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# Probability of dependent events see explanation

An automobile manufacturing plant produced vehicles today: were sedans, were do it on paper
vans, and were trucks. Plant managers are going to choose two of these vehicles for
thorough inspection. The first vehicle will be chosen at random, and then the second vehicle
will be chosen at random from the remaining vehicles. What is the probability that two sedans
will be selected?
A business school is preparing an informational booklet for entering graduate students. Part of this
material is a report on how various factors influence a student's GPA (grade point average). In
particular, the school used a multiple regression model to study the relationship between graduate
GPA and several independent variables . If data from current graduate students are used to
develop the regression model, what are the degrees of freedom (df) for the regression sum of
squares, the error sum of squares, and the total sum of squares?
df for the regression sum of squares?
df for the error sum of squares?
df for the total sum of squares?
Identifying degrees of freedom
Suppose that we want to estimate the number of holding penalties assessed during a college
football game. The sample of games we pick has a mean of 3.3 penalties per game and a standard
deviation of 0.8 penalties per game. For each of the following sampling scenarios, determine which
test statistic is appropriate to use when making inference statements about the population mean.
(In the table, Z refers to a variable having a standard normal distribution, and T refers to a
variable having a t distribution.)
Selecting a distribution for inferences on the population mean
p actual proportion
n number of sample Binary trials distribution
c acceptance number
x number selected/found in the sample
40
c 3
p 0.16
#NUM!
Personal computer manufacturers often buy many of the components in their computers from outside suppliers. One such
company purchases memory chips from a supplier who ships the chips in large lots containing several hundred chips each.
When a lot is received, a random sample of the chips is selected and tested on an automated machine to see if they can
perform several tasks. If too many of the chips in the sample fail to pass the testing, the company rejects the entire lot and
returns it to the supplier.
Suppose that the computer company wants to use a sampling plan that has a probability of of rejecting lots that consist of
defective or worse. If the company uses an acceptance number of , find the minimum sample size that will give a probability
of at least of rejecting lots that are defective or worse.
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas. Also note that the ALEKS calculator allows you to compute binomial probabilities.)
Acceptance sampling
Personal computer manufacturers often buy many of the components in their computers from outside suppliers. One such
company purchases memory chips from a supplier who ships the chips in large lots containing several hundred chips each.
When a lot is received, a random sample of the chips is selected and tested on an automated machine to see if they can
perform several tasks. If too many of the chips in the sample fail to pass the testing, the company rejects the entire lot and
returns it to the supplier.
Suppose that the computer company wants to use a sampling plan that has a probability of of rejecting lots that consist of
defective or worse. If the company uses an acceptance number of , find the minimum sample size that will give a probability
of at least of rejecting lots that are defective or worse.
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas. Also note that the ALEKS calculator allows you to compute binomial probabilities.)
Bayes theorem
p(defective | A 0.2
p(defective | B 0.19
P(B) 0.75
P(A) 0.25
0.74
p(blind | men 6
P(M) 100
p(blind | women 25
P(F) 10,000
0.96 male is colorblind CHOOSE ONE
0.04 female is colorblind
P(desease) 0.27
In a factory, only two machines, A and B, manufacture washers. Neither machine is perfect:
machine A produces defective washers20%of the time, while machine B produces
defectives17%of the time. Machine B is more efficient than machine A and accounts
for80%of the total output of washers. For purposes of quality control, a sample of washers is
taken and examined for defectives. Compute the probability that a randomly chosen washer
found to be defective was manufactured by machine A. Round your answer to two decimal
places.
probability that a randomly chosen washer found to be defective was manufactured
by machine A
Suppose that 6 men in 100 are colorblind, while 24 women in 10,000 are colorblind. Compute the probability that a colorblind individual is male.
Assume that the population contains an equal number of males and females. Round your answer to two decimal places
A certain disease occurs in47%of the population. A test for the disease is fairly accurate: it misclassifies people with the
disease as healthy4%of the time and reports that a healthy person is diseased just6%of the time. Suppose that a person
tests positive for the disease. Compute the probability that the person does indeed have the disease. Round your answer to two
decimal places.
probability that a randomly chosen washer found to be defective was manufactured
by machine B
p( negative | desease 0.09
p(people | desease 0.09
p(positive | desease 0.91
P(no desease) 0.73
0.79 does have it 0.21 does not have it
p(correct| female 0.76
p(incorrect| female 0.24
p(correct| male 0.7
p(incorrect| male 0.3
P(F) 0.61
P(M) 0.39
ANSWER 0.44 to find a man 0.56
p(ON TIME | TOOK CAR ) 0.7
p( NOT ON TIME | took bus ) 0.4
P(on time | took bus 0.6
P (took car) 0.2
p(took car | on time 0.54 answer P took bus | on time 0.46
Archie has to go to school this morning for an important test, but he woke up late. He can either take the bus or take his unreliable car. If he takes the
car, Archie knows from experience that he will make it to school without breaking down with probability 0.4 . However, the bus to school runs late 25 %
of the time. Archie decides to choose between these options by tossing a coin. Suppose that Archie does, in fact, make it to the test on time. What is
the probability that he took his car? Round your answer to two decimal places.
(If necessary, consult a list of for
A psychologist interested in gender differences examined whether people can determine the sex of an individual from a sample of his/her handwriting.
In a study of this matter, female handwriting samples were correctly identified as such by 70% of volunteer subjects, while male handwriting samples
were correctly identified by 70% of subjects. In this study, 64% of the handwriting samples were from females. Suppose you know that a subject
incorrectly identified a sample. What is the probability that this handwriting sample is from a man? Round your answer to two decimal places.
CHOOSE ONE
probability that a randomly chosen washer found to be defective was manufactured
by machine A
Suppose that 6 men in 100 are colorblind, while 24 women in 10,000 are colorblind. Compute the probability that a colorblind individual is male.
Assume that the population contains an equal number of males and females. Round your answer to two decimal places
A certain disease occurs in47%of the population. A test for the disease is fairly accurate: it misclassifies people with the
disease as healthy4%of the time and reports that a healthy person is diseased just6%of the time. Suppose that a person
tests positive for the disease. Compute the probability that the person does indeed have the disease. Round your answer to two
decimal places.
probability that a randomly chosen washer found to be defective was manufactured
by machine B
to find a woman
Archie has to go to school this morning for an important test, but he woke up late. He can either take the bus or take his unreliable car. If he takes the
car, Archie knows from experience that he will make it to school without breaking down with probability 0.4 . However, the bus to school runs late 25 %
of the time. Archie decides to choose between these options by tossing a coin. Suppose that Archie does, in fact, make it to the test on time. What is
the probability that he took his car? Round your answer to two decimal places.
(If necessary, consult a list of for
A psychologist interested in gender differences examined whether people can determine the sex of an individual from a sample of his/her handwriting.
In a study of this matter, female handwriting samples were correctly identified as such by 70% of volunteer subjects, while male handwriting samples
were correctly identified by 70% of subjects. In this study, 64% of the handwriting samples were from females. Suppose you know that a subject
incorrectly identified a sample. What is the probability that this handwriting sample is from a man? Round your answer to two decimal places.
Binomial problems: Mean and standard deviation
n 130 number of trials
a. 0.98 percentage
p 0.02 probability of success on each particular trial
b. np 2.6 questions 2
0.02
0.98
2.548
13 h, 13 s, 13d , 13 cl
a. n 15 number of trials
p 0.25 percentage probability of success on each particular trial
At a recent meeting at the American College of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology, researchers reported that allergy vaccinations are
effective in treating sinusitis (inflammation of the membrane lining the facial sinuses) in individuals predisposed to allergies. Specifically,
the researchers reported that 98% of individuals predisposed to allergies find relief from their sinusitis after allergy vaccinations.
Suppose that this number is accurate and that 140 individuals predisposed to allergies are chosen at random and given allergy
vaccinations.
a. Estimate the number of individuals in the random sample who do not find relief from their sinusitis by giving the mean of the
relevant distribution (that is, the expectation of the relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
b. Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three
decimal places.
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Suppose that we've decided to test Clara, who works at the Psychic Center, to see if she really has psychic abilities. While talking to her on the
phone, we'll thoroughly shuffle a standard deck of 52 cards (which is made up of 13 hearts, 13spades, 13 diamonds, and 13clubs) and draw one
card at random. We'll ask Clara to name the suit (heart, spade, diamond, or club) of the card we drew. After getting her guess, we'll return the card
to the deck, thoroughly shuffle the deck, draw another card, and get her guess for the suit of this second card. We'll repeat this process until we've
drawn a total of 18cards and gotten her suit guesses for each.
Assume that Clara is not clairvoyant, that is, assume that she randomly guesses on each card.
a. Estimate the number of cards in the sample for which Clara correctly guesses the suit by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that
is, the expectation of the relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
b. Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three
decimal places.
b. np 3.75 questions 2
0.25
0.75
2.8125
a. n 30 number of trials
p 0.5 percentage probability of success on each particular trial
b. np 15 questions 2
0.5
0.5
7.5
a np 90
3%
b 2.7
0.03
0.97
2.619
Suppose that the New England Colonials baseball team is equally likely to win any particular game as not to win it. Suppose also that we choose a
random sample of 30 Colonials games.
Estimate the number of games in the sample that the Colonials win by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that is, the expectation of the
relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three decimal
places.
A machine that manufactures automobile pistons is estimated to produce a defective piston of the 1% time. Suppose that this estimate is correct
and that a random sample of 90pistons produced by this machine is taken.
Estimate the number of pistons in the sample that are defective by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that is, the expectation of the
relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three decimal
places.
a np 50
0.05
b 2.5
0.05
0.95
2.375
a np 50
10%
0.9
b 45
0.9
0.1
4.5
Not all visitors to a certain company's website are customers or potential customers. In fact, the company's executives estimate that about 5%of
all visitors to the website are looking for other websites. Assume that this estimate is correct and that a random sample of 40visitors to the
website is taken.
Estimate the number of visitors in the sample who actually are looking for the company's website by giving the mean of the relevant distribution
A rainstorm in Portland, Oregon, wiped out the electricity in 5% of the households in the city. Suppose that a random sample of 50 Portland
households is taken after the rainstorm.
a. Estimate the number of households in the sample that lost electricity by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that is, the
expectation of the relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
b. Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three decimal
places.
Anita's, a fast-food chain specializing in hot dogs and garlic fries, keeps track of the proportion of its customers who decide to eat in the restaurant
(as opposed to ordering the food "to go") so it can make decisions regarding the possible construction of in-store play areas, the attendance of its
mascot Sammy at the franchise locations, and so on. Anita's reports that 48% of its customers order their food to go. Suppose that this proportion
is correct and that a random sample of 50 individual customers is taken.
a np 50
0.07
3.5
b 0.07
0.93
3.255
100%
4
0.25
At a recent meeting at the American College of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology, researchers reported that allergy vaccinations are
effective in treating sinusitis (inflammation of the membrane lining the facial sinuses) in individuals predisposed to allergies. Specifically,
the researchers reported that 98% of individuals predisposed to allergies find relief from their sinusitis after allergy vaccinations.
Suppose that this number is accurate and that 140 individuals predisposed to allergies are chosen at random and given allergy
vaccinations.
a. Estimate the number of individuals in the random sample who do not find relief from their sinusitis by giving the mean of the
relevant distribution (that is, the expectation of the relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
b. Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three
decimal places.
