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Cc ht c bn trong vt l ht nhn

Gii thiu
n nay chng ti c giao dch vi mt m t ch yu l chnh xc v
y ca cc lc lng (in) v cc phn t (electron v `` '' ht nhn cu
trc t hn) c lin quan n cc vn ca chng ti.
By gi chng ta chuyn sang nghin cu v ht nhn: y cc ht c bn
khng c cu trc c bn l nn tng cho s tng tc ca h, c bit l
thng qua cc ht nhn (mnh) c hiu lc.
Cu trc c bn ny l (a) hiu khng y , (b) kh phc tp, v vy chng
ti s pht trin hon chnh s hiu bit v ht nhn nh chng ta c th s
dng m hnh c sng quen thuc, m khng cn kim tra cu trc c bn
(`` l thuyt ht c bn '') chi tit.
Tuy nhin, n l ng gi gii thiu ngn gn t vng v mt s kt qu
t l thuyt ny trc khi bt u vo ht nhn ca mnh.
Fermion, boson, v thng k
Tt c cc ht hoc l fermion (spin 1/2, 3/2, vv), ging nh cc in t, hay
boson (spin 0, 1, 2, vv) nh photon.
Fermion c chc nng ln sng chng i xng di trao i hai ht ging
v phi tun theo nguyn tc loi tr. Boson c hm sng i xng c
trao i, v khng tun theo nguyn tc loi tr.
Cc tng tc c bn
Vt l ht xc nh bn tng tc c bn gia cc fermion. S tng tc
c cho l xy ra thng qua cc lnh vc, v cc ht lin quan n cc lnh
vc ny l boson. V vy, chng ti c
1. s tng tc mnh m, thc hin bi gluon ( )
2. s tng tc in t, thc hin bi cc photon ( )
3. tng tc yu, thc hin bi cc boson W v Z trung gian ( )
4. tng tc hp dn, mang theo graviton ( )
Quark dng nh l thnh phn c bn ca cc fermion tng tc m thng
qua s tng tc mnh m (proton, neutron, vv). Cc ht tng tc mnh m
c gi l hadron.
nh lut bo ton
nh lut bo ton ng mt vai tr cc k quan trng trong s hiu bit ca
chng ta v tt c cc loi h thng vt l. i vi cc ht c bn, mt s
quen thuc v mt s th khng.
Conservations quen thuc bao gm lut bo ton nng lng, v cc tuyn
tnh v xung lng gc.
Chng ta thy rng tnh chn l l mt ti sn quan trng ca mt h
thng phn t nguyn t. Mt nh nc c chn l nu



N c tm thy nh l mt h thng tin ha di tc ng ca cc lc
lng mnh m v in t, n bo tn chn l. iu ny khng ng cho s
tin ha thuc lc yu.
Lepton, photon v tng tc ca chng
S tng tc in t; photon
Chng ti c th thc y hnh nh cht lng ca cc ht c bn bng cch nhc
li mt s c im ca nh sng.
EM phng trnh p ng lnh vc sng cho A v :



u , Phng trnh ny tuyn truyn cc gii php sng



ni m cc thng s sng k v phi p ng cc mi quan h phn
tn . Nu chng ta p dng cc nh khai thc nng lng v ng
lc



ln sng ny xc nh nng lng c trng v ng lc, v sau s
dng cc mi quan h phn tn, chng ta thy , Mt trng hp c
bit ca mi quan h ca Einstein



iu ny cho thy lng t ca nng lng EM khng c khi lng ngh.
Mt loi quan trng ca gii php xy ra khi thay i thi gian c th c
b qua. T mt in tch im , Gii php l



Tn x c th c xem nh l do s trao i mt photon o m truyn lc
t mt ht tch in khc. Ht o nh l mt kha cnh quan trng ca l
thuyt ht c bn; chng l nhng ht khng quan st c m i vo s tn
ti ch dnh cho thi gian cho php bi nguyn l bt nh, v vy s tn ti
ca h khng vi phm bo ton nng lng. H c th c trao i gia
thc t (quan st c) ht, thc lc, nng lng, chi ph, vv min l khng
c nh lut bo ton b vi phm. Nhng ht o l cc tu sn bay ca cc
trng tng tc.
S tng tc yu; boson trung gian
Cc nh vt l ti m t cc tng tc yu l c thc hin bi ba lnh vc tng
tc yu lin quan n ba boson trung gian, W , W v (trung tnh) Z. Mi c
m t bi mt vector v mt tim nng v hng, ging nh lnh vc EM. Nhng
boson c khi lng ca th t ca 100 .
Nu chng ta on rng tng qut ca phng trnh sng EM cho trng v
hng ( cng l mt trng vector) thc hin bi mt Z ht ln l



sau mt ln na, ni chu trch nhim yu c nhng gii php sng
my bay



nhng mi quan h phn tn l ph hp vi mi quan h
khi lng-nng lng Einstein.
Cc gii php cho mt ln sc yu im (Lu : khng phi l mt ph
EM) l



