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PHRASAL VERBS

ask after someone ask about a person, his health, etc. Lucy has asked after your mom.
ask for request The sales manager asked for a new extension.
back out of withdraw from
not keep (a promise, agreement, deal)
He had to back out of the deal owing to his recent
misfortunes.
am backed out of the agreement at the last second.
back up !) support (a claim or a person),
confirm
"ll of us will back you up at the election.
#) mo$e in re$erse, re$erse a car %ould you please back up your car a little&
') make a protection copy (efore my computer crashed, ) could back my files up.
be away
be far from home, from this
place (for at least a night)
)*m afraid heila is away for the weekend.
be in
be at home, be here or there in this
building
) want to see +r. ,elaware. )s he in&
be into
be $ery interested in something ,a$id-s really into classical music.
blow up
!) destroy by explosion, explode uddenly the whole barrel blew up.
#) fill with air, inflate, pump up Laura*s father blew up all the balloons for the party.
') become angry He blew up when his secretary told him about the
mistake.
.) arise, take place in " storm suddenly blew up in the %aribbean.
break down
!) smash, demolish The thief broke down the front door.
#) stop functioning, stop working The engine has broken down.
') collapse through ill/health
or great emotion, lose control
0hen she heard the news, she broke down and wept.
.) analyse 0e need to break this problem down in order to sol$e.
break in
!) enter by force
(also break into)
Two thie$es broke in and stole the car.
#) interrupt someone
(colloquial)
) was telling 1aul about 2enice when she broke in..
') tame, train for use. train to labour )t took many men to break in that wild horse.
break off
!) separate by breaking

He took the chocolate and broke off a piece.
!
#) stop, disrupt #) (efore the war some countries broke off diplomatic
relations.
break out
!) escape by using force !) e$eral prisoners managed to break out of prison.
suddenly begin wars, fires, epidemics #) 0ar broke out in !3'3.
') appear suddenly ') The sun finally broke out and the rain stopped.
.) utter, exclaim .) uddenly he broke out into terrible curses.
break up
!) break into pieces !) The old ship was broken up by the wa$es
#) stop, finish #) %lasses broke up and students went back home.
') depart, disperse
(separable when transiti$e)
') The police managed to break the angry crowd up.
.) break a relationship .) +ary and 4ames broke up their engagement.
bring about
cause to happen 0hat has brought about all this disaster&
bring back
!) recall (not separated with a noun) !) He always brings back his trip to 1aris.
#) return #) he brought back her four library books.
bring in
!) introduce !) The foreigners brought in many customs
#) produce as profit, yield #) The sale has brought in an interesting sum.
') earn ') His business brings in a lot of money e$ery month.
.) pronounce a $erdict .) The 5ury brought in a $erdict of not guilty.
bring out
publish 0hen are you bringing out your next no$el&
bring round
make someone wake up from
unconsciousness or an anaesthetic
The doctors brought him round a few hours after the
operation.
bring up
educate, raise, rear (ringing up children is ne$er easy
mention as a topic of discussion 0e decided to bring the matter up at the next meeting.
build up
de$elop a company he built the business up from nothing into a market
leader in less than a decade
burst in / into
+o$e somewhere suddenly and
forcefully
Two thie$es burst into the bank and pointed their guns
at the cashiers.
burst out
suddenly show emotion He burst out laughing at the end of the speech.
call for
$isit a place to collect
someone or something
Tom is calling for me at 6 pm.
#
require, demand This situation calls for tact and a deep analysis.
call in
send for someone to come
ask to assist
)t was too late to call in an electrician.
call off
!) cancel something scheduled !) The couple decided to call off the wedding.
#) di$ert, distract #) 1lease, call off your dog at once 77
call on
!) ask someone to do
something
!) The president called on his people to make some
sacrifices.
#) $isit #) %all on me if you ha$e any problems.
care about
be concerned about This mo$ie star cares about his reputation.
care for
like, want !) He doesn*t care for films about war
look after, take care of #) This house looks well cared for.
carry off win, succeed . he carried off the first pri8e in the competition
carry on !) continue

!) The widow carried on as if nothing had happened.
#) continue with #) (oth brothers carried on with their boring
con$ersation.
carry out perform, put in practice )t is not easy to carry out this task.
catc on become popular (colloquial) He in$ented an electric car, but it ne$er really caught
on.
catc up !wit" stop being behind 9o on ahead. )*ll catch you up.
ceck in!to" at a otel# an
airport etc$ !inseparable"
ceck out !of" !%$
inseparable"
report one*s arri$al: register for ; at a
hotel, conference, etc.: let someone
know officially that you
ha$e a follow procedures for lea$ing (a
hotel, etc.)
4ack took a taxi to the hotel and checked in. 4ack
checked in. 4ack checked in at the hotel. 4ack checked
in to the hotel.
0hen 4ack left the hotel he checked out. +y plane will
arri$e around <=>> 1+. ) should be able to check into
the hotel by ?=>>
,on*t forget to take your room key to the front desk
when you check out
ceck o&er examine sth carefully to make sure that
it is correct or acceptable=
%heck o$er your work for mistakes.
ceck up !on sb/st" make sure that sb is doing what they
should be doing
+y parents are always checking up on me.
clear out make sth empty and clean by remo$ing
things or throwing things away
0e cleared out all our old clothes
clear up ! (of the weather) to become fine or
bright=
# (of an illness, infection, etc.) to
disappear
) hope it clears up this afternoon
Has your rash cleared up yet&
come across to find (unexpectedly) or meet by
chance
" lucky tramp came across a wallet full of money as he
was walking down the street.
'ome down to (be in the end a matter of) )t all comes down to whether you are prepared to
accept less money.
'
come forward offer your help, ser$ices, etc= e$eral people came forward with information. @
1olice ha$e asked witnesses of the accident to come
forward.
'ome off take place successfully
(e successful
)*m afraid that deal didn-t come off after all.
come on ! (of an actor) to walk onto the stage
# (of a player) to 5oin a team during a
game
' to impro$e or de$elop in the way you
want=
. used in orders to tell sb to hurry or to
try harder=
Awen came on for Bowler ten minutes before the end
of the game.
The pro5ect is coming on fine.
%ome on7 0e don*t ha$e much time.
%ome on7 Try once more.
'ome out appear "ll the flowers ha$e come out.
0hen the news came out, e$eryone was shocked. +y
photos didn*t come out $ery well.
come round or come to to regain consciousness 4ames fainted when the air/conditioning stopped
working. Two of his colleagues took care of him until
he came round (came to).
'ome up (occur/ usually a problem /colloquial) Look, something has come up, and ) can*t meet you.
'ome up against (meet a difficulty) 0e*$e come up against a bit of a problem.
count on !inseparable" depend on: rely on: trust that someone
will do as expected
)*m counting on you to wake me up tomorrow. ) know )
won*t hear the alarm.
count up sb/st prasal
&erb
add together all the people or things in
a group
%ount these figures up once more.
cross out !separable" show that something written is wrong
or unnecessary by making an C across
it
0e can*t afford to buy e$erything on your shopping
list, so )*$e crossed all the unnecessary things out.
cut back !on" use less of something Dou drink too much coffee. Dou should cut back.
cut down on smoking /
cigarettes / drinking /
spending / production etc
to reduce in si8e or amount. Last year 1eter was $ery ill and his doctor told him to
cut down on the number of cigarettes he smoked.
cut in pass one car when there
isn*t room to do it safely
Ee$er try to cut in during rush hours. )t*s really
dangerous
cut out stop %ut those 5okes out, please7
cut up$ cut into pieces he cut the cake up and ga$e each of us a piece
deal wit handle successfully he is really lucky, so she can deal with this situation
(o away wit (abolish/colloquial) ,og licenses ha$e been done away with.
