second InitfLal

orbit

t

b_

e

rd

orbit

mth Noon

of

the

The space near-elliptical the constriction

vehicle orbits in

must the

traverse before it C 3 contour

can

many pass near moon III).

such through the and InVeA the tra0

Vep which body

compares velocity (VeA) rain of

with

a minimum

restricted

three-

double approach crease as well

point between the moon of as Ye0 the will initial

the (Fig. increase apogee

earth and 2, Chapter the radius

required of

= 10925.

0 m/sec.

jectory.

The corresponding minimum two and restricted three-body velocities for injection at I000 km are:

The time required for a passage from the earth to the moon depends strongly on the injection velocity. It has been estimated (Ref. i) that trajectories at the minimum velocity reach the boundary This most of their region C 2 in about three

=

Vep

10394.6

m/sec,

(VeA)

rain

=

years. cal for

type of trajectory lunar missions.

thus is impractiA slight increase

10213.6 Thus, about

m/sec velocity two-body is only parabolic

the minimum three-body 170 m/sec less than the

in injection significantly trajectories jection and

velocity reduces the transit time as can be noted from the following to the moon in the MOP with an inof h®0 = 0°: = tea 0 - R e = 175.7 km

altitude _e0

velocity. for near

This indicates that lunar trajectories minimum velocities will approximate

with

IV -5

Injection

Velocity, YeO 2 km kin reA h(_0

V.e_O = O° 0

(m/see)

_e0 reAO

0 o

mately 120 hr at 40 m/sec stricted three-body escape is approximately 50 hr at which is 170 m/sec above Transit Time to the Moon (Ill')

above minimum velocity. This parabolic velocity, the minimum re-

retime

6478. 100

= 6553.9 = 175.7 10,932 10,943

km km

10,997 ii,008 ii, ii,278 ii,660 13,450 097

120 80 50 35 24 13

11,033 11,215 11,600 13,400

stricted three-body escape velocity, and it decreases to approximately 24 ilr at 500 m/sec above parabolic velocity. A further increase of injection velocity above the two-body escape or parabolic velocity will not reduce the transit time as markedly as was possible near the two-body escape velocity. Practical transit times for lunar approach and impact trajectories vary from about 30 to 80 hr, which seems to be a good compromise between rocket fuel requirements on one hand, and power and support system requirements on the other. Approach trajectories may miss the moon by small or large distanee, the major differences between an approach trajectory from a trajectory near mxmmum velocity bemg that the mltlal apogee" of the approach trajectory would be beyond the orbit of the moon and the transit time for passage to the orbit of the moon is less than five days. If the approach trajectory passes near the moon, the concept of "apogee" becomes illusory since the gravitational attraction of the moon modifies the Possible approach the moon are given selenoeentric constant dinates the moon, vehicle at entry and V trajectory shape trajectories in in the following XmYm, considerably. the vicinity sketch in where VmA cooraround moon along i.n of a

The injection velocity for an injection altitude of 100 km has been calculated from the energy integral of a two-body force model, Eq (9) below, to allow a direct comparison with tile minimum restricted three-body velocity of 10959 m/sec. An increase about 1% near in injection the minimum velocity of velocity 100 m/see decreases for

or

the transit time from five to about two days, Eut any further significant decrease in transit time the injection velocity must be increased considerably. Hence, for each lunar mission there is a tradeoff between a higher injection velocity and the correspondingly higher fuel toad and a longer transit time with larger power requirements and support b. systems. Approach trajectories

coordinates velocity into the is the

is

in selenocentric circular region velocity which of the

geocentric Approach near minimum class much time trajectories velocities differ in that moon may the latter. trajectories from with trajectories the former the negative

e( coordinates Ym-aXis:

is directed

the vicinity of the quicker than with for typical approach

be reached The transit is approxi-

Ym

Ym

J
Xm

Direct Trajectories Around the Moon

--_ V e_

-_x _

Retrograds AroUnd

Trajectories the Moon

geA Velocity Diagram

IV -6

As canbeseen fromthis sketch,theapproach trajectoryleaves thevicinityofthe moon. It wasshown Egorov(Ref. 1)thatthemoon by cannotcapture space a vehicleonanapproach trajectorysince the vehicle energy corresponds to
that of a hyperbolic selenocentric trajectory the attraction of the earth is neglected. The if preceding sketch also shows that the closet' the approach to the moon, the greater is the "turning effect" of the moon on the trajectory. While in the vicinity of the moon, the approach trajectories may, he either direct or retrograde, depending on whether they pass around the moon in the direction or against tile direction of the lunar rotation, as illustrated in the preceding sketch. However, it is more common(Ref. 1, for direct at example) (7e0< to classify or approach retrograde trajectories (Ye0 > 90°) 90 °) near

The retrograde trajectories avoided due to the larger fuel Since interception of the moon arm has been shown to increase

are usually requirements. on a descending the required the are ascend-

guidance accuracies by two to five times, most practical impact probe trajectories direct ones which strike the moon on the ing arm. Impact moon trajectories with a velocity will of hit the surface approximately

the

of 3000

m/see unless they are retarded by rocket braking (luring the descent phase, tlard landings, with impact velocities approximately between 3000 anti 100 m/see, can be used for relatively simple has to for soft periments ascending visible experiments, be braked to the while order the of impact tens of velocity m/see

injection c. Impact

earth. trajectories flight impact the first trajectory. trajectory Such Since the tra-

landings of delicate equipment for exon the moon. Lunar impacts on the arm are essentially limited to the disk while impacts on the descending arm

In any considered

study of lunar is usually an simply the

occur essentially behind the moon. An impact trajectory with rocket burning before the landing will also require some control of the orientation of the vehicle before and during rocket burning. 3. Circumlunar and Allunar Missions

a trajectory is which intersects

an approach surface of the on the way four types to two types

trajectory moon. out or on of impact of approach

the impact may occur return, there are now jeetories as opposed t raje cto tie s :

The first type leaves intercepts the moon on second type leaves the the moon on a descending sketch the depicts geocentric the these (XeY e) injection two

the earth direct and an ascending arm. A earth direct but intercepts arm. The following types of trajectories system and t i the with impact in

The next missions of interest are circumlunar and allunar missions, which may be manned or unmanned. Specific lunar and earth return conditions are somewhat more difficult to achieve than for lunar probes because of the tighter injection tolerances. A very desirable feature for these missions is that the vehicle returns to the vicinity of arbitrarily nomenclature the earth close to of the ballistically the lunar associated after passing surface. The trajectories

coordinate time

is

t O denoting time:

analogous to the mission nomenclature exact definition of each trajectory class be given when it is discussed in detail.

and the will

Ye

X_t)

m

Of primary interest are the nonperiodic circumlunar missions since they allow reconnaissanee, surveillance and mapping of the back of the moon. The other trajectory classes are of less practical interest, but will nevertheless be mentioned briefly. Trajectories behind the moon that while depart from earth, pass crossing the earth-moon the moon, and are called or circumlunar again renonperiodic tra-

_ Orbital

r

,
Moon (ti ;Q'"

/

/

line in the vicinity of turn to earth ballistically circumlunar trajectories jectories can leave following where approach A either t for the short. earth or time moon.

Basically, either direct retrograde of pericynthion,

these trajectories as shown in the (not shown), or closest

P

sketch, is the to the

circumlunar direct or

trajectory retrograde

leaving can return

the to

earth earth

by

-

-0 goon (t i ) Arm

Descending

establishing either a direct or retrograde (and highly elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic) orbit around it or impact the earth as indicated in the following sketch. This would account for six different types of circumlunar general to achier,',
ttl](I oll

trajectories. t.ype
eaFt[l

the

The first

third two

and fourth except that

types they

are leave

identical the earth

lo

The easiest
the 111ool/

of l)tlt that

trajectory spcc:ific
F/'tLll'I] are

retrograde.

obtain

d_m

to

the

fact

_'rror

is one cnnditions difficult sensitivities

of

the at to are

IV -7

DrbitNo. Ye Moon _ (tO)
,/
Lunar \ \ Orbital Path tOil-Earth 1

(re,5)rain (kin) 6,571

(rmA)min (km) 150 Remarks Lunar impact

2

42,203

825

Lunar impact

j _ I $

_

con i

,-

3

82,824

1500

Lunar impact

4

116,371

2OOO

A possible periodic orbit does is Orbit not impact No. to about 4.

As the For

can moon, this

be

seen, (rmA)min trajectory is

the

only

case 1738

that kin,

the 20

closest earth

approach radii or

earth, one-

(reA)min' third would pecially stable, space

almost

of the distance to the moon. Such an orbit seem to be of little practical interest, essince this class of trajectories is also unand small perturbations would cause the vehicle to depart from this orbit.** to the circumlunar classes of the cor-

Opposed responding described pass only earth-moon feature on ordinates direct is

very injection by 870

high.

For velocity

instance, (at moon

an t O ) can and

error alter

of the km at

1 m/sec miss earth.

in distance Al-

nonperiodic and periodic trajectories above are allunar trajectories, which in front of the moon while they cross the line in the vicinity of the moon. This most clearly seen in rotating sketch with x R YR of an coa im-

km

at

the

6650

though highly are especially the back side

sensitive, these types of trajectories suited for photographic missions of the moon. These missions may

as shown nonpertodic

in the allunar

following trajectory

be manned or unmanned and may be highly desirable for future landing flights. In fact, actual landing missions may utilize such trajectories because of their inherent safety features (no lunar impact, ballistic departure and return). One drawback of circumlunar trajectories is the inaccessibility of higher lunar latitudes. This is due to the fact that their inclination to the lunar equatorial plane VI). The is limited to approximately 15 ° (see Chapter

pact return to earth. tive term "nonperiodic" allunar trajectories orbits to distinguish jectories.

Very frequently the descripis dropped, and periodic are referred to as allunar them from the allunar tra-

_/-Ear

tehnter

total

flight

time

for

circumlunar

missions

is rather limited by the nature of the trajectory and depends strongly on the pericynthion altitude. The following figures are quoted for injection at an earth altitude of 200 kin. For a pericynthion altitude of 200 km the total flight time to the moon and back can vary between 138 and 142 hr, for a pericynthion altitude of 1000 km it can vary tween 147 and 152 hr, and for a pericynthion tube of 2000 km it can vary between 155 and hr. In each case the vacuum perigee of the trajectory is at 50 kin. bealti165 return xR Lunar Orbital Path

.

An interesting problem of lunar trajectories is the possibility of establishing periodic orbits around the earth and moon which pass behind the moon, or periodic circumlunar trajectories. The existence of such orbits was established and several orbits were calculated in Ref. i. The closest approach (rm&)mi low from to ti]e earth, n, of several i*: (teA)rain typical , and to the is given moon, be-

Analogous jectories one trajectories. lunar trajectory of the moon bits.

to the six types may distinguish typical mission is photography without the aid of A

of circumlunar six types of employing of the front lunar satellite

traallunar an alface or-

orbits

Bef.

Although cumlunar ber of

there trajectories

is

but one ther(_ allunar A new

class of periodic are an unlimited trajectories, class of of described. orbits circumis

cirnum-

<-'These numerical values are based on Egorov's values of the earth-moon system constants and are to be regarded as illustrative rather than
accurate.

possible added in

periodic proof: recently of this

*<'Note

lunar orbits has brief summary as Section D. IV -8

been class

A given

Periods theseallunarorbitsvary from0.5 to of 1.5 me,andwhilelhcypassin front ofthe moon astheycrosstic <tirt}l-n]ool]ine, their [art}lest l pointfrom eartilis well beyond themoon's orbit. Cir(umlunarandallunarperiodicorbits areof interest, butit is doubtful thatsuchorbits could beestablish('d a very longtim_duetotlwir for
unstable 4. Lunar I,unar i_att ul'c. Orbit orbit Missions missions arc complex from a tra-

(2)

An entry mane'uver lunar orbit. A lunar several A departure el'bit. A moon-to-earth orbit phase revolutions. maneuver

into

the

desired

(3)

which

may

last

for

(4)

from

the

luuav

(5)

transfer

phase

which

jectory viewpoiilt since a single mission may consist of several phas( s, each utilizing a different class of traj_Pclorics. The characteristic feature of lunar orbit missions is that the primary purpose of the mission is accomplished during the lunar orbiting phas{. In other respects the hicle may be manned or unmanned; it a one-way trip to the moon or eventually to earth if this is a manned mission. The primary advantage almost unlimited time of that lunar the space may vemake return

may be the second half of trajectory, or an approach trajectory, and is illustrated lowing sketch in geocentric coordinates x v . e _e The circumlunar above. direct or circular but their different Lunar types trajectories orbits of may approach, have been be classified

a circumlunar or impact in the nonrotating

fol-

impact, discussed either

or into

retrograde or elliptical actual shape

orbits; they with respect is continually

may be either to tlne moon, changing due sun, and the characteri(Chapter III,

the

orbits vehicle

lies can

in

spend in the vicinity of the moon, time which can be utilized for the gathering of scientific data, the reconnaissance, surveillance, and mapping of the moon. Also, no actual landing on the moon is necessary, fuel problems The whether launched responding and do all not the attendant appear. structural and

to perturbations moon's figure. zation of orbits Subsection A-3). Entry orbits are acteristic 5. Landing to

of the earth, the A more quantitative is by their elements

and departure maneuvers generally characterized by velocity A V of the maneuver. Missions

from lunar the char-

first question the moon can with a velocity to the Jacob[

in a lunar orbit mission capture a space vehicle higher than the one constant C 2 {see

is cor-

Chapter

Closely related to lunar landing missions, is on the lunar surface

lunar orbit missions are the in which the space vehicle during one phase of the purpose will be accomare the most complex point of view. They one-way or round landing mission will trajectory in the and a lunar _'parking" primarily of landing of the cirtype As of

IlI, Subsection B-2). It was shown by Egorov (Re[. 1) that it is impossible for lhe moon to capture a vehicle on an approach trajectory, no matter what the initial conditions. The question of lunar capture without thrust tories near minimum than one orbit around vicinity of is between constants the the remains open for trajecvelocities which make more earth before reaching the the the injection to the space velocity Jacobi can

mission where its primary plished. Landing missions missions from a trajectory may be manned or unmanned, trip. Most likely the lunar use a circumlunar or approach earth-moon transfer phase, orbit to because site and cumlunar mission reach of the because or is the desired flexibility of the

moon. When one corresponding C 4, then

C 2 and

vehicle

landing site, in the choice safety features

pass through the constriction near the point between the earth and moon (see Chapter III) after more than one orbit earth and become a temporary satellite moon before it returns to the vicinity earth.

critical Fig. 2, around of the of the

approach known as

trajectory. lunar orbital

This landing.

This class of trajectories is not very practical since (I) the possible range of injection velocities is about 1 m/sec (see table on page 21 in Chapter liD, and and other the trajectory perturbations, is very and (2) sensitive the transit to solar time is

propulsion systems become more reliable, impact trajectories with a soft landing may be used for landing missions in areas of the moon which are easily accessible for impact trajectories. The latter type of mission is a lunar direct landing. Lunar landing missions are used for exploration, supply lunar and bases. logistics, and for establishment of

very long and the transit time is very sensitive to injection velocity in the possible range of about 1 m/sec. Thus in practice a lunar orbit can only be achieved by reducing the velocity of the space vehicle through thrust application near the moon. ,-\ typical lunar earth, illLlstrated next page. (1) will An orbit in the mission sketch of: transfer less the first likely, phase which with at the return top of to the

to

A typical lunar earth consists (1)

landing of:

mission

with

round

trip

An earth-to-moon may be an approach, circumlunar, or, trajectory.

transfer phase which the first half of a less likely, an impact

(2)

consist earth-to-moon

An entry maneuver orbit (this phase landings).

is

into the deleted

desired for direct

lunar

may be an circumlunar, t raj c_cto r) ,

approach, or,

half of a an impacl

(3)

A lunar orbit phase a fraction of one to (this phase is deleted

which several for

may last from revolutions direct landings.)

IV -9

v e

moon

(t o ]
X e

Note: path of _ the moon

the dimensions lunar satellite phase have exaggerated been

of the orbit

earth-moon transfer phase transfer phase

\ \
\

\

\.
\ \ \ Lunar
t e _

departure maneuver from lunar satellite orbit satellite orbit phase
/ O moon /

entry maneuver into lunar satellite orbit

(4)

A

descent

phase

to

the

lunar

surface orbit in the Moon (t o )
_e _e

and landing rendezvous following (5) (6) A An lunar ascent

(possibly concept paragraph). stay of phase arbitrary frorn phase of phase

using lunar as described

duration. I lunar surface. Lunar may several for ]ast revodirec_ orbital \ _ath

cos

iem x

(7)

A lunar fron_ a lutions landings).

orbit fraction (this

which one to is

deleted

Earth-moo_ transfer

\
\ \ \ x

(approach, or impact

circumlunar, trajectory)

(8)

A departure (this phase ings). A moon-to-earth may be the trajectory, jectory. landing The phase further

maneuver is deleted

from lunar orbit for direct land-

/---7 iescent "x/_ / /_ I phase landing (ti) .

