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i.\ Short lIis-tory of Ita People au{l! PolHic!

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_I ,.,

"I~rpe . lilin./~~{il'IJm

UGUAI'oUS'fA N ,()O:pyrlgl:tt ·ft· 2900 by -~f!3rLi.n i::\\'an:s_ AU iights" ros~!!'~'\'!d. .~iIU:e" ll'll;l~e. _unlt~Stat~~ 'fI~ Af.:Il~rl~, No prnt oht,_l~ 1)0-01;: TDliY.l}1l' u~1 or :epf?dw:@d H1 allY ~aIln~r \\!ba~l)e!\.I€J wn~hout \ .... rltt;e~t P~[[lil.i~icn ~_J;ept t,l th~ ease O'f [Me! q!lo:t~ukn'l:i ,C!'l'~bndl~ In (!J~iU£J'J.1 arUrJc~ and 1:t;i.vh~\II'!\. F9fi.tlftm;na~ol]. ~dcL,e~'f>: :f;Iatpej"C.()lHn~ Publhh~:i:s In('+. to F,ast 5300 . Street, ~J!.""'" 1',tlrk, NY 1 (nUl.

~J,1li:I1)~J'{.iomnS" bm:!ks m~y i;.)e pU~I[btt'itd ror ,I!d!l:l.(;i1~.~O:I1f~I, bu.~!.ru~S"~~ or. !!4Ilel ~r:@mo!ti~na] use • .foJ" ]11~orm.1tIo", lPl.eii~ot; ~¥nte::'Spmal Mar:kets·IE){!;pa:rtllllcr.l.t, ~1:ll1l11j\C(lm'l~ ]~ul)H'SJh is Ilnc., 10 Jiast 53l1d. Strec~: Ne~'I" ¥o*. NY 1{)[)2~.

Ql it ~ ~'iU.l~ ISh,d In 'I'llill' Un.i~~~ K1l1\M.dol1~ In ':00 I by t.::ll.["MHL rf~'SS.

Rl - l~dlU:U(1

!!'llfU~:d tln .ri~ld~tr· .pi! p. r

,I, ,my.· 'f :Conl!lK:SE [I t.Uo.lrlng-in"'ll~ 'ItOlliim:l' Dal.!] i~i. B?Qi lobi. upon rE~~~ '~I, 'II~ ,~l. t1l ... U!P'S~f-1J

~---------------

Ust at" mwruFr:lifJJ'J'S ,List u(M;n1's.

tntr04u:cuon; The Land 'and the People ] Early l:Ustu:ry

:2 'hi~ Eme(gen;c~ o( the Afgban KjPgdom

3 'rlle Iti's;c' ~)fD,~.r Moham[n:~{!\

4 Tb,~ rll:i'.~~ }\ngi.IQ-Af;g;l1JUli '''''hI'

5 iJo!!t MoiJiammed an d $her AU 6 '111 e Second A nglQ,..Afghan Wi.u: 7 Abdur Rahman. llh.e '1r6D Atn.ii.t,l

8. Habibullah and the" Fol.iti'cs ..of Neun.alitY

9 Amari. uUah. and the Drive for Modernisation 10 The R'U~e of the .Broth·e:rs

1 i. DamuJ: Th,e 'Fl rst Dec;o:(]e

W2·Kln~: Zidhlr ~nd Cau.t~iowl, COl'DJstltu·~i:ona:Usm.

m 3 1'1Je ;!el1u'ill OfOt'iOluJ an ~the Say t Revo] U~:iotl:

U~k t<h~]Ci Ib.lJe and sovrt In 'iI~ion

I "-J;- r' .

15 Oo;upmtliml uno Rieshhnoe

J 6 H:Ul11J:l 'btjuln, -:lJud , 'Wfthd]' ;U7l" ~l

,.., 1' .. -['1 waif

vH
lx
:I.
10-
:2.0
12
4,2-
S]
16·2.
.]1
80
'36
9r'9~
llO
119'·
12~f
138
" 1419
163
171 1,8.' ~Etltl;lr tbe TaliliaJ1

. f

[9' Ar·g¥lanls.la'l1 and. the Widmr\i\'crJd. ..

~.o. The ThYlban and 'the 1;i;:l.t\J;;r~

~ 1 _Bp.!lpJg~l~

1:19 )'91 ,2()2" 210

i.f!pent/t¥; nie DHm~i'ii .DPI1J{jS~t}~

~ote~" .

m~J'~'Qgmpfw

fukx.

,2.1'5, 21·6 Z27- 233

~ Bet~\'~e:n .p~ge~. 148 !!lind t49')

~ COj:nag'e

'2 M~t:5tlink'i,ft fn.un l{j;\.pl. a.

a I lead ofrhe Buddhal from Had:da 4· Tlli"le Grie"i!!t Buddlla at B~mi,il.ll

-,5. Nlu'is·tam A ncestor P Lgure

fj, :S,bal'l:ai-l-,Gqlg:6i,a.! City" orf Sigh s" ''J' Rulns- of a 5;Ls'~dn l=olITress

·al Th~ CJsZ1l1'gah. Heme

'91 Mlll~[el at H 'ra t

o Ihbur in 1 Ls G'II,'dn

I -me ]3,atU(;1 of ]laltipElin: 'nJir Dest Mohiin:i:ullllld U Sha.b Shuja,

t; r~re; .K.a1bul Gat,(" at Gh3iZ.l'li~ i1S, tI1!a;biiil in 1842-

I -' j8ab)och;e~s pIiofes:sim:ulIUy. employed"

~ 7 IJ1UllClll·S, ... '~mme,l'l~ (lnAI;tll::it Sber .Allls p]\eillCli~.m,ell,t • 11 Amhr Abdu!r ltalnU,il.u

. -

Arllil i111}l1:uJhh· ciludng :I~:\i viH 10 h dl"!J1

'-0 Al1'lirr t\nHlfrlUWh

2'1 Clu~~n' ,S~):f~l'a.

Q;'2, ~rlJl D~<:IJ:a";~tS~q;<l6 ,arid '~ful~~er:s, 23 'fh'€ Mrtsi!)rtdba:tl,ltlrome~

24 J().ifi,g·. Z-al'ilif

zs ]~dstd'!1!"'1 ~ P.fHJ.~ld

2:6 Pn~sld~.!1.~ N,l!!r Mohilln~J'I1:ed taJ'~'lIkl 2'7 ]~rei)1d:e;nt :Saib£fJ,-k K,armal

28 Prelft[fJ'nt :HljJlff~lJlltlh AGlli n

,2,g Pwtild\lL'J1t N~jlbunah

30 Ahmed "Shah M:lI.h·~ood

3l Gn~:b:nddm; liebj)]~ty,¥

3,2 The Mll~,a(hJdin

;"'9 11\11l'1~liiimll,9:t Cha[~s;y4'l.'b

34 'l11Jl~ ~~l~oo~i:9!l'IQt' pa:a.il~tiu]~1dl

r-

3'5 T'h~ "rtll~mm~[)~1it~y Gan_s, 'of m·(li~M.' ..

B13 th~P;JJ,rtlu

.B'~ [1,;jir!~,tii!1!g.fh1tl U~b:pp;y ·Ctq.p

;i .8t:l.tJ~h MtiM~tl1"H. 2. Mll.weG'"u:lm~t.

~ i" 4., S. Eralllce:.l .. Mo,tti mer L~ioe. G;Jll" 8:rlUsh l(b:!;.at)!,

Sf . 3~ . Ann.e: .Ii.olt.

26~27. Z8~ 30. 3,], 3"2;, 33~ 3:4 .• 3:5:, 3i Popp€!dotto.

Aln:tCi:ughe,'i;~eory '!:'ff.Q~thas: been made totr1}t:elheQwn@rs: ·'tit CQPf~ghl:5) tn .;II !~w Ca$~S 'th:i:!> h1.t~ pr.ovtf(:! hllp.o&~~ble.·

1 Argl.13JflJstm.; Uo-m.6f ~"dMa~n Ce)11'l::es'

2- M'g.t':!al:listan: ]'OUUt<al ~in~t.' ,a~111~~l,un:iCa:~i9.~S s M~jor 11:thnlc G.Wll.PS

4 Alexand;C!ft~Ro~,t~ ·tQ 111dJ~~,

:5 TIAle;Bou.!lidnries. of th.e· S:a:favlct.amei Mb.g:lI11n[)lpljre!; 'i~ tb~

S.lK.tei€:'ntb C~ij~ "

g TI':i~~.t~Qttl.f Ahmed ShahOtlll'fam'S Em'l pi.!'e,

7 :British .m:J(d lRll~s:ian Ex:paI1s:iQ~:. In AsIa. In 'th~N.ineteentb

~enlury -

B The I!,1l1,fliefie'lds:in Cent~al @:no Easlex'f1, .Al¥lr:t~n~stan

'&1 H'3

-I

The Land and the Peuple

. gha.nh~'r_~l1 .I$.j~ .~ .. ~:nd -, ~)f.,.~:~i'!rl~!!P9 ~!J;!.!:ig~~l bt)1!Ut~~. o~ .. sn. o:\~.(!. pvme!.1

ll1:ou:ru;-! tn:s, barren c)lf'sert~ ~1I1,'ii;lwm,ng, slel~p,e. S;~t11-1':te~ 'a"tt:l)I~'

, _ .. _. ~!ite'rn end cif ~II~ trranijalll tla:t.ea~. l:t '(:Qv,eD:s ,_~i(,ne ,2,59.0.0;0 _s'quil1Je I~UI(lS, :~Ul ,~If!1'I ~bf:iur ~h~·si~~ ~~rlu~ils! r.lth~r ~~r~'e:r ~li:an Rr~!n~A!l' :['~f:h~:I' "1111<Ln'L!:rt~ban 1)lr:I-;,~y,;YS>ometW(Hl!iil:jjs £If.it: lie .!lIbO~e 5;(;100 ~t~ ~n:l:d ·5.e'k-eial '.01 Its. moun tiB:~" . <Ire im'i:OIllg th~ m&he.s:t hl, th~ WQf~d, The' mn~ tb~,t bij~OC\l' 'l:bm CC'),~lf1rtr}{ fP.<!IY' b~ ,Uke.~lil!d ~o it 't'l,:unC\ 'lllJt~l.r~kl'1!,l;id l;.t}w~l'd5 'th~wG'.1it. wi~h thl!!: ·~ri:slIYi.:ng oot1Jt~, Pi~Hb j,1:' 'K11Io:~ltht .Q,Te!~t

:ti1ngb~ orW'o,}l:rrt;t1ins: at On'!! i1~I:e.rrl·~1{tJ'~n]tbi' Qf th~e ma.'tilv~ ;'<rrm' 'of the l'U m"dliy.a;s, III md:Ka~·!tJi:Ol"jllln~,A;t [I'll' pitiJ:n:ru 'of th~ .hnnd tl~,.. HI'~

":Hii nthllK~i:;ol1'i Ul:L!: 'kiilleiL of Jll'Idi,1I.ri~~1, ptt!ul'i1J]y~Q {:il~]ed j fJj roeoolnlt1bll of th.e J1Thdian.'sl-a\,.eswho'-rI1Jet their .d~;Cllhs.a!i1.the~~w~r@.t<ilmr.natM$S,·lt~ l':!llS~fMi to: tJ!le klrlalli'J.t~.of e~JJl'f!.lj Asiiiil"!~eV('lJui ti1.@: liiinnu K1.,1Sl1J t~ :~h~ rful1·'i~BZlb3~ a ~'Qilln p],~x itif~,nlililU nt!ili:11 S <I'11d Upl~llldS~\i'hi)ic'h :gradlHII.ly ti1ltpe·l;.S tot~arm. H1e lI:Ve5t into die 'lihgr:r~' of the ]~biI1(]_;jj-Tmke~tfln. fl'i;e '5iir~C1Ko.l:l, 'r.hie $~a h~h \l11dme ,1'l;3~jlponl:iStls 1~11~" 'I.?.at:.l:l in hLrn $~b"sldin g ,il,~~ t ~PPi!"qi1:!.i11e~: Ihe~tfI":11 iJIJ 1.11~[oQJ1IUeir. Other ';il!tl,geri'l.'Ftlll -in 1[1 m:O!re :mllthed}~ ··d.i.liedl.m911.... the SuJ.elm,£!u m.an.g.e!· ,c~0"Se·tD.!theetfSteTrn fr;[)'1~111l'[' with Pll.kl~til:r.J;!: U'!:~ ,IrU.I't~~a!t" 'R~nge: wihi;ph f.;bre'~cll'lC.1 i"nll() ·:B:Il.~tldU:lfi)t1r· and fhci).aghmiln R~lIn~e\i\fhi~h~I)O''!ti'dl':s a sQelFliil: b;ilIli',k~II'I:IP to ,l:liI~rn1'111I'ljry':s ~a[pitaj{, Kab!l.ILOJ"Qj~y to -~:be l)Qllth :anlll the g~u~j;'l.",w~.~t of the 'C()tI.!l;~;n!' ~J~ In'i¥~aIl!d$ \:g; be round/ ~ the ma~:Hrl~hi!i: giv.(,i; w,ay hlrn~6' .one di:rec:t.tqn 'to tlil!~ I~I:aii1:J ~fAfghtHl! Tl.i!ik~ti~!Hl·i1nd .t]\lc IitiQl('S,ID't IIJu~:A:i~~t:I .Darya,imd·.,11n l'~,'le- Otl1f!! h\'l II:ht:' h<DJltnl,-~f tij'f J<~, !~!tI)H:ld tUV"i;n:; !tll:lda~ I rig II!'!, Us {sen1ii,~ciit.c~ltu:. tiClP~~,.e ~~ltr 'b'!iJr~'~ij

l \~p~:m~e of l~l']JC' (;;j!)~tl;t"'I"Mil:Il~~Ci. thie l;D~5;{lrrt Qt l}2itU.f. -

y~ ':f;I'l!Il1, ~ 'j[ Irnf:id7..~well:f}tI, caAJI'1'j I~rr. ~"\i!i~tJ ~ro:I'~·'~tt!:~ Ulli.I!' '~'i!~r~

'M~lli.l~ll1·lll.(~d ~nlw,n1ln~ 'Ilbl! !,111111 :ttf t'I,~(; liIlu~1:~,',1.llh (l~!II~1JI!I:)', 'rr:r. U ;!:'

· G!,~Y"Ul. 'lts lJo.ri:'I&t:S 'W~[h Itb~ R~pUlb"l'r;s, of TajJk1:slta:n, tl;$.;b>~~ist.9-1li.,:atidl 1ll,d~i][]e~l.iS;U'l.1tl run ~or' 'll:OP'l!~' tfllrll!ll!e.t'i.,I'l'l111!i1l)t~ 1'J:1.11[!~~,J"JI't.~tli~~~t1SJ frolll l'!~l·· P~Ifl.:1.~,tllo'n:8, th,~ Atln, fJilf¥!a i 1i4 then ,\I't:,:rq',' c'b!1n1ry ~b ~h : H):u:iJ Rlld~ the ri ,et tl1.abnl:aib the uq'rthem ~nd'Qf its 'li.9nti~r~i)t:b It~n. In tP~' r.1l;f no~th·~:ast, f;B,~g:l1 hi, '~be [l~,R~ji~~ j41. a ~:~t}1' 'm.U!I! t:i,~~d~l' ~i'~h, Ch~il". f,l;O!1I whJ.hn.!lft,~l't(Hi~H::llIned, I)uf!.!:nd. . ln~", 11i:l,i/1 fl:~TIII'ier ~'h!u ,abides A:fg,h,ani,$~a.:r:l :e.r,pm pakii5'ta:n,., 'ti'Us ~ ... 'rhl,d} tt~ ,~i~)'" sO'u:t:h'1i\'Cs,'twants, t~r !iiQme ~gll'~ huo,dreJl 11Ii~tes arid '~~l~n. SlWi"f'!W! :~~s t:w~'~'S1 ;6c)( ~l fur~h I.I!e;r'en1:tUt'lldfiZidJ ~~II:]r~i,[,iS ~:b~~~~~lmgl,r.rd "\1i1i,n~~')I" ,!idl n ,e);-tb1,8 tille' Lr.illnI3i\ 'ffi)t1ti~rsOl,l..tb of th!~ Hinll~tl1, tht:!· OO:nlfde;li:, ()tla,li;i~ and ~nru:$ll'es In,to -whic,h t:lu~ H~lmaud ftmlllyrl~',a~nJ; .. ItH~ .;I~teghIin·Jl'£.l!'!:lill'l. bUil~er' then n.1i'll!fl m)rl'hw~.I;d-, fQi:lieurly 's.j~ hunc;;lf;~d rn:Hii~; lmHI it'

meets th~ Iari Rud, _

rh~ Hh1du KU!:li1 tttat!i:s tlL \iV<l'I'Cl's.hed b t' ... ·t1e!n (he 'Indus al':!d Alfr:iJll 'O,ary<Ji b~~ln51 ahd, tl:! 'Ilm::~ of 'U])~ 1':l'11l:.HI'I1It~i.nOlH;' c:1ivid~ thillt S~i:'l!;lfa,te:'i South,(f.m 'fro.mCe:nt.r;a I .J\s·ja. On.l~T on 'the ¥'!i'enenru. Side o~tlie'

Yo"'. -, ~ '. ~ "" .

C'94!Jnby'is there tUleasy r~wrt!:, b~rwl!'f!'!i' ine twp l1t!gi.ol'Ul. gtmni(l!dl !!i)-'

~'rl&HU'~~I~nr'~'ci~Y of ll·~flil:t. nH~ GO:~,ri or so I,SlftSS '8 :Icro~~he meuntalns ii!.tt! d~M 'br.' 5:p:m~ ({II_[ som e slx rl'Mlll'rb s. of titl.€',e;lr' (;1JJ'ld: ohmy one ~£ Ule:r:l1.s, ooJt'l!.:~ l!J1.0Q,O It! 1.' ~~Siplle ~]:)(ilt dmkul~." h~!lJe\~r" ttiEl)' hav ~ been ";:Ii~ti(is of mlgrli"i~)fi and 'CO~qUl 'st, ~itid hal;' , l, n'rossoo by SUoC:Ce:sSll,qlOS: t):f 'I1)I~e:r~:i.l,a,rits>and p.i,l;gd:Dll~I' lu~e<t frofi1 C~,I~t;r<l!l AS,i,O'I aad bey~~U:L Iby t~~e' ~no}'i,tll!r'lal, <loci splrlluElI u'khe,r ():~ tl~~ I:m:llll,n S:lil>,cOlllliilli!,iu. 'Hie ev.~n :m:ore' ~nci- not 'tw 'o( Haith, now illl 1?'~'P~,nse ,of i'umh1ea n[j.ns~: 'ow;edl ]~~ pqS~Uon.,.Pl1 th.e SlII't lfuu~~' l'ieh\;e.in Chi,na 11 rl.d H~~ ::vredU:f;.'I'f'iI.Fl~all'l ho t ts JI,~(,tl{ictnny I:p< the Ul0S.t: .'iit.~['~SSU1le (;~f ~11 ~S\;!, pilS8'~S. 'C}n]y Iii tocent ylt9,r has t1 tnnnelbeen driV' n b "'lmlii, the Si)l.a1i~, ,Pass,.(:(eating i'n·an.~~s~'On.noact frem ;~gh~n Th,likestan to the' caprtal and n]~ ]~u'l¢l!: bL!!~:ond. 10;, tbc, ,e;)s.t g,~ ·th~' ~oUl1,trYi tbe r.QU~E!~ to till:!' J r:u.Han S\lb,-cq.J1·tiJ1le:n lli~ rh~mi ~i1i mioth~ r linu;' or p,lS~~II, ,of Whi,ch tire ,Khfber P;ass' {~mli!:r:;el}~·the be~t koo~ril,

f~.r1l1Hl.ril,~~.iJJI1 hr~s 8i contil1le:lllal clID'll!.t{,\ 'cut o~~ fllo;tn t:hll' Arai:llllu S€'~i·m.o:rl:soo"hy tl:l:~It:1.Qut'tni,rL ]Y,ing 1110 lb~ 5bUl~:lH",iI~t. iU SllltiHti~Ri are hoI:: ',an,d dliry an'dmkwlnten har.sh" ~lIiith ,;::reut daf£l}· ,and se·a.s:{jhaJ 'V.arl<11tiops. R:\!i,n.I:a.H "Is- l~ght wilter:l:!> Sl:a[t1!il .and mo~~ ".'.If tIn' cOu'O'lry beI,1'~~:n, ~1'lr€)i':r1I the uir 'it r<!;i~e-n1,hil':S' GI. ~rm~,'t mOb.n:~(!aper WWl o~n~y the Q(:cm'iiicHlal. gte~Ei of .an oasiS 0'r.1 natm1,V p:atd1 'I'£. '_"egel:at1on il:nflki~'lg 'iil,ml;g',n !!i'a',I,~}! flont AU but ,et fntot1611, of the hind in~iII'ls 1I(111ml tl" db'!e" .rnUhougl1 ~h ":lfe :i so ::;OI1:rt~ r~ i a··Flad agl'k:uU:~u:!ll in 11 ni:li(1Uv'ely !few rel:t~jle <IJi~1.I.S- iu:u:ll the rNenl itourish~d, bytbe' lllEltJtlg srio'ws1 len,cl U-el1:~sel"es Ito 'lTrtgatlo~l" ,iiI wbiC,h th,· j.\fgl;·u~,ns' lU ,a.,Qel1t. Many 'Yul1ll!)'sdlliil\i'1.9 th.-·if !lltJ • the ~:rlHtj.al i!,i~tit!ll!,~C!(iltifSes. tha-t Wilfl:d DlIIQ11'1g the hiil~~clil!8 li_(W m~i.!r~ the bQ'un'cl:~~ie~: JJ ,tw~t;.t1 ti~:el'b~~:.~~u. ,liip.~nl~S&lI'ld lP '~lld:- bl,;l'!c W, Wllll ,·I,~'·~\lfh"·!.!- ',II'(!'" il'~~ km't!~. minl.-I ~llldl;! tlnd··

.gro,uud. channels ~vhlch rnn, :from ,~.lie ;~d$le @if -~tJ,'e wa,f.~r li!.ble to c:uIH'!l{JJted ta:tHl~,~,o.wnl~~lu~'IY$, 6ve:r t'(l·o.sld'm:i.';"iib~!:! tU.sf',Elf1IC;;l.:!s, ·f'b;1,! buJk t1f the·[;lOip1.1J~ti!)n derive thc'k livelihood!5 f~'6B1.\i1g i~Ul.u:e',anii:l. pi}$.ti)t~ altsm, 9,1' .fr~lIn, c;ta:ns :tba aee dci'pendent ,GII;I. ~ 1a:·etlvUie,!L Mqs,t of tb.c., ~gd~l.!li'tt'I.l,r~,1 li1:r.''d Is .g1,Yl.;!.n (l:vet tY), ;fi~t ,~Jrftihls. ~'ti:n~i~l~¥ 'li\fh~a1; 111 though couon, 'r,wIt !lind ,. l'a:~terlfl'·o'pium~,~i1]!~Lm'PQlttitn.t da;di crops, AU.ltri;)pgh l~ith l'~g~oniLLy,ild'?-ti~p:s. !_at:se'J£nJ [iol," , !~:veJ)een few' and $:m~Ullol'dbl!:S.'t:heJ)..c)J.:nl ,R! .r,~I~~iYc'~l;lIlt UI!I'llil~US',:i Uri J~iI:ii l,neiJ,A.~ tha ~ illle' e~tl'erwe.~ '(if ,hu,ng:et iihd ima~l1.lu:wltiiblfl" ,i1Jf,~ DOlt m,~flili'a' ~y ~)l

vtslble in :AJghanis,tan, o.ts. i,n, ~OIfi\'''e lj:~l~n ~"Ou:.pIlI'.I?S:l ~lOh I's the

m,1i1~,~l:lfllUy of .ul,UC:tl. otilh-e l1Uldr -i'i~ P..lllIiiLi.cu:(ad!y In 'i1],e' ce"'l!~fC

and j.lo,U'tIJL'~Mt [If the iCi!.I1l.[i,tr'Y:. tilJI!t sie~~ f.alltj'n:~ ,1j,'ifiI ve. O~:IJ:rred&o.m tlme to jjme. G!1IZi.I'l,g l'aiod, 'ii~)i.~ UmJ:t:e _ "and mum 'Oil' it Is ,m:U:yseasolfud,'o It hilt sa,lne' ih\'lo·i'qtl,;..a·',I,l~lf nHU'io:f.1 uOIu:ads", tbe 'kucl~ii. 111lv'e hom tLm.~ i:mine.mo.D:(d m 'Villa wlrtl ~fhf'ir herds: ai!lnnll~ks QD' thetr ;'UI,nuarl'm.ign~.i,Q'I:}5:.'~t·rre€uhe !):Ip]ands.aUd tha p,[illns.

Tb j ariglfiS(· t)f I:h~ p~i;l,p,ll~ wIlt) inhllb.lt this high_oUij'tryall'tl as "Ulfcne a~ ,they are' cift~ 'o,b.st(u:e. Alt'hollgh tJu'f'r~ has beef] IUUt,b hU·ela:~il1gli,;r:1,g:'·'o\~ell' H:li.~ ·c.e~~ I::IJI.H~~ tl'])~Y' stillll, ha,ve ¢Ihtm.d ethlili:e" ph~I'iioim1' ',and IlnglllliUc :di:ll~feI1i'~" j. t~e~<1l11t os U mlt't,cs:1. ",ugg:c'5 t t11 lit!:

A;(g,hani.stun mil)' 'hll,'~e a POPUIij'llOH of ~[Jrne t\\''e:'rlity n'];i1Iiort. divid.ed in 110: 'lW<;nily; pr 59 n~ain eit,h1l11C gJ'GuJ?S aad more than Jifty.uJaU. \Vh i le j!lJ ~'1]'~io~,I.~)' ~an speill,k QP(! Ell 'l~ndt ,of 'the ~~illl onfl:~l .. ·tllilrngu.1ls:e:s, PU::ih.w and 'DarI, 'a fUrm of Persian, iIl'vif:r 'lihi.rlty, di.f~ent lal1gu~ge'are cur.re~L.' 'J'he iW{)lld 'Afg:n[fn~ has d ~ong· histQry. Men:r.i'o ns (If i,t 'appea:r In. u S:~sallil,u1.hl!;l rlp~ ilon, or 1~1rJ~ 1:11 trd Ct1:tUtl-l"!i' ,.1'\]] and, Wn ~h~~ 'oY'ritings'z of the Clhinet.11l t[!a1i,~cllcr. H 'il~n'T5i1n8, whc passed thrnugh the ctn:mby In the ,se\iendi. ,centtuy. LaL1f!f,:ar{:mnd tbe ham of t;h~ ,Ilrsl 1'11 lllennlu Iml seve r,'ll m,€': n uons tlppe[:lJ; tn Mu:sllm, record s, lh~,t ,th<ere Is little dlQ1lbtlhff~ until n:~cell.tlYi !'Mghan' wa5 syl1()~yn']!OWis, with 1P\us:b.toon' •. the name 0' the' CODm~lfYls' :Iargest ecthulc group·I~i\!'h(l· h.av.~ bf:~n leC:kOne.d 00 llictOoot iiQ1' (IOO'Ut :1'11,1.0 of Ih~ ;ll1tl~:f]~ Wl'iU1J,~, ~lId'y ,tri lIhe s;~}i;le~nth celltu.r-Y,. fo!'; exa:mph;)' tlHt:' ~m.[:Ji€ror Babw:r nilmes,~ '1Il nu..mIJe.r, of ['us:htnoi1. t.rIocsj but .dvf'ays .rerets to· thein

oUe;eilively ].IS 'Mgh!tml:r iUld ,ne-lIe:!:' "'~ <lPttSlUOOllSI• Even'tgdaYJ tbe P.u5hl{f~m:ii' fel~'r hJ Ithe'lrui"illv~s; as '(,Afghans' and. -their ]aragtiuige '~S I M:2ha,f1t',,~\ibne Ule n!~,mlLndie£' of the counlTY's, p-eop~es rder ,to I:bQ.Ul~l'~e~· pdularlly' a,s·111.:I,iks!, Usbeks or wl'u'J.hNer" ,nnd a~ Ar:ghm'!i$ oliiy ~ec(j:nda,rily) if at a]l. VOI.r·ianis o.:riI the ·ruirne 'l\:!shtQ{)n~ ,are IPukhlloon" and 'P2l~~b,an\ the b.ltwlt' beii11,g~he~anglkfS'ed 'lercr,tli,rlld. tbe two' fo:rrn,.1' ,11~fl(;.1t:tin,gttbe S()f"tj•· ~nd "I1~fdJ' ldi.ll g.;~ t:l of Ul~. h.ngu~Ji~.'

u:licd ~ .'L'h:e l!l\~'Soo,m, and. l"he ~astem tribes l:ies'f{ecb-vely, ."

Ali the :!ifJII'I1:G Ume, 'll:;uore iue :l.ni!llJIU!U~f.'.i·",'I~l~,t ll.t!~ t,'!Wrd' '~i!iiJrt()(i)r.~1 1,1'1 ~>' b, , f ',\it(~,1 gJi ~ t~ ~l!rd iQ1..l! I [, i h IHi" i A.~~ll>ill Wli'. Sm t~,~ ~' IJ ttl,-,·

Puslh,toons ,a~tth!:. ·"Pa.¥LI,la:' tri~~$ ?~IJl1t.[;e terle!rti#J to in ·H].I~ Yiooas, 'the ~l,\t~~ 'H'!xts Wbi:ell ,!) .. ~1~13'~tl~ 'wIth '~h~ 1\1ilf:~1,l ltlv\iiJ~mrs [)f lhe bld~!Ul '~'l:Jt,J~:conti nem Sdllll·' 60~CX) ye,aJrS, i)g,ti~l}1~diCt"t11 ill-I! ~Itfllt" 11ii~ contexts $lJgg6"1: that the;P.a1i_t"., 111 • .y baYJ~ lti~e:11i ~, dSi!rl;}~·6~· I10lf'th-l\tes.t: tnd:ja. ·So.me al~o .see tl1~ [~~1S,h.toOllS ~,s' Ib~ 'Tld.ktILJ.I!?s~ I '~l!~ln 'llh~ h~~lt~1~1 Hletddclt'Ll'~~')' willjng 'in Ul:e fi!ttl .w.;Il~q mG~ in\dod ~ 'in :l1e""1e'It~ •

. p~sa~e:ii.·,arhQ~' ,~J;e ~.nbabHiaJlu~:;of ltic;lla:.. ]~ tb~s.}hter1Pre~:afiQ~:$ ate

reWlabl~I" 'th~\C9rn:i.dllSbn .~,ghL 1:l1:!. t~~~l jj't~ P, 1,11 atl,n '~]jiil;c,c'IUre1r

de C'~i [ fro·mf tll,l;\ liido~:A;rya'rl~, '(:Jtlier~,(ir . ~ ,1tr.11e.ifl ,t~"IJ,~n8

. as th.et (,a.11l(:E-~tOlrs tlleT-phthf'Ute H:uJi in"'v~fQL@r~ oP1ill,e mHll een,ttJ rr AD. Tbe 'one corH.:lusl.IOJl .ma:y not tn.~!}~l ~dtJd til€. lotl"lI?fkglvcal rIl" 'dl'{!,~ii)~ 'of r~~iM, :nl:ii.!,~~]ng· U13lt !e!'.i s:l:S' hrrci.~,~hptlit i1ll~" t'hl!.7ii~o·p]~ 'of

,Atg.1\~.lli.s1~I1.. ' , , . "

M'Ul}' of 'lile 1'\J·",l;lll:)9m~ lLV't! .jo lill~ !!'ou .. llh.nd' cast of ttl" t"'p:untr~. while' an '~UI:iiW fllnYlhe;t; ~jv.1i 3¢'OOs:l'i nlll! OUr!lIld 'Lim,~', ill 'lneifr(}nUe;w: areas of Pakistan, 1 h.elr la tIW,Mlj~~!>'dne':9f the; I n<Jo·lrnni§l.IJ $mup .alii:!! IS,lI:t-ltlted ~:o l~eli'si;~.u. Th(;!lrl,['admon i" thl)'L 'ch!!'lr del'io~Jlt r:an, bl! tri!lU,;~tl fro:m ill common an~e tot; Qa.i£i ill -, QDmp~flIiof1 of tb~ .Prophet· M'Oil::ll:r.mmedJ.· wh05~ descendants became :,1" turn lillf: anoeSit;(H'~, o( t1l!e lai\gelulrnb.gr ri:~'tlrlh~s iirlt(J, wh!ch tn~'a.rIC!' {liV'id~d" '1,lli~' I,""'ffil nl~IDr I)Qil1lgt:l'u~ Dutmn(;s l(fI:Jrm' 'liiy the Abdlilli:S)J from whom came rhe Mgn1Jl.n raJ"al. :hqU5e/ 'a:n_d the Ghil]z,1ti. l!otl:q 'U\;'e. to. the. :so.uth. of tile C,OU:t!l.f)I;: the [)lu:rarHs mo··t!y l"el'W'e~n I'b~'.r'alt and "!),nd,\1ih!l.f, 'and ~11.c Ghl:h~3:i bl?t~t~eell ·f;:;amhlh~,i· and G1Ull!Jlll,lI. These rnro tribes htav~ :1:[ailltl:QiiaUy been ant.iigO:l1isU.c, ;and 'I:.h~ Gb.iJllzai h,lI;~e tended to be ~I)klne'~: <md diNcrhllt~h,"I~iI.€!d aglil!jn-st by tb'~ l1urr,tii~'i~. Ho.'\wver ~J~le PlI hteon ttibe.s ~ htch werebetter kncwnto the Bti:tt~h Army., over many decades .of IIUt,e.r: skirmishing on the NOlth-y\t.es.t F![tl!lTtie:r. .are l:ho~!I! CI,P UI!.() ~ist(,ltn :hU~'Si~ i;1,m~:~~ 'tl~m thf:! Wf[~ir~·" the Mahnl~mds,. 'the' Millhsuds, thC'Atritli5~I;h'e·1<h.ilUa.k.l and the :5l:'lh'U'I\1i!r1ifi.. The main (;bar.a.et@:r.i:S.ti,c of the Pu,Sb'ttOOHS, pa:rticiLliII)Jri}, .those 'Of the li:i.i.l.ls~ is 31. proud ~~nd aJ~-gi:es.';:i'V€ lndl\ijd!l,rtUs.n;~., proh"flt.'ed tn th~ context of ~. fii,1fm] il i ill. ~.r.ld tribal ::H;'I,j,€'ly ~"'Ti tilr! pJ',edatoI:Y hiilJi.tsJ a:pol'l.rt feludnl and part ·de;moaaticethos. an uneompromlslng M:usllm faith and ·31. S mplll? code of conduct, Altholu.gh. thedg;ltiUy of th~s t.:Od~'1 the l}tlsl,f.~'tiQml,l,r1lil has been do m i ifI.i·sh1i't1 (O'VICi' thl1l ~ats" ,it stliU. 'esti:lbU~ h,E'S Clbl[g'il~iQm of tel'enge (lmdo.f)" hOSipitil.l.i ty rI~dmastla)' and ~3!IDdUiary Uum.lnvali). QucsUQns 01: heneu; ,(ngmusj ,1:11,1 dl spu t,~ of O1n I_ conomte ,or p(lUd.(il.m l~ilt:li$'C have meaar tiji91 pl'initli! vem.d~tt,\'l and. III10,re g*ne.ralii~d ocm:l1i,d have ii:n~~m::::l1Iidi~:iC fieailLllfcs of Pushtoon 1He. Vende1:tns'r botb indlvLd).ul1J am~ co.I.I.!! -tiv ~., h~WQ been kn:o",,"'n to Jn~. {or gt.'necati{)I~" Alt!1lugh nj,iul~ I?L(I1~~iiJIOI:i .hiave ·mtl:f,Aled. 0[' haw r en fC)J\C.il~ly llfldv(ed j to 'tb~' GI ti!il~ o~ :'e:IJlier iue'a$ tif tile: roUIil.t~,Y. IPL1:s'II'U,(D0lIl S;(ldlllity In ~C'Il1I.i'.lJl ftlm,lll, 'II" hl:gl!11 r Itt '_':hlOlJ" I ",litO-US if I~ lnd~1 1lrlllll'lln J.md

':rcEsi,~tan~ to"f)uts'{d(! li:dftfen:C~. ,Witt~i1Ji ftie Jlush~ThO'u td~e5 ~~. '(~;3!rl:~i1s J4~~IJ),·tljni~~ .'1J~~ii:1 dan~ (IUi~t'1~ ~onl~llm~ h~l<!}~lgl~.nH!fl~".!~('m'~lno!,~:I,I'l~ ,k~.~d,i,!r~ .o(th~ 'k'1~~lgr Ih~ ~~U!l'i::1~ ~ftl-elil hoL(i th~n PQ"l~mJ;'; 'bY hef'~.~i:~i1ID>' ·ri.gm.tl idtbQJlgl'i.,·. tIi t.ht1· ~!J~.ente ~r ,\I,I'l;~i'~]j"~: · .. lllll!F' \br ,SUIX~SSllU~, ~~l;llonliJ;l~isfn h~i~' ~t!lel'll~if~. .t\.]fj.~Q th~ J,fu!tJiQti,t;jI' oif~h"t 'kht,lf"'~ li~ OOI!i::l ,j;el~e~lidr:,rn'l' om t!l~i,~'lren~·~rsh~,p· Cltiil[ji~~s .and 'is, ·n-hl.1:n:ifJ1f;" ~ . e:j:'@dii . !:o

~hjl'~aJt"el: 01: I~:~.~ci- ¢1,eg~~Be, by 'tbe firg&, the. a~S1.en1I~J:~ In b_ ~he.

t;;~I~t:J)~. ~"d wn:J~Urflre~. J-QU ~h~;'ll!!~ult .1'IJ.~fll~ gm~:~ i~ I1~I~, A.. I~ l':Ias

P3,5~~~1 I' :h(l,w~\!el', Hl,e:' k~'km:s ht.!:,!e i ncr,t(ls:j n:g;l,y ~itq'ltii~l, '!ic'lJmoim~'c PP,£,01!"ii.rid .. amroiie..{l1ludaJ ~"1si'em b;~.~·.A_e"'e~op~. Th'}1. ·Uri~li':rL)~fl1g~Hh~fl. 11~\~~\~r, hal~~ .1lgj~1I'Jjl,!~Ii!d .. pn~ pf @q~~\~.1Yr,l?v.~,ry ~l'dul,t.~~l'!II@' l~;a~ln~ tl,lf! tight ~(oi?~:rt~cii~1ml'f fn lthe "}irgu ~f!~, to, !tontrH:~uJ:e to u.s ih'it~~U;)I1~.

