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Aeration November 21

of cereal 2009
dough
by yeast
B.K.K.K.Jinadasa (GS/M.Sc./FOOD /3608/08)
Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

Introduction
The purpose of adding yeast to dough is to produce carbon dioxide that is necessary to obtain a
light texture of the crumb. At the same time yeast consumes sucrose, glucose, fructose and
maltose. Gas production by yeast is dependent on yeast concentration, available nutrients and
salt concentration. In addition to these nutrients such as ammonium chloride and calcium
sulphate also increase the rate of gas production. Yeast assists in bringing about ripening or
mellowing of the gluten of the dough.
Gluten is the water insoluble protein, which forms by interaction of glutenin and gliadin. This
interaction takes place during kneading of the dough.
Constituents like lipids, enzymes, none starchy polysaccharides etc. in the flour too contribute to
the final character of the dough and the derived product.
Objective of the practical is to study the effect of dough ingredients, flour type and temperature
on gas production and gas retention during dough formation.

Enzymes involved in bread making:


ENZYMES SOURCES FUNCTION
Alpha Amylase. Flour, malt. Converts damaged starched to
dextrin.
Beta Amylase. Flour, malt, fungal Converts dextrin to maltose.
enzyme.
Protease. Flour malt, yeast extracts. Conditions gluten.
Maltase. Yeast Converts maltose to glucose.
Invertase. Yeast. Converts sucrose to glucose &
fructose.
Zymase Yeast Converts inverted sugar to
alcohol & CO2, flavour.
Lipase. Yeast. Converts fats to fatty acids.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.1. Effect of yeast concentration on gas production

1.1.1. Materials
Measuring cylinders
Graduated pipettes
Mixing bowls
Spoons
Conical flasks
Stoppers for conical flasks
Rubber tubes
Weighing scale

Wheat flour
Malt
Sodium chloride 20%
Bakery yeast 20%

1.1.2. Method
Three doughs were prepared using following formula with varying yeast concentration.

A B C
Flour 50g 50g 50g
Malt 0.25g 0.25g 0.25g
20% salt solution 5ml 5ml 5ml
Yeast 5ml 10ml 15ml
Water 22ml 17ml 12ml

Three dough pieces were mixed in separate containers using spoons and finished kneading with
fingers incorporating all lose particles. After mixing three dough pieces each one was placed in
500 ml conical flask connected to 500 ml measuring cylinders inverted in a container of water to
measure the gas production. Amount of gas produced in three dough pieces were recorded after
every 15 minutes until the rate of gas production is established.

1.1.3. Results
Time (min) Volume (mL)
A B C
15 0 40 60
30 23 95 120
45 50 160 207
60 88 208 262
75 112 255 310
90 143 280 350
105 165 305 390
120 198 365 390
135 220 400 392
150 250 415 405
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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

Figure 1
1.1.4. Discussion
Yeast strains, e.g. those belonging to the genus Saccharomyces, are used worldwide in the
production of ethanol and leavening of bread. The yeast cell is equipped with highly efficient
machinery for the rapid fermentative conversion of fermentable sugars that are available in the
dough, e.g. maltose, glucose and sucrose, into equimolecular amounts of CO 2 and ethanol. For
many years, one of the major goals in yeast research has been the improvement of the CO 2
production rate of baker's yeast, which is commercially available as active dry 92-94%, instant
dry 94-97%, compressed 26-33%, or cream yeast 15-21% dry matter.
The rate and volume of gas production is increased with the increase of the yeast concentration.
This is because when the concentration of yeast cells increases the rate of fermentation increases
and therefore gas production is high at the sample containing high yeast concentration.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.2. Effect of temperature on gas production


1.2.1. Materials
Measuring cylinders
Graduated pipettes
Mixing bowls
Spoons
Conical flasks
Stoppers for conical flasks
Rubber tubes
Weighing scale
Water bath
Wheat flour
Malt
Sodium chloride 20%
Bakery yeast 20%

1.2.2. Method
The same formula, which used for the B dough was weighed again in order to check the effect of
temperature on gas production. Prepared dough was placed in 500 mL conical flask connected to
500mL measuring cylinder inverted in a container of water which was at 40°C. Amount of gas
produced was recorded after every 15 minutes as above experiment.

1.2.3. Results
Time (min) Volume (mL)
15 45
30 128
45 190
60 255
75 305
90 373
105 405
120 435
135 460
150 478

1.2.4. Discussion
By looking at the graph (figure 1) it can be seen that the rate of gas production is high in the
dough, which was kept at 40°C. The reason for this is the dough, which kept at 40°C is having a
higher rate of fermentation than the dough which was kept at room temperature. Enzymes of
yeast cells reach to an optimum temperature for their reactions with the increase in temperature.
Therefore the rate of fermentation increases. But if the temperature rises more than the optimum
level enzymatic reactions seize due to denaturation of the enzymes.

1.2.5. Conclusion
Gas production is more when the dough is kept at 40°C than the room temperature.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.3. Effect of malt extract on gas production


1.3.1. Materials
Measuring cylinders
Graduated pipettes
Mixing bowls
Spoons
Conical flasks
Stoppers for conical flasks
Rubber tubes
Weighing scale

Wheat flour
Malt
Sodium chloride 20%
Bakery yeast 20%
Corn flour

1.3.1. Method
Same experiment was repeated using B formula using corn flour instead of malt extract.
Apparatus were kept in room temperature. Amount of gas produced was recorded after every 15
minutes.