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Suppose that we've decided to test Clara, who works at the Psychic Center, to see if she really has psychic abilities. While talking to her on the
phone, we'll thoroughly shuffle a standard deck of 52 cards (which is made up of 13 hearts, 13spades, 13 diamonds, and 13clubs) and draw one
card at random. We'll ask Clara to name the suit (heart, spade, diamond, or club) of the card we drew. After getting her guess, we'll return the card
to the deck, thoroughly shuffle the deck, draw another card, and get her guess for the suit of this second card. We'll repeat this process until we've
drawn a total of 18cards and gotten her suit guesses for each.
Assume that Clara is not clairvoyant, that is, assume that she randomly guesses on each card.
a. Estimate the number of cards in the sample for which Clara correctly guesses the suit by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that
is, the expectation of the relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
b. Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three
decimal places.
100%
win - no win 2
0.5
Suppose that the New England Colonials baseball team is equally likely to win any particular game as not to win it. Suppose also that we choose a
random sample of 30 Colonials games.
Estimate the number of games in the sample that the Colonials win by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that is, the expectation of the
relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three decimal
places.
A machine that manufactures automobile pistons is estimated to produce a defective piston of the 1% time. Suppose that this estimate is correct
and that a random sample of 90pistons produced by this machine is taken.
Estimate the number of pistons in the sample that are defective by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that is, the expectation of the
relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three decimal
places.
Not all visitors to a certain company's website are customers or potential customers. In fact, the company's executives estimate that about 5%of
all visitors to the website are looking for other websites. Assume that this estimate is correct and that a random sample of 40visitors to the
website is taken.
Estimate the number of visitors in the sample who actually are looking for the company's website by giving the mean of the relevant distribution
A rainstorm in Portland, Oregon, wiped out the electricity in 5% of the households in the city. Suppose that a random sample of 50 Portland
households is taken after the rainstorm.
a. Estimate the number of households in the sample that lost electricity by giving the mean of the relevant distribution (that is, the
expectation of the relevant random variable). Do not round your response.
b. Quantify the uncertainty of your estimate by giving the standard deviation of the distribution. Round your response to at least three decimal
places.
Anita's, a fast-food chain specializing in hot dogs and garlic fries, keeps track of the proportion of its customers who decide to eat in the restaurant
(as opposed to ordering the food "to go") so it can make decisions regarding the possible construction of in-store play areas, the attendance of its
mascot Sammy at the franchise locations, and so on. Anita's reports that 48% of its customers order their food to go. Suppose that this proportion
is correct and that a random sample of 50 individual customers is taken.
Binomial Problem Basic
question 1
# of people that would be interested --> 65%
Random Sample in power -- > 6
question 2
the probability of a loss of electricity is --> 10%
the probability of no loss of electricity is 90%
Random Sample in power -- > 6
question 3
Estimates 7%
the number of Combination 10
the number chosen 3 7
A TV executive is interested in the popularity of a particular cable TV show. She has
been told that a whopping 65% of American households would be interested in
tuning in to a new network version of the show. If this is correct, what is the
probability that all of the households in her city being monitored by the TV
industry would tune in to the new show? Assume that the 6 households constitute
a random sample of American households.
Round your response to at least three decimal places.
A rainstorm in Portland, Oregon, has wiped out the electricity in about 65% of the
households in the city. A management team in Portland has a big meeting
tomorrow, and all 6 members of the team are hard at work in their separate
households, preparing their presentations. What is the probability that none of
them has lost electricity in his/her household? Assume that their locations are
spread out so that loss of electricity is independent among their households.
Round your response to at least three decimal places.
Not all visitors to a certain company's website are customers. In fact, the website
administrator estimates that about 12% of all visitors to the website are looking
for other websites. Assuming that this estimate is correct, find the probability that,
in a random sample of 5 visitors to the website, exactly 3 actually are looking for
the website
120
probability looking for particular website 0.93
question 4
P (O) obese 0.6
P (D) diabetes 0.4
P (OND) 0.65
find P( O U D) = --->>>>>>>>> P(O)+P(D)-P(O D) 0.35 answer
question 5
group 5 0.5
chosen 3 2
combination 10
question 6
Estimates 96%
the number of Combination 4
the number chosen 3 1
The workers' union at a particular university is quite strong. About 96% of all
workers employed by the university belong to the workers' union. Recently, the
workers went on strike, and now a local TV station plans to interview 5 workers
(chosen at random) at the university to get their opinions on the strike. What is the
probability that exactly 3 of the workers interviewed are union members?
Suppose that 41% of all adults in a certain community are obese and that 34%
suffer from diabetes. If 24% of the adults in this community are both obese and
suffering from diabetes, what is the probability that a randomly chosen adult in this
community is obese or suffers from diabetes (or both)?
Suppose that the New England Colonials baseball team is equally likely to win a
game as not to win it. If 5 Colonials games are chosen at random, what is the
probability that exactly 4 of those games are won by the Colonials?
Round your response to at least three decimal places.
4
probability looking for particular website 0.04
A new surgical operation procedure is said to be successful 75% of the time. If the procedure is
performed on 9patients independently, what is the probability that fewer than 2operations are
P(B
n,

p
<x)
1-P(B
n,

p
<x)
1-P(B
n,

p
<x)
n = number, p = propability or percentage, x is the # choosen
p sometimes will be " a, b, c, d" then the equation will be 1/4 . It's 1 out of the total
see explanation
alex cal
at most
at least
more than
6
Central Limit Theorem: Sample Mean
0.1 Original mean
0.07 original dev
0.093 New Mean
40 N
6.324555
0.0111
-0.007
-0.63246
0.2635
112 Original mean
15 original dev
115.8 New Mean
35 N
5.91608
2.5355
3.8
1.49874
A worldwide organization of academics claims that the mean IQ score of its
members is 112 , with a standard deviation of 15. A randomly selected group of
35 members of this organization is tested, and the results reveal that the mean
IQ score in this sample is 115.8 . If the organization's claim is correct, what is
the probability of having a sample mean of 115.8 or less for a random sample
of this size?
According to records, the amount of precipitation in a certain city on a
November day has a 0.10 mean of inches, with a standard deviation of 0.07
inches. What is the probability that the mean daily precipitation will be 0.093
inches or more for a random sample of 40 November days (taken over many
years)?
Carry your intermediate computations to at least four decimal places. Round
32 Original mean
7 original dev
31.5 New Mean
34 N
5.830952
1.2005
-0.5
-0.4165
The producer of a weight-loss pill advertises that people who use the pill lose,
after one week, an average (mean) of 1.85 pounds with a standard deviation of
0.95 pounds. In a recent study, a group of 50 people who used this pill were
interviewed. The study revealed that these people lost a mean of pounds after
one week. If the producer's claim is correct, what is the probability that the
mean weight loss after one week on this pill for a random sample of 50
individuals will be 1.68 pounds or less?
24230 Original mean
3678 original dev
25000 New Mean
80 N
8.944272
411.2129
770
1.872509
0.9694
520 Original mean
180 original dev
502 New Mean
35 N
5.91608
30.4256
-18
-0.59161
0.2771
The mean salary offered to students who are graduating from Coastal State
University this year is \$24230, with a standard deviation of 3678 . A random
sample of 80 Coastal State students graduating this year has been selected.
What is the probability that the mean salary offer for 80 these students is
25000 or more?
For a standardized psychology examination intended for psychology majors,
the historical data show that scores have a mean of 520 and a standard
deviation of 180. The grading process of this year's exam has just begun. The
average score of 35 the exams graded so far is 502 . What is the probability
that a sample of 35 exams will have a mean score of 502 or more if the exam
scores follow the same distribution as in the past?
Central limit theorem: Sample proportion
1,100
0.01
0.02
A. n 1100
p 0.01
11
0.01
B Var(X) 0.000009
0.003
c 3.33333333
0.9996 ANSWER greater than or less than
0.0004 ANSWER greater than or equal to, Less than or equal to
1650
0.12
0.1
A. n 1650
p 0.12
198
0.12
The Credit Risk Department of a major bank estimates the default rate on loans under 10000 to be 1%. The bank will make
1100 loans that are under 10000 next month.
A. Find the mean of P, where P is the proportion of defaults on the 1100 loans under 10000 to be made next month.
B Find the standard deviation of P.
C. Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that 2% or more of next month's loans
under 10000 will be defaulted on. Round your answer to four decimal places.
E(X) = NP
Empirical research on stock market data for two consecutive trading days indicates that 60% of the stocks that went up on the
first day also went up on the second day. Yesterday, 600 stocks went up.
a. Find the mean of P , where gives the proportion of the 600 stocks that went up yesterday that will go up today.
b. Find the standard deviation of p .
c. Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that fewer than of the stocks that went
up yesterday will go up again today. Round your answer to four decimal places.
E(X) = NP
P ( Z )
P ( Z )
B Var(X) 0.000064
0.008
c -2.5
0.0062 ANSWER greater than or less than
0.9938 ANSWER greater than or equal to, Less than or equal to
1100
0.01
0.02
A. n 1100
p 0.01
11
0.01
B Var(X) 0.000009
0.003
c 3.33333333
0.9996 ANSWER greater than or less than
0.0004 ANSWER greater than or equal to, Less than or equal to
Withdrawal symptoms may occur when a person using a painkiller suddenly stops using it. For a special type of painkiller,
withdrawal symptoms occur in 1% of the cases. Consider a random sample of 1100 people who have stopped using the
painkiller
a. Find the mean of P , where P is the proportion of people in the sample who experience withdrawal symptoms.
b Find the standard deviation of P.
c Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that more than 2% of those sampled
P ( Z )
E(X) = NP
4400
0.01
0.015
A. n 4400
p 0.01
44
0.01
B Var(X) 0.00000225
0.0015
c 3.33333333
0.9996 ANSWER greater than or less than
0.0004 ANSWER greater than or equal to, Less than or equal to
1650
0.12
0.1
A. n 1650
p 0.12
198
0.12
In a memory test, the test subjects are shown 600 objects and are asked after two hours to name the objects. The historical
records show that test subjects remember 60% of the objects after two hours.
a. Find the mean of P , where is the proportion of objects that are remembered by a test subject.
b. Find the standard deviation of P .
c. Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that fewer than 63% of the objects
are remembered by a test subject. Round your answer to four decimal places.
P ( Z )
E(X) = NP
A researcher wants to investigate the effects of environmental factors on IQ scores. For an initial study, she takes a sample of
400 people who grew up as the only child. She finds that 47.5% of them have an IQ score over 100 . It is known that of the
general population has an IQ score exceeding .
a. Find the mean of P , where is the proportion of people with IQ scores over 100 in a random sample of 400 people.
b. Find the standard deviation of .
Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that there will be 47.5% or more individuals
with IQ scores over 100 in a random sample of 400. Round your answer to four decimal places.
P ( Z )
E(X) = NP
B Var(X) 0.000064
0.008
c -2.5
0.0062 ANSWER greater than or less than
0.9938 ANSWER greater than or equal to, Less than or equal to
1-p(z..) more than
The Credit Risk Department of a major bank estimates the default rate on loans under 10000 to be 1%. The bank will make
1100 loans that are under 10000 next month.
A. Find the mean of P, where P is the proportion of defaults on the 1100 loans under 10000 to be made next month.
B Find the standard deviation of P.
C. Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that 2% or more of next month's loans
under 10000 will be defaulted on. Round your answer to four decimal places.
