Non-Nursing Theories

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES

  The Psychosexual Stages of

Development

There are five major stages of  biological-physiological development  - every person must progress if he is to become psychologically mature.

Freud’s 5 Stages of Development
 The personality develops in 5

overlapping stages from birth to adulthood.
  The libido changes its location of

emphasis within the body from one stage to another.

 Therefore, a particular body area has

special significance to a client at a particular stage.
  If the individual does NOT achieve a

satisfactory resolution at each stage, the personality becomes fixated at that stage.

Fixation
  Immobilization or the inability of

the personality to proceed to the next stage because of anxiety

Pregenital stages
(the 1st 3 stages – oral, anal and phallic)

 Oral stage
 The mouth is the principal source of

pleasure, primarily as a result of eating
  Feelings of dependence (may tend to

persist throughout life)

Fixation with oral stage
 A person may have:
 Difficulty trusting others  Nail biting  Drug abuse  Smoking

 A person may have:
 Alcoholism  Argumentativeness  Overdependency  Overeating 

PREGENITAL STAGE
(the 1 st 3 stages – oral anal and phallic , )

 Anal stage

 This stage occurs when the child is

learning toilet training
  

Fixation with anal stage

 Obsessive-compulsive personality

traits:
 Obstinance  Stinginess  Cruelty  Temper tantrums

Pregenital stage
(the 1 st 3 stages – oral anal and phallic , )

 Phallic stage
  Sexual and aggressive feelings

associated with the genitals come into focus
 Masturbation offers pleasurable at

this time
 Child experiences Oedipus or Electra

 Oedipus Complex
 Male child’s attraction to his mother

and his hostile attitudes toward his father

 Electra Complex
 Female child’s attraction for her

father and her hostility toward her mother

Fixation with phallic stage
 It can result in such traits as

problems with:
 Sexual identity

 Homosexuality  Bisexuality
 Problems with authority

Latency stage

 The sexual impulses tend to be

repressed

 The energy is directed to physical and

intellectual activities

Fixation with latency stage
  Unresolved conflict maybe reflected

in obsessiveness and lack of self-motivation

 

Following latency come adolescence and the reactivation of the pregenital impulses…

Genital stage
  Energy is directed toward attaining a

mature heterosexual relationship

Fixation with genital stage
 Inability to resolve conflicts during

this stage can result in sexual problems such as:
 frigidity  impotence  inability to be satisfied in a

heterosexual relationship

FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

The five (5) Stages of Development - Freud
 Oral Stage (0 to 1 year)
 Mouth is the center of pleasure

 Implication:
 Feeding produces pleasure and

sense of comfort and safety.

  Feeding should be pleasurable and

provided when required.

 Anal Stage (2 to 3 years)
 Anus and rectum are the centers of

pleasure

 Implication:
 Controlling and expelling feces

provide pleasure and sense of control.  Toilet training should be pleasurable experience  Appropriate praise can result in

 Phallic Stage (4 to 5 years)
 The child’s genital are the center of

pleasure

 Implication:
 The child identifies with the parent of

the opposite sex and later takes on a love relationship outside the family.
 Encourage identification

 Latency Stage (6 to 12 years)
 Energy is directed to physical and

intellectual activities

 Implication:
 Encourage child with physical and

intellectual pursuits

 Genital stage (13 years and after)
 Energy is directed toward attaining a

mature heterosexual relationship

 Implication:
 Encourage separation from parents,

achievement of independence, and making decisions.

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