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# Earthquake Guided Notes page494

## What is stress? What is strain? How do they compare and

contrast? (make a Venn diagram)
Stress is the force per unit area acting on a material and strain is
the deformation of the material due to the stress.

Same: both have something to do with the 3 kinds of stress as
well as they both depend on each other to react.

What are the 3 different types of faults? Describe each.
*Reverse Faults: result from horizontal compression
* Normal Faults: caused by horizontal tension
* Strike-slip: caused by horizontal shear
Earthquake Waves
Type of
waves
Materials &
Description
Sketch Movement
Primary
P-waves,
squeeze and
pull rocks in the
same direction
as the waves
are moving
1.

Same direction
as the wave,
back and forth
Stress
*There are 3 kinds
*The cause
*Low stress produces
a straight segement

Strain
*The effect
*Causes bending
annd stretching
Earthquake Guided Notes page494

Secondary
S-waves, move
rocks at a right
angle in relation
to the direction
of the waves
1.
Right angle to
the waves, up
and down
Surface

Moves in two
directions, up
and down as
they pass the
rock
1.
Two directions
to the wave,
up&down then
back&forth

How do the focus and the epicenter of earthquakes compare and
contrast?
Both the focus and the epicenter are located on the Earth,
whether it be in it or above it. The Focus is the point where an
earthquake originates and the epicenter is right above it.
The greater the distance between P and S waves on a
seismograph the (longer or shorter) distance away from the
epicenter.
Longer
What is the name of the scale used to measure the energy
released during an earthquake? What is the range of the scale?
Richter Scale, 1-10
What is the name of the scale used to measure the intensity
(damage done) during an earthquake? What is the range of the
scale?
Modified Mercalli Scale, 1-12

Earthquake Guided Notes page494

Describe the damage caused by earthquakes for a level 1, 5, and
10
1: isnt really noticeable
5: can be felt by just about everyone and can cause dishes
and windows to break and some plaster to crack
10: most common structures are destroyed, rails are bent,
and landslides occur