ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE

Amity Centre for eLearning J-Block, Amity Campus
Sec-44, NOIDA (UP)

2009

India 201303

ASSIGNMENTS ADL-100: Behavioral Science
Subject Name & Code : BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE; ADL-100 Study Centre : ACeDL office Noida Permanent Enrollment Number (PEN) : INSTRUCTIONS
a) Students are required to submit three assignments
ASSIGNMENT DETAILS MARKS

Assignment A Case Study + 2 Questions 10 Assignment B Case Study + 2 Questions 10 Assignment C Five Subjective Questions 10 b) Total weight age given to these assignments is 30%. c) Al assignments are to be completed in your own hand writing/typed. d) Al questions are required to be attempted. e) Al the three assignments are to be completed by due dates (specified from time to time) and mailed/given by hand for evaluation at the ACeL office Noida/your Study Centre. f) The evaluated assignments can be collected from your study centre/ ACeL office after six weeks. Thereafter, these will be destroyed at the end of each semester.

Signature Date

:
:__

(√) Tick Mark in front of the assignments submitted Assignment ‘A’ √ Assignment ‘B’

Assignment ‘C’

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE
ADL- 100: Behavioral Science

2009
ASSIGNMENT – “A”

Case Study Note s: Read the Case Study and answer the two questions given at the end of it. (Marks: 10)
1. A COCKROACH IN THE RASAM.

The other day, there was a major hungama in a high profile organization in Bangalore. A senior
Executive found a cockroach in his rasam and screamed the roof down. Very logical. Most

people would have done likewise. What happened subsequently was, however, appalling.
This senior executive summoned the canteen supervisor, caught hold of his collar, forced

Him to kneel in front of everyone and insisted he drink the rasam. The canteen supervisor left in
Tears and never returned to the building. The organization, like all organizations do, tried to Sweep the incident under the carpet. Now you know what carpets are for in all sophisticated

Organizations, along with flower-pots, paintings and smiling receptionists.
I throw this real life incident open for a case study discussion. The concerned Organization did not have a union, even if it had, the canteen supervisor would have been there

On contract. Should we, therefore assume that senior executives in high profile organizations are Better behaved with unionized workers? Or should we assume that the organization has failed to instill basic values in its senior
executives? That, in the lemming-like race to success, human values is regarded as highly expendable? That people as people fail to count as long as the sales-curve is moving up in the

right direction even if behavior patterns leave much to be desired? Ironically, it is fashionable in high profile organizations to talk in terms of not just IQ but EQ. Should all organizations, especially high profile ones, insist that their senior executives be constantly rated for both IQ and EQ? Should one test of EQ be whether or not the senior
executives know the names of the junior-most staff, including contract workers like toilet

cleaners, who keep the premises clean for top brass attending to the small or the big job in between the organizationally crucial jobs? I grew up in a steel township called Rourkela where there was once an instance of a leopard in the blast furnace. The then general manager, who had earlier worked with a public sector unit manufacturing pharmaceuticals, remarked that, in his previous job, he had come
across the odd fly in the ointment. A leopard in the blast furnace was, he remarked, something of

a novelty for him. Those were the days of the Nehruvian era when PSU steel plants were regarded as the temples of modern India and the rationale for any enterprise was the employment it generated and the happiness of its workers. We have since progressed to a high profile era where a burntout cockroach in burnt-out rasam trigger of extreme reactions among senior executives who may or may not have read Graham Greens's "A burnt out case".

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE

2009

It is fashionable in the case of such incidents to blame those directly involved. In this instance, there were three participants, the cockroach which got cooked in the rasam, the traumatized canteen supervisor who has sworn never to return to the building where he was humiliated and the senior executive who must surely be wondering why he over treated. A case study could increase awareness among the others that organizational Goals cannot be separated from societal goals. That what's good for society is also good for business and for the organization.
1. Analyze the case with regards to your knowledge of Emotional Intelligence?