In .;.¥f'gti;l.tlil1ii.S_rao, l~~a\~n i!i:l~~i!]l the mltiOlijalr~Mgli)il"il' aIld tJle'bas~s'iO:f its Q~~l!'Ttd~.[lg c~~liUJ]:l'~ ~nd. 'f.m.'':Iv~~1' ~1i1i~ ma ~1(ai['il)":,.Df. Afg.l~rnl8 b~in~ 8ul1l'li.S of th~ Hl'lnil:f1 5thn(:~1.1 ns.~.fii·,· ,il,'! th~~ ']],Th~ b~el'l ,~~ ~el1~' of ll]]il)?; In t~~,e bmu:lm}'; U;'~s 111~m, i~ith tt}. cbnc:ept gf '~rln"DJl:L1rn]t¥' amd~fii~iB~U:ty (~~:t:tmU'j!)!. ~~inch h<lJ~ sup@JdrupO~tld 11'SElH o'~' th~ ,~ti'lln~c. diversity ~rJd :1J~nv:idet1 tli~-e: m [lin "fc);O<l'$ IQf~BV~ IJ)f. "T:~oO'i in PijJ,si~'~OO~]' ~(:~elt.t .i1fi(l n~9fe ~;jd;eb~·ihJm,:g~q,'Ill-~he ~'liJi!&o, tllI~~~tor,~ 11l1!lCb.'W!fl:m"e~ce ~;~ ~e~drs~~ '~y l:n:u~tn~Ol;mjl~l1.~b.~·, ',,(flO .tlj~y,n<)~ ,on~x lh;,~\!\n l'JhUI'L· iU~li~tf.":~I. ~~P.Bdi~ili~ IIIltd ~ltrt.llltfp.n(llro['Qs at vinj;j,g~'I~hGI, trlba,~ ·llt~ll tn,!,[' 1iiJIay. ill so. e~e!:'d~'e ,lOt tnS!-plr~tLR,n;ll lof~dre(sbill);.,~ir1:i.el,!]~rty ~~:b~ila ~obfrOOO"l,~,tl.tioJJ~'{ith Iftli~~~~~~ ur' ~.m:ll~1E!~~I_~b:~Jn,tQ,'ll~~r.~H~'l~ is :I-!l ~,~~~,~~~~?~ ·~hi~;.~l~U~O,~ 1:'1 ;all UUl! gre.!J'I~r·!!)l ~l s~r~l<ety, wn]Ch.·1!'! Irugill]Y 'I]h~criltel' !;r"iiid~t~o.f!I,i11I. by In,~ti.nd ~nd IlIl.gslfY; Jig)~o[TI.ntqf mQd~m ways· dfj:i~e" t!;riUke.D'UIh'n, l'nI1Ma.I'f!j. _ ~js,~wht"'Ii\; ~hG'~~' 111 Af~;ti1"Uli~~~llg€lnero.Uy ~HlV~ ~~ .$~':!,,'1In'" slat"tls" sg!1ie~iro~:,; [~ififooctf.1l1~ "H1~' f:<!cl: I~f~thll,ilbemgi anda~l}e:r~i.Ii:S ",,~]1 as lJY tlj,ei.Lr:ole' out.~'lde."tbe ni1u.Qwly I~:ligipU!:s.~~v.h~re a~ m.~~ii3!~Qii:S~ he~i~'I\'nl ~ncl t(of!~"tll~:(:.s, Hll.gI1.''fr,ln ~h.[!' 1'~Hg~ou:'i' 'Meh~K!fJY (1::00 ~h.'e ~{rr'li'~~tI ~r ~'1~,~ub"js, l'hl.il~' iSc.i;H.'i.lars ·~~ha II ~~ nll~ .rc:pmi!:or'ie·s of' mfil~.I11~c: ]a.w and :[radili.on. and tJle qlu:l:s>(I!~[td 1:l'iuftB; wh~ ef~tt!!:stl 'judicial funcUan:.'l, Pw;U:II;:;l:r ':c.'"eTl:I,r~8 f~f lnUue!1ict! :;;u~ '0 number o~ Si.:~:fi :ltlystiL'-~~ t;rd~r.'i, whlGll h,~"\fe fO~' lll~ny~ijn luri!~:;;' i mpi !'-cd ~, '[om:! ·o~· :i'l)i.f,i:tijilt~~.m c,~ntr~di arou nd the ven!~a t~'m:; d '~7Ur;5l1.Uls or pi1"Ji (sp[ri-iLuill teil!dr~l's)j' ',If k.bWflJ(I~ and K(1)'Yirt." (pu~sC'r~a';d ~.esr.::t€n~d.o,ut':i. ':01:' the 1)'.!,;{lIpht:~It}. [111 f\fJjh,ani.St3H1 two.of fh~ mq:;;tiPoominetlt 5:1.1.11 ord:exzo; af~"U1e Qadiri'yya tmtl ~1iT~ N'a~shbill:ndi'YYa, th,e contemp.b;rn:ry We"~d(j:~~ .of whJtl~) 5i11YYld r\b.mil.d .Gnll~:rti. o1l[la Scbghawllll,h Mtlladid!.. Iil.rn;r·rt!lbob~:n h;lM~:r'S o~ t\fg:h:an ~esjl'i"~rK·£'WJ;rC)1:.JPs, The QjJd.ir~y,~. order \y.1):iffoundlNl in Baghdad In the"l1i~;tffij. QentuIY and .~.[l. tmle 19th. b·ecameln9uent:iru !DJmoiflg tlile l~.I~ll'lCbrntii wh~I,~ tMN~!q;>bb~~Ij:'!i.ni1 or.de~ wa~~olJnd€l.d In Hni.d.llI{1l 1 f1 '~,ht 1 t~tI;lilte:ntulfy '01n'lJdi btacame ,p~:rt].cula [~r~tn::in.g ipoU,] 'in 'BilS:t~[l: .:an[~Ii!'rl i1uid- In C'i~.nil!;J'il'- "o\\,sllll, H has tT>a<t!lio'Jtrnillily. been ~lo~"'ui~l; . Y~N:l hi !1~'Ut1D I'~' t1~,U~~[.l~fii~[ ];Q tOl'~igfl h~nLlc!l1ce~ ]]Iiui r~~

[(~~gr:ants '!iJ:iffi Cent]i'a~,.'\s.i;lI .. Un;li;k~ ~ltUIS~ ortbe.1L Mghal1s~ the)~ a,1ie Jl'DIaJnl.1j· hnaml 5hit\.s. 1'J.)iI!Y: ~pe~tk:·Haz.o'lr.~glr a form of"l:!~~i.'IU, but ".~r.lth 1'u'dd • lind MOll@.ol ,il' N'lUOI}:C;" In 'Itle,l,r 1t~~\I.ijviliry:.1xI1I1;-(!~hiDmeJ;;u1dr they are ol'l'en·s]:wep :b~~en:,.but "ITI:any o:f the I'DI have mjlg,ta~d to. tile' .c;i'o[es-, :~NJ:l,~ll'(! 'th~y Wor.k as p:(:rr~tli,!l.· ~J1 ~_j'ltht:1' ~~k~ ,~H:jll:!'l T.m.1f!!I.t1~J

(~c:t!"r nHoI~. 'r'h~r:9 ~101:!i in :~~'pI)Sf 'b(ie~ little Jt)VIl' Loot' ~I Uu~'"n

and the O"~he:r Afgh!m:'i; wlW despiis:e th~Bl on both . . , ~fi d I,<jda~l: gloulI,ds,. whtill!' th~y' tl:U!:l~lv. is hllcVe Jl partl_'yla.r ~~<I:rJlld o[ Hn~

i:\lJ5blIDOm} w'hol11 '11i11!!Y ~El, IJIiS ex'planers 'a~d SJrJil'I~-O!"~ ,

n·t1Th~ Hazazas. ·<in::. to s.QIm,e .ex~e~l:t the··<f:oud ~-em ~X'I!iilt,I' 4'~ ~fglta.n soe1e'ty-, :n:10M ~Q IItrtl'"th-E! Nurt!i·tl): N~I.rlstaub/ ~!~,~ n~~ ~n m'e :ntlt~b~~a:s,t of 'tIt~ caunitfy. ~nd nel{#ltJoul'lng hltraJ, Until tll:e.~' l"~e~rJ' ootlvt!,-:ted to IslliuJil at the, end of Ole last . ~ntl~rYi. ~hey wer~ ~(Io~m,~ k_l'flts·· U1'l:fld ~ ]~)".!tlJl d pr~ctised '" po]ylbcl!i Ut:t:@I~g'l~n that inclm::lI.\!d'8 fOlfrp .of anc(!i!iitor WO~i,1 j P. 'CiIJ~i,lll: oltra,u~' woodt;!lnu 5~,1I !'I~ ~'O adl1~t'i llll;~ \lP~ve .,of ·the[t dead. I\tany ·0f fhe'm hBve Itght'·<s:,kin~ and aiql.ilii:i.fie iie:~'t't](i~, 'Of~e!ll Ct'iHl:l;ilned '\!,flU1 blue eYe1l .. and bleod ',or rep, bfl:i.r. S(I, tba~ l.Ih,e m,rnil"i"l.tically lnCUI1'f!d have 'been inspjred to s'Ug,~st t:hai.~,\~~ 111 y ihil."I\,.e had" a:ml;)lI.1,g' tl'iel.r k;lje~ear.si Gre:e~·.,se:tt1.elJ~ '.or e;:,,!~.n iSijl~le(s ·o:f ,~].~:8~n.dl!,f i:b[! ;Ore!81.tfs. 'If.OJ,Y • .A m:nre:pl'oba:l?le tbeQ,ryl:!i' t1~!t '~l;l~}/' tu:e' one' of :'the' ,aborigh1 a,ll ·p.eC! pJ(I!S: of /I.{g'h,l.l nis~ n, wl:1J,(] ~~ ri 1 'C"1I:W' their remote 'va!.leyi!. b)1Wat@[ rillgl':a:nts .. TI eir '~~\l;er~~ . ~<lnlte ]an~uagi~s. app!1!ru" to derii,,'t! q utb .·I,ooel}1 ' rom ,iii prtmi~;"e. hldo~J\r,yan "to'!1!'j J.'. ; Tbl#j~':> t [lOng tl:l bill st rucn i rtil ]u.u~ ni'lliLny' oj rn nil ritl;f' ,~'I,I'nh ,tlt.at Q~ th.e Pushtoons. S~1!ltt€lJl@d. ':;lroun<l:tlt~ c-O'~~ury a>_t,.¢ 31so a ~a}"~~ty of ,pl'l'll:!'r m.i.~lO!l'Uie~ ... til'£!' k~ro:JiU~! 1('I'nQ~h~r S.~11!'! i;;,6mtH'u:nJt~' \-\lb~ U'~e j:1'). Ul~ nVI',t:!l.-r,-:;iu;t' Jth,· aUifltFyi tne Bh.·h md Bm,hut; wht;l .hu~'in nl~ ;south; t~ Qrj.zilbQ.~b •. \1escendants of the Per~ian merce]]~f!I~s .¥bp· came-to "VghafJi't!:l,~ ln the erlce. (l:fj~hm~d S~~h irIC~h.e fI:!1.~.lgtl1 ,tan tUfY,; ~l:re ,A,i;~lfna~ a t~d Fa rsh¥~ n, "~'ltl'~ 8l1lJil1& P~r.'i~~rn;;C)n f1~t:ti.oris;

·"n:· _I 'm~ """'i"J ''1'"'··'r''' 'll, ,.:u .. JLLII.IIJ-J l!UJIJ. "- ..

Uo.~I'1 tbe'Taj:U~$i' the ti!l?lH'~$ ~nd th~ Nuri.stililiis, .h~v ' In ~he p.1Pl 'l:H!en the vii,dims {'[If Pushhl:'n ' I);pSll1s;ionisIl1i, ,and tl:,!,t!'1i! ilrid. oth,e'[ llntagorus,tils. p~5,ist to. the pl!' seIDl day: [vef1l'1;vi.titdn eUntic 3imt .trilla I hOUilldari .. esJ reglol1l.d dl[l'e~ml'!(es, af@ ·.sigrilillt<'il. t,. ()'(;:e:r mo'Sl~ o.F th~ (OI]~1tr)' ~ulC!i~d" fhe ,du~ ,aud towns~ '\i'lillm'~ ,000t leil$t nine.-t.t'i:U.h:s '~fthe MPulation H'i!I.', the In"habitant'.'i, have tl'adHilCJnaUy nm 1I:'~~jr :9~\':!.l a:Db:lrsl wl~h nUl,!! oul'Sldi! int@rrl!!rence .. '[hel I' vm~geil ~'H.W: ~}e(!n. "ilifgj,!'ly !;~U~tl::rnde-nt (;or.mm.mU~ili, dependent 011 ilil»;b;,t,enpeWevetagrlt:ul,· tm'(!t ,.md tht! rearJl1Ig Qfli:vesto:r:k. The state. has ne\'e'f- 1)~,1l" !)t:rQog 1~.noUlg.hhl ~:st~bl.iSb ,~l:l~tl\!ii! t:o.nlw.1 ,l.1.11I'O'L!ghQUl the! a:OIl!ITlry~~,d~' ilnd ha6 lfildiUoil1,p.liy don~ litWi! for Uj Wl'liflther i'n te·nn:s (if ,'duIC!!IU!im.!1'I 0.1' ujedic.d f~dUti·esl 0Ii of development nlore genl~a.t:l}r. Corl'\.~tt:~Jy~ g(:w.mliil~r1'l; [ ' •. nus, ha~!' d .'.rJv~dl~rg~':W fIt~),liIl ibl! 'rQ~ 's~'b~~Ii1'I~h;,.

or from ta1!i:.e~·. on- rom:rneoce:' md busi:fI~"!.- [,~H'h; r W an IJp;m la'!JlI::l1 a:gri('ult"Ul;1'!! or .PiI.stolraUsm. r'J~'pit,e- the bonds of lstan]. .:! sense qf natlclDi~i tU:liJty has [iUil ~lwilJys been w' 4tjL pt\1\!ben :~,f.1 !:l'llUiHlilUji . ~itrOll:g' 'Ie:a:dler has a;Plj)C'ar~d (:lrtthe natiler1 'hM .GfUtliC ItQl! m ltr~ihc:n

Ith~~<lit1;l.n~d l~';}'fi ext!in:!rull !!I.':IOOIW; E""e~ t[l]_~.Q, QJ).;t:l~ati'if];i,ba'S U:!ld;e.~ t.g. be. . .;pheme~ml ,and fHt~ htp~e l n II'hc ,:r."'I'C~ orJ '~'h lQr~n~,~[\yr, de(!p. f.{)Q'~d dijvjStOIlS.Jn· 'the words of one I'.lbs!.1'ITrir7

Thelr tlJ!.mlttes.' an:cl' butleli stJ'lu!ggfe ··:;;ptulij from m~ l:ti~ll" ~·Ub'· tLJ.b~l. ,and. 'feglomd d.LiI"'C'reflces 'l)V111llIth. eM:l:'actmlse th:i!S. INl$.1l'l. b,ii,(\l'tWiIl:rd of ~Cld, H'~~ ':'" di!:T1i1l"e,ntes wNcl'l' ~11I;p(!1 ,d~~U'lnl()[! fn . terms cot ',modera p()Utk.al £bl:'!o~l')' ..

The o.fhcr side Of't]le. emn is"th.u-tltc· :,4,.fgban.s:dlfUli!' il.':Uli'ong devqt-iol1l to I!ree-dom,. T'h!~ywUI", rzy~ospit9.IJjj:tyto embaruassln,g ~.:tt1Tme!i, brut are iiI]!)pl.lc~!JblC2 i1i~ enemies. H ~il!lr~'·G Il~s b~II!~\·.Ml, ~We'tr:.id1ns f·"1hij,e' l[:i,f theiI hIstory. it hi' ;~{lt if has boon ,iI llhi~;m'y ;!)f·oo.nfIj;et- :oHn'l7,;:b';'lon~; baLUes.atld :s]e.gt!s; of vm::iII;;fet~,!:IB •. assas::;in.aJ.ti:()nSalid massacres, 0 - tr1bal. r~udli.ng. dyml,il-I lc l'ihl'e und IvU war., Ilare!:y h.i:1\II:!' tb~ Afg:t1~man(J"'td 1.I'1emse]v.es~ or.boi:1W allowed others with whom t'hi'ey,have com .. dnto c'Q.n.lad, . to .I.ea~m mrt· thelr l'iv.f!_~ 1ft peace,

, Pe.f'h~t?~'i to ~I g:re{lh~! ~tef;lt tli'Hln ;'iiIlOM, ~'o'tmtd~"'i ~1 !ero[I)~ Mgllanistan's, history ·c-an~l.O't be v'ie~"~d In .isGll",Uorl. As the 1o(;~Ckp!l:t of A.si.a,',. III has ... over the m11:lennia.. expeneneed ndg_I',a.tiQlu,a.nd iny.~sh ns, .I.nod i"ts 'ntlig~lbo\u'.'!i hmll(! in ~m11 su ~rul rrorn its, j itt;(f'l1IitiOllS; At tlre same: N.m-or M-g.han~, ha\fe 'h.i,sto'l.tca'i ~y had lUl1c.h II,:; OO'ltu:n;(~n lIYlth thetr ndghbotl.1;5, ~.t')parncum:r:·iu ter.~ns o:f l1ellg'lon, ,thnitHy !1I.m;t lra¢le •. .;'\ llhol~·lh n~V'eJ C'tJ.l{inii~li:dJ J,Ugh·rii.seiuFI h pan -n'r ,bE colonial hlstory ofB~tlist RI1$~la, and British 'b]di~j ',,\'1th it ,str:;tteg.l:c *rI},~taJl(_~t.l1.aUn 113.84 brought the t"",{) eonpJ(('s tOo the brlm:i.k.ofwElx. ·~;h .. [! :5QvhH IJnlofl ':.; dlMJ.~t'f;PU~:· enconnter wJt'h it ht the J,98.0s W,I'" .j[ ~~,n~:lth:al'llt' ,~ICi!l1]jent tut the; di·s~i!l~ion of the Scn,-i'~t UII:] i:rm ~t;'ie'l f:: 11'~~.qYr . ~S' IlI@'Jghb.ol.US ai:'e. no le.~'s than t b.el.F p.rl;!deces50[S . nel:\f()U!'I of " Ilam:ic millt~m Of iUJd ,g","~fIP I I' 'e4K.~~Iil;,t e 'infJ!Ltence in HI' Oi ilt I, 'ill t ~Q keep, ~:t in~he~k n is.· i:i putentl:al paXt'lcipm.· t i.n rt!giomd ttnlde; wlpf~ Us. pivot,lIl p~,HiOil:l cotild,.gU;,rc a.1 £ole that t'l ~HIS no~: po.S!l.f2::;secl

I,hl".·' 'U,e dcc-,I.ine ,o,~ l'hlil S~lklil.fal!;i~:'$" Mo~ wldl',;'~}I'r iU: Units wi:ll:t1 u~, ·rn~tI0.nal te.n~Oli~m andl n~q)arU,c:ipati.onin. Ute drugs trade, i1S li'l'e]l

• ~ \N'~l~l ~II\" !-fee.n ,~lli Se'\\"f:1'l)e lnifri,tl:getl:U~J[lls oJ h:L1mlln lightsl air-t' of hie -"l'll otUl1 ,,~~a:tr'n 'rh hl~tpd~u CJ~ ~f'g~1~!;Il' 'bf~ ~JU~S .. "I~ s tq.:~fj·~ ilM (tfBl,tts not 0'Dily 111, 1~1Il'rj1li~~];v.~~t but a!~,CJ Ul ll~flll~, Qf th~J(. r~.lJml[ 'I'I'~U gl'~b~~ l~iIU1;ij1¢t. ~r',ll~ a.l.ml) ,O'~ ~hfil.1 aJ~~~1 v,~ wlhrildil ff.dh;lWS, j $ 10 r~'M'r~'lp i1'I'ul tIV;lly .. • l1tOH1 .n~q hls'IGlI'!1I"i'd ~I'I til ,llh,!';, I,';:Q,llt,(.·mp"ln~

il'kl r;li~l 0 n ~.~. tl:n""' JPP:Pt ~fiv •

Early History

P· or a coiultry ~.~ ,do~\, a.nd remote as Afgh.ilJnl:s;tml, ~'-,g[jf'Clt deal of ';!l~tt"lIt~~, IQgk~l., re~.~~rC'hh ,~" bAn::!, '(~trrilJJ, d ,cr~,J·.1 ,O\1'e:l; t i-,l,t;: )1~.ar5!

, lli!thoiJ,l};h t~11 tr elY little oi n hill 0 _ ep~dI the eountry's pl:e.bistm:y~ -l:~,~!,)''e_IT:r¢mjL;l:gli:i, 'h:ils:i~en found ,t(l.s~'m!\~ tlila:t L:he .~eg on~,'I;as;w,~d@ly hlllabllil!i:l au.rlng. 'the [l'Ial~ ~ 'tit-lie;.' nd NeflIHldc Iinas. E,'~dt:Il!~-' tflSO

, .~jsl' ,o.ft'l'i,e T~ n.lI:tice' of a;sticillture· "!1 d pa:storaUsm, 501J!}(1! i:o;deci yeM$ '(l!g~. ',By the ~ci~nl"m,i~~~,erul'iUl:tl ~,r lil.p,is 'l&ZuH 'frOf[ll 'Hadmkhshi!i;i: was 'beih~ 'N,j~_ JLllid to .If,idi~, '\ bLe exci;'!'vathllllS in SI' tan ~ud Atg~la.n 'fll'rk~'SUui h~,VlCr~~eill'lilrl Ie 1[d Qc;e {,f a c~tlrw aimed totba:t ot tli~, .[n~u~ iv[l]s~tltH1 Hhat Hn.1B; u~! Hu~-.s~dOtld mUlerlllnluulli lapis h,.:o!',uU I fr(lliU Ar;gl:la:11ISl~L1 .~ as Ilfl l ~,C' jn the ll.·g' '1lilrl a,ilefJ;. lI",rh. 'f~ it has 'b~n ~(lundin one: 6'r th,e::SMlt ·r~v'e.!!i ~t M);{;;efi.,-1Ie; while Un. I'a~Q 11l05S,i:bLy, wpm ll,'[gh:a:niSUu1, \>ii"as being car:r.h~d 1.11 a ship·whteh '~,' .. as. wr:~K t1 ,I'll II 15i:.!bt!-m Fl. I' oJJ the ~1'Llrkish Go. .l) ~u 133,6 B.C. I'~om very \;:iflytin1eSj U ',(\life£' nij '1116, re,g'jor'i's commercial :U.n:ks stretched boU~ '0 ~:!hg ea~t

and to th~ w~st:. .

M hi, c'I,e:al''trmn ~ne ,dl ..... crcSily of (be p~.,pUr(;'iJt!iO:fl" .,,~w'U ~S,fUlm, th~

;ll'cha~olcigi €II and J'l.istori,rn,I. ('vIdence •. A~hanls~n has also 'i'J~!cr its Icin~ If!l:toq.v b~n til 'hlghway of conquest' betw~~, .\\Jest,ceaU'al and ~_f:H.lJ,th ern Asl'l .. 1'1111: eountry has IJ 'en , r]"cmlXlf~te~J i 1110 ~ sertes of en\pl~Ii'I' and suceesstnns of m'igl'll.ti.un:s' and invasions· bay'e pa\'iis~d. l:tno ;!lind thn:M:llgl1 it. One ortt11H~ maln l.mlg.mtJons, was 1U'~ut of. t~lf!' h~do;:\.ryar! p~pI~!j. wh ) S[J-mH !iont I Urn!;! on tbe ~f,mii'luPI~tc'PJ '~,ad 111 ~tI!l;t L:! .... ,l1efore going . n tf}Con:q1.I,~1i and displace the pre-Aif}'aI\ peo:pJ~ ,of'SbuJh A ¥<l. It ,va~ nut lLi'lliU the SIXUl oeflt.ur.y BC~J~u~"nl'!'We1!'J 111 a, I. Il'l: _ I~~pm M,ikll to \l1:)JP~,lr ~i'I. p~Qlfd,·d his.'bo:~y, 3, the 'AchH~lIn:eIf.U~ !tIImli"'~, Crms,-lh'~ (ill'eu,t, e·~c'n.de-d)lii$; empl~ a t~~ -~~' -,I as Jh!;! Ili ItIi 1ndU'S. HI's 'f,uc "'S!lQiir V. d I thee G:rel,lt:'f.·U~. d iv;U"Pll'~

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i' . t[:l~ple.~ ira tb· ,:It,e3,, :ilmQngth~~l_ '~f_i~ (~Ie;(~,~)~ DfiU1~~til~n(S'iS~illJl)j llIactri.lI {Afghan. T'll rke;:;:lO'l .. tll~, M.a~gi3pa· (Mex,v), Gho~m~a '(Kbrv,a)~ Sogdial'lii1l C'I:'Wluox~fria 'f J.\r'~: hosiil Hj.hni?;fli al1~ l~nd~hi!tt} . .Q:lild, (]aiH;lha~ll U'.It- T!~'5haW1ir~U~y). The A.ch.iht.-ucnid appear ~(~' hili~\'e ~flll~b!l1o;l cecl Zcii~6ast.r.iailfli~ p, aJ"kd 'm,dltiGn b.as U, s!!1)le~rh~t·-anoGe[iainlf'" th~t tb" I;!n'IJ\"'''i\ed _~lb!1f.i: Zr.1r~a'St'el' t"PS bO,m k.lnd li:vl~d,1n Bm:l-rla,;,lU1:d lb1B~~; h,~ 01<:,1 tn BaN.::lt[), B~lkhJ wrqllln,d 5'42. Be. rr1be; ·~~tiltt~UsJ,l'n1l':nt of the eastern Adij.l~m~nid~ efIWiI!:~ h'll""olv·ed iJ'ta'r-d_ AgliltilJ..:._ff-anq _l?'er~il.n sule \ ... ·3.~ only '~M!1~ .Ift~d ·wll~h d,Unt~llty, Oi'e~k -: l fllists:' 'wete· lJ!,o~l,ght tn, ·t~ 'help cmis()lidat~ ~t, h~,l-_IIl'Y'I];1j~ fo.wrl!h,',wlti,turry OC,tJte :!'i~tmp,i.'es ~o tU€' !'''outha1'ld'.~!lSt of the HJl)tJo Kush .seem 'w have.

lIfegl!.~l]i~d th,e~J'I:n(jep~~\cl~r1. ¢. . . _ ".,

,[J'lHina, i[h~ lil.UO.r hqH p£' the fouft'h, I[·rnttl.ry, Acb.aemen.lrl .ro~,~

~<l¥e w'ay :t.o·:G·mel(, a;5~.4.]e"'ilJntfiJe.r 9f~t:ai:ed?n, ha1l'in~ d_e~Ci!~te:d~ad~s .:m, ifll-33.n B.C,aJ~ (hI: i$,~UliJ of G(n;l,ga,ii'li1:1!1~, ~nrnif~~J!:'k~d on hl:t'!;l'pIC ~_ta..J)I:,b, to Ute east, He sli.lldtled I?~n;ifa, andith,'fl in 3300 entered !Mghl1!fllstil.n. ,As he ,a.dvan:c@d he fouiided 'ljtieS to p,~(]te~:t his uonquest~! s~a[ti(l~ \I'i~ll:t1L .,:!I,.I.eillnd:rl.a, Arr1.~na 'near ~vha,lls new ller at. Hl! then. 'nlin~g, SOUt!1 til:; 'the Si~tm and 'eil$t'!i.~a:f'ds to the., Kiuldahar area, -whe:l!e he f~u.nrded' AJex.uldda Al\adlQ$i~., 8)" the spring 'of 3,29 .8(:_ he: had ~ou,fl(f d. yet aooth!i!1f [c:I(~r •• l\l~j!:inlddj~-ad·Cillt1(:asllml· in tlill!i!l l'Qlhis'~:n vaUtey npith of I(abul .. He then ·tt~'U'c.k up th~ r.illljjihit Val~IiIY and ut'Jrt"h. m~irr th-e·H.IDduKu:s'i''1, where hls. tmops s\..tmef~d'se,veill~ly\ f1'.om ffQStb~t~' im'l. snow blJi lli.1ness·, U' Mli.l!ed flacWa and etos-sed tb'Amu DarY~1" 'wll~n;, tb~ \irl'for~llnl~ill'il\l' shu·;;I];a., Bas Utl~ was deUyoered to him, tortur~d- .mcl'e·):e(:\])ted. He then went on' toulk:e M'.ucarnda (Si\:IUa.:rk.~.nd),· !ll1dl bU;h~ttilS- remoU: t 'ell)' A:I:~ x;ilndr'~ .. _ ·;sch~·te, ",A]~x'!.u\dl'i~N.l.t .. tb'.f.l' .. IJ1:·H:d;Q[~th,e;,YVo,rl.du I en rhe S--ti, If)<uy.a, Hard fight. ing fOUOVrle(l 'I.\~~th thel.ocal nomadic tribes until the sutmner of 327 Be. 'When, aJWf fm1t:'1:(JI.n.g n;tof~ entes, ,h~II't"'ti'J'!ed (we:r tbelnQ.wmt~l!.lS. rlc'Fore (j,Oll'lg: so hie m;arri~di <i Baclrfan p(irU;;ess, P:oxHlIlIel ]Jirobii.~ly <!liS ,a dYJ'1a$tic E':xpeIi1enf ~J'IId not, as the- ton:ta-nticalliy' i:ndined would h"U,.ifl! It .<I. kl'!l'~ f~~wtrh.

A~("s,:ltnle.J' th'umal'cheC£l down to lnd~a~ sendi,n:g the bulk of his fon:.'~:s and oquipnL@n~ .idorng the Kahnl Rive'!:,; whll~ he bi l~lsel'f 1n<llnd.'leCl witih -a SllU1Ut't ton;~ up' IllJi\e !tun ~. V",l:1e~J an.d ·~~'l:i~w'ard~ i£l'~o '(3,[1 ja.t!llr an,d SWia r, Tht' ,,,,ombined ,II rm}l' then clio:\is~d ~h~ .~ndtl:S ·andi il_ "3i6 nCdere,ated ~.hf: ~.o(al 'king, l),QfO:ii. Olt d':Le batue of Jh.~!liin\. uy: 'that

tim.e, ho"'~·~r tj hb huojp~, ]liJU llad E1'11(liugh of thli: unknown. 111d~ WI'l(!tD tn~ ~pnjp~)S'· d goi,llg- (l n be~fnn:d tile 'Ilea::>,. ~h ey nt'ut~!l.ied a.nd Immlle.U~d. .r.iittll 'CO teitrea,t, ble bu,m a f:1e~t and, sad.ed d(:),,,'(i!!. 1tl~lnd:us~ and th(:Jill wltbclir,t"~"'" POI'U)' b.~1 ~113 i1,mld lpairtly 'throu.gh ltl~' Milkli'~1.n, wh, ~e hi'ij; '~~'ftOIP'iil ij,~I'im-C'ft:d~v'e'rl:lJ" 'fi'om :ilho~tilges,of f<;roo$ll!ld 'waj'~~.r. H" dl~'l hi) ~ 2'r ' U')1t1 :~ltC'[ ft,rdvi,!l$ ba .J" ht I1abylc,n.

. ~he'.;e'mpi['0 th3i~ AIEli?ia,nder 0Stilb]jsbe.d qll!li:eJeJylu-uk U ilf-,lInd. in ~he~,uniab, ,~,~_v~ 'W.il¥ t~ the Mau.rymJ)l d~\D:a'S;¥} ~~tttl~r e:;l\l_at1~p~'1!,.pt:a. At ft\., !i!fld Q.f lh f(J~lrth, <;f;!nh~['Y.' A1e:XJand!~r. &KC~'S;Il(U 1.'1 1111i. 1::tlcS'l Seh~CtlCl.ls· Nwkato!lfi :suff,l'!:r~d a :\i~ve:l'~ defeat .at the hfH\!l1 .!.iIf diulfl b1l," gLlPU! ', 1tiM Wtii.ll 'f:ora::d to oeclo 'llohin;l Ul!l)"st f:ri: '~I:lf~ ~Ji!l~~d ,to Ilh~ 'SOu ~h iO~ th'l:~II1(1:u i<;u5h. Ho\W'vn .li·1 1f)~ly ,liela:tio!H1l deVleLoped ~llebw1:CJ\I 111- ~To:~ngrjo.tllsf :~treaty was lI~~gotii:l'ted and :enyoj'~['''i\'-e~~ '~hfn~;t;u~L F~Qm the· .ml.d!d Ile; fd t.he· th:l.rcl eentury .B.c, under t L~ ~ gc~att l!:rJ'aJi1;:~ti,' klns.. -- Qka, Una 11;]'5111 bf4',~~1rIl to fl,o'!J·,'is,h in bo:th lmdla an'd A:lg~lniSJ:an .. Edtcts of Asoka~' c~lW:ed 0:1;1 p'if]J~tr1!rQr tocts,~ ~w &een, fQtln¢llH both eounmes, and bea:rwi:tne.ss tv': the slre!llgtkie.i1 hils HU:~dhils;t COf!Y'w~tl,ons.8rtetrl~~, how" Vi ':r. ~'lTl!lhlr;d fISe'I~,I;;!ddl ~flib:~p.~ .1lnd was ~tUeil by fJUl·r~,her J](~ek ,OOIOIlisisl and tb1l'I!lJ <li ~!j.@ 1n Ur~ rnklc:UE!·.of the ttii:rd ,c::~rnt'Ury:' became aft. indep~ud('llt Gf<li~o.Baet,dwn ~:I !1_gdQ:m, Ovc:1i' ma!1Y Y'ef1ij;lS, from the H;J.:20s o;nw,u1c! i' 1Jlf.'\1'uch, Jlr[chi~eolO:b'iistS. s~ardi.ed ·rot a. GmeiCo,:J3;'ii!~.}til'iaIl. 'city in n!m.the'l'R A:.(g:llarli,l!'~m. III 1.9.6.3· they. ~~eJ'lt1,llii'nlly found one, at Ai K~lanlllnl,l i'Jl TuJoqllII11Fr'rov!lnc:a., at· Lh~ ~OJ1"uef!c· of th~ l(~elj,cha ~.j'VCI: ~nd lbe uP1Jer reaches of Ute Amu Dary.a+8 ~cav'1ltii()n~ there revealed th~ ~,~Ila.i"s-!?f i~ 'w~il.ltb)' Iiilt;d ~ipl"[Is1:it'<i:r~d. H{!!Uel'n'lsUc.dty, wHha C'lt~del, pru.~~t'j 'l'f;mpl¢S, fl,nd gymltllt5iiCII11, n ~pp:f;jij'S I ,hfrve be:'T1 'udked,i!nd burnt. at tbe end of the second century Be. pr0b~bly: by- r10(na:d nn'v~d,e[!,l>,A~o:~nd_ the ,,*mR~ l'illl.l;! M f!~u::tri,a ~1\QI:,0 .a\"INly f1:orn'.Se1e,u.dd r1.lIre~',tlle·~~l'tNa!l.S~ ?r'jginally 31 Scythi.tlI1 nonu d I, (:Ill,lel, S:-t!'pplarH-ed ~h,~ Sel,euc~ij:~,li11i ~le-:r.:m_,ill1d es.tabl:i:shed an ifndep!.1J11dent kingdDiu tbat ,.V_FIS to \li.rithS,t)lUd the lloUliU~' ~'Ilplt'~ ~uld J~stuntffil 2:2:(], AIJ,

5Q!l!1 after AS9((~'!/1!! d.fi1th in 23,2 IjC, ~I"L '~<l'tl:j'ya'il lirnphr ,de, lined and In ~boml ·~.84 ~·he. j~'clrlan G-n~,ek"il. h.j]'~ing eonquerad ,~:ri;a O1rlil:d f)rnehosHt, r~IJJl:un;d G.3Jl:1(j.h.a'rSliand penf;l:ratted as .fil.i:' a,§; the MOIiurvan ea:rHa1 ~'~ !Piltn~. Vnder :~en~lnd(!r, who fillied bctwo~n 15'-, and ·lab., th.eyextktilded <trod :;;'ta:bHised i:l1!eirrulein Ind:ia".·wIth 1111lei:r capita] 41: !ij,h.1l:aliII (no.\,\' Sill.l.kot). In ,Ju.;liatl Chil! ~cl:fi.air l.:.tJ1,le iln1(i,er Htidd.hJ$'~ ~rlllm:m(!t.'\r aU;liIi(}ll,~;I~. jnllaet~ii'l 1t!:l~,a; Budd111S-IT:l, Ift'Hid' ·t'iCU: y"U ·PiaPIG!.· 'p:~_ted ,,<J,ndJ th~ N9g;iOIili. ·¥em~iIlI.ed p'r.edom inanrtly (l'er'i.mi ncuJture, 11 iLh9 Ligh 'stUI under Greek .m l,e.

lrJoi..:;~v,er lilc~·nlt:'I,o;~ Wl"r~ now ~lppeln'itng' on "tIlt' Sl~ne. Wiifh tile 111set of \ .... "h~t 'ha~ he~l'1·ca~.I~d·lhe g:fcia~ nug~,ation o.f people:{ oUf'o,f "t!n'lra.! As!,a.,. ~pflctjlatijo.n lllilS :lL that LhJs; n:my ;h.3,\!{l bi,'!eQ.~l>a];k~1 otrby 01, 'Cli~l1bi~;i,~Hion [of Clim:~1l'i cha:ng,e'l which nUl)' hav'e cl.n.l1l~d Ute ~.a' lure land~ lCif ·t!elltfil.~ Asia 1:0 ,dry 'up'.~ud' ~he- Iconsb'ucUQtl' .f "till,! t rr(}' Itt :W~dl' (:If €.bJI1B, by. t;1~ofl fj_hlm:~:m E[~p~_tc:)r Q;~n $JlIi .11·~il1,Jl;g~.1.,

11"l~1[ ~. I m,t·, .. nl Ilr fltl ,k;.', '3;",t~:t~~ls, IIQm~la p LGJ 1: ~l#,~un I~ ~.n )\i". ~ fWiJ.l'Q!s the \i!! ~ f. Tf: .. Ii~st ~if rl"l n'ifa~ Ifl'l' \~t:rc' 'Ihe V~! .I'I,~ h th '\Mho 'It.!' .!II l :1.'1I;1~ J ~- n _lri vt'~ci r.~dl'll ~i:l!'kll I ~I,II by l'~ lie 1J~1, LIU~ .. ti!,jj!I', ~~,~. 'I'

kno\i\IltI in'thtirlr'V:ra:;t- a~ the Huns, A m.ilior1;t;y ,of th~ 'Y.'ieJl-d:iih 1X:;s:an by rtloy.J.r;iIg, ,t:m,\liu:d:~ 1L,;:):ke. Bal,l\:~sh~ ,I,n turn dr.iv.'J11lg,' bef't}l\~ ,them' 'rk'l'it tl1ha:~itaut~"o.f th'~ 11 ginu,~! Styti ,i,all p~op~~' ~J'~QWf:'l ~,- 'I,'he Sa,ka~,. 'fhe llli.tlE:r oV'el.'li~n n~'cIJ;i,~ and moved ~lgaH~ st P'lf~hiaj bu t ''eUCUlI nlt'md 'te$l~tauc({ [r(Ju'l. ~h:e Paith~an~l ,and d.etmu-ed, setlth'~rarus to Sh:t'klll (S'j):k.a\~t~:n). Fr,Qlill Ilhe.!'C t:h.:y, mO,I.ea5hWi!'~'l, "lntrl :S~nd.i),ndl;':unth\";"iI,r:d:it'o GaUdh_ut:a ;mo lh~ Indus '!\~aU~y~ whe!e' they \'l!iblblisl'l{:d tJienlS:f!'I:v,~:s~e~d':r''in the n,r.sot -t-e(l.Wn~ ,HC" .1 hey· "cUdi- !"lot" hO.w1e;'i,U;1. fpr long refl:1Qm i [~d' ',pend:cil1t . Q l he p:~:r~b~ !'j,~, whtl, iI ~ l he, ~iul y , nr:iit cetturj 'AD .bdetly e.NJej1deQ their emptm 'as· .fat ea~'. 3S the, Pin j~b. 'M~~'I:\i'ru1e 'Ii~e" YUe;h~chih,·tll.~.iJ'il;~elves' :mov,ed \'\'lJIl!St1i'J;',iilItlS "and o~H)l,Ith~\r~~toc Som~ b:f them a t~tlCkf'd.· ['he 1'ntrl:hl~ml' \l.1hnI!:JJ)~lrH!r,s ·c'l~i!iedt.hi1il .Amu D'al,ril, in 'about 1.30,n.C-W'id 'oon'q_mrj1~d I}a\;tria" 1'01 ·~.r()'ulld·'7S AD, p~er. 'Orbs:~~ ~he Htndlj;t .l(nstl under Knill.la·, J.<adphises! tile ~eade:['o~ _O]J~ .Ipf fhctJ: -fiNe t.r.H~1 ,gr,Onp.!lI' the 'G:1..j'!.Shi'Ulg, They thliilll l~_v:.u.:~:'d

li1!dt<l." ~,tormed Ta 11,,1. the main P.iu:'thi.m. city,and dieoft:ated the Sakas

