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3.1. A queue with customers arriving in pairs
Customers arrive at a single-server queue two at a time. The arrival instants for pairs of customers
are given by a Poisson process with rate λ. The service times of customers are independent,
exponentially distributed with parameter µ. Let N(t) denote the number of customers in the
system at time t. (a) The process (N(t) : t ≥ 0) is a continuous time pure jump Markov process
with statespace Z+. Sketch the transition rate diagram of N. (b) See what can be deduced about
N by applying the Foster-Lyapunov stability criteria and related moment bounds for the Lyapunov
function V(x) = x. (c) Repeat part (b) using V(x) = x2
(d) Solve for the z transform of the equilibrium distribution and ﬁnd the equilibrium distribution.
Under what condition does it exist (i.e. under what condition is N positive recurrent?)
(e) Let (rk : k ≥ 0) and (dk : k ≥ 0) be the equilibrium probabilities deﬁned by
rk = P[there are k in the system just before the arrival of a pair of customers]
dk = P[there are k in the system just after the departure of a typical customer].
Express (rk : k ≥ 0) and (dk : k ≥ 0) in terms of (pk : k ≥ 0), λ and µ. In particular, does rk = pk?
or dk = pk? or rk = dk?
3.2. Token bucket regulation of a Poisson stream
A token bucket traﬃc regulation scheme works as follows. The packet stream to be regulated is
modeled as a Poisson stream with arrival rate λ. There is a token pool that holds up to B tokens.
When a packet arrives, if there is a token in the token pool then the packet instantly passes through
the regulator, and one of the tokens is removed from the token pool. If instead the token pool is
empty, then the packet is lost. (Notice that packets are never queued.) New tokens are generated
periodically, with one time unit between successive generation times. If a token is generated when
the token pool is full, the token is lost. (The token pool acts like a ”leaky bucket”.) (a) Identify an
embedded discrete-time, discrete-state Markov process, and describe the one-step transition prob-
abilities of the chain. (b) Express the fraction of packets lost (long term average) in terms of λ, B
and π, where π denotes the equilibrium probability vector for your Markov chain. (You do NOT
need to ﬁnd π.) (c) As an approximation, suppose that the times between new token generations
are independent, exponentially distributed with common mean 1. Find a fairly simple expression
for the loss probability.
3.3. Extremality of constant interarrival times for G/M/1 queues
Consider two G/M/1 queueing systems with common service rate µ. The ﬁrst has a general in-
terarrival distribution function A(t) with mean 1/λ such that λ/µ < 1. The second has constant
interarrival times, all equal to 1/λ. (Thus the interarrival distribution function in the second sys-
tem is Ad(t) = 0 if t < 1/λ and Ad(t) = 1 otherwise, and the system is called a D/M/1 system).
(a) Show that the Laplace transforms are ordered: A∗d(s) ≤ A∗(s) for all s ≥ 0. (b) Show that
the mean number in the system at arrival times (in equilibrium) and the mean waiting time in the
system is smaller for the D/M/1 system.
3.4. Propagation of perturbations
Consider a single-server queueing system which is initially empty and for which a total of ﬁve
customers arrive, at times 1,2,5,13, and 14, respectively. Suppose the amounts of time required to
serve the customers are 5,2,4,2,2 time units, respectively. (a) Sketch the unﬁnished work in the
system as a function of time. Indicate the departure times of the ﬁve customers, and compute the
waiting times in queue of the ﬁve customers. (b) Repeat part (a), assuming that the service time
of the second customer is increased to 3 time units. (c) Repeat part (a), assuming the service time
of the second customer is increased to 4 time units. (d) Describe brieﬂy in words how in general
an increase in service time of one customer eﬀects the waiting times of other customers in the system.
3.5. On priority M/GI/1 queues
Consider an M/GI/1 system with preemptive resume priority service. There are assumed to be two
priority classes, with independent arrival streams and service requirements. Class 1 has priority
over class 2. Customers of the ith class arrive according to a Poisson process of rate λi, and the
service times of customers of class i are independent and identically distributed. Use Xi to denote
a random variable with the same distribution as the service requirements for class i, for i = 1 or
i = 2. (a) Describe what “preemptive resume priority” means. (b) Derive the mean time in the
system, T1 and T2, for class 1 and class 2, respectively.
3.6. Optimality of the µc rule
Consider an M/G/1 queue with customer classes 1 through K and a nonpreemptive priority ser-
vice discipline. Let µi = 1/Xi where Xi denotes the mean service time for type i customers and
let ci, with ci > 0, denote the cost per unit time of holding a class i customer in the queue. For
some permutation σ = (σ1,σ1,...,σK) of (1,2,...,K), the class σ1 customers are given the highest
priority, the class σ2 customers are given the next highest priority, and so on. The resulting long
run average cost per unit time is iλiciWi(σ), where Wi(σ) is the mean waiting time of class i
customers under the priority order σ. (a) Show that an ordering σ minimizes the long-run aver-
age cost per unit time over all possible orderings if and only if µσ1cσ1 ≥ µσ2cσ2 ≥ ... ≥ µσKcσK.
(Hint: If σ does not satisfy the given condition, then for some i, µσicσi < µσi+1cσi+1. Appeal to the
conservation of work equation to argue that by swapping σi and σi+1, an ordering ˆσ with strictly
smaller cost than σ is obtained. You still also need to ﬁgure out how to prove both the “if” and
“only if” portions of the statement.) (b) Write a brief intuitive explanation for the result of part (a).