(9)

transfer second half an approach

phase which of a circumlunar or h_pact tra-

lu_ar(l _./

_" entry lunar maneuver orbit into

orbi,\\ 7(q) .... 7
For one-way (9) are deleted. lized for each be classified missions, phases (6) throuah classes of trajectories utiof the landing mission may as was discussed above. lunar the x orbital following v • _2 _e landing mission in cteocer,tric • phas,_ \ _ (fraction of _ revolution) _

A typical one-way has been illustrated nonFotatin_ coordinates A mission between the lunar orbit mission the

in

At the proper time a segment of the vehicle, called the shuttle vehich,, detaches itself, descends to and lauds on the lunar surface. After the purpose of the mission on tbc lunar surface has been accomplished, the orbit and makes space vehiclc. s[/uitle vehicle a r'( ndezvous 'I'h( _l_,,n and ascends to lunar with the orbiting any equipment arc

which may be regarded as a hybrid lunar orbit and landing missions [s the rendezvous mission (LOR). In thLs space vehicle establishes a lunar orbit.

IV -10

transferredtothespace vehicle,which thenreturnsto earthwhiletheempty shuttleis abandoned
in lunar 6. Space It has orbit. Stations been proposed by Buchheim (Ref. 2)

The maximum velocity increment that can be gained in approximately 148(/ m/see. The vehicle acceleration can be accomplished on a descending arm as well. Retrograde _rajectories can also be used, but are not really practical because of 1he h_i'_el" ",V reqllire_t ['oF earll? departure. In a(tdilit)n, the tnoon cart be use(l to {teve!erctle a space
passili_ Opposite

that space stations double points in vehicles libration points are in the barycenter earth and rotating Subsection with moon, x H YR B-2

may be established at the five earth-moon space. He calls such center buoys. These double MOP, they rotate around the the same and their coordinate of Chapter angular fixed system II[. velocity location is given in as the the in

'_ehi(']e
()kit lO of [lie l[]e

l)eccleralh)n
nlo£)I]Ts luoonls

would ', [cinitv
[lll]]il}.i] [11(

in
)_[i(]t]

be oblaincd a direction
ar()[ll](] tile

b\

earlh. Tire fashion practicality is debatable o[' planning at this time probes due to in this the hitake of

creased guidance accuracy required. Full advantage of the gravitational tile moon, the following items are (1) The close approach to as possible. the moon

To attraction necessary: should

Three of the five double poh-lts are on the earthmoon line, two fairly near _he moon and the third is on the opposite side o1" lhe moon about one lunar unit From earth. The double points on the earthmoon lines are unstable and lhe apace vehicle would have to make corrective maneuvers lo counteract tile double two double the earth a space nitely. chapter perturbing forces in order to stay near points for a longer time. The oiher points form equilateral triangles with and moon and they are stable. Thus, vehicle could stay The sketch on pa_e s}nows 1he location at these points indefiIII-2l in thepre<edin,a of the double points. 8.

be

as

(2)

The pericymhion, or point of closesl proach to tlne moon, has to be controlled closely in order to turn lhc trajectory the desired direction (see the preceding sketch. The gent sun time launch since must of time bo_h be in pericynthion. and Characteristics o['a Cirtolerance the moon a {'avorabh: is and very strinor at

apin

(3)

planet position

Space stations at the double points have also been called synodic or selenoid satellites. TIney could be used for beacons in space, as astronomical observatories, for conducting long-term experiments in earth-moon space and {'or" space surveillance. 7. Lunar The Passages moon can to Escape to accelerate or decel-

Nomenclature

c m{ff_

r Trajeclory
trajectories during transit plane of discussed to and reference above from for

The ballistic lunar belnave very similarly the moon. A fundamental

be used

erate a space vehicle for interplanetary missions or solar probes since the moon and most planets are very close to the plane of the ecliptic. Acceleration of the space vehich can be accomplished by planning the approach trajectory to pass very close to the moon and pass out of the vicinity of the moon in the general direction of the moon's orbital motion around earth. The following sketch in geocentric nonrotating coordinates illustrates this special ease.

such trajectories is the moon's orbital plane (MOP) used earlier in this section, b'or this discussion a circumlunar trajectory which is not restricted to the MOP is used as an example. The nomenclature used here in identical witI1 that given in the Voice discussion that describing all trajectory remaining chapters. of _cction (" and data throughout the

Ye to_,if_Ear Moon
I I

t h e

The outgoing trajectory to the moon is termed a translunar tra. eetory. It is assuYned that lhe injection of the space vehicle into the translunar trajectory occurs near earth, and a ser.ies of two-body force models is used in the approximation of the entire trajeclory. The connection or patching between the different two-booty tra. eetories occurs near the moon. The eccentricity of the translunar and transearth (a trajectory from the vieinily trajectories of the is moon larger to the than vicinity 0.95. of the earth)

(t o ) A/_pp _

_-JOJ_C C t? "era Lunar \ Orbital Path /with roach lunar trajectory p_ssage

on

\
\ \ \

The space vehicle can leave the cartln in four directions, direct north, direct south, relrograde north, and retrograde south. These departure directions are illustrated in the following skeleh. These departure directions are based on whether the lrajectory above (north), at injection or' below is the plane _o _2 \e-.N_) the define given is direct (south) the by the or retrograde, MOP. The ¢0 the which transis

the \ ..if.loon at

ascending vehicle

arm

injection is measured

position from

angle of MOP,

intersection with 1111' th,,

lunar the ._ _e31)

trajectory xt(-axis, and

which The trajectory

injection

point.
LF['IIISILlUaI"

vectors

IV -11

_Tr _--traJectory

anslunar

.I _//

f

"°"

/.4

plane The fro_n 2 to to re&0 the

where injection the local ) in velocity

re_

0

is

the path

radius angle (a of

vector _e0 is

at

injection. zE

flight

measm'ed

horizontal direction vector in The

plane the

perpendicular moon's motion plane is at the (see ditime of of
I

the

the

translunar xl::-axis the is MOP the at earth being the earth. moon

Space

£_

preceding rected of the

sketch). approximately while plane In iVT L is by nears the

positive

toward iVT to the of L

pericynthion translunar

inclination the time

"--72
_arth / BYE

injection. kin), primarily vehicle

vicinity

the

(re&<200,000 affected As krn), the the

essentially the the oblateness moon

constant of (re&-. to a of This

2(}O,()01) greater' the is

trajectory is the gravitational causing in _, teA The moon the iVT following

influenced attraction L to change. sketch.

degree by moon, thet'eby demonstFaled /

t _.ioon

xE Consider and space by the a space a velocity vehicle lunar by At an vehicl_e vector wii1 gravity be Ve,__ with a position to earth. the from of the drift, moon the original directed is translunar toward the since plane, moon, gq and the rate as This increases increases. vector relative

a?celeratt.d gq. of l)urin_ tlne along

toward a short

approached

time interval be changed action By resultant Ve&l is and original lunar + a_\' of gq.

the velocity amount AV g that of plane that re/x the

vehicle will the line _ of

assuming velocity
g

remains space formed vehicle by by

unchanged, is Ve& and and h'on: _',iVT[ to .

the 2 =

drift has occasionally cusing el'feet of the of the space vehicle the moon is neared. the drift characteristic A similar drift to earth (transearth vehicle drifts into iVTI. 2 •

been referred to as the fomoon. In addition, the speed relative to earth increases as The following sketch shows of a lunar trajectory. experienced on the trip back trajectory) except that the the final return inclination is

.

The from

r_] re_l

V e' _1 • Ve,x2, the tlence,

different its

formed

translunar translunar gravity causes

inclination inclination the space

differs bv

vehicle

ch'il't

On return may appr'oach the case {'or

_o earth, the transearth it ft'om various directions. the tt'anslunar injection,

trajectory As was the directions

IV-12

be discarded simply because tions. Different approximations

they in

are approximathe force model

Initial

tranelunar

trajectory

plane

vary in their sensitivity to different parameters, and a very crude approximation for one parameter may be an excellent or at least an adequate one for another, depending on the ultimate use of the generated trajectories. In separate smaller tory flown general, the relative trajectories of than the absolute using the given in the earth-moon force error a given error model environment. between two force model is between a trajecand one to actually Hence, a

raJectory-

very simple force model may be used the range of each trajectory parameter required lunar mission as well as to allowable errors in initial conditions

restrict for the obtain the for success-

Final

traneearth

trajectory

plane

ful completion of the mission and to obtain guidance sensitivities. Any conclusions drawn from trajectories obtained from the simple model may then be verified by generating a small number of trajectories using a more sophisticated force model. In the that have jectories cornplexity, the models i. Succession following text, various force models been employed in generating lunar traare discussed in the order of increasing and quantitative differences between are given whenever possible. of Two-Body approach the transit a succession In the initial to be in its of mass the earth to Trajectories lunar trajectory of a vehicle of restricted the phase of earth's Mzx is _Io

of ing the

return sketch, transearth

are

classified where iVT E

as is

depicted the final

in

the

followof

inclination

trajectory:

The simplest studies is to treat earth to moon as
_U

from two-

body vehicle tional compared

problems. is assumed field alone to the

flight the gravitanegligible At some

and mass

_TH

point along the trajectory the vehicle a region where the moon's field is It will then be assumed to be in the alone the and mass its of mass the moon M A is M{I negligible . This

will pass into predominant. moon's field compared to allows into planar from for dy-

approach

B.

FORCE TRAJECTORY

MODELS

FOR

LUNAR

CALCULATIONS

a splitting of the trajectory determination various phases, namelythe study of (1) namics of the earth's field, (2) transition earth to moon influence where the criteria passing from phase cussed, (3) planar and (4) three-dimensional is not in the moon's acteristics of lunar logically and studied It is obvious that (1) to dynamics the

In the preceding section the characteristics and nomenclature of lunar trajectories were introduced. These trajectory characteristics could be introduced with very little attention to the physical and mathematical background of how the position of the space vehicle as a function of time, or its trajectory, is obtained. However, in any quantitative work, be it precise or approximate, it is necessary to know what physical model underlies the calculations and by what mathematical method the trajectory was obtained. The emphasis in the present section will be on the assumed force model for deriving the equations of cal and numerical methods tions have been discussed Various degrees in the description in the earth-moon motion since of solving in Chapter the analytithese equaIV of Ref.

next phase are disof the lunar field, effects when the vehicle orbital plane. Many chartrajectories may be introduced on the basis of this approach. this force model, like any

3.

of sophistication are possible of the forces acting on a vehicle environment. These force as does trajectories parameters approximations the ease as and obtainfor a given should not

other model, will be more accurate for short lunar missions than for longer ones, since the neglected effects (discussed below) result from accelerations acting over the entire transit time. This approach is expected to be reasonably good for lunar impact trajectories, and for circumlunar flight. However, prolonged flights near the moon, such as lunar satellites, should be analyzed by use of more exact models. a. Planar dynamics of the earth's field

models vary in complexity welt as cost of generating ing values for trajectory lunar mission. Rough

in a moon

For this two-body problem plane passing through the revolves around the earth

the vehicle moves earth's center. The in the same plane

IV-13

withanangular elocitya_ at a mean v distance ro_ = 1 LU. Themoon treatedhereas a is massless pointwithoutinfluence onthevehicle trajectory. Thusanynonrotatingoordinate e systemat theearth'scenterof massis inertial. In inertial planepolarcoordinates , 0eA , as re_
shown motion in the of the following space sketch, vehicle the are: equations of

where total

t

is

the

total angle

time from

of reA

flight 0 to

and tel

00_

the

in-plane

As is from Eq trajectory

well known, (8) is a conic with focus to orient with angle 00q

the trajectory section in at the center injection to the

the

obtained plane of the of the earth. on at this injee-

It remains conic section tion by the =

the respect

point moon

Initial
/ /

Moon injection)

± _D4t,

(12)

f_

_(at

where the the positive

negative sign

for set is"

sign applies retrograde of constants

for direct trajectories. required

and

Final

Moon_/ (8) A consistent through (11) Pe _e_ r01 Inspection (9) reveals to a strong Ve& hand, a strong in 0. -= = in Eqs

GM e

= 398,601.5 x km

km3/sec 10 -6 rad/sec

2 (13)

2.661,699,484 384,747.2 of Eqs (Ref. the

\ ;£
Earth_ _--_e V_nO e_

/

Eq

(10) and (11) in 4) that the time flight of total energy in-plane insensitive of Ye0" These path or

the light of flight angle burnout _e0'

of is

insensitive but is

burnout

function The is

velocity the and other is

angle to

00_ VeA

, 0

on

rather

function the

relations for a repkm.

•. rezx

• - re&0eA

2__ -

P't_ --2-reA

are

depicted

following radius

sketches of tea 0

resentative

injection

= 6740

(8)
80-

• •

o

reA0eZ Equation (8)

x + 2rezx0e2 yields two

x = 0 first integrals,

7O

Ee

=

eZX

+ (

cA)

2)
0 cos and

**

60

rez x

_' 50

VeA0 2" = re_0e/x

-

teA0

(9)


30

he

= tea

0

VeA

"_e 0
20 ---+_-i0800 -I 10900 In_ectlon I ii000 Velocity, t Iii00 Ve_ 0 p 11200 (m/see)

where

Ee

and

he

are

its

energy per _he

the

magnitude respecintegrals Since flight moon the effect time and transfer approximate. near minimum of the moon has been ignored, total in-plane angle for earthcalculated from Eqs (10) and This approximation (VeA)mi as (for the the some and more determination is n the (11)

of its angular momentum tiveiy. Equation (9) yields (see t_ef. 4, for example)

unit mass, final two

dr
teA0 reA0 2Ee + 2get her

are poor comes locity (10)

relatively and beve-

velocities better

progressively VeA 0 is inereased approximate 5). For

injection comparison exaet of Eqs (10)

between these suits see Ref. visibility (11) are 2 b. The gravitational Perhaps IV-14

reand

rol_ 00_ =_ teA0

h

dr

r$l = _ rezx0 2E

h e

dr

from earth, sufficiently Transition transition the fieId simplest

for instance, accurate. from earth-to-moon the be is earth to in the

--g-v-.e r r

influence the lunar ways.

2Pc +___ e r

h
r

e 2

from may

(11)

made to stop

various translunar

160-

r@(_ tea r_ The mass,

= = =

earth-moon earth-space moon-space acceleration vehicle field

distance vehicle vehicle or to distance distance force per the moon, at the unit or space

=10825

m/see

gravitational on the has

space

due

the lunar vehicle =i1009
eA

gravitational the magnitude

intensity

m/sec GM_ f[_A (14)

Ve

=

11315

m/see its tude acceleration

=

--g--

r {A
due to the earth has the magni-

GM_ f (_A = 2 ' (15)

and the gravitational to the earth I lO i 20 I 30 I 40 I 50 i 60 t 70 I 80
I

acceleration

of the

moon

due

9O f_ =

GM$ -%r-r _ disturbing the moon force of the is given by earth

(16)

Injection trajectory, tion, moon, as

Flight was

Path

Angle,

_eO

(deg) subsecto the = r@_ The the ratio attraction of

done

in the

previous distance

the of

to

at a radius and regard

r@_

, the

mean

these

conditions

at reA

as occurring at infinity relative to the moon. This approach has been taken in Ref. 4, for example, and it may be referred to as the massless moon assumption. However, a more natural transition from the earth's to the moon's gravitational field may be taken at the location in space when the ratio of the lunar disturbing force to the central force due to the earth's gravitational attraction becomes larger than the ratio of the earth' s disturbing force to attraction. This influence of the shaped with the than spherical. influence of the Define the central force region is called moon, although blunt The moon of the lunar the sphere it is slightly of egg-

-f.
(rej +re_ 2 ) (r_ 2 rOA ) (17) Similarly, moon to the ratio attraction of the disturbing of the earth force given of the by:

the

is

f4A

f_

=

r _A

end facing the earth, rather boundary of the sphere of can be found as follows. by the following sketch: where where

(ro_ •

+ r_a 2 r_A

) (r_cl 2 re4

-

r(_A

)

(18)

distances

the plane of the paper is the plane of the moon, and space vehicle at its entry into sphere of influence:

earth, the

GM_ fq_ = --2--re_ acceleration sphere of of influence the earth of the

(19)

A

is to is

the the the

gravitational moon. The region

due moon

>,
IV -15

f_A

- f06 f_A

<

f_A

fsA

f(I$

(20)

and

its

boundary

is

given

by

fe±

f(_A

f(9_

_

f4±

feA

f(_@

(21)

or, if wesubstitute fromtheright-hand sides of Eqs(17)and(18),theboundary defined is as: 2
r _zx (red (req = +tea +tea )(red )(%¢ r@A " -tea +%a ) )

which

is

more

than

twice

the

mean

distance

of

the moon from the earth. The moon, as well as lunar trajectories, is within the earth's sphere of influence, which justifies the omission of the gravitational attraction of the sun as a first approximation When the influence, Ye&' be to the motion in earth-moon the lunar position _e/X , space. sphere _eA )

(22)

of

space vehicle its geocentric Ze /',) and to , YmA' its will be velocity

enters inertial

(XeA" will

(JCeA ,

transformed (XmA "ZmA)and field IV-40).

a selenocentric ZmA) and in velocity the

inertial (Xm/,,, lunar the gravisketch

It can be deduced from the previous sketch that the disturbing effect is largest when the vehicle is on the earth-moon line between the earth and moon, of tive the the and moon smallest from the when earth. it is on Calling the opposite r(l _ posilatter, are: side

position ym A,

trajectory computed

tational on page

(see

in the former radii at these

case, negative two points of

in the conjunction

the

For typical velocity at

lunar trajectory the moon as at of infinity sphere

given is of

injection by the higher influence

velocities, method than by that

r@z x

=

r${ I

-

r(l A

of residual velocity given by the method about 1%. Another defined is region lunar

r{l A and Eq (22)

= can

r

_ be

-

r

A the around the gravisphere moon or that sphere has been inside

written: 2/5 1/5

of which the gravitational attraction of the space vehicle by the moon exceeds the attraction by earth• On the boundary of the lunar gravisphere, from Eqs (14) and (15):

(23) Equation boundary on the moon Me of W = 81. 357. As can be not seen a true from sphere Eq (23), but has It distance is more from convenient earth on the cosine sketch the rq_--= (b (23) can be solved by iteration, of the "sphere of influence" earth-moon line is 51,870 km and 63,790 km behind the moon and the of the moon in front of the for a value fCZk Numerically, system to = f_A this ratio or r

2
=

M( _Z_ _ the

2 tea earth-moon radii of (26)

a

amounts in of the vehicle 1/2 = 0.1109

(27)

"sphere" a bulge It is influence

of influence is behind the moon. instructive of the to earth

to the

compute the in its assumed Equation the earth symbol by

sphere of circular be used by the sun symbol

replace RHS of

the Eq

vehicle (26) by shown

orbit around the sun. directly if we replace symbol and the moon in that equation:

(23) can symbol the earth

application of in the following

law in the triangle (not drawn to scale).