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their influential article “Emotional Intelligence,” they defined emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions” (1990). Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion, and the ability to manage emotions.
In this case, the senior executive showed a very low level of Emotional Intelligence. It’s obvious

for anyone to get angry if he see cockroach in his food. But there are some norms and ethics for all to show such a behavior in public. Senior executive seemed to have no values that are why he humiliated the canteen supervisor so badly in front of everyone. It is critical that when management commits to a course of action, that they follow through or explain why they couldn’t. It is the little things that set the tone in an organization. It is when
management does not keep their promises that employees look to outside sources like unions and

government agencies to insure these commitments are kept. In this case there were no unions, so the senior executive was not questioned. Organization just tried to hide all this matter.
Executives represent their organization in public. So with such a k ind of behavior they leave a

very bad impact on public. They are required to be sensitive to others feelings. A successful executive have a coherent and solid sense of self, good relationship with both
subordinates and superiors as well as with external environment, which means flexibility and

sense of values. So according to me one should behave with respect and integrity towards anyone you come into contact with through your work. One should help create an environment free from any discrimination, be it due to religion, skin color, gender, sexual orientation, age, nationality, race

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE

2009

or disability and free from bullying, harassment or similar. Any behavior that can be perceived as degrading or threatening should not be tolerated.
2. What according to you should have been the Sr. Executives action?

Behavior that is unacceptable or undesirable in the workplace includes foul language, sarcasm, accusatory questioning, subtle sabotage, and gossip, the slinging of paper or items across the

desk, the silent treatment, and purposeful group segregation, staring or glaring.
But here the senior Executive forgot all such values and humiliated the supervisor in front of

people. He had tears in his eyes. Employees find public humiliation the most intolerable.
According to me the Sr. Executive should have behaved calmly and in cultured manner. He should have scolded the supervisor in private. Employee looks upon their seniors in a similar

way as children looks upon their parents. So it’s the responsibility of se niors that they correct their sub-ordinates fault by making them understand and not by humiliating them in front of everyone. I think each company needs an identified behavior expert who can work with senior leaders on developing a very specific behavior-management training program for all leaders, based on the most common people-conflict situations the organization sees as problematic. Ethics is an integral part of the organization’s overall culture. Therefore, designing an ethical organization means systematically analyzing all aspects of the organization’s ethical culture and aligning them to support ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. This kind of
analysis and alignment requires a substantial and sustained effort over a long period of time and

the full involvement of senior executives. All these efforts can minimize growing employee turnover rate, as seen in this case.

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE

2009

ADL- 100: Behavioural Science

ASSIGNMENT – “B”
Case Study Note s: Read the Case Study and answer the two questions given at the end of it. (Marks: 10) 2. WORK STRESS.

Ravi Khanna, 36, a senior foreign bank executive based at Bombay, is leading a comfortable life which, anybody can dream of. He often has to go to abroad for his routine business work.
Very recently his bank has started some new banking schemes to enhance the business like credit cards, portfolio management and personal loans, etc. This all has increased his workload

tremendously. Although there is sufficient staff to look after all those sections independently and he does not have to bother for the day-to-day working, but after all being at the helm of affair, he has to supervise everything. And since he is so meticulous in his planning and working, he expects the same from others also, and this is where he is many a times a disappointed man. He becomes tense. At the end of each day ultimately he finds himself amidst the heap of unfinished, pending
papers and files. The year end was coming close; he was getting increasingly busy finalizing the

annual accounts and balance sheet, plus his usual routine work. This heavily busy schedule one day took the toll. What happened, in the morning while getting ready for work he was standing
in front of the dressing table mirror in his bedroom fixing his tie knot, suddenly he felt some

giddiness and before he could realize what was happening, he fell flat on the floor with the loud noise. His wife Sunita, who was preparing morning breakfast for him, came running in the
bedroom. She was too shocked to speak anything, she just cried. Ravi's mother who was in pooja