3.7. A queue with persistent customers
Consider a queue with feedback as shown, where λ,D > 0 and 0 ≤ b ≤ 1. New arrivals occur
according to a Poisson process of rate λ. The service time of a customer for each visit to the
queue is the constant D. Upon a service completion, the customer is returned to the queue with
(a) Under what condition is the system stable? Justify your answer.
(b) Suppose the service order is FIFO, except that a returning customer is able to bypass all other
customers and begin a new service immediately. Denote this by PR, for priority to returning,
service order. Express the mean total system time of a customer, from the time it arrives until
the time it leaves the server for the last time, in terms of λ,b, and D. (Hint: A geometrically
distributed random variable with parameter p has ﬁrst moment 1
p and second moment 2−p
(c) If instead the service within the queue were true FIFO, so that returning customers go to the
end of the line, would the mean total time in the system be larger, equal, or smaller than for PR
service order? Would t
he variance of the total time in the system be larger, equal, or smaller than for PR service order?
3.8. A discrete time M/GI/1 queue
Consider a single server queue in discrete time. Suppose that during each time slot, one customer
arrives with probability p, and no customers arrive with probability 1−p. The arrival events for
diﬀerent slots are mutually independent. The service times are independent of the arrival times
and of each other, and the service time of any given customer is equally likely to be 1,2,3,4,5 or 6
slots. Find W, the mean number of complete slots spent in the queue by a typical customer (don’t
include time in service). Show your reasoning. Also identify an embedded Markov chain for the
3.9. On stochastic ordering of sampled lifetimes
Let f and g be two diﬀerent probability density functions with support R+, and with the same
ﬁnite mean, m1. Let fL and gL denote the corresponding sampled lifetime densities: fL(x) = xf(x)
and gL(x) = xg(x)
. Show that it is impossible that fL gL. (We write fL gL to denote that a
random variable with pdf fL is stochastically smaller than a random variable with pdf gL. Note
that the mean of fL does not have to equal the mean of gL.)
3.10. Eﬀective bandwidth, buﬀerless link
Consider a buﬀerless link of ﬁxed capacity C = 200 serving connections of 2 types. The data rate of
each connection is random, but constant in time. The data rate required by a connection of type 1
is uniformly distributed over [0,2], the data rate required by a connection of type 2 is exponentially
distributed with mean 1, and requirements for diﬀerent connections are mutually independent. (a)
Calculate the eﬀective bandwidth functions α1(s) and α2(s). (b) Find the largest integer n so that
the Chernoﬀ inequality implies that the blocking probability is less than or equal to 0.001 for a
nominal load of n connections of each type. Show your work for full credit! (Hint: Write a short
computer program for this problem. For a given value of n the Chernoﬀ bound is computed by a
minimization over s. Then n can be adjusted by binary search – increasing n if the corresponding
overﬂow probability is too small, and decreasing n if the corresponding overﬂow probability is too
large.) (c) Compute the eﬀective bandwidths α1(s∗), α2(s∗), and the eﬀective capacity C+log(0.001
Which of the two eﬀective bandwidths is larger? Sketch the corresponding acceptance region A(s∗).
Here s∗ denotes the optimizing value of s in the Chernoﬀ bound. (Hint: The nominal load point
(n,n) should be contained in the region A(s∗). Which of the two eﬀective bandwidths is larger?)
3.11. Eﬀective bandwidth for a buﬀered link and long range dependent Gaussian traf-
Consider a link with buﬀer size B = 100 and ﬁxed capacity C = 200, serving connections of 2
types. The amount of data oﬀered by a connection of type i over an interval of length t is assumed
to be Gaussian with mean t and variance Vi(t) = t2Hi
, where Hi is the Hurst parameter. Assume
H1 = 0.5 and H2 = 0.9. (So the class 2 connections have long-range dependence.) (a) Compute
the largest value n so that the Chernoﬀ approximation for the overﬂow probability for n connec-
tions of each type (simultaneously) is less than or equal to exp(−γ) = 0.001. (Hint: Write a short
computer program for this problem. For a given value of C and t the approximation is computed
by a minimization over s, which can be done analytically. The maximization over t can be done
numerically, yielding the approximate overﬂow probability for the given value of C. Finally, C can
be adjusted by binary search as in the previous problem. Also, compute the eﬀective bandwidths
α1(s∗,t∗), α2(s∗,t∗), the critical time t∗, and the eﬀective capacity Ceff = C + B
t∗ − γ
the corresponding acceptance region A(s∗,t∗). (Hint: The nominal load point (n,n) should be
contained in the region A(s∗,t∗). Which of the two eﬀective bandwidths is larger?) (b) Redo
problem (a) for overﬂow probability exp(−γ) = 0.00001. and comment on the diﬀerences between
the answers to parts (a) and (b).
3.12. Extremal equivalent bandwidth for ﬁxed mean and range
Suppose X is a random variable representing the rate of a connection sharing a buﬀerless link.
Suppose the only information known about the probability distribution of X is that E[X] = 1 and
P[0 ≤ X ≤ 2] = 1. For a given s > 0 ﬁxed, what speciﬁc choice of distribution of X meeting these
constraints maximizes the equivalent bandwidth α(s), where α(s) = ln(E[esX
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