(

]VI

h

2[5

_r®@

4 r_z _

.i[5

(24) M O In ro® mating the sun-earth r@A the and earthls .1.1t5 0 For kin, is a mean the solar distance of the of earth's ro$ = 14!), of 53 x lO 6 system the _@ spherical of 332,440. region influence 2/5 Hence approxiis given by
Lunar

sphere

"radius"

sphere

inflLicHce

r

OA

=

805,000

km,

2

2

2

r® A : re( [ + r_A

2rq)([ r([ A cos r_ m

IV-16

to obtain

the

boundary

of the

lunar

grav[sphero"

influence to the radius a

in typical gravisphere, r v and center

lunar the at

trajectories. volume r_q+ of &r infIuence v, where

Similar has

1/2
- cos FI_A = _m + (M_ \N-f_ 2 sin qm)

i12
kvl
r

%¢ v
z

\EI_-_

7


k- 2 v M@
--1

(28)
From the at r the lunar + preceding gravisphere Arg, where sketch has a it can radius be rg seen and that center 69436.1

Me

(32)
r v

km,

--

- 0.1804719LU

%¢ i/2
A r V

1

-- %_

=

=

rg

=

r_

M_

-

1
Ar V

N
12147.7 43186.6 krn, ----g-g = 0.1122467LU km,--

- 0.0315732 -

LU


1
A r

the

At the boundary of the volume ratio of the lunar to the earth' on the space vehicle 2 is:

of influence s gravitational

g

= %¢

Me

Nkin,

- 1

attraction

Am

f_A = 0. 0124445 e¢ (29) LU

Me

(r$

h_,

4788.0

_g
r

0.4014

(33)

The used by the in

volume the relation rCA Voice

of

influence computer

of

the

moon, is

which defined

is

from belief

The lunar gravisphere the standpoint of that it is sufficient

has little trajectories. to reach

significance The erroneous the point of of by

program,

equal gravitational attraction or the boundary the lunar gravisphere in order to hit the moon was revealed in trajectory calculations made (30) Egorov (Ref. 1). gion for trajectory ume of influence body force three-body much more calculations since it allows the best trajectories. A significant is the lunar the use of approximation

<

0.

175,

reA
a number which lunar trajectories. of influence is was given determined The boundary by 1/2 r_A 0. 175 = k , (31) empirically of thevolume from

revoltwoof

models for or n-body

At this point it would be helpful to illustrate the lunar sphere of influence, gravisphere, volume of influence as well as the boundary the closed region around the moon obtained the Jacobi integral problem (see also regions around the Fig. 3. However, minimum radii are table with below gives the EML and

and of from

rez x
where Hence, sphere lunar location k v the with = 1.578 volume a scale is of a

v
constant influence factor one k v, that from of is larger gives earth proportionality. a type than of gravithe

of the restricted three-body Fig. 2 of Chapter III). These moon are drawn to scale in since their maximum and on the earth-moon line, the the intersection their characteristics: of these regions

gravisphere, but for transforming

the best to moon

n

luenc,'

fm 57

(kin) 9 •

f

oon

t] (beh 48

nd (kin)

mou,, 3% Nv , thai

D,,scr_pti,,1, o ptica[ rt,_kt,t, ,h, cuh_ constant ar (:_

,,f

Region t _e I, i_ lll_m 2 ar,,l _¢'hneci iJq (77)

t,od_

triton

gr,,m

I

t

/l),

un: {so,

[

[unal

:)rl_it_

from

]ii1)[,[% rhe l-egio_

cs:a]_'

_l'ai_'¢'_,,cl_'s _o] I;_l'a_t'_ boron]at",
I_1 lhv [l_N_ [l_Eq

lph_r,' I

,,t

infku,,r,:e

5

,

70

63

790

af tuna )tt_r" IIll Near s >hericat
by t], (23) rlh,"

houiidar', _ilh
[}it"

the
F[_lt_

P 'I_pl) _iv,,n
of I c'

tes_

]_malLol

h,

tha_

_f

t!_o

lar_r

t:o_lv,

I

i

3_,

:/_R

_i

47,971

[;

!
57, 2g_ 4 :_:, _az a It ;s _ dl,'l':_a[ a'L1h Ltlltt t 1:!1-t7 7 kill hehinl th*,

i

/

IV-17

Ii shtmld remarked bc thatthesizeof lh('se M variousregions changes iththechanger M@ w o ¢ from thevalue81.357 adopted this manual in and withanychange in_a_ =2._;61 G!)948.t x 10-6tad/
sec.
w_

_r lily t't_ re]alive tional

]l: Ill

_S th( _ (m('m2V m()on. is

'

per

unit value

mass for
the

of

lhe
]unLtl'

vehicle gravi-

io lhc constunl

The

km u( : GM(, = 48!}!).4 _
SCC

3 (37)

(c)

Planar

dynamics

of

the

lunar

fiehl All the r'csults ,)1' Kelherian i.e. to fut'ihe[, nlcthod (Hcf. i[]u._trated = the velocity inl'Jnit3 , infinitesimal the mass study of .t), of motion of t]w (restricted mass of lilt: mOOlQ trajectory. velocities parameters follow to inI4 the sketch: moon at at of inthe are twospace now body vehicle available When finity is orbit Vm_,,: the (34) problem, compared for the used arc

At the boundary of the lunar re/Son of influence (sphere of influence, gravisphere or volume of influence) the geocentric (and so fat" inertial) position and velocity are transformed to the selenocentric system by the equations

"residual" lwo in useful the relative

m_

=

re_

-

re

=

g

Vm_

e&

-

V_ b = m

In selenocentric coordinates, which are assumed inertial inside the lunar region of influence, the energy of the vehicle relative to the moon is positive and its approach traiectory in this re_i_m is hyperbola (see sketch on page IV-6). The equation of this trajectory centered at in the h
m

the in,pact perpendicular asymptote (direction

pax'ameter, distance of the hyperI)olic and

which between

is the the orbit

of \mA.)

the

center

of

a ,

the

moon.

plane moon 2

polar is

coordinates given by

(rmA

0m&)


rmA = 1 +emA cos OmA

(35)

where per the the unit an_le

h

is m mass 0mA

the of is

magnitude the vehicle

of

the relative

angular lo the

momentum moon, and In the method the magnitude per unit mass
hill j mZ_Oo

measured is given by

from

perieyntlion,

eccentricity

of of of
Ill

"residual" the angular the vehicle
"_.-

velocities momentum are _iven

at by

infinity and enerlty

=

b

V 111

era&

=

+

m

2

(36) E rn = i -2 9 Vrn A _

ug

(3a,)

ane
/ / i-ln_ecti°n_'_

X-:,_n_
_ "eli!Jan /

f',,
X

equatorial plane

L_Ascending of the

node moon

IV - 1 8

(d) It planar the

Three-dimensional was seen in the previous were conditions the orientation the center of reA

effects _2 sections 0, VeA 0, that described )Je0" In the by In the from are following Ref. plotted In each is ¢0 = +28.5 sketches, parameters of 5q which 004 and have been taken , and iVT L = sin-1 (c°s \--c--os iem_j -5

trajectories injection

completely

6, the as case °, the

, AX04 Ae0,

addition, focus at

of the the earth

conic (which

section with is determined

functions injection latitude i
e rn

respectively. at and Of

by the injection conditions) relative to the moon may be specified by the angle • (see sketch on page IV- 14). Since the plane of the moon' s motion inclined to earth's equatorial plane, and the trajectory plane dimensional 6, and following Ae0 _0' z_0( 6_ i em 7). is, in effects general, must be is inclined considered portrayed to in both, (Refs. the three4,

is assumed of Cape

to occur Canaveral,

lunar course,

inclination in the

is assumed case, the

to be

20 ° .

general

injection the

latitude lunar

The sketch. = = = = =

geometry

may vary between inclination between

+90 ° and 18 ° and

-90 °, and 28.5 ° .

injection injection longitude

azimuth latitude (geocentric) 1 difference declination of the moon
-. _ IR_.C*IOI A.im.th,

%

instantaneous

inclination of the moon's to the earth's equatorial mum declination of moon

orbital plane plane or maxi6o 6O _i X_rthJr_

004 iVT

= L=

total

in-plane

angle trajectory plane
0 , -2o -io o LO

inclination of the translunar plane to the moon's orbital

Additional three-dimensional injection the and longit<fde the moon

injection _, difference at of i
em

parameters trajectories the injection between A X0_ 6_ , , and

required are the azimuth the the the

to describe geocentric Ae0, point
18c [ A o. o No_t_

latitude

injection instantaneous inclination

impact moon

declination the moon From angle 00_

the

of

,,,,'

I trigonometry by the total in-plane
!I i'

spherical is given

COS

00¢

=_in

dO_ sin

54

2

cos

d0_ coS

Ae0

(1 (39)

3 l _c j

-

sin

2

-zo

.it

o

_c

zo (_,g)

Ae0

cos

_

-sin

2

5¢)

1]

J

(1-

sin

2 Ae0

cos

2 (?b)

-:
!
*.o" c a,s Nort_

the

longitude

difference

AX0(

is

cos _Xoq

_

cos

°°_
cos

- sin _} cos


5q

sin

611

(40)

and the translunar grees is iVTL where _l/COS 1 = sin _ = 180° -

inclination

angle

iVT

L

in

de-

(_1

+ _2 )

(41)

-_o

-m

_ cos

sin Ae0 _)_ ' )

IV-19

It is seen ft'omthefirst of the previou_ _hrc_, sketches,hat01Idecreases increasin_ t with declination themoon,for aninjectionin thenorthcm_ of hemisphere.Thetotal in-plan('anglealsodecreases as theinjection azimuthis increased.Since. is it alsoa function VeA re& Te0, the in.]cotton of 0, 0,
time tions. depends also o21 the trajectory initial, condi-

'kO YR

Vehicle /_--_-'-_m

Mzx _

I/" [./-B XR

The to the middle sketches Ae0 last angle is the its

tongitudc in-plane sketch the or shows L for in

difference angle shown abscissa an

GAO( ]

behaves

similuuly

as can be previously. coincides toward the impact orbit at

noted In with the

from the the first two the curve {_ + _ell t south. inclination when the is moon (In at to injection The

= 180", sketch iVT

injection that

minimum occurs zero

lunar its

soutilbound

declination. when it corresponds a given

other hand, impact maximum southern 00¢ and

at the moon declination for path angle losses

a larger velocity which

consequently flight gravity

a smaller means lower

at injection, during powered

The

transfol'mations

between the

tile various in Table

coordinah_s coordinate 1. In lhe r,q'er,,nce (center
o

and ah(_v(. s l_rs mass , YlI' eat'th

flight from launch angle in this case resulting in lower due to three-dimensional

to injection. The inclination is somewhat larger, however, tolerances on initial velocity effects. Initial azimuths advantage of Thus some is necessary. the earth's compro-

v_qocity systems sketch tern of of the with

componcnls of are sumlnarizcd r 0 (x0, orioin and rotates about rl_ z0, a of the _ystcms zt{ axes. Y0' at
moo_

z 0) th,_

is

an

inertial

of 90 ° (east) take greatest surface rotational velocity,. mise in these parameters

barycenter
syste2]l)

of (Xll lhe

earth

The same (up rate f,om
Conlnloll

t'l{ as lhc

This brief discussion shows that lhc geometry the earth-moon and vehicle planes plac(_s conslraints on injection conditions'and defines preferred launch times throughout the lunar' month. It nmsl be remembered that the above discussion does not consider the use of parking orbits to easp the afnrcmentioned injection constraints. Chapters V, VI, IX and XI present data reflecting more practical aspects of the injection into lunar trajectories. 2. Hestmcued Three-Bed) _ Trajectories

z H) and "l'l_u

s>stem moon r 0 and

at

the

z0-axis have The

paper).
ol'i_itl and

a

coincident lem center z
the in

r e (Xc, with origin the

Yo' at r In vsilh

ze) the

s) s-

is

nonrotatin_ mass is
of

system of the earlh
'

and

(Xnl_

}i/1'

) system
cellteF

;, _(,nrotatin
nlasS ()_ tilt'

R s.vst(*m
lll()()ll.

<,riKin

at

The simplified model discussed in Subsection B-I, where analytical solutions of tbe equations of motion were possible, may be complieulud

In
see(Jtld

the
ia\g titaNS

i21ortial
r is

Felel'ence the

system, (.(tuations lhe space

where

NowtonWs a

vuli_t,

by

point

l-ej)l.es(_nting

of inoth)n of vehicle [t1'(!,

adding the moon to the earth-vehicle, restricted two-body problem. The resultant restricted threebody problen_ was discussed in some detail in Chapter llI, Section B in terms of Jacobi's integral. An analytical solulion of the equations of motion is no lonltec possible and recourse must be taken to numerical methods. In this subsection, vehicle motion, in terms of the restricted three-body problem, will be considered, i.e., the mass of the vehicle is negligible in conlpal'iSoI/ to the mass of the earth and mool_, and with the earth and moon as spherical bodies so that they may be considered as point musses. The ear'th-moon S_'Steln is considered isolated in space, the two bodies revofvinff in circles about their center of mass with an angular in a_ain velocity conjunction in Sectiol_ in lhe _ .

.. r0/" = 3
2'{1,

(; ]\1¢

_ r(I, c--&

(!

._

(-I2) (; Mq

w he re

u0,

e --25

=

t'I)_

-

r_le

(1 :_)
r0, m _.5 r!)-_ i_t i()
It/( _

-

r'I)ni Irunsforn_
(:noFdJn__lte

The coordinate with this model Chapter III in_ sketch. and

systems have been the/ are

used defined shown

A of followmntion

It

is

convetli(
('i 9 ) l()

lhe

C(]Utlti(}nS
svsten7

(}f

t'_H;_tin:4

(1'1{)

I'OI'

I}1(I

i)t4F!){)_{'

(>]"

I/UIH(JFiCal

cal(:Llitilit)t?s,

IV -20

because constant. rotation Chapter

in the latter system This may be done matrix III and T(_ the + w®( equations

several terms are with the aid of the t) given by Eq (47) of

duration change This formed new to and

may /',V in vehicle the

also inertial

be

simulated velocity

by _0A +

an of AV

impulsive the must vehicle. be transsysto-

of motion

become,

velocity rotating x R,

V0A YR"

ZR

coordinate

• o

-

2

tern XRA

the

new

vehicle

velocity at the as new

components time initial of

XRA

- 2_®

6

YRA

= WOq

gether with the position thrust can be regarded for a ballistic trajectory. Before values T®( of are Eq the (44) constants for can

the sinmlated conditions

GM® 3 rR,e--A required the restricted three-body model. since sistent In reality• only four constants are needed G never occurs alone. The following conset of constants is given for this modeI: (XRA XR® ) be G, solved M®, numerically. NI_/ , w®_ , and

GM¢
3 rR,
°°

(xR& m_A

- XRl_

)

U® YRA + 2t006 kRA 2 = t0®¢ YRA (44)

GM®

= 398,

601.

5 km3/sec

2

u_

= GM_ = 2. 661

;

4899.4 699484

km3/sec x 10 -6

2 (46) rad/sec

GM® 3 rR, e --A The can be two-body YRA m_A
T

YRA

= 384• consistency checked (earth,

747.