'and .their ParUj.[an .oved()[ds:_

, "ill ,Gul-"'sbil.!lIg, or' K:~sl~:r,m~1 as tho· Vu~~:I"I-r.hU~. ' ..... «li:e.to be lk:nll;.u.yn" ,ll'it:il;:ood;ed, to e:xe~lld tlteir r(l,h~ (j'j,rXil', the: whole d~ the 'PunJrab and th-e 'Gaifiiges 'y,aUey as- fM 3Jsr' Vatafl.di:ii.. To the west, th.e-y f;onqu,ered ..... 1ida1 'S~ll'tL~tn!:l :uld An!~ 'hoiih'lj whU~ ~(l the Il,m:w:h, t.bci:r ~erdtode!;l"sh·t 'hi:cl ttl 't~~,e 'Gil T~toiJ,", !a.r1I¢~ /\h'l'1 ·SeilS. :ntcic gr,eiltl!!'St ldng, ,KaTl~sh.ki1)~:'\l'hi) tnqp-ab(U}';_ru.i~d{e.IUfln:g. the seccnd cenllIlY AD, establlsheda 'Ctl~pU31.l·a,Jt Mnl1:l1ll.r'El and a ~.of~b'ern. 'l·~I.p!l.ul m.:flf[lesha:wirr., A :nl'!'nH.I'"r (ilpi:t"al wa:t;, ru1w.fo~!_gJ!(l~d,- ill· .. &1p:l11il! In U,l!e'iKohisia III vall ey., i"rad! ng linkS ":vi ttl :tl)~ Midal,~Eh:$t ~!w\e.r ~ei\'i'i"ed. ss ~~as the _,~'Uk ROI,d:e:~o Ch.ina; and tl!,l~ l(lI!ihit~s:: ':n~du:cOOd a tn!: VlIlg u',dd~' 'with lIl.o,m,e ami UI,e!' Han Oyrm:;t}'. R.e.mi'Ir·k'~bL"'·j th:e1kingdcrn that fheli~ Central/\s·j,an nomads proceeded to ~surbU~n '\i~·~;s jlOit~bl [o-r, b0Hl it'S .r,~nSious and 1.~1" ~.l_[-H~tl,i-.l'. l1l~v~m:e,n~. AtfU1: ~iilrlil.l'· sl'lge;, Hty Ilnay hlWl:1l ','11 fir." \\yor5hitj• I),-H;inthe ,lo:r-O<!5titia'n ttaditioni ,;rod til rUe temple .. de.d.i,c~1Jed toO I(a\1isJf~a ha:s 'been lU'learlhed 'at Slukh kot<l.~., ne~u: t)'liL·i~.1(l1.u;1l1rl,. jUl'.-it no,rth o.f ~'he H.h:l .It.l l(y:sb ." H C1JI~eV'er Budd hJ.stlJ ... gai tI R(~tlii:ri!th~d lI'nd i ln ,il M,ilha'.an31 fonn, spread through Mghal;1ht~ln Jnd aJong th~ Silk, lwute to Centl:jjfJ ,~.111 !lind C.h.bl~.H@.lJleJ'li~!11 :!ieerm ,wSO, ~o I'wyt! r,cblined ~Its, '. tll,tumi l'i!r.e:!Je'l"i C~ il.'i Ul.~{u~,!'1 .u~d W3IS n:i n f6~c~d li'llooil'!,gh

O'liHiI(;rS "'lIthl ;Uexand-riil. W I'hat it eombiI1ation Of G~ek and liuddh)st influences IHodu0ed the,lndo .. H.elleIl~c s.tyie of sqllptu~ri! knm I' tf~ G~n(Uii~r~1m. rmul'y c'X,!I.nrph~,.:H)r- ~'ilJlwd~., 'Cif~e~) DJI' g:i'\I;;!iJ(t beauty and d~:Ii:ct!icy .h.~ve·becn ft'Jllnd Gin Afghtln sU(l~. f..x:C<ll!.ratiurlS'OIIt Kapl~ 1 a ... e yie~ded ~ Illagnlllc~n'lc :a:tray pr.sPIn,1(! h!if(l 'lboU5~lIl.I:Jl p~ic~h.'!5S~.rt 'llltlfL$U~~~, ,nt1~I'Liltl'ng"_I,:ji U1 ,M' t1l;[ afl~1l,1 il}:~ C~Iil'Ulr 11Il,'~1~'i1" .Ale- '1J1~d~i"i, .. mdlllibUU'J 'Ij,"bnew:h31"""'~!l' ~l~ii.iTI,"¥ ;lil; (OI'rilp~,~)II ,(~f flo-uidBh;1:l)Itli Ul!JI. -il: II',V: ,<i,t 1"I,addla" fP(lI; Jal~l1b Jj' hals prQ J ~1 ~ cl I'll. ll!li.lH'iU::I8., o[

,sbU;ues and; im;,ag;es:in the (Jandha,Hul :'ityi~, Ml..'l~~ 'Spe(1Ul( td4alYi twa Il~g!5:·lIn~g'E'.'s:.oili ;tb~ .. B{ll.ddha bil.v.e 5.'"l,r"'ir~ed ,~.t·Brnnt~Nlj CiIlrv d trne rue

l,ii:lf'C'u ' :lit the l'{Ii1tL"glt1 or the vall ~ . 'I~h ':1):' .Jlr'iIlmb,ly, t:1 '(i h mil t 1:«:

Ul:i'n1 and :fifth eenturtes AID, and the rmmber' i:kmpHM~j 'ell l'l ~ d ~nto ItIb:~ ·dllr~. areund t.he:L!:tl s~t)~\' t'lfllJit-kll!!i W"-!3,C"I:l. ,(""nf,!;)11 h~l(hnll:;l1 "I_n~ft:., 'HO'iua!t 'f,sll,fl-g~. wh,g V]' il~~d B~lrr~itlfii ln the;DJlr~. Qf 1111'S 1I)I11JII' l'rlt t·hoe se'veJlth -centllr.Yi"~OUI1d Isev.eraJ dGz,Emr mO:HiI'.s,teri:~ oo:d !!I~\'('l' • tkO!n~al1~ ro.Q!I1t:s' s;tm 111 ll1e ".L'~a.

'Il!~ 'J<J 8~'1if!'i'l,S: mJe.d, fur ;iHm'. rl;;r.e'e"~l.ljii'l;!tlii )'~e1tUi:1S ~eJ~,n~lTy lu the nuQ 1.i11Imr~_ c.enbl.l'y..k\1JI to the tl<ersjan ~ss~m.id ;d'y~: asty, wb:1C!:h. h;ud ~!I,I.pp.u.l:o.1led th~ ,1 af~ht®:s •. but survlv.b.1g·!;n noOrUH1ii"e,st Lnd~a !oiIlHill '!1h

'I :t1:Vl!&l!!'lfq ,or l'll~' G:l"liht'll,n_ll t.i?.'i~ the Wl1 I'le l~~i ns, dl1.U'i ng' ~h~ rUth '~Jl~I' y. JibE' O~~ilJS: of·~tr~ IEpb.llJ:ifllite's ~m.ili.ll s:luro'tJ.ided tn my'S,te'1I}1.rh~y:,~y heav.e' betll ,sulbjl.3cts p.f the A'\'<lt!l of. ).'[l;il1goUiIJ, who bl'oike a'w~ Y iruqld rill ign'j[t.~d Lh 'rO!ug~l "I'M,fl,~,es,t'l'Il1 '~Q na,cll r~~ .: Wh(,;f~ l'll;e, dfOl\!'(1! .putt~J!: [{U~+j~1I15'l {'[ass.tfclthe Hindu Kush and oecupted l:1i!Clifth-w~s't in.dIa, Unl1'k,~ e!lrUerijlv,ad~rs, WlkO tlad aet'v'lltlllod:ltml tbIU~lv,es tothe pr.'l'_~:i5tini dvmsn:tJ,o[lo!l, tl,elJ;phthllli'~'~ SiB', I{ed the 'ciH~S1 Ill~~g,i-tered-the 'inJhabitf~~'it$.a:nd -d;,~peme~1 the I'd.~gkms c'ommlJJllljt~es ~)i!r J'llJIJedl Irn' ;abDut,. ~Ilwuy, bU't hfld (PO fighl utf Hl~!i3,S:'i:llnid!t-a:l.1d In 5~68 ~'~lcc'llr!Jlbe'd, 'to ~I !,oint otlSJaugln 'bf 'tJ'ile B!ltter ond ill - Turkish peotp"'I!S

of 'e~ntl!4l ~~:~jQj. - -

A 1'1.1.:':\" "fl1li;l mere endur1f:1,g. ~I~ then ~itaJ!tltld In da~n 11'1

i~tg,I';Uil'nWlan, Uiat 0 Islam, tn 6:-,7 ,)nd ,6 2, "the MU!i.llm '.i\f-ah defeated tl!Jl(~ Sas.,ali:l;idlSy, .: w!i.o were exbau~"ted bv ·jt1terual dj's:ll(':':ns~ni~,

; !'l ~:'Id ''1:11. 5~1)() -or t'I.lt!'r~abp'.1mts th!:!')l eccupl lod jier~lk ~!],d BO:!l~]';'h . .ne:YIJ~ lA, [:h<lttl, bOw~ver. '~h~ Alial> a,d a:nc;e\'I!,'II:: .. :il]ow [Iud h·1IJ:tb~~i ~Imd ,hindered bY·.ill :!."[t{::ll~~iorn of ·¢ol:1l~i.,(*, wnhin the Un:unay~d", Abb'!I:!lid . CD1~phatei'il, .. Tb.~ AI:,lIibs ~ldV8.nG~d ,lIuougb S'~~'~'!l.q ,El:I~~ ~~~1IJ" q)L~el'ed Si n(~ eli:!;] ~ r i iii n:H~' I S;IIUh c ·'nl:UI, ry- ]~I' ewhere, i'lmvl8v~:rlfl "if in.Cl:ll~·l)ns:w~~:tl.P n~{n;!l.~·th~nt@!JIClP{-;ml.1~ ~Hldi. i\"\\'a~ I'l,Qt UlI1ltii 'l'be .!~ oi I~hi: Sa~:ndd dy:n:lilS'Ll', i.:tl Ule, :run.th pel)t1Jlif.}" Lh. ~ U'l~ rlen~ ~1;S(.D1Io1~datu

Ill" 'ti~ ,1,), :rel);.dwd Gh.ii~ni ~Ind ~~~:btd. &v~m tI;!'~Ifi;,'ru l~lJnd~1 ,d~I~II~I'}f, the' H.lIndtl!s.h~hds, hetd {ia:ntlilara ~11,(1 the ·C!!ute.m borders"" 1:rq.in t~e tellti'n ,centl..\ry of'l~"I,wdsi' as 1.~(:lrslp.ill.ln1lgl.Ul&"'E! 'ilm(l·e[lhU:re"CoIlthnl~d -bu SJM'-e~,( hilc'lf\fgl'll(lil]~~ttl tlj l-ll,l'" "~Iirn::tJi!I elf ~;tLgin.n,3'1 rilnw~r' J1ih~~n'~1 '~'l , d~a7:':"'lljl wl<:),ere ~Turl<ish'dYl13J!;:t}~ woo' $t.a:rir:!d trtll.di~g fue tNVn for ,U:t~. ~afl'uITlid dy.n~'ly 0 U{Jkhat~, ,P:E~IZ~~e,d tlJ '~,?nl ,an·' i'rI:,i;' .! ,1 th 'I, r IO'W~~ 1i'1:~h ~" The g;rc/j ~~' t u{ tbe:! G~l nil'i~ni'i,\;II,'tJls, ~I'i' ~',hj~I!U id I

I.'~IIM beJweerf~~S'.~l1ld 1030. HErex:~.ene.~Uh 'iFl~'IJdt 1l1i;~ri1,. ~lin. ra,. I mldtl:! ![iQ f!;!t.ver ~"hM Ill:! IMU t!11 rid ... Intf! h:JI1Ji n I uc ·d·1.I ,iln ,~,:[ I~~~~IIU:IU~, 'I~r,t·l'lt~r.)~ tlrl.!l I .'hlna f~ 'm fhe' Ca~p'IO t~ '$1' h' b(,: ~I~,n!d

~;1~:l1I!3i~.~ .• IIkldmr:tl i;,lr!~tl Sjl~TlaU'~;JFll(11 " ~~ri ~~lHi4. !-Ih'tI, 'r hl,f!l flI11~, I~I;! II'IC'U)U Jig II nUl '1'1. :1 \1 ll"'ii ['1'1> I' ! lilu. Wfl I mll.l ott!~ "~ II ,ll~, J\llg I~!ll

s,'um, t~ilt~'d ¥Und~1 lelnP.lw; 'and c;.;lIlr.iie'd off; nnm,!.jlnse lboo'5Y~ e3;r::ni:n!5' f.nt' btmseU, "depe'fu.~'1ing. ou the IV~'eWp(l:111!{ of ft,be:'~ trser""¥~" th€!,j;I.I1~i~"(i.~ t.lm;age-bleak~I" lliir AS.~~.nu:g" .: .f lt1dia '.; In Gl'll<l .• mj,. h.e .ca.!:tiied .U~, "'. pr.e'st;igw'!;lsl1u i dftJgl)l;rogi'lamlue .• 1n(l h i:5 eeu I~ b~:citlnc, a. C~?n~ fur SCbO~t5, ij.Jlc! p~t$., Jnd~cl'ing tbi¥c '~ellnwr~d: (1.-el;!l~fln~ ~]CI.~tj Pir;lil!a'lu:J~ Gba~Afns;,lf W<I., subs~u,~m'l:y'de'stmye.d" :sc:V'ml timelt. o~rl \jUL the nmulliu .of t~&~ .Jfi]<I~:nifil;~nt' 'Gh,amtli~idpalilc~ are stUll to be se~n ~} l.astil.<-;n:i. 13~_$r~ at' :nw C!qnthJ;.e.m!ce .b~ the Helm .. lil,d and: ,Ar,ga~l.dap I~h'oer~t, Ail ,.M<iilJlll.ull!l, jii1,e:atl1j Obi't~ina"id, p:(!lwe!',wa~ ~~~kl:f1l;!d ~, a s 'Ifd~, i'OVa, ~On ::fI:lom P~r~ia; !JP(I\"i'flS )'lUpp'],!lI1:ted ,by that '~f.~~e G hoQl'l'd.s~ 'wl'llQ saO'ed ,Sha#ru ',ID, 1150 and ,e,Stah~l:s.hed th~iI'. ell p~tal. ~in H~~'~, Gn:\!11l1ng_ rlo:m (:~t1~r'al A:r~Jlard1jtlJ:fii' 'lhie".Gh.ol dSf·~!':lJ!;li W~~~ !li~S,O of l'UI'1~lish,!iitQ6li:" th!:llJly~dle\d TI'Idi.il, wh~te~hey (;;ill tl1Nd L.ilihQre .u'i!.d

. IJeJhL Therr short r'lflgn . '''las· 'l1Q1 'go 'down In h'story, :for the ,c'Of!J,",t:rudlrJI1I uif t~'e: .Qu~b MInar ,oul$idi:i '1DI:lIhi; ~h~ M:~idd-'I-Jum,[I l~Hdli')~ MiJ qu~) 1'11. Herat :bnd 'the ·remotelYfuJartrofDi~·Tl,l· W the wiJMs· ~.f tlri~H ,?;lll'aia:t1 '''''"hkh was ol.:dy rf;!diSCO~~ered :1I1_ ~,9.4J: .. In 1215, the ·1 'l'hptll!'1s ~V~I'!:lin IJ.;rrn t'(lnq'!.Ilc:rc~ b:y th~ ICilW,,,l'izm Sh~~H';, ~'IlIUll l;11Clr

.1[.;·i!l~h~1 t l(!hiy", " " ,,'

11il('f.e th@lir,octur:red one' dt Ute I1100t ciIladysn:dc events of Afghan

liE.sto'ry. ~b~ . invasl-on )f' I.h~ Mon:g'~l horde s und.er fh~i r .~I~ieft.al.n a!lgr1~5 l¢hM1. Th~I,~ttetW<l!!i ,~, hrUli.il1.l.tm:ilita:rJ ccmmander i:JIn~ adin(o:l 'if.iit"6rj.wbo. fOJ,Jillld~ au. 'e!Jtlpir.-e that ~\\1-erllt11a.lly s:uetch!~'d frum l~lQ.rlllfa!fY 'to "~:l'le Gl~tl~' S~~, ~1'I1d (lurn northe'r:nSU~:,X;i;i!J to. lh' P€r~tan GuU iilul ~h!ll 'h:'ll~Uii!f! ;stib';t:'O:I,TlI:i:n~nt Tb~:f orkgi.lI1~ .of .tiIi1s foUo·Miler. .ara s+jjl~ ·"11'~tLru:·'0~{ij.'sp:~t1e, :khe~,~mt Ukdr~~~OI1.'·b;ejn~ thilit t?ey.:Ji.'e.:~e d,esCll!lldlUllS oE th~ "I:SiJUllg .. I\Iru. GC'l'tghl!!i',Kha.A:; aehievem nt w.~s to y\T,eld ther[l:l tntti 11 [a,rn;l·ildil.bl~Eighbng fun:e. di'~,fin,g.lfsbed by it~ S~'IPe1b c:a1j,.·a.lry;\oI,·hi~ITh 'was '~8!lPilible of highly dJsdl9Ulil~d :~~:noe~vL'.e and sustatned a.d\rflUCC .at gLrt:at 'p","d) ven over n-'lIf-'hnpos,slbl~. ~enain. ·t1cn.gh is'K'hfID .l);ims.L::] f M:a-rted illl!' tl $" an ,!loa,ti:donNt. O'rph~~' [iut 'llifa:rlage.d:·<dh~I 1'J,l~~.y \I:~cIDHud~5 to attra.ct·8uprpi»t 00 '1:h(! .. pa;~nl whl:!:r~", h'l 1.296,~ 1]1~' l;\!'a~ pI! ·chd:moo {;::m,pem:r 0(<1 MgI11'!,gQI, ~~)nrt:(;!derlli~ tion, :111'01 aMy sOlne: t\ .. ~o mUlion 1itroag. Tn -12],8, (,Jut. of the blllre~ he mjLd Inis fiQ,llo'\\~'c]'s de5.<;:en.t1:~d linn" Tut:kest.anK. defeated ~he l<hwmn01 .. m, ShOJihs • ndb::m;k·l'kll(h.1I·'~ .111d $-fiill1~r~a,li1dj' 'wbk"'h lheyoom-p'ral:l~n!~ ~iv~I}":sa k 'd. 10 122;1 th y l'()ok Balkh~ nl1Zlerl 'H to 't1h.~ Sl.'ound ;md m'~sll!t~ed Hs il:l,hab~t<l!nts. WheIil the rao~st seer and heal:er, Ch~an'g

11.~Ul~,·" wh~ hil~1 b~e[J 8'Umff!,o·rl~dr:rol'n C:h.inll to 'Genghi~j cOlilw!l:in t\1Fghani'S1:,Ui, a1tIti.\1cd at the ctty ill. shmt whIle· aft:(:'t,.th~ massacr,e, h_e fOIJ!,'Ud" tbatttlc 'c Uzms !bad bten Irell;}owd,'". btd: I,~e cotdd sUU lrI~jUi ctos:~ I~d~irlg I El ) ~ '~'~,I 'Otili". ThQ Mf):~~,g:O'II~ t.re~~d I~fr~'al I,efilj~p l i~c:wll!l!~~ I.'~ tll:~1 '\~Ifrtlnd,·t"' I ~ ~hl~mll b-!J.I:~ WFrlQIJ lIi:eb~rnIed ~1.x, m~nths Id~et'j. i,L '''''" ~ 'pe ,dil~Ii'" tl.ker:t ,l:IAd aU h:s'.mhabil'3nt]i.~y '{' ~~:ut'·,d., tl.1l: 11; I .'

·takiri.J,·'seveb· da)'1, ':~,et2omp~ete:;' Banth1l1;~ W,rl!~ ~so n'H~I. ,lIJnid its fJ~poLi.il a :HOO~~f~tl~h~~roo" l~avlug tijJ'~~Y:.dnj'~ the ~lli. (i)if t~o l::illU;@p . r()r.r~s5~si th.e Sh:llllr.:i.Zb;b.l{ {R~d Ci( ',I flnij the ~'I~tl:y mmm:ed .\~~.bi'.:i~ Gho:~~ola (City of :'Sigb.s<) as. ev.;IQ!l~·n~~e Offhe:: f;p.hrl!:ti.UilY •. : 'Llar~n~ llii-en S;I.J.fj0J2I1~~. th~ same ~~Itc;: as did p.~s~ha~";;;!l\ billit O~IJ~~IIs}J.(ll'ilH:·did lliO'l .~~va"ce b~yoj]d th~: JlIlIj:n~a;l)J pi"~l)t!b~:r' 11i;t'rviO'U~ .of t"hll' 11fi:e· t on Idii a~.mr·'OIr th~,.' f:l,~~t ,of the [n!CI~an plains. The nyemU ollb(;ome .eI t1it.'~ ,~pnfJl, [fI!!!7~$lnnW1l5 ·~tld(:l:!ipJ;e~d de;gop:uJmrl$fil'll. de:v.1ll~~~;UOu ilfJ.!J '~'GIO'npnur. ru~n" . W'h,en .U:1~., Mor~1 Cj]jIf1 trnv'1!:U 'I" T~ntl!ll1!tl!f,alt p~ssed t:hroiU~'h: .'~fgha~nst'4ln <Ii ceutu.ry ,!a~e'J" he :founds 1l:"lIdl:! 11\1!"l'uj,ns fJJ:I:l'tf LlI.'liba.~ b.itl:!,o ~.I(p~l'Ul.t~ u nlore 'tI'l!;an.,;l ''7IU;Qg,~.-aI1d Ghazll.i d~v.R$JI,\p~ed. me ~~p~orts G'el!1~l:U~ .f<ha:t1, as }1 ii,vtniS;tIOflll do'~ the l;j:il(,l~t;J'tI~: ~ ~ JhlkhiJ "~rlj e ~e.f th~mQ'it l}~autift:!1 i~l the world', because he beliiflVoo 'tbat treasure h~d been h.icld~~, ~!'l'l.t!1 (In:~l of l'fs·.cph).mos .

L._ ~oll.nwln~·.Ge-mghi~ l~ll,J·n.'s,d.('!a.rllln '1227, his ~m~ ~L.nd g@JldsQ];l,~ R~t~(j,bis':@:m.p~J'e, mosr of . ."\:[glh:a.n'isU.fi! oComlr'l;g llnd~r. h~~1 .~l;lOOl\d son. Jaghat;ai., w'I.lbse. d{'!s(;~nd~m~ {!$.ta:bHsh~dehems-e~ve5 ;ln, Kabul .. n,d '~'h Z''f:I'i, :W ,rnt tl1,()n~ ,:OO'~I[i:n.ed il d\;!groc of i'J I.IJIlJmJ'IHY under ,a Jnilk tyt'l~;~ty;, tbl@ Kalbi. From l364 iJi~1.:'Ii\'EI~'dS:,j the western pa:r~ of the kJ~I:n~le'C3nu~ UI'ic1e.T th~·.control,ollimu~rl,IIT:1e {a! COrfl,llpUm'l. of "riml:Jr(- . La"'J8' - ,Ti m II r the: .tame;. . 3. l"u·~k,o..M·Q!1g;i}1 WllQ l~ilIJn" id, :.ip!p~ll'enUy 'js.e1y~ deseent .miJ~:~< Gett-gh'i:$ hd;m.ll:~J. T~Ime'd";Qe.beS;"lt1 ,by ~xp'ellm.g Ulle.,~ongo,]:; flllJml1'ra!ll!ioJim~ja !-md around l.3:(O 'pmd~i.IJlijjed .hlms~lf 'l1ftp,lI;fOIi at ~1I[kh. He too w·ent ,on Ih) creal" an "xf, "nsillt! elll~"be., Whlictl"ili':l~lu!Cleil.Af,gllan.i~t:an!a~d northem ~ndi(lf ,3:r'1d m 1319.SH-:I8 '~o.~ik

P'dhl, '4l1d s.lt.lljjgJttl'r~t:I·llrs Iflh~~blt·ill"l:~"5. Am.o:nrghJs ufI.[C!le.a.sfii,nt..habfts ,,"'t' I thtH l()~staclk:i!1lf lI1,ID p,yr~.ul1r1.d's t h:c h~adji of tho, bli.:l had Itia~acr,ed or iil.ooIpl?rceiting them into '~\'1I1h, tn fjle Sis tan., he ~~Ii15it,r:O'y~ rhe 1irr.igaUon. '~\~od:s Ut!l:l' ~~litnjUl'OO :~r{)nl, Ute :I:cl,(!lnuuld ,~ I ~T ~ ~!i th tl1er;J:!l':l~31'!,thi1l'l: Wl11il thad IJOO'n a p'(l\i\pl:f{)'U~ ~md ~~'Jl~ In. ilpj~t1 regip,n"w'as tu.tnedln~Q a desert \-vws_e', The 'j;o),"eatht!led F,~uu~jn~ of !!~b~:~.'l,nUaj, tQ~'II[i.s.,.a.nd. .ri!;ir~·oo!:>ge!i :I¥""~:r) ~oday ~[O~id(l?d~~r ~'vh:Iii!1'ce of the ~cal~ of th'" d~";'ru' "'''I''''''~ f'r'''''ll',' ""'~~''''h !.':'·~,iL - ,

. ' -.. '''" --Ii' ",",'"" .... ,. ',"U, . 'or " ·n·~."l .. ·~ ,:"I~ .. Ul J~ '''''el

I·~e~d. ~Q!i~!'~~"~~er;unli1~e:Gengbis.Khim, T,~m,erJall,e \\'i'aSJ '(lellpU~ ~']!i 1Il'1l'1'~lJtJC '[lr'p,~nSUres, ,i1 man . .01' eu lmr,e,r ,llud .h.~ 'trans.foX'JIl'ed· t:lie lijlilln~i ~~d ca,pl t1l1. S,"Ei~:I'! a I'k~1 tid, i n,C.o :Ill ·int.eU~ctu~ ~ IiIlld, ,n I'~ i~llc' ~~ I ~h', IIIIN. ~nJ'l~b: tlt!ertr j~"Cline: of th.e .glorieS of I s:1",milc iUirnitectu r~ fIts e.nlp,iie hq~ur, IU 'dID~ln'u~gt ,te ,I)Jfl'if!l !:lis de<l!fll In 1405,. ,burt his dynast'fj, 'U'i :1111'UIJril(~~i ImT1r~;nU·eI 'W, -r'l~le lin "[urke~-tlm ,il-nd P~n<;l,1, Uj'lfil liI1L'·· cj~JiI,y j[ l nIIi:I C{lllltJ;lrCl.\ Ui:lder' h.is: .sq[l; '.Shah X~tdt~)r Her.1l't l]{~j.';iln,~tlH't '!~n,~ f \!ttl' h,8, .11 ~iel, ~]J-d I I ,If! ~Ii(m~ Jd l~et1a'il!,\I\~OJ~, WJI~Jh- ~ 1'llllrl.J~~g.UIU~j:~ 1~.('I'~'llj r ,j' Us. a <l1lfJl.·~l.u~~ !U.IU- rJin:y ,Iiln~l mu' hili ~~~ hi ~~lrrl~I1't'~'1 u:lltd u~~ ~;aJ~lgr31.ph, lind mJuE~'~urillillnlnUnrl. ~hilh Itlll WNllfl 1,t1~jt· ';'J, U-'hn Sh." Lli "'.1 :m I nl'\S 'bl' I~ 141<1, 'I 111'111' n~

o( thE! Mu (lima,,' 'l'!~I;'Qmpl,el!:' .f 1~1~SqU ~I~~le~e .m~ tl;la'usol~~.r~"Il :l'\ihkh"/ With. i:ts:<~v,elr~1 Jlijn.an~.tj dumitl:a1ied th ,1;1]'ltra1t lik,~n.!~;o~cr llliIn')! :ce:ntvrles, 'rhl! hulk jilf u wa~ -, ~~cd at, 'th~lhnQ f thn: ~!U11~'~h

'n~;i's' tn 'I S;BS; to. 'c.r1:'~~e: -a cl,~ar ,n 'I d ,of'fir~ for th~ de'~t!nd~~s of ~h~ c.rLYI lu tbe. e,v.ef,lt;, tllaill(~l:l'l. ·~o ~ .im]'Ui~'~11t,. oil :~ H~~l<1:111. ~ttaek ~~QOl tb"" ltl:oirth; Of the 11't.i11ru'~~JM ~l~ ::I wl'.f.e ~~'ft. I'\ob'rl ll'yror!.1-1'r.'i·j in. fit, en(; rnlum . .of "l;im:Li!!'id, :B"Chne' h~r .,

Thcb b~iliuW ~~ !'IIl'IQre 1111~:ncenh::~ de pC'ndll1"~· om Iilght ~1~tl ] OlndStClJ{ve. Qn tl~¢·t":~cW-j< e\~'e~'~:~ li~~~ ev~'ry J:1owe:r.ever~ p~Lll,l~ ~r_.. mosaic .cc(ntI~lJ)t.l'I,.eS: it ... ';, .. g~:. ~l~!i ·'to Itl:'!~, \i{}~td~,. I!,~~n, l n'u1:L.h:'1d .~l~ct', Jl'rc¥d!;~:twe 'l:e]1$ of iiI:gnljdl2'tl age; ,., rne ft::~'Y u:av-eU~rs. who ?av~ v'isft~ -:Samar.khand ;lIiri.d ~o:'l:dulf<!i .1:S 1"e11 'lIS tbe. shdne ~l th~ lUlmu R!7..<1: 'r!n ~1(lsbl':!dl. ~~'): that 'tHJlh'ing:.in J:h\l~~ t~l\~m: (;~Ul~ ~jq'U1il the ~ill.~t. U n~~y ~,l'.e d,gh~,j th,e I¥i.()Il'lllU,? ot,Goha,r S~a~I1I1~1:"t be the' greiltes:~sU!!'Vi\drng_mD:~lwment of ~J:l~e _peflod., vl\hlle ~1\l1t\ l'WIl:ii Q', Hepill she»'if .. l'I1~'t tn rc w.15 . n . ~ ~re'M~[',

-rilo ~nmU1'ld Henat!)$am:e lash.'!' m,Ue.,mol'~' [1"I~n at 'l~nt~w, .~()JlQwil1g S:bl~~l Ihjjl;I,'s dea,tl} ~ n14f' ~ . tCI1$-n.:tCCe~",jli'e !''L:l~erS bdd H.~r~t over a pel\~od Ql~ .a 1,nel1~ l"~~eh;e yea.rsJ bM'~ it was' l;IJJern tal~~~_ bY. ,.a'~'O'L~1tl):

T.lmuJ:'l~ r·H_us~lI:.'.~l-ll;i..l,qaw, wtU.l-gl,lye' U :J. (tU~ ilt!.'X ~Q~ l'y yej1.r.~, .,~if f~t~ .mrn:d it [i~l~W -d· c111tu!i~J1 'lfI4J!i\rijling, Th.e miiiliatu~.e. paiIlt{'r'HlhY~~~ li:lJ.~ P()~t I~bd~~ilhnia.rl la~l!- ~:~~l the historian. Mish k"'i!~ ~~d~l_~!?l~J;~I!j!lb~d 'his c.;Olu1;; 'l'h:~o. d1Uc.I:Ilg_ tl1 . ~h:tC:l!:ntb t:cntury. .,voio f1e~'l~'~IIfHI~UEl~ l~gg~'tj. to 'i,l,np'~ng~ (]:r] Afghan~s:~an~ In Pe;Tfila,' the, ~a~aYWd5,p:re&J'~'~~ o'i;~el[ ,~ .n~t"jjtltm,1 'f~Il31~'sanc;,~ 'and sufv~:",ed ,~~1i.t~! \\re.u. uUO U:',t C!Lghk~~L1~ll ,c.~nlm:Y. d.esp.~i~ .. (}!'l:I~II~h,w.ith t,h~' nt~~lrfln_t', _rLU~~ ,(I,~~ 'll1' lislbek!i 1\"'ho,11;I'1[1 m[lv~d outhin.to the reg~on around 1500. }\.I 0 at the 'mt:n~ [IE ttbe siX,teentb tentlu)'i"<1 deoceo:d.arLt P:~. tl().l11 T~nl~I,':l:_O~ 1.l,nd OIaI'!.gW~ . .J~~ lan, M()I'ii~,m I H(ld l.l'ild£~u~l-di n, b "·I;llef J~iI1~''f\iIl L~S BaIDur!:'1 ll:[)s!.nn d t]O'~\~lilr In K~hl,liilind 'Gh~t.m. BaD,ur ~~ooe on~.1.jU~" :1<11)[1'1 "Eergnilua'j <I small klh:anai:.C:" some l~""O: hu.n~red., _ ~1~.IUe~, eilsl~; Saulnat:kand,. r .·eaUil~.( bEllI1:ng (,l.i,~d .n ·ill ~Qrl,dsl!p Wh,lle fc('~nng his

pl!il~orls ~)n thew.!~l_ ;nf his palfiC'ci .. "Bab~:r, 'it,,.hHe ',st~J] ~11 "hiS .'t~~ns;: (;once'iveo Ule '!lmbrbo![l orf <:o.tlque:n.ng ,Saifl:urkand. In ~497~ ~LfIL r om seven rootili1s' '!,!j~~, -~U' u)Dl~ ~he Cll~.)'~ ,but his:i~~PI~~:rU:!'r~. ~rn~:ulI.lly deser'l'~jh 1m .n.d l"~rg;h";ini::t ''ifU' ta k~n [,(Hll h! 1"1;1, m b~s a'b~~ I~C~. VI.'Uhin a f~w UIQm)l'!i he was- compelled (0 retl~c rIm. 'a-l'll~lrkJUHl, ~ nd For Hl'~ n~xL ew }'eur~ h'~ and ~ snl~1I brmd or foUo\'iJlCr!'1SUrVlV .. ~ on'Y by livinn ;! fT'~,eiiof:~iongcxi'5tc?Ce. f.v·~ntuaUy l:~. ~e~~~~~ Si:H1ilolLr&:aJldl j but w:t~ a:g.:dm to(IICed out. thh tj Ille by tm U~l::I7k .1e3,d~ r. Sh~il~a:I)J Kh~lIil,. wlu,l aho took HI.mlt (.nc~~~i:D~~,."e,r.lm:t:!,CI,. ,l'g, d . t.l'1 gtl on, nU,bllf decided in l50<1 UJ tr .k over ttl l-1.IB.1.L }t~h to l~· '~1;1, !,.I;~h 'te thi" ~ll~tcnt luleli pli:rup:tly l.'!:;:'1 reatmJ t J !C, n~ul'l~l, .mlll

left '~im "1~ t~~~sputed OOIOhu] '~f th:e iit".''13JDl.fr became; eKbe'm(lly _ond o.f I?b~]. atl,d p:(-oo~ede~ to ~'U1~ c\l1@Wl'l" • no Indulge' one ·of his ~Ii~~~t .1P1E!1Isurc' , tile c.on;strr:-w 'I' (i',~ '9f 8'i'I'~'e~n. " :1 n hi l~l:eIlIK~jfl;j h' gt\~ a .. ~'t']d ~CC9Ull~ of the ~a;t .~b aTllcl 'flJQ~~ of trath~ w.likn. R~!.%~ ~h[ol1:gh. ,((.3i~vl ~t ~~l~t 'ft;t~~ ',t\lII,l wlatli;h "W~·o tatet.ltl'-~lootine·iil\S t,];:e Sea. l'D'ut~s 'to ~ndi.:l w"G'rQl,dn~J:~fe.d. ,fhe ltJi hie rf!:e('l!:rd;~d",. ¥0'as ~

a~ .. e:('~lltmt ,and prQj.t1~,e. m';I.I~~e~ ~r. cc)Jl'ltIll'a:~I:ti~l"., ·]W.ff ,,~ar sevmlJ £MIht or. .~e.," 'thGIU.;snnd hQ~s arnve in' ~lJln, Flom ~ii.tllth~~~ '~"~~O' {i~~F :lif~~~1 tl. e4ty tbQmi!ll')}~' 9j,ec(:l~~ ():. I. 'I~lth. at-e blu:ou~;I')'t f:iy 'iJ~'Il;tIft1S., T~J:n~ '(OfiHfP~gU~~ l)r'H'inl!1~lshnf~iI!lfQ ::da:.1'f!S, ,WhIte ~l~t~;.sqgai ca:ndji'l refined ;Jlud COmmiofl:' \lmgar, I~h;t:lgs and ~i~ .. , [11J¢re IIf~ ii1'uu.f mt1'[chiatlb who, a.re not 'Solti:sfied wUh g.eU.i.ng; th ... f.~ Oif flurm' :h~tldred r't!f.~~nt.

I:~ ~S 'I t,. H~buii ~~ga:i:n .. t,oO~( S';nn~r~a,ndJ 'bid yr,;tl' ijlgrun Wfi",~ dr~.1i1eu cnJt~ 3D tll.~t he. ftl1aJ~:y abandoned Ius a..mbitioID,S in't~l-illt direction and ~uffied. to~mrdS Ihdlu, Hfi! gradut11my: esta.bJi hed Ids ;olsf:en.diUK1:~· Ql,re-,; f~l~ flel~~~:~:r~_~~. PL~'Sht~~~.',~f'libes._ apt~r' ,:'(1 :K.II.lJd~h~1 und acqLllred ~~LiLli3r~. employ:I,pg,a [ml;a:sh gumner [.0 opt'lraJe n. Afler. s!\!vle'ra'i IP~Ob:lng :r~ld.!k be, liTlaJ.!y ~!u.n:u;Ii.ed a full sca.mi.'t 'lm,"a';)I.o~. (lrf: iLndi~ in. ~:S2S_ '~n.d d~~~lfte.d,. tb~ boo;l: kW:l~1 .Ule.nJ~~.J\I,~s HI;:I JUg,ban dyn.al5.ty, ~]~O had I'I.det;1 1[').. JJ€.I.b,1 5lw:'~·+;l5I. In, ll~.!ll;i.t! w~n~ on 'to defeat the IW:J1P'~I'1 s ~t ~b~nua. ~~t,es[ of Agr4l"a ml~~t<:lbllshed. hhll:5e I.E at tbe latter ~I,ty tis. t~~.-Ic;l~nC\ r ~J,f: '1h:e 'dyna5tr OrUl~ 'Gi'~ I~I 'Mot{Li!$wh~ 'n '\,,!'i'l to r~~~e [[]dl~ \1\,11th gLittefmgrni'il:~r.iiilifi.C:~I]_Ce over the f~]h;r.wiu,g. !h~'o

, !t.'~'U ~1"I!es. ..