(o out of %heat somebody out of something that
is rightfully theirs
They lied on the reference and did me out of any
chance of getting the 5ob.
do witout manage in the absence of They did without food and fresh water
(raw in 9et dark earlier The nights are drawing in now it*s winter.
draw out prolong something (usually far beyond
the normal limits)
The speaker could ha$e said e$erything important in
about fi$e minutes, but he drew the speech out 7
(raw up come to a stop " white sports car drew up outside the door.
drop by $isit informally )f you*re in town tomorrow. 1lease try to drop by the
house.
drop in pay a short $isit, often without
warning.
Laura was shopping near her friend, Lynn, and decided
to drop in and see her.
.
drop on $isit informally ,rop in any time you *re passing.
drop off someting or
someone
stop a $ehicle and let someone get out:
to take someone to a place and lea$e it
there.
,a$id dro$e his wife, ue, into town and dropped her
off in the cinema.
drop off fall asleep (often unintentionally). The baby has 5ust dropped off. 4ohn sat in his fa$ourite
armchair and dropped off.
drop off !separable" deli$er something: deli$er someone (by
gi$ing him;her a ride)
) can take those letters to the post office. )*ll drop them
off as ) go home from work. FDou don*t ha$e to take a
taxi. Dou li$e fairly close to me, so )*ll be happy to
drop you off.F
drop out withdraw from, or stop taking part in
(a competition, a social group)
am dropped out of the race because he felt tired and
ill.
drop out !of" stop attending ; lea$e school or an
organi8ation
1aul isn*t at the uni$ersity. He dropped out.
face up to ha$e courage to deal with / especially
responsibilities
Dou ha$e to face up to your responsibilities. Dou*ll
ha$e to face up to the fact that you*re failing it.
)all back on (use as a last resort) )f the worst comes to the worst, we*$e got our sa$ings
to fall back on.
)all for be decei$ed by / colloquial )t was an unlikely story but h e fell for it.
)all in wit fall in lo$e with / colloquial ) fell for you the moment ) saw you.
fall out to quarrel 9eorge and am went out for dinner together. The
e$ening ended badly because they fell out o$er who
should pay the bill.
)all out wit (quarrel with) 1eter has fallen out with his boss.
)all troug (fail to come to completion) The plan fell through at the last minute.
feel like be willing to, want to ) don*t feel like going to the mo$ies tonight.
feel up to feel strong enough or comfortable
enough to do something
Ald +r mith didn *t feel up to walking all that way. )
know the accident was a terrible shock.
fill in add information to a form: to complete
(a form)
The office needs to know your address and phone
number. %ould you fill them in on this form&
fill out complete a form by adding required
information
Af course ) completed my application7 ) filled it out
and mailed it o$er three weeks ago7
find out !about" learn ; get information (about) )*m sorry that you didn*t know the meeting had been
canceled. ) didn*t find out (find out about it) myself
until 5ust a few minutes ago.
)it in 9et on in a group of people
Ha$e enough time or space for
something
he doesn*t fit in with our group
get across make something understood:
communicate something
understandably
"lan is really intelligent but sometimes he has
problems getting his ideas across.
get along !wit" ha$e a friendly relationship (with): be
friendly (toward)
0hy can*t you and your sister get along& G$eryone else
gets along with her 5ust fine7
get around a$oid ha$ing to do something Teresa got around the required math classes by doing
well on a math proficiency test.
*et at imply / about personal matters 0hat are you getting at exactly&
*et down make to feel depressed / This cold weather really gets me down.
get in enter a small, closed $ehicle ) don*t know where %arole was going. he 5ust got in
her car and dro$e away.
get off lea$e a large, closed $ehicle 0hen you get off the bus, cross the street, turn right on
Aak treet, and keep going until you*re at the corner of
Aak and Lincoln (oule$ard.
<
*et on (make progress / especially in life) ue is getting on $ery well in her new 5ob.
get on enter a large, closed $ehicle ) he got on the plane about #> minutes ago.
*et on wit Ha$e a good relationship
%ontinue or start doing something
) get on well with my flat mate, and you&
get out lea$e a small, closed $ehicle Dou ha$e to get out of the car.
get out of escape ha$ing to do something Lisa had a terrible headache and got out of gi$ing her
speech today.
*et o&er be surprised ) couldn *t get o$er how well she looked.
get round a problem ; a difficulty etc. to sol$e or
a$oid a problem
,an couldn*t mo$e the wardrobe because it was too
hea$y. He got round the problem by putting the
wardrobe on a trolley and pushing it.
*et round to find time to do / also around orry, but ) ha$en*t got round to fixing the tap yet.
get troug to contact someone (usually by
telephone)
4im (phoning his friend Hoger)= Hello, Hoger. )*$e been
trying to get through to you for hours7 Hoger= orry,
4im. ) had to make a lot of calls this morning.
get togeter meet for a social purpose Aur family used to get together to celebrate %hristmas.
*et up to do something / usually bad when about
children / colloquial
The children are getting up to something in the garden.
0hat ha$e you been getting up to lately&
*i&e away betray His false identity papers ga$e him away.
gi&e in to stop resisting: to surrender The fight between Tom and ,ick stopped when Tom
hurt his hand and had to gi$e in.
*i&e off send off a smell / liquid or gas The cheese had begun to gi$e off a strange smell.
*i&e out be exhausted 0hen our money ga$e out we had to borrow.
gi&e up stop doing something (usually a habit) He knows smoking isn*t good for his health, but he
can*t gi$e it up.
*o after %hase, try to get They went after the thief and caught him.
*o by use information about something to
help you make a decision about the
best thing to do
Dou can*t go by anything she says.
go down to become less swollen The dentist treated his bad tooth and his swollen cheek
soon went down.
go for a person, an animal to attack The dog went for 4oe and hurt his arm.
*o in for make a habit of ) don-t go in for that kind of thing.
*o off (become bad / food) This milk has gone off.
go off !of e+plosi&e
de&ices e$g$ bombs# guns
etc$"
to explode or fire: (of alarms or alarm
clocks) to ring suddenly
+any people were killed when the bomb went off. The
bomb went off.
*o on happen / usually negati$e
,o something else after other
omething funny is going on.
"fter shopping ) want to go on to ha$e a beer.
go out wit !inseparable" ha$e a date with Dou went out with haron last night, didn*t you&
go troug examine (something) 0hen (en entered this country, a custom*s officer went
through his suitcase.
go wit to match or suit (something): look
pleasing together. (Eote= for clothes,
furniture, etc.)
Dou should buy that shirt. )t will go well with your
dark brown suit.
go witout not ha$e something that you usually
ha$e
They went without food for four days.