Empirical research on stock market data for two consecutive trading days indicates that 60% of the stocks that went up on the
first day also went up on the second day. Yesterday, 600 stocks went up.
a. Find the mean of P , where gives the proportion of the 600 stocks that went up yesterday that will go up today.
b. Find the standard deviation of p .
c. Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that fewer than of the stocks that went
up yesterday will go up again today. Round your answer to four decimal places.
fewer than
1-p(z..) more than
1-p(z..) more than
Withdrawal symptoms may occur when a person using a painkiller suddenly stops using it. For a special type of painkiller,
withdrawal symptoms occur in 1% of the cases. Consider a random sample of 1100 people who have stopped using the
painkiller
a. Find the mean of P , where P is the proportion of people in the sample who experience withdrawal symptoms.
b Find the standard deviation of P.
c Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that more than 2% of those sampled
1-p(z..) more than
In a memory test, the test subjects are shown 600 objects and are asked after two hours to name the objects. The historical
records show that test subjects remember 60% of the objects after two hours.
a. Find the mean of P , where is the proportion of objects that are remembered by a test subject.
b. Find the standard deviation of P .
c. Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that fewer than 63% of the objects
are remembered by a test subject. Round your answer to four decimal places.
A researcher wants to investigate the effects of environmental factors on IQ scores. For an initial study, she takes a sample of
400 people who grew up as the only child. She finds that 47.5% of them have an IQ score over 100 . It is known that of the
general population has an IQ score exceeding .
a. Find the mean of P , where is the proportion of people with IQ scores over 100 in a random sample of 400 people.
b. Find the standard deviation of .
Compute an approximation for , which is the probability that there will be 47.5% or more individuals
with IQ scores over 100 in a random sample of 400. Round your answer to four decimal places.
fewer than
1-p(z..) more than
Chebyshev's theorem and the empirical rule
theorem [100(1-(1/k^2)]
empirical rule
mean 1137
std devia 203
question
dis 1 28.4 dis 2 66.8
lies below mean --> -5.46 & lies above the mean --> -5.27
question
% from problem 84% 0.84 0.16
[100(1-(1/k^2)] --> +/- 2.5 <---lies with that of value of standard deviation of the mean
629.5
1644.5
question
dis 1 731 dis 2 1543
lies below mean --> -2 & lies above the mean --> 2
question
95% stand dev is 2
68% stand dev is 1
99.7% stand dev is 3
According to Chebyshev's theorem, at least 84% of the fares lie
thus, <--- of the measurements lie between
dis 1 and dis 2
According to Chebyshev's theorem, at least _____% of the
measurements lie between 545.5 cc and 1710.5 cc.
According to Chebyshev's theorem, at least _____% of the
easurements lie between 662 cc and 1594 cc.
PROBLEM TYPE 1
dis 1 731 dis 2 1543
lies below mean --> -2 & lies above the mean --> 2
empirical rule
68% stand dev is 1
95% stand dev is 2
99.7% stand dev is 3
question
mean 1137
deviation level 1 using the Empirical rule, choose the appropriate deviation
std deviation 203
MEAN 50.3
question
std deviation 3
question
According to Chebyshev's theorem, at least _____% of the
scores lie within 3 standard deviations of the mean, 50.3
Suppose that the distribution is bell-shaped. If approximately
95% of the scores lie between 31.1 and 69.5 , then the
approximate value of the standard deviation for the distribution,
according to the empirical rule, is _____.
PROBLEM TYPE 2
Suppose that the distribution is bell-shaped. According to the
empirical rule, approximately _____% of the measurements lie
between 662 cc and 1594 cc.
Suppose that the distribution is bell-shaped. According to the
empirical rule, approximately 68% of the measurements lie
between _____cc and _____cc.
value 1 31.1 value 2 69.5
lies below mean --> -19.2 lies above the mean --> 19.2
empirical rule
68% stand dev is 1
95% stand dev is 2
99.7% stand dev is 3
dis of the two values 19.2
Std deviation 2 using the Empirical rule, choose the appropriate deviation
<---lies with that of value of standard deviation of the mean
using the Empirical rule, choose the appropriate deviation
using the Empirical rule, choose the appropriate deviation
Choosing an appropriate sample size
Percentage
Key 0.95
0.99
0.9
deviation 750
margin error 135
confidence 1.645 USE THE CONFIDENCE VALUE IN ORANGE FOR THE PROPER %
1233.75
9.138889
answer 83.52 round up to the MINIMUM WHOLE NUMBER value, not WHOLE NUMBER
Suppose that a researcher is interested in estimating the mean systolic blood pressure, M , of
executives of major corporations. He plans to use the blood pressures of a random sample of
executives of major corporations to estimate M . Assuming that the standard deviation of the
population of systolic blood pressures of executives of major corporations is 26 mm Hg, what is
the minimum sample size needed for the researcher to be 95% confident that his estimate is
within 5 mm Hg of M ?
whole number (and make sure that it is the minimum whole number that satisfies the requirements).
A personality test has a subsection designed to assess the "honesty" of the test-taker. Suppose that you're interested in the mean score, , on
this subsection among the general population. You decide that you'll use the mean of a random sample of scores on this subsection to estimate
. What is the minimum sample size needed in order for you to be confident that your estimate is within of ? Use the value for the population
standard deviation of scores on this subsection.
confidence
Managers at an automobile manufacturing plant would like to estimate the mean completion time of an assembly line operation, . The
managers plan to choose a random sample of completion times and estimate via the sample. Assuming that the standard deviation of the
population of completion times is minutes, what is the minimum sample size needed for the managers to be confident that their estimate is
within minutes of ?
Executives of a supermarket chain are interested in the amount of time that customers spend in the stores during shopping trips. The executives
hire a statistical consultant and ask her to determine the mean shopping time, , of customers at the supermarkets. The consultant will collect a
random sample of shopping times at the supermarkets and use the mean of these shopping times to estimate . Assuming that the standard
deviation of the population of shopping times at the supermarkets is minutes, what is the minimum sample size she must collect in order for
her to be confident that her estimate is within minutes of ?
A coin-operated coffee machine made by BIG Corporation was designed to discharge a mean of eight ounces of coffee per cup. If it dispenses
more that that on average, the corporation may lose money, and if it dispenses less, the customers may complain.
BIG Corporation would like to estimate the mean amount of coffee, , dispensed per cup by this machine. BIG will choose a random sample of
cup amounts dispensed by this machine and use this sample to estimate . Assuming that the standard deviation of cup amounts dispensed by
this machine is ounces, what is the minimum sample size needed in order for BIG to be confident that its estimate is within ounces of ?
A union of restaurant and foodservice workers would like to estimate the mean hourly wage, , of foodservice workers in the U.S. The union will
choose a random sample of wages and then estimate using the mean of the sample. What is the minimum sample size needed in order for the
union to be confident that its estimate is within of ? Suppose that the standard deviation of wages of foodservice workers in the U.S. is about .
A consumer advocacy group is doing a large study on car rental practices. Among other things, the consumer group would like to estimate the
mean monthly mileage, , of cars rented in the U.S. over the past year. The consumer group plans to choose a random sample of monthly U.S.
rental car mileages and then estimate using the mean of the sample.
Using the value miles per month as the standard deviation of monthly U.S. rental car mileages from the past year, what is the minimum sample
size needed in order for the consumer group to be confident that its estimate is within miles per month of ?
Percentage Use this value
0.05 0.025 -1.95996 1.960
0.01 0.005 -2.57583 2.576
0.1 0.05 -1.64485 1.645
round up to the MINIMUM WHOLE NUMBER value, not WHOLE NUMBER
Suppose that a researcher is interested in estimating the mean systolic blood pressure, M , of
executives of major corporations. He plans to use the blood pressures of a random sample of
executives of major corporations to estimate M . Assuming that the standard deviation of the
population of systolic blood pressures of executives of major corporations is 26 mm Hg, what is
the minimum sample size needed for the researcher to be 95% confident that his estimate is
within 5 mm Hg of M ?
whole number (and make sure that it is the minimum whole number that satisfies the requirements).
A personality test has a subsection designed to assess the "honesty" of the test-taker. Suppose that you're interested in the mean score, , on
this subsection among the general population. You decide that you'll use the mean of a random sample of scores on this subsection to estimate
. What is the minimum sample size needed in order for you to be confident that your estimate is within of ? Use the value for the population
standard deviation of scores on this subsection.
Managers at an automobile manufacturing plant would like to estimate the mean completion time of an assembly line operation, . The
managers plan to choose a random sample of completion times and estimate via the sample. Assuming that the standard deviation of the
population of completion times is minutes, what is the minimum sample size needed for the managers to be confident that their estimate is
within minutes of ?
Executives of a supermarket chain are interested in the amount of time that customers spend in the stores during shopping trips. The executives
hire a statistical consultant and ask her to determine the mean shopping time, , of customers at the supermarkets. The consultant will collect a
random sample of shopping times at the supermarkets and use the mean of these shopping times to estimate . Assuming that the standard
deviation of the population of shopping times at the supermarkets is minutes, what is the minimum sample size she must collect in order for
her to be confident that her estimate is within minutes of ?
A coin-operated coffee machine made by BIG Corporation was designed to discharge a mean of eight ounces of coffee per cup. If it dispenses
more that that on average, the corporation may lose money, and if it dispenses less, the customers may complain.
BIG Corporation would like to estimate the mean amount of coffee, , dispensed per cup by this machine. BIG will choose a random sample of
cup amounts dispensed by this machine and use this sample to estimate . Assuming that the standard deviation of cup amounts dispensed by
this machine is ounces, what is the minimum sample size needed in order for BIG to be confident that its estimate is within ounces of ?
A union of restaurant and foodservice workers would like to estimate the mean hourly wage, , of foodservice workers in the U.S. The union will
choose a random sample of wages and then estimate using the mean of the sample. What is the minimum sample size needed in order for the
union to be confident that its estimate is within of ? Suppose that the standard deviation of wages of foodservice workers in the U.S. is about .
A consumer advocacy group is doing a large study on car rental practices. Among other things, the consumer group would like to estimate the
mean monthly mileage, , of cars rented in the U.S. over the past year. The consumer group plans to choose a random sample of monthly U.S.
rental car mileages and then estimate using the mean of the sample.
Using the value miles per month as the standard deviation of monthly U.S. rental car mileages from the past year, what is the minimum sample
size needed in order for the consumer group to be confident that its estimate is within miles per month of ?
combinations
If you have n objects and chose r of them, the number of combinations is:
n! / ( r! (n-r)! )
this can be written asnCr
here we have:
21 C 19 = 21! / (19! (21-19)!) = 210
n 24
r 22
combination 276
You can answer any 19 questions from the 21 questions on an exam. In how many
different ways can you choose the 19 questions, assuming that the order in which you
choose the questions is irrelevant?
Conditional probability:
Basic
P(internet user) 7% e
p(college grad internet user) 6% both
(a) Among California adults, what is the probability that a randomly chosen
(b) What is the probability that a California adult is an internet user, given that he
It is estimated that 27% of all California adults are college graduates and that 31%
of California adults are regular internet users. It is also estimated that 20% of
Confidence interval for the population mean: Use of the standard normal
DEV 22
N 70
M 125
1.645
8.3666
The lifetime of a certain brand of electric light bulb is known to have a standard deviation
of 51 hours. Suppose that a random sample of 50 bulbs of this brand has a mean lifetime
of 476 hours. Find a 90% confidence interval for the true mean lifetime of all light bulbs of
this brand. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your
What is the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval?