2 km

--1

LU

(lunar

unit)

by

GM_ 3 rR,

of the above Kepler's third moon) motion, -3

set of constants law as applied

to

2
--

(2 _r) 2 r®_

0¢ GM O
=

u® r®(_ is the In 27r

+ u_ period terms of of rotation angular of the earth-

RA

ZRA

where moon

system.

velocity

GM 3 PR, compare with Eq rn_A (70) of Chapter III• where _3 roll ZRA • the

consistency relation

'
becomes

uO 2 c0®g

+ u(7 (47)

rR,

e_A

= rRA

-

fRO

'

rR,

m_A

= rRA

-

rR_ (45)

Since the angular velocity can be observed very accurately, it is customary to assume the anKular velocity as well as the gravitational constants of the earth and moon as known, and to determine a consistent value of lunar unit from Eq a circular ro_ The lunar

YRe The as the

=yRm terms components terms

= 0, 2w®l I

and

(XRe• and Coriolis

XRm) 2_®_ 2 td@_

are

constants. known and comThe equanumeriand

YRA the xRAand

xRAare acceleration, YRA are

of 2 w®_

unit to a earth mass served 3.

may be fictitious

regarded, moon

in

(47), as the distance orbit around the those whose ob-

ponents tions cally velocity

of the centrifugalacceIeration. of motion, Eq (44), can subject to initial conditions XRA, YRA" ZRA' are may XRA"

(of mass as determined and Keplerian period for the moon. Many-Body moon} Trajectories

by experiment) coincide with

be

integrated on position YRA" ZRA"

(oblate

earth,

triaxial

In These equations vehicles, however, These can he included in two vehicle the different may be of for" ballistic be subject in the trajectory The by or flight. Space to thrust forces. calculations on terms of the in short els,

the discussion several forces

of the previous two have been neglected.

force modThese

ways: simulated motion,

thrust forces additional a large thrust

equations

can be conveniently divided into gravitational and nongravitational forces. Fxamples of gravitational forces to be considered in the earth-moon trajectories arc the attraction of the sun and planets, the oblateness of the earth, the triaxiality of the

IV -21

moon,

any

inhomogeneities effect moon's

in the

earth,

and

the

model,

numerical position of time.

integration and velocity Since the

is

necessary

to vehicle techas

dynamical tion of the

of the eccentricity orbit around the

and inclinaearth. Non-

obtain the a function nique taining brief lunar this a.

of the integration

gravitational forces include solar radiation pressure, atmospheric and meteoritic drag, electromagnetic forces, rocket thrust, and relativistic effects. Many of these forces such as earth oblateness and atmospheric drag are strongly related to position, and are sigmificant only in the vicinity of the earth. The influence of these factors on translunar

can improve a trajectory discussion trajectory section. Equations

the speed and accuracy of obon the digital computer, a of several techniques useful for calculations will be included in

of

motion coordinate Subsection and
A

trajectories has been The integrated effect whole transit forces corrections earth below. tude of three-body VeA trajectory time, varies

investigated (Fiefs. 2, 8). of these factors over the shape of the The near" listed

Consider described origin
A

in the ,

the equatorial Chapter III, barycenter
A

system A-l, with vectors

at
A

unit the

depends on trajectory and the actual ma_4z_itude throughout the trajectory AVe _ 0 to of the these to of initial effects velocity are

xo¢ mean parallel Let of

' YO_ vernal to MO the

zo_ equinox,

,

xo_ and

in

direction xttlq plane )O_ of earth, the

of

the

the

-plane the earth. Mq vehicle, that

0 because are factor initial

the

mean the

equatorial mass mass of

They each

intended compared velocity

convey the magnito the restricted 10.7 km/sec.

represent and XI(I

the of

moon, M A < <

M A the '

where Pe Factor AVeA0 m/sec* r ce nt VeA0 unit i. Gravitational field of the Gravitational fields 3. of planets of 6.0 of (Ref. 8) 0. 06 ':_ 0. 006 sun 3.0 (Ref. 8) O. 03' Then,

M A < <

1_I_B

since of

_O an

' '% inertial

'

zo^

constitute system

the with

vectors

coordinate

2.

origin chosen at the center of mass considered in the. physical model, of motion of the space vehicle, or absoIute motion, are

of the bodies the equations the equations

of

Oblateness the earth Asphericity the moon Eccentricity moon's Inclination orbit of Solar pressure

M A

r O, 0_ /',

=

4.

5.

of orbit of moon 13.5 (Ref. 8) 0. 13 _:_

T i=O

,0_
r

3 A O,

O'0-_i i -+A

M. 1 M

!6.

6.0

(Ref.

8)

0. 06* (48)

7.

radiation 0. 012 disThe vehicle term r O , from the coordinates ;%, the i..A forces = r_ 0 + A in the radius (center with , O_ per origin A unit - r_ mass of vector of the mass) baryf_i to nA the are acting of the (Ref. 8)

B.

Meteoroid turbances

baryeenter

:q'ransit time, 2. 5 days. ity, 10.7 km/sec. Vehicle about 1 m 2 and weighing

Nominal with 1300

injection projected newtons

velocarea of

equatorial center', represents

, O_i" due and

It sun, orbit,

is

seen

that

the

AVeA earth, of

0 corrections eccentricity the orbit of

for of the

the moon's moon

asphericity the on

of the

celestial forces

bodies, per' unit

oblateness and the

of the inclination enough in the

nongravitational M A. To obtain the

mass

are significant of these effects ity in ity of jectory factors, this

to necessitate determination calculations. important These, as in some

the inclusion of initial velocThe asphericin near-moon trawell as the other detail later in

actual trajectory the moon will be computations. will be discussed chapter.

equations Eq (48), in at the center

of a the of

motion

of the system Eq (49),

space with the the

vehicle, the origin equations gravitational M A << of

coordinate of the earth,

motion attraction 5'10),

of

earth (neglecting the space vehicle

since The equations of motion three-body problem could fomn, and with the present even not be more in the restricted integrated in closed complicated force

IV -22

n

•_z"0-*S rs ,

=

%i=_

,0_S -GMi 3 ris

,0_i

Tire acting
on

vectors

_ i=S to

L,

representing

the

forces

M A due i =$ , _,1,2

aspherieity .... n

of can

the be

i celestial written:

i =_ is to multiplied yield Eq by (50), rs _

,1,

2 ....

n subtracted of from relative Eq

(49) (48)

bodies,

M A and the A

<51)
Any asphericity n, is of the sun and in planets its effect fi' on i = 1, lunar 2 .... insignificant since small, as even can trajectories force is table. Consider the effect be seen in of the central the preceding

equations

motion,

n IVI A r_

A

_

-G

I_'I_

M A

_SA

_ of the

first. earth's

It

arises gravitational

from

the

expan-

f's

Mfl

i:_[

\r$

A

r iS/

sion

terms

potential In theory a should be inof the oblateis larger by

+
where r,A
=

,1,2....

n
(5o)

in terms of spherical harmonics. large number of harmonic terms cluded; however, the coefficient ness term (second zonal harmonic) three orders of magnitude compared all but than

the

others

(i. 10 -6 term

e., for The earth also

of order 10 -3 as the others). Thus

to the order the oblateness

rS,O_A-

r,,O-..

S

can be neglected in lunar trajectory effect of local gravitational anomalies on the lunar trajectory is very small be neglected.

studies. of the and will

ri S Actually have been change illustrated of any other chosen symbols in the

, O-_S

, O_i If US represents then the tire expansion harmonics not yet can earth's of U_ gravitational in terms and of seetoral welI enough poas the with moon, could an appropriate geometry is

body, such as a reference in Eq following

tential,

(50). The sketch:

zonal spherical harmonics have for their inclusion)

(tesseral been determined be written

-

rs A n=l

Jn

Pn

(sin

d o

/

\-

//

US

(52) is n the = 1,2 from and given radius geocentric Legendre form of U® has distance .... geodetic in of Chapter the earth are and II, of the vehicle from constants measurethe mean 163 do') is do'. the The Inter(Ref. comparim), the the

where
j 1, -_p 61

r$ Jn'

a

earth, (determined ments) equatorial do' is the

empirical satellite R e is (R e and

= 6,378, Pn (sin sin by

latitude, polynomial been on

associated above
/ / 7 (s_ace vehi©il)

of adopted

national _®lO...z _ 9).
0 (lllu.ycenter)

Commission Let US Eq

Celestial U 3, where,

Mechanics by

= U 0 + U 2+ (51)

son
#%

with GM$

The

unit

vectors

_@

,

YS

'

Az$

define

the in which given.

geoU0 = rs A

centric equatorial the equations of ^ unit vector, x S, vernal equinox,

coordinate motion, Eq is and in the the xS

system (50), are of plane

The

direction y$

the forms

mean the U2 = Ghl_ rt_ A J2 (Re \r S AI _ 2 3 sin 2 do' -2 1 (53)

mean equatorial plane of the earth. defined in the preceding sketch are be resolved into components in this system.

All vectors assumed to coordinate U3 = GI¥I_ rs A =. n_ _ Jn (Re _ n Pn (sin q_')

IV -23

U0 represents spherically the symmetric earth,whichhasalreadybeen acounted by for r_ A
the term -G --3---r_A to gravity coordinates the M_ in Eq (50). UI, the term if the the corresponding center of origin of U 2 is harmonic) pansion, zonal lected above. J2 n = 1 in Eq (52), vanishes of the earth coincides with (Ref. 10, p 43). term the largest (or term the second in higher zonal the ex-

The in the

term direction the center

a is of of force

the the the

semiaxis earth, moon

of rSA to the

inertia is the

of

the

moon,

distance U{ the spherimosymis diforthoIb and Ie 0

from is cally ment metry, a triaxial the

vehicle, from

central symmetric about and the

term moon,

arising U #1 shows

that

the by

center comes (i. axes from of

of

mass about

vanishes since ellipsoid mutually Ia, the the

U q2 ellipsoid

moon with

e., in the

an three

oblateness is

ferent gonal are the

semimajor directions moments

which while

center). about

U 3 represents earth

order

inertia

three

princisuch

harmonics of the for lunar trajectory The numerical = 1082.28 and f x

which studies value for 10 -6 . be the by are x@, Eq given (50),

may be negas mentioned

pal semiaxes of inertia, that c is along the lunar earth's direction (excluding b completes equatorial The coincide the plane. selenographic with d_ the and principal [_q right-hand

a, b and c of the moon, polar axis, a is in the small librations) and system in the lunar

Let

f_x, of these

f_y

@z

y@

z@

comThe

coordinate axes are then vector (or between the of

axes inertia

x S,

YS' a, b,

Zs c.

ponents Then

f-@ as

defined

respectively. by

angles

defined to the

to

be

the and and

components

angle between the the lunar equatorial 0U 2 latitude), (54) the radius ships are and the

radius plane angle

the vehicle selenographic Ys-axis

OU 2 f_xax ' fsy :

_U 2 Oy ' foz

= Oz

vector, illustrated

respectively. in the

These following

relationsketch:

Next venient tation force fined

we to

turn find an

to_

.

To

obtain_ for the

,

it

is

congravi-

expression and of define the

lunar"

potential as by the

Uff gradient

the potential.

gravitational U_ is de-

Luoar
/polar Z" '

u_

= G ,¢dM¢ s
dM¢ is an element from integration The Legendre function 1
S

(:_5)

where s is and the terms _ the

of dM_

mass to over the the be

of

the

moon, vehicle, mass in of

distance indicates

space total

moon. of

can

expanded

polynomials,

u_
where (fief. Uq

=U¢o+U_l+u¢2+...
Alexandrov (Ref. given after the a ii) and Baker, values in

(56)
Makemson for notation*. U{0, Wolf

The

expressions 13) is in agree

for with

U_2 this by

given

by

Pines if

and their

(Ref.

expression R of M the (which present

12) 2 and

have U lr 3'

following slight change

symbol ponds ter). to

y VM 3 r SA

replaced the notation

eorreschap-

GM¢ U q0 rSA

*Actually, a U¢I = 0 (57) _ GMq U¢ 2 2r3A YS5 rsh a2 radius ZSA unit vector

Baker' A rSA rSA the

and in

Makemson the direction components

(Ref. of

11) the XSD, Clearly,

define vehicle YSD'

vector along

with

selenographic

axes.

I +-C

-I
a

= cos

,

ZSA rSA

-

cos

(90

-

) =

1
C

sin

_)q

.

IV -24

Theformof U( 2 in Eq(57)is givenin the selenographic coordinateystem s whichrotates withthemoon (seeprecedingketch).From s this pointonemayproceed twodifferentways. in Thefirst would betotransformU(I2 tothe geocentricequatorial oordinatessed theequac u in tionsof motion,Eq (50). Since influence the of U{ 2 onthetrajectoryis strongest earthemoon, n it is morepracticalto writethe equations moof tion in a selenocentricquatorial preferably, e or, lunarequatorial ystem s andconsequently transform U _2to thatcoordinateystem. If the secs ondapproach taken,andthenewperturbative is expression denotedyU'_2,thenthecompois b nentsof theperturbative acceleration_ in the f lunar equatorial ystem given s are formallyby
au' ¢2
f( f =

and planets must be known in coordinates. These positions the yearly American Ephemeris oblateness and the triaxiality cluded in the physical model, ues for certain other constants density required distribution as described of these in the

geocentric equatorial can be obtained from (Ref. 14). If earth of the moon are inthen numerical valof the shape and celestial previous bodies are subsection.

For lunar trajectories, the differential equation, Eq (50), is solved numerically on a digital computer. There are several methods of integration available (Cowell's method, Encke's method, for example), each with its own advantages and disadvantages for a specific physical problem. In addition one can use various numerical integration techniques (Runge-Kutta technique, for example), in which the integrand is represented by a polynomial of finite order at each computation step. Two types of errors arise from the integration technique, one due to the finite number of terms in the series, called the truncation error, and an error due to the finite number of digits carried on the computer, called the round-off error. In general it can be stated that the fewer the total number of computation steps in a given physical problem, the less the error. The term special perturbations is given to the determination of a trajectory by numerical integration; a more complete discussion of special perturbations can be found in Chapter IV of Ref. 3. The numerical integration of space vehicle trajectories and the orbits of celestial bodies is based upon one of three methods, and variations thereof. The most direct in concept is Cowell's method. In this method the rectangular components of acceleration in the equations of motion are integrated directly, yielding the rectangular components of velocity and position. One disadvantage of the method is that the acceleration term in the integration changes rapidly with time, thereby necessitating the use of small computatior steps (or time intervals). A second method, and the one most often used in ballistic trajectory computations, is Encke Ts method. of obtaining the actual position and nates, the difference between the and velocity coordinates and that orbit are computed. Some time, epoch of osculation, is utilized to erence curve. This implies that the epoch of osculation, the effccts bations are small and can thus be Itere, instead velocity coordi actual position of a Keplerian designated the define the reffor times near of the pertursummed over

au'(
2

o
U' _2

(58)
Expressions Chapters VII for and _q II. the knowledge distribution beyond (56) are U _2 too of inside in the of the lunar shape the moon is expansion for U_ a, on that , b, Eqs c, their (56 I a, I b, of and U'_2 will be given in

and slight U_

At this time the density and given terms by In the in moon is UI_ constant accurate together Eq

uncertain for

inclusion. and I (57), given

the

expressions values II, the are based

numerical

of

c of the sity More

Chapter and

observations the lunar den-

assumption

over concentric numerical values with available be observed local as lunar soon from

ellipsoidal shells. and expressions gravity anomalies

for

will become satellite can and the when moon. b.

as a long-term lunar the lunar surface can be made on

gravity

measurements

Brief discussion and techniques

of

integration

methods

Expressions for all gravitational terms equation of motion of the space vehicle, Eq have been given previously. Before turning the nongravitational force term __n A M_in Eq

in the (50), to (50), of

it is helpful to discuss the method of solution this vector differential equation which corresponds to three second-order scalar differential equations, or order differential The vehicle tion and problem as velocity an equivalent equations. is at to find of some time initial the system of six first-

relatively large time intervals. A disadvantage lies in the fact that a new epoch of osculation must be introduced when the effects of the perturbations known Another as become rectifying method large. This the Keplerian the Variation procedure reference of Parameters Clemence studies 17, for is orbit. (Ref. (Baker exam-

is

position subject time to

of its

the

space posior

which is discussed 15). There have et al., Ref. 16, ple) of methods bility and the in advantages terms

by been Pines of

Brouwer and some recent et al., Ref. of the simplicity, time, as various area well

a function

t = t O,

integration of applicaas accuracy

its motion or trajectory. Mathematically ing, this is an initial value problem differential equations with time t as pendent variable and the coordinates

speakin ordinary the index_ , y$ , z

and computing interpretation. For long-term artificial

term

ephemerides, satellites of not

the

such earth

as and

longmoon

as the dependent variables. In order with the solution, the positions of the

to proceed moon, sun

and periodic numerical

circumlunar methods are

and allunar well suited

trajectories, since a

IV -25

very largenumber f computation o stepsarerequiredandhence accumulated the error becomes excessive.In thesecasesonemustresort to general erturbations, hichis theanalytical p w integration seriesexpansions theperturbing of of forces,or a combinationf specialandgeneral o perturbations.Examples f general o perturbations are thevariouslunartheoriesdiscussed Chapin ter III. A discussion general erturbations of p canbefound Chapter Vof Ref. 3. in 1
For short transit trajectories as envisioned for approach, impact, lunar landing, the accuracy afforded by general perturbation theory is offset by its following inadequacies: (I) the theories have not yet included a complete analysis of all perturbing accelerations such as solar radiation pressure, and (2) the theories are very complicated to program (although short in machine time) and almost impossible to check. For these reasons general perturbation theories will not be discussed any further in this chapter. In order to compare turbation methods, the marily from page F-2 Method Cowell's the various special following table taken of Ref. 18 is useful: perpri-

choice is between use of a single computation step technique such as the Runge-Kutta, a fourth-order multistep predictor'-corrector technique such as Milne's and Adams-Moulton's or a higher order multistep technique such as Adams' Backward Difference, Obrechkoff, and Gauss-Jackson. There exist also special techniques for secondorder differential equations such as the special Runge-Kutta and Milne-Storrner. For each multistep technique special formulas (for example, a Runge-Kutta technique or a Taylor series expansion) must be devised for starting the scheme at the given initial conditions. The most important factors in the choice of an integration technique for space vehicle trajectories are high speed and good accuracy. The latter involves low truncation or round-off error, ease of changing step size and little error growth. The round-off error can be reduced by using a double precision process, i.e., by carrying all dependent variables in double precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various schemes are discussed more fully in Chapter IV of Ref. 3 (see also Refs. 15 and 18). For ballistic lunar trajectories Encke's integration method or a variation thereof seems to be best suited due to the smallness of the perturbations throughout the trajectory (this can be seen by the way successive two-body problems can be used to describe the trajectory relatively accurately). The epoch of osculation should be changed whenever the sphere or volume of influence of the moon is entered or left. For an accurate simulation of large thrusts during the flight, Cowell's method is preferable during rocket burning. Of the various integration techniques Ref. 18 seems to favor slightly the GaussJackson scheme over the others, while the Obrechkoff scheme ires been found useful in the reduction of computing time. The interplanetary (and lunar) trajectory program described in Ref. 13 uses a modified Encke's method with an Adams' sixth-order nique which backward difference integration techis initiated by a Runge-Kutta scheme. its widespread use in Encke's method will This method is