. _,~1~~~f.;J:hlilud ()fGh~~~i ~nd~:ram~UJaiiiC, R. bllrcoI1:l~)J,n~ ! uIUi~ru'y, pF~,,.e~ '~lh cultural soph.ls:I:'R~atmn. Hewas an aocon'ip1isb~d poe iii bl.Jtb .I?t?f.s!~n ~lfItl :l'm!.::i: ~~.d\. ... iOIS' ,a ;r;~n:s:ltiv.,~ob$erwr (if n.a,tUl"C-. M~l:n~y r Hc!)lll' , ,.of, ~D. HlC!llOhsp \'!rlHC11 hit" Wfore OV~t·, period ef seIPle vo.rtv. Y{lliifS/ iJiile'. d:E-';"Q't~~1 to; the··Iill!.cn:a And fattna 6fbotll1 Afgll('i:nLS[.1.flj '~?I'IJ;d 11II11~OIi:iI.nC~ hls Ieve orgatdeping $,hJni)!S' th.roughllt 'e'ver) turn .. Hts' Wlilll'l,!!l' . al!!o Slti?w,hll!1 ttl. lliil:W . been ,;I ~a:n of gfi(!f,lt hum; jll~'1 ~Lgell0e 'and Ilum!l.[Ul~'~ His dt'S:C;riptlou of fhe Tjf1llUid e'uurt of II.hJ~ I~~~.I,~ J1i11~a~ 1~~ln";.,al~Hi!b~~ 31!lfl ph:'tu.r@ J~f H'l~ Hge. H~s Iu(!lgmet'it of II1l"I'ii .1_:o.i..~.n~f.~,?~ :tll~~. iilIOO~~. f!.(l.,\illeveri lUl'tU so:mewhlll,\' l'ilIl1~' ]F.1 Uf';(;" Uti.!:! ~ I'l! ~tslfl'· a, hanl ,~,tlnk~r ,.uld b~. h.ealth was never good, p.1r'l'i'ClllariY, ~~Ih:n ~ h- • .'~,fI ,_~n.I,~,,~l!. ,~·I.e d:1~dln 1.531) .and Wll;'11~11~C'r bu1'i~ in Kabu;II '!II' '11 hi ~lO'n~b ~ml .stand'~ !!1 ._,·gnde:n tliLat t~'e cteilted.

. The Emergeuce. of

h At, hK '-,-C' J

' .' .

. I.'. .i - -', ' . > 'C .. ·' , -, ~.,' "1- ~'.-

the I"gan.mg,om

T1-

1'11:e: miDgl'}L;!f.I.@d €)[ M[)glJl <lind ·S·afoll!vkl, :1:llmme !ovlll' whalt ls now

A~ilran~s;~~~rD. _·~1J5,~.~1.·, untl II, t:he. "~i:gtlt',f!filnUl 'l~ril ~~I:y,:.v~lC[;l ,. yt'~Vtli~ [ep,lfill\€id by, that ·of: file ~b\l)d:"JI ~ll:S~l:t(JOrJif,., [),YI1':rnl the ~lXlleennl nnd ~tlygrr.:l'l!I,.~nd:t ;tl@.[tN.!Id,es~ I!,l!IlI.Jltr'~ MO,S'l:d desc~flII.d.~~:u 1!.S.e:...'i:!!,!![1CU~litti ~, :!i'AI)JnCiwhil!1' ~oo5~-~Jnd u~1:!.:.eEtj;j:h11; nd'~ o¥ct l<a~b.ll~ ~,:t:ld Pe~11iaMi''iIlr, i,lisi,\\licl.l as Il11f tb.e"JJh'l'i\~. 'qctliifeerl Itl~~ ftJ!~i,E[lndu-s ~Hltil tne$t.deln1:3in I;t;jl'ng~! ,w~h)I~i:'fu,11N~<ilf:a;'",j*;h~~"~~h~liJi lhe_l(!J~li(lfS to;. the, :Wf1S~~ J?andp]lI_;.lir,wa~ r~n llD\tl1 ~~ btliP~ ,g:f ~l:}.i~'l~V! t~:qn.btl:t:\!)'Centtie_ nIJlO_:~~~r~rfi. ql1/d 'cbmn~cd Itwoos &i!,v;~raJ1: time.~!be:t~~@'n th:e:;1illI.wd~1:I,e t;l~ U"i.~ si:lpte€J~fihcentllrya~d m:h~ ID,kld:te: of tl~e-~e!"'II!Ft~~fiptt:ll" 11b ~h~ .porth, ,a ,!'!Jl;rrl,i:}(i\r of Us,~~~k kll~~JJ~!ll~~ J,ll~~U1J~i:h'I.'I!:I\~il:lc~lrh1,qe(llt1n~ell~ JIl. ~he :fa(J~ _of plrl'fl''''5L1!i~kl['Om the. ;'iO'uU..and, ,~"'''.e,S;'~. /\Jj::li.(~.uiJ~ng lh.e:·8Jt",\@n:.Itt~elli.th c,entn!'}\i v-a.riOt1:s. Qf U'Je :P~!ilhtoCl.m ~(.i!b~ll. tt,olliJilbl.illed ff;m:n ~1.rne 1;0 ULue ~tI n!il:i~,i ag~1in51' tb~ Mog~l.b <mdl W~N'! ~t· p:ne :jll:fi,g~ ifl~:pl~d 'by\ ~heWRn~ef·rpo~~. [\hushh~1I Ih~n Kh!a't!M;1o:~. 'li,ljhnh'~:!i1 'sin(¢ilei~;irru@c;l: m::lhill:lQUI;.m p~<tol::iLtl' .MgJl<lrh .bi.~llDr}';l'!lo~yew~ a ju.cH.~~o1:.ls mj;durecf brlbeJ:Y ;tll~,S!i,lppr~S,~ion (l'1:).suu~d~h;u the M~gL.lls re.~~lh.l'~:d ,Il, pn!cari~u~ ov.-ef.al~ :Sti~lial~u,;y.

[[1 1709, '!iJO'\"Te\'l':Ii <I, lle.t'V" ilxa dawn¢d,. when the G'~,'l:i17Ai1j 'I:rUJ.@, unde:f IIJI\I;'! ;3;bleh'!a;dll:lfS~ o~ q.n.e o~', th~i~ chlef1l:arh'lS" M tijl' W~ls HQt<ai~ki. ['{J::i~i.i~~~Vt1~t 1'i,g!I~~l:!lt'Ulle S:~£[l\l'~ds~ A~l .!I~tUll(;', Wealthy :an.d CO:u~gilOll" mMJM!r·W'ais had ea:uli:er Uved at the .~)~r5i1i:ln 'I!;tlU[rftulil reallS!l!d th~t ~t. ~~S''Ii!'[[h''~l:aI:J,~e,. '';I'he 'GI'l.ilzfl:i ibc'g~I.1 by tUl~t~dJllg :Kan;d~~h:~:r) -ldIUn.g iif!l Ut~ [lJi"It;:l;!SS, ~h(] J!J'!!!at~¥ d!?t't'.s:~~c.:iI~ef~'~Hn go~'~!nor, '!;-\1~lO hiU;;' ~ ~n t1c'co.lIdi1'IIlA~ wl tlii S,llfayi(j po~:l~.},:, i'il:i:e:d ;:Q 'Ilair:c:e SM"ism on .. them, andplllrtl~:5i:'Df~;G.I.1jJ2~i.. hl;Jil'~~IJ:I]L1!n W·ef:em~.J.1 ~tdi:rlig hno rcind~:ln !e-EIr~h !Jf 'p~.'unQ~r. F,o II P:.~,!li;llg . MJ r W~~l~1 d'~'lU!~f!I '171)5 in:od i:l l!.:cnb\l~,1 fot fil,e f~I~~"'l'llcm,; hljS·or!. ~!lV '~~[n:~ud, piY~~{led 'bO 'l~U4~1~1'1l ~, itHlt~,. ,~lJm~lid~:n '''''~\j1d~ln rr2~ 'l.nQ~ hil.m t~'''1 h~ 1!~],!~J;;m 'Im'p-~It~ Ii/ 'I:!lffll hml~ Orl,



. '~.-

..

thl!! ,way '~(}, ,~h":lt c:it;"lCfe ~t&r~t~ a .cQs~ld.~r~ll?ly l~['ge,f. Persr~ ,army ~l!~:~),'Imt.~d b~, 24 Clum9r~s, \lil1,d(:!'f 'ItH~ dl~"CUI;l~.,IOr ,1I'n iil'lJI1Enln'~ J.;[n~Jilth 'iirti]l~tym!Jn, M. Ptl.Ui,ppe Gtltqmbel and th.II,. ~ft't!-j'"1I ~ong IlJ'ild blo(,dy ''S!e,~~, S't~;lIrlntld the 'dll'-!t:self:. '~'bitila'ck _a\TId'milssa,c.t£,U~at.e1lSue~ ~'i'6.re su.crU.I'ii~: Isf,.lhan W1~~i' r~~p:vl:!r.~i!;I its £ort1:l.~·[ ,e'J.tiiI'LQnce; M'tr M~11J!:J,ud ijIiQ.Ciead~d. to~n~tllle' S.~fa~1d tb.ferie~ ij:na <ljdJ~fd to t1;~ ·btl,rlmrii'i~'~ he had "~rpetdlc~.·,d"!1~'hlg the siet~e an ~ ~apture: fif tlvr!' .tit}" by- hf]!V~ting <I ~allJ'g~ muml;>,~:r rU Vet i~Ul rlbbl~~ '~'9 ,~! ballQue~, WhlCt'u:! he hite! tnem ~'IC"li:ig'l~ted b)rbiSF~'r(ibp$ .. fn~ t~II~'d\"li:r :i~~iIIl;ti1il1l", iJI~d 1110 ~ 1;[1 t lOillg,r "a{lle E'dfj!1i'dlt,d,ege-ltl:El'hH.ed hila·.)l hOlll.lo(lillW maniac, died 01 was murdered by his :6wn f!!lftn and "va~ iiiiS-'"C~'~!,l~tl hl I. ns !I~ Ills ,oousLn A:lih:[a.' TJ'J..~ ]~'l:h;!',r ~te:f:e~t<:c~ ~n O{tortlJl,n ~1:rnlly wlli<th 'WU~ .~~ S(I 'l'r)~lhg' to ~~,k(i ~dv~·n[t~.' QfSa.~'3:vtd.\\~'@d;"ness, iblmt in 1 ~2~ wa~ in tum ddeatt"~dne~ J:!lfflll~n,b}' .!I IIl!SIl.ll.rg'~I~~ .~rs;I,II,1I1 Elr~n.~ i ted by a :t'Oormef c~'meib.f).{.ln fll1d

1:ml(l(cJU1 ·~Na(.Ur Qu:U ·J<haJ1i. " ~. ". .

\Vtd1e tl1e G'hi.ll3"L~I'~ Gc)nc~:tla:tjng_Qt!lsf<lh~n, the Abd~l:is, 'W~li6 b:~rd ej:!d1~r: IPIXl.rL-cI! lIb" 'Pllr.S]jll:l Sh~l1~ 'lVc.rt'. .ii,FsQ 'on Ilhe n:~¢ e, III 171.~.Hley took Ut':rillt m11!;11..rt~r rmJV'!I:l'I.~'ed. ito Meshed .. ;~a.db ''!t,m; haJr<l F!l:l~ milt to' conebeth w.~th ·~,b~.1u.a.nd "!;'I'1't:la ~h~~GhilZilli" but :lrn:.f.l1IY

f .It· . .. . ~ " ., _ ..~ M - ~ - ..

SLI ee~d@d In .drh!i.I'lg them back '600 J.-Jerat, ~,\lhlc!).:I.e U ~'slcged!n'!itl!

,C3l~)'tILH~cjI"in 1732., In Iris m'Omt'IIU of ~il to..ry. he tr,ea-fedi the AbdaUsl 'Wll.~~ h'<i(l t:1]j.~ee .tjmt,.~ broken SU(c~ss~h;:e truces, ~~itbii:l.U!i,;!-s:~~l elt!m.~nty. ~iI1d ho nOIW l1'ccru.lt~d ~t. 'nulll!)¢[ of U1,el:n 'bt1 $@hre In lUll, P~[$Q'ri.~]lxid,~glUl(d. H"' prQ«i "'d'fd'l:o~a";;~, the :Pefs.i.8U thr9Df and. as Naqi:r anah, advanlced on 'Kand.ilJ:U and l{ubul, both. ·oF. which· he

~ ;, joy - - ~ ";-' • - •• - ,

c.1pWn.rJ llif1 l'h'e cQiUw~'e of 17S\~. FJl(llI.tI UUire hi' nHirch~d Iwdl1 Im:Ulll;

w1l1 ';rcnis Alxr<ilib(!jdygu~tJ\ Iii IS! iii:" l ted hi.m ttl, his defeat tif ~I MQ'gu 1 aUI1Y and ·cap,.tu.i'e of: Qe1bjl and then exl1;"C;[ct:b:d him from. a cdt4c"!ii1l ·~W ll.llllithl'Jn. ,~.5 Ir!.~~ ~~,i1S ttWjl;h1:M, 'tQl f(i~l.~ a l:!'·!'t$S~se hl"H:1ri t1unugl:li the .Khryb~j1 Pais~ btl the: j~i.!ce of ~itr(m:gA'6ri~,i re5i:'iirnl1~. 'Wl1:erl some of thf' Abd1]U~ 'were murdered b,i" <l. Denl] mob, his vengeance ~"\1'aS 'exlTeme~ with. the If'csUll tha't tl:u:~ Ind~nims th~['II;!liI:j)'er 'd!;!'~cr~bed amnS5aC!r~Or .~ .llgn of Ilerror'·::a:! il nad~ershl"!lJ~i. L~d.'c'd l¥i.t1'l :m:tlnerl~e bOOl)'i' [ndi1din,g, ·tb~ 'Peacock 'Jlll:'One, Nadir Sha,h, n::1.ul'n dJ Ito P·en.ia, wh~r€' .he continued !l00 c::amp~.i;ll \:Ig.Lnst lhtt:. Ot'I.(l'lfUU! 'f~ld;:!o. l'Iud ,as faa' n.o:rth~s :S(!lnHI~k~n-d" Khilva RInd Bokb~n:a, but J!JII Umti 'he too ~b['(a .. mc 'S;]distital.l.v PIII'iUJioid and In. 174:i· "~a:'l .kiUed by his 011i1'Il Q!iillhaidl, ufl:it'en;,

NadW's mu:r"dtt l1:e~tecl ,iii .crj$i& for his. 'lrodyg"1!ud~~v'J1I:o 'we-re .n _~:l"Iat tilJ.~e .COL'li'1~lJl:ilndJl,~,d by a yDung ,i\bda]l officer;, ,~lm~d Khan .• T.hey w "I:e ~ll:nmmllb:~red by the' QI.>i;.Bbas]'l, who gJ~atly re:J1!'11It ,d '~:he r'ili1 vn goo I ~itiOp lh!:.'" had hli!.l cl tmdf:T ~,il!d if Shal1, htn, haf\('iniFl" , !ii~EII.blnlhed lhru~ ~hl~' ~au~r "\\~~S' hld~d deiidr, lhe~~ raIUllll"I~{!(I, ·iu .~~g'l.~lt· UL'lr WJJ!y . 'ul anO .ru.~lJir,fU' I~o. Kill d._11M;, l(h~rei d~'lIli:t· .'Hs y.oluh,

------ ~ ~a

Am-ned .-r~h<ll:1 WHS ele IQd '][1.<1111 by ill j(rga or t,lle 1'.Ii.n.e,Abekdi,su'b'-t'rrub.es. The ttl'!.dj. tlIo~'l 0;1'[. s'n Uiry :i~ '~.~nll &Iff! er n:i ~~~ {llny.s o,r i "lf~gnt;ll'Ui,iv.~ (UK~I~'~:j~~~, a n(HOO rlww(!Jlh fI10lYIJlii:n), NiOhammoo' Sab.i:r-·.'Klhun~ Intervened ~leds,iveJy In ,Ahllr:I:!.::~1 Ei:ban~s fa\'Qu.f. 'Wb~l UU:r lal~~er :e-IW.I.'~~ed! 'l:eil!.'f(."Clnce,· th'e di'il/W(l:!;'I~ a~i:rl iltl.CIIV'~lll('!.d "'fld !;,.'t!I'!i.l'n'I'~nltd;ly ;p]t oC,~lin ·Ahmed Kbant.:i b~J:ll.Jaj[J some Icm~s o.ff.'WiIi.Il Italtli a4lre~d:l'Y: field. ca.~ thJe same Ume :p;raclairnhl~i ,hbn lBa,ds,1 ah, ll1u'm .. j Da!.n"JJ"I (SJ:'I!:.3ill:" iPeillid .(\t£ fhe Age~; Mo:re :!ifm I1d~ r'I-IYI i t:i s ~rDhtllJ~!J t-h. ~ hiii" 'Ugn, J;!l 01 toed p;a.rtiy fl"tlllm, ~i11~P(;l\'iitior'il. (is: tlle'1:ea,,1e1", of NW~ij11 ~lta'li.! 's [Qrffi;id~,blll'.' bo~X"gu'l.]:d an.dpiu:t~r.. bom the ca-m.~:~.taUo~l t11.11't ~~e n~b@'t.J:I;](~Ut;lg Ol~:J.d .a member ell: til" SlddtJzlI -clau (il tl ~ 'I11f.'lU[ 'f ~,,1 .ulli·w:J:ib, hi' would be mote likely to be opento mitf:lJpt~I'm:ti~~ 1!W1~'1l <tle.&:,"d.I1i!T ·r:rOI"U one' of ~.h,· rnore powerful ·~,b:i!::r:lbJ~\$, J . ~,t'. ~.~~A~dal~s·llIJ;;l.der~UIllilt:etl. 1,I.h"l'1. An tlsuh: mj)jJ) g' "I' of men, Ill. ,~t' !il' d ,,10, AJ');C;I'iilll ~(nJn, . iI,\"",tdeh he was 'G!iIlw:eful, to (:Od51,dt~a.'s a ',fiu;r am{;ll1!g""@qu~li!i" and Ms attihu:l, tOl\tanjs;. the other il'!.1$h;t()~n trJb~ ~'vasr ~;~()lif!i&:tm"l·He; was ~Js.Q- ~·~U rwar lhal l'h"bl:!i,l [U_ 1)5:'011 !iC~~J ,I'U!B P.iJ~;hh'mn I '~lill>y Was, to.create opportu1'l:i.t1i;fS ['01 w~rfirrt" and pllJ..:mder .. Hete, ~]e had: several ~tdV~Irl'l~ 1~!lg~5,HI;s "lhlt;!!~dvata~ Wiill!~~~~JI:J~fjd llt~.,a :t;(j"suh o!f U'!Je'.iw Ii'~f$r<l.u. r~ fi),y,af'l.d !i~~,b!'1ll]iUl;ed to hi!ll'IJI~. J~t' hi, Was til dl~~.I~~I.y t~(tt:l' th· death o f\I~.1!,dtr SIh.ah, wbUe: th~ Mogul .empire w.tl~c::rumbWklg ..... ):5 well as po~~~'~h~g ~th~. b('!!S't. figh.tmg· tu[['q in -~hl1: llieg:~(In ~m d J11.I.IIC.j·1 Dr Kad:! Ie Sh~hl~'j, t£Co,~1"J'n;l1 ~nC'llJi!,~'1n8, Ilh~ ls:.ch~l-N!Il~),[ diJnllm~I;, h¢. w~s ",Iso ·f(>rtlJ.n<llt~ ,enoush to capture a -Mij~;'21:rll "",llich,jJ"lI taud lgnorance ,o'f Nadir Sh a ,h~s, fate, \l'Jl'i.!,$ w"turnl:ng th.n..')ugh 1K.:'1f!ld~ha:r en route fa P~r.~l~,. io.ilId~dwHh :~lil;l~~~UlIl :1~r(J(ru Wn:cltl:" HI: f),oW bild tb~ m,emm t'opfJY ,b.,is army;. conciliate lP'ol~tica,~ ~ldtf'iOOrl riv:ab~ and fi·na.mce .1)1s· eamp : :g-a:rt:s. _i1oll:o,"'1.ng h ~ .-aSSU.oli.P,tttlfll pC the UtL a!r Dm];-i-Dam~n, 'I ~1i!l' AtJdi!L~b I:'llCone,cfQnh called Ul~ .. m' e-~iVeos OiIJtlI'J:'iJ!~H~.

A'hm ed~ Sh,u h. IO'1lUiii rli. a:s,lllel1l.{J~\.T was, staned in 17 4J~ fu~r. ,attJlc~iIlg 1.llil:l'ill .il.i'Jd ~bul,. ftn.!1. when the ·Qi2.Hbash gm::r1"!son ·~U :Kab~1 ,~:t!In~~ld~j)t,.'tl without" a !ffigilt. 'Weol' on ~i'J tak;1.\' IIrl1!Slll~lWllH;. H-; tl'1'n F~~h .. ~mt:"ed ~)I"l De1hi an~ Dlet a 'Mogul army ,at ~,Si[tiiud. ne$p.~:te g,re~t lllr·1·lo1~y. in num.b~"S, be ~"'0I.s.. ,f;lllJEllllg U]eUpp€f hand when h~s I uwd!:ii' lTIliu ~9cldmt".lly !'Iii· W lip, kll:iing l'lu,lldr,'d,s t~f hi; tr,(JoVp:s. tlo.W~Vi;i r J'IR. MiUlii1.ged to '~v~,thd.ro\;'i,>' in iood. order and, O'n his, 'I):!UJrn ~h follow I1tI s:prlu·IS, me! 'i'r,o'ill:1:li no rrc~.1~tOim: jrnn~ 'Ihe; l.l.e~T M.ogu~. 1~lrlllMi C. ~ ~ th~:rAh!'fltl\'!d -·hill,. A!tt:l1i~pri'" of P ilC -, irh"'latt,"!, ','d,e-d _, U ~'!1.n? ,~eii'Jritozy Gi.lrli,~r held by .::..::.I,adiI Shah, together with ~ml,~:pmvlnC'J(;!: qlf '$,ln~j; A:r~J"Qi)l Sh~ll tben. l'l.'l,lmr'ltd ~o Kal'~ab~r [I:n~ ~. 1:7~Ui ilH!f he,,, on n· _< to '1'111""1 d'i:y' i1at~rng ~~jf'j'end ~l\~d, It· pro l'ld £;1 In M:[!: 11'00 1I1ld Nt h,a'Il~l'!F, wJIil1t·h. n:f~lul 'IfUrj,s .. ;m~ --~~g,~ In ~t( ~:C'~'''ls'Ow rller, l~lUlHY; t';i}iplll' 'II t:I'~~1 the f~)n(1l,\"'lrrs 1I\~~riJlg". '®u 11 ~ w~)r I_;)fu.k ~~ I( H lolll'f1, Iw I, 'UI JT1 tin Utprl h ~r u- n lib 1«(lsh; !,'\I'lll I, ~ ',,'uplu I

,!!jJ .:~.t">i

the "Sibe~ and lairK ler;dt0Jfole:lli[rultl M;ab:]]a.l]~ tl'l'LI4ilugb,bil Uadili:kb~ 511ar.~~ '~:S"!I\f:I~_,ns ~:mtu~\ll~n. rll.j ~Ii'IINH,)f th_ (" ~,untJ'y,:"Ir vhe wln'l'f:!l' or 175:L Uf;.'! ',~r.~ed Ii is ,at~mlloD, l:)'ac'k tel riTl~!;i. 3"~fl IOl'I1~lm¢d La h.ore, a.fl~r a-lollS ~ie:e,:at)c;I_.q~rre.mQ"r~ r-ece.iv~~ the sIlb~l'll&<;jiani!ltd t! M'o,gul £nt:ip['nll;. '1J',11is, g:mli!)QtI~':i1m I~~l!' 'w~,v~rn 'Flull~ILl ~hll~ ~~l! (he '~iI~~e ;~r he aisc annexed Kti~hrn1.'fI' fl 'r th~ nif>" fevt'·. n, 'ijt~ r~miHn~d: h"l ~.a:fI_¢al1!i1.r.~\'oh1tL~ h¢ ~ui~ h'1sfc@UO,~~ ITj:b~bte:ru '~(Cl,ja~~1 the l"uiU'-pi[ the'Ll: (:;l:Il.1{.I~lIl:PS~, tiu~: 111 t!h~ wlru~e~ tOt rt'5(f he 1i~hl,r,n~~ 1'0 ~rvti~:I~j, mC,h.ed tm [,ieU;i' ~tld '~(:kedi 'it:- H' :ontelflfdi:l:red Ire1iHi'ilm.n: 11111~t i bl!it' the iGolI:l'lb'iI:t~aUI[I~i:lf,of b.;;a:t and, choh~:ra co.o.tltr:n:ed ,h:I$J,lli€~re.t:€U~t1 iiat 'I1~e fl,1cr(i eql;J!aI11,,~ (,1rile,~t.[_}r U1!~ hili:!!:., HE was f~ub, l'l.bw&e~j,~a, SlMY '~WilY l,ong, tor hij~ Indbln ~o Sc1::iiSiCill ~\Tigre ,:iOQn, lei 'be tbtoo:t'C!nos b M.tta.th.a 3Jtmje~'~~:lf<UU:~1!g t[illl1th,e south, I:n ~761 •. oiter t.'I"'6,ye,ll!ts, >0£ lncondushr .~·t(r.f~llre •. the tw I' armies!ll_et. ~it panl[)'[lt. A m~l:ssh(~ buttil,c ~tl!1Uedi with pcis."itIJly' seme 8(Jj.!Jrnj men 00 'c,nch, side, extende:diailong nn t:i':igbt mile front. At first the ,Ma,Hsth.as·lI.n but 'blte.u:::fied -ti~.e, Mgbl~n

I nl', but atHer :s.e:V'ljlta I, 'hQl.lr:o of IigbtLng1. 1 !l~fC:~ ounter ~t,t~atc;-k 1,ed hy I\.irm~d' ,$,hll,hi:'esu~,t'0d, 1111 a, '~Uirld,ell ,'Mil! ~~th<i, coUap::lc. The ~ub:lefiuertt rOllt a.I:u] massacre df he hIaratn.as. and 'thil bu'gl2' camp f()llow:i.ng was. , 'f ,E!l)i pifoportl.ons.~ ·n,! s ~(t\:s \P-Q.5!!UJl:~~ th .. mOiSt dedsNe b<'I'l't'JI " t!) t!'lk .' p~9~~O:n U1e Indian':lii1itb·contine11ill if oIllE)" beG:aIJ~!! 'had d1e ·M,a:r.1l!.tl\~~ ~ron. It i; qu:i'~e possible that they would have rematned swJ:id(!:D,Uy' ~tf!Q!1g ~o p:~'@,v:E!'nt bO'l'l:'! the ef~:[gernt"1:.: of Si,k:h pOW~1' nnd tl~b ~\IIbs-.:q;i:i.'ilF!t il:ri'l"is:l:l • dvance ro D-e.lht- and th~ ;PuJila.b. As, h was, Al:iUile~l Sbah and hJi. fo.n::li~ aga.lnt'eUmd 1'0 the hills ~;;':iH1. thetr bc()ty~ 'Il!il,V,jng'.ll pa",r(tT :Vi;j,~1UUUl :lit1,' tll'l,<d~I!Ull~b't:l whk'h V"NU' ~11()n eo b~~U~d 'by. ~l~~ ~ikh:i. Durhll~ the 1760s1 Ah.lfled Shah Tt'peatedly returned to II"I:di~~, ,~jea~d the-.S;]k.b!ii and 'l~1,ce sacked and des.'ecrat~d !iJleJr holy .. . 1.I:y:, Am.J'~ts.jl.l;':, I~!,!.t he wJ)~ 'ilc"err: 'ub] !, !.~ ct}l:1soldate his vi,~tQd~!'l and "-, -11 rime tl1.Q Siilttl:s ore 't~\'E red as hoe wi t1ulre\lli'. Pirnfl.Hy he ,g:t'c.w i~jred[ Q.f

oIi'Wi,P%l1.g(]l~n& hhj, h,e.l~th, began to ~<,ri] 'and he 'SulU!:red hl:CJe~$hl'gl~ fr:f)'In l\~hlillt\Y,1i.· r'rt)b~b!y' ci'l,nce!l' of th"''f~ ..• I ... dledln 1172" Iged·oil'llY. II1ft'y ~ nd Js brnriii!'d LII a 's~m-¥iIi.lnerated ffiiUJsoleum "in l(nndilllJaf,

J:\t the 'h~j.ght of Ills- power, Ahm~d 5ha,11"8 ki,n.g~:k~l1il:" 5~)f(!'dli.ed.

Irf.im tl:lll.! Am'!;l O,!lT\r.l to tile Arabi';)fl Sea. ·1'0 'the '~1\I4rtJ' it :'.1<J1'e!3d~d b),!'fltI1d' M(6Sih:~d itl"~ 'i't:) the e~.st ~lS fill a5 Delhl, and it, also In!dn~,ed Kuhmir Sil1d and most!lf~\'llii'lt ts '110\";' Ba.luc'hisu<lIll.An inspJ.iiied III!: I U'ta:r!~r.i~de'l'r he '~t}, ~l.so' ~11 l'l;fil ut~ poHt:lc.i~J!, I!t'llcl t11 ph)'[!1! ~ ~"d'fl \'~lmM~~ <lr)'lllx;cep~l'cUiral gmlil~ of the prob]gfll,$ pf s!;'cmi.n:g'aJJJd klI::'t1'l?lng th" (.l'~g,rane~ b~ Ute ~Jt~sl,t(lolil 'tribes, V!lbllJe i:l1w~~r, r.et.<rinh~g hl~ d~il1!h?' m~ ~"Unll?rl,~ .h,e 'I\:a~ FI. puptihlf mliil'l '~,~b!J ~.~Fd hh!1~lf 11' '~III'I • l oj WIt; . ~ilo~ iI dt'ply 1i Hgi.mt'S and! 'u1fiYt .. ~ rJ'I~1I1 wJ1(k, IIUl1[11lg ~1It,11 "r f,li,fn1I1pH h[m,-n"t:s.~ ~H J~I~' uy i~ huhtu,.N . .5 W.'·il~' '~ '~'.tIIt ~ ~IUUW .iJl,(11111~'~ ~~UnM'lr ~\!".:I"~ ~¥IHd TI IU'Id k,;o~~~nt '~";, Ilud I h J}1i!

1fY,a) ~,,'e]'e Ihc.y MO"icm()·I.'1> OJ: adniifli$tp.~i)~S'.' .~lthe:iigh· '~e!!J]pre~1' from dt1l1~ tD tim.e; it· w~s llg!ol'er i.L'l'tbeJr MtUl'@. tt;l ,lMtd~rt.*'e I[Jb,~ perm anent. Ot't~ll-mi]on t'hilt :nll-g'h.t h'l\.'emlsp~jd.a~~d'- thfi!irt:onq'lHl.st:s ~ili. ~:I'l: plains. As tH1e5ldt. A'hm~d S:h,ah"s,eo.rplr1e ~w.as ne\i!,ect:ft!:cml! ·""d1jje be 1 'I :ved and",r~.s- t~: dis1r111eg['at.e',Qfb~ii' bJ'> dJ1!Ei.tb,. .and II ~:~ ll,~ .. t'.lb~bn:y for tl~l5 ;l'e<ll)on t h'rll hie has net 1:J~lm al -cord d rh!l) pl~ee In h1.5f'0l~Y he de~efYes,. Ul\;U ']U~ 11Y'IlliS the t:OiJ,iUld~1r ,ofthe s€u:l<lQ.zlIj dJ~[I.aSi.ty, Wh1:i~h l~s.te¢l ·to: un s. ,as::\~'eU~.:'I$._.altii~lt U':rrolllgh. a dJJT~r:ent s~11J,trJp:e.,pH'b.~ D~TilJ)'1 '~lJ?Jf1;il~ty whi,ch was to luI ACcglliiulHda.n Uf.Uwl ] 978. U fs under~t~Hida;ble. ~JII!,u.ef(lirr'e, th::a,l; ·tb,e Afgb.IiIIlIS ,S!b~uM Ul:i'JtVfl .eom~' lo; T~,y:at:~ Jr~m "as the il!'atb.'e[ 0' the. N<itlon/i il~thoug~l trl~'a~~ t'lon was, more 01 _'1.' td~i:11 (ion; 1;G!dc:ru1' thm::L a,rry1'fl hlg .apptoa,c;hlng ,~ u1l'tio:n St"H tie, A~-I'II FOOlnotGl to hi~tol'Y~ ~t ,is .p(l'fha.p'S '\\ro~t1h lie:£OIdiilI1g that be recerved rnh:1l the'

,limIt of Bekharn <i; ,*/Il'er;q~ (pa:J;t o~ ~ cl,DtIk. [\~put¢l:y 'Wotu by~'1~' I~[[f)phe~ ]'It~oh;llf'lnl)lc¢lJ "",hie} ~'le: pla}(led. br ~ 'i1H)sq~j - in Kmld:ahar :e 'poiaJlly buil:t tobouse }L Both the khm~q_{l ~n(l tile m(l:sqlLJie l:i,a\~e Sl_qIfV' Y~d ~n the p~cse!i1t day. an.~l the' 1.:11 i1lfj I \:\~s frnmjd.{y ,~nspla yed, 'b~' ~he 'a1t:bllL!Fi l!a~l:'ii.,. Moh~nHl:d Omar~;~lnc-ti' hiJi nielfl IHI~ c:a,ptu~ed Kal\rdal~<il1r in 1994 .

. :JdJi~lU.'!cl ~r:hah WM:s:ucc€!(idJed by h. s: second .son, 'rtnuu.Shah, 'wIio. ma.'~iHI~~ log ~tLth~ twl Lru: of I i:ull'f stn ~.a;glc :!)~'i th 'l'1d;S brol'her SIi.t~·~iRn Mirza, 1)i'Y"hiQl ~ha:~ ,ga.·il1)'lf!d 5ltpp~rt'in···~nd~g.ar; In 177S" p'aItly. to be d(liS~ to his IIJdi~n PQ5S:t!~~Qnli, '~nd piutly to :f']j~ bitlis!.:'U [~om DurnU'ili ~. 11;l(i'~" ' !i'll, mvi t:taUlii.fent(;!dl1.i - D_f,.t.cd to· fICa,bnl,' which he used ati:"fu~ ·§u~'tner Gipiitalt 'm,GlvIrig- to P~sll!ll?'o'~'r '-0 the ··wintoer.Hle su('Geed~d JUI k.lil:iptllg~~~1;l thl~Oll~ -,[lJld.h.i:S, I.:ilrgi!;' h.:UlIeJl'fi ~ m"trr w.rne t.w(J' d'C~",h:::ji w~l}i rri'g ·W~.!i~, a~ tihtl' llpport Df tb' 'tdbes- thili" -on tha:t 01 ~be 12!j,(JOO·si~m;nl'p~f.'!jo.uil!l, biod.j~ii.~d qn:]_izilb~~h uil~rL-e:nasrie<5 which]~ had wnhed:md from- his. mll~l and 5ubS!I1!([i.:ull'ntly k!lllljllrg,l"~ .. , '11~c Qii~ilb-.ilsh also ~~n'(;!d hun 0'- i'l[hn~nLst:rntofS. and were' oOR1monly kn(j""''W! a.s. the ~1,j11'u{al'mi.I~'I~i~'?~ tl:t~, 'sl;r~e'$ o,'u the S]:u-tii. I 13J,,,tng S:ttOll\g~ .l~'sl.a.n·afll-ri)ctl.es, -.':lrnu.j' W~IS" I.i~e hts ~atbt!'lj, il. ul.lvlt'tt-d man, witth a peflch<\ n~ ~O~ iiI~,'chj;te,ctl.'!f,e ;nll(l till" cOrl!i:I:I'lJ,cti,orl offOtlnrd~fI :rd "1.1:-1. Bu l h ' had little ·stom'ach fur fdr'~n.· ad ventuee ~nd,·· cOPtpilretl' ",vl'tlf! n:mch of Mg:ha:n h, ~tOIYI hi.s:wa5 .i~ toJefant ,:lnup;e.ilceftd reign. lie had to tac(lo. .~~(;<;;i!~lQn of r'C"'ltjU~, Wlfl chl~'i~ Qi~il'b~ sh]:u;;uiygtHU,dj managed to sUL press, ()ulInlna:tiug 111 17\91 in a p~ot bafehed by a OOJ::nbinl~U()l"b pr Mohl.~\:uuul:s. ,[Iud Afdd.is, whlcl'l' 1Il~~r~, $ucc.'Cc.d~d+ l1m.uli' hn,dto .c()nc~lIlf hiil1& lfin the fortress at r;e,&''\r<lJ.~ll:r 'WJ;,l"WC ,tlte Q~ziIoosh dealt ~""Uh l.h€. plotters, and he then pJOO,ceed~d 't? torture to d~1lth tWQ' lr,;1;lIcie!!'s 'Of [he OO:ll!l:ptraqr W_110 i1,·ad ~~wm.'!'aLMtdt.~/ to hhu QU II .~K':II' n~l:l' b:r~a"~llpF fhePulil'ltooJ1 code of-honour r:c}r"'lrii '11, Mi (-OJ II t~]e b!,'l', tt, '\'y'.a'S.l~r IO·tl , ,eirW~·!ll1]e.~~,d. IJUdi1.g:llh ,tei,&h~ ,it sertes ,'Of W'i'I;du\J I;j'k"" fJr!,I,' ~i .I! ~'~ll!l'Il!J':E!I'tt'if.l~, l1~I,l'J ~HMI p~''itl ~li1e AnlIi). n~l:rry.oiI

Th~ facts . ,.". dQ:liIO:t ~1iral[1!.ntthe- optnlon that Thml}' iShah 1& ~Ui. obl~ct lif dread :h)' 111l' bordetl:n.g- st~te5,r or thall.llit i")l jiu~lly e:n'l1l.'l~d the c:oli~h~t of Ul~ C~I:it. ·who" 'we h1lvc: been tai!(fth.t to believe. ;;""111, ',nt .sosne unexpected '1]~:on:H~:I1LI sheet across Itht'! lml.us· and [h~ rilng~:s. ili1d·t'UlS1.Une evenour 1.'~,lnOll p:ttlvlnce ~r 11~:~,gml,

. tit' Af~hmls t~lC'm:!e~ves he de'sc{ibe:·· as

01:. ·r(I('le -un1:eUeroclpe·op:le, i1in~ dl.ei,r ~h.i.'E2f"$lt~rve litl'~e luope'rJ:siJy [(J tlik l'e·tim~!:nenb of me, 'which .imlecdl their cm . .mt'ry ls. ill tlUilI:ltllll!d 'to iiuPpIJI .. "" .He~(!.g, gteuel'1iI~y i!ddieU~d to !'1 S~.il:~1Zl of predi;l tory· \'Ntr nne , thclv rna nners ~aT~IDypatt11le 'Of a. bamOlrmxs !tlsQllenclt!'. and they "''0\'"'' <I fierce contempt £01: t:l:t,e, oceupatiens (Jf dVn ~ iI,'e. .

n tb~ [~la.HoJl'~h!p hdw~(!n the [lushEoom illtld JI1 ~ir rul '1' .... , hl~

('r(~m'Hl!E!·nJ!:S ~ijls,o J.l(l~J i'! moee tban ephemeral \,l(l]j.dlky:

The S v mm em Qf HII~ ·Mgfuans must: e-ver recetve a wlC:tghty bi~i) :From the :g~ni~s 'D:f their ruler • .and the degree (I a:WllhQn~y he l~llr~r Ie· (ii~,~. But wt'll. n tlllt'(t:!'lis:trall1t'dj," ln d11! pt;e.s~nt :U~1SJI,; b)1 -Qrne 'lil'c:rno:rdinaty ·p',."v.er or' ap!Dcitr or the ·I)rh:l:.G~'I' 't,h.ccy: ti.isp·ef5 lD:tru ' ·tJ[l~Ues. and are gt.dd.etl tly the f!l.!d~r pdJiu~p'l~s f ~11' ,('emlJ',PrQ. ~('ItI,f 'rll':1 bly' I:ll:l 'thl.:- Sy:"tj!l~" i:'b ' ~UI t~I,1'f]'J cl'1lli,,[tn i~',1 ~ "~I~lliI n~ f!J side :~ 111 '~O.l'l i 11Ji~d 'V3 mij\f'S" w:h~'oo fbi" !lJi; 'I' I '

~tl ,a,~kn:,Dwledg,t;"d. tnougb'(1 mode;l:m,C" '511\i!cty ~'V'f th .Ir ~~~s.!Jils" ~nd yii~-ld ll:-,c."a;t~~es.s Q;Pedt~n.ca to ti1~ ()rtl~r.s or ~O\1l';!I'mt!elJl~; :Rarely <'ill. appei\lU.s .ma,d1\!' to the t1.(:\~I(f.Qf s,l;a:te~_('.xc:epf 111_C~St!~ whkh IDIII", In;vqtliill:!.:ti ca~m.o l. dll;i1g ~'; when ~ hf.!'~~e~~'!l the: .a nt11:ority of the 'Sh{tb i nt:e,~'P'O~d, ~i.tb :!)u:cc€.s,s.