The union for a particular industry has determined that the standard deviation of the daily
wages of its workers is \$ 18. A random sample of 150 workers in this industry has a mean
daily wage of \$110 . Find a 90%confidence interval for the true mean daily wage of all
union workers in the industry. Then complete the table below
The mean diastolic blood pressure for a random sample of 90 people was 80 millimeters
of mercury. If the standard deviation of individual blood pressure readings is known to be
10 millimeters of mercury, find a 95% confidence interval for the true mean diastolic
blood pressure of all people. Then complete the table below
The breaking strengths of cables produced by a certain manufacturer have a standard
deviation of 92 pounds. A random sample of 150 newly manufactured cables has a mean
breaking strength of 1700 pounds. Based on this sample, find a 90% confidence interval for
the true mean breaking strength of all cables produced by this manufacturer. Then
complete the table below.
A laboratory in New York is interested in finding the mean chloride level for a healthy
resident in the state. A random sample of 80 healthy residents has a mean chloride level of
103 mEq/L. If it is known that the chloride levels in healthy individuals residing in New York
have a standard deviation of 35 mEq/L, find a 90%confidence interval for the true mean
chloride level of all healthy New York residents. Then complete the table below
An existing inventory for a test measuring self-esteem indicates that the scores have a
standard deviation of 9 . A psychologist gave the self-esteem test to a random sample of
150 individuals, and their mean score was 65 . Construct a 95%confidence interval for the
true mean of all test scores. Then complete the table below.
The standard deviation of test scores on a certain achievement test is 11.2 . A random
sample of 80scores on this test had a mean of71.9. Based on this sample, find a 95%
confidence interval for the true mean of all scores. Then complete the table below
90% 1.645
95% 1.96
Confidence interval for the population standard deviation
l u 95
n 125 125 1.00 5
mean 103.5 103.5 0.950 upper
dev 18.4 18.4 0.050 lower
dfreedm 124 124 lower upper
n-1 1 1 99% 0.005 0.995
0.05 0.95 95% 0.025 0.975
chisqd 150.989 99.283 90% 0.050 0.950
124 124
338.56 338.56
41981.44 41981.44
204.8937 204.8937
12.28778 9.964067
Lower Upper
416
424
457
282
512
select all of these and choose S in Aleks cal for the Sample Mean
The scores on an examination in economics are approximately normally distributed with mean 500 and an
unknown standard deviation. The following is a random sample of scores from this examination.Find a 90%
confidence interval for the population standard deviation. Then complete the table below.
Lifetimes of AAA batteries are approximately normally distributed. A manufacturer wants to estimate
the standard deviation of the lifetime of the AAA batteries it produces. A random sample of 21 AAA
batteries produced by this manufacturer lasted a mean of 9.6 hours with a standard deviation of 2.3
hours. Find a 99% confidence interval for the population standard deviation of the lifetimes of AAA
batteries produced by the manufacturer. Then complete the table below.
two decimal places.
What is the lower limit of the 99% confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the 99% confidence interval?
confidence
The standard deviation of the daily demand for a product is an important factor for inventory control for the
product. Suppose that a pharmacy wants to estimate the standard deviation of the daily demand for a certain
antibiotic. It is known that the daily demand for this antibiotic follows an approximately normal distribution. A
random sample of 18 days has a sample mean of 120 orders for this antibiotic with a standard deviation of 10
orders. Find a 90% confidence interval for the population standard deviation of the daily demand for this
antibiotic. Then complete the table below
Pilots who cannot maintain regular sleep hours due to their work schedule often suffer from insomnia. A recent
study on sleeping patterns of pilots focused on quantifying deviations from regular sleep hours. A random sample
of 24 commercial airline pilots was interviewed, and the pilots in the sample reported the time at which they
went to sleep on their most recent working day. The study gave the sample mean and standard deviation of the
times reported by pilots, with these times measured in hours after midnight. (Thus, if the pilot reported going to
sleep at 11 p.m., the measurement was -1.) The sample mean was 0.7 hours, and the standard deviation was 1.8
hours. Assume that the sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. Find a 90% confidence interval
for the population standard deviation, that is, the standard deviation of the time (hours after midnight) at which
pilots go to sleep on their work days. Then complete the table below.
A psychologist wants to estimate the standard deviation of IQ scores. It is widely believed that IQ scores follow a
normal distribution. Her random sample of 26 IQ scores has a mean of 102.5 and a standard deviation of 17.4 .
Find the 90% confidence interval for the population standard deviation based on this sample. Then complete the
table below.
l u
n 5 5
mean 22 22
dev 4.06 4.06
dfreedm 4 4
n-1 1 1
0.025 0.975
chisqd 11.143 0.484
4 4
16.4836 16.4836
65.9344 65.9344
8.12 8.12
3.338156 0.696002
Lower Upper
The scores on an examination in economics are approximately normally distributed with mean 500 and an
unknown standard deviation. The following is a random sample of scores from this examination.Find a 90%
confidence interval for the population standard deviation. Then complete the table below.
The following data were randomly drawn from an approximately normal
population.
18, 18, 22, 25, 27
Based on these data, find a 95% confidence interval for the population
standard deviation. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Lifetimes of AAA batteries are approximately normally distributed. A manufacturer wants to estimate
the standard deviation of the lifetime of the AAA batteries it produces. A random sample of 21 AAA
batteries produced by this manufacturer lasted a mean of 9.6 hours with a standard deviation of 2.3
hours. Find a 99% confidence interval for the population standard deviation of the lifetimes of AAA
batteries produced by the manufacturer. Then complete the table below.
two decimal places.
What is the lower limit of the 99% confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the 99% confidence interval?
The standard deviation of the daily demand for a product is an important factor for inventory control for the
product. Suppose that a pharmacy wants to estimate the standard deviation of the daily demand for a certain
antibiotic. It is known that the daily demand for this antibiotic follows an approximately normal distribution. A
random sample of 18 days has a sample mean of 120 orders for this antibiotic with a standard deviation of 10
orders. Find a 90% confidence interval for the population standard deviation of the daily demand for this
antibiotic. Then complete the table below
Pilots who cannot maintain regular sleep hours due to their work schedule often suffer from insomnia. A recent
study on sleeping patterns of pilots focused on quantifying deviations from regular sleep hours. A random sample
of 24 commercial airline pilots was interviewed, and the pilots in the sample reported the time at which they
went to sleep on their most recent working day. The study gave the sample mean and standard deviation of the
times reported by pilots, with these times measured in hours after midnight. (Thus, if the pilot reported going to
sleep at 11 p.m., the measurement was -1.) The sample mean was 0.7 hours, and the standard deviation was 1.8
hours. Assume that the sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. Find a 90% confidence interval
for the population standard deviation, that is, the standard deviation of the time (hours after midnight) at which
pilots go to sleep on their work days. Then complete the table below.
A psychologist wants to estimate the standard deviation of IQ scores. It is widely believed that IQ scores follow a
normal distribution. Her random sample of 26 IQ scores has a mean of 102.5 and a standard deviation of 17.4 .
Find the 90% confidence interval for the population standard deviation based on this sample. Then complete the
table below.
Confidence interval for the population mean: Use of the t distribution
l u 95
n 16 16 1.00 5
mean 92 92 0.950 upper
dev 13 13 0.050 lower
dg fredom 15 15 lower upper
t 0.025 0.025 99% 0.005 0.995
1.761 1.7613 95% 0.025 0.975
4 4 90% 0.050 0.950
Lower Upper
calculate T in aleks
enter T results here
A corporation that maintains a large fleet of company cars for the use of its sales staff is interested in the mean
distance driven monthly per sales person. The following table gives the monthly distances in miles
driven by a random sample of 12 sales persons: 2667, 1943, 2152, 1937, 2184, 2399, 2641, 2317, 2541, 2076,
2285, 2637. Based on this sample, find a 95% confidence interval for the mean number of miles driven monthly by
members of the sales staff, assuming that monthly driving distances are normally distributed. Then complete the
table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your answers to one decimal place.
What is the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval?
confidence
l u
n 5 5
mean 22 22
dev 4.06 4.06
dfreedm 4 4
n-1 1 1
0.025 0.975
chisqd 11.143 0.484
4 4
16.4836 16.4836
Lower Upper
A corporation that maintains a large fleet of company cars for the use of its sales staff is interested in the mean
distance driven monthly per sales person. The following table gives the monthly distances in miles
driven by a random sample of 12 sales persons: 2667, 1943, 2152, 1937, 2184, 2399, 2641, 2317, 2541, 2076,
2285, 2637. Based on this sample, find a 95% confidence interval for the mean number of miles driven monthly by
members of the sales staff, assuming that monthly driving distances are normally distributed. Then complete the
table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your answers to one decimal place.
What is the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval?
The following data were randomly drawn from an approximately normal
population.
18, 18, 22, 25, 27
Based on these data, find a 95% confidence interval for the population
standard deviation. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Confidence interval for a population proportion
^ 170 170 66
p 200 200 275
0.85 0.85 99% 0.005
1-p 0.1500 0.1500 95% 0.025
0.1275 0.1275 90% 0.050
0.0006 0.0006
sqrt 0.0252 0.0252
z 2.5758 2.5758 Enter the value in aleks and calculate the Z
0.0650 0.0650
0.785 0.915
LOWER UPPER
A researcher wishes to estimate the proportion of X-ray machines that malfunction. A
random 275 sample of machines is taken, and 66 of the machines in the sample malfunction.
Based upon this, compute a 90% confidence interval for the proportion of all X-ray machines
that malfunction. Then complete the table below.
to two decimal places.
What is the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval?
confidence
To estimate the percentage of a species of rodent that carries a specific viral infection, 125
rodents are randomly selected and examined, and 61 of them are found to be infected.
Based upon this, find a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of all rodents of this
species that are infected with the virus. Then complete the table below.
l z
m1 169.00 99% 2.58 0.005
sdev 1 5 95% 1.96 0.025 1.96
n1 12 90% 1.64 0.05 1.645
m2 164.00
sdev 2 9
n2 9
z 1.9600
5.00
25
81
2.083333333
9
11.08333333
3.329164059
-1.53 lower
11.53 upper
Confidence interval for the difference of population means: Use of the standard normal
In a current study, a random sample of teachers from Arizona and an independent random sample of 10 teachers from Nevada
have been asked to report their annual income. The data obtained are as follows:
Annual income in dollars
Arizona 34022, 41515, 38444, 35184, 34074, 35435, 42621, 43101, 46582, 32199.
Nevada 41120, 24940, 36266, 34307, 42230, 49416, 27985, 39965, 54428, 44120.
The population standard deviations for the annual incomes of teachers in Arizona and in Nevada are estimated as and ,
respectively. It is also known that both populations are approximately normally distributed. Construct a confidence interval for the
difference between the mean annual income of teachers from Arizona () and the mean annual income of teachers from Nevada ().
Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your answers to at least two decimal places.
Confidence interval for the difference of population means: Use of the standard normal
In a current study, a random sample of teachers from Arizona and an independent random sample of 10 teachers from Nevada
have been asked to report their annual income. The data obtained are as follows:
Annual income in dollars
Arizona 34022, 41515, 38444, 35184, 34074, 35435, 42621, 43101, 46582, 32199.
Nevada 41120, 24940, 36266, 34307, 42230, 49416, 27985, 39965, 54428, 44120.
The population standard deviations for the annual incomes of teachers in Arizona and in Nevada are estimated as and ,
respectively. It is also known that both populations are approximately normally distributed. Construct a confidence interval for the
difference between the mean annual income of teachers from Arizona () and the mean annual income of teachers from Nevada ().
Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your answers to at least two decimal places.
l t
n1 16 90% 0.05 1.7139
m1 92.00 95% 0.025 2.1098
sdev 1 13 99% 0.005 2.8453
n2 10
m2 87.00
sdev 2 16
0.005
freedom 24
t 2.7969 enter T HERE
x1 - x2 5.00
2535
2304
4839
24
201.625
1/n1 0.0625
1/n2 0.1
32.76406
5.72399
-11.01 lower
21.01 upper
The university data center has two main computers. The center wants to examine whether computer is receiving
tasks that require processing times comparable to those of computer . A random sample of processing times from
computer showed a mean of seconds with a standard deviation of seconds, while a random sample of
processing times from computer (chosen independently of those for computer ) showed a mean of seconds with
a standard deviation of seconds. Assume that the populations of processing times are normally distributed for
each of the two computers and that the variances are equal. Construct a confidence interval for the difference
between the mean processing time of computer , , and the mean processing time of computer , . Then complete
the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your responses to at least two
decimal places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Confidence interval for the difference of population means: Use of the t
distribution
The university data center has two main computers. The center wants to examine whether computer is receiving
tasks that require processing times comparable to those of computer . A random sample of processing times from
computer showed a mean of seconds with a standard deviation of seconds, while a random sample of
processing times from computer (chosen independently of those for computer ) showed a mean of seconds with
a standard deviation of seconds. Assume that the populations of processing times are normally distributed for
each of the two computers and that the variances are equal. Construct a confidence interval for the difference
between the mean processing time of computer , , and the mean processing time of computer , . Then complete
the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your responses to at least two
decimal places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
n1 350
n1#chose 290.00
n2 325.00
n2#chosen 289
z 2.580
p1 0.829
p2 0.889 99% 0.005 2.580
60.000 95% 0.025 1.960
36.000 90% 0.050 1.645
n1p1 290.000
0.000
0.000
v+ 0.001
sqt 0.027
0.829
0.889
p1-p2 (0.061)
-0.129 lower
0.008 upper
In random, independent samples of adults and teenagers who watched a certain television show, adults and teens
indicated that they liked the show. Let be the proportion of all adults watching the show who liked it, and let be the
proportion of all teens watching the show who liked it. Find a confidence interval for . Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your responses to at least three decimal
places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Confidence interval for the difference of population proportions
To determine the possible effect of a chemical treatment on the rate of seed germination, chemically treated seeds and
untreated seeds were sown. It was found that of the chemically treated seeds and of the untreated seeds germinated. Let
be the proportion of the population of all chemically treated seeds that germinate, and let be the proportion of the
population of all untreated seeds that germinate. Find a confidence interval for . Then complete the table below
confidence
In a comparative study of two new drugs, A and B, patients were treated with drug A, and patients were treated with drug
B. (The two treatment groups were randomly and independently chosen.) It was found that patients were cured using drug
A and patients were cured using drug B. Let be the proportion of the population of all patients who are cured using drug A,
and let be the proportion of the population of all patients who are cured using drug B. Find a confidence interval for . Then
complete the table below.
In random, independent samples of adults and teenagers who watched a certain television show, adults and teens
indicated that they liked the show. Let be the proportion of all adults watching the show who liked it, and let be the
proportion of all teens watching the show who liked it. Find a confidence interval for . Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Round your responses to at least three decimal
places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Confidence interval for the difference of population proportions
To determine the possible effect of a chemical treatment on the rate of seed germination, chemically treated seeds and
untreated seeds were sown. It was found that of the chemically treated seeds and of the untreated seeds germinated. Let
be the proportion of the population of all chemically treated seeds that germinate, and let be the proportion of the
population of all untreated seeds that germinate. Find a confidence interval for . Then complete the table below
In a comparative study of two new drugs, A and B, patients were treated with drug A, and patients were treated with drug
B. (The two treatment groups were randomly and independently chosen.) It was found that patients were cured using drug
A and patients were cured using drug B. Let be the proportion of the population of all patients who are cured using drug A,
and let be the proportion of the population of all patients who are cured using drug B. Find a confidence interval for . Then
complete the table below.
n#1 10 10
mean1 0.12 0.12 lower upper
dev1 0.0036 0.0036 99% 0.005 0.995
N#2 10 10 95% 0.025 0.975
MEAN2 0.12 0.12 90% 0.050 0.950
DEV2 0.0049 0.0049
F DIS 4.026 0.248
fredom Num 9 9 use ALEKS to calculate F DISTRIBUTTION
freedom Den 9 9
0.73 0.73
0.25 4.03 ENTER F DISTRIBUTION RESULTS HERE
0.18 2.96
LOWER LOWER
Random samples are drawn independently from two normally distributed populations, and the following statistics are
obtained:
Group 1 Group 2

(The first row gives the sample sizes, the second row gives the sample means, and the third row gives the sample variances.)
Construct a confidence interval for , the ratio of the variances of these two populations. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Write your final responses to at least two decimal
places.
What is the lower limit of the confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the confidence interval?
Confidence interval for the ratio of population variances
confidence
Actuaries use various parameters when evaluating the cost of a life insurance policy. The variance of the life spans of a
population is one of the parameters used for the evaluation. Each year, the actuaries at a particular insurance company
randomly sample 25 people who died during the year (with the samples chosen independently from year to year) to see
whether the variance of life spans has changed. The life span data from this year and from last year are summarized below:
Current Year Last Year
(The first row gives the sample means, and the second row gives the sample variances.)
Assuming that life spans are approximately normally distributed for each of the populations of people who died this year
and people who died last year, construct a confidence interval for , the ratio of the variance of the life span for the current
year to the variance of the life span for last year. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Write your final responses to at least two decimal
places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
An examination in psychology has been taken by psychology majors and also by some students from other majors. It is
widely believed that the scores for both groups are normally distributed. A random sample of examinations completed by
psychology majors and an independent random sample of examinations completed by students from other majors are
selected. Among sampled students, the psychology majors scored a mean of points with a variance of , and the students
from other majors scored a mean of points with a variance of . Construct a confidence interval for , the ratio of the
variance of all scores of psychology majors to the variance of all scores of other majors. Then complete the table below.
Random samples are drawn independently from two normally distributed populations, and the following statistics are
obtained:
Group 1 Group 2

(The first row gives the sample sizes, the second row gives the sample means, and the third row gives the sample variances.)
Construct a confidence interval for , the ratio of the variances of these two populations. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Write your final responses to at least two decimal
places.
What is the lower limit of the confidence interval?
What is the upper limit of the confidence interval?
Actuaries use various parameters when evaluating the cost of a life insurance policy. The variance of the life spans of a
population is one of the parameters used for the evaluation. Each year, the actuaries at a particular insurance company
randomly sample 25 people who died during the year (with the samples chosen independently from year to year) to see
whether the variance of life spans has changed. The life span data from this year and from last year are summarized below:
Current Year Last Year
(The first row gives the sample means, and the second row gives the sample variances.)
Assuming that life spans are approximately normally distributed for each of the populations of people who died this year
and people who died last year, construct a confidence interval for , the ratio of the variance of the life span for the current
year to the variance of the life span for last year. Then complete the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. Write your final responses to at least two decimal
places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
An examination in psychology has been taken by psychology majors and also by some students from other majors. It is
widely believed that the scores for both groups are normally distributed. A random sample of examinations completed by
psychology majors and an independent random sample of examinations completed by students from other majors are
selected. Among sampled students, the psychology majors scored a mean of points with a variance of , and the students
from other majors scored a mean of points with a variance of . Construct a confidence interval for , the ratio of the
variance of all scores of psychology majors to the variance of all scores of other majors. Then complete the table below.
X Y XY
12.9 224.3 2893.47 Sum ----> 147.8
19.1 217.9 4161.89
11.7 275.6 3224.52
14.5 271.9 3942.55
12.6 198.8 2504.88
7.8 232.4 1812.72
4.2 304.8 1280.16
6.8 240.6 1636.08
14.4 188.9 2720.16
4.1 317 1299.7
13.9 196.1 2725.79
5.6 274 1534.4
6.5 227.3 1477.45
5.5 272.7 1499.85
8.2 280.9 2303.38
0
Total 147.8 3723.20 35017
Average 9.8533 248.2133 2188.5625
Count 15 15 16
Total dev 9.8533 248.2133
-1668.9307
294.00
sdevof x 4.583
sdevof y 40.080
r -0.865 <---The value of the sample correlation coefficient
question
What is the value of theslopeof theleast-squares regression
decimal places
do not touch
question
What is the value of the sample correlation coefficient for these data?
Computing the sample correlation coefficient and the coefficients for the least-
squares regression line
S
y
248.2133 the r will be given
S
x
9.8533
b1 0.3 <--The least-squares regression line for these data has a slope of approximately
Find B1, with R
given
S
y
S
x
yes
use this if B1 is
given
b0=y-b1x y b1 x
yes
Find R, with B1
given
r=b1 S
x
S
y
yes
use this if B1 is
not given
question
What is the value of the y-intercept of the least-squares regression line
for these data? Round your
answer to at least two decimal places.
question
What is the value of theslopeof theleast-squares regression
decimal places
question
b
1
=r
b0=
What is the value of the sample correlation coefficient for these data?
least three decimal places.
question
What is the value of the y-intercept of the least-squares regression line
for these data? Round your
answer to at least two decimal places.
squareroot ---> 9.2822 3723.2 571.8475
85.5008 918.8982
3.4102 750.0295
21.5915 561.0582
7.5442 2441.6775
4.2162 250.0615
31.9602 3202.0508
9.3228 57.9628
20.6722 3518.0715
33.1008 4731.6055
16.3755 2715.7995
18.0908 664.9522
11.2448 437.3675
18.9515 599.5968
2.7335 1068.4182
Sum ---> 293.9973 22489.39733
20.9998 1606.3855
sqrt 4.5826 40.0797
worksheet # 3
stdr devia of Y
question
What is the value of theslopeof theleast-squares regression
decimal places
stdr devia of X
question
What is the value of the sample correlation coefficient for these data?
the r will be given
<--The least-squares regression line for these data has a slope of approximately
question
What is the value of the y-intercept of the least-squares regression line
for these data? Round your
answer to at least two decimal places.
question
What is the value of theslopeof theleast-squares regression
decimal places
question
What is the value of the sample correlation coefficient for these data?
least three decimal places.
question
What is the value of the y-intercept of the least-squares regression line
for these data? Round your
answer to at least two decimal places.
Cumulative distributions and ogives
sample # 25
X asis factor frequency Relative Frequency Cum Relative Frequency
500 700 6 0.24 0.24
700 900 8 0.32 0.56 <<<------ Find the cumulative relative frequency polygon
900 1100 6 0.24 0.80
1100 1300 2 0.08 0.88
1300 1500 3 0.12 1.00
Always add the frequecny FIRST, so I can clear the non-needed cells
do not touch
<<<------ Find the cumulative relative frequency polygon
Discrete probability distribution: Basic
Value of x of X P (X=x)
-5 0.11
-1 0.12
3 0.14
5
6
0.37
answer 0.63 split this # in two, like 20, 43 or 40, 23 or 10, 53, etc.
example do not touch this book.