Gi tr ca cho boson trung gian v Fermi (1 Fermi l m),
nh hn nhiu so vi kch thc ca mt ht nhn. Ngoi mt vi ln
tim nng l khng i mc 0.
Khi qut mt ph phn phi, tim nng yu l







Tim nng l khng, tr khi hai ht tip xc.
Phm vi ngn ca lc yu c th c hiu bng cch s dng tng ca
cc ht o m i vo s tn ti ch trong phm vi c php bi nguyn l
bt nh. T chng ta thy rng mt ht nng lng khi
lng c th tn ti - m khng vi phm bo ton nng lng - mt
thi im t hng , Trong thi gian n c th di chuyn t
ngun gc ca n n mt khong cch trt t . Bi v
lc yu c thc hin bi cc boson ln, phm vi ca n c gii hn
nhng khu vc m c th t c bi cc ht o nng nh vy. Ngc li,
v khng c nng lng ti thiu m mt photon c th c, nng lng thp
photon o c th t n khong cch ln, lm cho lc Coulomb ri ra ch
l .
Lepton v phn r ca h
Lepton l mt gia nh c spin 1/2 fermion tng tc vi cc ht khc thng
qua cc EM v tng tc yu, nhng khng phi thng qua s tng tc
mnh m. Ba lepton v ba lin neutrino (v tt c chng ht ca h) l ni
ting: electron, muon (khi lng khong 200 ) V Taus (khi lng
khong 3500 ).
Ngoi khi lng, muon v Taus xut hin ging vi cc in t. c bit,
tt c dng nh hon ton structureless v do thc s c bn. Electron,
muon, v c th tiu dit tt c Taus vi chng ht ca h to ra hai hoc
ba photon; cc qu trnh ngc li cng c th xy ra.
R rng ba loi neutrino lin quan, , V c phn bit vi
nhau. Khi lng ca chng rt gn vi s khng, nhng (theo kt qu mi
nht t SNO) khng chnh xc khng.
Muon phn r qua -decay mt electron cng vi mt v , Tit
kim nng lng.
Trong tt c cc bin i lin quan n lepton, lepton s (s lepton
neutrino ca h chng ht) c bo tn mt cch ring bit cho mi gia
nh lepton, t nht mt mc cao xp x. Tng s in tch cng c
bo ton.
Khi mt muon phn r, cc vector lc in t thng i din vi spin ca
cc ht muon. By gi, theo phn nh thng qua ngun gc, cc vect r v
du hiu p thay i, v vy v s khng. V vy, nu chng ta phn
nh s phn r qua gc (cc hot ng tng ng), cc vector lc in t
s l song song vi spin. Nh vy tng tc yu khng phi l bt bin theo
cc hot ng tng ng; chn l khng c bo ton trong tng tc
yu.
Nucleon, meson, quark v tng tc mnh
Hadron l cc ht c tri nghim tng tc mnh. Chng ta s sm thy rng
nhng ngi quen thuc l c quan tng hp, thc hin ca cc ht c bn hn m
chng ta gi l quark.
Proton, neutron, v m hnh quark
Hai hadron quen thuc l cc proton v neutron, c vi khi lng khong
940 MeV / , Hay khong thi gian 1840 . Neutron l hi nng hn
proton. C hai u c quay 1/2. Neutron l khng tch in tng th, cc
proton c tng ph trch chnh xc e.
C hai ht c phn phi min ph. l ca proton b vy bn ra
trong khong bn knh trung bnh khong 0,8 fm; ca cc neutron l
trung tnh tng th vi mt li tch cc v tiu cc qung, v v mc
ging nh proton.
C hai ht c nhng giy pht t; ca proton l ; ca cc neutron
l . Cc h s ny khng th thiu mnh m ch ra rng proton
v neutron l composite, khng tiu hc, cc ht.
Bn cht tng hp ca proton v neutron cng c th hin bi s bin i
phc tp ca tng s phn photon qua, rt khc so vi tn x Compton ct
ngang ca electron. S cng hng u tin trong nucleon photon mt ct l
khong 294 MeV; t nht l nhiu nng lng ny l cn thit kch thch
cc cu trc bn trong nucleon. Trong khi hu ht cc kha cnh lin quan
n s tng tc mnh m, cc proton v neutron hnh x gn nh ging
ht.
Nh vt l ht kt lun rng cc proton v neutron l nhng h thng gm
ba quark lin kt vi nhau bi trng gluon. Cc quark c tm thy trong
cc nucleon l ln (u) v xung (d) quark, c hai quay 1/2 ht vi chi ph
tng ng + (2/3) v e e. V vy, cc proton l mt (UUD) tng hp
trong khi neutron l mt (UDD). H thng ba quark ny c gi l baryon.
Ngi ta cho rng cc ht quark c khi lng ch nh so vi nucleon; hu
ht cc on th l trong lnh vc nng lng gluon. Cc quark d l mt cht
nng hn quark u.
S tng tc nucleon-nucleon; quark v meson