room, came running and rang up the family doctor. It took some time for the doctor to reach but in the meantime Ravi gained consciousness. Everyone in the family was so much worried as the doctor examined him and advised him complete bed rest. But Ravi, as usual, was quite casual about this whole incidence, as he tried to brush it aside but the doctor and Ravi's mother did not
give in. He was taken to a reputed hospital where all investigations were carried out and

ultimately he was diagnosed as a diabetic having high blood pressure.
1. What in your opinion was Ravi Khanna's main problem? What other Problems did

he have? What was his coping style? (6-marks)
Ravi Khanna’s main problem was he was overloaded with work. Work overload which is too

much work to accomplish in the time available. This organizational situation often forces employees to exert more energy and spend more time on work then they are capable o f. Personal expectations also contribute to emotional exhaustion. Ravi Khanna is a young
overachiever with unrealistic expectations of both himself and the organization he work for. High expectations at work create intrinsic demand and stress. These expectations, when not met,

leads to emotional exhaustion. Workers who are highly involved with their job or who view it as central to their life are more likely to experience emotional exhaustion.

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE

2009

He had so much stress that makes him feel anxious, angry, frustrated, burned out, depressed, moody. When taken individually, these hassles may feel like only minor irritants and inconveniences, but cumulatively, over time, they can add up to a significant amount stress. He wants all his works to be perfect and expected this from his subordinates also. And when
they don’t work according to him he feels disappointed and get tense. Inappropriate stress

handling aggravated Mr. Khanna’s problem. Stress had lowered his resistance and made him more vulnerable to illness and disease. The increased inner pressure caused his health to deteriorate resulting in a variety of serious physical problems.
Mr. Khanna was using an avoidant coping strategies, which had led him to a mental

state, such as withdrawal, tension and ignoring physical discomfort, that kept them from directly addressing stressful events.

2. How could he cope with his personal and professional life to be more effective? (4marks) For these dilemmas, time management and effective communication skills might work to his advantage. However, no matter what the causes of tension on and off the job may be, inoculating
strategies like aerobic exercise, yoga, and meditation can help protect against the ill-effects of

stress. He should get Social support from family, friends, and colleagues which are another way to work out stress-induced emotions, instead of holding them inside where they can put wear and tear on his organs and immune system. Some other options he can try at his work to cope with stress are:• Try asking human resources department at workplace for stress management resources. • Reconsider the expectations that you and your supervisor have for yourself at work. Are they realistic? • Discuss concerns, workload, or expectations with his superiors. • Try involving a friend in his attempts to generate positive options for thinking and behaving differently in his work environment. Foremost, it is almost always more beneficial (and stress reducing!) For him it is required to
change his own outlook and actions, rather than trying to change others, who he may deem the

causes of his stress.
By conquering stress and learning appropriate ways in which to handle stressful situations, one can learn how to better take responsibilities for their actions which will lead to an increased

amount of accountability and control over their life. Knowing what symptoms to look for will also reduce the likelihood for stress related illnesses to be an issue.

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE

2009

Mr. Khanna could manage if he understood the reasons that caused his stress and the level of his
stress. He should also try to estimate if he could bring about any change in the environment that

can subsequently reduce stress. Some ways to cope with his personal and professional life could be: 1. Become aware of his stressors and his emotional and physical reactions. He should consciously notice his distress and not ignore it. He shouldn’t gloss over his problems, but determine what events distress him. Like his desire for perfection and his inability to trust delegation of responsibilities had created the imbalance in his personal life. He should also
determine how his body responds to the stress, like does his display symptoms like nervousness

or being upset or becoming withdrawn or physically upset. 2. Recognize what he can change. Me Khanna should find answers to the following questions: Can he change the stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely? Can he reduce their intensity (manage them over a period of time instead of on a daily or weekly basis)? Can he shorten his exposure to stress (take a break, leave the physical premises)? Can he devote the time and energy necessary to making a change (goal setting, time management techniques, and delayed gratification strategies may be helpful here)? 3. Reduce the intensity of his emotional reactions to stress. The stress reaction is usually triggered by a person’s perception of danger-physical danger and/or emotional danger, Mr.
Khanna should analyze if he is viewing his stressors in exaggerated terms and/or taking a

difficult situation and making it a disaster? Is he expecting to please everyone? Is he overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent? Does he feel he must always prevail in every situation? He should work at adopting more moderate views; try to see the stress as something he can cope with rather than something that overpowers him. Try to temper his excess
emotions and put the situation in perspective. He should not labor on the negative aspects and the