'\V11 .. en Tinlur died in 1:7:9,3'1 b~ Jell: ulJ1\i.~il1I",Js ()f-tlml1.ty"'(;~i(~ll.',e~·.by _~.s oflld,lll: willes. of whom ,IDV!ilr h;\i'~nty.,. ~,"\B:r} sons .. ~s:h~ .had <llio f!i i l.~, ~o nc;nnil:l.I'lie .a su,:;a!ssr" there-,e)iast~d I), pO~'f1t' Iftt'lp(!-ror d)'tlll'StiC !\ltj,'i(-e, or' badsl1.aJlg(,rtH I· U ternl!'y ':nnei"-tUII1J'ilg' I ,a:s U ~'II:s.· poP'ldaily ~:::nt)';':rfii; 1'he n.rth son, ,,za:mao ~fi:r-z:tl'r who h~,pp. ne4;l til:} be in H'le c:ap~~lj ~.I!0k 'the tht~~file, wltl1t:he CI:\.Ici,llfl s\i,ppql:t of Palnda Kh.~I1!. fl DumL'l1iiwl1io' was the ll.~ad of tlhie MqbilJ.T.I]TlJIed2li\i: elan o(f the :pOy\m.f1(d .Iil;ala~;rl s,ilo. ldb~··a:lld had ~rHfr t1l~I1 Ahmad Sh~h'.s W.t1l~'r< tlJ .dep!~,ty: la.m.an j . " .. d ~!,IJll bltJt fWD' of" lliS 'br,O'th~,t~ ,a.o;'1 ~:~.allr\fcd. 'ihem' lnto 'Iih ,~lld then de;dt ,winr reyo'itr,: by tJlt-t:: f8'Dl~l.~iflg t~'O; '~lalWl!!.1!d and .IiiJ:OOlll¥UU. ba~e.d on Hemt .~nd lKaJ rictalv!!!" ~~p~ctlv~ly. Mill'unuJd Wfl5 tfll(JWild 'ro ~t,,'y ,,1lS ~"O'Vll!iI"ill0'r -of He"rllit ;liftt.'t h~sinai.i111 ~~I't. b:utJl~'l1JaY!in~ who} as Tir}Tlrrrl's '~~desr:S9n. wasa CJe3t~r ~1[JrEill. 't"',3;$, l@.It~iI'lt€!,fw.m ,i!Omfl1!lU~Hl by- bel11g bl.iind'ed" z.~tll<!:n mml,IJ,~IJe!d ~~,\~ra,1 d~!iJil:~~ t:~II~pajsn~ ilIS~ilfl,S:~ IIh ~ SUdllS ~u1;d br~eftytook til.l~ol~ i:r;i ,'1;9 ~,i:!; 'l~rurY'1 fI: 'tmS; "Ii::iur, ,facetl by ~!f'~11 r~vol ts 011 the r;IO.lJl't Olt M~~1:1ft I,d" . ~~ed. ~¥: w:.I:~bd:,:r;av;r:i:liIg:1I1d l~a.vJn~ th~'S,t~)sjn PQs~~g.i(t~

Qf '1!th~' !Ia:nis te thJ~ , 'of' t\l,e !m:l:us! $omewlmt !J[!1I:r~'9t,1a,I?Jy; hl~

-in~ffi#~tij1lJ nJllarll~;l;I , .. M<)~.tsed ,~Bct~n - ~n .BdiidJ Ind:iaJ where

111.eit,~ !l'>!t'!r~ f!e~:s ;Hif-ll~ .L1L(!}itJghl ~!i!' a,~~t! ~,o 1!o~:Lm!l,llate.1iI g~~e:r~d uprls,!'Il;ffi, iIilnd tti(;!' Ud.fish: "'~~rll: ~'fi'I'~' .~~ 00' tma~nttjjn an 3r:I1I11:)' 'in~O'I.!I!;nj to ctl't~tlt,er a;n;y·."jnv~sj:(}J1li ~:i:t;"'t t.1l."~' M~alls. l,lug.bt: mount, /l;ct1)ldtcllg.to l.ord Wl2n~S':tey- , the ,\i,orVe[I1Qf.Gel1er~l Of .mBa, j ~vity Mohalllm~dan~ 'WI] in tl1e felJloitesll. t'egJioft' :of the D' d:~nj" • .• W~ite(;;l with. 3nx:itlu!\ :expec~atiQU nie i1pvaliee :q£ the Charnpkm 'of l~limY. In ~eaJIHy! the· 'Chilllllll]/I.on (l,r Islam' had onJya S:1;J:liall, , m.etLtllppoo a'Wr.ly,.,~'h~ I"t he '(,OLlld fmli ~lVllfrl!Jlrdlo ~e 'p' in tlw fi{illd.Wherea~Ahlin'icj SI;!B,h -nnd 'nmm haid estracted the bulk: of thei:r re'~:nl"le5 frO.l]l thrl!il" lnqial'l wpvi:noes' and h~d thl':t$ been 4b.l<! '110' tr1x the' p.ush~:OQn.lrn](!S"l!illld 'in :-Pil f;~flcnl D r I'hc Oli.! ~,r,li'illl~:,. nihu !.v~ly II,wgli,dYI lam,~rl a nd his !IliOO~~~Qf~ :futLlltll theill.sel~~·il~trL;'ilI$:i:ngIY. circull).so:fb.ed b);' a lEl.di; .. '9r ifi.!Jf.ljqs. :a 'p.red:ic~lll n'l Whl~h \W;aS \·!.lC:lI~t'led ~'Y struggies f(u' the SlH~ ~s ·I~n _ il;nd a If!l'tlWUl illl I)i'H~r;r Qif! flilie 1:Hl'tt of fhe tri!b~l 'i;lljef!l)~ Wll' liveR: i'lble tf.;t retain alPpreci~bl(!' l'elfl~nllles mr tbemsel~;ts. Zam~ri .himself is ,r,eiPutedI 1':10; :'I,!11e tit' ~n . d!~vput Musl '01 and (:}:IlI:e,Uiil'l.g. of it . cho~a~, A IPIt~nfli:11 di bul m:Hd !tlid, ,triall~',::!bt· dllilfilJCte:r" bt;l jJ]ilr d -lH W pilit b,

1 hie rrl1i~ll geTll't'jilt:r- uta i:t~ but hdt tbem. J~~gdy'~ t'*' han .~. olf hls,-

1\'MI .. ~r, W~ ,1,~UJ!I.'r. t(hlJ n 1/ '1ii~1!)~" ~lI.Jh~'bl ~ I ~ 'IG 'M!'.l ~!tl! d~ l~rOl1;' )$lII1 veLY·

-------.~--------------------------------

allenated the.Durrant dlj,e;fj to tihe"peint:t\~h!;!:el-Ied by f'ai'f:1:da, l<:ha:!,li lihcy .. pJO~tJfl:d'~ revol t, :bm~n drseoveeed tbe pJ:ot. alld '&xlla~te.d, l'}aiiIl:da [{J:1iil1ll', an aet UUlt ~':ro~p~ditfl a~mJi~~1,E:a,:bi.H~~l ~\'!Itelh :J<ilnIJI. i~aJ~nd!l, Kh:~l1].s ;elde'5t_ ~O'n~'il,1,~d. Ma:hmI.R.I, then in .IJ'Ai!lj:!! In P'el5lia, 'Tn UI{lO, M!1Illi:nlltlld ·~]l;d ]'!atcl:l' ¥han '1;00...11;" J.<]~:mt" ,!Hltl 'wtlJeill. ,Z:"l"Il'fOI'li remmed

b~$f'UYr:<fr~: l~la.,,-i!J~l:d:r~~l~I~~tt"Il,gaJn~~ :he':~l, ~a;p,t1il:r~d,J~;.!U llJn~ ~;~d rum b,l.m"d~ ID hlS, Jl\,lrn. MabulO(LiSC'tz.:ed the thnill1lc,lnd, Hid wl'il:h

bn.ll.uedia-be :.oppGsitiol1 from Sb,a:hc Sbl-ll~'1 !ZaBmn' ,·-fuU IJtGtbet1, who. ha.{l.:.b~li/('i ho.kUng hshil,WiU on td ,beli.ln!f. ".t\tUl. Shu.jn leclmE!d him~'!eJ . ·Sh.ah-,an,d mamhed: '@u KallJ;llfl) ilju wa5' de-fooled Ii}~fln,,.i.l:rm:) .~d .b:yJlmreo Kh€lifh Gblb:at IlCjlvolt§" over tl~,e .t~, foU(')>>.1i y ~fs~.pbo~£'j)ll'ed-j, s did

k!l~tldl er nti:t':illpl: y S~h~rl ;·ihUi!J· till titk£ [to " 4Jl;[" bll~t fb,e Ia.t.~f Wltll,

~Vet1t!Jallf ·~.~'cc-e~sfi11 CI~Ei]~g _J$03', _ aced. 'Jij(ritiJl Sh~, • .s"nru- l.ftob ,In 1.~a~buJ,p Ma.I'.l.ifjH~1 :~I!;'i.I:S ml,ablft 'to' 'C'o.n:ITu1 l:1.J.e :dbl1a:t,lo,n .arrd I\rl~ ~JPPlt"l'.nl:'lf'i:I:'li g1i!!;'!;!' SiHi.jll 5jlil~ll~~ lih~ 1I'J'.PFOj1ih~~l!th" te ~,ilke the ci~y, PIt't:ch I0l3ln jl]ed! ~nd }da;i1mud -.5.1;ibmilt~d). b~r th]s:: ti:rll'e there wa.iir1.o bUnd.lng O'[.e~ecu!tiI.01'lp a ler::I.~eti.·y wh.it.h: Shah Sil:mi:a\o~!as, '~llle~: 'In 1'@g.l'"l1!t,

U 1i'I!:ilSi dlll,rjj]~ lib ' n:lgl' of S,h~JII1 Sh'~J'ii rh~.I'llbe (i:t::st ():!tic:hd (:Qntact was llulde bet1)\reen~he Jilriti:sh·.rucl'P the ·Afghan. kiQ,gdoml}'!o'ihen al1,ol her East Jndia. COID:p'3:llY. o1JidaJ. MOfll1il'Sruilii\ EllphinSI:U!~e,tl.rliv~d" in "Pe.i,ha'\I'IllU' in .ISCl9 !ill .!1I:f'at)f.I~1,~~lng, mil'!!ltiun 'to fh· Afghan court, El:plhlnstQm~'$Wmlgfhy lI'epott'3 (Ii his mtsslon has become ar.;hls.s,k and, despite ~h.- t\\.fQ t~Iltllriesth:al have· slnee passed, J$ tlll one :of the mos] C'Hllp·~~tl!lT;1si\!"~, andp\'!!~Cl!!,iJ~hre ~'C' O'tlflts ofth.~ AfghiHl. 1kh:1.!;ldmn mild S;oo~ety tJTI,u,t J:UI~ been written, With 'the asststanceef T.l:le:mbe:r.s,of his m~ipiill~ E~p!liIlSh)'IW g~V'e'5 an. e-,X:h~:U$.'tl¥~ rell'ie:.'I;i,·' oj: Ikh:e c:U:t:n!1lte~ lC!og'(ap:l'ly, agricl:l.1 n:u,t?, oon~.mQ:~c~ liind bl-:slory of Afghil [1 i.s~,' n" 'bill t 'iJI1 tJle (e~Ut.e of the bookare deSICILiptjtm:s, of its g:ov~m.n:aent ,iilnd,soc~et"}~ Wh.I . .rh ll:e"w!:o'l'e p,e~$OHiilly~ H.e sees Uu!Argljim kingdom .lSft!'!s:e:ll.1bUrig ilntle[1't Scotland} 'l'1IotiJIbl,y tn

I'h' diJecl: PQWI.'I" of tin: Ki.n,S .. over the t-ow,mand the countl'}' i'lln:m~d]aRely ~:roU'!ld;: thepr:ecarlmlS -subJ;lllssion of ~he' 'nelll'resf d(.l.,ns~ ll:n~lt.h~ lilld~pendem;:e of the remote ones;; th¢ ]j)ord].l1a~~ PCl\,'lt1l"t a!i1id ~aetion !!'If' nl~ I\l>hilit-)it Inolit comn.eoted wlth. rh:I:!' court; .~nd tb~~ f,el::tH(JII)5· borne: by aIlth:e i!'.I:'.eaflolie!:s t<:!tl1~ t,-t01lm. ... Th . .ere iSf@<:Iso.n 'to fea.r tn,OIt tbe s:ode~li~$ ~U'l:O whic.h the' 11fi'lil,on w~ dlt'Vi(L d" POS!l~S' 'wHh:ln ttu~tm!~l VI;'s. 11 r~r~ nc:-i pi t:' ,of n,'1plilij.6n;antJ disunion, too sllf'Ong t() 11Ie ov.eocowe, .ex.<;ept by .ll.d'll" Ort~ !I~.';yhH~ it l~.n.i.t@d. tb~ whol~' Into on.e·.soJd b@dJ!j

'''' lU~d ICfiIi;lSh ,al1rd Ollliital',nt~ Ul\3 rOilt:l.ntl~, of _'''' "',)' one ¢:F tho .~~Im.

'P,'lr:hhl :tj.~fI ' II~ IUS.~,nil~i- htl~v - \'i'fi 'th':tt fOf_1II it~L~n:I'I~ b~ .iJn~ d .: __ ~I,e~ II~ , J.\ {gh tin y;~tl:!l11l'&'\olD141 t:U1U.(;A 0\ Utf!!, nupd(l\!1 alild IP~w~JQn lQ ~1(t.tijI1 fOl~l1tlll tiM Iikllf M m1 d -S.I'" lJ' In:

l:n J\~g_Il.~llt~t~n,+ , .. ,1,1111i!." y.n~er!'~~ai gaV~.'l'f!.f~~. t 0. ~'. tl'l~ tl' ..•. b.;!,S .rlr1f{Wel'~. ,it~ ~n~l so w~l]'f ta;!.i.nrh~ ~~tm,q:it dlSQ;rd!l':lts of t~h~ irny<1J .. gpiV~~i(t}I~~l n~v"tr ~I,erp,;l~ .u:~' &~xaUd:ns~' nOir' dl\'l~\.!I:rb the' ll1'vf;l S

~tf '~9,~(?~O'ph', J:\. f.l(~ mb'~1:o~~ 9.iW'l[l i sed! .mr,ndi J'1J;gl:l! .. ~~).irl.t·~t~ l'epl~;bliell a~ ',~eil.dy.- t(f~fe.nd.;fl:leEr [ug;g~d eo~~n tMt agaiIJiSt.3tj.';r.J;nt;, .ir:ncl ~te' ~b:~.'i!,w:,(lief,y t1~i~ebU,~ ~ifi:;l!.'bn~fci! narrtv _~n_~ 'C]vU war.

, •• A. • "'. • ~ - It": • .;;.., . . ' .~

:Sci~mnij:ltgVlt:~ Jon'! ~li8i;:u~$~OtllO:f ,tlle Ar:g,~:n. ~i:!fact{!.r,~, hr. tQnle:ll11d.e~:

T,he;lr \rto!.'5 ~l:m' r.eiIi:tei~~I)~nvy"avafOOc~, fll'pa:CUJ; ~l1d 'ObStiUI~LC'Y; on I;h~ o:tll~~ .ha[1ld ( I~h~y <Irci, ~q.nd qj1 UO~~~~ f~~ i·t~h.rul. 1[0 t h~)r flil'~,dS~ k!,r~d _ tp ~ thjjjJ"[ '~te:p~n.~~n~:~:; hOSp,j~abl$~ lJtdlV'e, h,mly., f[;tf;gaJ; l<,a~b?rIQ,~,~~,)l:md ,1!rt1AeTI~; ~~1£1 ther a.i~; te~$ cl!I,';~Q~~!J ,~llan: ~h.li :O.f!~I-O:!lS' ,~, d~~:lrq,~igt1~,XlI~I'hOt)tJ 116 (1f!ls!th()odl. In_e:/ 31rid ~ec~l:l ~ !. .rt\ vlsittiif ''''nni~difind· it d i"(i1c{]lt tP toa~p:wL':: -he,"'''''' ]JlaJtH:m:r~:m~,~ su]:D.:s.j~t in c§;Uld1 d~s~rcer[; and wow:ld pIty tb_{Mii~r!r""·ho 'w~r~ :~p:!np.~tl~# ttl PiJ!li~_'lh,~lr -~l~¥s in - ~'u!ch aJ sc~nr::~; and ~vjhtJJH': . ' "~~v,j.e~e: tf~t n~c~bY" tli'l~lr ~Ullbappy sHi.w;tiolfl to· fraud and

"I{',njC~~ t6roph~~,.~eoei:L, ~:nd,~\;(l[l,g,'ii~Y~t, ht\i!lOU'ld S1C:3rr~ela:l:I W" ~dmJ;(O th~II lTI~r~~a:l, ~:~d ]oOln~ splrU. 111Ie:~r ho~p~t~~Uy. and 'lihilt1! i;j?:]~I}md ':'W~]plgm~ntl":l'~~:p1 ·(!.qua:]ly r~lIil(Jy.('d tmm the ~}~W?!~d~esS;' ,of a .. 'EiH~'nl' ~,~~~'e jMj,'k\l~~~~n:l ruisHci~Y ~).:f a. d:n~ni . wOL_1idil)['pl~aibly, bl.!'r~if,fi;I(lng cl.i~c{)\!Thf).1imong so lliUlrcl.Y tli.'d ei1'\1.cUed hi$ disiu~t'!' fbe:n:Ld1mt!nt:H)I ma,~ly; virtues.

~Jlfl~~11~~~lte-wa"1> '~~iU'~~IY TrJj~ch L"<I~~n hy P~shill~¥<\cr; whi,ch 'hl:!'-:reacllJ-eii ~1I'l{th.e <SPtj,l1,gl :~.IlQ .d~~eribeJibiie:(nOU,,'~\rn<lT1iglll:lq~,\'l its 891rde:ilS, o:rchllrils artc.1 :t~'lta(ll .u}:d~ mU 1~"Ol:iu_[fI1t(ldcrr~rl1tfy~ld!jl.! - S(tl ';1g.<lin8t, rne bilif;:l!;;· ~,rou,odtlf -s~~Vli bC)\1~:iJ~dh!HI.$" NCf te,~s <:leiuly, he muc]l !tllljoy:ed Ul~ 'enter,~:i'li n:n1:~nt I itid Ol"'l to\!' bJ~I1f1rtY!:,wliitJt itlld'U:ded' ,danct-'Thg' 8.i!l'~s, 'lt1~~mp~l'ral:l~:Y n~p~~i!(;Ir to 11,1l(:)~e of Indi.aI ]n.rM~j,nGllre~ --IHli:cl performill'!'cc"'. "e Wil5rt)'"idll i~_rlp'[\i;!~~~d hy HIe app~<li~'~.I]!c.6'o'f Sbah S:tttiil~" fa 11<1.ndSiOlue man" }I:I)Out ~h]:rly yel:lt~ 'O~ .age; ot anfJlhiG (m:w!ip:l~n1ciil,. wlrh ~: lhklt blm:k b(:_t,ar~1 ••• hi.s t~)lll'l:·te~~'U(~ff "\l~!ti di~nifl!.?d, airl.Cl, 1P,]e~~.trtg,.h:i!'l VGii(;e d:e11lr, an.d his address priillceXy'. At ~lph fnston~~t\ lintauo"ien0e, the K~rJg.'S' attlre 'W<lS '::;0. glLt~e:r~nfl H~a~ hils, gW~st s :at .first thC1llgl1:l' Il hat he WSI.S \~I~aw1!"J S;'je1r\reIILe£1 ~;l'~~()l!:r.l .. H~ I, un lc '''''Ya~ erncvl1:st-cd \.\lUI1I grild r dila1l10!ub 'fn1.c'i:gE'I:r:I'!>tou£S'r .and 11~ spo:rt€.C! [opes;' o,t 1:iill:ge[)!Eaihi" ~ h!~lctl~'l: beailing. the .K.o.~~i_:Noo~.; iOInd ',di ct~~T! 'S.Ci. t:OI1l'l pJ l,i..".iI ted, j]jud~o dau!h,g;, i h~!i ~ t W.LS dilt~c~ I tte Un.(,;lg"';lit~m,~, itJl'Elj~1IilP'Q'ss(blf' to ~le$(ljhe', Le~$ i(tlp(es.. .. '~v.~j howe¥.~r,w~i vlIlbat, r;jpt.f~l:Isll:;orlt~' 'GouIC1 :gather oJ tht King':s situatwQfl_, lIh- :a~]]]¥hi!ldim'~ D;~(!n d~:IX1~'k\l:! in I<·a~h:m.~:~~il.cl, n'lo:r~ ~(m!~r~U)(f thl?' p(;lW~!; ~nd I'~ I rh:i~l1~ " lOif MlIii;'. '~~rdwi1 hifrll, ~ftet se'vel:~ Ir,'eilf.S ,oi ·d~Hw,~l.r I m!!at4~ ~l~t 'l':h~or~~J)~cl IAn. I~!:~ULH~ lO U~~lCl1' fl:!,e.trlbe:s.,l'he 'jjLrim'¥N,ilIafllcl rh.'\il ijd,b!~~

?( th'e'-:CQI!a~t.~even:uf;) 'l'ra~"~holt;: -~he~l:~be$ r-ebellll'lC'!..$s: and ~EH; arl'lW -T.nlIJlJ"~ a,t th{:l1, dis~~~l ~:~c ~]Jd.r ,mmfU.[)[~der,s" ~hil,ll <1J'~ ~'hl[l"'King:'!lj,~ .. ,_._h1 ,~~O~\ ~~Iy ,~Je~M" '~~k~'~[1gN~ ~lphl!~l'5~:OJ:l'l~' '~Ft fle~'h1!,W~lr1 M~hJJJ~~ ana ,~ii,t~b,. Kha~ J~,?k :tlll~[i'~I~, '~~f;p\l"~d 'l~lld~d);@~ ';a',~d K';]~_lll, a,lldl Jn~t Shab, SliII!I.Ji.,a. S -WI;>Ei:!t!!t!tt :N(kI!].I,lfI'lQ.n~lbl2: r:lIUl:a' '.bet\>v'@.e:n

~i1brd 'il:l~l. JP~,~11~;~<L-:r .. ~~~1(;\Ii.ll:_::'ih~th ~h~]ir W~'1 ded~~: _ JJ~~~~at"f¢.~fiQ{t1};i" ~frer p~:E~ID'(b of ccarti¥Jty m li;;:o1I.$iij[lll'J; !'IFltJ l~lirn.pf~'. 10.:6 ;t;n~fi1~k:~T ~e~d{'lfl J~;~.[U_il~~S:~n~h,j :wr~~~tl.tl.tl'lG ~%I:(~i ,N'o'G'r ~UIDII1i1 b;i!mj Ih1Z'l~~dt.~<lJlf J(:i~~l~~_!,i:'! rnn nll~ . [,~lid~t~L~M. ~jj. 'illlJ!~tJ'i)h ,~m,,~iiIJlillltQ:. Oni~I' toI,~,~ .,i l;l,u~H Y'

I1om~~"l~ rul~ of M.r1hml1:.(!]". w,b@~ae.v.r:rt~l.)lhiiin)i;~cJ.f ,~'ij. d.~-ll~lllt\··. 'ill\ott~

U~t;j . ibal:eh .KbJa n pll~l~~d,W~~, {'lull tl).er&i[Jg:d'Qrn,. b',L:.It .~~ JUU ~ t;w'W

fd~ot~l:1 I,m,d [lrttdc~ T~llWl ~~~ -li:illllld~~ ~~i1l;d ~lJ08~~~li~n:t,I;Y' t'uJ'~ute~{ n~d b~i;;a Ily lilll~d, b¥ m~eaFl~o:f:~f:Pg:W-8sl' ... 'e djS\nlif!mbe;m-~e~),t,r' by"M~h:([ll<]d and. h I~ ~O~ Xalntrn ~ ~~:tJ;za~ a ~I;I'm:~~~~'r e:~~eri, ID.,±l.~~-d~g~nara;te thiilo _hisf~tJu~~~'7Wlt~ P!J,Q-\JPJ,.ed'~gen,~t!'llLL~jWi~i]~l(j leW, t:l~ 'Bar~k¥iil~!'i,j whn, d:e~erued, MaM~ud '-,it11Jd" K~l'Irtila;Il olfldl d.oove-, th,.em. to.- ~-]etal, whel)e I'.<"!~n~a~,i'ii!l~c~doo- h,ls,;lolther tn ~82'9 and ruled, a;t;ie,:f.ist. r!omH~~ll'V:

Y U I'il, 1842. HtJ,we-v~~[ l'ht:Drl nd:rt.U!i~ .. atthat lwi ut PC}~$s~!:d nr:l' i:ilw,j;g, ].e.;Id-er ,~,ndl "1A:"eJf€ u;n.al~l€' to ~~e: on a S"t!(;(,€Sflor. As, blfji~h(;1"w:tlrdl d~0De:r~t!d .Into! '~n;<Jrchy~ so the C;!Jl:'lFI~ :crea~~d, by,. Ah-rntecl S~lah, fili'! illll 'Y' .d.'l~'i! !"lt~gl·.'l!II(d.

The Rise of Dust Mohammed

Wi· Hill he' ".,'as tb~' e:t1ecti've' fIJ,leE of Afg!lru1istau Pateh Khi:ill pPOi'n.' ~~iviltiOU~:. c;f._lli:.S, half br~nrhers! . WI~p I1U'.UOli) 'r!d :.OTf'i.e . wenty in ~~I~!i gO\!l.lJ''I1'[U1i of :p'mvll1,ces. ,Be 'W01IS ,,:mrl:lfl.d to lI'I1D''o'e lI'Mm, ,lIIro1<md ita 'o.ide~~ '[fl[lr~v,eJlt tlte-fuit C:l:'e,il.t~(lg O"!'!!lNltl'OOg power' bacslas. ~u'l 'll\~o.. ,et~ ~f [uU bh)~h~rsll1:;i.riil8,M, tOl10Jd (:'In I.U. theh: pr,C)"" n ·I·~ (lWU '~lodll' ci:f years, ~h~ one' ]1:1 J~sLl~r,.var'arl(lI the' o~hif.:r in ~n:dahirr. In, pesb,an~a;l:,~,:five l~rot:heTs., led illitia,my h, Ala .Mohammed Khal1, (,:I!!ni~ 'to' b~ kno~\I'nj,,,,,,ah. Ull:'iIi d.es,c~n.dlmt5. as the ·'1'~shaW·Uf S'ltdl~,I'I':S,l, Whi~~ tn K.1-Il'<Ii!:l:l'.!lf .~motil1;c:[fi,ve <Dil' broth(~~ and tl::iei,:t: de$c..':en~;Qf'j.1'ft i.if,$,t. l.~dt b\p Plmdll Khanj came to be knownas 't'h~ 'Kfl;:1Ida:~1Ii1' ,Sllf 'hU'!l<' F'oU{jI~\1'!ng.l;at ~h Rhi1 ]'S blinding, tlUiJ murdce, l1ljj(!' R!till~'in;lng ItHpth~F bjggan to contend fur -PGW'cr and the .en5'u~n,g ,eight }'lHr('.$VI;\ih-rle:sse:~ 3, k..<I:leid{)Sq;lp~ ·of fratdddfil (;onflictand tll'eadl~.r¥,c 'W~t ~1 a!illilC'cC$~ion ,elf ,I'i.,.r,a.bi. haldhJ,I1 H::<ibt~'1 IfQ'f sbo:rt~!,: Q ~ lCIJ.lel,' l~l"i'OO~, 'Ill~i:ng lldvilnt.agt: 'of these di:_:;~~nHi.O:llsJ ~:h~, Sll .. h ruter Ra.njI't Si,n:gh' annexed Kashmi[ tn 18:19 -, and later; alter (tett'~rlng, .1 Durr.an1 arr!lj' In!IU Attock, 'e}Lt"nd~d ti~S. i'll'lthori1,y !lice .S Ihe. Indus to P'.sha1i .... 'iI~rj Whill!f'l1l he deJitl'~yed -the buJ1di,n:''j and garcd'en:s which had ~; d,~~i,g'!rl,t~d rn'ph.m,st'oJl.e:. Unttl lS3-4~ 11IOWeve.f. he allowed the 'l)@shaw~r: $Irda.rs' '170 cOllUnue.: to g'!i~rllI th~ 1;.~l'ty and ~J,eii!i:'l:b()urbaod. Iftanj~t ' ;ingl j WIi'Jt,l had oriig;i,mt]!y 1[J~en fI]l'j1'(}intcd Governcr of the Pun" I) b b,?Za:rn;(ln Sll!!ah,\\.'as it fute,t of e·· eeptlor al abHhy and acunu '11. 1(11809, b!! hfld slgn(ld a In:~dy ~,,'m~ lhcB:r.itisl whi,th Wrui to la~t until his d.~ljU!l ~n t8M~',i1,nid they C.lIJI1'e t(J :u·ega,li'd. hlm ;I1S ... t'.m~t'l\\!mthy '~iilrdJl.U '01 a !i(['ID~~ blJ~lcr s:tat,e.

, ", ',Ill!; ~~,t Lha :~n_r~lY that pfCNililed to , .. \fgh~nh8~iml ,g:n~ of the

"Oll.l'rih~r~f tl1,'" Rl'l,l!"aki.ilil brc.i'tlLl"dJolil Moil1a l1tnled 'KI 4'1]:1, gJ:oIll,tUl1Uy-' ;m~m uv~iklli~m" @If il1tt1 a po'itiOi {)f sUPi[1 III powe:r iL~l Ka'bul. 1\ til

offspring ,of a Qlzllb~'lih mother, ih:e had' ]j)~Lm ~oQkL':~; riI€!'1!'I/(J on by most oflli:~,b;rotbt!J~ and had spenll'i!iudC},of,!liil, .;Q~ h till d~f :IIh~ proite.cl::1QlIl O,-f'flt~h Kh_,II'P.!. 'FOt whom 'h~ EllId ill It:~.d-,ll! M;lrva:\'ii iI - ~1t'iil11111 "0 i-. 1.t was .he .whGlir'!j1'a~ hl~gt",Iy.I!Ii::)'pO:Ji1s--ibll;'!.f()i. Fatli;:,'b mil cl iV'IlI\1f:a,I!,\ ~Jl~ '~he!..l. In 'L{Sll7J tlc'l.e ~tdltlO(\l :DtHucl:~:e.d to hl'e~a,;t lQ ~~@:i1lC!d Jt JVill~ ,i;!i th.I~i;lten~d PI;!l(.51o!il,1ll 1 r,iy .. ;sjo:r)il'~1.~" lutllClrl-iJ]:flLS' 'I~t h vn h~ , '~t Ul ~,dl'll'~ I nthe COU!;S~ of the In,cuJ;'Si.Qn, Dust M1Dhl.l1l,1ueilL, e:a~ered the, ~ add.fi~iij harem, 'wh~lie ~a:III,ongs:t oWm. 'url.pa[d{lr1,ab.le ~e:edBI, be l~iilJ!F~, ~WII, I Ui~ '(!'w~Ued b n,dwlii~h !i~'Iluil'~d theJJ~"tnu.'i 'f:ir >h~' :wm~".@f tl·l. tll'h;r~ hfalek f(asi,ro •.. ; si~'I;eii' ~.f-Prific-ec :K.1tl1.ra;l1'lu. ls ·~~,as· paft~r. irp ~~'r11ll/-?"-rOi!' tlds, ins,(llt :tllilll Mabn~tt~ 'anJd I<!!!tl:1Ja'fl !llUJ\iler@d ,I'at~jn X.I,r,fl)'n· : 1r~P. Sb.Oil"fI1"!i~l 'I'nrn-, 1-~1l!' Ml'nlu lh,e!r hands, OO,l Mohlltlll'ilfl0d pllm-elf' flt~d' into exne in. Kashmh: .... whew he '''''-'<IS' held nnder I~~tra]nl: ,by :Mphali1i:lled Azlul Kh<l!ft1 F~~~h·KhaT!lts n~},lt sen~or SlIl\~ivlng .bra"bgf~ On r~~i"11 -r<l1,~ n's cill!',f,I'l h, :~~,'!JW~~VCI'., h~! t",'!!IS ilUOlo\.~d to d,~!p.a r~ iI,r:Dd 1'I1ov~d ,fig:tuinst Ka~~:l1.;iI .. lvlu.cQ aJt .the 'ti Itl!e!i'l!'a.sri;omi:na~]y heldhyKilI:JlJtaln":s $.0['1 Jejl.lu~glr', but ttl_ praetlce by a Ddr-rnni ~rd~iUt b~~ 'l1'u~ name 'of' Al~ Mohlllnnn:l. DC1:lil Mnhamm~ I 'OliptLuGd and '1~liln4f1!d tht~ 11"~ter and. then .aH~cked, '~he- '~(l;JilJess, the Bala Hlssar, where Jdl~I'IIgi.1i' 'was'takin;g r~rug:e. f~olmg ~rJd bt'llutl:!Eul'. 'Ute I.tiStDri!lfl. ·51,r J'ohn :[~y~ reO]]'dsl, f[Jlle~HingirJ W:iilSi the d:el:igh~ of. ~h'Q Women of Ci:lul')l~]1 but he tl;ad Ee'"' lTien dis" (lImlD_I1g tJJ.Cc chiv~l[y ~f theempih"l', Dost Moh~fi1 rued lli'l ie:~\\" 'u.p pm of,'the llikl.l<i HiSJ;a r. and ·~:de.'th '!it I ~ ~ }ehi4! 19b' In 'I:bi.! .fa~', ~~lm\\'e';'I,n. 'tht: \ .... ~i)I1')C~l ofGQul~llW offciii~d ttp pra}'e'f~ kilf t.h· !iafety of the b!l'aiIJUtu~ p:i'iJ1.c<@:' a,11Id he managed te mlil.~:e hts, escape 'under cover QifdBtrkft~S;S; and ~, bt'itJv.y d;jw.i'l'polU.~, (}[~ili1t~.

I .. ~~ MolJifll)1l'iii'Cdi W,llSil'illtiediiate:ly el1~.l'lelnge'l, at l<ab~I'I, by S'll1Jh :Nfahmll,ld <lind 'K;;1n'jJ:an, but at th ·I,ast moillient, ·for ['easons thatare' UI:'i.dte31'1 Ultly let'.t ei;mnclenc~ .md_n'tl['l!a~ed tiD 'Hl:!rat The Irau:n~ry was Uiien as;o1ht lXJ!I"C~Il,t!d ,out m-ll,on!,!; 'H1.e ~\ai!:'alU:ai 'll~CI'lbets; :Melm:rnm~d ,~mimKt11I11! wtiO had ,started bybd!1ging 'Shab Shmja ~tb. htm but Il~cl :r:allenpu.n""nl) him t:1'rI the ~'\"H.r '.~e!to1.i.nl\!d K3bul l'o:r hlmse) I ,Ule, 'Dil.' brothe'!'~r~tufj~i:'d t,o Kanditlh(lv im'd tl'll r-"eslfa,wa:rSli'liiiu. uow led hy· ,Sult!l'n l\··fol)alllmoo. KhauJ ,again held that 'C:it}!~, Dost I\Irohalnm;~ ~l;1:::.:lJnll'~~t!'d Qh,<Izn! and later Iso assumedcentrel oj: Kohl UI-D" which tl~ n,1,d ~!;'I.rW~li!e' h~ld'on. heh~U ,oll-Shiih Mj;)1l:i11Hld. 'll.J\r'IiUl ~h : help ~. ·the Qi~Ub~~h communitYI h~.p:rp~esslve!,y. fi'~:rengthellfl,~d 1111s I asH.on.. lin KoIbuJ and 11l1a[l.mg~d to survive lW'O .pJoulo" bILndl1hn. (001 y MI'l~I'lti,i"r'iIld l\:7Jrn XI'f n!s !ii mJH~lbi;bunah Khoill1~' -untl Ut' IOtllQ)r by';9,~,:e,~d.u Lllimn -fi'..qtn .Ka:ndilb~f •. ltW 18.261 'he' ~\l~s,sl£Rn.g ~iI1'~!;(gll to !,tJ!.;.\'!:fut~ :~~rl~r:QI of t,b:e c::1,'1:~.111i H;l.]~~, b~ ~1-'ild tlC,H:I.~fl!:'l\lid bil'.~I.r ~J'Olll ~i'I' i!Uil!;k 'I[)~ !!:UlIh ~~1,'IJil;'W~'Uij, 'np,urM'{1 by ~11 Itlll"d'l In H1~ fOl'm~>f ntflJ lI:tJ'\fflh °C o~ Ii!)., J -'J1~OI'\I II!~ '1,-\,1 'n ,J\!! l;y num ri. of [1il'l'.-il1~ Ihj~f \l\o~ht) rll, "111':'~ 1lI,E!r, 1\.~{JII·ll~i.l, -~U1'lt.W~ l,r.'1Il':I'II In ,d.'orit:lut1l.'d ~dIllNJIl'

wilti illtjJ,nli~t SDIIgb ~!nd lT~~~'j,;hc,d fh;c'ough 5:1'I1d ito.andah~r.. Th.~'re T,.lOS,[ ::iI,ytohmllJlmd and the 'KfillId~lhi:i,r S~rd:aI's 'ilf.!'fe~ t,~.d 'bfm ··iJ~. a cl<Ci~e: klu,glrIt !ba_tU.e. w'hLch 'h:e J~$,t ()n.!I}r~h!ougJ:l. ~~(k of, lHmle~' anr::i rt' q~~i tt ·.i. " _I sconer had tHs, Un't!i'iit "be:~lL~iit wh'h, hpw- V' ~:r; l:lrmn Post 'Mob.amro~d found th,at Ri1I.·1Ij;Jt Singh had t~~erlLthe oppoj-u,lru~y tQ; se.:iz 'l~e:. s ba!milJl'. 1 $t.ren~t:hen .his ,IHIl~d ln :r~pu~~lnd l:Il~ S ~,11;s~ tlt'lliJ Moli1,!lUiIi'!tHed H;:'is!;li~u~d~li~ tjUe Gf it m$r u/~Mrmfii ~iu- ~ aJm rmand~r of the 'f:a'it1tfll1) <'In-di presented the c~l}iro.L1U!:t1,(ion·~$"a..{eli:giO(uS \~~,r. Ho!t\'-etr~r, bel_for,eh,e>cottld~~pgage IR.mWH " ingh 11'1 b~l,tlr~~ _Ill" JiltU~f nilillll,age:d to

upo:rn SIi.'~Ua'n. !\J(,o b iHi:t.med i(ha'll; who des'eli'ti!dl at~d !'([,!-f1l' II 10111' with no .llt~Jmf.lti'ire bUt to. retreat to IDd:uuL TI.I.e! foil owl n g., ye"'r. ·<m6~i1rcr .au:em,pl:.led bY'O'(,'I\fi~ Mol4.2imnled, '15 son, M,ol~,~lInrnl.'lll Akb~r, ,lit"· Ulb:d in. the·dehll'l JI d d~th of U1 "ilkh g-J1(l,r~.I, '~~arC$hilgh~ ih;a I~'l:tl~ at

Jamrud, but IldeC! with an ,-,Ugh:ar:l Wi1thtlnrw,d. ln 183'6, I)~t MohaJl.lI~rl:"ed ''\!"3iS reeoguised by hl~ bX~llh~r!. LIS ,An'IJbj jj'IU~o1Jgh bedding lil'tll~' [~1()f\(r 'thtUl u,~ ",rea ~.f'Ollnd lQ!ti~l~ ,~nd tlhlii:t&1a, He OO'iI~ inuutu'to smart at H'Je l05~ ofPesirll{lW,ar;_ ~il!1d inl"Ttl.oee¢1 'lhls~o.s.s was to he 'el1grav'ed.;on the heart' o[ every !i:llb~egulel1l. Argh~n~ul 'r.