Value of x of X P (X=x)
-5 0.11
-1 0.12
3 0.14
5
6
0.37
0.63 split this # in two, like 20, 43 or 40, 23 or 10, 53, etc. It does not matter, as long as it's split
It does not matter, as long as it's split
Probabilities of draws with replacement
A fair die is rolled 4 times. What is the probability of having no 1 and no 3 among the rolls? Round your answer to three decimal places.(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
P( no1and no3among the4rolls) 4
6
Power 5 rolling times
A fair die is rolled 4 times. What is the probability that a 2 is obtained on at least one of the rolls? Round your answer to three decimal places.
p( at least one 2 among the 4 rolls ) = 1-p(no 2 amoongs the 4 rolls )
5 the probablility of rolling somehting different from 2 will 5/6
power 4
ball 1 8 red 15
ball 2 7 pink
power 4
8 probablity of pink drawned 8/13 to the 4 powert
An urn contains 5 red and 8 pink balls. Four balls are randomly drawn from the urn in succession, with
replacement. That is, after each draw, the selected ball is returned to the urn. What is the probability that
all 4 balls drawn from the urn are pink? Round your answer to three decimal places.
(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
A fair die is rolled 4 times. What is the probability of having no 1 and no 3 among the rolls? Round your answer to three decimal places.(If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
A fair die is rolled 4 times. What is the probability that a 2 is obtained on at least one of the rolls? Round your answer to three decimal places.
the probablility of rolling somehting different from 2 will 5/6
Estimating the mean of Grouped Data
sample # 19
X asis factor frequency Midpoint (col a + col b divided 2
0 10 4 5 20
10 20 6 15 90
20 30 6 25 150
30 40 2 35 70
40 50 1 45 45
0 0
sum 375
Answr 19.73684
Always add the frequecny FIRST, so I can clear the non-needed cells
do not touch
Estimating the standard deviation of Grouped Data
50 <--- sample #
frequency X asis factor
Midpoint (col a + col b
divided 2
5 860 880 870 4350.000 1296 6480
15 880 900 890 13350.000 256 3840
20 900 920 910 18200.000 16 320
5 920 940 930 4650.000 576 2880
5 940 960 950 4750.000 1936 9680
0 820836
0 820836
sum 45300 23200
906 473.4694
Always add the frequecny FIRST, so I can clear the non-needed cells
enter only the X asis Factor and frequency
always enter the frequency 1st
do not touch
do not touch
the Type of Test Statistic
mean 35
dev 7
sample# 80 TWO TAILED
new mean 37 Z DIS
KNOWN DEVIATION
2.000
8.944
0.783
2.556 the Value of the Test Statistics:
-2.556
0.995
0.005
0.005
0.011 the P-Value
0.011 compare this number to the Level of Significance
the Type of Test Statistic ONE TAILED
mean 35 Z DIS
dev 7 KNOWN DEVIATION
sample# 80
new mean 37
2.000
8.944
0.783
2.556 the Value of the Test Statistics:
A manufacturer claims that the mean lifetime, , of its light bulbs is months. The standard deviation of these lifetimes is
months. Thirty-three bulbs are selected at random, and their mean lifetime is found to be months. Assume that the
population is normally distributed. Can we conclude, at the level of significance, that the mean lifetime of light bulbs made
by this manufacturer differs from months?
Perform a two-tailed test. Then fill in the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Hypothesis test for the population mean: Z test
0.05 Plug in the Level of Signicance in ALEKS to calculate Z
Aleks result Critical value at the level of significance
compare this number to the Level of Significance
A manufacturer claims that the mean lifetime, , of its light bulbs is months. The standard deviation of these lifetimes is
months. Thirty-three bulbs are selected at random, and their mean lifetime is found to be months. Assume that the
population is normally distributed. Can we conclude, at the level of significance, that the mean lifetime of light bulbs made
by this manufacturer differs from months?
Perform a two-tailed test. Then fill in the table below.
Carry your intermediate computations to at least three decimal places. (If necessary, consult a list of formulas.)
Hypothesis test for the population mean: Z test
Independent events: Basic
P() 0.3 Use this, when the A is accent
P(B) 0.4
Find P(A)
1-P(A) 0.7
Since A and B are independent, we have
P ( A B) P (A) * P(B) 0.28 ANSWER
P ( A U B) P(A)+P(B)-P(AUB) 0.82 ANSWER
P(B) 0.2 use this, when the B is accent
P(A) 0.5
Find P(B)
1-P(B) 0.8
Since A and B are independent, we have
P ( A B) P (A) * P(B) 0.4 ANSWER
P ( A U B) P(A)+P(B)-P(AUB) 0.9 ANSWER
Law of total probabilities
uneven prob
88% of them failed 0.9
0.1
every 12
out of 13
number of search 13
sucessful search 0.09
Hence the probabilty of seach 1/2
P(grade of B or below | no TA ) AKA failed 0.88
P(grade better than b | no TA ) 0.13
every 1
out of 6
number of session 6
Hence the probabilty of seach 1/2 5
0.12
While working for Life magazine, Archie is assigned to the Galapagos Islands to photograph a rare, giant white turtle. The turtle can be
found either on Isabella, the largest of the 16 Galapagos islands, or on Santa Cruz, the next largest island. Many have tried to locate the
giant turtle, but 88% of them have failed. In addition, 11 out of every 12 searches in the past were concentrated on Santa Cruz, though
only 11% of them were actually successful. Archie intends to search on Isabella. What is the probability that Archie will successfully find
Archie is taking a course in probability theory. Discussion sessions with the class TA (teaching assistant) conflict with Archie's
trips to the beach. Archie has to decide between attending TA sessions, which might help him do better in the probability
course, and going to the beach. Archie learns that94 % of past students who did not attend TA sessions received a grade of B or
below in the course. Archie also learns that 14 % of past students received a grade higher than B. After some thought, Archie
decides to attend the TA sessions. Not all of his classmates share his decision; in fact, only 8 out of every 11 of his classmates
attend discussion sessions with the TA. Compute the probability that Archie will receive a grade higher than a B in the course.
dies from flu 0.31
every 5
out of 17
conditional probability that a non-vaccinated person will die from the flu 0.36
not vac 12
94% of them failed 0.65
0.35
8 out of 11 attends 25
30
number of search 30
sucessful search 0.6
Hence the probabilty of seach 1/2 5
Archie must travel to a foreign country where a deadly strain of flu has ravaged the population. Already,31 % of the population
has succumbed to the flu and died. There is a vaccine, but because the flu is extremely contagious, it spreads quite rapidly, and
to date only 4 out of every 8 people have been vaccinated. Thirty-five percent of those who are not vaccinated die from
the flu. Archie has just enough time to be vaccinated before he leaves. What is the probability that Archie will succumb to the
flu and die while he is away? Round your answer to two decimal places.
Archie is stranded in a war zone in the land of the Xhosas. His only chance of survival is to reach Sudland, which lies 100 miles
away. There are just two routes to Sudland; one is through a desert, and the other is a long and perilous trek through the
mountains. Both routes are terribly dangerous. In the past, 46% of all who tried to reach Sudland failed. Of all attempts to
reach Sudland, 1 out of every 6 were by the desert route. Although it is the longer route, the mountains seem to provide more
success: 55% of those who attempted to reach Sudland through the mountains were successful. To save time, Archie intends to
go via the desert. What are his chances of making it through to Sudland? Round your answer to two decimal places.
even proba
0.88
0.12
2
13
13
0.05
11
0.132727
While working for Life magazine, Archie is assigned to the Galapagos Islands to photograph a rare, giant white turtle. The turtle can be
found either on Isabella, the largest of the 16 Galapagos islands, or on Santa Cruz, the next largest island. Many have tried to locate the
giant turtle, but 88% of them have failed. In addition, 11 out of every 12 searches in the past were concentrated on Santa Cruz, though
only 11% of them were actually successful. Archie intends to search on Isabella. What is the probability that Archie will successfully find
Archie is taking a course in probability theory. Discussion sessions with the class TA (teaching assistant) conflict with Archie's
trips to the beach. Archie has to decide between attending TA sessions, which might help him do better in the probability
course, and going to the beach. Archie learns that94 % of past students who did not attend TA sessions received a grade of B or
below in the course. Archie also learns that 14 % of past students received a grade higher than B. After some thought, Archie
decides to attend the TA sessions. Not all of his classmates share his decision; in fact, only 8 out of every 11 of his classmates
attend discussion sessions with the TA. Compute the probability that Archie will receive a grade higher than a B in the course.
0.31
0.69
LCD 3
LCD 7
7
0.78
4
0.57
Archie must travel to a foreign country where a deadly strain of flu has ravaged the population. Already,31 % of the population
has succumbed to the flu and died. There is a vaccine, but because the flu is extremely contagious, it spreads quite rapidly, and
to date only 4 out of every 8 people have been vaccinated. Thirty-five percent of those who are not vaccinated die from
the flu. Archie has just enough time to be vaccinated before he leaves. What is the probability that Archie will succumb to the
flu and die while he is away? Round your answer to two decimal places.
Archie is stranded in a war zone in the land of the Xhosas. His only chance of survival is to reach Sudland, which lies 100 miles
away. There are just two routes to Sudland; one is through a desert, and the other is a long and perilous trek through the
mountains. Both routes are terribly dangerous. In the past, 46% of all who tried to reach Sudland failed. Of all attempts to
reach Sudland, 1 out of every 6 were by the desert route. Although it is the longer route, the mountains seem to provide more
success: 55% of those who attempted to reach Sudland through the mountains were successful. To save time, Archie intends to
go via the desert. What are his chances of making it through to Sudland? Round your answer to two decimal places.
Linear relationship and the sample correlation coefficient
X Y u v w t m n
1 1 1 7.4 1 3.5 1 7.6
2 2 2 9.1 2 4.3 2 4.9
3 3 3 7.2 3 3.5 3 10.6
4 4 4 5.4 4 4.6 4 5.9
5 5 5 8.3 5 4.2 5 2.1
6 6 6 5.4 6 7.4 6 5
7 7 7 4.6 7 5.8 7 8.7
8 8 8 6.5 8 8 8 3.9
9 9 9 6 9 7.4 9 9.3
10 10 10 4 10 8 10 6.6
0.0003 -0.0004
5 weeks 3 weeks
1 80.00 1 80.00
2 83.80 2 83.80
3 71.40 81.78 3 71.40 78.40
4 86.20 81.36 4 86.20 80.47
5 87.50 82.14 5 87.50 81.70
6 77.90 85.04 6 77.90 83.87
7 87.70 84.04 7 87.70 84.37
8 85.90 85.06 8 85.90 83.83
9 81.20 86.96 9 81.20 84.93
10 92.60 85.82 10 92.60 86.57
11 87.4 87.36 11 87.4 87.07
12 82 90.16 12 82 87.33
13 93.6 89.62 13 93.6 87.67
14 95.2 90.175 14 95.2 90.27
15 89.9 390.25 15 89.9 92.90
1282.3 1282.3
University officials at a major university would like to use -term moving averages to
analyze enrollment. Enrollment data (in thousands of students) for the most recent terms
are shown in the middle column of the table below. Also shown is a time series plot of the
data.
In the far-right column of the table are the -term moving averages for the data. Fill in both
blanks in this column. Round your responses to at least two decimal places
Moving averages
mean 500
dev 95
calcutate the Z in Aleks Z
0.05
5%
z 1.6449
ANSWR 656.3
mean 9.3
dev 0.3
10%
0.9
calcutate the Z in Aleks Z
0.90
z -1.2816
ANSWR 8.9
mean 64
dev 2.4
75%
0.25
calcutate the Z in Aleks Z
0.25
z 0.6745
ANSWR 65.6
The distribution of scores on a standardized aptitude test is approximately normal with a mean of 500 and a
standard deviation of 105 . What is the minimum score needed to be in the top 5% on this test? Carry your
intermediate computations to at least four decimal places, and round your answer to the nearest integer.
