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oyzool

1crcsoo Jo|ol| 8lll |o|cltos Jo|ol|


uolvorsltos Loco, 2ul2
kU<Uk f4I4 ||
Lootol 1obotoo
(o} Ooo koIIlos Llo|, 8loooro (b} CollIor boo
Joo olo ouvootoos oI
coblolo too cso oI stool oou coocroto
otorlols Ior bcllulo coostrcctloo oro.
8tool oou coocroto oy bo orrooou to roucco oo
luool coblootloo oI strooto, wlto coocroto
oIIlcloot lo corossloo oou stool lo toosloo
Cooslto systos oro llotor lo wolot (oboct 2u
to =u% llotor tooo coocroto coostrcctloo}. ococso
oI toolr llot wolot, slto oroctloo oou lostollotloo
oro ooslor, oou tocs lobor costs coo bo lollzou.
|ocouotloo costs coo olso bo rouccou.
8tool oou coocroto oy bo orrooou to roucco oo
luool coblootloo oI strooto, wlto coocroto
oIIlcloot lo corossloo oou stool lo toosloo
Cooslto systos oro llotor lo wolot (oboct 2u
to =u% llotor tooo coocroto coostrcctloo}. ococso
oI toolr llot wolot, slto oroctloo oou lostollotloo
oro ooslor, oou tocs lobor costs coo bo lollzou.
|ocouotloo costs coo olso bo rouccou.
Joo olo ouvootoos oI
coblolo too cso oI stool oou coocroto
otorlols Ior bcllulo coostrcctloo oro.
Joo coostrcctloo tlo ls rouccou, sloco costlo oI ouultloool Iloors oy rocoou
wltooct oovlo to wolt Ior too rovlocsly cost Iloors to olo strooto. Joo stool
uoc|lo systo rovluos osltlvo ooot roloIorcooot Ior too cooslto Iloor,
rogclros ooly soll oocots oI roloIorcooot to cootrol croc|lo, oou rovluos Ilro
roslstooco
Joo coostrcctloo oI cooslto Iloors uoos oot rogclro ololy s|lllou lobor. Joo stool
uoc|lo octs os oroooot Iorwor|. Cooslto boos oou slobs coo
occoouoto rocowoys Ior oloctrlIlcotloo, cocolcotloo, oou olr ulstrlbctloo
systos. Joo slob sorvos os o colllo scrIoco to rovluo oosy ottocooot oI o
scsoouou colllo.
Joo cooslto slob, wooo Ilou lo loco, coo oct os oo oIIoctlvo lo-looo
ulooro, wolco oy rovluo oIIoctlvo lotorol broclo to boos.
Coocroto rovluos corrosloo oou toorol rotoctloo to stool ot olovotou
toorotcros. Cooslto slobs oI o 2-o Ilro rotlo coo bo ooslly ocolovou Ior ost
bcllulo rogclrooots.
Joo coostrcctloo tlo ls rouccou, sloco costlo oI ouultloool Iloors oy rocoou
wltooct oovlo to wolt Ior too rovlocsly cost Iloors to olo strooto. Joo stool
uoc|lo systo rovluos osltlvo ooot roloIorcooot Ior too cooslto Iloor,
rogclros ooly soll oocots oI roloIorcooot to cootrol croc|lo, oou rovluos Ilro
roslstooco
Joo coostrcctloo oI cooslto Iloors uoos oot rogclro ololy s|lllou lobor. Joo stool
uoc|lo octs os oroooot Iorwor|. Cooslto boos oou slobs coo
occoouoto rocowoys Ior oloctrlIlcotloo, cocolcotloo, oou olr ulstrlbctloo
systos. Joo slob sorvos os o colllo scrIoco to rovluo oosy ottocooot oI o
scsoouou colllo.
Joo cooslto slob, wooo Ilou lo loco, coo oct os oo oIIoctlvo lo-looo
ulooro, wolco oy rovluo oIIoctlvo lotorol broclo to boos.
Coocroto rovluos corrosloo oou toorol rotoctloo to stool ot olovotou
toorotcros. Cooslto slobs oI o 2-o Ilro rotlo coo bo ooslly ocolovou Ior ost
bcllulo rogclrooots.
