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The City As A

System
Mass movement in urban areas
Systems
A system is a simplified way of looking at how
things work.

Systems generally include inputs, processes,
and results.

As you already know, many aspects of
geography including farming, industry, cities,
coasts, and rivers have a systems approach.
The City System
Large cities are often considered as
unsustainable because they consume huge
amounts of resources and produce vast
amounts of waste.

Sustainable urban development meets the
needs of the present generation without
compromising the needs of future
generations.
Big Vs Small
Compact cities minimise the amount of
distance travelled, use less space, require less
infrastructure (pipes, cables, roads etc.), are
easier to provide a public transport network
for, and reduce urban sprawl.
But if the compact city covers too large an
area it becomes congested, overcrowded,
overpriced and polluted.
It then becomes unsustainable.
Sustainability
Reducing the use of fossil fuels and promoting public
transport.
Keeping waste production to within levels that can
be treated locally.
Providing sufficient green spaces.
Reusing and reclaiming land (Brownfield sites).
Encouraging active involvement of the local
community.
Conservation of non-renewable resources.
Using renewable resources.
Sustainable Urban Management

An approach to urban management that seeks
to maintain and improve the quality of life for
the current and future urban dwellers.

Aspects of management may be social,
economic, and environmental.
Sustainable Urban Development
In LEDCs:

Use of appropriate technology, materials and
design.

Acceptable minimum standards of living.

Social acceptability of projects.

Widespread public participation.
Dimensions Of Development
Provision of adequate shelter for all.
Improvement of human settlement management.
Sustainable land use planning and management.
Integrated provision of environmental
infrastructure.
Sustainable energy and transport systems.
Settlement planning in disaster-prone areas.
Sustainable construction industry activities.
Meeting the urban health challenge.
Successful Local Programmes
Reducing Pollution:

The Hoy No Circula (car-free day), launched in
Mexico City in 1989, saw air pollution fall by
21% in the first year.
In Cubateo, Brazil, local and national
government, and some business, have
combined to reduce air pollution and enforce
stricter regulations.
Successful Local Programmes
Integrated Transport And Land Use:

Singapores integrated transport and land use
strategy has sought to decentralise
development to regional and sub-regional
centres that are served by mass rapid transit
(MRT).
Successful Local Programmes
Recycling:

In Shanghai, a wide-ranging programme was
established in 1957.
It now employs 30,000 people retrieving and
reselling reclaimed and recycled products, including
3600 advisors working with factories on sorting and
retrieving waste.
In Curitiba, 70% of households separate recyclable
rubbish, and in squatter settlements food and bus
fares are exchanged for garbage.
Activity
Using P.46 and 47 and your notes from today

1. Describe how the growth of traffic causes
both economical and environmental
problems.
2. Write a paragraph using the facts provided
explaining how it was designed for both
commuters and leisure users.
3. Evaluate the successfulness of the BRT in
Curitiba.