Normal distribution raw scores
Calcium levels in people are normally distributed with a mean of 9.5mg/dL and a standard deviation of
0.5mg/dL. Individuals with calcium levels in the bottom 10% of the population are considered to have low
calcium levels. Find the calcium level that is the borderline between low calcium levels and those not
considered low. Carry your intermediate computations to at least four decimal places. Round your answer to at
least one decimal place
Suppose that the heights of adult women in the United States are normally
distributed with a mean of 63.5 inches and a standard deviation of 2.2 inches.
Jennifer is taller than 75% of the population of U.S. women. How tall (in inches) is
Jennifer? Carry your intermediate computations to at least four decimal places.
dev 1.4
mean 8
lowest 10%
top 0.9
Z
0.90
calcutate the Z in Aleks
z -1.2816
6.20576
mean 230
dev 30
10%
0.9
Z
0.85
calcutate the Z in Aleks
z -1.2816
ANSWR 191.6
mean 130
dev 18
Z
0.15
z 1.0364 calcutate the Z in Aleks
ANSWR 148.7
Suppose that the quarterly sales levels among health care information systems companies are approximately
normally distributed with a mean of 9 million dollars and a standard deviation of 1.3million dollars. One health
care information systems company considers a quarter a "failure" if its sales level that quarter is in the bottom
10% of all quarterly sales levels. Determine the sales level (in millions of dollars) that is the cutoff between
quarters that are considered "failures" by that company and quarters that are not. Carry your intermediate
computations to at least four decimal places. Round your answer to at least one decimal place.
According to her doctor, Mrs. Brown's cholesterol level is higher than only 15%of the females aged 50 and
over. The cholesterol levels among females aged 50 and over are approximately normally distributed with a
mean of 230mg/dL and a standard deviation of 25mg/dL. What is Mrs. Brown's cholesterol level? Carry your
intermediate computations to at least four decimal places. Round your answer to at least one decimal place.
Suppose that scores on a particular test are normally distributed with a mean of 130 and a standard deviation
of 18 . What is the minimum score needed to be in the top 15% of the scores on the test? Carry your
intermediate computations to at least four decimal places, and round your answer to at least one decimal place.
dev 2.1
mean 6.5
10%
Z
0.10
z 1.2816 calcutate the Z in Aleks and enter here
ANSWR 9.2
mean 51
dev 15
15%
0.85
Z
0.85
z -1.0364 calcutate the Z in Aleks and enter here
ANSWR 35.5
A newspaper article reported that people spend a mean of 6.5 hours per day watching TV, with a standard
deviation 2.1 of hours. A psychologist would like to conduct interviews with the10% of the population who
spend the most time watching TV. She assumes that the daily time people spend watching TV is normally
distributed. At least how many hours of daily TV watching are necessary for a person to be eligible for the
interview? Carry your intermediate computations to at least four decimal places. Round your answer to at least
one decimal place
Risk taking is an important part of investing. In order to make suitable investment decisions on behalf of their
customers, portfolio managers give a questionnaire to new customers to measure their desire to take financial
risks. The scores on the questionnaire are approximately normally distributed with a mean of 51 and a standard
deviation of 15. The customers with scores in the bottom 15% are described as "risk averse." What is the
questionnaire score that separates customers who are considered risk averse from those who are not? Carry
your intermediate computations to at least four decimal places. Round your answer to at least one decimal
place.
Normal distribution: Word problems
x 53000
mean 40756
dev 8000
12244
p (Z > 1.5305 )
1-P 0.9370535
Since aleks only have for a given z, use the complement rule 1-
x 83
mean 81
dev 8
2
p (Z > 0.25
According to a recent survey, the salaries of assistant professors have a mean of \$
40,756 and a standard deviation of \$8000. Assuming that the salaries of assistant
professors follow a normal distribution, find the proportion of assistant professors who
earn more than \$ 53000. Round your answer to at least four decimal places.
Suppose that the annual rate of return for a common biotechnology stock is normally
distributed with a mean of 4% and a standard deviation of 4% . Find the probability
that the one-year return of this stock will be negative. Round your answer to at least
four decimal places.
x 35
mean 50
dev 10
-15
p (Z > -1.5
0.0668
x 128
mean 100
dev 20
28
p (Z > 1.4 )
x 83
mean 81
dev 8
2
p (Z > 0.25 )
1-P 0.5987063
A certain test is designed to measure the satisfaction of an individual with his/her
relationship. Suppose that the scores on this test are approximately normally
distributed with a mean 50 of and a standard deviation of 10 . An individual with a
score of 35 or less is considered dissatisfied with his/her relationship. According to
this criterion, what proportion of people in relationships are dissatisfied? Round your
answer to at least four decimal places.
Suppose that the time required to complete a 1040R tax form is normally distributed
with a mean of 100 minutes and a standard deviation of 20 minutes. What proportion
of 1040R tax forms will be completed in at most 128 minutes? Round your answer to
at least four decimal places.
Suppose that pulse rates among healthy adults are normally distributed with a mean
81of beats/second and a standard deviation of 8 beats/second. What proportion of
at least four decimal places.
x 72
mean 71
dev 3
1
p (Z > 0.3333333 )
x 56
mean 60
dev 9
-4
p (Z > -0.4444444 )
Suppose that the heights of adult men in the United States are normally distributed
with a mean of 71 inches and a standard deviation of 3 inches. What proportion of the
adult men in United States are at most 6 feet tall? (Hint: 6 feet = 72 inches.) Round
Suppose that the scores on a reading ability test are normally distributed with a mean
of 60 and a standard deviation of 9 . What proportion of individuals score at most 56
points on this test? Round your answer to at least four decimal places.
Normal approximation to binomial
at least Probabilty Type
n 40 110
p 55% 63%
25 69
-0.5
np 22
1-P 45%
Vnp(1-p) 9.9
24.5
2.5
3.146426545
0.7946
0.7866 AT LEAST
n 85
p 32.0%
24 fewer Than
-0.5
np 27.2
1-P 68%
Vnp(1-p) 18.496
23.5
-3.7
4.300697618
-0.8603
0.195
Suppose that a new treatment is successful in curing a common ailment 63% of the time. If the treatment is tried on a random
sample of 110 patients, approximate the probability that at least 69 will be cured. Use the normal approximation to the binomial
with a correction for continuity.
Round your answer to at least three decimal places. Do not round any intermediate steps.
A brokerage survey reports that 36% of all individual investors have used a discount broker (one that does not charge the full
commission). If a random sample of 125 individual investors is taken, approximate the probability that fewer than 44 have used
a discount broker. Use the normal approximation to the binomial with a correction for continuity.
n 250
p 6% AT MOST
13
0.5
np 15.25
1-P 94%
Vnp(1-p) 14.31975
13.5
-1.75
3.784144553
-0.4625
n 85
p 29% MORE THAN
24
0.5
np 24.65
1-P 71%
Vnp(1-p) 17.5015
24.5
-0.15
4.183479413
-0.0359
0.486
Suppose that 10% of the population of the U.S. is left-handed. If a random sample of 220 people
from the U.S. is chosen, approximate the probability that more than 21 are left-handed. Use the
normal approximation to the binomial with a correction for continuity.
Suppose that 14% of the people in a large city have used a hospital emergency room in the past year. If a random sample of 155
people from the city is taken, approximate the probability that at most 23 used an emergency room in the past year. Use the
normal approximation to the binomial with a correction for continuity.
Greater than or equal to -0.5 1-P(z)
Greater than 0.5
Less than or equal to 0.5 1-P(z)
Less than -0.5
Greater than or equal to -0.5 1-P(z)
Greater than 0.5
Less than or equal to 0.5 1-P(z)
Less than -0.5
Suppose that a new treatment is successful in curing a common ailment 63% of the time. If the treatment is tried on a random
sample of 110 patients, approximate the probability that at least 69 will be cured. Use the normal approximation to the binomial
with a correction for continuity.
Round your answer to at least three decimal places. Do not round any intermediate steps.
A brokerage survey reports that 36% of all individual investors have used a discount broker (one that does not charge the full
commission). If a random sample of 125 individual investors is taken, approximate the probability that fewer than 44 have used
a discount broker. Use the normal approximation to the binomial with a correction for continuity.
Greater than or equal to -0.5 1-P(z)
Greater than 0.5
Less than or equal to 0.5 1-P(z)
Less than -0.5
Greater than or equal to -0.5 1-P(z)
Greater than 0.5
Less than or equal to 0.5 1-P(z)
Less than -0.5
Suppose that 10% of the population of the U.S. is left-handed. If a random sample of 220 people
from the U.S. is chosen, approximate the probability that more than 21 are left-handed. Use the
normal approximation to the binomial with a correction for continuity.
Suppose that 14% of the people in a large city have used a hospital emergency room in the past year. If a random sample of 155
people from the city is taken, approximate the probability that at most 23 used an emergency room in the past year. Use the
normal approximation to the binomial with a correction for continuity.
at least
Population standard deviation
27 Sum ----> 145 squareroot ---> 4
28 count ---> 5 1
27 Total 29 4
32 9
31 4
Sum ---> 22
4.4
do not touch do not touch
Probability of union: Basic
etandbe twoeventssuch thatand.
P(B)
0.8
P(C )
0.18
P(B)*P(C ) 0.144
(a) Determine , given that B and C are independent .
0.836
(b) Determine , given that B and C are mutually exclusive
0.98
Predictions from the least-squares regression line
y= 41.07 -0.48 slope run the sum of the table in ALEKS
Observed Predicated
x y
23.7 27.8 29.7
+ or - for slope
Observed 1363.4 4990.80 Predictated difference
An advertising firm wishes to demonstrate to its clients the effectiveness of the advertising campaigns it has conducted. The following bivariate data on fifteen recent campaigns,
including the cost of each campaign (in millions of dollars) and the resulting percentage increase in sales following the campaign, were presented by the firm. Based on these data, we
would compute the least-squares regression line to be , with representing campaign cost and representing the resulting percentage increase in sales. (This line is shown in Figure 1,
along with a scatter plot of the data.)
The managers of an electric utility wish to examine the relationship between temperature and electricity use in the utility's service region during the summer months. In particular, the
managers wish to be able to predict total electricity use for a day from the maximum temperature that day. The bivariate data below give the maximum temperature (in degrees
Fahrenheit) and the electricity use (in thousands of kilowatt hours) of electricity generated and sold for a random sample of fifteen summer days. A best-fitting line for the data, obtained
from least-squares regression, is given by , in which denotes the maximum temperature and denotes the electricity use. This line is shown in the Figure 1 scatter plot.
Managers of an outdoor coffee stand in Coast City are examining the relationship between (hot) coffee sales and daily temperature, hoping to be able to predict a day's total coffee sales
from the maximum temperature that day. The bivariate data values for the coffee sales (denoted by , in dollars) and the maximum temperature (denoted by , in degrees Fahrenheit) for
each of fifteen randomly selected days during the past year are given below
run the sum of the table in ALEKS
Less than or Greater than?
-3627.40
An advertising firm wishes to demonstrate to its clients the effectiveness of the advertising campaigns it has conducted. The following bivariate data on fifteen recent campaigns,
including the cost of each campaign (in millions of dollars) and the resulting percentage increase in sales following the campaign, were presented by the firm. Based on these data, we
would compute the least-squares regression line to be , with representing campaign cost and representing the resulting percentage increase in sales. (This line is shown in Figure 1,
along with a scatter plot of the data.)