?
grow out of become too big for +y son has grown out of most of his clothes
grow up become an adult, mature He wants to be a pilot when he grows up.
and in submit homework, an assignment, etc. Dou know that you ha$e to hand your report in at 6='>
tomorrow morning7
and out distribute The teacher handed list of assignments out on the first
day of class.
and o&er transfer trange to say, the enemy finally handed o$er the town
to its inhabitants.
ang about remain walking in the streets of There are lots of men hanging about at street corners
for the pubs to open.
ang on continue to do something F%an you hang on while ) change my clothes&F
ang up end a phone con$ersation by replacing
the recei$er
)*d like to talk longer, but )*d better hang up. +y sister
needs to make a call.
a&e st back recei$e sth that sb has borrowed Dou-ll ha$e your files back after we*$e checked them
Ha&e someone on decei$e (cheat, lie) ) don*t belie$e you. Dou-re ha$ing me on.
old on to wait (especially on the telephone) 9eorge phoned his office because he wanted some
information. *Hold on a minute and )*ll get it for you,*
said his assistant.
Hold out (offer / especially with hope) 0e don*t hold out much hope that the price will fall.
old up !%$ separable" raise: lift to a higher/than/normal
position
The winner of the race proudly held his trophy up for
all to see.
Hold up !," (use as an example / i.e. a model of
good beha$iour)
4ack was always held up as an example to me.
old up !," a person / a
bank / a &eicle etc$
to rob, especially using a weapon (e.g.
a gun)
Garlier today a masked robber with a gun held up the
bank and escaped with a hundred thousand pounds. "
robber held up the bank. " robber held the bank up. "
robber held it up.
-oin in !st" to become in$ol$ed in an acti$ity with
other people
he watches the other kids playing but she ne$er 5oins
in.Dou all seemed to be ha$ing such a good time that )
thought )*d 5oin in the fun.
-oin up if two organi8ations or groups of
people 5oin up, they start working
together, or they meet in order to go
somewhere or do something together
The two design companies are planning to 5oin up and
create a new range of footwear.
0e 5oined up with another couple from the hotel and
hired a boat for the day. Ioften J withK
-oin up to 5oin the army, na$y, or air force He 5oined up as soon as he*d left school.
keep back !sb/st" or
keep !sb/st" back
to not go near something, or to pre$ent
someone or something from going past
a particular place
(arriers were built to keep back the flood water.
Ance a firework is lit, you should keep well back.
keep back st or keep st
back
to not tell someone e$erything you
know about a situation or an e$ent that
has happened
) suspected she was keeping something back.
keep back st or keep st
back
to not use the whole amount of
something so that there is a small
amount to use later
Bry the onions in two/thirds of the butter, keeping back
a third for the sauce.
keep back st or keep st
back
(mainly (ritish L "ustralian) to not
pay someone all the money you owe
them so that you can use part of the
money for another purpose
Dour employers will keep back MN of your salary to
pay into your pension.
keep !sb/st" off st to not go onto an area, or to stop
someone or something going onto an
area
+otorists ha$e been ad$ised to keep off the busy main
roads.
) wish she*d keep her dog off my lawn.
M
keep off st or keep st
off !st/sb"
to stop something from touching or
harming something or someone
he wore a hat to keep the sun off.
He*d put a cloth o$er the plates to keep flies off the
food.
keep !sb" off st to not eat, drink or use something that
can harm you, or to stop someone from
eating etc. things that can harm them
)*m keeping off cheese and fatty food generally.
keep !sb" off st (mainly (ritish L "ustralian) to not
talk about a particular sub5ect, or to
stop someone from talking about a
particular sub5ect
) tried to keep him off politics because once he starts,
there*s no stopping him.
keep on doing st to continue to do something, or to do
something again and again
he kept on asking me questions the whole time.
) keep on thinking )*$e seen him before somewhere.
keep on sb or keep sb on to continue to employ someone They got rid of most of the staff but kept one or two
people on.
keep on sb or keep sb on to continue to employ someone They got rid of most of the staff but kept one or two
people on.
keep up to go at the same speed as someone or
something that is mo$ing forward, so
that you stay le$el with them
he was walking so fast that ) couldn*t keep up with
her. Ioften J withK
keep up to increase or to make progress at the
same speed as something or someone
else so that you stay at the same le$el
as them
1rices ha$e been rising $ery fast and wages ha$en*t
kept up.
(ecause )*m new to the 5ob, ) ha$e to work twice as
hard as e$eryone else 5ust to keep up.
He finds it difficult to keep up with the rest of the
class. Ioften J withK
keep up !wit" to be able to understand or deal with
something that is happening or
changing $ery fast
0e*$e recei$ed so many orders for our products that
our staff can*t keep up. (O can*t deal with the orders fast
enough)
+y )talian friends talk so fast, ) simply can*t keep up
with what they*re saying. Ioften J withK
knock down sb or knock
sb down
to hit someone with a $ehicle and
in5ure or kill them
" nine/year/old boy was knocked down while crossing
the road in Holbeach. Iusually passi$eK
he got knocked down by a motorbike.
knock down sb or knock
sb down
(mainly "merican L "ustralian) to
cause someone to fall to the ground by
pushing or hitting them
He punched his attacker in the face and knocked him
down.
knock sb out to make someone feel a lot of
admiration
)*$e ne$er been so impressed by a performance / it
really knocked me out.
knock out sb or knock sb
out
to make someone become unconscious
or to make someone fall asleep
Those sleeping tablets knocked me out for !< hours.
He was knocked out by a punch in the first round.
Lea&e in ,on-t touch the original or don-t take it
out
0ash your hair but lea$e the conditioner in.
Lea&e on Eot turn off LG"2G the T2 AE: ) want to hear the football results.
Lea&e out Eot include He was LGBT APT of the side because he hasn*t been
playing too well lately.
let down sb or let sb
down
to disappoint someone by failing to do
what you agreed to do or what you
were expected to do
) promised to go to the party with 4ane, and ) can*t let
her down.
+any farmers feel the go$ernment has let them down
badly in the negotiations.
let down sb/st or let
sb/st down
to make someone or something
unsuccessful by failing to achie$e a
good enough standard
The film has a good script but is let down by poor
acting.
(ecker said that he had lost the match because his
6
forehand had let him down.
let in sb/st or let sb/st
in
to allow a person or animal to enter a
room or building, usually by opening
the door for them
) knocked on the door and +ichelle let me in.
let off sb or let sb off to not punish someone who has
committed a crime or done something
wrong, or to not punish someone
se$erely
)*ll let you off this time, but ) don*t e$er want to catch
you stealing again.
he thought she would be sent to prison, but the 5udge
let her off with (O ga$e her) a Q!>>> fine. Ioften J
withK
The police only ga$e him a warning / he was let off
lightly. (O he was gi$en a less serious punishment than
he deser$ed)
let out sb/st or let sb/st
out
to allow a person or animal to lea$e
somewhere, especially by opening a
locked or closed door
) stopped the car to let usie out.
Hosie lets her hamster out of its cage e$ery night.
Ioften J ofK
He was let out after ser$ing 5ust two years of his four/
year prison sentence.
let me troug$ let me pass F) am a hopeless dri$er, but the examiner let me
through.F
li&e on st to ha$e a particular amount of money
in order to buy the things you need
He and his family li$e on QM> a week.
) had to take an e$ening 5ob because we didn*t ha$e
enough money to li$e on.
li&e on st to only eat a particular type of food +artin li$ed on peanut butter sandwiches while we
were staying in Eew Dork.
li&e troug st to experience a difficult situation or
e$ent
+y grandparents li$ed through two world wars.