Bi v nng lng cn thit kch thch h thng quark l v mt th t
cng ln hn so vi cc ngun nng lng tim nng ca nucleon b
rng buc trong mt ht nhn, n c th iu tr cc nucleon nh ht
structureless - trong bi cnh ny - c tng tc c th c nghin cu m
khng cn nhn vo cht quark ca h. (iu ny cng ging nh iu tr
cc ht nhn ca cc nguyn t nh structureless.) Tuy nhin kt qu ca s
tng tc nucleon-nucleon d kin s c phc tp, v h ang c.
Thng tin v s tng tc gia cc cp nucleon c th thu c t vic
nghin cu cc deuteron v t th nghim tn x ca cc proton v neutron
trn proton. mc tiu.
Tim nng nucleon-nucleon c c im chi tit. Hai tim nng thc s cn
thit, mt cho cc quc gia chng i xng trong trao i, v mt cho nh
nc i xng. i vi c hai trng hp ny, kt hp hai nucleon vi S = 0
kinh nghim ch c mt tim nng trung tm . Ch s S = 0 tim nng,
mc d hp dn, l khng mnh dn n bt k nh nc b rng buc
ca h thng hai nucleon.
Khi S = 1, tim nng l phc tp hn nhiu, v khc nhau gia cc trng
hp i xng v chng i xng. C hai trng hp c iu kin t l thun
vi , , Vv, ni l cc nh iu hnh quay cho
nucleon 1 Nhng tim nng thng thm to ra mt nh hng thc nh
tim nng hp dn ca mt phn t: mt lc y nhng khong cch nh,
sau hp dn khong cch ln hn. Cc `` tensor '' hn pht sinh trong
i xng S = 1 l hp dn dn n tnh trng b rng buc ca h
thng hai nucleon.
Cc deuteron l trng thi b rng buc duy nht ca hai nucleon. Mt nh
nc np rng buc ( MeV) c th tn ti, trong khi cc quc gia
nn v pp khng, mc d thc t l lc lng mnh m gn nh l ging
nhau cho p v n, bi v hai ht khng ging ht nhau c th hnh thnh mt
h thng vi mt ln sng chc nng i xng di gi np. Trng thi ny
khng th truy cp n hai nucleon ging ht nhau.
Cc lnh vc gluon c th rng buc mt quark v chng quark to
thnh meson ngn ngi nh = (U ), Cc = (D ), V = (U -
D ) / , Vi khi lng gn 140 MeV / , V spin v xung lng gc
qu o cng bng khng. Meson nng khc (tt c u c quay khng th
thiu) xy ra.
Gluon gii hn quark trong mt nucleon. Meson l nhng lnh vc chnh
nht nucleon trong ht nhn, c bit l meson v phm vi ca h l 1,4
fm.
Hadron v tng tc yu
Hadron tng tc thng qua s tng tc in t v yu. Beta-su, trong
mt neutron tr thnh mt proton hoc ngc li, tin hnh thng qua cc
khp ni gia cc quark v cc boson trung gian. V vy quark qung co c
th pht ra mt e v tr thnh quark au, chuyn i mt proton vo
mt neutron. l v s tng tc yu l tt c cc meson l khng n nh.
C bn loi hn na, hoc mi v, ca cc quark c bit: k l (s), quyn
r (c), u (t) v y (b) quark. S v c quark c ph e trong khi hai
ngi khc c + (2/3) e. Nhiu ngi trong s cc ht ln hn ca vt l
nng lng cao c to thnh t cc ht quark nng hn.
C v nh s lng baryon (baryon - chng baryon) c bo ton trong tt
c cc tng tc.
L thuyt v s tng tc mnh m, EM, v yu phc tho trn c gi
l m hnh chun ca vt l ht. N thnh cng trong vic gii thch v
d on nhiu hin tng, nhng n c v l vn cn kh y . l trong
mi trng hp rt phc tp, v da trn phng php ton hc kh khc
nhau t nhng ngi s dng trong vt l lng t nguyn t.
May mn thay, chng ta s thy rng nhiu hin tng ht nhn c th c
hiu vi cc m hnh l thuyt n gin c ngun gc t cc phng php
c hc sng pht trin nghin cu cc nguyn t v phn t.
V ti liu ny ...
Cc ht c bn trong vt l ht nhn
Ti liu ny c to ra bng cch s dng LaTeX 2 HTML phin bn 99.2beta8
(1.46)
Bn quyn 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, Nikos Drakos , my tnh Da trong hc tp,
i hc Leeds.
Bn quyn 1997, 1998, 1999, Ross Moore , khoa Ton, i hc Macquarie,
Sydney.
Cc i s dng lnh l:
latex2html lec6-elem_parts.tex
Bn dch ny c khi xng bi trn 2002/02/11



2002/02/11


Vn bn Ting Anh gc:
All particles are either fermions (spin 1/2, 3/2, etc), like electrons, or bosons (spin
0, 1, 2, etc) like photons.
ng gp bn dch hay hn