Advantages Simplicity in pro gramming and analysis Universally applicable Coordinate conversion unnecessary

Disadvantages Increased number

of integration steps Excessive error accun_ulation Increased computin_ time Detection of small perturbations di[ficult

Encke's

Smaller

number

Increased

co ill -

of integration steps than Cowell' s method Reduced computing time as compared with Cowell' s method hnproved racy Detection small tions Variation Parameters of Smaller accuof perturba-

puting time for each step Complex program Special program for nearparabolic orbits

Encke's method. Due to ballistic lunar trajectories, be described in this subsection. used with program program, modifications trajectories

some modifications in the trajectory described in Ref. 13. This trajectory in turn, has been used with some minor for the calculation of n-body lunar in this manual. the discussion of the basic Eq Encke's (50) method repeated

number

of integration steps than Cowell's Reduced computing time relative to Cowell's hnproved accuracy as compared with Cowell' s (about same as Encke's) Detection of small perturbations

Most complex to program Most computing time Most useful for earthsatellites of moderate eccentricity

For without here:

modifications,

consider

.. M A rq)

A

= -G

rsA Tr$ A

M@M

A

+}-(9 MA

[VIi M A

+ fi M Another tions is the consideration integration in numerical technique to be calculaused. The

+ nAM

A,

i :{,1,2

....

n

IV -26

n

Dividing this equationy MA b
A

and

taking

the

dot

+_ i=_

(-G)(_ \rOA i =q ,1,2

--_

- _-_ rio/ n

M i.

product the The comes xO

with YO

xo, zO

_O

'

_O'

respectively, of vehicle acceleration

yields acceleration. beand

components of vehicle

....

(62)
°,

x O -component

similar Consider

expressions the first term

hold in

for Eq and

r_ OA (62).

and

_'O/',"

•. xo/,,

= -G

XOA _ ro A

Taking by

1VI O

+ fox

only (-1),

the it

term in parentheses can be written

multiplying 3

Ou +_ _Jq i : ff with similar Here x YO zo terms and of the all fix , 1, 2 .... expressions represents coordinates, of nAx the is ith the the of _-G)('x-_ \roA n for Y'O A and z'o A" in gravivehicle of the reactNow, _0A' expressing n0A' g0A roA in terms of -_ _ rio/ Mi+fix 1 +mA x rou rOA/ rou

- _y_ roA

xO

3 (59) = _3_ 1 rou tx OA _O,,X 3 rou rOA xo

_

x O -component, the aspherical affecting

= -

_-rou

r OA

xo/x

-

_0

tational motion, sultant ing on

body

(63)

x-component

nongravitational in xO YO zo

accelerations coordinates.

x_0,

Y00,

zo0,

vehicle

For brevity tational terms, other may be (59) become:

neglect all but the spherical gravii.e., n-body motion, since the superimposed at the end. Then Eqs

2 rOA

= x 2OA

+ y2

A +z

2OA

n

= (Xou+

_OA)

2 + (you

+ 0OA)

2 + (Zou+

gOA)

2

xo :
r • A i = _ with similar

% +_
i_-=Jq , 1, 2 .... n for Y'O& and Z'OA. rOA io

Mi,
2 = r OU (60) + _2A+ r_2A+ _'2_A (64) + 2x Ou _ OA + 2You r_OA + 2z Ou _OA

expressions

Then follow of its comunperXou' 2 rOA --2 _=I+2 rou for Put + i/2 rlOA)r_OA + (Zou 2 rou + i/2 t2OA)_jOA

Consider if acted on the earth. ponents turbed YOu" The this of

the path that the vehicle would only by the gravitational attraction Let the vehicle radius vector, position
..

(Xou+

1/2

_OA)_OA

+ (You

and two-body
..

acceleration motion
,,

in be

this r Ou,

restricted Zou' unperturbed case are: and

Xou, vehicle

YOu'

Zou' equations

respectively. of motion

(65)

OXou _:" Ou r'_ Ou
°° .°

(Xou+ IVIo (61)

1/2

_$A)_OA

+ (you

+

1/2

NOA)rTOA

+ (ZOu q=

+
r

and

similar

expressions

for YOu

and

Zou.

1/2 2 Ou

_OA)_OA

Subtract new tions ZoA Then

Eqs

(61) from gOA' = _O/x'

Eqs

(60),

and

define Then rela2 roA_ =l+2q

(66)

coordinates XOA - Zou - Xou

T)O/',' _OA YO&

by the

- YOu

= r_o/',' r O uj and 3

= _OA"

""

:

( xOA

Xou Ou

"_

rO-u'} rOA/

= (1+

2q)

-3/2

IV-27

Assume differ so that

that the true much from the _OA,_OA, to of Xou, the You, increments _A'

orbit, Eq Keplerian are Zou. In can very

(60), does orbit, Eq small case neglected. in the

not (61), com-

+f OY

M. 1

parison squares Thus,

that be

(71) + fiyl+ nAy

q

_

Xou

_OA

+ YOu r

2

rio&

+ Zou

_'OA

(67)

Ou n

Ou Further, assume thus enabling the expansion in Eq (63). These method. ing been h arc the Sometimes multiplied to q is first small few compared terms of tile term to unity, binomial (r®u--_3/-_ \rOA/

+ fo +
i={ _J + fi; + nA z

E-G) (L k
\rok

rio/

Mi

tile r-h

approximate

L
Then,

fundamental they by tile

witlbe

equations of encountered factor,

Encke's havh 2, this

constant of

If-

RrOA/

5

-3/2

(68)

where interval. method

represents An actual is given by

the width numerical Brouwer

the interpolation example using (Ref. 15, p 179).

Thc

series

used converge

in

the for

expansion - ½< of q<

of

Eq

(68) is in

can well the

be

shownto outside n-body Define

½ which

The reference orbit used in this description of Encke's method is the restricted two-body orbit, Eq (61). The method may be modified to use other' types of reference orbits which would be more advantageous for' the particular geometry and force model. d. Description gram of the n-body trajectory pro-

its practical trajectory

limit program.

applicability

f

=

1 -

(1

+ 2q) q

-3/2

(69)

Note that f changes much less staying very close to 3 when thus easy to interpolate giving of f. Equation and (69): (63) then becomes

rapidly than q, q is small. It is q as a function

The trajectory body integrated is described in have been made, is able to give mass M,X gravitational triaxially and Jupiter. bodies as tory are

program used for obtaining nlunar trajectories in this manual detail in Ref. 13. Some additions so that the program at present the motion of a point mass with

by

use

of

Eqs

(64),

(67)

(simulating the space vehicle) under the attraction of the oblate earth, the ellipsoidal moon, the sun, Venus, Mars The positions of these celestial obtained from the U. S. Naval Observastored in tim program in geocentric equa) for inter-

Xou rou

x_)A rOA

i fqxoA rou of fol_OA) (70)

torial 12-hr

rectangular intervals

coordinates for the moon

(x O , YO ' z_ and for 24-hr

Substitution of Eq (70) into Eq (62) and addition the terms that have been neglected yields tb_, lowing perturbation equations of motion:

GM O _'$A = rT Ou (fqXOA {OA )

vals for the sun and planets. A special input variable allows the use of this position data for the specified time period. In addition a subroutine for computing lunar librations from the rectangular tx)sition coordinates of the moon exists, and is described in Section C of Chapter III. It will be incorporated in the program as soon as a satisfactory interpolation routine can be established. The force model for this trajectory has also

+ fox

+i_• n q _ -G) :

(_-'_ \roA

provisions for including symmetric atmosphere The atmospheric drag motion are described There sure aI'e plans and other

drag due to a spherically rotating with tile earth. terms in the equations in the next subsection. solar radiation forces. pres-

of

+ fixl+

nAx

to include nongravitational

n

OA

= - _
r

qYOA Ou

The n-body Encke numerical in Subsection two-body of the orbit pcrturbative

trajectory program integration method 3d. The unperturbed is rectified distance, as soon -speed,

uses a modified as described restricted as or the ratios numerical

IV -28

value

of acceleration

exceeds reference as follows:

i%

of the

respective proce-

restricted two-body dure is essentially (1)

orbit.

Tile

The most significant body in the system is selected (initially this is the earth, and if the trajectory approaches the moon, the moon); Eqs (61) are solved numerically on the computer. This numerical solution can always be checked by the known analytical solution. Equations sixth-order (60) are Adams is then solved backward started by using difference a Rungea

cular due to solar slowly spiraling vestigators have on satellites and,

radiation, into the sun. studied the have found M __

while simultaneously, More recently ineffects of this force that for a vehicle

mass

to

area

ratio)\-_-

< t). 0t

_m/cm 2"

,

a

sizable

(2)

perturbation occurs in the orbital elements (see Ref. 12). The essential qualitative effect of radiation pressure is a displacement of the center of the orbit, which is especially evident for circular and near-circular orbits (Ref. 19). In these studies one of two possible approaches is taken. Either this force is obtained neglecting those times when the space vehicle is eclipsed by the earth or moon and hence the radiation pressure does not act (this is termed tbe shadow time), or the force shadow time as a function is included of the orbital by expressing elements the of the the

technique which Kutta scheme. (3) The are x@& z_& corrected then

coordinates by using Y@zx and

of the body the = Y_u relations: + n_/x, ones for

obtained _@_, _ _A

= X@u+ = Z_u+

similar

velocity and acceleration When the perturbations limits, new solutions Eq (61), and the orbit 4. Nongravitational Forces

components. exceed the are obtained is rectified.

above for

vehicle (i.e., of parameters For the be neglected the radiation vehicle-centered essentially Let photon, and c the P and Ep where constant From = hvp h = mc P be Ep

as a perturbation method).

in

variation

Having pearing in trajectories, gravitational resultant It should of be

discussed all gravitational terms apEq (50), which are significant for lunar let us turn our attention to the nonforces acting on the vehicle, the which noted to be was that used they equatorial termed ff the in must nAi_}x forces Eq (50) in Eq (50). subtracom-

present analysis, the shadow time will and the rectangular components of pressure will be given in terms of coordinates. This analysis follows Kochi and Staley (Ref. 20). the its speed magnitude energy, of light; m of its the momentum mass, of a

equivalent

then (73)

discussed and the

sequently jectory ponent Let

are program, form in

be expressed in geocentric coordinates.

= mc x

2

(74)

nAMA where = = = =

= _s

+

D+

D E + _)M + T + Rre

1

(72)

= 6. 625

10 -39

joule-see of

is the

Planck's radiation.

and v is the frequency Eqs (73) and (74) hvp

S

force

due

to

the drag

solar force forces

radiation

pressure

P

C

(75) magnitude pressure, of the Ps' force then per is unit area due

atmospheric electromagnetic meteoritic rocket relativistic of motion, will the thrust

The to radiation

drag

force Ps force where

hv = ----P e

N

(76)

¥
Rrel

=

N vehicle

is

the per

number unit power time

of

photon on a unit at

collisions area. the space WA If

with WA vehicle WA = h Vp

=

corrections

to

the

equations

the is

the

radiated

arriving

These above a.

forces order Solar

in

be discussed following pressure

more subsections.

fully

in

the per unit area of the vehicle, then

N = _p

radiation

and h Vp PS = e WA "_= WA c

Outside the confines of the earth's atmospher% the most significant natural nongravitational force acting on a vehicle arises from solar radiation pressures can be seen from the table on page IV-2_.. It is due to the absorption and emission of photons by the space vehicle and is a consequence of the photon nature of light. Studies have been made previous to the launching of space vehicles coneerning the effects of this solar radiation pressure on the orbits of micrometeorites around the sun. These studies that the orbits by of Poynting and micrometeorites Robertson became indicated more cirmust

The also a factor

type be qs

of photon collision with taken into consideration. be introduced total black qs such

the that

vehicle To do 0 <qs

this, < 1

will

where qs or perfect photon

= 0 represents absorber, and

momentum body, i.e.,

transfer, an inelastic a perfect

collision,

= 1 represents

IV -29

reflector, Hence WA PS = _

i.e.,

an elastic

photon

collision.

reflectivity, perfect pendicular

zero reflector, to th_

for A

s

a black the area

body and 1 for of the vehicle line, vector ,O M A its of ---A the : rOA

a permass,

vehicle-sun tile radius write

(i + qs )

(77) and ,_r-_ ,6) the that Eq __.& is sun. (81) vehicle ro0

Let

W O

represent 2 per

the

total

radiated of the

power sun

(in

from so

Next becomes

watts/era

hemisphere) Then by the

at all Law:

frequencies.

Stefen-Boltzmann

_ Ps0 W6) where = _ cr T 4 A6) _ is the total sun empirically (_ = 1.0, x determined i.e., the sun is a (78)

(1

+ qs ) A s

_

--

)

(82)

_

XL_Ir*z_

%0

13

(r*zx

%0

emissivity perfect is the

of the radiator)jc_

= 5.67

I0 -8 watts/m

2 (°K) 4

Since the position of the vehicle is continually computed during a trajectory run on the computer and since the positions of the sun are stored, Eq (82) may be solved as soon as A is specified.
S

Stefan-Boltzmann

constant_

a constant

of'proportionality and T defined by Eq

determined (78)j

experimentally

For tion tion

all of

but spherical space vehicles A requires a knowledge of s with respect to the vehicle-sun can Yb' be Zb given with with origin respect at the to vehicle

the vehicle line.

computaorientaThis

is the

absolute

temperature

in °K,

line Xb'

body

axes center of

A(D

is the Now the

surface radiant

area energy

of the per

sun. second, vehicle sun, distance W A, perpenwhich is r@ ,6)

impinging dicular regarded is given

to

upon a unit the line-of-sight a point

area

of the to the at a

gravity, and these axes can be transformed to the geocentric equatorial coordinates by the transformation given in Table 2. The folIowing sketch illustrates the geometry in this case.

as by

source,

Equation(82)

shows

that--_s MA

depends A
S

very

W6) WA= _r 2 • ,6) ,_ -

_ o T 4 A O 2 7rrt_,6 ) _A

strongly (79)

on

the

area-to-mass moon

ratio

_AA"

It

is

quite negligible for the for dense space vehicles, for light and unorthodox D
S

and planets, small and becomes sizable vehicles such as balloons.

The point source since any trajectory is more than 100 Hence the solar is given by T 4 2 7r er@, where along factor value distance blaekbody The radiation Ps the from for the of the space acceleration pressure, is in O the

approximation is reasonable in the vicinity of the earth solar diameters from the sun. radiation pressure per unit area

The thus metals.

term qs

_7-A- also m may The approach shadow

depends 0.98 time

on for may

the

type

of

surface--

highly be

polished neglected for will and earth approach orbits.