He had li$ed through a horrible ordeal with great
courage.
li&e up to st if someone or something li$es up to
people*s expectations or a particular
standard, they are as good as they were
expected to be
,id the trip li$e up to your expectations&
He*s stri$ing to li$e up to his reputation as a world/
class athlete.
Lock up %lose all doors, windows, etc. he LA%RG, P1 after e$eryone had left and went
home.
Lock up 1ut in prison or a mental hospital They LA%RG, him P1 for burglary.
look after sb/st to take care of someone or something
by doing what is needed to keep them
well or in good condition
,o you think you could look after the cat while we*re
away&
)f you look after your clothes, they last a lot longer.
,on*t worry about 4enny, she can look after herself.
look at st to read something quickly and not $ery
carefully
0ould you mind looking at my report before ) submit
it&
look at st to consider a sub5ect carefully in order
to make a decision about it
0e need to look carefully at the ad$antages and
disad$antages of the new system.
0e are looking at all the options.
look at st if an expert Ie.g. doctorK looks at
something, they examine it and decide
how to deal with it
,id you ask the doctor to look at your knee&
0e*ll ha$e to get a plumber to look at the central
heating.
look at st to consider something in a particular
way
) suppose if )*d been a mother, ) might ha$e looked at
things differently.
He*s either being $ery foolish or $ery bra$e, depending
on the way you look at it.
Look back on to think about or remember something
that happened in the past
)t wasn*t such a bad experience when ) look back on it.
Ald people often look back on o$er their li$es.
look for st/sb to try to find something or someone,
either because you ha$e lost them or
because you need them
Ha$e you seen my glo$es& )*$e been looking for them
all week.
) was looking for "ndy. ,o you know where he is&
How long ha$e you been looking for a 5ob&
3
look forward to st /
doing st
to feel pleased and excited about
something that is going to happen
0e*re really looking forward to seeing "ndy again.
)*m not looking forward to %hristmas this year.
look in to $isit a person for a short time,
usually when you are on your way
somewhere else
) thought ) might look in on ally when )*m in Dork.
Ioften J onK
%an you look in on the kids before you go to bed and
make sure they*re alright&
look into st to in$estigate or disco$er and examine
the facts about a problem or situation
1olice are reported to be looking into the case.
0e*re looking into the possibility of merging the two
departments.
look on to watch an acti$ity or e$ent without
becoming in$ol$ed in it or watch
something like a crime without helping
,emonstrators tore down the statue as police calmly
looked on.
The crowd looked on in disbelief as the player walked
off the pitch. Ioften J inK
The crowd 5ust looked on as the old lady was mugged.
look out (e careful LAAR APT: you*re going to drop that7
look out for sb/st to carefully watch the people or things
around you so that you will notice a
particular person or thing
Hemember to look out for "nna / she said she*d be
there.
%an you look out for a present for Gd while you*re out
shopping&
look o&er )nspect or to quickly examine
something or someone
They came to LAAR the house A2GH with a $iew to
buying it.
) had a few minutes before the meeting to look o$er
what he*d written.
look troug st to carefully examine the contents of
something or a collection of things in
order to find something
)*$e looked through her drawers but ) can*t find the
letter.
0hy don*t you look through these files and see if the
document*s there&
look troug st to read something quickly and not $ery
carefully
%ould you look through these figures and see if )*$e
made any ob$ious errors&
look up if a situation is looking up, it is
impro$ing
Things are looking up now you*$e got your promotion.
Iusually in continuous tensesK
look up %onsult a reference work (dictionary,
phonebook, etc.) for a specific piece of
information
) didn*t know the correct spelling so ) had to look it up
in the dictionary
look up to sb to respect and admire someone Rate has always looked up to her father.
make for Head in a certain direction 0e made for home when it started raining.
make for st to cause a particular result or situation 1oor ser$ice does not make for satisfied customers.
)ronically, food rationing made for a healthier
population.
make up st or make st
up
to say or write something that is not
true Ie.g. excuse, report, storyK in order
to decei$e someone
)*d made up some story about ha$ing to go home to see
my sick mother.
%an*t you make up an excuse&
make up to in$ent something Ie.g. story, gameK ometimes )*ll read her a story from a book and
sometimes )*ll make one up.
make up 1ut on cosmetics he went to the bathroom to make her face up.
make up for st to replace something that has been lost,
or to pro$ide something good in order
to make a bad situation better
This year*s good har$est will make up for last year*s
bad one.
He seems to be making up for an empty childhood by
surrounding himself with expensi$e possessions.
mi+ up %onfuse ) always mix those two sisters up because they look so
like each other.
mi+ up +ake something li$ely The ,4 mixed up the night with some hard techno.
mi+ up to combine different substances
together, especially food, so that they
become one substance
"nd the next thing you do is you put the chocolate,
butter and egg in a bowl and mix them all up.
!>
mo&e in# mo&e into st to begin li$ing in a new house or area They*$e made a lot of alterations to the house since
they mo$ed in.
ome friends of mine ha$e 5ust mo$ed into our street.
mo&e in# mo&e into st become in$ol$ed in a particular
business for the first time
)n !36., Henault mo$ed into the executi$e car market.
The drugs trade increased rapidly during the !3?>s and
London gangsters soon mo$ed in.
mo&e out stop li$ing in a particular house he wants to mo$e out and find a place on her own.
mo&e out stop being in$ol$ed in a particular
business
The company has decided to mo$e out of the
electronics business due to increased competition.
Ioften J ofK
mo&e out if a $ehicle mo$es out, it mo$es to the
right or left side of the road, usually in
order to go past another $ehicle
"s ) mo$ed out to o$ertake the truck, ) suddenly saw a
car coming towards me at high speed.
own up confess or admit that you ha$e done
something wrong, especially something
that is not important to
omeone ob$iously broke the machine but no/one will
own up to it. Ioften J toK
%ome on, own up7 0ho*s been using my mug&
pass away die he passed away peacefully in her sleep.
)*$e li$ed on my own since my husband passed away
fi$e years ago.
pass away if a period of time passes away, it stops
existing
The great age of coal mining in the region has long
since passed away.
pass off %on$ince something that something is
real
) managed to pass off the fake money in the
market.
pass off Happen in a certain way
The demonstration passed off peacefully
pass out become unconscious, faint
)t was so hot in the stadium that ) thought ) was
going to pass out.
He came back drunk from 9a$*s party and passed
out on the sofa.
pass out ,istribute The protesters passed out leaflets to the growing
crowd
pay back Hepay money borrowed ) paid back the twenty pounds )*d borrowed.
pay back
Take re$enge on
)*m going to pay him back for that insult
pay in st or pay st
in# pay st into st
put money into a bank account ) still ha$en*t paid that cheque in.
)*$e 5ust got to pay some money into my account
pay off if something that you ha$e done to
try to achie$e something pays off, it
is successful
) was pleased to hear about your 5ob offer / all that
hard work has ob$iously paid off.
pay off %ompletely repay a debt The mortgage will be paid off in twenty/fi$e
years.
pay up informal gi$e someone the money that you
owe them, especially when you do
not want to
)f he doesn*t pay up, )*ll throw him out. )t*s as
simple as that.
That*s fifty bucks you owe me. %ome on, pay up7
Ioften an orderK
pay up st or pay st
up American
to pay all the money that you owe
for something
0e*$e finally paid the mortgage up.
pick out %hoose he picked out the ones she wanted to take and left
the rest.
pick out recogni8e a person or thing from a
group of people or things
" witness picked out the attacker from police
photos.
ee if you can pick out the drawing that 4oe did.