1.3.2. Results
Time (min) Volume (mL)
15 45
30 115
45 185
60 243
75 255
90 260
105 260
120 260
135 260
150 260

1.3.3. Discussion
From the above graph it can be seen that the rate of gas production is high in the dough with malt
added than the dough with corn added. The main reason for this is that the malt has enzymes,
which can break starch molecules. Therefore when malt is added to the dough starch compounds
will break into simple sugar molecules. This increases the availability of substrates for yeast to
act on. Therefore the gas production is more in the malt added dough than the corn added dough.

1.3.4. Conclusion
Gas production is high in the dough, which malt was added instead of corn flour.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.4. Effect of salt concentration on gas production

1.4.1. Materials
Measuring cylinders
Mixing bowls
Spoons
Conical flasks
Stoppers for conical flasks
Rubber tubes
Weighing scale

Flour
Malt
Salt

1.4.2. Method
In order to check the effect of salt concentration on gas production again three doughs were
prepared as follows with varying concentrations of salt.

a b c
Flour 50g 50g 50g
Malt 0.25g 0.25g 0.25g
20% salt solution 0ml 5ml 10ml
20% yeast solution 10ml 10ml 10ml

Gas production was recorded after every 15 minutes as above experiments.

1.4.3. Results
Time (min) Volume (mL)
a b c
0 0 0 0
15 130 75 33
30 245 170 95
45 333 260 143
60 397 325 195
75 425 358 255
90 450 430 302
105 468 435 335
120 475 470 358
135 492 485 385
150 500 488 405
165 515 500 414

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.4.4. Discussion
Salt added to bread dough affects the rheologicle properties of dough and the biological activities
of yeast, salt strengthen gluten properties of dough and inhibits protease activity, and controls
yeast metabolism. According to the graph gas formation has decrease with high salt
concentration. This is because salt has a tightening effect on yeast cells which reduces the gas
production.

1.4.5. Conclusion
Gas formation of the dough decreases with the increase in salt concentration.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.5. Gas retention


Effect of protein content and flour type on gas retention

1.5.1. Materials
Measuring cylinders
Mixing bowls
Spoons
Weighing scale
Perforated plungers
Wheat flour
Gluten added wheat flour
Rice flour
Malt
Salt
Yeast suspension
Water

1.5.2. Method
Three doughs were prepared using wheat flour, 5% gluten added wheat flour and rice flour using
following formulations.
D1 D2 D3
Wheat flour 50g - -
Gluten added wheat flour - 50g -
Rice flour - - 50g
Malt 0.25g 0.25g 0.25g
20% salt solution 5mL 5mL 5mL
20% yeast suspension 15mL 15mL 15mL
Water 12mL 12mL 12mL

Each dough was placed in measuring cylinder and covered with paraffin oil. Then perforated
plungers were placed on all three doughs to keep them immersed in oil. Apparatus were kept at
room temperature and oil level was measured after every 15 minutes. Oil level indicates the gas
retention of the dough with time.

1.5.3. Results
Time (min) Volume (mL)
D1 D2 D3
0 300 300 300
15 350 325 300
30 360 337 300
45 372 342 300
60 380 345 300
75 384 345 300
90 386 345 300

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

105 388 347 300


120 390 347 300
135 392 347 300

1.5.4. Discussion
According to the graph gas retention is highest in the gluten added wheat flour dough. Gas
retention depends on the amount of gluten formed in the dough and on the strength of the gluten.
For the c2 dough wheat flour which used has added gluten. Therefore it contains a more amount
of gluten than the normal wheat flour and hence c2 dough showed a high gas retention. Rice
flour has a very little amount of gluten and it’s very weak. Therefore the gas retention in the
dough containing rice flour has the least amount of gas retention.

1.5.5. Conclusion
Gas retention capacity increases with the amount of gluten protein present in the dough.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.6. Effect of additives on gas retention


1.6.1. Materials
Measuring cylinders
Mixing bowls
Spoons
Weighing scale
Wheat flour
Malt
Salt
Yeast suspension
Water
Potassium bromate
Sodium metabisulphite

1.6.1. Method
Two doughs were prepared using B formulation. In addition to ingredients which used before
0.05 g of potassium bromate was added to one dough mixture and 0.05g of sodium
metabisulphite was added to the other dough mixture. Two doughs were placed in measuring
cylinders and covered with paraffin oil and oil level was measured which relates to the gas
retention.

1.6.2. Results
Time (min) Volume (mL)
Potassium bromide Sodium metabisulphite
0 300 300
15 370 375
30 373 410
45 380 413
60 390 413
75 395 413
90 400 413
105 400 413
120 400 413
135 400 413

1.6.3. Discussion
Potassium bromate has been used in the baking industry since the early part of this century. It is
applied either as flour additive in the flour milling process or as bakery ingredient in the bake
shop. It has been very effective in improving volume of bread products and improving bread
grain. Potassium bromate is unique in that its application has a wider spectrum than any of the
known oxidants used in baking. This uniqueness is due to the late-acting characteristic of
potassium bromate. This has been very helpful to the baker because it helps strengthen the
gluten at the time when the dough is at its weakest point - between late proofing and early oven.
According to the graph, gas retention capacity is increased in the dough with sodium meta
bisulphite. Sodium metabisulphite has the capacity to break disulphide bonds and produce more
elastic network.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

Potassium bromide reduces the elasticity of the dough and reduces the gas retention capacity.

1.6.4. Conclusion
The dough which contained sodium metabisulphite retains gas more than the dough which
contained potassium bromide.

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Aeration of cereal dough by yeast

1.7. References:
Emily Buehler; Bread science; the chemistry and craft of making bread
Cecylia J. Marek and W. Bushuk; Study of gas production and retention in dough with a
modifier Brabender oven rise recorder
Kiyohiko Toyoda and Ikko Ihara; Evaluation of effect of salt on the bread dough
fermentation analysis of dough expansion and gas retention capacity by electrical impedance
spectroscopy

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