_o Ps =

A 0 (1 _A opposite line, to dyne-era sec radiation is Ps direction and 107 An pressure = 4 •5 x (Fief. the iS vehicle given by 21). due to the solar 10 -5 is + qs ) x 107 _ cm from the sun (80)

lunar trajectory studies since the trajectory be in sunlight during most approach, impact, circumlunar trajectories. However, during or moon orbital phase the shadow time may half of the total time in orbit for low-altitude A discussion and graphical time as a function of orbital Chapter XII1 of Ref. 3. b. Atmospheric drag and presentation elements is

vehicle-sun watts solar earth

a conversion

of shadow given in

approximate at the dynes 2 em for a lift

vehicle of _s,

Ds MA where

-

Ps0

(1 MA

+ q) r2,6)

A s --A

%
r_

,6) ,0

_A ---A

(81)

In connection with lunar trajectories, the contribution of atmospheric drag need only be considered in the short time period when the vehicle is in the immediate vicinity of the earth. Thus, its significance is much less important than in the case of earth satellite vehicles. However, during parking orbits around the earth, atmospheric drag becomes of decisive importance in the selection of orbital radius and eccentricity; a discussion of this force wit1 be included here, The acceleration force can be of a expressed space as vehicle due to the

drag

_T PsO =

4 A6) 7rc

x

107 -'Y 1

022 dynes

1
divided vehicle

aa
Va2 V_ (8_)

M-- : - _c D _0 2

is by

the %

total qs'

force 0__< qs--<

due 1,

to is

solar the

radiation space

IV -30

Space vehicle

xb

Yb

2

where CD free and A
a_

equatorial of the is the drag coefficient flow in the (usually case the one for satellites molecular space is the
a

system

frame _O a'

VO

_5 and

the

velocity

atmosphere

Thus,

of earth

vehicles) area of the space vehicle perpendicular At altitudes below be assumed to rotate this with relative to the V(1)a = _'0 x rOA studies it is useful C A D a = _ to introduce (86) 500 with kin, the atmosphere can the earth so that under by

to V Pa is the is the
a

density velocity

of the of the

atmosphere vehicle

assumption the velocity of the aimosphere respect to the equatorial sysiem is given

atmosphere. For parametric Substituting for (86) into (85)

a ballistic the drag

coefficient

B

which

gives

Va : _eA
In order to

- 5e x Fe_
express note that V a in rectangular

(sv)
geocentric

acceleration

_[Z

:

-BpV

a

va
C D can assumption be in calculated the kinetic

coordinates, (84) -* VOA

The free

drag

coefficient flow

from

. : xOAxo A

+ YO_

>Ai_ +

zoA

_O

(88)

molecular

theory of orientation of the air of C D is for

gases. of the molecules 2. 0 for other vehicles orientation of a

It depends vehicle as with its spherical vehicle A a as of vehicle tumble to the in

on the geometry and well as the interaction surface. The value _O x rOA = and For as all slightly but vary_, to Va . with If Eqs (88) result into acceleration are Eq

vehicles, shapes. well

larger spherical with In tile the

AAA t
O _b
0

zo

A

_oO

= _a O

xOAY

O

C D will relative tumble

xOAyoA

zoA Eq

- _O y@A

x@

vehicle a random

case

a short period of period or compared for lunar trajectories, Aa A A =--4' where

compared to the orbital the time in the atmosphere a good approximation is the surface area of the

substituted into (34), the magnitude is given by:

(87) and the of the drag

D = M---A
A/, is

-g

p

(_2 OA
x_A )

-

2_° O

xoA

YOA

+ 2_0

xo_

_'OA

vehicle. V a vehicle velocity with respect to the geocentric can be written as tile difference of the

+ _)

(89)

IV-31

The

number

of molecules

per

unit volume.

NO,

('.an

be oblained from the kinetic theory the case of an isothermal atmosphere and constant molecular weight and

of _ases. In (T : constant) composition

geocentri( Table 2

can

equalorial coordinates be performed.

as

given

in

N O : where m h : :

N 1 exp

I

-_'P'-

(he

-

helj

(90)

the

constant above

mass earth

of

each

molecule

Atmospheric lift will be neglected for" parking orbits and lunar lrajectories since it is several orders of magnitude less than the drag at orbital attitudes, I{owever, during the intermediate stages of ascent to orbil or injection, and in the initial stages of a nonballistic re-entry, tiffs force becomes important. The magnitude of the lift I, is defined, analogously to the magnitude of the drag D, by tile equation

e

altitude

L : = the constant acceleration 1. 380 constant x 10 -23 value of" the gravitations] where jou,es/°K, Boltzmann's

:

C L

A a 0 Va 2

(92)

g_ k

C L

is

the

lift

coefficient to C D from theory

which free of

can molecular gases. to

be

computed assumption

similarly in the

kinetic plan_

Tile < by

T h

: =

absolute altitude,

temperature

in '_K lift force f_is irt a perpendicular in g. lhis plane Consider to rod _ definition, specified reference condiis then given b3 poor' approximaa variation of weight pressure, from this atmosphere" which is vector namely in and its dir'eclion by the bank angle this planeperpendicular r(B A f = "w .r@, 5 V x V--" a a is a unit and V a,

Subscript I designates some tion. The atmospheric density P = N0mtion of the temperature However, atmosphere, T, g@, this as is and well

a very usually as

A

unit

vector

orthogonal

molecular

is assumed with altitude and any other quantities assumption. The latest is the 1961 U.S. Standard used in all work in this this atmosphere varies to an altitude of 700 kin. varies additionally with dependence of the earttFs

and the density, are computed such "standard Atmosphere,

a

a

to

Yw is

given

. by

_w _ _

x

----A x \_--ro a

manual. The density in with altitude and is given Actually the density latitude due to the latitudegravilational potential

The axes, as tile

unit

vectors a angle of is attack the yaw

_w rotation _.

__

a V_a

'

*, Ywand the x

_w w

define is

wind defined is

where the angle bank

about a rotation and a l]. and
W

-axis the about

about rotation Wind _ are

Yw-axis the and the in

U_ by, about _2% and with the solar activity (which at the higher altiludes may cause very large deviations from the standard density). These variations from the standard atmospheric density may be neglected, however, as long as only hmar trajectories or a few orbits near the earth are considered. Jusl as in the case of solar lhe drag acceleration is small lllass ralio or dense vehicles significant for light vehicles The drag force decreases altitude and may be neglected time operations above 700 For vehicle venient form accurate orientation to along 1 1) x : -_ C x Are f P V a (91) express the body drag is the axes 2 very km. and il force x b, Yb' is when tnot'e lhe conradiation for small and becomes such pressure area-tomore

(_,

Zw-aXis bank the angle

angle az

axes

_ between sketch:

illustrated

following

Perpendicular _Plane

as balloons. substanlially with for all but long-

computations significant drag

D i_ Zb'

c()lnponeltl

l)y

= -½Cy 1

Aref

P

a 2

D z where in the slant vehicle. known,

: -_

C z Are

f p Va2 in , C x , the C force and are A absorbed is a conis

l he in the

drag

at.(

,:1_ rat _
W

ion

_

as

given

b>,

Eq

(_3)

all the variations coefficients C reference Once the

negative

-direction.

) z area characterizing the orientation ol from

the body

ref _hc spacc vehicle axes [o

is

transformation

IV-32

e.

Electromagnetic

forces

V P

=

speed of the plasma

space

vehicle

relative

to

In most trajectory a lunar trajectory neutral, and beyond which is regarded phere, ideal it is condition assumed does

calculations the vehicle on assumed to be electrically some altitude (700 km), as the upper limit of the atmosis to not move exist in a vacuum. in space, and This the where

Vef

=

the average electron in

thermal speed of an the medium, given by

Vef m

= is

O. 145 the atomic

T/m

e weight of an electron. Eq (93) cases,

effects of several will influence the

electromagnetic vehicle trajectory

phenomena very slightly. limits be in a

e

Even though these effects are small, upper to the deceleration of space vehicles should determined and they should be considered detailed trajectory analysis. The moves (Ref. contains medium consists 12) states between

This negative amounts to

only

potential a few

obtained volts in

from typical

through which the space vehicle of charged particles. Baker that even interplanetary space 100 and 1000 charged particles which solar originate winds), of neutral from cosmic particles solar ray

Singer and Walker the ejection of electrons solar radiation striking considered due to the electrons surrounding any further electron

(Ref. 22) have proposed that caused by high-energy the vehicle need not be buildup of a screen of ejected the vehicle, thus reducing ejection.

per cubic eruptions ionization

centimeter (flares and (the ionization

An vehicle

expression which

is

for the electrically

total

force conductive

on

a space and Z.

caused by cosmic rays and gamma radiation), Higher concentrations of charged particles near earth in the inner and outer Van Allen which consist of solar particles trapped in earthts magnetic field. Recently a temporary radiation belt was created by a high-altitude hydrogen is expected bomb to explosion last for of several July 9, years. 1962

occur belts the

magneticaily permeable has been given by M. V. Krzywoblocki, et al., in f%ef. 23. Starting from Maxwell' s equation for moving media he derived the force on a body due to the electrostatic field, the magnetic field and a final expression for the force acting on a moving body in an electromagnetic field. Due to our" interplanetary scant knowledge medium and of the cislunar the large and

which

A space station in a stationary plasma (an electrically neutral medium containing charged particles) will collide with both slow moving positive ions and fast moving electrons and build a small excess of net negative change on its surface. Another vehicle, to the As 0A, plasma. the vehicle travels at several km/sec, its factor stems affecting from its the potential with of the

and

up

motion

respect

unpredictable fluctuation of its number-density with solar eruptions, the material given in this subsection has been primarily of an illustrative nature. The presence of these particles and the radiation will influence the trajectory of the lunar vehicle only slightly; their pressure, however, is of primary importance from the standpoint of shielding requirements for any human occupants in the space vehicle. d. Meteoritic drag

collision rate with the positive ions, which move more slowly, increases as compared to the stationary plasma collision rate, whereas the collision rate with the electrons, which move much faster than the positive ions, remains unaltered. Thus, vehicle motion tends the induced negative voltage from the cussed above. Beard expression moving is: and for through Johnson(Ref. the such potential, a plasma 21) OA' with have of a essentially to decrease source dis-

In the attempts to analyze the force acting upon a space vehicle due to meteoritic drag, experimental evidence is taken primarily fr_om past observation of meteoritic contact with the earth (l_ef. 20) to which some space probe data has been added recently. Due to the rarity of large meteorites impinging even upon a body the size of the earth, it can be assumed that the probability of a small lunar vehicle being hit by such a meteorite would be extremely small; therefore, it will be neglected. Ilence, it will be assurned that micvometeorites contribute the only significant meteoritic drag perturbation. Ideally one would like to know meteor density, mass flux, velocity and spatial distribution as a function of position and time for the sporadic background as well as for meteoritic showers. Only the sporadic background flux can be considered here. Estimates of the accretion of meteoritic material by geophysical experiments of meteoritic is 2000 tons to a meteoritic of the that the earth evidence indicates material (Refs. 20, density atmosphere. micrometcoritcs vary widely, but from both optical that the maximum hitting the earth 24). This would of 0M = 5 x Furthermore, (i.e., extensive and radio arnount per day correspond g_cm 31 it meteorites is

derived satellite V P .

an

speed

It

_/,,

= _

q-ek'I" fn

( _

_Ip

/

(93)

where k = 1. 380 x 10 -23 joules/° K, Boltzmann's

constant T : absolute o K temperature of the plasma in

l0 -21

qc

= 1.602 x 10 -19 an electron

coulomb,

the

charge

of

outside believed

IV -33

withmagnitudesetween b theranges 20and30or radii lessthanabout100 microns)constitute 95% of themeteoriticmaterialhittingtheearth(Ref. 20). Also, meteorites canenterthe earth's atmosphere onlywithvelocitiesbetween1and 1 72kin/seerelativeto theearth. Thelowerlimit onvelocitiesof entryis dueto the gravitational acceleration ofthe particlebythe earth, while theupperlimit is thesumof theparabolic velocity for a solarorbit at thedistance ofthe earth (42km/sec)andthe earth's orbital velocity(30 km/see). Assume thatthedirectionof motion the of meteorites random is alongthelunartrajectory (this hypothesis invalidnearthesurfaceof the is earthor the moon whichshieldthevehiclefrom below) ndthatthemeteorites a areso smallas to evenly distributedin space. Thenthemass,MM of meteorites strikingthevehiclein thetime intervalAt from any one direction is:
MM where = is the material the average in density space area to the of meteoritic 1 = _PM AM V_M At (94)

the magnitude hicle becomes

of

this

total

force

on

the

space

ve-

-4 D M = 2DM1 = 4 x 10 dynes. on the other stay with the veto its speed. In total force on the

In a perfectly inelastic collision, hand, all the micrometeorites hicle and must be accelerated this case the magnitude of the space vehicle becomes DM = DM1 PM AM V_M

VIBA

=

4DM1

= -8 In the case it,

x

10 -4 the skin with

dynes. micrometeorite of the some space satellite drag blasts vehicle, material, force should and

where from the together

material where is left probably This of

behind, be

the meteoritic decreased. shows even that for

type

discussion collision

and

regardless the maximum

of

the

PM

meteoritic density assumed for these caleulations the force on the satelIite is extremely small. The major importance of meteoritic impacts lies in their effect on the material of the satellite skin, i.e., the probability of puncture with resulting vefuel or gas losses, or damage to some subsystem, and the sandblasting or pitting of the skin or of optical surfaces such as lenses, windows, etc. The probabilities of a catastrophic encounter between a space vehicle and a large meteor are extremely small. A more complete discussion of meteoritic densities, representative values for fluxes, classifications, models, and the effect of rnicrometeorites on space vehicIe materials is given in Chapter II and Chapter II of Ref. 3. e. The force Rocket thrust acting thrust due to rocket burning is the space vehicle which of another must a

A M

=

cross-sectional

of

the particular

hicle perpendicular direction

VSM

=

the

average

speed

of

the

rneteo_'ites

and it has been assumed that the velocity of the micrometeorites is much larger than the velocity of the vehicle. The net momentum imparted to the vehicle sides per second is zero since the momentum of the micrometeoritic hits from the left is similarly However, vehicle (V@M those - (VsM fer, due cancelled for the from V@A) the the by those top and from bottom a the of right, and the vehicle. the velocity space of and of transvehicle

micrometeorites behind have with front The respect have net

striking relative to the

on

be

vehicle, velocity momentum on the

from

a relative rate the is of force

considered trajectory. sible to

in the complete analysis As a first approximation assume that the vehicle is thrust during injection approaches

lunar it is posaccelerated stage and that balbe

+ V@A).

or the magnitude of to meteoritic impact 1 - _PM

by an initial large to the predetermined the lunar trajectory listically conditions. considered. on

the boost velocity, the moon

DM1

=

AM

V$M

VOA

(95)

a path determined by the injection In this case thrust forces need not However, even the earliest lunar

where is

the

negative against

sign the an g/cm

indicates vehicle

that geocentric example,

this

force velocity for cm 2,

directed VOA. = 5 x

vehicles had provisions for applying corrective accelerations by both midcourse and terminal thrust to overcome any errors in initial conditions and due to our imperfect knowledge of the physicaI environment. More sophisticated missions such as lunar orbit and landing missions require one or severa/ large decelerations and accelerations of the space vehicle during the mission. Thus at some time simulation in of the planning thrust becomes of any lunar necessary. mission the

vector PM

As

illustrative 3, A M = 10m

10 -21

2

= 105

an average = 4 x 106 speed of -2 the x of force 10 -4 to

meteoritic cm/sec and 3 krn/sec due dynes. be considered to

speed of VOM a representative 105 cm/sec, impacts

= 40 km/sec vehicle the is magnitude DM1 =

= 3 x meteoritic

Also impact, micrometeorite the same

is

the

type

of

meteoritic

In most eases the thrust force is large and time for rocket burning is small compared to transit time. Then l_:ncke's integration method should be stopped at the onset of rocket burning (since the perturbing force is too large), tegration shouId be acceleration and Cowell's used to simulate

the the

In

a perfectly elastic collision the will leave the space vehicle with relative speed as that at which it hit and

by the thrust method of invehicle motion

IV -34

duringrocketburning. Theendconditions,. e., i
the used time to when define the thrust is a new rectified terminated, orbit and can the be numerical calculations of the subsequent trajectory can be continued by use of Enckefs integration method. Since the trajectory after injection is outside the denser parts of the atmosphere, lowthrust propulsion by ion engines or other devices is possible. The thrust perturbation will then act during the major part of the lunar trajectory, but it will be small enough so that Enckefs method of integration small thrust arising from Let vehicle. through where neous of mass burning. variation T may be used accelerations, rectificqation. throughout without for large some errors mtgle is

Define north and as can be

thrust east seen

components directions, from the Tv where and

T 6 and respectively. preceding well the as

T sketch, Tu

in

the Then, the

between

T 6 as A e is from the

and of the

Tel T v A

(360°-Ae),

azimuth

direction rotation from ponents. -(90-6) (270-a) T u,

measured about T v, Further = 6-90 will yield and T w by

geographic angle A e will to about about Tc_, T

north. transform T6, by the the angle Tc0

T w components rotations then the

comangle

T z by

folIowing

transformation

be the thrust It enters_the term mass n A M A which

force equations which of the is

acting of defined

on the motion by is to its the

space Eq (50) Eq(72) instantaexhaust

equations:

the the mass, in

vehicle due

decreases

a stream of Thg magnitude, of T must be

particles direction, specified.

during A

rocket and timenatural co-

ordinate system in which the components of T might be given is the body-axis system defined in Chapter III since the rocket engine is mounted in the body of the space vehicle. With the orientation of the vehicle known, it is p_ssible to obtain the x of , YO ' Table In zation into trajectory thrust _4 is z 2. components of T by the transformation

os

c_ 0

sin

c_

sin cos

6 - cos 6 sin 6

some studies components

cases the in plane.

such thrust and The to

as

in lunar force will to

landing optimibe resolved the vehicle from these of In the above

cos

A e sin

A e

_Fu_

(96)

normal transformation x O, y@ ,

o
equation

l<w j

components given Define below. a coordinate

zO

components

system

xv

Yv

Zv

with the (or in YO A sin c_ = (97)

origin at the center of gravity z -axis in the direction of the v up), the x V -axis perpendicular the general direction plane, and of the vehicle Yv-aXis

of the radius to the

vehicle, vector z
V

-axis in the

motion

trajectory

perpendicular to complete system.
cos o/ =

to the instantaneous the right-handed Denote directions problem, components x(_, y_), following the thrust by then, to T u, is

trajectory Cartesian components T v, to Tw transform Ty, Tz

plane coordinate in the

xo

A

XvYvZ

v The

respectively. the components (see T u,

(x2, +y
Tw z_)A sin 6 roA

2

\i/2

T v, in the the

T x,

z 0 directions, sketch):

respectively

COS

(5

=

ro

A

(compare to give cos We

with

the

preceding sin A e in

sketch). terms of

It xoA

remains YOA

A e and have

zoA.