Pick up )mpro$e ales 1)%RG, P1 a bit during the %hristmas
period.
!!
Pick up Learn quickly he 1)%RG, P1 panish in six months.
Pick up %ollect 0hile you*re in town, can you 1)%R P1 my
trousers from the ,ry %leaner&
Pick up Hecei$e (a broadcast) 0hen we rent a holiday cottage in %ornwall, we
can*t 1)%R P1 %hannel <.
Pick up collect (a person) %an you 1)%R me P1 and take me to The 9eorge
when you go to the party&
point out +ake someone aware of something
or interested inS.
He 1A)ETG, APT that ) only had two weeks to
get the whole thing finished.
point out make a person notice someone or
something, usually by telling them
where they are or by holding up one
of your fingers towards them
)f you see her you must point her out to me. Ioften
J toK
)*d made one or two mistakes that she pointed out
to me.
Pull down ,emolish They 1PLLG, the old cinema ,A0E to build a
new shopping mall.
Pull down +ake someone depressed Losing her 5ob 1PLLG, her ,A0E.
Pull down Garn He*s 1PLL)E9 ,A0E a fortune.
pull in 0hen a train arri$es at a station The train 1PLLG, )E and we rushed to meet her
as she got off
pull in "ttract Their last tour 1PLLG, )E millions of fans.
pull in top a car by the side of the road ) 1PLLG, )E to let the passengers out
pull in arrest or take someone to a police
station for questioning
The police 1PLLG, them )E after the trouble.
Pull off +anage to do something difficult or
tricky
Eo/one thought that she would be able to do it, but
she 1PLLG, it ABB in the end.
Pull off if a $ehicle pulls off, it starts
mo$ing
) watched as the car pulled off and sped up the
road.
Pull out tart mo$ing (train) The train was 1PLL)E9 APT when ) got there.
Pull out +o$e into traffic The traffic was so bad that it took me ages to
1PLL APT.
Pull out 0ithdraw (stop being in$ol$ed in
an acti$ity or agreement)
The pro5ect was going badly and they decided to
1PLL APT
Pull out Hemo$e soldiers from an area )f we pull our troops out now, we are admitting
defeat.
Pull up low and stop a car often for a short
time
" car pulled up next to the church and two men
got out.
Pull up )nform someone that they are wrongHe 1PLLG, me P1 because ) had got my facts
wrong.
he pulled me up on my use of the term *mankind*
instead of *humankind*. Ioften J onK
put aside st or put st
aside
to ignore a problem or a
disagreement so that you can
achie$e something
The opposition parties ha$e finally put aside their
differences and formed an alliance.
put aside st or put st
aside
to keep something so that you can
use it later
1our half of the milk into the mixture and put the
rest aside for the sauce.
put aside st or put st
aside
to sa$e money for a particular
purpose
he puts aside Q!>> a month for clothes.
Put away 1ut something back in the correct
place
He 1PT the dictionary ("%R on the shelf after
he*d finished the crossword.
!#
Put away 1ut someone in prison The 5udge 1PT him "0"D for ten years for
robbery.
put by st or put st
by
sa$e an amount of money in order
to use it later
)f you put a little by e$ery week, it soon adds up.
Put down Rill an animal because it*s old, ill,
etc.
He had his dog 1PT ,A0E because it was in a
lot of pain from its tumours.
Put down top holding (but withdraw support
gently)
1PT the gun ,A0E slowly and keep your hands
where ) can see them.
put down sb or put sb
down
make someone feel stupid or
unimportant by critici8ing them
0hy do you ha$e to put me down in front of
e$eryone like that&
Dou put yourself down too much. Isometimes
reflexi$eK
put down st or put
st down
to pay part of the total cost of
something
Ha$e you got enough money to put a deposit down
on a house&
put down st or put
st down
write something )f anyone wants to go to the seminar on Briday
afternoon, could they put their name down on this
list, please&
Put off 1ostpone The concert*s been 1PT ABB until next month
because the singer*s got a throat infection
Put off top liking something or somebody ) was really 1PT ABB by the way he eats with his
mouth open.
0hat put me off him was the way he only talked
about himself.
Put on 9et fat He*s 1PT AE a lot of weight since he ga$e up
smoking
Put on ,ecei$e, lie (pretend to ha$e a
particular feeling, or to beha$e in a
way which is not real or natural for
you)
) am not 1PTT)E9 you AE.
) don*t think he*s really upset / he*s 5ust putting it
on.
"nna often puts on a funny $oice when she
answers the phone.
Put on tart wearing ) 1PT my coat AE before we went out.
Put on gi$e someone the telephone so that
they can speak to the person who is
on it
%an you put 0endy on&
0hen she felt herself beginning to cry, she put
Laurie on the phone
put out st or put st
out
to make a light stop shining by
pressing a switch
)*m rather tired / shall we put the light out&
%ould you put that torch out&
put out st or put st
out
to make something that is burning
Ie.g. fire, cigaretteK stop burning
Dou*d better put your cigarette out.
(en grabbed the fire extinguisher and put the fire
out.
put out st or put st
out
to put something in a place where
people will notice it so that they can
use it if they want to
,id you put clean towels out for the guests&
) thought )*d put out some food for people to ha$e
with their drinks.
put out st or put st
out
to produce information Ie.g.
statement, warning, press releaseK
and make it a$ailable for e$eryone
to read or hear
Garlier in the day the palace had put out a
statement denying the rumour.
1olice ha$e put out a warning to people li$ing in
the area.
put out st or put st
out
to put something outside the house,
especially so that it can be collected
) must remember to put the rubbish out on
0ednesday night in time for the collection.
,id you put the cat out last night&
put out st or put st
out
to produce or publish something for
the public to buy or use
The sort of books that they put out are ne$er likely
to be best/sellers.
put out st or put st
out
to broadcast a programme or film
on tele$ision or radio
+ost of the films that they put out on the mo$ie
channel you wouldn*t e$en want to watch.
!'
put out st or put st
out
to in5ure a part of your body Ie.g.
back, shoulderK by making a bone
mo$e from its usual place
%areful how you lift those boxes or you*ll put your
back out.
Put troug %onnect someone by phone %ould you 1PT me THHAP9H to extension #<3
please.
put st/sb troug st to test something or someone in
order to see if they can do what they
should be able to do
0e put all new models of car through a rigorous
series of tests.
Put up "llow someone to stay at your
house for a night or a few days.
he 1PT me P1 for the night because )*d missed
the last bus and there were no night buses running.
Put up )ncrease prices, taxes, duties, etc. The go$ernment has 1PT tuition fees for
undergraduate students P1 again.
put up st or put st
up
to build a structure Ie.g. wall,
building, statueK
+ost of the old buildings were pulled down so that
blocks of apartments could be put up.
They*re putting up a statue in town in his honour.
put up st or put st
up
to stick or fasten a piece of paper
Ie.g. notice, posterK to a wall so that
it can be seen
They put staff notices up on the board near
reception.