A. hil,ndf j r outside 1~~t\I'. r~, ha\~ lallt us with; a d.~SGrl"p'ti(1J11 of !I)()~t Moh~IJjlm'~P.~ €liIal'l!Icler and app~a-ril!:r':JJ.c~. {);Il~ '~~f the~ewa~"an .J\;m,e:riC'3!~l d'(Kt:o:r, $okli~r and ad;v~.n'~~II'Ii!i;1 (l~Lilb.:1 Ii I'lao. who .ilL' n :po".1' t W,i1!i ,&1 g~nel'j]J1 in Dat iI\'~(Jhiln1medf" ~um:)'. Hadan deKlilobe.i! 00.5t M:ob~!ll.merl ~'!5 ftn "'JjiOI'QUS health', althoo,gb :iiUghtly;.)'\'Oopm.l., rw:ltich m.:lUtatt'.'l, agai.rlSilL the .C;{)imm~ind~!1g <Jp:I.u~arOln(1U:· 11:1.$ pltrSr.}fI 't:". otl'1l'~~wj~ ro:t't'll~d 'to ~mpH~$_!i. wl"DM, ~nim,lIt~1 by ~novC~!iMion (I)' exdted by p.lssio,I.'i,'. Hi's dress was 'uIlMfe,ct('d Olnd,P.1~iln",an,d U seems t:htil.'l be. was {;arfi,ful to lr~UJt h!b MUI't In ,I ,1!~I~'ked In)i 11e.1' ~ '1il 1,113, ~'t:TUl'it$j insluup' cont:I'!i'! ,I, 'to Sllilt~ Siulja'5 ornate iil[Jipeflf,OIJl:O > and Ilahi,'·of stan:dling' on M~ di"gni,t? A 'view {If him lat,er 1.:" UFe. perlJ1ed, by a .Brl.ll.msh Qlff1cer; Co)onel Ha1'1Y Lurnsderr', was itb~t he WflS 't.all", of line l:lh:y~k!11 d",wlopii;UeI11', and I'l {1'1;)l1· ·loll~~d·oiI kitr!!g ... Hilll manner l','lia~, ()'1..1 rb~'o'~ISi ~i\'hlle' hb 'I(e<en'ey~s ... nd vi gflm~rSoomrel;sa [-lion oCoo.ve:y~d the idea of .~o"J1 detrminatio.n (.'~mlJit'lied wU:I!:u, astutL'l'H.".'iS !lind oilpp~da,HQn ()f twmour ",. Iw lr.aH-ed 3 sp ... .d,~ ,lI sp:&!d-e .

Anotheli obs;e:n~~~T '!;if'as Charles M~~son, 31'l odd charac'ller ",!~b_o kl)Ockl'tl j;I.1' und d.1i.": rreglolll for: .si)'ill~ }leJrs !l.ud liIel'ill'L'L'f 1SZ6 nd I:ns· oe IIp'~ed h imm~IC'U wi't11 "'m:tiquari.lrfl. ji'"'!le.ar,c h~'~ i ill . f\fgha 11 ii'itilU. f.l~\:Va:s.ifl~{.!ct as [be "Britis;h disrov$~:r'~d, 'c' dir!s!!t:ter' from th,~' .BellgiLl Art1Ue-JY by rbe r1aotl;. OrJ!lJ:rle[.L:!Wi~,a,ald he CV. IIIUI.any rruc,eiV'~cd all

Imdi~1.:1 PiIlIrdOfl fOl' tht· s rVliclll"s he ftlJ'lider d (H! Rt:ltl!ill ng 'Ilt i~n KAbu!]. !'It:! WllS W, 11 ~IOCJ)U'~lwt d ~wLb DII)~!t b.·jotl.amm~d" E1n I 'h:ill":,'Qb,e-f:vaUOll::l ahmLL him. ooJ:ltai.'ll Iml~h Il'h.n'l ·is· (l,r in,tG.'ril:lSL M~:kon UI,~}l to rI~:1'l1lJi1. ~ylsh' b ~;~ll'I" WI1,tU 11'1: 1i'~1;: "f,~ls ~~ If)P!i>L Moh'(l'rn'rrrcd''''i itu t

'h~~[mt(l'll3in~J ~11i ",·~ct~Cln ~ I'!FI'Qf~n ~m '11 lUlll:n. (~tJnrbl '11 hem WI

C01:.tl,d s([tHl'cely tb.r~ve.., , ~ ,Had he bee- . .nbPrlll tp le·W'timl;id~ Ipr;l'l'lr.l'ir me ~\·(lll.lld hav~ rfig~I;.r~t:t v,t!.!ly respectabXy; .hJ~ tW'l!nt~ w(juM~ hia,~~ bd ',. I.'~h· 1i~Jld r.r Ih~if: ~te\leiopm:e'n'f~lnd "xf:r~'[~ ~ ~nd hie w~liIJd ·b.tuwe b Uon ~p-iJr~d ,U~~ .. ,?,tnmis:stci~'.?:~ :n:fltlny 'eti,O~~l'l!ie~" ,~e[~ u:I1'Il!ClJCS'S"fll1(_ l~~~Clp.1.i:ng ~'D .Mas!\~~rlr., Q~:s~ .M~ht\mr,n~'U ~i~:W' up ~UHh~'l'OIlt.ld atiltJ ,111~Jte~tQr ,nnd th.e i:nRl!e,nc~ of F,al: h KI.lafl, Wlla ',Masson ,L'nr,s fiad d

••• ·oJ ., ~ • !

propl.'!:ns:io/ tio hon:(9~~llillif)' • .mus'. ~l:ID' b:a'f'e !beend)~ImftlL '''Cae-

iJ~mp].e ,of the' ~I.ss.(ll,~k!;i ~~, Li Kh~.n/ I ~1'~,sS01n ob'!t~r v.~~" ~'~nu~t have Jt!,rJd a p~tnliciou~.tff~ct m' .'t·11Ie m,tlra~:lo!'of'l ~l()~C l.mt11edrlal.;~l'Y ,1II,O"UlIr'i,dhifn.. 'lr.;ld Dost Moha,rl1!n~~l it{b;,lD U.lj;lY. £~ait:il] comnlfser.1lti()n. '~\i'ti~l It is oonsid,e.redJ th~t. h,@ ~Vll~ ,c;tevarted tg m',I!Mood amid jjlQ 'dil:i"gt~te 'ul oll'~:I:~s i:i.f" his bito~'l'~r;, Dt)~t Mobarnlllcd was a:loJ, in 'hi.,' '}ro1o:Jthl ad.dil:f:eij 'to 'vvfnf! a7fl.dw3!:;:j:·aPiJP<I!fentl)~ eft.e.n tQ I\!.(sf;'!·en bl a $t;a;te~Q~ illeb,rl!I,l~lQn, - A~ -c:a.rl . be'"j 11 Ull'.r..oo fw.L1'i tb\! "r-Ief;ll. InC!idll.IU~ h~ WIllS i\lOO hcnd;~'t:r.OUlilr and more' I'IFi:l!lfll t;lnc;;e riOt!.nd liltt1:5elfin tU'iJble a~ a ~oD5eqUenc.e. 'Nev~ItJteNesl';~ asi· .~ta:S$o-n ·goes{fl1, m ~I.l:r; 'wheo ]'If: became n,a'li~er oE K.alnJ.l. h~ laJbl'Ul'~d. ~~h:'l:C!. ~.I1.d other !J.'lrtlaWi:u] 'plefUu~s . , "I ov'~n::sj,me the neg~Kt of :bls' you~h~ "Int) Ieamed.to re::a~ ~1,~\d ~,,'i:ite. He ~-p!pe.leJi'l.fly. 5·tudloo, th '~r;}'{Th·daHy;. MW~.LI as bistorrr ,,,:n:1 po~by, bt ,1 is de~Uuss IN.ith h.l.~ $i1I.ll'l~ LSi he walif(iul'lJ'1 n :he' ·~e(i~s'Stbl,e.Ji filir and·iml?3rtial,. and .:i:'lie' giIDined·.\I :1I'l':(lu!ti:lillj,QrIr f()li"justit'e, WIJ.¢re pt;l~i ucs ~ete lID~'olv:ed j on the, (lI,fher hand, M~$OOl~. derz;cfi.be5, h.i.mllr!l "\I!'I~J~ou,t pwl.nd]ll.e" ~u1.d ja!i. ~ood er all ~~td as l't, S' I i I'~d hts (:one'ei'V.t'dr tnten .m',Mil s-dn cit-es hi {tid,1!) in l<lhi'!i'~1liri, where he

'g~i~ed :nl~ enJd~, b1~'trOlt~!Jo1~m 01' by l'IOi!'t~. but neve!' 'elnpJoying the latter w!1~n ,the: fillJulnE't 1;{<a5 Sufficient '. S.(I:rne of tile obr.loxlotl. .. dtlMs h Inv I~~~d by Koran:s .and ':rlJi]se o~l~hls'J ethers br'. l.~l(!'tn'lli:\J;r~.1I~'es· - i_l en a,Rtt~ t'ir~l- llihe,qll'~.~Ii,Uyre~oj:llte~ ~o by the', Durranis, to get their enemtes tato theh !Jo-.t,ver, ,\Tne:[) oth"ell' "l'(~l~s 11:Jv€, f4!lk<dl.

M~,s:fifJn Inot~s hi~ sla u,g·h.~,e I.' Ilfeight JL:!l.i.€:fs'rin' ;hJiirl'il:;i!1 I: on arfii n~;le d" .. :y~ IJnd his lut~ng 'of t1'l1e "Il'l:OS.1 :intnm:;;~gent tl,Ft 'hws ,opponents;; ~ntp ;il neutral (Ior1T,I!'5S ,md 'ri),ere murqcring.:him, tbto.w·ri.g ~i5 head ctOVlfn to' :l'lt~I,eltnu~ Olltllidl<)" \I\.1'llcft Lh~ J.OilUler :f.ned. In a:~i .. att·'lcck ou the fd:rl:['e;:,~ D0::ll' M'*mnm~1 f'Wr~S left ;~~, If.ti:n~'re ttl rejo~cl!! j,n I",i~ vi (toorYI' :~lnd the triLunph. o'f hJ5 de?:lerlt.y'" .Mt1,SSOf!~ COl'l.du5io!l'l Is tbat Dast M(.l.ham.ult!i.:I 'i)\Tas ,]. ';gantln ~ '~'Yarf]Qr 'IU'I sp:rc,wdprloli t[.C'lmt'" bu ~ t.he mth~("$slles' an~ d:up]l~il,. with ~~tiidh Il€' 'iNiiS forced 1:0 ji)C'~. jl1 OrrdlaI tq

urvjv"~ ro,eant tlha.1:\'ii'hi I,~ 'he

ild~ht tJ.~\.o:e' an ~~l?fj~11 pU~ , Ii" "tO~.dd r1,IilV'er bi e. afd~nd ' '.n:1ti '11, l~ J;'itIfW. r. ~r:e€'L~d ~(Jnl ~1'I'~I:m:oj'5i t;'~ n;nlJ l ~'li:Id ~v'~r.oo/jj{;'hhj:tl1, "fl.'\\:

~lh\vtfY"'l ~irlllir l(l I~' d~l: ~)'yc . by' ~h, ' ~'i" :1'111 'oN Jf.iPD~~,

t was Dost M6:ham med!s. tnlsfornine that be rule'a, In Kabul at 3 time '\\"h~n m~,o., gr~~t j(llP:i!'II;~lI£t' PO~':~~~': H~lial,n,_a,ud' rbJ~sla} l~'~r~ eX'teni;liI'Ig· t'hGJr conq};~iWSt~t nUt tJifl,e ·tq th,e eas:t and ~h~ othier tl~'i rhe 110rUf, 0'[' h~S d)omabl. B i:i:t1tin ]l'adl {irsl !~'OllU~; .~~onlr:eni-ed .aJ;j.(l'l,Il'~ 'Pc;t.~i4~}e land ~i'if~at.bo.~r~dila hI tb~';I'~~a[rull!~l~OO~~ 'WIl~Il_~}le Iil'~ent;h·b~g,;].~ to tIUl(iglJ;~ in ·Pet.'li_~ ar.ul,,, faU~#in'g 'the fr~~iiI:ty (~f"rtibiiil~~ 'fh~ ·sp,e,c.tu! 'b{i'eit, ,~ro~e o,t .a combjne:d ~ral":i~-Jll·1;]sSi-an nnY<li!;icm~, lly.1814;_luJiw@·ver, 'iliff' IPn~nclil 1bt.~ai: hap !!e~~d~~. ~~d Ba:itls:ll ~nterest In M.':8J~;Ili!l:~~\L' .tmf;~ Us. iIlf!lj,gb.b,outhoc.d' wa,s_ not t9 b~ j'eviiv:,~d limn thti ti!tte 1 B20~j' \Vb~n concern be:g:;))n to ,~evelop' ,OVitT Whil:t:'!.Vas;:s~n3tS·a. Jresh thtqat :fl:om Ru'S'sEa.ln tbl,um.rly" 18~~ maners be-gael'!!: tQ O(:O:IlU~ to [I heQ,'ci, \\!b 11 th~ u.'I.lS:!l~arls re'9,U~llld the Shah ofp, Tsi~ L'O,'a l:losiHO,m tif s~!b8~[vjel t:e t:hr[~uglll ~h;~ 'li't!2alt}r' o~ 'Tlt1_i,km~m dla1 ,an(;1', 5up:ri!mel,', (icir'[li~el!lt ilrl! [h,ei!:!: . .aseJ:!nd·aDe~:.ln U1C!-' ,fteg,~on;,.tumed th~;h~~yc~ t:o_tJhec~a:sl'; rh~i.~ first s,'~~p 'was .(\0 enCQl\i1 ~'age' fhilll Sholi 'r;o ~.'!I~ Herat, ~ClwJl i!!;:11. ~i1e Jl~d llutint,lllned' ,a claim. but the deatll'o:fboth the Shah andhis heiJJ!al)paleil1i~ d!e:iay~d. aetlon 1JI.IUtl NQvember 18.37, 'W'h~n, tL 1l:lt'~' Sh~hj MCJ.bllUT.1.r.ncd lV'lr:al" fi!~a.u}'" !Illilld,vl~I.1Je~c:re the' cily.lIllgeil' ral ns~~~rnpti,cill ~3S that.·a:f:lc:lT UJie .'C'tlpITI.J;e.. of Hl3rat he h:ue.nd~d to· fum !f~I[',KmiW!l1ar, fromwhose Silf~;D'S, 1 ~ had i.llready 'ettd.V',~d ove!'tl:U'~I(, <, WU.'h hls ,8,[tt1}r Vi~!'I, U RU~!:i'illlln en\loY',al hts c!)J,llit, COUIl,t S,iitJoni,thj tQg~Ule.r'Mth s-number lO,f ,:\O.econded l~ussi~n pffic~s' ,md .a ~egiinen,t oE RussjainS dese::r~fS under 'W'flbol'l'lmand O'f ,II I!Dlt!l.h I,Gcneml', Bli!mw~kt T 'S' the,. ~,hcy· ~'l!tn.dd· ~ulv.e hiBJdII 'Iittle dUHculty in 1ta.~Jlg the dty~ hut; dic5pite the RtI$S\i.~jl pr'~seOb['~ tbe"s:iJEge~!,l'~ ~handk~d~vUh 'tota! LrnlCOmpete·llee ·a.nd the d,~~[I,dfr,~ ",\ier,@ 1ii'tm h(lih:l,img, 101~l. "ml~e' ~~gll:l ,11:1!CiIn'.th'5, Il~tc,r.. A t.iOntrilJtu;qrY(,1,ctm lJfiay Ii'Hi'VIt:!' been the dlall~ p~lil:!it'JI1,Ce in H~r~t of an o,JfIlC!~r' ot the Bengal A.rti]li~ry . .f](hed .Potti;n:g-eT" who. w!IS abl.e l:o stilfen the de~t!n,t'~. f!;:'~e'n'l.tlany';ln JlW- una, the 'I~rHJ~h Ih:mt1:y be!it1n~d them::;elVes and .arld~da stnai1l tioIC'e ir'om India (lin Kblifg ls:hmd in the Persian Gulf. The S]:ta'h was then tci'ld b)i the- l3:rU:iS~l ·e:Il\i"QY. Joh[l MeN ill. thln·any ocrl,llP~lth':J:ll of H(!raL wouJd bet.'O:rls'ldeJ!:t:d.a -'ho~~ III • d~ilii(m!iitra COin against IItH~i!]~, and that if he 'Ji\"i:lhed ,the force at Kharg to ''Sus,pend the I!ll~al>u[,~.s in pri),~leS\i '[qr tltt' l~i ndicatlon of tts honour', h~fn~s.l ,~H PllCel)'(!othi::e. The. S,hah- tHid 1)tt!<:! h~,'i:it4Uon Jr1 S:~l.b~.lIitti[1g to th [s c;O,rnbilJ'~tion of bl]u ff·.il11dg ll!~bCiat dlplm,llaCf, 'Wit:h the'result that tlil>@ Ru:~iu:m ::it-diered a clear djIP~om!atic a~l.d m.dJl.t~uy d@f~t. I m~d. rnt~Q'r!<11_ Com} s:~I!i, UU~f.'I p't'f;!.vaU~d ]1'11, Lorldon ;;1 rui C~lt:'uu.,. tl1tU shottld h~w-e been the: end of 11h' tlH1dr" but aveniN, I'liIeI by then assumed a momentum of ilJhe'i.t own.

In HISS. b.ortl~! .'lfl~·1i' Lord Melbou.fne's. Whi:g go- t:r:llmll!n'l Wili~ r~rmedjwjtlil ·P.~ih11e·[s:boi1 ,!IS jt'F,etrelgh Sec~e't~i:~y, mle decision wat; t~l}~Ji . to 4pP9~nt 'Geoqie Ed~n ~3 u~;r El~~1 o~~ A ii,ckla.nd_, t:llj: c~ tl~e_ lc.nP['rnlt)r .. i~neral of Jrni~a~ i\uckh~n:d hJid ~.~rvt:d r~\i r~~y, LI!J(lIs,ll,ln~

lo' '\I\r.~ldl,"rn'~ c:~a:lely lh~11 llilS ldtthe!:to, lllCei!l alh,'lll!t'!pledl the pw,glies,s ,of e;;r'ents in AJlih:;;nlil:iln;,il'l'lid. tOI btJun:lerc~c!I the prli)g!,~ .!Of Ru~sian· h;d~ue':-Jre,_ ••. 'lb~ mode o[ de,ililj,ugwtl:h_ tt),ls v:e'l:1!~ ~1I'l]:p!)~I:,:mt qu:esUOI'l. w;:i',~U Wr by dcs,pii,ttllr[l].g,· ... cCII::l:lideu ~ ~il( agl'}l'l'l ro -DD~!c l\.fptmm n] e.dl of Kallml- nl(?rt-Jy '1'6 wOIkh the :progr!l5 of I(':Vl'D{S. or to :enter fnuo relanons \~ lth this Cli1ief, ettl1-er Of a: .po'IUital 0,," ll1iI,u:cI:y' in tile. fl,fS,1 i.!l.stal r; f II oomm-ociil'l,I' h,alrniC'I:'Cfl, 1i\;:e cOI1'1ldt. to :your discretion as· well as tbe adqpfion of ,ill"yother _(ued!$,~,re-s: tnat may ~fp~ar to you d.eslrable to cou nte'f:act Rl~s5.1.an wnJluerll:,e In U'I1U irfuarler. ~chou]d you be sn Us-fic.'cl .. "lha~ ~ n.e time h~ls urrived ~Ifwhiidh it wou~dht'f1i:gl~t for frJu to lrtlt'erfel'te ,de('tdedl,~( tn the 'atffirlr, of Aft::ha1!l~sl;~.!;!, S1i.ITch an ~n~erferel:lcoe ~10Uld dcubU~~:s be ]'equi~:it.e'I' ~jfh~r~b prevent 'the' '~~~,e-n$!Q!1 ,of Pt2f.shm douli.ni!fl,n_ hl that quarter 0'1' to raise ;ffij timely' bnrner agulmt th~ ~JfI);pe.ndlng el!lCln'oadhrnrnts of Russian influence',

,

M'ac!Jag;b:vf!(1 and \> ade had indeed al~adiytaken steeps, to ',,>'atah mere ell) el),· ·e'v~'!HjJ 1'1 K.,I] ul, ilf i:l1P'pnilnHI g; a:s, fh1e:h: a,g ttl Al' ,l on Indl ~ n b}" file .nam~DfKlIIill'al:fl<lt Ali, !!l'llO, then 'C'Il-adrul Mil·5CU1. Auldan'd ihatl ill'iD, .Just ~eJ~rn ·r,ect1':llJt O[ th:~ Stlill(,tn: Ci1IDfl~U'~" DifS(tI'~ -11," di!:I:Ild d t . ,~·t'd ~ t"l U:il'HI; a~ t, :" l\il M'dhlilltlilmJed' , ~'I ~,hl pm!i, ~ ~ II

f'ri,endly me sage~ eecelved [rom- the, Jati-ef -~n the :spriln;g of 18;)i6j, ,cQr~gr:at.!:.da1~'uirbJT,1l _(lIn hl~'appQi.ntl"lle:t:'i~ and, a:sklpg fl;lt _ tWic(\!: 0_ .~J" lti:s, 4YWJ1J l!eil~,t i Ol'ii'i with !(.!luIU Slin~h and' I;h~ :settl!i!li Hmt of tlle a:ffJ!li,r:sof tfuj~ cou.nt-r.yr •. £II:iUckJJ!il:r!d '~~lt an ~qu~lly ftlendly respOlnse_~, lnrt exeused ldmseUErom: pnr!!;;!iding,,'a,n¥3dv;lc~ "il~ the Illt]~~ filtqUI1,!,S~t!tt on I1I~grolitlll(ls;t'~'a,t U ~ra~ • not tlJ.¢, pr~L!-7tk,e ,o,f the Bti'tl~H 9,ovemrut>nt to:ln~ede:r . wJth -th~. ·a:Raks. oc'tJ!th.e-i i[ld~pend~llt ~till~~.' - ~ bj~9[iI:,e assedlon In. UU~ Ugh! of whtlt Wil-i~ soon :tof9UO\\.~.A11·ckl:i[~~'~ d~O,liE~ r:o:~ the mls lou: w~,~ JU,!!X-<lllJlerD.qtifi '~, ,al bdglUl :a~d at:nbfl:ioOu!-l. young ,offi'Q(!'f o[-th'e 'BombaY'~rtill~l'y. ~\~bo ,had 'a]r~~y dbtmg[lilSbed 'll~ll:~U asa.,.IIJJgl,ds:tl t-o;pogl;'.l.pbel' and L(aVietl(!r~ tike;.Mas~(!Ifl, Burnes was.no ,tnmget ttl )\fgba,rl!sr.'-111l 01.' 10 na~-l. Mphnl1]nl)~d. ln tl~e',tarly 1·83Q:'ltlti! had "'oJUl1t(le_~;-edl' to h-av.-el itJl Oe.n\r.3ili .;:\s.ia .iurI.d Sl.lcct:ede_d' ~f! t~flic:m,J)g llokhar;jl,lDefon~ rdu.t'Ili'ilg_ to,' Indla "LlI, l'@iSil.., OuprJj~lfrdilw~,g" ['9 EfI;f,!;huld b" lS ~3. hill P ulbU shed a b~pk 1'0 'OJ) h ls b'1(vel,!l./ ~rp.~ no.:ni:S!\ldb~ Lond()l.'1! society and. came to be i:Jlown as 'Io'kibillr.a BHf_I~eS'·. T{cium:i:t1g to India. hew;~)':i employed on a m:I:$s.km '10 trill! E.Jni!'~.: oI 'Slnd b~f-OF~ b'iv--:M ,h.QS~lrIIOil 1836 'ttl' ~g t-o Kabul. , . _,

8'u!:fl(:&, mi.d M3Jsson W'I;'J~ fn, .slUQstnnfiia.l, ag:ree:tlil!n;t about, Dust ~:I{}hamIir1l.~d. Burnes ')~Ue\'~(1 htm 'aCi:t!plclbl~ to lb~ _p~[}ple; nd r even thil[lk hlOtli'!;lbJ" to Uli~plfQ;spedL-yor the· L"tlun:trviu. H~ Ii:!i''\' ,h~l1:'i as .01. ~mW1.af en l.igh't:~ne-a vi~w~ .. • ravOtl tably- dl sjp{)$Je-d tm'!,1a.t:distl!le BdUsh Go·vemment ... ,]t would nqt be diM:Ctdt to, I~runl a corme'U~JI;). , •• ]I w(wh:!: require no, gr.·f·at ,e~pe~ld'Uu!lll' of Un.e public fi~nd~. to conefl tate this ch1e( and, it ~~~,tO'-be .feHlli!ell1ltn;il5oo. :t_h;)J: be' is ill possesslon (l,r th.e, '1Il]i}fl,t ,hl1PO:ftWlll p'os,~tlm] tn A;ii~.jr as Imgalm& 'OWl L:)J'Q~l!cti(n~ 'lJif British In(llta/, Mas}lon :fQrM~ 'p(l;r~ also s~'.~'i ~]lIe nost ·(lJS a popula:rwle:({ 31~hough be '\:\i'as' 50iJ]f!li""hat les~ S'~Il,g_ubu~ ,tllan B'tlir1!~S about his rellahmity. N'!i!v.enbE;1.1oi.!S$1 hls : u id~!1ed p_Pil'liotm wa~ that' 'If 11 iHld ~Hs fl'letlld'S "; I'lllld b~(!n r~lorefly trq~.ed.f tho ~y wmlld hava done, as. mu.ch as couil,q. h;:rv-eo, been hoped 'from th~m·U. ~t is-atsollV(JIrth noung that McNeill b) 'Teb~lau was. sl:rong.ly .1," tavO!Uf 0 : feaeMil!!; .!-In tl.rid~j; randlng WJ.11'ii [)01iit I\,'[uh.;!mnl~d. In are cmmenqatton \t'lhil;h F(rres:,hadolt\"Cd l.;]ter poli .. Ci.e'S-, he~"'Toten,

Wi tb a JitI:J~ help from ·us;. P1f'] cou],dbe· I)'u;t in lK'&$~l1.~ OJ] of IKruldahar ancL ~jer~t,. 1 ari:"r]ou:s~y. ~h~p~ fhaJ~ a_~d wI:!:! r:l~~ be withI1t'!ld. A lc)tm of m~~l1ey 'WQ·uld P01is.ibly re:m.bl~ hill'! ~iO do this :and ·\t!I~ouk1 give us ;a '-glieat hold lllpon b.lm. He ought to be. persuaded to be pr.ed:ud~d .lTQ.IU r~~. iv~ns nny other Ere.igll Ifpr, '~PIU,il'tion or Rs~nt of any :kind .•• t 11i~ t::QUlrt" i.lil;ld shollll('l :,agr~e to tr~in.sa.c.tall ~1,1sjness"\'iith, fOl:~l~ l!(}'~e. ... s ttu:i()~lgb H·e

Ilhl"ltisha.ge'l!lt. ~:Il1e~ii--SPfflJ.@!thiJ1l& ~(thl,~~J.illltl·~-I:u)UJ.d b~ d~11! ~ }~e I ~.11 tie. )' I - ~Ci:LI·!"e. ' • :.

Despite his 'iflStiU~ltillS and tine dis:netiQ'l1ii:'!Il •. ~ Ihim by

J J ~."

l'ail. l'U;~o:nL ··.udd~l!ld gave· 1l\l.IiM.es",1o'e!~r l.i.1:U:e btl. thlll,. cW"f¥ cd

,~:tlid~rlCL;!~'!. M US!i(':i!til;'~ '~Cl.l1Ulrh·JH I~ on thl! inidi1i1u UO'I'1'S~JMs.uh"u:l .. llbe;y ;'~"':ete 'nmUY'llO.!llii:1U ",Ul1,O'illld bhnul;ls. i:I,u:-rrre's:.hlili nOI. conM, rng ~fl.(,'!~l.

Ini.I!:!\lll.m,.'.- Wtutnes, W'tl.'" .au:thmi!iJltd "to do -rl1(.)iEt.lo:re:: tll,i~Jl :c'O)n~l'LlI0t ,;til Cf:llrn m,eh:.i:al 1~1is$1,ol,1,lll~tb-ouQ~1, as M Oll'~SQn 'PQI.n~~d O:UI'[ rrti I l t~lcl~ 111 a nd ~luoU.gh Mglilanistcrn' \'I'~~ 'in <lnl' case almost 'CO.Ifi,ipletely. IlnW5 rit:~.·(1 and no. mlsston was l'e>qlub:tld' to, fad!11ate "it. :('l:h~~ .instt~,,(;;lti~)CI,]'S .i,nddl'm'~~dl}f_produc·ed Ill.allJ *'Irlilr 'coM'mo:rll,1 P.1'0I11~ M:tI~~n ~hiU I"" tllrere l~lS.li·L:tde,not'ic)[l ,~HIh;.:.:tain~d at t1ItS time'of cou"':lIJls-in& (i;!lntif.al -Asia, of depos:ing_ and setting up kings,. ()fc3iny.i~g on. wartS, 01

.lllf rhi:o..g I [I. asiJl1~ a'Ad ·of. ~ho cemmlsslorr or iii. Ilot:lg train of ~~nle-li

• <1 nd fU,]]i.es'·,) H O'l'\·~X~l·ir. wUb tfue j uconel l!I5 i¥e battl e b'Ch'r~e~1t rum'lit Singb.'s. ~n.tL Dost :Mo.hIl1m,]H:~d'!s' armtes, the [~'ers'la-n aU~ck (;)[1 He$8;~.

,,~,'fId rfpor~s; 'lhClit Uos!iM.oh:tt~i1';1nlGd .had .been Milking 'DVl.lIl'floU:V.!!i, to '~L11C' Hers1.ans and the 1il:US~hU1S\1 iibVrO'ils:;;uun Ii('lilis~d that thJe,mJi&$h;~n wOll,l~ ule ..... itably haTfero- concern i'Fse1f w,~thpoJl1lkall' hS'fles, 'o!'Ind i\·hl-i;naghten :S'-1'I1 B;url1'(l~ ~Up~'llcII'JI'I:.G.nI~!lI.ry hll~li'1lIci;~OIl8:lii. Ne\f~rrl:h ;l~sli the'la;rtef \"I7.!],ghr' m no .authority -to n·~oJl"l,~·~, butw--as-I old merely to :repcnt any reasonable l.lroPO:t:Jt ons' [loot Moh:(H~Jl._UI·ed n~ 19l1t. make and in,!;calt f-1J:rth~1' ,gtJjiclilili~ei M . [C' th . n thh,th ",. hutructi.on Il tJpnbn~d that: -the G overnrnent of India first CO'Il cern mu $(- he for'th " honour (In d Just v\_'~she-s of .QlJ~ oLd. ami fi!~TIl any RanlH SJngh.'. 1,.[U.ow(!\!l~1' if' DeSit Mo,ih.a.mmoo 'ki'o1~~d fOl"l"erm5, of pe.'\Ce:~dnp't~dto af~lji_T ml"ilMU~ of his POS,l:tnOlllj .such good of:licte·s in his, f-a:V'o!l;!rwlflll 'Hli,'! lvJah-6i1(i-!!Jab I fta.fl l;il ,.s.lfrlgtij as we cain ri~nde.l' ~\Ij,'r)uld be glve,11 '[0 him', :rvramagh~oft'lil "",,'-elil:t on tor a~thOl'be IiJllmes~ flit hb dbcpeU()u and ~\!brl~i;;t ·tJo Wild~"~ approval, to '5'll8fl1e"t that the go1>d o:ffk:e'll u'i~ght he direclQd to'V\Ta1Cd:~ the resroretlon of Pe::!ha.\Ij,·illl' toO 'n member of th~ .Ela:ra.kzye J<ilmjly QU

thecond tion of tnbute ~Q R-~nrU SiOKh'. ,.

From the cutset, UW[f;l(o.~e •. l~orl1les hadvl.;!l'Y Httle to, otiC!; Dost Mohammed; Deli]J'~te bringing \'1.'1.11[1. h~m somev II}' inadequate g~fUi. he ~""iJ.5· we'll. roc:~.,,'~ d, <1.l1ll I f-o~1 M ohamrned i I'l!!,]s'l·d Il~.a t h 3 W1Hi prepar(1d t()r reI(!jOI,lJ1iC~ th (,'!. overturc.~ h~' lm.d rJmdJ;! h) the .1~Tsiarm ii~l~ the t~lllsf';;~<In(Sj and U1.<!Jl b,is uf'stre '1"1'1];.5. rO[ .~t:bendlr~'ek~tklJl'l!s with l~li1! l:l.rUI:i;h. :I~u't n ~tlOU b~~1u'n~ c.;~~~lr II.h~!~ .LU 1!'vtJu~'l hi ilg' (;[rI '!iP:~U,\!' .loc:C(\pt.!1b,k~ <u'f<llnge'm'~nt o\':er .Pe'Sb'll"[[[~ TOw<Jnl~- th.~!;" ef~(l of 1837. Burnes [I.'1pmlt!'d iii .at le!l,gth O[~ hi_[:$ di~cucsgioIl:lia['vd I'ecorrullended strongly th~!t Bti 'itih infili~I"'ll'" ..,houid le ~,j\ 'ltcW t·q, :s >tt1' l'hl' le:s:h,,\'\f,ax iss:ue':'

It i mr.'1 nQIl aslkJl1g tc)O l11(u 'h Qf Ra,rljit SJngih t a, 1 with 1-'fC)r111?'11Il;1:i;d"jJ1 tl.'i'I:, IdjiUl'ibllO n~ 0 III l~U' n~hil:cll.li t:1JJ1e likh_'ll~,. ',l1~'r~brh)~, :1!nl,'I.!I:,ili I. lq 'l)U dmi,li', pli1.J Ir In t '~'~l'{'kli'~ fl.: y'

~1.{Htl.~ brlng e!¥m~!~, bl.5~~,~dar m~seng rs In the: ~et~hn. 'n~ of th~ 'IJ,~hflw~t ~ffi1i:r w,e !i,aY~~ it Seel:;tl!'i to rtj.i;l~ :iltl- -]pm:i,oolat,e_ ~edt,:01g~1~lS:t nirthe]:inhi:gU-!~!, and <t )ncans of-sho:wtn~.to~1:le: ,AfglLal~,~ ~h, t 't~lt!'Bfl,t1:!l.l~ 9¢1V1li!r~91'e:b11, doe~ syfnf?il~,h~~· m:th I:llem a.nd til (j.11~' and the- '$HlJQ'E' time S;!lti'sfyhUl 'th, ,c111ef.'ij and!

.~,lI!Jilllng,bo.tll ~I' poUt k3i:~~I!Jf\'~ll:l'l~ m~r:daJ:len~5.

One vl,et;" i.s·lJha;t the ·e,nnln.ty between RanjLt Smgh andllost Mohia1'1;.l.Jlletl. W,iI~ 'such that t.Jhe·fli! v.r:a I)!O' IlOOPtl' ftl:l' !r· cq"n.cm~Uon bt~tw~elO . [,h,e h~o~' [·ToweW~[Ir, '~{iiU'l",aUtU!:: irnagilmt~o]'! lm,(l d:rr-plo.l:rni!C}'1 it' lis. not 'bevohd UlebolJ!J!lds ,of lXi~5ibmty tha Ii: an .acccmmodatlon tOWd bav~' Itle~n found~ tf l'l,O!Y b~l'c'.l~:se the.·:Si_khs· were 'Illil. Ung tb -It" ~} QlPIlI:i~f:I or rci5hfiWil~ lIi(Jubl~_sonll~ .'1nd .,if1S(lcure; At:(;o~(U:ng 'to B1.ll'ntcsWi Dost },.tohammcd' was prepared te)' • pay. RaI~l,lt ~hug.h ~U~,g~H!I1'ce ~~lcl n~g~ll~v tr.ibul:~ f!lu:i to send a.·sou ~o sue fOi~ Jo-r~iV~iOt"~~'. 1'1111 matti~e!ii no~tC!d ~!''"re 'a IreVel JOiIl 'of Pe~hav"'fi( to- Dos:t M()Jw~:med on ll:anj~t Si!:l)gh':s 4eatiJl( or to the Bara.kzai in the pe:tSOIl o~· ·Su~'li.'iIl Mahl'!:IllJ-ned Kb,a:l1. Clost Mohaml.ncQ seems:iU at ()rHl: sl{ljg~,. to hUive b~~n iJgt~eabl!e hl 'S'uIDt<1o ~1ol).allln]::I: ed Khan ~ncl himself ilointJy l101ditng Bes;har1<!i~.a'r a:s 'lTiblitari~s of ·b~l.jil Si:n,gp . .Bt1it 'jV!.u:!.klll.nd \~1M' rl~V' \vilU:ng to oI~n ill lUillo~~lC wHh l{~niH '5~l1gh Cine! M;~cu1.lg_hten S;L'iltil1 Hums, ~a r' pl'if]lil.l1d22', fOr'e'Kceed:i'ng Ills ilJ,5tlli1,chon~" Dest '~10'1l;ullilm~; Au'c'klmJld 'il1IJS'iste{j" ill a fi.n.M u.htma,hlw2l• Qo;r'LV,l!y~d

ur~~Uy by B:ur.:illes, ~hCl'\..dd

deSi!>t fronl IliIll :L::Ori'e5pOtl~~J!ll~C \iil~Jh(j"'l\~]{l ~tld lhl.:.;~;J!iI , ••• ae'l,llt"~' [:'(; 1v'~ Olg,ents.':rr.omfh"111 •... s,~mnde'r aU cl a jm:~ to Phh"w.ar (lJ:I }If-ILtI' own .aecount, 0]:;, U"Iat ,dJieIship: belongs. to Mah.af'~:laIh Ruul@E!l jn;gh"." . L~ld'~ r~ '[l~cl lh" lnd!;el'l'n~_l,·n(';~ e fCa rid lb. ~. and ofP.esh~w{n ... , ln Ii'ettl:rn fO'i thls, 1 plI'omise to r,~(Q[I'iI'l]:(!~lld lr.() Jihe'g'OI\"e'rnmeni Ul]at .it.t:L~}t'5 good ()ffiCi!!S with 1't~a:nd~nt ~UYI ~jLfl]la!'i1.i,j1b Il,:, .. n~ set S~ngh, 'llr) l'en'lQve_.pfes-enl iiud (1.;!b!~ eauses ol d~frii!'b'eIl(,'e' between tIThe',Sikhsilnd A(l;;milll!t at Pe:sbavl/'ar.; but as that chi,ers.l1~p' b1~"OI'lWi' to the Maharajah. he U"Hly 'c:on:fe[ H OJ[l Sul~~~ ).I[ohamrned I<han., nr any otltet Afghan ,~ .. h,t)I\1 h~ dhoost:sl n h s rnvr:i terms ,~nd tlI'lbute.1:f being 11l'DIciers;moo that sm;h amng1."n1~1lt ts to pfes~'rvE the credit and hcmiOlU: Of aU p."nL c •

.lJJO\St: Mohan]med'~ rmmedtate reactlon w~s:;tQ accept ll::te.'i{! ternns,. hut he th;eu as,ked for them L(l be mn;,~[!yc-1:l. 1n ~·fidn.a.~\·hl-h Bl1m~5 was 1':101 tiUt~10:!'i:s~d to do, .and Jibbed .at the ned 1;0, st.~J:t by ,..,:Jj'iting ill snbinlsstve 1 ener to the SUch lea doerl tn the absence of ~rt:Y l;yj.H~n~G ~s

Q,:I aill1'Plflflof thcBrUi~h to!l't tho balll roIling. . .. .