Joo Iloor slob oy bo coostrcctou by too Iollowlo otoous
8|ress dis|ribu|ion
in o comosi|e cross sec|ion
Wob ooolo wlto oorlzootol
roloIorcooot
Cooslto costollotou boos
lorollol cooslto boo systo
Comosi|e 1russes
8|ub Girder 8ys|em
kOMIONLN 81kUk1Uk kOMIO8|1
(8N|)
olo| bo|o yoo ol|cl olot botoo bortcloo
uoo bo|or|o borsoo-soo uoooo olot torsobct
sobool sotc |osotcoo uolo ol|cl lootcr
olo| |ooslt souoroooo otoc ooorcs uoooo
ooocbco osor, otoc roIll bo|o yoo ulborl
solcbco botoo, bol| yoo ulbooco uoooo otoc
tooo oocc soootoro (oroocoo}.
olo| bo|o yoo ol|cl olot botoo bortcloo
uoo bo|or|o borsoo-soo uoooo olot torsobct
sobool sotc |osotcoo uolo ol|cl lootcr
olo| |ooslt souoroooo otoc ooorcs uoooo
ooocbco osor, otoc roIll bo|o yoo ulborl
solcbco botoo, bol| yoo ulbooco uoooo otoc
tooo oocc soootoro (oroocoo}.
komonen s|ruk|ur Ien|ur
Lobor oIo|tlI olot lootol yoo obootoo ouo
oslo-oslo slsl uorl scbc bolo| tluo| boloo
oloblol.
o} 8ooruolooo uorl bootoo bolo| (|oro|
ootoro tccoo},
b} 8otoooo |oro| borslo ootoro scbc
bolo|-bolo| yoo borsoboloooo,
c} 1oro| |o tol olot.
Lobor oIo|tlI olot lootol yoo obootoo ouo
oslo-oslo slsl uorl scbc bolo| tluo| boloo
oloblol.
o} 8ooruolooo uorl bootoo bolo| (|oro|
ootoro tccoo},
b} 8otoooo |oro| borslo ootoro scbc
bolo|-bolo| yoo borsoboloooo,
c} 1oro| |o tol olot.
kekuo|on boIok komosi| denqon
enqbubunq qeser
Iersyoro|on un|uk dek bo|o
berqeIombonq
Iersyoro|on un|uk dek bo|o
berqeIombonq
Ienqbubunq qeser
Goyo qeser borizon|oI
kekuo|on enqbubunq qeser |enis
oku
kekuo|on enqbubunq qeser konoI
!umIob enqbubunq qeser yonq
dierIukon
1cloo ooocbco osor yoo ulorlc|oo ouo
uooroo yoo ulbotosl oloo tltl|-tltl| ooo lootcr
o|slc, osltlI otoc oootlI, uoo ooo ool
yoo boruo|otoo ouoloo soo uoooo oyo osor
oorlzootol totol yoo bo|or|o
1cloo ooocbco osor yoo ulorlc|oo ouo
uooroo yoo ulbotosl oloo tltl|-tltl| ooo lootcr
o|slc, osltlI otoc oootlI, uoo ooo ool
yoo boruo|otoo ouoloo soo uoooo oyo osor
oorlzootol totol yoo bo|or|o
Ienemo|on don |orok on|or
enqbubunq qeser
koccoll ultootc|oo lolo, ooocbco osor yoo
ulorlc|oo ouo uooroo yoo ulbotosl oloo tltl|-
tltl| ooo lootcr o|slc uoo ooo ool yoo
boruo|otoo oorcs ululstrlbcsl|oo socoro oroto
ouo uooroo torsobct
koccoll ultootc|oo lolo, ooocbco osor yoo
ulorlc|oo ouo uooroo yoo ulbotosl oloo tltl|-
tltl| ooo lootcr o|slc uoo ooo ool yoo
boruo|otoo oorcs ululstrlbcsl|oo socoro oroto
ouo uooroo torsobct
1be nominoI s|renq|b o| o sbeor s|ud
connec|or embedded in o soIid
concre|e sIob moy be comu|ed |rom
wben |be sbeor connec|ors ore embedded in concre|e on
o me|oI deck, o reduc|ion |oc|or k soo|d bc opp||cd to Qa
Wooo too rlbs oI too otol uoc| oro orooulcclor
to too boo
Wooo too rlbs oI too stool uoc| oro orollol to too
stool boo oou w,| < !.5,
Wooo too rlbs oI too otol uoc| oro orooulcclor
to too boo
Wooo too rlbs oI too stool uoc| oro orollol to too
stool boo oou w,| < !.5,