This room looks $ery bare / ) might put up one or
two posters.
put up st or put st
up
to fasten a piece of furniture Ie.g.
shel$es, cupboardK to a wall
) might ask 9uy to put some shel$es up in the
lounge.
put up st or put st
up
to spread something that is folded
or rolled up Ie.g. tent, umbrellaK so
that it is ready to be used
"re you any good at putting tents up&
)*ll 5ust put my umbrella up.
put up wit Tolerate ) can*t 1PT P1 0)TH my neighbour*s noise any
longer: it*s dri$ing me mad
Ring off Binish a phone con$ersation ,a$e H"E9 ABB guiltily when he saw his boss
coming.
Ring up Telephone Helen H"E9 me P1 earlier.
rub out ,elete ink or pencil with an eraser He HP((G, APT the figure and wrote the
correct one in
rub out Rill The gangsters HP((G, him APT for stealing
from them.
run away wit sb secretly lea$e a place with someone
in order to li$e with them or marry
them, especially when other people
think this is wrong
he ran away with him when she was 5ust
se$enteen
run away wit if something Ie.g. emotions,
imagination, enthusiasmK runs away
with someone, it makes them do or
think stupid things
)t*s important when you*re making a speech not to
let your emotions run away with you.
ometimes my imagination runs away with me
and ) con$ince myself they*re ha$ing an affair.
Run down Hit a pedestrian with a $ehicle The minicab H"E him ,A0E on the 8ebra
crossing.
Run down Lose energy or power Dou should only recharge the battery when it has
fully HPE ,A0E.
Run down %riticise, disparage They*re always HPEE)E9 me ,A0E and ) am
sick and tired of it.
Run into %ost The pro5ect has HPE )ETA millions of dollars
without any prospect of a return on this
in$estment.
Run into +eet by accident ) H"E )ETA 4ames in a bar in the %ity on Briday.
run out of Ha$e none left 0e*$e HPE APT AB sugar: )*m going to the
!.
shops for some.
Run o&er Gxplain quickly %ould you HPE A2GH that point again: )*m afraid
) didn*t quite understand it.
Run o&er Hit with a $ehicle. The dri$er couldn*t stop in time and H"E the fox
A2GH when it ran in front of his car.
Run o&er Gxceed a time limit The meeting H"E A2GH by twenty minutes.
see about st to deal with something, or to
arrange for something to be done
)t*s getting late / )*d better see about dinner.
Dou should see about getting your hair cut.
See off %hase somebody or something
away
" cat came into the back garden but the dog soon
"0 it ABB.
See off 9o to the airport, station, etc., to say
goodbye to someone
) went to the station to GG them ABB.
See troug %ontinue with something to the end Gxample= They had a lot of difficulties in
implementing the pro5ect, but the team "0 it
THHAP9H successfully.
See troug Healise someone is lying or being
deceitful
The police quickly "0 THHAP9H her disguise
and arrested her.
see to st/sb to deal with something that needs
doing or to help someone who
needs your help
The cats need feeding twice a day, but 1aula*s
seeing to that.
1lease see to it that no one enters without
identification.
Send for "sk someone to come and help ) had to GE, BAH a plumber because the
radiator was leaking.
send for sb to send someone a message asking
them to come to see you
,o you think we should send for the doctor&
) was really worried when my boss sent for me.
send for sb "sk someone to come and help ) had to GE, BAH a plumber because the
radiator was leaking.
send out st or send
st out
send something to a lot of different
people at the same time
How many in$itations are you sending out&
Glectricity bills are sent out e$ery three months.
send out st or send
st out
produce light, a sound, or a signal The torch sends out a powerful beam of light.
The ship*s crew sent out a distress call.
send out st or send
st out
if a plant sends out something Ie.g.
roots, shootsK, it grows
This plant sends out long roots and so it needs to
be planted in deep soil.
set back sb/st or set
sb/st back
to make something happen more
slowly, or to make something
happen later than it should happen
" war would ine$itably set back the process of
reform.
0e*$e had a couple of staff lea$e so that*s set us
back a few months.
The completion date for the pro5ect has been set
back by a few weeks
Set back %ost The car repairs GT me ("%R eight hundred
pounds
set in if something unpleasant sets in, it
begins and seems likely to continue
This rain looks as if it has set in for the rest of the
day.
)t was when ) realised how many people ) was
speaking to that the panic set in.
set in %hange season noticeably 0inter has GT )E: it*s started snowing
set off start a 5ourney 0hat time are you setting off tomorrow morning&
)*m 5ust about to set off for the station. Ioften J
forK
set off Gxplode a bomb Terrorists GT ABB a car bomb in the city centre
last night. Bortunately, no/one was hurt or killed.
!<
set off Hing an alarm The smoke GT the fire alarm ABB.
set out start a 5ourney (synonym of set off) )t was quite sunny when we set out.
They said they*d set out at about M o*clock, so they
should be here soon.
set out start an acti$ity, especially when
you ha$e already decided what you
want to achie$e
he*d set out with the aim of becoming the
youngest e$er winner of the championship. Ioften
J withK
Like so many young people before them, they set
out to change the world. Ioften J to do sthK
Set up 1repare equipment, software, etc.,
for use
The technician GT P1 the computer network
perfectly.
Set up tart a company They GT P1 a dot com company, floated it a
couple of years later on the tock Gxchange and
made an absolute fortune.
Sow off (eha$e in a way so as to attract
attention
The children were HA0)E9 ABB and irritated
me.
Sow off ,isplay something you are proud of He wanted to HA0 ABB his new sound system.
Sow off +ake the qualities of another thing
more apparent
The shirt really HA0G, ABB his new tie.
sow up "ttend something or arri$e
somewhere
2ery few HA0G, P1 at the meeting
sow up (ecome clear or apparent The downturn in sales HA0G, P1 in the
company*s accounts.
sow up +ake someone feel embarrassed or
ashamed
He HA0G, us P1 when he arri$ed drunk and
started arguing.
stand by upport someone He TAA, (D her throughout the trial as he
belie$ed her to be innocent.
stand by (e ready and waiting for something
to happen
The emergency ser$ices were T"E,)E9 (D
waiting for the plane to land.
Stand for "ccept or tolerate beha$iour )*m not going to T"E, BAH their rudeness any
longer.
Stand for The words represented by certain
initials
0H"T do the letters ((% T"E, BAH&
*(ritish (roadcasting %orporation.*
Stand in for ubstitute someone temporarily he had to T"E, )E BAH the editor while he
was on holiday.
Stand out (e extraordinary and different he TAA, APT from the crowd in selection and
was offered the 5ob.
Stand up for ,efend, support He*s the kind of manager who will always T"E,
P1 BAH his staff.
stand up to st be strong enough not to be damaged
by something
0e need a carpet that will stand up to e$eryday
use.
This type of plant stands up to the most se$ere
winter weather.
stand up to st Reep your principles when
challenged by an authority
Gxample= he TAA, P1 TA the police when
they tried to corrupt her.
Stay in remain at home, especially in the
e$ening
) think )*m going to stay in tonight and ha$e a
quiet one.
stay out not come home at night, or to come
home late
)*$e got to be up early in the morning so ) don*t
want to stay out too late.
stay out if workers who are on strike not
working because of an argument
with their employer stay out, they
The miners are prepared to stay out until their
demands are met.
!?
continue to refuse to work
Stick out (e easily noticed He*s so much better than the others that he
T)%R APT
Stick out Extend part of your body He STUCK his tongue OUT at me.