,n,,~r,~' W·re sever l reasons BOIi th,li.s :!jOIn -What mrIe~y ~1Jt ,:C I'Uu:.i. • elilq ~.' thune.s~ I.1llis on; 01\lJ!l!-, w;(JI!.i~I,\.,t MJcu1tlghtOH ,-u1(C1

The First Anglo-Afghan War

Durlnq U~~· eMlymonttl~ oim'S3S'1 'and ,inthe'ta~ 01: thli.:';·C():OiUI~,"U~g 1~,II~g:.O,f ,l'l~'nlt a nd~V':l d€, nee 0., J nmsl-.·l".ll tn ~l~rv~fltlon ~ !:l both ~'eT,~l~'

. iI nodi ,o\f-ghilIni:s'tM I wh~ 'the:l'~ were ·al~~ re~orf' ~[an algree~nle~.!,. guala,nteed bY·'~.l1~ Russi,aJlSj bEh'\~lll'er:SL';l alld lhe·K,;u"J.~3!~'1~r: 'SiI.aHr~ \Whleh ,1;!~lrirl:t,!S hi!ld ~ri"d 1;0 prilWrm'l, and had, ,Ciguin b~ ~n[Cll1].'ri1~Il"d(,ld r;,or hh, pilIln:-i), so Aucl;llamdi bl.'l(;aIIie'cO'~:villl~ed th;:il~ ,~~~ ~"olUil~:, h~ve ~() s'V!titch [1,( n fl. pa'S~il/e to ,an aetive pOb<.i)i' ~H~d,ex,e_[(:lse- th~: d!iSl'retJPIl gi~n 1:1Ll11l to ·1.nI.Nh~re' de'ctd~t1J .. In 'I h . nll-:ai!:s: o( Afghillois~~n'. D~~.f Mohamoil,e-d lUWin,gl :ir:l .Ilis v,j!aw,l.1el{ecto('.ld hi.$'Qf!;~fll ofg1(l;od ~~lce5 with th.c SndH'ancl5(}Id :(lid ~o the IbJssian!:i a,I1(l1?,~rSlalll:S1 he flij:\V,' '~(Ipted fh~ PI'O'PO~I;' ~,,'i"iu h 'hild ben .dVi11l~Lc:d :b). Mac,;J\ilg"htcn Ui!\d ·",,,:i;\dil:. til 1'~tQre :Shah 'Shu jill. To fFeet I:tdc$r .hisi nitial sb:a,t~gy tl .... as ~ • .? revive .and .eil:Je·jiI,d 'the 1833 treaty bebv,een' Shah 31111;,1 i~~ .and LluJr'l j i t SUJtg~.'l, !i:~~cl! In p;('_r~'lu!d~ the t'f/'il, LO In\rad '" A,:r~hat~i,sWn., Uril:i~h stili pp~' .~¥CJ'Llld b· given in the-form of mOJ1:Qil'Y.[li'll<! Briti, h (f~J!,erSi but no !Bntlo;h tm0P.'s \,l;'oul,d i9{!1ilftldp.at,!;:'. In M:ay 183tl ~f,~(naghtt!n was .'iie'.n..t to rJ:U'~. tlus pll'(,li~oil.ior1. to Rillnlit Sll1g,h and, ilJ.;~:r. 13! lon.S n!,j't;~,tl,;jtliJlI'I'.,s.eC:L'!~da lrcatyl vt/'hi.'h p:rmliide.dJ lTli return fOf Slkl sUPf'0rt, und(;'~titkn gs that 05]]'111 Sh'Uj;a 'i~'ould ,,~i)aIld()on all ,(.]f-lim 1(0 ]~dJj;mM!ilrand wou!~ pay l~l1iJl_jn Sl1l18:11 u.,~ l'lIuaiVfdetrl of [lO,O()(] fu~a'lJl~ny, l'<~1ls ~'utmll'J to.~: o'll~iI:l:-,l1ntd b')f the Bl'jr.sh 'Go emment, r,.~->a::;'1J1 effe t tribute, :althou~h 1:1111.11'1' dlsguised as, 1MIy"ll. (!11t for th.~ ,ni,l.lntel'~al:lc:e: of 5,000, m:lOp-~, In the .1~~h:ilI~'fn!' il.J;[I;.I, ioee sent w Shah Shu.l~l·::-i.~id "w-lllenevJ;i!: ~e~d ~d,. S,hah hujn nad li.tl],~ chotce bu' toaccept t~1is lr~atY:-I. anQl,,~nd:f!~d. such was. his <ambition for tile: Afg;ban throne, w made hUh~ ch.flh,;:u'lty tyv~ ,: ~~., ~ II, \~ ~'li, duly ~ilglJ.e I by f.l,I:1 lhl~' pilli~'h:~ i 11 uu ~Qur~~ -nfr ,~u ly, .

Ali 'ldfJlnd'!! ~d"ll'l$e:~s' 'W~~'e :~matdmous that $1:lJlllh S'h ~I~:a . ~,Mll!ld oo'~r~' [. 1,--l:iY _t bl~ du t:l~. Ht)\'\' t 1 Y ~m' ~Q hf1t-~v I thAlli,'· Alil'l1a'I~' .

Ul fltteduJnder'any i:irl.Jl11:si:an:"tlc" tofii;" useful iI~n'!:lS to' to, " BrUi:sh G'lJ"'-;em~entj, 'lh@ p~pill!adt¥",.ofSbaJ:l ;S,l}~I:i~"on the, other h.an.ei, ~,!Hld 'Ioe,e.n piov.ed ,.. ~hmugbout Ai rghi!!llsl~~ n l:Iy. tb'(t st.rnng_ "I'lP unanin.to,us tes"tltt'loJ'W ,f fh 'b ". ,1:l'llrl'1ol1me( (uoSpe~iffi~d). Th.e. Millnifes'to a.ddltlil £iii '\~h'}inh- th~L~T:f! ~!l, (l,;ilw!:y:,;'sjmllar t.o those us-ed ,by ,t]lj~ "ilu;sslaJ.ns lU. t:llIl! 't~'ma '.of t:h~lr 1,979 t[~V(:I$ilon)" ·'U~'.- Gcwli:rnor-Gilnen~. "'onl1'(1,(tnf!y lto:p~' l'lmt IIh"eoS,hi1:l1 !?..-m h_ e . ~$peedny replaced (;I'll, hls thJoile ~yh:4> O'l"''11·SI..l.b~h1s a,l'i.dadbemcm.:t:s; andwhen ~:~e hie":sh all. be secured iJl ,o'';;!f€.rj ,and ~1}.f! 1,!.1 depend!.! nee ,anti hI tegd'lY l')f iUghilnbt;iI'1IJ

e$ta6nshed ~ the Britt"" h a:rmj- wiiI be "!Ovidldf,ill'y.f. ' . . . .

Wheu. kplvards tlile.':ei:l:d ~I: ~ ~;:W~ news o.r 'the ·}rtall:i;f~S~:0 ,a ~dClf~.~'e Jnt,l!mti[lI~.l Lo ~lWade 1[1f~~hcd l(lJ1idon~ tl1-l~l~ W~$ , ()lts'~diQlI'i1blil' pUbJ.:L, • illl~ plnHanl:~n~i:lry concern, Se.vcmi nf..Jts ~nti;cs' 5awl> "1:;1 eo k.ey"i:!iisue,. tha:tthe-prob~e:n)~ \\I'e:retiteiy to begin when the Im'lh:'a.f:y: succesaes had IUld~d and 'mear.i~ tlud to be found.'to keep Shtl!h ';S;hLljil on hi" 't.ill'OJ} • tn 1'<.;!!i'1· 'I":!:se l"(;l ·p.tlfltalJl1lcntMY· p!res ure, the g~ver1t.men't l)ubUshed1 the eorrespondenee l:hH'tt 'had ,p![eceded th! deetston to rrvade, but. "~~llho~l.fBdl.11Itt~!lg the fint," w-utH;lc. e~t~ns:IVi:: '(,~Ii:s bef(ll'e 'PubH¢HliQ.fii. olio R.'1Jd i ng c;Jf the p'assa'~ om itll~d 'f-eveabi a ·1'l1;unber. of o:m~rn5;to d~:tt~n:ce tl.e -:g'o,iemmeflt :~ind p.aJ,rne.:rsI;Qi.n ,L...11 pl.l.tt1al,;l.l1ilr,f.r~m All:!!ctlandr:s~,ol~c~, toO ·VrI.ncllcutc Auc:ld~nd htft~s~~'r., ~l~ b.hu;:kn:HJ,. D'o!\t Moli"amrri~",jl 1(1 ,d~pj,Cit mlr'J~:llls havin~r been in Iavour of Auc:kl!.1nd's pD.I,~{:ie$/~nd. toO: play d("!~'\<n. the ({us,si,.miUlgie, hi thei.fIiterests o[,gnod 1'~I~ltJoni'i ~',ml ~b2]( ,oouutl'Y. How'c?vt'l:'I' P;\'II:rnersl',o1l and fbI:: "R,ritlsl.' Cil,h~liIl!t !llf.tr,en.at :defted'cd.· they had already- endorsed A!lldJ.and's, p]an:s:~.al'liIo.u:~.~,rn;i,r'SU'b, w'&s·.tbe' 5~owness, c,r co.mmunlcalt.i?fl, \CI.I? I~a thr~e 1l1i1::1nths In. ithet: db'@ Uon. ~!l'li!,t ~Il WI:l.!ii tJI1 I:y, ~,hcr be h; .• :~j, 1i'C'nt his a nlly on' 'it woy' th~t he ,recei,,~d tb~ IeJ,;eyant>,"de:p1"l't:ch8• T1'!JJs s:p.edJi,qU);· aplP:,:oved the choke ,of ,sh,alIShuj;a, the assemblyof (iJi considerable force CtH'lll:lj(;,) d Pl1ll'tly of "B.rufh'h t.i:\OO'ps". ;find i~.s i:Ul,Va~l'iQIIl, o'f Ar,ha!l1:i~il:ilin" 'sl,lbi~ct, ~.t A.l!.~lantll~{.d'iscreflolll, to 'one, more ntt:eml. t 1;0 cQncilititt; .aod. secure the alUanrte o:fth(': Ch~ef{)f ~~aboo~. and aulclhl'llf>lr' (vdli.c]~ l\lJ,c'khlntl'~ho~e mli: ko dQ), l1'h • SI"litth~Sir~h10:titfrom H:e'ra,~, ;. !j' t'h~ d,fli(iilt"cht;;on.tinuedlj Im,ay mil.ke· the&; nlt'a:s.u:re5 UlnnBre:s ~ly~ but even in. that ,C~ rou wou]d dow~U ttl ~O:!l'e'nQ Urn€! in aU 'lupUllg 1'~ rf.!C'C,)vot!'li" y,(,Hll'lnntl.~n.r;~ ,n Af.gll~H1'ISil:.ln" ~nd 'Il!,JI ~~,E.lhlls:h )'OIJ[ rdi'!ltlDn~ "filth the' Chi~[s of th<1it (;"01.:inhy u,pon: a Il1f)fe satIsfactory basis than yoU have hitherto ,been lIble to ,obi!!lhl'!'. The! (jan of U'le d(l!l!pa'ich c;,'i~ti'S iii [1Ole hy Hobt1011.I.'loe".! tho ,PJ'esld.ent u,~ ~h~ U.ciud O£~C(lIUrol. ~hill it had be<~1fI ,jpprovl?d by the Cabiine:t.'Nbl!e;,It ltmgav~ At~ckbnd snme d1scr{!tiOJ~1. Il p:rov.id.es 'co'ndusl,tl fi,. Ideq e~, th ~ Illrli.t.1 ~I' gnveW.Il.'lenes m,l. " "fhe' iPQJ.k)'\11~~y,hwv:· b~eli1i ,~1!1:Ii.lin,d~':!io ('Qr ).i[~b'uiglii~n·$):~ btu,th:e!' .i'luv~nu;rn.e:n~ h~d, :~bm i't~ Gdg:l,;n~ hl~ifU ti'om:IHtl,lu £.ruthyol['d,~,flllJ r~l'ponsihU lY;J,tr:wt1,."1:l 'r as~. 1:0'11 \I.

TiiJ",,'a.'n(s the end of 183SI,H:iei!'l;!:fCl~, Ihe ("t!.quis,ite fuli:c:e, W,ls ~t~1':1lbl~IlI"~Lnd it~ ~Ie~dfffsll~p :0i.Pl10iil"lt:ool:'NQlw,krJ.~Jghtt'ed.for' 'hJ -.IletV~c.("s n1 k~~;lull Dt'll'uC:!s had e! nfi.cl ~i:'Jjt])' t~,X'p~!rI~d: tc, ,Iii,e 'C11'lItlSC:t:.l iI,ii'llu~Htl aW

?,iJ~ij$e:r" to tbe'f6rr:e'bI:~t rlltnokland thtJ1,.Igl'lf. "'I °adli'~5aIti]'e te '1his.

tI.p~O,l~ I:IU(;'~I:t ilQ' :M~(::iO~,gl1't('!nJf "iil'~1"I:1: '~he l~iI"(',wjS:D!f hilt .0000lr(J:e;~,h~ uj.a

h1ild tmen rell;l!itttted,.~1<1ona,gW~t 'ill ~v.gu,ld ~efl,-re ~\nd IhurlCS J'{!ll!ll.dn,a pE'.1:mme:nt:~fiIll'O:y to, dlifl, Sh.;!Jh'Shcom::t. ·,At tf!js·po'Ji:I:.f; tl1ei$ilt"lil~",v..~lllD~1i: ~U!til~en:L qf tb~''rl'lpatt1tleo 'I.'~a~y had b@el'lId!(li~,bU~l irem the bN:m:@t ntH]' ~h(l ~ PI,P.T'OCioi:lited fill.~th~r 'ben~r th:aJ ~ l\.~I'~kl rnd W,I,18:t 1, In! !ri'I:);, "'f"~ di~l Jl;().mOO'e- 'lIia1l's:e.nd in lillfolCe tbI:onghP@:shil.wiJrrt the :1ii:l:\il 'ct :wlli"tb l\a.y,~ d(liS;0'111~9 a ~'a~1:l(lIh.ueIYOO'J,1itempUble'i "~:~h C-J.and.(? Wnrl'!ie aU~<'h[!d as U.' ~P~U:ti~!H :I,ud, !U1mlLaft,' I!JdvJ "''l'~ l~~nJrt't :S~ln,gh i~li::;t)i obJected 00t. tb@'main force mOlfrch:i'Jlg th:rul.~ll p(!~hawar: .meT so i"I

• v ~~ ~)rtle~oo. 1[0' ~~dv~n('e: \ilia .Kflrnd~l1a.r! l'i'Hl1 an ilnm~m;'e ~:r:a:in ,c~.f JlR,O()(J "o1Imp f~~:IQi,:.'el'sl 3'0,,(0)1 camel lInd II IItI'I'g"ll h 1'd of CiU:U¢" 'I t!:ler~ was .one thmg on whle h ,j ts Biift$h off]ceIS' w'e'r~·Jdea fi rt wusthalt t~~~' '~Yere g~iJ1g 'iloh,n,'1~ a '~'()mf~rl<lbl~ tam:npidg,n. Om.'~ r~gl[De[lt took '~'n;'~, '!~~It$ pi ~J;: ~"~ ~oXh'~Utl4';\IIn.O~llor empl'oY!;,ld hlllfQ C!l.ctDJ~b m~~r.~dy 1:0 C~~.IL<;,"sto(]l< (lit os,aI'S, fllfll1Qr Ofl1cers'\'I<"eJre aCCOm,panied. by oil tl1<'lt'lY as fdl't:Yse.w~~:nt." and (u·~(t·s,eolr:I.lm' f:lm~~t need . .edl as rua ny assiixty camels "to ca',"'f hi'S J'l ~IDn-l cft~cls .. rn [)e~m"l)e'tl.·l 8'38. U'Il~!j~i~"I~I'rJibe,~cd~ 'thlii 20.0:O~)O st:r~ng '''\lmy of: th@'lndui;;' sd' Q""t on Us Ul\?iiSiOIil. 'rooT'dei<'il' p~~cef~~. Gft!org~ . h~s _g~'hl'! l1(j' ~\"~.r" ""'I'c:JteIU Auekl~ndJs' '~i,5te.r, E1fnHy £detl'l fa l'h(ll~ an ln, on ~ !iitiCt';ICy in hii~ d:J.;'ll,I'1)IC LI~t ;

The route ('a.k;el1. :0)1' t~e: "Armv 'of the Jndi~s"i I.lay h'l."· sou!th.west dl.I.,,~.t10~1 (r1!lIllllF(!:n;)2!~JP,tlf., BJ'::ru:>s, t:h~, ludus:a:t .i8.1iildtlU; tll1di lhcnc~ nOllth,~~V1-e,~tlJirj}rd.~ '1:0, tlte Eollta . n 1J1'~~S:8., A's it 'lJl'l;~c~edll;!.d i lh ffhi'IlIEi'~ .wel'~ har~s:s'e.d and ph!ndere-d by': .lBa,luc:ll, b'ibesn).'En; and it was .dnlos't Im~'I"~edlate~~ICOltftolnte.d l'i:'Hi1 :l['Ill~.epM'Oble:nL. of supply. Pro~'is.~o,m !'i\'~:re S'l.lpPOr.'ioed to 'ha:w !')~ n toUllettitld 111t :tbl!~ en~:f1iIlC~ h:r 'r.h~ :P.I$S'; bU'l' f.i<"tb .11 poor harvest in the ;~ne~f the previous. year; lil:tl,e 11;[1d been found .. 1b\~,,1'~'- the ti'l1.d 9f Ma.l1ch Illle. co 1 U.J1].n re~'lWd {~u(!rtjjl. wh~re. ~ I' ciI:me cioJle to ;.'itil,rvlln~Jn1. At lit! i ~ IU}l n I.; ht"'l!Y'l''I'!i!J:'i nUlmo:~, Who.~e II~~ k ~t hadb€ento :liecl.l!-e 011 sa:1ie p.assa.~fron1'the"Khan of K~Jm, maHag~d ~o· pl'.c..1nne ~t'lU1t: 10,OOU shl!~pj and] &0 ,aved i1:h~ d;lv .. Th@ f()rcc'L,h~il I;;ont.·iim,i~d hJ Kall(;]ilihi:Qt. 'whkh l"hr~ Si~rdl.u's hillle.! ~lb~m2tonl.1Jd Ill,'lid wJlkh

~t :e'lJlte(ed ort 2.5 A[lJiiJ. '

. ]ni t1.1111 y •. thlO! ~01.\v nsfolk . g.~ve the a r'm)' 1) Jl (!.I~I.I ~usi~~s.tik· wekomeJ ,and ~·tv!~c.ln[l!thl~~ ~e'port~tffil:~ U:1· I\Ud(]~llfId U~.a,t Shilh~huj;aI1~d be'er1 rec,elve(l" ll'l!'lffih te,elm'gs neildy amOUlll.tillirto adulation'" HO""'e,~~t'; hV(j, w~~s Ji'U ,W'.imttll. aU. t;h~ U'v~p~ ['lad a 1[Vl0 "Jut,~ Qr,eUl0nl~[ "evil@\\1 tQilk ~Jl~ll~j'. r~W" lO'f]~ Afllh~n& 'til'tf1'CIf"'d tt'J t,IJtn up. AI~,OiWI~(l'~ ~a'mag.t:*~~en tri~,cl.t~ t111h., 1Ii,3,~1e. th~ [)Lqrr~ni Cht~:e!l.1;\ith "~'~'w~t~ gi:f;t-s p,' ~m}l'~e ~ hi" \;\ J t;!.'i1W~ II" "'t al"l .'UI· I _' ~r'uJ n j h ~ I~ u.1' \~id' HI" d

,[, SC'!1hlten:t: "attlte ]lRl5enC'eof ('or,~j8n troops. The ,amty·~tafe(jj jn l{a.H'dahar fOf '6()IlUl two ]11onth5~wal'Ullg ~oI th~ ~lr.l'i\ra:,l o~ [1': SO su,prpn~~;h ancli lb!.'lfl if!esL:)i.illed B,~m~ucl. On ~1 JuJ~~tre:.~du~tI Gh~~m. '~li here it ,roluld n ts~~f befole OiIr h~a\'ily deJended ft)lIitx~s.s, under tnl~ oommOlind 'Of O,1:'),'e ~)£ Dosl M'Qh.~.~u-:rJle(I.~~ tiQl:1:s.,":'Gt,U;~hIIT~ [H<I.i~~t' Kh!1tl, l?ol( ~on.l~ ]t'I,",;!lpll:c~ti~lc reason, u.had tl;t;Jt h("iju.gh~' ~,fi: '~J.c~" !nll;iJI~e.ry beyoud KiiIlldahf.hr, billta "olutwu ",,~(I~'p~o'Vi:de~ by adesert~[ &6~'l,th~

Ihazni gjil1d:sofl, 1-\:ho' re'jlii.'~Jedl i:hat),a1Qne: of the. g~!'h';l!i Glf l.h.~. !'~y~ tb~ gF!J~~t Kullu'l G'I,tl:! b,pjdl::rot b~{1 br,j kt',d up. "r:lle ~'3t, ·w·m., th, :re£:~l'e hlown ·am.d an. ass ... ult pa,tty.. s!Jcc;e~d ed in s;tpn,pJugthe' ~fb:rt.t;e~. ·l1:t~re wa:s-'.so.me har:Q, ffightiJ"lg., ~Rbl n tl.1.~ w;(I.ils. but: ttl~ a~.llil¢k~['.s bad Utt~!~ dlli'fll."!Jlty lin o'\!.~r~~hil:Lmlllg th[)~·' l;(l~id .If.ld, capturing l'[~idl'r ·KI~'an. Dust MQh~mm~d··s· pJan hild. been to' mflk:e J. stand at At.g~i~e~l,. ,<I few miles (Jlush::i.e .Kabtd, while :1'0,[.01.'$ led- p~r .lnJs, ~o:n:!5 'luo'k Ole l~'va.dh,],g army '~f~ ,~h(l: rea~. rrh~r~":'i'eru 111,~]iW" ktCil'·I,ICYe~~ nl:'I.:I)l'll'fc1lIJJ) cl~ei~'if]oJI s amoug his troops <tad· a . filitbdljon 1:0 ,KiJhi~taJ1.'. his' C)¥:c'[tt.lI'e~ (o~· pt:'~jc,e were fej ~cted and he had. BO .(')'ption but "to, flee, i\ I Hlo'llIgh l:J;U~'!iI!.1~d b', H, J1!n'll'Y (l,r '1.."a~,f;i'~Y whlch,W3S sent nUl in pU['!iult', h(' a1'l1 naged to m~tl~e

his. e'5C<LIM!: .across the Hinda K1.1sb. . ..

Me;E1:~~l\'hUe r un " Al!IgtlS1. S ~OIi:l:i :SJtUii~ ~~~t~tf.;-d 1<,a1l'l\l) bl sr(l'be~ bu l the absence ,ar PQlp\.d~r' '~f~t:hu~,lrMO'I. to.!~,Jim.fnoed,bltely ;Th1fJ'1l£!!r{'~~tj ill'lid it ijOOl1b!:!ca me de.."'l1i' U'l~I' iU the critics had pred~cte.dI .. tb e British ,3 rmy could .fiot be ' ..... 'I,thdrul.\'J wi..th,Qutse.r:'u rlsk~,o ~l1e.'ShaWs posJUon. A.pl1.1"'1 twm his I¢i. Idl;l:ntl,'lnp'"'pu l!lIri~Vf irt ~Ul. :rg~e! thal·!itl. ~1 '!'elfenue:!) 1:11. be ctuild Ii~Jse '\!ir"IQl!ld be 'q'(li'le 'in:Sti'ffide'lll't to ~QI~u1:.tail~ h.i.m,and thar hl ... · ,mlli!r.r ~(l ft;::etll;'i!is" I~OO .SJu.aU tI.nd. un'r~~.1a q_le '~q J<e~p .~]m] i IfM .polwer., AtlCldilind needed the <J.rIJ'W ha;!Z:,k to gtMfd a~lit t unrest in 111l.1!:li,a, il!1!dl was concerned Ito' I:001i.i~e the ~xpense (_)f mafntatmng lt in. A('gh:~n:i:'st.arl\; !but ~tl:;u~.se objects: l,IJ"Q)illd 11;-: ill. ~Ua]ned ~t t.l'1l'~~ p~lc~ ()f ]t!;wl.ng, 'u~aoc:mnpU:sb~cjl 'hie g,re~t PU!"PQ~(!S wj'lh whi h the 'I!.~Pc~diUQr;l" 001 Ca,!]tnd W<;I $ undeEtaken' 11, t'i'e.I1;t!j.:fac~.y ttwt'lsdet:]dt'd to "ri~Jl.draflo:~.Il but ,I)n~ dLlri!i ion.. 'W'I~.ld(l. ,g{ll'I1spn~d :f(1~ nil3lha.r. ~ud I, WCl bri\~,' deSl, whit:h ]"'''f!P1l1in''d ~d ~lbul.

li1c:.l ilillmediate prob~.e.m: with tll@ WLl)ter oormhlg 00.1'11 wa~ .. "11e(e.' rostallol1l th t~oop.s. le.ft in [(.d}ul. °rh(! ,t1bv[C)u(!i p~~ce ~1j~IS lhe ~~ala :111ri::i<i1I'T'" hut 51~t~h SI'l~:I.iil o~'j~t:~:~{~ stl~ngl'y that fhll ~1)Oortresso\'['rlo~']~t'-d b18 p3Ja:~t: ~H"'Id [h.e city, and HI:~t its. occupo:it:i.nn \\~c.I~,!I1d .CFeate th(!' impression that the Bri.Ush ~\'~r 11 ht qp~ anll ~h~n lh~ir p'Jle,'*lnC~ wo'~dd he 1~>·lrm!H',!Ql'll. Macmlgll'l~n ' oll(;.ed'r.::d !:hc p'o~n.t: ,od, tl'V nt-un.,,· mov~d to a n eli"l'ly con:ii.ttuc ~Qd can ton:m;~nt :"1li tnUe .• n\'aY.IJrol,~l.-: mrJUaty 1?t:;i~~t (If ,tie-w, tb ~.~' ~a ntonnlle~l't w,~:s ~, 19.]d, ~nlln(! r~Ib,~et .Wt w,n" \ 1Mi" .~Iookel.) IfilIJJl1 ~'he fill!lU'by ]tmg, flInd 'th{il trli!~8 ilnd 'b LJi1{'11 :rig;=;' ail"CU 1':I'd j;t .QMtru,cN~ .ijeJd; of .1%1;C' •. It ~I"ra. :~Y"f..l1Jnqedi bY'ildoWli\'i1IU ar;tt dl;~c~~ .. ~rv'hL h 'i.I~ .AEgh.ilus ,topld 'ml ' ~I' '~"rUh 'th' IrL~iHlY r (l aI,'~;t, Ian I

~'.u, ~.o ',exteifsi.ye . tll~l . q1if! jvail-a:b,~e f:l'~{lf,.coulU not easHj' berb ~ ·R '11.:.1 _ h and 1~J.~:k' ~ort1@.s, int~' the '·l.t:l':Co'J!1_~'id :ng ,~~!Uu.,tQrs.id~. EW,n ~":o.re{ Its ('Omrni~silliry 'Was !lou .t"!d ~in' ~btlnt1~ 1.1. il)lI1l!i~de'i'~· ,p rim~:-'l'. 1 hlsw,as.· the .lim:. of, th;fSUc~s:sion .of AJllnt~~ 'mlsiC"iV¢lMa- l[]rn; tll~'~ W,e,['C! ll1ltonrl:I'!brul~ to' l:lliE'~ u,ttilU,fI'Le>. dl~ruH~f!r_

" :U~ilt:~ II1 ta,]5!I~, .nev,.i~. b~P;11 'to, corne ii'1l1 pr a lhl'sian adWJn~1il 1,~i\.Ii.I~1,li'qS' Kh:i:Q','I." the 'nl,oti t"e OIh:vJhkb ~Ij,:a:;s u:ndotlbredl)! ~o .. t;Q:~ . *1' ·tb!~~!ri:p~b 'ronvard :1· oliley' In: A gI1~ti!ln..'iI'h: itLIi$:ian.s '~~!Cfn [I.~.11 OU of Ute. pg~"bmty. of IJri!I&,h, .'tmctoildUfI J ItS'iI1l1P tltdr comlfl:e-f~e ill' :~rUil~ ~~iI .• ~ :WI~n ,11:11 br tire ~~nl!l[l~nc~' U:lpt ,a' NlilSli.m pd~~ ~~t~· 'ltrrti-s!b so~pgQfl~ntgJH e?~er~lft J;~~ .. 'ttQ'~k.Jw.n~tW~. 'of I:he'.r gl.O~l, M~?~;lag:l~t@'13,\ ~~~lt'1~di3Ir1dpr:::a,pC'~d to !'~Hol'lld bys.el1ldilirlg. a '~ot(:e il!~f\us·:s the' HmduKusih. ·.as. it turned out, hm~"~\il~r, the ~u~s.ian J.,en'l'm'lewils 3 ~1:5e[able f. ,i:l!J['e, n ·i!i.nrrf,lU!1~.e~d e~t@pU(:)mlHYiSJl.1!ve~;c 'win!::I'}" t:Ondunons ~ulitll br 'the 'sp~ fng of 184'0', '~I,il1.l l\ir~H5h W1~re fi~lILi::!~l!d to hreEu' ,th~lt it had 'Ii!i'i~h(l!a'i\!;l']' to Oienb~l[.g. Of an b:r:iginal 'f~U:;ll o.f SlJme ')~OO:O' men, some ] I (Jon d Ic~d: l'h!~ 1l'1~n.:' fad tb.3t it .had tal· en plaee, hOW~!i,lel;1 h~d flu! e1f:ecf of S[I,Feng~hreni.ng t!ll<! nrUi h 'dt!te'i'tnin', fiQ;n 1;0 ]J!ilrslst with l'llcir lV-ghat! p(Hicy.

. .. DLlrt~!g th~ WhllC!.r ,of '~8'3'SI'-4Qi, di.scQI!l~~U~ .J1I14r~ed to ~t.:JII'l!'t1ld .. 1~. K~mll! a.llboiu.g.hr F~r nlllny mbntJis~'~' bDte:,lybroke Ilh "'lU"~C i. A m.uin (~ml')lamt "'oI':a~ ovee the ~:rowlng: cost of road ~lnd otlh~r !l!!e6essitiei),.for Wh cl,' tl=t.e ,oc(;upyh g; ill'~UVW~!i mnlp'i~ing', LLl th~· IIl'IUJ.keL lin [the llliIlRt;le:r'nf:flHlIi!\y oc upyin.~ armtes, the -1tI~mbCr5, or tlli. nne :lIIISO ~ta~f:€d·.tCJ play f<IIsCan.~ ~otts"e;Y!i!.i.tb the I.irdi.'eS ()fthe li:l.ty, boUt matrj:e~1 f!lndl U ill 111.(1 rded.. ~Ul~ th.~~~ ca used ,!!l1l'e:~l 1~~5i!rrJ/I'IH~.ru. 1 be· tro()!P~ 311lCl' dtllfik in PlJbU~ and Ul" ~r .lIUr1JIIJd: t(H"r'd'cis the hjciill~s'mi~ e~m.~J~'$.~ and ov,e:rbe;,1.[in:g,~s W<l5 that,of the ·poUtli~a.I5·. Therewas meanwtule-a ~Jo1'iIl'1.n,g neil;'u tl)· hiUld out: ulv,·nUon.s in order 1,6 p@rsuad~ th~ tl'~b~l Ieaders, tHlrtfcluli1I.rly aJ]ilnn~ the ClhilziI.i wbo C(n"i-l,lna:t1(E~ thl' I:::tlbulPeshawarroed, to acquiesce in the ... otG;:l;l]J;;I~·ion, These }ead('!lS w:eie' . i1dd.il~hJnlll~}l:an[.)gor:llsoo ~(aus.q:) ilh~ ·UdUsh LDi)I~ H IlpCitl Ih@m!id'~s to r,~!Ise ill caVl,l.lry ftm;e for SJn'lJl Shujial so 'thili: they lost tbe p,rvm!,;'n~~, t.hty tradltionaUy re(43i~r~d for iPro:liiding 'flmdal~ ·caV3_·lrJ. fClrthe 5h3.1'1_

As if ~n~hi:s: we.re not el'lough;i)ml Mohilrmned' fb.,t!1l @sca.n~d bt:Jm 11i()k!lt'lM" wh~re hI: hadbeci;1 'hl::'lcT 'vi-r~uaUy ~IS ji!J pti~o;ri:tlrl rai!il~dI;;l fur·l~· of UsbeIts nurth. of th€', H:indtn Ku~ll and ju September 1840 . ~vant:edon U1,(:!'nl,a,U, g,1<I~dilOn~l Balnhm, MlIcml:gh t'en W~IS dll:St~'ugh'tH - 'the iUgl,1il1:IU are g:lI.npowdvlr, and thE'! DIlU'j ... ~j!,hJtlid

ma.~hl= but l:he ,~"l[lrdsdn h~d b.een ~t;W!:!igltfefnf(wceddmirtg tl~e 5.u~111I!1~~, !'Ind, ~'he,~ th'~·(tU~:lhl!:;J~d ~~Ir.cc m,IH 9ll.'it .Mtli1!~umed '~:!:lrrJ'ft'\~ .iI.r[!w nlll!~ ,OI~J~if!iftl~~.ll1~'!1I •• lI',cy a "hi'i' \'. d n.,l ·~.h~1l- V!'C1;Ory.ll~ wev~f DOst Mo:h~mm 1:1 \VI1i)iS 1l0l".f.mJ.J tI. t~· sdoo Ji~1 p'p~1'I1_d ~tl l(G)1ifiJ,i I [Jji':lW wiU, 'l._'Ij]~ .uUll .. 1'. Ji.l'ld!! 1~1~"I~'I~~nllll 'nl l,r II 1I'll". Insl

lv~a'.hamnlied bad the, ibe"i:t.,er·or th·is. bu.t seems atthat [pOlil.l to ha'\re lo.~:t heart, One' e¥etiin,gl~] MO'l;',€mb~. wtru]}~ 'M(aCl]~lten 'Wl'as'~Jd,ug,Jl.l:l. dany rjd~ GlU :id • 'J~1'!blJ,l, he was. :PJ)O!;Of1!l:JiL:! b:" ilng.1 b. r ridrl, ~;q',I'i() turned f)'~t to be"l)o,$!t ivrohi<lu]Dled ())fre'r1t~tr his S'1,lliIHendel He was: du]y "sent Ilnder .gutl:rd te ];udh:ian:aJ. whex£l h~ ~'lia1!; ,gtV(Ulll, .'l[lenSllotllIHUl !l.\~~S

netd In th_',;"'ei1y, house (I: rtYliclI"lyoccupied by.: .sh,tlh, ,Sh~!j(!,. ,

P.1i '~he ,,'Dnter of 1-8~H)-4l appreached f 't.I;tel'~fu:(e,· i I ~~iT!med that a I WiIJS~::gPIH,g J'eaSil1l10!1bJly '~ven" 1£1 ,t he , C'f:)'u,~s:~ o:f ,the,"!! n'tex. ,<I .D:l!.r~HnJl !'ISI,Q,g n.~3,ir' KandmlJ.ar W'I$ &1;Jipp,~e'i!;ed ,~y lh:~ f6~'.l11er~" rU'ildI, in the summer or 1841, bot}f the Dutrnn1. tribes .. oo the l-lelmaud and the GhU,zaJs o.nVl>"eSitenl AfghaJJ1ismn ros~, bid w,~re d¢'f~[l'rll.!d"in ~ s~rle!>,.n~r en.ga:ll 'Il:l~nts. 'U1:I.It:l:<ih ~Pl i,:m i~;m- W~lli r~1 n [o~'C~d. C:'I,I'~'~ "11~(iUGI:l, tE,~re stOll' seemed no. teastl!fltll')le prospect that the v,iho1e Jlr.it1sh~lJl1·e 'cottld be ~<ViiLhdra!i\ln. 'rhe ,oo!.!.lntiJ~' .MfICO.~'gbl'C l [,ep(j:ElUu;W til. Augtm, WiI:.'. ~l~'1~toc~ly t;L~!jct fdl'u:t'u nan ~~O' 'U,t!cnh~b'.I·. 'Till' f~J;lknl'!i~!1.gItlOO,flh, h J.OOtl:.led:'lh~t he :W'aS to be' O)ppoioted G·ov~m('l[ (if I),ombay m1d was, }'oolilIig'fo,t~""afd to IC1I\'in,g Afgl'l<'!.nl.st,an ,for good. Un. th~ mlI,ilUa.r· lillie, if n!!~ t;()jJ~n ,OJ Iwl \iu~ G(lt1 era ~ ,1!1~):I1.in~lQ,I) -, 'hw::lh een ,PPilh1 ted earlie'f j'll th,e yeui:;'" ~QWi,lit1{)f)"lontJtituad EJph!iTIswne. hi!!! haJd[p~ght '\vl'th cl:i:s;tmCil ioll. ~It Y\!<Itcd.olD and, ilft~r l'Fmrry, reMS, 'Qn .1;1lJ!Ii:f Villi}', h.a~ been ["~. ~11' j l:tl ~!lji~~ ~liL1.:y ~,nd.· aP'POiIlh,!d,:ITlnit~,ry c,~ l~nlal.iI~cr lof, udh, I,r~'ftS, 1l~ 'SU.J:fretmg-'ljl.'om S'e:v~ ,g,m;I:t ~o;I.nd W.!IS' not [n.r,si1Q rt of 11 . .s.~a toe of Sl'llmlllJi:. tlI ndeJl 'mpllJtllst@~e;was 'anu11'~e'r ne:W' appointee, n,l:t!:iu:Il:fl'r Sb_I'~ .n, ~!bL11 d.\q~.t·Cd l~lpl,ht'll~i'(\ne ro fh' 'E'n1m :orin5,UI:i(~tdtn,a,uan,~ 1'h,{l ,iliRlly.,mea';nw'fl.J WI.\::, ,;:;;Ililly:ed ihj~~ 1:;:<I.IlIt:CItlme}1,[. It 11i ad b(;ieo J'0i:d~d by wives '<J.'nd liln'lmil['SJ CllJd, tD th~ be'I1i1,ll~fu!~nt Qr ~h(;' Algh~Fns, wl'IJ.!! lJ:wny 'llt'l. 'Ii me b ~jl'ldu18lIt~ lncrl l,~'ll hotseltae.illM;, Inl.at~ur ~hie,l'ittIcals~, skating'j ,sJl,o~tlng"audf.J;s.:t.iill,g (and d]sp(ll[t~ng..lts€lfw.itlh the ladies of 'the ~:(.r~'if,n), A nit!nJbt~II' 01 oIJtlcer.s" .i.nit:hJn1lng Burnes, tLmd taken u ~id"nc(2:jl1i,thC' ,dtr, \!I,i'bcre IhQ II my's l1~i\ttH.llIY' \\V'~~ also [i()l:at~L.