IV -35

COS

A e

=

cos cos

1VE 6 2 cos iv _

specified

explicitly• effects effects of the various deal with the are mentioned, of of bodies a on

112

(98)

f.

Relativistic relativistic

Before

brief description mechanics which where

systems motion

_

A

x

z0

cos
=

x
xe_ Yon

the astronomical scale is required. The earliest formulation of mechanics in mathematical form is due to Newton. Two postulates underlie his formulation of the laws of motion: (1) there exists a universal absolute time _ in terms of which all events can be described, (2) any particle can be placed in an absolute euclidean three-dimensional space. The metric, or distance ds between any two neighboring points, of this space is given by ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 where x, y, z are of this space, and An inertial system fined as a coordinate (102)

- X_gA + (zo A XOA

Y_gA -zoA x_gA) 2

+ The expressions (98)

(X.A

_}OA

-XoA by use

Y_BZ_) of

21

1/2

the three cartesian coordinates time t is regarded as a parameter. in newtonian mechanics is desystem in which Newton' s

become,

(99):

cos

A e

=

0A

Y0A

- X_)A

Y_)

r_

laws of motion preserve their mathematical form during a transformation of coordinates. Newton avoided complications by not specifying this absolute space and this absolute time (i. e., the inertial system), They have to be specified for each experiment that is performed. Newtonian mechanics was very successful in

((X2_gA

+y2$A

/

2-n-_- 1 / 2

+ (x*n)*n

-_n

Y*_) J)(100)

sin

A e

=

-

@A

5}OA

-kOA

Y_

interpreting experimental data, and it was not until two centuries later that this theory was modified by Einstein. Einstein's special theory of relativity is based on (1) the postulate of relativity, which states that it is impossible to detect unaecelerated motion through space and (2) the velocity of light in vacuo is the same for all observers, regardless of the relative velocity of the light source with respect to the observer. The most striking distinction between special relativity and newtonian mechanics Ks the introduction of a finite maximum velocity c in special relativity while the maximum velocity in newtonian mechanics does not have any limit. As a tribute to the success of newtonian mechanics the absolute euclidean three-dimensional tained by special relativity. of an absolute time which way been by two observers abandoned. at Each space has However, could be fixed two event different now needs the been the in places four renotion some has numbers

%}OA

z_gA)

2 2

+

(z_gA

xoA

-z$_x@z

_

)(
and

+ XsA

}e_-_eA

to specify it: three space coordinates and they can be plotted as points in sional space-time with metric.

and time, four-dimen-

ds 2 = dt 2 (Eq Equations define T x, instantaneous x$A' YSA' (96), Ty, (97), T z in position xsA' (i00) terms and (i01) completely Tv, T w and coordinates This of the vehicle explicitly the T u, of T v, thrust be T win where parallel relativity latter the 103 is called

_I the

(dx

2 + dy2

+ dz 2) space-time.)

(103)

Minkowski

of Tu, velocity YSA' 2OA'

Similar to its definition in newtonian chanics, an inertial system in special is defined as a coordinate system in laws of mathematical i)hysics retain

merelativity which the their form

zsA'

method of determining the components thrust force is advantageous since the orientation does not enter the computations but rather implicitly as an input through specification When the one body starts axis, the of the with time the variation components orientation of

during a transformation of coordinates. The most general transformation between two inertial system S (x, y, z, t) and S' (x', y', z', t') in newtonian mechanics is given by the Galileo transformation t' = t, x' = x Vt, y' = y, z' = z S' In (104) moves special between

vehicle

must

V is the uniform speed with _hich to the x-axis with respect to S. the most general transformation

IV -36

SandSt is givenbythe Lorentztransformation
t' = _(t - -_x)
C

The

folh_wing

lable

Mlc_xvs

that

special

, x'

=

_(x

- Vt),

yl

=y, 2

z v = z, -1/2 , and c is the velocity

(105)

t _lativistie effects on a space vehicle become important whell its velocity or the velocity of the exhaust _ases are an appreciable fraction of the speed of light, c = 299792.5 km/sec. It shouht be noted that by letting e _ _ , _ 1 the ab_ve relativistic rocket equations reduce to the nuwt.oniau rocket equations. For lunar vehicles these relativistic corrections arc very smart and can be neglect..'d in most l_ractieal cases.

whece light are and the

_

= (1

-

V_)
C

of Since the theories nol employ mechanics relative of special nor general time of be-

in vacuo, invariants, unprimed form o[

Both i.e., coordinate the equations.

of these we may

transformations exchange without

the

primed altering

systems

relativily do as newtonian clocks moving

a universal absolute does. the readings to each other and/or

The theory of general relativity tend the postulate of relativity to of motion (not only" to unaccelerated special tional relativity) field, The such as euclidean to motion geometry

attempts accelerated motion in of

to extypes as in

a gravitathe previous

ing in a differenl gravitalional fieht will no! agree. It is therefore possible to employ the different gravitational environment and the relative velocity between an earth ol)set'_eF and a space vehicle to measure special and general relativisIie "lime dilation" effects.

systems of m _chanics events can be plotted m<nsional riemannian the m,,trie

has been as points (curved)

abandoned, and all in some four-dispace-time with

TIw

problem

of

rocket

motion

has

not

yet

been

4 ds2 = /__ i= whcr'e x i are of 1 the the the The j-I

4 gij (xi) dx.1 dx.,j (10(1)

coo_'dinates fundamental particular coordinates

and

gij

(xi)

are

the hr

components characterizing ttle pr'oblem.

metric space-time x i are

tensor used not neces-

attacked in the t w.ory of general relativity, tlowew'r, equations or motion analogous to the n-body and t'estri cl ed n -body i)roblem s of newtonian mechanics have been obtained in general form by Einstein, 1,'oek, and Papal_etrou amon_ others. The general relativistic equations of me1 iotl are so compliealed that no method of soltdiou has as yet been given. By using a simplified dynamical system of a massive body and a space \chicle analogous to the classical restricted two-body problem of newtonian mechanics, three _,eneral relativistic effects have bee_ deduced: (1) The advance approach to The deflection fields. The red-shift of the perih_,lion sun) of of light (closest plane.ts. grav!tational

sat'ily known a priori but will be assigned in some way later', the only restriction being that the same method of assigning coordinates be used throughout, The laws of physics are assumed to be unaffected by the choice of coordinates and {:an theref'ore be expressed in an invariant form. This means that as a guide one uses the principle of covariance: There must be no preferred coordinate can be equations ordinate The system. insured which systems. equations This principle by use of tensor's have the same of covarianee and tensor form in all co-

the by

(2)

(3)

of fieht Ref.

spectral near its

lines source.

by

the

gravitational Krause simplifying periodic elements decived in assumption, perturbations of a near-earth

25, b 5 use of the above the secular and longin the osculating orbital satellite.

of

mathematical

physics

in

special relativity and general relativity should reduce to the corresponding equations in newtonian mechanics ii' the finite maximum velocity c in the relativistic equations is replaced by an infinite one. Thus, in the problem of space vehicle motion, special relativity may be regarded as a "corceetion" to newtonian mechanics at high space vehicle . u speeds and general relativity as a "eorrectmn to NewtonWs taw of gravitation. Contributions to special relativistic made rocket by equations for example

The theory of general relativity gives the effect of gravitational fields, and the stronger the field. the more pronounced i's effect on the trajectory. But, just as in the case of special relativity, gen_,ral relativistic effects are very small for lunar vehicles and call be neglected in practical trajectory calculations. For example, the advance of perigee of a near-earth satellite, as calculated by LaPaz (Ref. 26) amounts only to several hundreds of seconds of arc pe._' century. 5. Accuracy/ of closing Computed Trajectories models suman in

kinematics and dynamics many investigators and have been presented hy by Krause relativistic equations line and has been in

have been the fundamental many authors,

Hell 25, To illustrate special effeets, lhe lollowing summary of for the motion of" a _.ockct in a straighl without any extem_al ['orces acting on it taken fFon'l tlef. 25.

Before and trajectory marize the

the discussion on force calculations it is helpful to _leviations of n c,mnputed frmn The main are: sources _f

actual trajectory. a computed trajectory

erFor

IV - 3 7

Rocket

in

Rectilinear

Motion

Express System Quantity Earth

ion S(t _

in of

Coordinate Stationary

Expression Fixed Coordinate S Centered A Moving

in

BodySystem in the

Observer"

Rocket

Velocity

V

Mass

__/I

=

=

;_ M A

M A

v2

1/2

Time

element

{it

: i_ dt A

(tl 5

Acceleration

f c

=

1 --I_>,I_2

f (1 - _) \----_ f_" _]

A

V Exhaust velocity V
ex

:

I _ V

_
t)

V

_ 1

exA V 2

\
re t

-1

V

exA

_

<:

Element flow after

of

mass ejection dM =

dM.5

dM A d \I
(? X =

V

d M -1 Mass flow rate dM dt A d M A dt A Vex 2
C <:

A

_ -77 _t-TZa 2)i/2
1 -_ d M A dt A 1/2 Vex -

dt A 112

d \I '-% : dr& VexA :

Thrust

force

_F

=

-

--

(it

Vux

(,
\1A <: is the v()cket, 1
........ 7} j

m5

(I \l dl A

A

_where if M A ()r the rest mass (i • e. , mass

Vex2,lc2-'_Z/_'exA

%-_= O) of

._

:

c

is

the

speed

of

light

i.u

I vacuo, wdoeitv \F
ex

---2
t

is the

the

exhaust and

velocity, f its thrust

_

is

the

of

r,_c:ket

acceleration.

IV - 3 8

a. Useof simplifiedforcemodels Inthediscussion thevariousforce rnodels of it is pointed outwhatapproximations havebeen made each. Onewouldexpectousea simpler in t forcemodel or preliminarytrajectory f selection
and some then use more a more desirable complicated trajectories. model It to is to verify be expected that the many-body inclusion of nongravitational most accurate trajectory. force model with the forces yields the V_ith each force model,

f. Last, human

}luman

error there handling input is to the possibility of the data the evaluation

of

but not least error in the machine output.

from

assembling the of the trajectory

C. The discussion

THE

VOICE of the

TECIINIQUE accuracy of computed

many questions of computer simulation arise, such as the type of buildup and tail -off of thrust, the drag and lift coefficients, the reflectivity of the vehicle skin, the type of interaction between neutral and charged particles witt_ the skin, etc. The computer simulation of some forces presents major problems and computation b. With associated tional earth/a@ the moon of Use each of and may time. approximate there Thus the the moon_ mean be costly in programming

trajectories in the preceding subsection pointed out the need of a simplified force model for parametric studies of lunar trajectories. The n-body force model is very complex because of the number of trajectory variables involved and the lack of exact solutions to the equations of motion. In fact, even the restricted three-body model (Subsection for lunar trajectories puter programs by use of various to these programs velocity of the lunar trajectories initial conditions, B-l) does not efficiently. afford solutions Althougb com-

physical are

constants some gravitathe of ex-

force constants. of GIVI_,

in general we need the = angular GM([,

constants = co_, the

exist that determine trajectories integration schemes, the inputs are the unknown position and spacecraft at some time. Since are very sensitive to these these unknowns must be accurately. For example, a that passes behind the moon earth (circumlunar) requires an earth this of approximately speed by 1 m/scc 11,000 can

velocity with the

constants earth' s and

associated the of moon atmospheric with altitude

estimated very typical trajectory and returns to initial m/see. change altitude return systematic

pansion potentials, ture and earth force

I s gravitational temperaabove the on is in the be a constants the known com-

the variation molecular weight more Each fact our

speed at the Perturbing pericynthion by hundreds perigee by studies

and many model.

constants one of these

depending constants

(closest approach to moon) of kilometers, and the thousands of kilometers. Thus, using computer programs that

imprecisely; this puted trajectories balance between and the type puter. The be consistent

will cause errors There should ideally knowledge of these

of force constants among of

model to be used on the comin any force model should each other; and if they are each such departure should

integrate numerically can become long, tedious, and expensive, if the initial conditions are determined by a trial and error approach. The most desirable means around this problem is via a simplified technique that is relatively accurate and free 1. of integration logic.

not, a justification be given. c. Errors positions The obtained coordinates at the in

Description To this end, a three-dimensional patched

the

lunar,

solar,

and

planetary conic program trajectories, to the gravisphere was developed, or sphere fluence" points that This of is using a succession of two-body and with a transition region similar transition to lunar influence ftowever, instead of a gravisphere a lunar is defined E = 0.175 "volume by the (see of inlocus Subsection to shown of

US

of celestial bodies Naval Observatory theories which constants

have by use

been of

general perturbation of physical constants values of the same jectory d. The celestial used in c. The program cumulation gration errors program, Errors in

with certain values may differ from the used in the tra-

influence, used which rM/r

satisfy volume, results,

initial

conditions vehicle, the site on earth as may be in error.

B-lb).

empirically is a subsection. sphere

determined as was

initial conditions of the bodies and the launch the computer simulation Computational programming requires of error of the include of errors

give the best in the referenced The following

assumptions

are

made

in

any

of a trajectory computer careful attention to the acduring the numerical inteof due to motion. round-off, and due Computational truncation, to the

equations those

patched conic program: The earth and moon are spherical homogeneous bodies with the moon rotating about the earth,s center. Motion within the lunar volume of influence is free of gravitational forces from the earth and sun. Likewise, motion toward or away from the volume in free of forces due to the moon and sun. Thus, a trajectory by the "patched" influence. in classic at this earth-moon two-bo:]y the boundary model equations of the can be described of which are lunar volume

approximation, presence

cancellation, small divisors.

IV -39

the

Figure coordinate

4 presents system

a

definition used in

the

of the Voice

terms (Volume emthe

and pro-

The

relatiw?

inclination iVT L and MOP

of

the the are

translunar transearth determined of influence

tratrajectory at exit, the

jectoryplane plane iVT E to

of Influence-Calculated gram. A geocentric ployed vector lunar plane with lying trajectory in the to the positive the plane

Envelopes) coordinate x E-axis intersection and the of the

trajectory system is defined of moon,s by

the and

along

the transorbital Tile z E-axis i.e., vector the angle xE-axis of injection. in rightof to

time of injection respectively. The program

volume

first

computes

the

translunar volume and to the

direction the of with in *, of is the

moon.

is normal the direction of the moon

moon,s orbitalplane, the angular momentum the the YE-axis MOP. completing The from at the time lead the

trajectory to the point of entry of influence, at which point the position vectors are determined

into the velocity relative

handed the the moon,

system _

geocentric coordinate system. At volume entry the velocity and position vectors are transformed to a selenocentric reference frame as illustrated in the following in the sketch MOP for (iVT the L simple = 0): case of a

measured moon

position

trajectory

Y_

Lunar% Motion

_

x

where and VE(

VEA [ is the of is

is that

the of

velocity the moon sketch vehicle VMA vehicle

of

the relative

space to

vehicle earth.

into are system

the

lunar

volume to ZM'

of

influence

(rEA

,

VEz x )

transformed x M YM

a selenocentric i,c. to around system (rMA the is ,

coordinate VMA moon. illustrated } for The in the the

From velocity VMA The

preceding the space given by

it

can be relative - VE_ and

seen that the to the moon . velocity at entry

trajectory = VEA position XM YM ZM

computation coordinate sketch:

geocentric

following

Dl/u

'1 "M

i'm

I

IV -40

The or the

zM-axis

is in the to tim axis or with

direction trajectory defines the

of \:MAx plane

rM

(i)

Injection latituJ.e position

position and _0 longitude. is

_0

anti The

geocentric injection from the

perpendic_dar moon. |he The

around

YM

intersection and MOP

measured

between (or the

trajectory

x M YM-plane the x M axis the

MOP plane (2) (3) Injection Lunar Position vehicle

along the translunar trajectory to the point of injection. velocity lead angle and velocity pericynthion. i VEA0 ,_, _:: at of " injection. the space

x E yE-plane), of inside = cos-1 the \ earth-moon

completing The inmoon,s is (4) the at to rate of the the reach about lunar line (6) at

the right-handed clination i orbital given direction by plane im of

m

coordinate the trajectory th(_ volume

system. to of

influence Knowing

M

E / line

EML

(5)

Inclination to the MOP influence.