Stick out %ontinue doing something difficult
or unpleasant
) TP%R it APT e$en though ) hated e$ery
minute of it.
stop off $isit a place for a short time when
you are going somewhere else
0e could stop off in 1aris for a couple of days
before heading south. Ioften J inK
)*ll stop off at the supermarket on the way home
and get some wine. Ioften J atK
stop o&er stop somewhere for a period of time
when you are on a long 5ourney
0e stopped o$er in Los "ngeles for two nights on
the way to Eew Tealand.
switc on !st" or
switc !st" on
turn on an electrical de$ice Ie.g.
light, radioK or an engine by using a
switch
He switched on the bedside lamp and sat up.
The heating switches on automatically at ? am.
%ould you switch the T2 on&
switc off !st" or
switc !st" off
turn off an electrical de$ice Ie.g.
light, radioK or an engine by using a
switch
%ould you switch that light off&
The heating switches off automatically at 3 pm.
,on*t forget to switch off before you lea$e.
switc off stop gi$ing your attention to
something or someone
0hen he starts going on about his emotional
problems ) 5ust switch off.
+ost people in stressful 5obs find it difficult to
switch off when they come home.
take away Hemo$e The police TAAR the protestors "0"D.
" waiter came to take our plates away.
he report claims that large supermarkets are taking
business away from small shops.
.ake back +ake someone nostalgic That song always T"RG me ("%R to when )
was at uni$ersity.
.ake back Hetract a statement, admit that
something was wrong
) had to T"RG ("%R e$erything bad )*d said
about them when ) learned how they*d helped out.
.ake in "bsorb information = The lecture was rather boring and ) didn*t T"RG
)E much of what the lecturer said.
.ake in ,ecei$e he TAAR me )E with her story until someone
told me the truth.
.ake in +ake clothes smaller The 5acket was far too big around the shoulders, so
) had it T"RGE )E so that ) could wear it.
.ake in "ssume care or support The family TAAR )E the three homeless kittens
.ake off +ake great progress The software house really TAAR ABB when they
produced the latest $ersion of their ,T1 package
.ake off Heduce the price of an item They*$e T"RGE ten percent ABB designer frames
for glasses
.ake off 0hen a plane departs or lea$es the
ground
The flight for ,ublin TAAR ABB on time.
.ake off Hemo$e clothes you are wearing )t was hot, so ) TAAR my 5acket ABB.
.ake off spend time away from your work )*m taking Briday off to get one or two things done
around the house.
He needs to take some time off and get some rest.
.ake on "llow passengers on a ship or plane The plane stopped at Turich to T"RG AE some
passengers.
.ake on "ssume a responsibility he TAAR AE the task of indexing the book
!M
.ake on Gmploy The council has had to T"RG AE twenty extra
employees to handle their increased workload
take on st begin to ha$e a particular quality Her $oice took on a troubled tone.
0ords take on new meanings all the time.
take on sb or take sb
on
compete against someone or fight
someone
) might take you on at tennis some time.
The go$ernment took on the unions and won.
.ake o&er "ssume control of a company or
organi8ation
The bank was T"RGE A2GH by a Hong Rong
bank that needed to buy a bank to get into the
(ritish market.
.ake o&er become more successful or
powerful than something or
someone else that is in$ol$ed in the
same type of acti$ity
Brance has taken o$er from pain as Gurope*s
fa$ourite holiday destination. Iusually J fromK
take to sb/st start to like someone or something ) really took to him / ) thought he was lo$ely.
) tried cycling to work for a while but ) didn*t take
to it.
.ake to +ake a habit of something He*s T"RGE TA wearing a baseball cap since his
hair started thinning more noticeably.
take up st or take st
up
start doing a particular 5ob or
acti$ity
He*s taken up golf in his spare time.
Ha$e you e$er thought of taking up acting&
take up st or take st
up
use a particular amount of time,
space or effort
This desk takes up too much room.
)*ll be quick, ) don*t want to take up too much of
your time.
take up st or take st
up
remo$e something that is fixed to a
surface Ie.g. carpetK
0e*re going to take up these carpets and lay some
different ones.
take up st or take st
up
(literary) to lift something and hold
or carry it
%harlotte took up her pen and began to write.
take up st or take st
up
discuss something, or to deal with
something
" leading law firm took up his case.
) can*t gi$e you an answer, you*ll ha$e to take the
matter up with your super$isor. Ioften J withK
take up st or take st
up
accept an offer or opportunity to do
something
) think )*ll take up "nn*s offer to baby/sit.
)*m not sure )*m ready to take up the challenge of
motherhood 5ust yet.
take up st or take st
up
mo$e to a particular position so that
you are ready to do something
"s the crowd grew, riot police took up their
positions.
take up st or take st
up
continue with an acti$ity that has
been interrupted
)an took up the story where ue had left off.
take up st or take st
up
shorten a piece of clothing Ie.g.
skirt, trousersK
Her dress was too long for me so ) had to take it
up a couple of inches.
.alk o&er ,iscuss =0e T"LRG, A2GH the problems in our
relationship, but couldn*t sort things out.
.ink about ha$e on one*s mind, think about
acti$ely
F)*m thinking about my friends abroadF
.ink of remember= keep in mind for
attention or consideration
Think of the star$ing children in )ndia7
Think of calling your mother e$ery day
tink out/troug st
or tink st
out/troug
think carefully about something you
are planning to do and to consider
the possible results of it
He ob$iously hadn*t thought it out properly.
)t sounds like a good idea but we need to spend
some time thinking it through.
tink o&er %onsider something carefully )*$e THAP9HT it A2GH and ha$e made up my
mind: )*m going to take the 5ob in Leeds.
trow away st or
trow st away
get rid of something because you do
not want or need it any more
)*m going to throw away those maga8ines if you*$e
finished reading them.
!6
,iscard something when no longer
needed
These potatoes are past their best / )*d better throw
them away.
.row out 9et rid of ) THHG0 APT all my old clothes to make some
space in my wardrobe.
.row out ,islocate Gdward slipped on the ice and THHG0 APT his
shoulder.
.ry on 1ut clothes on to see if they fit ) TH)G, the 5acket AE before ) bought it.
.ry it on !Br / Aust$"
informal
if someone tries it on, they beha$e
badly, especially in order to find out
how badly they can beha$e before
other people become angry
The kids often try it on with a new babysitter.
.ry out Test cientists are THD)E9 APT a new drug in the
fight against the disease.
.ry out Test something to see if you like it
or want to buy it
) TH)G, APT the program before ) bought it.
try out American /
Australian
to compete for a position in a sports
team or a part in a play by playing
or performing in front of other
people
Luke*s trying out for the college football team.
Iusually J forK
he once tried out for the lead role in a tele$ision
series.
turn back st or turn
st back
to fold a part of something which
bends easily Iesp. pages, sheetsK so
that it co$ers another part
he*d turned the sheet back neatly o$er the
blanket, like they do in hotels.
turn back !sb" or turn
!sb" back
to return to the place that you came
from, or to make someone do this
0e ran out of money halfway across "merica and
had to turn back.
(oatloads of refugees are being turned back before
they reach the port.
turn back to change your plans Ance we*$e committed oursel$es to this, there*s no
turning back. Iusually negati$eK
.urn down Heduce $olume, temperature, etc. The room was too hot, so she TPHEG, the
heating ,A0E.
.urn down He5ect an offer, in$itation, etc. They offered her the 5ob, but she TPHEG, it
,A0E.
