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How to ensure high validity

of language assessment for
the primary classroom.

Face validity
 The test should have the elements the typical tests
should have.

 Exp: Title of exam, questions, spaces for answering,
allocation of marks, sections
Content validity
 make sure all content domains are presented in the
 use of Table of Test Specification that can give detailed
information on each content, level of skills, status of
difficulty, number of items, and item representation for
rating in each content or skill or topic.

Construct validity
 a psychological concept used in measurement to reflect whether
a test measures what it is supposed to measure exp: Proficiency,
communicative, competence, and fluency
 When testing oral proficiency: the test should consist of various
components of fluency: speed, rhythm, juncture, (lack of)
hesitations, and other elements within the construct of fluency.
 When testing communicative competence: the test should consist
of various components such as: language in real-life situations,
emphasis on appropriateness rather than grammar accuracy,
intonation etc.
Concurrent validity
 If the teacher wishes to use her own test, she can first
test students using other reputable or recognized tests
 The results are then used to be compared to the results
her students get on her own test.
Predictive validity
 Arrange for students to sit for trial exams that share the
same features and elements of the actual (and/or
major) exam ahead.
 Trial exams are intended to predict the students’
performance on the actual exams.