“What ifs.” 4. Learn to moderate his physical reactions to stress. Slow, deep breathing will bring his heart rate and respiration back to normal, Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension, Electronic biofeedback can help him gain voluntary control over such things as muscle tension, heartbeat and blood pressure. Medications, when prescribed by a physician, can help in the short
term in moderating his physical. However, they alone are not the answer- he must learn to

moderate these reactions on his own as a preferable long-term solution. 5. Build his physical reserves. He should exercise for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate, prolonged rhythmic exercise is best, such as walking, swimming,
cycling, or jogging). Eat well-balanced, nutritious meals. Maintain as ideal weight. Avoid nicotine, excessive caffeine, and other stimulants. Mix leisure with work. Take breaks and get

away when he can. Get enough sleep. Be as consistent with his sleep schedule as possible. 6. Maintain his emotional reserves. Develop some mutually supportive friendship/relationships. Pursue realistic goals that are meaningful to him. Rather than goals
others have for him that he does not share. Expect some frustrations, failures, and sorrows.

Always be kind and gentle with him.

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE
ADL- 100: Behavioural Science

2009
ASSIGNMENT – “C”

Short Note s Note s: Answer any Five Questions. Each que stion carries 2 marks. Your answer should not be more than 50 words. (Marks: 10)

1.

Self Concept

Self-concept or self identity refers to the global understanding a sentient being has of him or her. It presupposes but can be distinguished from self-consciousness, which is simply an
awareness of one's self. It is also more general than self-esteem, which is the purely evaluative

element of the self-concept. The self-concept is composed of relatively permanent selfassessments, such as personality attributes, knowledge of one's skills and abilities, one's occupation and hobbies, and awareness of one's physical attributes. 2. Self Awareness

Self-awareness is the concept that one exists as an individual, separate from other people, with private thoughts. It may also include the understanding that other people are similarly self-aware.
Self-awareness is a self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people

more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions. 3. Self Acceptance With Self acceptance you are happy with whom you are now, is being love to you. Is to approve
who you are? All parts of you, even the ones that dislike you. It means being nonjudgmental

towards you. Self Acceptance is a choice. The truth is that we all have negative feelings regarding ourselves. For many years I wasn’t aware of my lack of acceptance. In general I could say that I accepted me. However I always found something I didn’t love. 4. Self Esteem

In psychology, self-esteem reflects a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own
worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs and emotions. Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic (trait self-esteem), though normal, short-term variations

(state self-esteem) occur. Self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for
example, "I believe I am a good writer, and feel proud of that in particular") or have global

extent (for example, "I believe I am a good person, and feel proud of myself in general") 5. Types of Attitude

Jung's definition of attitude is a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way" Attitudes very often comes in pairs, one conscious and the other unconscious. Within this broad definition Jung defines several attitudes.

ADL-100 BEHAVIOURIAL SCIENCE The main (but not only) attitude dualities that Jung defines are the following.

2009

Consciousness and the unconscious. The "presence of two attitudes is extremely frequent, one conscious and the other unconscious. This means that consciousness has a constellation of contents different from that of the unconscious, a duality particularly evident in neurosis". • Extraversion and introversion. This pair is so elementary to Jung's theory of types that he labeled them the "attitude-types". • Rational and irrational attitudes. "I conceive reason as an attitude". • The rational attitude subdivides into the thinking and feeling psychological functions, each with its attitude. • The irrational attitude subdivides into the sensing and intuition psychological functio ns, each with its attitude. "There is thus a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude". • Individual and social attitudes. Many of the latter are "isms".

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