The managers of an electric utility wish to examine the relationship between temperature and electricity use in the utility's service region during the summer months. In particular, the
managers wish to be able to predict total electricity use for a day from the maximum temperature that day. The bivariate data below give the maximum temperature (in degrees
Fahrenheit) and the electricity use (in thousands of kilowatt hours) of electricity generated and sold for a random sample of fifteen summer days. A best-fitting line for the data, obtained
from least-squares regression, is given by , in which denotes the maximum temperature and denotes the electricity use. This line is shown in the Figure 1 scatter plot.
Managers of an outdoor coffee stand in Coast City are examining the relationship between (hot) coffee sales and daily temperature, hoping to be able to predict a day's total coffee sales
from the maximum temperature that day. The bivariate data values for the coffee sales (denoted by , in dollars) and the maximum temperature (denoted by , in degrees Fahrenheit) for
each of fifteen randomly selected days during the past year are given below
Rejecting unreasonable claims based on average statistics
Last year all of their clients made a profit of at least. 9% FALSE
Last year at least one of their clients made a profit of exactly 9% FALSE
Two years ago some of their clients made a profit of at least 9% FALSE
Last year fewer than half of their clients made a profit ofor less 9% FALSE
Last year at least one of their clients made a profit of more than 14% FALSE
last years ago some of their clients made a profit of less than 12% TRUE
Last year more than half of their clients had a starting salary of at least 38,500 \$ FALSE
Last year some of their clients had a starting salary of exactly 38,500 \$ FALSE
Last year some of their clients had a starting salary of at least 38,500 \$ TRUE
Two years ago at least one of their clients had a starting salary of at least 38,500 \$ FALSE
Last year at least one of their clients had a starting salary of less than 41,000 \$ TRUE
Last year some of their clients had a starting salary of less than 35,000 \$ FALSE
Last year at least one of their clients had a starting salary of more than 37,000 \$ TRUE
Last month all of their patients lost at least 6lbs FALSE
Last month, the number of their clients who lost 6lbsor more was equal to
the number of their clients who lost 6lbsor less. FALSE
Last month some of their patients lost exactly 6lbs FALSE
Last month some of their patients lost more than 3lbs TRUE
Last month at least one of their patients lost more than 2lbs TRUE
This month at least one of their patients will lose at least 6lbs FALSE
Last month at least one of their patients lost at least 8lbs TRUE
Last month all of their patients lost less than 14lbs FALSE
Last month some of their patients lost 7lbs or more 7lbs TRUE
Last year all of their freshman students had a score of less than1280on the
exam 1280 FALSE
Last year, the number of their freshman students who had a score of more
thanon the exam was equal to the number of their freshman students who
had a score of less than 1140on the exam 1140 FALSE
Last year some of their freshman students had a score of exactly1140on the
exam 1140 FALSE
Last year some of their freshman students had a score of1140 or above on
the exam 1140 TRUE
Next year at least one of their freshman students will have a score of at
leaston the exam 1140 FALSE
Last year at least one of their freshman students had a score of more than
900on the exam 900 TRUE
Last year some of their freshman students had a score of at least 1180on
the exam
Two months ago some of their patients lost at least 8 lbs 8lbs FALSE
gain 9% profit average
gain 9% profit average
gain 9% profit average
gain 9% profit average
gain 9% profit average
gain7% profit average
starting salary \$38,500 avg
starting salary \$38,500 avg
starting salary \$38,500 avg
starting salary \$38,500 avg
starting salary \$38,500 avg
starting salary \$39,500 avg
starting salary \$39,000 avg
Lost 6 lbs average
Lost 6 lbs average
Lost 6 lbs average
Lost 6 lbs average
Lost 6 lbs average
Lost 6 lbs average
Lost 8 lbs average
Lost 8 lbs average
Lost 7 lbs average
1280 aveg
1280 aveg
1280 aveg
1280 aveg
1280 aveg
1180
1180
lost 8 lbs
sample standard deviation
10 Sum ----> 50 squareroot ---> 0
7 count ---> 5 9 Devia Sum ---> 18
12 Total dev 10 4 4.5
9 1
do not touch do not touch
X Y Least-Squares Regression
7.7 4.5
6.8 4.5
9.4 2.7
2.6 8.5
6.2 4.5
8.3 3.7
1.6 10.2
2.1 9.7
9 2.6
5.2 7.1
3.4 7.7
4 7.5
2.8 9.9
10 1.7
5 6.4
8.2 3.2
6.1 4.8
4.6 7.9
Total 103 107.10
x1-x --> -95.3 -102.6 <--y1-y
power 9082.09 10526.76
squareroot 9082.09 102.6
multi power 9777.78
multi sqrrt 10.12917
Sketching the least-squares regression line
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 2 4 6 8
Least-Squares Regression
Least-Squares Regression
y = -1.0011x + 11.678
8 10 12
Squares Regression
Least-Squares Regression
Linear (Least-Squares Regression)
Let be X: the annual rate of return for a common biotechnology stock
P(X < 0) = P((X - 0.065)/0.05 < (0 - 0.065)/0.05) = P(Z < - 1.3) = 0.9032
x 0
mean 4
sd 5
-0.8
P(Z < - 1.3) = 0.9032 use ALEKS calculator TO FIND ANSWER
since aleks do not have this, use 1-P(Z -1.3)
Suppose that the annual rate of return for a common biotechnology
stock is normally distributed with a mean of 6.5% and a standard
deviation of 5%. Find the probability that the one-year return of this
stock will be negative. Round your answer to at least four decimal places
Standardized Normal Distribution. Yahoo name
T Distribution
Consider a t distribution with 26 degrees of freedom. Compute .
Use aleks calculator
1-P(t >-1.51 with df 26)
Consider a t distribution with 16 degrees of freedom. Find the value of such that .
enter this in ALEKS Calcuator c = t
Compute:
enter as 1-2P(t>1.83)
Find value of C
enter as is in ALEKS
Compute:
enter as 1-2P(t>1.67)
Find value of C
enter as is in ALEKS
enter this in ALEKS Calcuator c = t
code to use on P(z0
Greater than or equal to
Greater than
Less than or equal to
Less than
0.07155
0.95 17
0.05
0.025 df 17
T
X
; DF
Y
0.1 20
0.9 df 20
-0.5 1-P(z) more than
0.5 at most
at least
0.5 1-P(z)
-0.5
Tree diagrams for conditional probabilities
P ( B | D ) = 0.6
P(D B) = 0.24 0.45
P(D) = 0.4 0.55
P(D B) = 0.16
P (B | D ) = 0.4
P ( B | D ) = 0.35
P(D B) = 0.21
P(D) = 0.6
P(D B) = 0.39
P ( B | D ) = 0.65
1.0000
D denote the event that a randomly chosen student (enrolled in the course) regularly attended the discussion sessions,
D denote the event that a randomly chosen student did not regularly attend the discussion sessions
B denote the event that a randomly chosen student received a grade of "B" or higher in the cours
B denote the event that a randomly chosen student did not receive a grade of "B" or higher in the course
Means is accents
what is the probability that a randomly chosen student received a grade of "B" or higher in the course
what is the probability that a randomly chosen student did not receive a grade of "B" or higher in the course
denote the event that a randomly chosen student (enrolled in the course) regularly attended the discussion sessions,
denote the event that a randomly chosen student did not regularly attend the discussion sessions
denote the event that a randomly chosen student received a grade of "B" or higher in the cours
denote the event that a randomly chosen student did not receive a grade of "B" or higher in the course
what is the probability that a randomly chosen student did not receive a grade of "B" or higher in the course
Sample # --> 32
Column 1 Colunm 2 Col 1 * Col b --->
3 6 18
6 7.75 46.5
14 10 140
9 11.75 105.75
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sum ----> 310.25
Trend lines for yearly data
t= 34.44
3.13
beginning year 1993
ending year 2012
19
20
total 97.04
t= 21.11
0.44
beginning year 1995
ending year 2012
q1 q22 q3 q4
17 1 2 3 4
69 70 71 72
t 51.47 51.91 52.35 52.79
The following time series data represent the yearly amounts spent on advertising (in
millions of dollars) by a large toy company:
45.4, 41.5, 45.0, 50.6, 60.2, 63.7, 73.9, 73.8
This series of data begins in year (i.e., time period corresponds to ). Using regression
analysis, a linear trend line of the form was fit to the data. Using this information,
generate a forecast for the total yearly amount of money that will be spent on advertising
in
The following time series data represent the quarterly amounts spent on advertising (in
millions of dollars) by a large toy company (read across):
Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
10.9 12.0 10.4 12.1
11.0 11.4 11.0 11.1
11.1 13.2 14.1 13.8
12.0 14.0 14.8 13.1
11.9 13.8 13.7 15.2
12.9 16.2 13.3 17.6
14.1
This series of data begins in Quarter of (i.e., time period corresponds to the first quarter
of ). Using regression analysis, a linear trend line of the form was fit to the data. Using this
information, generate a forecast for the total yearly amount of money that will be spent
each year = 1 quarter
4 quarters per year
total 208.52
Explained and unexplained variation and the least-squares regression line
the value of the residual is
the value of R
2
is the proportion
y = 46.94 0.82 x 257.926 SSR 3148.968
( 257.30 252.70 ) -5.23 SST 3590.248
or
or
The variation in the sample values that is not explained by the estimated linear relationship between X and Y is given by the
error sum of squares (SSE)
Bivariate data obtained for the paired variables and are shown below, in the table labelled "Sample data." These data are
plotted in the scatter plot in Figure 1, which also displays the least-squares regression line for the data. The equation for this
line is .
In the "Calculations" table are calculations involving the observed values, the mean of these values, and the values
predicted from the regression equation.
0.88
The least-squares regression line given above is said to be a line which "best fits" the sample data. The term "best fits" is used
because the line has an equation that minimizes the error sum of square
The variation in the sample values that is explained by the estimated linear relationship between X and Y is given by the
regression sum of squares (SSR
The total variation in the sampley values is given by thetotal sum of squares
The variation in the sample values that is not explained by the estimated linear relationship between X and Y is given by the
error sum of squares (SSE)
Bivariate data obtained for the paired variables and are shown below, in the table labelled "Sample data." These data are
plotted in the scatter plot in Figure 1, which also displays the least-squares regression line for the data. The equation for this
line is .
In the "Calculations" table are calculations involving the observed values, the mean of these values, and the values
predicted from the regression equation.
The least-squares regression line given above is said to be a line which "best fits" the sample data. The term "best fits" is used
because the line has an equation that minimizes the error sum of square
The variation in the sample values that is explained by the estimated linear relationship between X and Y is given by the
regression sum of squares (SSR
The total variation in the sampley values is given by thetotal sum of squares
Seasonal indexes: Multiplicative model
Tt= 739 15 t Quarter 4 per year
starting quarter # 1 corresponds to quarter #
forecast quarter # 1.23
ending year 2005
starting year 2000
5
20
19
1024
Tt= 516 3 t Monthly
forecast quarter # 0.49
ending year 2006
starting year 2003
remaining months 3
3
36
40
636
The quarterly sales volume (in thousands of dollars) for a manufacturer of snow skis is seasonal (there tend to be more skis sold during
fall and winter months than during warmer months). The following table shows the quarterly seasonal indexes for the company's sales:
Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 3 Quarter 4
1.22 0.71 0.57 1.51
Using several years of sales data, beginning in Quarter 2 of 1999 (i.e., corresponds to Quarter of ), the manufacturer summarized that
the trend line that describes the quarterly sales (in thousands of dollars) has the form . Assuming that a multiplicative model can be
used to describe the sales data, generate a forecast for the total dollar sales that the company can expect to receive in Quarter 4 of
2004 .