Look, )*m offering you a free meal / you*re surely
not going to turn me down&
turn !st/sb" into
st/sb
to change and become something or
someone different, or to make
something or someone do this
There are fears that this minor conflict could turn
into a full/scale war.
They*re going to turn the old warehouse into a
nightclub.
Tadpoles TPHE )ETA frogs.
turn off !st" lea$e the road you are tra$elling on
and tra$el along another one
Dou need to turn off at the next exit.
0e turned off the motorway and dro$e to a nearby
garage
turn off st or turn st
off
touch a switch so that a machine or
a piece of electrical equipment stops
working, or to stop the flow or
supply of something
Turn off all the lights before you lea$e.
0e turned the water off at the mains when the
pipes burst.
%an you turn the T2 off before you go to bed&
turn off sb or turn sb
off !st"
make someone decide that they are
not interested in something
(ad teaching can turn children off poetry for life.
The title of the lecture was enough to turn most
people off.
.urn on %ause someone to feel attraction or
pleasure ; make someone feel
sexually excited
He really TPHE me AE.
"ftersha$e really turns me on.
!3
.urn on tart a machine ) TPHEG, the radio AE to get the weather
forecast.
.urn on "ttack The neighbour*s dog TPHEG, AE me when )
tried to stroke it.
.urn out 1roduce The factory TPHE APT three thousand units a
day.
.urn out 1roduce an unexpected result )t looked as if we were going to fail, but it
TPHEG, APT well in the end.
.urn out top a light he TPHEG, APT the lights and went to bed.
.urn out "ttend Thousand TPHEG, APT for the demonstration.
turn o&er !sb/st" or
turn !sb/st" o&er
mo$e so that you are facing in a
different direction, especially when
you are lying down, or or to mo$e
someone or something in this way
urely you*re not going to 5ust turn o$er and go to
sleep&
Turn the postcard o$er and read what it says on the
back.
turn o&er sb or turn sb
o&er
take a criminal to the police or other
authority
" con$icted terrorist was e$entually turned o$er to
the police, twel$e hours after he had taken refuge
in the wiss Gmbassy. Iusually J toK
turn o&er st or turn
st o&er
gi$e something to someone,
especially someone in authority, or
to make someone responsible for
something
"ll documents are to be turned o$er to the court.
Iusually J toK
He had intended to turn the business o$er to his
son when he retired.
.urn up "ppear he didn*t TPHE P1 for class today.
.urn up )ncrease $olume, temperature, etc. ) TPHEG, the music P1 full blast.
.urn up disco$er something, especially
information, after a lot of searching
1olice ha$e failed to turn up any new e$idence
about the murder.
.urn up shorten a piece of clothing Iesp.
trousersK, by folding back and
sewing the bottom edge of the
material
+y legs are so short )*$e had to take up e$ery pair
of trousers )*$e e$er bought.
0as up %lean e$erything used to prepare
food and eat it
The children 0"HG, P1 after lunch.
0as up 0hen something in the sea or ri$er
is left on the shore or bank
"fter the crash, se$eral bodies 0"HG, P1 on
the beach
0as up 0ash face and hands (e sure you and the kids 0"H P1 before dinner.
0atc out (e careful (imperati$e) 0atch out/ there*s ice on the road.
watc out for st be careful to notice something,
especially something that might
cause you problems
,ri$ers were told to watch out for black ice on the
road.
2egetarians should watch out for animal fat in
biscuits.
0ear off top ha$ing an effect The anaesthetic 0AHG ABB and my tooth started
hurting
0ear out Pse something until it stops
working
he played the $ideo so many times that she
0AHG the tape APT.
wear out sb or wear sb
out
make someone $ery tired Looking after six small children is enough to wear
anyone out.
wipe off st or wipe st
off !st" Britis /
Australian
reduce the $alue of something Ie.g.
shares, pricesK by a particular
amount
The news has wiped nearly a third off the $alue of
the company*s shares.
0ipe out +ake someone $ery tired He$ising for the exam last night 0)1G, me APT.
#>
0ipe out Rill all of a population, make
extinct
" meteor crashing into the planet 0)1G, the
dinosaurs APT.
0ipe out remo$e information stored on part
of a computer Iesp. memory, hard
diskK
" sudden power cut wiped out my hard disk.
wipe up st or wipe st
up
remo$e a substance, usually a
liquid, with a cloth
%an you wipe up that mess on the kitchen floor&
wipe up !st" or wipe
!st" up Britis /
Australian
dry washed plates and dishes with a
cloth
)f you wash, )*ll wipe up.
%ould you wipe up the dishes&
work out st or work
st out
do a calculation to get an answer to
a mathematical question
%an you work out the total cost of the trip&
work out st or work
st out
understand something or to find the
answer to something by thinking
about it
0e couldn*t work out why they looked so guilty.
Ioften J question wordK
) couldn*t 0AHR APT all the answers to the
crossword pu88le.
work out st or work
st out
think carefully about how you are
going to do something and to make
a plan or decision
0e need to work out how we can fix it to the wall.
Ioften J question wordK
Eegotiators are trying to work out a peace
settlement.
work out st or work
st out
continue to do your 5ob until the end
of a fixed period of time
He has a three month notice period to work out.
work up st or work
st up
gradually produce something ) can*t work up much enthusiasm for this trip.
0ith the wind behind us we managed to work up
some speed
Let*s go for a walk to work up an appetite. (O to
make oursel$es hungry)
work up st or work
st up
produce or impro$e a piece of
writing
The commission has promised to work up
proposals by the end of the year.
)*m hoping to work these notes up into a longer
article. Ioften J intoK
work up st or work
st up
de$elop an area of acti$ity,
especially part of a business
)*m hoping to work up the language teaching side
of our business.
write down st or
write st down
write something on a piece of paper
so that you do not forget it
) wrote down his phone number on a scrap of
paper.
He told me his address but ) forgot to write it
down.
write in write a letter to an organi8ation The presenter in$ited students to write in with
ideas for raising money
0rite off st or write
st off
accept that an amount of money
Iesp. debt, in$estmentK has been lost
or will ne$er be paid
The 0orld (ank is being urged to write off debts
from de$eloping countries.
0rite off st or write
st off
damage a $ehicle so badly that it
cannot be repaired
That*s the second car he*s written off since he*s
been dri$ing.
0rite up +ake complete written $ersion ) 0HATG P1 the report and submitted it
Get at
Meaning: Criticise
Example: His boss is always GETTING AT him for arriving late.
Notes:
- Inseparable
- International English
#!
Phrasal erb! Get at
Meaning: "ean
Example: #hat $o yo% thin& she's GETTING AT( I've no i$ea what she wants.
Notes:
- Inseparable
- International English
Phrasal erb! Get at
Meaning: )e able to reach* fin$* access
Example: It's on the top shelf an$ I can't GET AT it.
Notes:
- Inseparable
- International English
Phrasal erb! Get at
Meaning: +se threats* payments* bribes* etc* to affect someone's testimony or
$ecision
Example: The gangsters G,T AT the -%ry* who fo%n$ them not g%ilty of all charges
$espite the evi$ence presente$ in co%rt.
Notes:
thttp=;;www.usingenglish.com;reference;phrasal/$erbs;g.html
http=;;dictionaries.cambridge.org;define.asp&keyOlook.for@!J>LdictO1

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