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Higher Level IB History

Revision guide
Topic 4: Early Modernization and Imperial Decline in Asia - mid 19th century to early 20th
century

Overview

This topic focuses on developments in China and Japan up to the early 20th century. It
examines the largely unsuccessful attempts at modernization and reform in China. The
conservative and popular opposition to change was demonstrated by the failures of the Self-
Strengthening Movement and the Hundred Days Reform and by the violence of the Boxer
Rebellion. In contrast, Japan modernized rapidly and successfully during this period to emerge
as a country that challenged the power of the Western nations in Asia.


Timeline

1839-42 First Opium War in China
1853 Matthew Perry “opens” Japan
1854 Treaty of Kanagawa (between Japan and USA)
1858 Harris Treaty
1866 Chinese fact-finding mission to the capitals of Europe
1866 Peasant militia in Choshu refuse to disband and take over the Daimyo, putting reformers
in power.
1870 Tianjin Massacre
1877 Satsuma rebellion
1884-5 Sino-French War
1887 Peace Preservation Law
1889: Meiji Constitution Written
1894-5 Sino-Japanese War
1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki
1898 Hundred Days’ Reforms
1900 Boxer Rebellion
1901 Boxer Protocol
1901-1911 Late Qing Reforms
1911 “Double Tenth” revolution














Table of Contents
Overview ................................................................................................................................... 1
Timeline ................................................................................................................................... 1
Chapter 1 – China 1861 – 1911............................................................................................. 3
1.1 Self-Strengthening Movement .................................................................................................. 3


Chapter 1 – China 1861 – 1911



1.1 Self-Strengthening Movement