time of entry pericynthion the earth, at _1I

into the volume, and the moon,s ' the orientation to can the be

the time rotational 0 M earth-moon found. of are

of the vehicle m in the lunar volume

trajectory of

trajectory EML

with respect pericynthion leaving the position

Orientation respect to the

0M

of

the at

trajectory pericynthion. at return

with

EML velocity

the

Upon vehicle to

hmar volume and velocity ZE coordinate is then

influence, again transsystem and

(7)

formed the

the

x EYE trajectory

Position perigee. Flight return

and

vacuum

transearth

computed. the reader understand can do, one in The the following input for

(8)

The above discussion with the technique. In exactly what tile Voice must look trajectory circumlunar (1)

acquaints order to program

time to vacuum

pericynthion perigee. two

and

to

(9)

at the inputs and outputs. variables are specified mission trajectories: Earth latitude Injection angle "%0 launch and base position longitude). he0 the altitude to vacuum moon. perigee

Longitude the return

of first trajectory.

intersections

of

(10)

(geocentric

t_ange angle in parking to return base latitude perigee to the return

orbit and range extended beyond base latitude,

(2)

altitude for

and

flight

path trajectory.

translunar hpL ,

(3)

Pericynthion approach

closest

Another program exists using the same principles as the Voice technique wherein oneway transearth trajectories from lunar orbit can be determined. Entitled, "Ejection from Lunar Orbit, " this program has tile following inputs and outputs which are illustrated in the following sketch: Inputs:

(4)

Return

altitude

hpE if (I) Inclination to the moon,s program orbits. of to of the orbital is restricted circular plane to lunar im circular orbit

or the closest approach the earth,s atmosphere (5) Translunar iVT (6) L to the trajectory MOP.

to the earth is neglected. inclination

The lunar (2)

Transearth iVT E to the

trajectory MOP.

inclination

Orientation with respect 0M . of • point path

the circular the earth-moon

lunar

orbit line

(7)

Declination craft is Return be seen,

at base

of the moon pericynthion. geocentric major

when

the

space-

(3)

Altitude hpL

the

circular

lunar

orbit

(8) As can

latitude. (4) Ejection Flight Desired from at lunar ejection altituJe orbit YM0 i_M0 " bpE • . characteristics of The of satisfy state (1) Ejection Transearth velocity inclination VM/X 0 " E . (5) (6) Outputs: angle

the

the entire lunar trajectory essence of the program is Peration within the program these desired characteristics variables, mission The quirements pertinent thus parameters program to data allowing as output fulfill the as listed one input.

are specified. thus a matter in order to or trajectory to explicitly

vacuum

perigee

consists mission below:

of other reand additional

(2)

iVT

IV -41

(3) Timeto returnto vacuum perigee. (4) Position andvelocityatperigee. Withproperinterpretation program this is alsousedfor one-way translunartrajectories. Againnotetheeasebywhichspecificmission requirements anbeobtained. c Earth To

2.

Com:_ari._rm

with

Inte.gzated

Trajectories approxicompares

The mation very body table

Voice technique, although an to a complex physical model, with integrated trajectories. this point

favorably and n-body illustrates

by

restricted threeThe following comparing two

typical integrated trajectories (one restricted 3-body and one n-body) with their respective Voice trajectories. The intt-grated trajectories were obtained by an iterative scheme utilizing the Voice program. The tabie, which is self-explanatory, shows that there is good agreement between the initial conditions obtained with the Voice technique and the initial conditions for the actual integrated trajectory. All mission constraints trends Thus reasonable are established the closely by matched, Voice. thereby proving

Voice accuracy

technique can to perform characteristics. be used for trajectories. between

be used parametric In

with studies addition actual

lunar

satellite

of lunar trajectory the technique can n-body Further integrated

obtaining

comparisons characteristics 3-body and types of lunar VI and IX.

Voice

tra-

I

I

A

jectory restricted various Chapters

and those using the n-body force models for trajectories are given in

Comparison

oi

Voict_

Trajectories Restricted

with 3-Body Comparison I

Integrated Force

Trajectories Model Voice 182. n-ltody Coin Force Model _arison Integrated 88

Inject

North--Direct Item Voice

_

I

1

Integrated

.......
10963.786 32 2.6682 _* 29.3822* 13.198678

Altitude Velocity Injection translunar into orbit Flight Inclination Injection

(he0) (VEA path

0) (,re0) (iVT (40) L)

km ,' st'c m d_ g deg deg

2_I. 10905. 648 545 t 30. 12, 259 0

231. 10903. 048 951 3. 30. O

182.88 10!162. 2. 6682 2495

angle to position MOP

29, 13. ll. 94

502125

Lunar

lead

angle

(,$ *)

deg

44.

0596

L

45,

0258

37.

3314

38.

02945

/
At moon Pericynthion altitude (hpi) km 1852. 1851.44 185. 015 186. 867

t|

Va .... Total

perigee flight time

altitude (t)

(hpF)

km hr

/45.72

/

46.086 31 154. 3

35.81 i 147.73g

:

.5 078

, 154.

147.

_ [ L _ .

Di .... *iVT 1_ VE

i .... L and and

d iVT

mode F are

of

return to earth .qLt

I i)irect _toria[ !Jiallc,

f ...... i.e., _

th they _

L a 'e

Direct actually

f .........

th

[

l)ireet

f ......

th

j

I)ire,

et

f ........

th

relative

1V'I'EQ"

resl)eettvely.

-

_

D.

ADDITIONAL CIRCUIVILUNAR of circumlunar

CLASS ORBITS orbits,

OF

only one orbits as ted below i.e., peritem in

primary calculated for the

body. Two typical circumlunar by Arenstorf have been plotearth-moon-space vehicle sysXRYlR coordinates:

A

new

class

rotating

odic circumlunar trajectories, has been described and an outline of the proof of existence for these orbits had been given by Arenstorf (Ref. 27) just as the Lunar Flight Manual went to press. These orbits were obtained for the restricted thrre-body problem, and they exist for' small mass ratios of the two primary bodies. The circumlunar orbits exist near Keplerian, or restricted two-body, ellipses which represent a zero mass ratio between the two primary bodies or the existerlC_ of

By a judicious choice of trajectory parameters these orbits can be made to pass arbitrarily close to the earth and moon, and small perturbations from forces arising outside of the framework of the restricted three-body problem can be counter'acted by thrust. of circumlunar materials from cinity of the Reference orbits for the vicinity 27 suggests the use shuttling passengers and of the earth to the vi-

moor_.

IV -42

12.

Baker, M. W. Academic

,

R. M. L., Jr., "An Introduction Press, S., IBM New

and to York,

Makemson, Astrodynamics," 1960.

13.

<
(
E. REFERENCES 1. Egorov, V. A., "Certain Problems Flight Dynamics," The Russian of Satellites, Part I International Index, Inc., New York, 1958. Buchheim, tories," January Flight "Space Inc., 3. R. W., "Lunar 1268, Also Flight of Moon Literature Physics

Pines, Trajectory for the Corporation,

and Wolf, H., by the Enckes 704 and 7090," New York.

"Interplanetary Method Programmed Republic Aviation

14.

Anonymous, "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, " published annually by the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Observatory, Washington, D. C. (obtainable from Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.). Brouwer, - Methods demic Press, D., and of Celestial New Clemence, Mechanics, York, 1961. G. B., ComputaAugust G. M., " Aca-

15.

16.

Baker, bL M. L., Jr., Westrom, et al., " Efficient Precision Orbit tion Techniques, " ARS Journal, 1960, pp 740 to 747.

17. 2. TrajecReport P 30, 1958. Trajectories," Technology," New York, Rand Corporation, Chapter 7, "Lunar in H. S. Seifert, ed. John Wiley and Sons, 18. Manual," Corporation, Baltimore, 1963. 19. 4. Mickelwait, ARS Journal, pp 5. 905 to 914. C., Jr., of ThreeMoon, " Vol. 27, R. 20. A. B., Vol. "Lunar Trajectories," 29, December 1959,

Pines, S., Payne, M., and Wolf, H., "Comparison of Special Perturbation Methods in Celestial Mechanics," Report No. 60-281, Aero Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, August 19S0. Anonoymous, for Orbital Laboratories, September Parkinson, Shapiro, Pressure Science, Kochi, K. for Analysis Aeronautical I. on Vol. C., ,,Flight Operations, Inc., 1961. R. J., W., Jones, of pp H. M., and Radiation " and 921. "Methods " Performance Handbook " Space Technology Redondo Beach, Calif.,

1959.

Anonymous, ER 12684, Space Systems

"Orbital Flight Martin Marietta Division,

" Effects Earth Satellite 131, 1960.

Solar Orbits, 920

Mickelwait, A. B., and Boo[on, "Analytical and Numerical Studies Dimensional Trajectories to the Journal of Aerospace Sciences, August 1960, pp 561 to 573. Koelle, H. of Astronautical Hill, New H., York, Editor-in-Chief, Engineering, 1961. Pauson, W. Trajectories," D-866, August W., "Motion Space," RM 4, 1956. Recommendations Potential," 67, February M.,

and Staley, R. M., of Satellite Trajectories, Research Laboratories, Ohio,

Wright-PattersonAFB, 1960. 21. Beard, Magnetic Journal No. 1, Singer, static of the Maryland, 23. D., and Johnson,

September

6.

"Handbook " McGraw-

F.,

-Charge Satellites, Vol.

and " 65,

Field Interaction with of Geophysical Research, 1960, pp 1 to 7. S. F., Screening Physics and Walker, of l?odies l_epartment, Park,

7.

Weber, R. J., R. R., "Lunar nical Note TN Buchheim, in Earth-Moon ration, June Hagihara, tion of Journal, R.

and NASA 1961. Small Rand

Burley, Tech-

in

E. tI., Space, University

"Electro" Report of 1961.

8.

of a 1726,

Body Corpo-

College

September

9.

the

Y., Earth Vol.

on Astronomical 1962, p

Nota108.

Krzywoblocki, M. Z. v., of Special Interplanetary Report No. 2, Ptl-I)W-58-43, Engineering Experiment Engineering Illinois, Department, Urbana, June A. C. B., Press,

et al., "A Study Flight Problems, IOD 2446-58, Station, Aeronautical of

"

University 1959. Astronomy," 1954.

10.

Heiskanen, W. A., F. A., "The Earth McGraw-Hill, New Alexandrov, PotentiM,

and Vening-Meinesz, and Its Gravity York, 1958.

Field,"

24.

Lovell, Clarendon Krause, Report

"Meteor Oxford,

iI.

I., "The Lunar " in "Astronautical Press, New

Gravitational Science, " York, 1960,

25.

H. G. MTP-P

L., "Astrorelativify. h Vl,]-I:-(;2-4,

' NASA,

Vol. 9, Plenum pp 320 to 324.

George C. IIuntsville, Chapter II, ,' tIandbook Mc(_raw-lIk[l,

Marshall Space Alabama, May th Ih Koelle, of Astronautical N_w York.

Flight Center, 22, 1962. Aiso Editor-in-Chief, Engineering, " 1961.

IV -43

26.

LaPaz, L., "Advances of the Perigees of Earth Satellites Predicted by General Relativity, " Publications of the Astronautical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 66, 1954, pp 13 to 18.

27.

Arenstorf, Solutions Rt,str'ictxd Journal, pp 238 to

H.

1%,

"Existence

of

Periodic the

Passin_ ThreeVol. [, 210.

Near Both Masses of Body Problem, '_ AIAA No. 1 (January 1963),

IV -44

TABLES

AND

ILLUSTRATIONS

IV -45

LIST

OF

TABLES

Table 1 Transformations ponents 2 of the Between Restricted

Title Position Three-Body and Velocity Problem VehicleCom.....

Page

IV-48

Transformation Between Body-Axes and Centered Equatorial Coordinates ...............

IV-49

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure 1 Typical Earth-Moon

Title Trajectory in Nonrotating

Page

IV-51

Xe Ye Coordinates 2 The xR 3 4 Earth-Moon YR Coordinates

......................... Trajectory of Fig. 1 in Rotating

IV-52 IV-53 IV-54

........................ Around the Moon ..........

Gravitational Voice Geometry

Regions

..........................

IV-47

TABLE Transformations Velocity Restricted Between Components Three Problem

1 Position of -Body the and

Define

the

following

rotation

matrices:

{xm}
Z m

R

I!OS in

(¢ + _o®_t) - sin (¢ + _o(_ t) cos

(¢ + _o_t) (¢0 + _e_t)

!1

• {.
Ym = YR

+ ¢°_ q [xR

- %4

m

_R

and the inverse transformations since the initial conditions are nonrotating coordinates, while is performed in rotating

must be given usually given in the computation

coordinates:

os (¢ +_(_ t) sin ($ + _o(_ t)

sin (¢ + _@_t) COSo ($ + _o(_ t)

O] O1

J

YR

=

Y0

R

z0

Position and velocity components nonrotating coordinate systems are rotating systems by the transformations:

in the related

three to the

;'R
.

×0 + _e_ Yo
= YO - _¢ x

YR

_R
Y0 = YR

o

0

xH YR = ,

e

zR YO =

_o

Xe}
Ye = "t ze
o

YH

zR

YR zR

=

I T 2l

Yrn z m

'

Ye

=

ze

IV-48

xI

xm +_® C

-'Wl'he sketch

coordinate on page

systems IV-20.

are

defined

I_y tile

TABLE Transformation t_ctween Body-Axes and

2 Vehicle-Centered Equatorial Coordinates

The of with relations mass

coordinates of the at (where vehicle the

in

the are

body-axis related to center of rotation

(x b,

Yb'

Zb)

coordinate coordinates and axes

system (x_, parallel the z, y, to _,

with _O, the x

origin 5' ,_O,

at z(_, zo

tile 5

instantaneous ) fixed directions in the by

center vehicle the

nonrotating of is mass 4, 0,

origin

instantaneous the order

x G, axes,

_b around

and

respectively)

f Xb zb

x_,/x_ Y@, A( z_, AJ

oF

Yb

0

zb The inverse

1001 0sin010]Ix. i:os .rc°s }
cos ¢ sin cos 9 _ I 0 0 /sin ¢ cos 0 ¢ 0 < Y@,A z@, 0 - sin9 L sin 0 cos 0 L 0 I is given by (¢t -1 IT(e t -1 _F (¢_-1 Yb

transformation

']

Y®'ff

=

_i,

tZe,
or

__j

_b

Ix I:' I[: I{} :J k
Fcos _ sin_ 0 cos 0 0 sin 0 1 0 0 xb y@, = in¢ cos_ 1 0 cos ¢ sin ¢ Yb _z@, 0 sin 0 0 cos 0 sin ¢ cos ¢ z b or, when the matrix multiplication is performed, (COS_P sine cos ¢ + sin<P sin q))]_x_ I

Ye, X_D'

'A_

=

sin@ cos ¢ sin

cos cos U)

0) 0}

(sin (cos

¢ +

sin sin (cos

0 0

sin sin 0 sin

¢+ ¢ o)

cos sin

¢ cos _J cos

Q) _)

(sin

_b sin

0

cos

o-

eosd_

sin

¢)_tfl

t %, _J

(cos 0 cos o)

J_h)

IV-49

This

can

also

be written

formally

in the form

of direction

cosines

x@,

A

_Y@ LZ®

/x_ /,J

=

li
mll _12 m12 m13 13 comparison _ _ 0 cos cos 0 O _ sin 0 sin 0 sin ¢ O cos_ 0 cos + @ sin 0 sin ¢ sin ¢ +

n12 1 nl3_J

Yb Zb

which are preceding

given two

by direct equations

of

the

Ill _12 _13

= = .

cos sin - sin

mll m12 m13 nll n12 n13 and must _112+ I12

= = = = = = satisfy

cos sin cos cos

_ - sin cos

_ _

cos cos

¢ ¢

sin#

sin _ sin

¢> ¢

sin _ sin cos 0 cos

¢> - cos

2 roll 2 + nll 2 = = = 1 1 1

2 + m 1 2 2 + n12 +

_13 2 + m132 and

n13 2

fll mll roll nll nil

+

_12 m12 n12

+ _13 + m13

m13 n13

= = =

0 0 0

+ m12

_11 + n12

_12 + n13

_13

_11

_12

+ mll

m12

+ nll

n12

=

0

_12

_13 + m12

m13

+ n12

n13

=

0

113

t11

+ m13

mll

+

n13

nll

=

0

_ii

_12

_13 = 1

mll nil 2 ell

m12 n12

m13 n13

+ _122

+

_132

=

1

mll

2 + m122 2

+ m13 2

2

=

1

n11

+ n122

+ n13

=

1

IV-50

Fig.

i.

T

ical

Earth-Moon

Trajector

in

NonrotatinK.

x _ e Coordinates

Ye (tO3ka)
iOO 200

300

_0

O-

-

.

,

,_Earth

<
I O7

_I00 o 20
N

hr

30

hr

/

50 200 _'_

hr 60 hr//

.,

/
/

M

on

at

70

hr

/
/ ; / / / ,_ Moon st _C hr Moon at 60 hr

i in Rotatin 6

x _

Coordinates

............

! ".

...........

[

IQO_

_

J_._

)0 hr

40

h_

20 hr ...... ..-_D....... _ .._
rol 0
,=4 ! C_ DO

....

&0
-%

Eart

\

0

<

2hr

/ 2OO 3OO Moo.

70 hr _00

u_

I--I

lJ IB

\
I CXI

\

\ \

F_G 4

Yo_c_" _EoI,It:T_,'I"

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