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Name: Marmolejo, Airammer G.

Date: 07/08/14
Student No.: 20100116163 Assignment No.: 1
Subject and Section: CEN 512 – 2A

Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Leaning of Tower of Pisa was built nearly 2 centuries and was divided into three parts. The
first part was during the town’s prosperity and heavy white marble was used for the base and tower
with limestone used for exterior and interior design. But after five years a disaster occurred where the
tower was sinking due to the extremely heavy marble with an insufficient three meter deep foundation
on a weak and unstable soil where malleable mixture of clay, sand and rubble are present. They halted
operations after that and let the tower settle. The second part started on the middle section and in
order to compensate the problem for its lean they tried to built one side taller than the other which
resulted to a curve and they had an involuntary break due to war. The last part was the seventh and the
eight floors where the eight floor features the belfry. As time passed by the tower continued to lean
and the Italian government were desperate to prevent the tower from toppling and the first method
they tried was to add 800 tonnes of lead to the raised end of the tower but that only worsened the
situation and they tried to lessen the weight on the tower. The second and last method they tried or the
solution was to excavate the soil beneath the raised end of the tower by tying cables to the tower and
anchoring it to the ground and through the efforts they made progress straightening the tower by 18
inches. In the course of 10 years they continued to stabilise the tower and in 2008 they again excavated
soil and the tower finally stopped moving.

Jonny O'Callaghan (11 June 2013). Why does the Leaning Tower of Pisa Lean?