As, the 'wl:ui:et' of 184::1 a,pprml.c:l'llec~r and ll~Tplfr¢~i~iedi t1y lhe cyelio !lPI:lillliitlc Mficl:'!aglllm,Af'gltulI] Ujlf,;'lltm "lit ol.ltl,cl"1l1~d "1:0 grow. The' ,irrnn'E'diate cause: of the dsi that broke lit in October (If that 'year was <II, decislun by- UftJe new 'fory gOIl,.·.emmenLiJil London L :redlt~' ~!{pellld!'i"UI:e;; and . M.!!cnagbt,li!'rL mll.~t[lh~'I~ l'1}1 wCC\e'iv,ed ins,tructtitHi~' Ito red!.la? 'litl rther 'Ill' ·si:ze of ibe oecu pyJng almy' itnd to cut baCk, 11 ii, '·ub""entiulls to the {1h.ilzaI 'I.rib~, whO"pr.orn:ptly l'etanaL~d ~W lpKlllS: the fOiI,ld ~o Vc:':!h;}''WIl!OO'~ bl K!:l.l:n~] U::id"f, fil'~(lI~dJY' AJl&b~I'IJ:\> had ltlJ ~orne t1 IllJe b ~n telJltL'lg ,tl'le Bri.tishU:i~r~ t'i :ris:ing: was bem,g:plal] rn~d., lnd:,·t neb!' ' 'w<t:r:nbllg$ .had, gon l!lIJl.he·ed.ed..On 2: Nov:embl;:f, 11 I1:'Iqblt~!4.l~ed ~'IIJ;~I:H(!i h~u~l:!'. an(L,' ~l'f~~r. SI.H/eoU·~ lWttt's' Ilg111 Ung:, U1JtU~'l:mlhnll!llh r Iqf d~f"e'l1iL~:Ri:w,e'i1· 01l'ecF~'Ii;b~1 m~d t~t~Bu,Ii11ii'l.~ ~t~ld :h~~" b,,~,li'.:i'et w,ell~'Rn 1~~. SIIH}1I'l1't1,I,a '11, I fO,L"" t [i ~cue-. In, r,N,1t It WII.!i 11:0 I ~JI' t, 'I 0:1. kJ.!'

lle.:JQlJoaf tn the. mll:.rO\fstreet~ ()f the, citF. PTom 'tlllt~ GIllIfIWnnllcn't(j whe~'~...:I, r:u'~~S'llg{' l'11il1blg ,IOf', l'I:s'ii!stan-ce W~51',ec~ i;v.md, ~Ilirn t b:~ fllJislt <Of the ajfr'iiIIY,'~'1'·a!i ,c.lt!l.l.rly IJitiidibl~ei ng h~l[J itt tin WU::l, i.~,ro~iii'led. A~tell' ll1ucd'l olitill:iraud countgl'-o;rde;r1 <1'f.OI';ce !.H''l.dreI,,'Sbelton - "1mS :H!411t1:til,the nilJa !:-I: i:'i!3'a,r, bU:I. we~.l t nOi :rl),fth'e'l.

" Tll! '.)~jC'C~.Il~', pf tJl:i~ lll1Hl3~ '\i' nbue )lil?~jJt"k; dds. n&~l' i1l€~'6~S IlH,~ eo~t[l";. A ,smaliJI ~o.r~e'.e~'!i'i1J:l.g'Gl"H~zIll. for the ,cap:ital wC!s1Ulni:b'iillJf~tiI whU~only' t,t""'Q' otflc.l"!S,,;lifid a '.'l(!P't~Jy SlliiWll,J1lld 'IlI,:desp:r~miti:'e !l'e1t1r~t; !imlc~ ~h'e OUllp~ t ~t Cl'larik,'III1. ~n .!<abL11, the f~ihni~ o.rUle m;:my 'to M'OOll, Elttme$: ,~rev~n to take ~~ectlve tet~ibution for 'hi~ death, 'C'1l:oom~g~dI , l11~' \,!ll]~ WI!n!! up'poo~d 'tc) 'the .[lrmsb OeWp<ltiOITI., or who .l\\ler,U' I:Q,g~tnl\g fc~r 0ilS¥ Iect, nll@ tIW,", 1li~'CI'iIUld the 'Cil.lli,fiO;!:l,m~~,rJt was S@'O'J:'1 sWal:lning,;,with hootih~~A(gfuafilS,lic'i1'ho latd sittg4il to th,e OOmmi.iiIl:Elriat" fort ,A;s;.lEl:l)hiinsl6nl! and 'li~ CC)U@,ilgu~'S dithered, tlu!'; W<lS ,ab;ln.do.U(l.d" i1:'i"also., ~ft:.(tr. a spinte(!l d~["fl'll'C~,. was 'Ih~ ~rri30rJ'~ gra~J~ ,S'~QN. h~, th~ c1 tV· /\ml. Oltt&mp'~ waiS made em B 'Ni()\ilembe:r to. di:5]odge the ,UghrliuS

rom !Ibe hills s:ul'[PUndlng UK' ICC[[lIDnmentar:;uJ fo!r a .short. "dl:!le, at:'ll'iev "c:ll i'l~ ob.~tt;wv~". Ehrlt 'th~ J.\ £g,!nlll~~ n "t:u~ m.:,'il !I !'lid , '\o!i,t hen lI' fit'Lrlhel' s,Q1Ue '~ar:s.~.ma~e'"(mr'lth,e, 22:nd j tlCII.f!18Jlftj,sh fOlce broka under b~,,"yHi re: and l~~lre.!'tc'd In dusorder. 't1Jlf' Br]tts.h, C'om.nlla.nd WO.iIS now wholly l'ilfa~y~d and Uw~roop~. who ;'!i!IlQJe It(lO ri:!W III m,!Hli;>!Il:t t-o ,de,rend them5e[iir~; ,~{f~ti")it~;~ 'tThl.t)roug,hJ:y de:rn(l.f.;)ill~&ed.

, 01125, N_Q'Ve'll111Ini'1',t' '111 ~ri rOlle', 'a 'ml!Ce was 1 alledl and ~\t'o:lrnagh[en b glJn ne sotial'ing.Tllt Afgha.n5! inU~l. I. i"ib~!;:'~Hve !.'Ie.Jl:lns h) bave .been simpl,)' 'to 'get 'the Btl tlsh .out of the c.OlUl'trr, j)~1U $m~ that to ,~ll;11;e.mpt <_1IrtyUi:lng, more ru,:;tre:r.n{! l/.\:Iould Otl' 'to inv~:t'e retrlbl.l.ticm .. But fhelt . It~i"~t(jJe hardened wtrh the iiifllhr.l of [?cpst MQ1111111mt!d's SOUl Moh~lmmed~b;:tr~\'\'ho lUld ,~ee'l1l living in 'l\Irkes;fan,<mrlwh.O now. ,3,SSU:.ITI·{!.d 'l.hra' ~~adel'S~lXp [II lite 'lnsmr~.~r;l'ts.. 1IJl~~"i'J.g:htelTI, tr!ledl lJ,n~,\!'ls~IYI to e1Rict- :some diD1.!ble dCitiUmg !lInd, ~'I iI lin, ctiin,g wbldl fnak pl;;I(~ 011 23 De<:':elTlberi he. "",",liS killed. P'Osl$ihh,.· bv M.ob,;uunled AkblT ,htm.sclf. ,Hls l'mLlt:i.hll)~d a.nd heiidlegs hOody '\i!;Tas"'thel di.sp1aY!l!d at,

th entrnn e to U1C K~bUl ba:ti!ljlr. ' "

Neg().ti3tions. connnued after 'Macri,lIg:htJen.iS death, under tb.e 1.nc.reflS'i,ng c:nll~. fi!:!n:~s, m ~horl':lg€"of suppUes, and Ulle (tlilSQt of winter. E1UI}f :l:t'll JilntJ,~":I.(ryi (Ift~r ~ tru~~I;Y ~~it!d 'be~n. ooncl,ud~dl w'ilh nu~ Ghillal. d1i:ieffs prmuisi ng iii ,5~fepass.':lig~ out of AfSlll['J,1f]jst<IL~ some 4.500, troops .and 12~U!JO (Mnp ",?Um.li'ers ~"!llht: can~o:nment .and headed tIIH:ough ~h,Ci! pL1$~es Ita J~'~~Jj,ib~ld. my n1'~ Ume' thl'Y h,~.d Ir('!oQdll~d IJle' r~r:n Q,f th~ pa'5!Ses r t~b e :J(ij.u\ri;l Kalbul, . IDa:l1fY',wet,e dead f.Jrom ~~:pQ$!lre hI t.h~ freezl.l1g ",cond:ltltlu a.nd Shull SIlUij~1 's clJntingel'lt ,!;md d~(~cl~d ,'11, n;1~k.~e:,.SQ!l'il~, :i,IOOP more ,di,tld "Il.t! tU~xJ ,d~l·Y IIVh~l', ,iiI~-SPlil~ ~'h~ tl' 'at~~ tt;'[.t.!y ,Ciu}iiiL1 ll.~'lcl~~r hl3!l'lo/l fnl~' ?I~' (hi'.. ~Wo:W(i)e~1 fllmlLlgb '~l~ij.' 11IiJ~;S, D~ ~·blon·'f .. ~.pt:li. :~llro ,IF['I'· 111:12' ~ ::lUll I\.~ "U~lt m;!, ~d ~"i t,r~k !Iii. I, Ln.

urrtiV'·by.l:bc eOO Qif :t:ffi.l:f! ~foLtl.'rl;""! dayr\o))liy 12()~1~m!pe,,"F.i. oot~ers and is'Q.m:e 41QO~J .tCarn:p raUUW(!:cs. w\\!,re .. :SlUl tr.ying. ~,Ij, fJg.ht ~t'~I;!~I: w'~Y fl'i[w,~h. Th\i'(l day' ],a:lQ!! ~,fJ!lel[,e·rgl"i,ty. ~u[vi';O~ 'made II '~l11fll ,dil&11Ior sllfety~ but theN Il,!;nnlJre',r" d~"~~lld.l!ed to- -, ~Jw: r:Oi.llli;..1i¥n.~(efiOt more ~1.:1l\ t;;,.v;enLry W~.f"~,:d(lEl'.),ll.lO~~· ru \\Il"llA:JI.Il.l}:Q~l~~lll~k 1.1'1 11 hlltit ~~m"ld til 'Gtlnltlii'H:I!~al~. Six {11m :'J~,.(lil tlOt~bacli;,,!:JuC~~dlt-tI'in oesl;3il~)ill~ hUl'Q:ftlu."I"i\'l·f!"e we:r~ lal-er -MIlugld and, kill~~d. On,IYilo!'Sif:lgLe man, Dr E;.ry~()nr }'(ol!.l.ll,d¢·~ iiln~ on '<1. dy]_ng~' l~ots.e'IU'~T'!;a:gei:t ~.O :b;~t IOfli' h'!i'I'ltrs~~(tJ:S ~l,(l rcil.t~~l .I~lw~bad.~trr M1f'i1:~td d~W a.]'jui~ ·l1lSh~. tt\I~.J3~~J.II.lJi.Ld ·,g;~tri·s,61ll ~;il:.H:,11~ lamps C1n~, SOUllded bugle~' ~;;'e.I)i ilillJ'urler ()if/an hou~" bu:t nQbo~ly eI.50'~

appeared, . . . _ .' .~. . ,

'l"h!! bil1IU~s~'CYI'ill~'lia~, l? .~sim.od that. Dr nlydlioll1 WllI:S- the 'QiIlJ~1 SU1:V!'iior

of 'tn@'retr,e,.1t't from K&b!llTl. [n·"iai:t). O'llE'f ,i1·ln.!!n~.r·M 81i'lU· h alp.dve') were u:-scued t.h,e folloWi'f.1'l'j y~~.[ by lh@ I AJ.':.Il'ty· 0.' ~1' utbuhqul, ti181\le['~ some ~,()i'){l S~~loy~ ,~nd. c:a;~l1ip' JQUowen. O~~11e~s lIi1~u s~~r"i"i'li'!il~I'.CI:.n£ to n~appear ,OVe,T nme, otl;t:eI~ ue'VC[ to' t~turlJi to, h.'1dm. :~I'I H e 19Z0~. Inefl'lJbe.rs ohl e Urhlsh [.I gadQo in :I~ bul '",," 1'(: Inv1t,et1lg ttl !ll."eLuy 'I,!~r.y,.cld,~'rly l.ilIdte I who ,:Ilunoo ?;U~ to b-e U 1"\11VOI"5 oj: tt h' ~ retreat wbt1l. as ~ab[.eS, n<'ld been' :re~1.)1ed jllf]1,Ci l::lIaugtn.~ up. -b~" loea I. JiiunlJ],es. 1l11;',Y. had llved .aU t:lH!lr Il'les • s A,fghill~SI but. 1:11 lL1el'!' aid 'tlgtl I~bli~ry" h~\d

W'·~;hed·1 rneetsome of ilh -jf cri unal "'c m,i?lJ!t-rio'I:s. .

5':o<preT:is,h-ed Hlf AImy. of tJ~e rhtlu~" a. '1~tctim _0:(0 po1H:1c<ll ,n:l1Silu~g~r.ll'i~:n-l jrud m:lUtary In.cu'mPQ~t nc +. AUI,;k,Land" Wh? _ ~l~:d ~l(lj~d;~' il$kedto b J !I',elied 'of'tlle "0Vi n:u:.lr-General:Shi,p, Weft h'l:.'j_l~: ifi few l\'\1~ek~ .la.'ter. Tble; ]a~l:~,tprd ·1l:erh3Jf!'t.1a)/ wlth [)C~M MOhrl1nr.n~.d, 'i h.av.e bt':~.n ~LrlIJel~ wIth ;ti.1.Ie 11 ;q,.gt1_t~lll,d~ or !f.O~lI.~ '1i~~lLU'Ct'S. your sh'lpOSl, Y"lI,U: a I'!j.ll\aJs'! h" i Ii PiCI'I't,ij{J t, hilV.e sald, "'b11t what 1 cllmJ:f.I~ understandJs 'Nby tlr!,~ rnlers-of so va.st·andtlourl;li.h.lng an mpne ~b_Oi.dd. hav;e gnp. ""C.rosS I,he Indus; 'to t"'.·~"j:~~le m~ of nlY poor and

l:m,li:nm ~ountry'.

Dost Mohammed and 5ter Ali

F unrn.i'll i.~I,g~ 'tl1.,ell.~.,' "14~I.l.1 c.:a~'!l·st ropl~1;! I •. ' '.~.' _~\fghani,s~a~l,. th e 8:tlUSI.:l b.;td three ohle~ltve. Fhe filif!itt !ir'i"ilS to relieve tn - g~rds ,ns, whi-11 \\i'@re'

'still ti;H:!ItI!l and :re::'i~i.i!e -tbe ~c~pHV'et!. The seecnd t"!'~lS' to "'l)p,.-e:a'a'b:l:is'h our military 'N .. ~putilrt~n by ~he: inUhtt:kltf ,or some signaL ,!LrJ)d dec:i~sive b)(}\'Il ~:ll tile ·J\.Fghar'ls·, The thir~ ~\,~f then, to wltl1dt~l" al:tolg:tlll~h~r from /\JgllmlJ.st~.IJ ~11l{}t flliDf 1Jn}'drli.de'll.~r o:f niea.nls,to .m,;lIlb.l:3llli OlJil:t pcsillon; bu~ b'catl:s~ '\'IIII!' i.!lI!C $il.US l1J·d 'l'~uli, Ilb~ Ikll,"lg' w.t@ h'IV,~~~t U,p h~s no:. a '\l\!e w~l'e ~1~TOneouslYr-L d ~~. illnag;in;e" the s:up,p'orHlf th~ -rtaHoD overwh]ch h~ h,!ls been pta ', ce,d']., T~\'()' columns w'e~fe senti' one t<:f· J ~la].flb'PI(] :~ nd H1.d OU'U~r. 00' l~ndlRlil1l'l'. '~ ... rb.C~· 1!'lJu:;;b g;;lmSfi.ns \¥e!"e ho~d:h:u;~ Q'u~. In IDInd8J~~r;.'th~ .Bfiii~hforc~ repulsed~: stronS:ait~t:k by., r)lma~~tIjl?es~~e~'t\lIi~lllI]e in Ja:lala~~~J,IlI.~ ~:atd.Sioas~U:ie.~ out <I.gaiD.? /. M().h~rm~.ed A"'khfl.r'~, ftU'('.~,s, w.!tl'(;.h "o!;'e.r:e Oln~'liS:!l1g .iJ"illP.re[Jul~11'iI11:.1 fon: :Elt1 ,itlti1c:k .ttm !the tow-n. 'What :itaa:ted as Ii desp!!il:rllte last tIU~')~'!i ·~·a. '~OarJ oven¥h-ehn:i:ngBy successful, and M(lth3n]me~lt_.A~b3i!i' fleil' to 'the hills, mt.;:lng rl:c 8~'1'ljs~1 ea E"J liV€S \!i'l,th .r'11m. 'fh C tCJ!~lc"SUon J'l.Q\,V 'W'iiiiS,. wllli!~.be;r these vletones tOlll:d be constdered S:l1 ffi~J'I!in:Uy d~cj!!ilvie to fe''e~Ui~j~ish U.dtaln:'s :military reputetlon, E.Ucnb01'o.;ugf1J tile:' !:1'e'\'\:' Go\;elm::itr-

Il;!nt:ral, ~houghi that lhl.'Y WC[C ... butt .111$ ge;ner,nlls lfV!ill"e 111Onrelu(:NH"I.t ;0 leave und Ch~'3;U' hiOW We:t:~ (ul]~lhl.g ,Ifn,nnl 1.t()[ldol1. IUut ScQmeUilhlg nmrl! alec-1sit"!:: ~'!it~s. expected,

En ,hd:y, EheJiel:'f:U~, Ilh~ t~hleulls 'WN@ ghren d.iscretion 1.0 "r'l!ll\e~t! v:i,a, K'<I"l:ud" 'Ii larg,~ Afghan forte was (h;!f'€a~ed 'betWe~.J1Ki.lndii.lih.1lirdWl·~1

f Hl,<iZn.3, whine aa a.lmY m!l~nJilJl¢e(l 'by :t:o,Jnn ammed Akbar. v/r:(o hfi:(f 'I"' 'n W'I,l.~ltl~ened by di!lar:tIon,5j• \llin:' f,boptiJ t,pt1tg-ht In ~h'" con'ri '~:F the 'R~iU:5'I:1 iIIciv:a.n\'! f;romJ~"'I~dalba~I.l:1Il SC-P,u;irtl.b· r"~hJ 13"d'rl~h r,~ n'~~'t'l l1il~blili oillHd. ti){;)f11 t.d',ec~~!l'J1; :~ound ilIfld n;:'C(]~[ililhtti '~'.lJptl~!Z8 .. A:S~~[i1i

,I IIcl'r~.bll,~:I:uu; ~h' J nIb tl] L,Ili. ,sh!lnl KHi ul L l:iill.Jf! I'm' 'of til', '[I hlt~

'Qf Cen~1i1 A, ~a~ and 5~Rt ca ,Ion:e to the IR;-Qhistan 'iUagl!'!of r~uiIU. :'!i\'h~e it kiUed ~a~m the .adlullt males, raped, and kllled l1Ji~r:l:}i of T'h.e 'WOltlCI"lI' looted ~~, 'rylhh~~ r!rlClva;jol~, and de~~:ro:r~d bUildJng's ~tnd ,t::w£. lli:f:lii)jf, \w:hitlh,· ha,d' bad mile t,(J db "f.,r1th. the oppas:Uio:n to tue .Bri]iSh,'W'1lS' one (]of tilt. mostand.,@;j~t a:nd3l:l.r,;J.(:t~\; . of: kHgh.il.n,:v;H.~~;g~.Il. .a:nd i"~ P'Cilj'1l.1Va:tb'"'b 'Uev d to hu.';\lrbeec: giv~n i,~' n~ifn by f\lekaniler the: G'It:i'I't afteE 'lh~ Qreekwatd for ' grape', thil :t'o:fceUI~n ,~ell1!t 0-1'1; to

.' Cbatllmr" palts 0·£ ~~.llclil ~ tt also. desbriyed, .Ati. :"Ii'lg cO'tnp.let~.cl tht· se ~asksl the t"Om:l:ll_ul"d !l!m.yW'i:I,bdnw by ·w;lJY·. Q:f dill! t<hybar',h",rded b.V ,Mliid~ lri b~:sm'~n as it W'L';!J1lt

n then qnl;f' l1mainoo fO!.;QUJ.l~ the 'co l (j,f tlile', l\l~U - Plint::ljp<l'Uy n'110 h>:!i~ olf b ~'Wee1ii t'Si,iOOOand 20.ClOOi ~oUlb~1'3, ~pgld'her. "~Uli) {~n till k:t1mvir:n 'ra.1iI!ffiber o:rcamp [() n ow~rs~;anda,n I?xpe:ncljtu:re" that has bel;n est~ma:~ed"at 5Qme £1i'~20 miiHt'm!. MGt@ t:t},~m ~O,OOO .' epni~I.:s '~~'~'~,I$~ ~o.~'t" With diJI'l'H,agi:I'l.g CQ!fJ~e(~,~lenf;;~l>. ~oj' 111C1! (!~o:umny 9( the te·gi&!1!. There wet~' also severe knoc1<:-ofi ~'ff&ts for the Indian ~oon1!)m.~ R'5?aJ !whol~i. ,whi1e,1 1n nDI"N'l1ill'ted3i], tf.'lOmi, t'h~ ,r~ritJ':h lqst (,tQ\!'(~hJ~iibl;e I:e:!i~c't mn,ong. ,their hJdjliln ;~ Jb:jects. 1:1, ,,\.fllhanistl'lrlr Itli:el¥' tttm~ ,se,.t:iO~s: 't~ir tile lQ'HS'e'f' t'eml wa,:s :tlle:.loSs of ani s'iirul:1,o,r :tJrUl);La:nd 1M,t!nds!1l1p betw.e~o A.fgban ·and UrJ.tOJ1. In ,Bdtlsl1 I~tin.cts, "-'. ,j)1:'!""'.;ffvquin~t1 l'epll;:Iltatigo for b .. fb'ari tYI h!'lae,h~l!'y~ln';l flWH11"j, dsm, . , j;s._.;.<qlll:h'!tm~I':~\j;~d'; as 'lmf~eAhe, Fbs.t .j\;fgllil,n Wa~ ~tijs£()TII ~~':as. t:lfn]y' O,I:'l:e ~f man ,ltl:sbtt!lll'~~ ~'ho found the'A ghl!lns' !~xCe{JIU.oir.Umy fri, ndJly lHfd 'lG'.l~ml1t. Accord'il;lIS 'lp M~.~mi'l~', .

It ~ 1.1 1:'Itl'.~~~iI:~ Pie '~gf~~l:Dib'Ie e~,t,,;rpi:tse to ~t~lY O'i'ii:C a1t;q'U~h'i,~e-d ",rjtl,~ .MMl:Oann'I,OOanS ib l.ndl<l, l2er;s:!al, ,il,nd TmkeV,and llll:lth ,I:h!ll!:ir n~li.giDus p'J'eju"dlcl;S, aud a_ntlpj;lJti"des" to :Imd~'l t'h.~ ~}~bpJ!I;l ~f !<alb~ll are enU~ 'I:r Jdl!J\lOid: 'Q~ . Un~Jn .. In ~ao.st CQtirlfl,t'rie f~v M(Jhomm.e,dau:\)! wmeat wHh !l!'Ch'[i~tl~Ul; ·fQ salute him, .<t!-Ven.]ll ermr, is, deemed UI.nfQ~!.'I.un3Jt@ •. and, lJ:Ie ~s 10oke'd ~jpOI'l as !,lU: lean, H~[e none oflh _ dlJfi 'LIUi.es 0[' fi-Atllgs, ;!(']Sl. llhe GhilstJ:an i~, r.~SPGGtluU)? caned cD 'KiUbJ'/ ,or 'one00f'tb@ B~Qk';.

"I"h~ 'wall:' dl.tlnged all. this; .BrIti,~h alllld, otberEb:reigners w~rc hel1Ge:klfithi di~trusted a.s pobe.l1Hiii] agg~~s..~or5 an -I d;espised a infidel ~nd hrnnora]] ·~ol1le. X.enQphuibi,a be!.'Cc1Il1it' llil,g~ii:hl.ed In ~:h~J nati'r~IU,~DUUuok ·and AfghtlJIJ.lsla'tl r!:£~ilted into '\vJtat has be¢ll d!i1"scribediS ,;uiineady ,~ (:'(:ntuIIY' Qf sltul.tii.fylng I~nlation·'. Tt:u.i'! eon'eqtrlllilt .~f!'Uj'ack fcur IJhi(r cou.nhY's d~}f~.lnprt'ijJ!:,jjt, Is uiflq~HmttftflbJ'I' 'bull: must uoa1!~fl1'el'IES'~ h.f,I\nl.l been ('0. stderable,

'ShorUy aJh:,[ ~,hre H,:dti!lh f(ui-e l'!J3Jci :re·~!,red 't1'lf1:9u~:h the Jil;lXljldQ.' I ~u~n ~ody Qf how: ~nen _l, .. tr!F·e'CI U1" ·t;lHlJ ~r ~\,;;Jy-, 1-0 ~OUb.l' ('O,t A '~h'i!!l:thm:iVlJ. Tl';je~e. W~:Jier.ro~1: Moh;llnm,ed and liis' :tfeti,I'!'Ui\!" w~:u;irn. I!Ucrlb':r~Ljgh l'uII'Fl.s-d rf~'n";lli·. I ,.IIQ:whl'! ',th' tI'lulUl_Hll uj'l'""f

th,e Aau_y,:oi th(! Indu5-, di$~nSiQrI ba(il~grulj.l::n:Gkem. B: a r~l:~i 'a,lII~ th p()[lOl.liat" (,I,nd '!l. ,Cdn."til.", led, ~llzru,

· d~'v~loipedi n Ka'l;lul .. 1'\gain:'jit ':the buds" Shah Shuj!;iI' (.it • ,~sul'viv€::d , bout 'in .AprU 1;842 was prevaUJoo' ,uj1~n. teleave: t:file: BaJEli l~nssat In orde:J:' to I.':~V., 'W ,~f(ln~c bc;ln~ ~t-.lllt;·'~~l.raJs.t Jala.l,a~U!(1i~ lie !,...r~ ;Oflll? ~I <~lul)lllt eli l'.an,C't' frorn 'l(;IlWi'l:t.I when he was, pn~d~Gt:ali:ltY1 ,assaJJlllli'aifadr. I'a:~· J Jil'l"lgf 111:5:: S(jcuDd. sen -'Il:as 'I.:hieu p'r6dai:m.ed .AngJ~; bur !the Ba!',itklollt wfu.sed 1.0 re qgnise' blm· ~ nd lnsf fed 0.11 puttm~ -, lotwOIi:d itS hell.r fJat~(Ud<lt,~ a Dllirarol c-hidl Ntll'fi'V,at ~rrl,il:m Khan. 1'1l1 Mia)", ft~~ll war

· ertisu:~d'- ajld ',,"8S Q!flly: re,Si(J~'lied ~;;;,1th Ith~ :1trD:ltal Q.f Mohammed AldJ~!I', ~.ho" af.t~i' .• : .'pe'rlod :(Jften ~11,.' '.d '1iig'h kii I~S' and :n~gotlll ti,orl, _ r~lti~~ I, ~~iI1 aIIe'GlniJr.ntund)e:" ·'I.~!h loch 1"M:eh, Jang,~!ij·mLldilieJllllid.Ini ott UI~'fh:·;ronet. \~th hlm§d:1 as 'ch[,er mini,stc:r. HQl'\o"oevet .. dissension. C(HlIk.:li1'Ill.'ied. al) jn S@'p'te:I'lb~·r;I!~i.!:teli Jil'l&g.!: re~ll$irig th.\!. d'~flge'l' !D~ his rJ()sU'~onJ 11~ t;~ G andarnak, wh tc he ffi!;:t the H"ritl.sh breI!!' on l.if.s .Vi',ay to. K,;;Ibul.;lM thl? fom]Ql'io'tl1 g_m;o,'Iirt.L1 he. lien fOl1" lndta wU.iIl:i;]]l'!· Altr.rry· of tileWbtlti~n-

· Arl91:hlt':1' bir(l'tht\l', StUilIr!PUf, t~ok hils p'I~'e, bl1 t: 'h~ too seen c:hQ$(') t.e go jntOl'Xil~. The Ba·.rakzajS retook powe't and Mohram'llilm Atboitr

esta:bns,h.~,d 'I}imsd:r trn J e,~!I:~ab.t.ld, ,a'\N'a~ ~lng :h:i;s f:a'~lu:l:!."s re!h::ul:11Ir. .

'.rhe (,'"Qil,U1'Uy to whl h Dos.t Mob<lInnll.~d retu,rn,C'(1 ~W!s ' l:ii'l!edng rl'am 5e'vere'~cinIo!lIli cilsnlflll:iioll .ar·w~11<15 political t~l'ImpB. He o,oW' re-'I.gJ.JIL'lOJ over an even. ~Il!lrutier 'ex,ten.roC tt:uHorv tJ1';I!l) 'btlfcue. tbe BrItish fn~ra51.0:n, ~md h1" rule extended IlitU(! .furthe; U~an [(~,bwi J~bl.ilbad '~nd GI',f.Li1lllli, :~~'I.:ndla·h3:11: .~"'e['1l:,ed to the. ;;:ontr,oJ ,!Oil U.l,e 'O,ilt bwt,hi;!l~~. w.hllE: Afghan 'Iurkestan remail1.ll!dl.spli.t~!between.anlJ1.i1be:l. o,f Vsl:H!k kh~~n!J,tts, I'rlefi~t ulso'r~tilillled 1'tllln.d~l)(md:",nll~ urtder K1ilImr~n 'Mh2i,1i"S: f(um~rW'al:ir~ 'far MohilImned Khan~'Vno had killed .i!r'ld .suppl,ante~ hnnln 1'8~2, Mohammed .Akba:rwas ~11 favour' ,of: ,,·ap-il.allslng:o.I:lIthe nll:'Hh~l h~Il'linitilllQ;r'I '!i'il:th i;m ~11~out l1i,tt~'!f~'P.t .,(I_,.ie(o'Ver the ter[:itorle, 'i¥lliich :bad been [ost·in,ce the days (I,f Ahn').ed Shah iDi:.t.tuu}l, but lDost Moht)11:1mOOl'l'a:s mose c.allilious., TIle.t\l;l <lief.' abo sl1gge.sJio,.n:s. 'l'1'l.:at Mot!OInUlled Akbar may hav" b-'''n;jn;thr,~'ly di.$)o,yal to .his ltt:b'er. n Wi.iJll tllerefort' perhaps as 'we~~ JOil: the .~~bill:l ty or the Ieslt~or~d dynasty tbat he·d.ied. ,:MitWn a :Eew yetilIS, ,at th~ llglll of twe:flt~-nille .. Jlf! was :tq, I) .... ~ 'lngrem~Jl' b. leda.!:i th~ YOlii ~~g'!'~;!'Uomal .n."[{io 'Who Iri.add~f 'g)ted Ute· Sik~:],s. at JOlIl1lrud and. a.1JI.itihiil.a.tedi tJille BJitlsb ~1'l:lny in tbe' pa.S,S'L'!S: below Ktl!blli.

l~or ~'I:lore rtnm i~, dl~Ci!dli:', !,)lrt 'Mphamm,.:d and th,~ Hi'h'isb H.C1li,d [li.oof, whjl~ the IJ-r~'lish debacle. in 'A'fg,h(l!·I,(st.~n ,[In.,d. that 9f'the It",~$1an,s be orre· Kbi:v'tt PQ:lt'Po!!'l~dl a up a.kel~ho{]d 9f a .c:oin.r~~t~ H~n l;uiltWru:1I1 ~h.f t.'WQ ,o'W!I;lt 10 C~]l~ raJ A:;;itl.ln 19 U.!, lJo~~ "Moihamme 1 w'ai~ p~f.1'wil <cl upon t-l:akc,i!)!lVilll'l,t1lgefthe';lAta.I' .'~!:i!:1;"~:rllHe-'Sikl,s ,tUtti 'Iil,u; 1;~:riIJsh 'by, '()C~p;:i"in ~ J~'Il:tbl'J,'f,SIf 'anti t;l:u!dl,ng S~II:I;Q.n M"'h mJDed, wl."Clm let· SLIt l' '1m I ~,ITI tljlfed '11- ~t!!. !-l'l' II1'n I.,!! II

I~IK!I.! 9J'Ca"l;':aJ:r}', tiD SUPRotr:~b~' H~ikh~, but'Qnty,a b~E!a(IJo:ng,gailo:p fm liu! KbybE'it, Il.!'a~' ,e;tu.!bl~l t~l,*m 'tt} f<!~Cg!.p~ Wltl.l l:l1!!~~ U'J~~ fo~l~oWI!l~, fh' liittt[E' 'of G!iJjl'.lt. 'iJl;;\'hi"e]lI tne ·Sil~hS"lr.\ler,e fi.mlllv' defeated. If I, lS~~4. hm~'~vetl w:iitb the CliiLneB.tii V\~a:r .'libot~t: t9 bre~~ Qul ,a.f~e;[a dll'l\~d~'~ AD:g]o~.t{1JSS:l~rl "r,j,~II{!:!nb!~ I~he ~\lf'H;:n. GO\1'~'r.Utll,.,OrIi!UrI!.l?d. Lo.r:d l~ 11Wusifildl,tH::ided. to' dm'.cl:li' iappj)od::iictmi:ifitW~lh Mgb~ullst'.Rn as an h:~SHm~ire '~giinst PQ.&.'Sibh~ Huss;~an·, en(:(,oocJ~~.ts. 'N:egotj,Clttqm' """tl:r~ opened ,1IiFlill, i Ii 8,5"5 !;l ')):b111ll,!,"l: 'lr,!,"a.tyi'l '~!i,'iIi~' ten,'. hJdQd wh:l,!:.'h ·;tulpU 1,~,t'Cd til~t m,~:~e' Vil'o''i.11d ·~~p.·e~:cebeh!il1ee~~ t~1e ··.~Eg'h~,·llS'·;a 11(1: the' nfiti:~ib'J that the'. Ea~,~ hl~ia ~Gmp~l:'!}l: would not 'ir!t:erBe:[~ 'in A.£glll~H1j' ta ],,~.nd '~hat Do. ... n liAQlHIU1llU:!11L1 ~fl'!luld be. "LI'l1,! (:df!nq of t'tlie :Cri'.m'PGM:'~f'''s'. :Er~i~~nd5, and the e:l1:emilY >0!f'itsc e[lEi~'Ji!'iilS·. TtJ~ ·Af.@;~'i,an~, ha~l· o.ts.k;ed' fur ,·nntl a.lJsju.ra.li.(:~s. 'ofsoppqrt i!I,iu!U61'Hle re::t"€'lfsi.on 'Jb, 't1hem Qf Pi~h!n,,3r, bu~ thl~ 'lhe.llbl'U ,h ';\T~r'i:!'ill.pJ! pj'C!p,a:u~ .. J'to,~OnC&hl. \,\fhleJl t~le Ct:ion!\~u.ll, \Var caUlt! l~ anernl, th~[£"1i~I;~ ftli1lr.~ tnbotlii ;~ltd64~ a,n4 qilk'L1U.a~ th:at· (h'e R~lS;o;l]a.lJl.5 nl.~g;~.t "\!Y'isli.· to ~&ni"p'ensate !1\l'1(' 'llh01.r'le'"~(llllL h~' :liItpin hryil1g to, xtand llll.r l~.fhL.l;rf:l!:::e.\1:iIi~tw,ill'ds,. lle'r~:!'t 'i\JintlE' mote 6~GfJJ1'l0,II~hl;! [bt;;us . !f ,nl;ten~t'j'olll nnc.;l concern ij[t'w "~h~h tl~~ 1}~:I'$:l,ari~" b:djfny took it i.n. p"Ct$lbet iRS·G., As ,~il 1838,. the !Ibl.tbl~'tiillch~d; i>y, :S; I.'ldln,g a ,fO)~:ce.~o l he 'Il':ersnlu OlLd ~., whi ch w,ent on 'tQ: til. Pl1t'hlillllfJIr'r' mid "fct~cd <lP'e,r:liiil,n ~'i"ilfhdRllval fron:! the 'cllY:~. At. tij:.a,e:am¢·: .~~'l,e: '~" '-~r~!di~nitiattve was ,.~.~'e!fl w·~t~~· ~".~~t. hit ,~'i~:'I':nlt1l~41t ~\'II'U} oaJIl1'ill'p~r$Qunlll:y' ttl Pc:shilwar~o c;ol'ldude ~. IT.H,nedebllliltld [~(~;;i}i;,'.1lhl, s~ni'e hhn ~:me H.,il'n~, and .ilJl'I,lntl11iitlon·'imd 'the ,.leqU:i"-trlrnU11£'1t}',J}OIJ,~ -!llo;oth· tq keep.an. al~'Uly"in ['he lield aga.ins:t It he l~rS!:11l nr!!.~ m}d p 'Q1 ' ldr.:cl.,I;Cl', 1.1~'1!'elil! llJ:l'~tlsb, of!~d:r!l'ru 'b(!' ;$ti.liU[}[led ,at

Ka,n'd~hillttg, su.pl:!r\ri 'e i"s di bu( ment, fJ'ostMohiWl1!l1ied SUC~5lS;o full, resisted ~. pr:op05i1] 1:0 '~latjQ-n :,the: o-ffice.lS3lt :Ka!bul,. au the gilou.nd~ Ulilit. ne (olUll(J. :tuft ·3l!a:ra:ntl!,l~ th~lr Sltfcl:~" W~l'El,I't l:1118~'.7 '~he lI'Idii1llri MlIthlY .,: or War ~.:"i"f Tndeijen'dem::e ., hrak~~ mil, DI(I~t:

Mohan:imed kept his paet ' ot the bargaln, AJt:liougll.th.ere. was .a caU fa·!' .il! JU~f~rl, ~ .ho!y 'W~t~ .f1l1!d ttl!!!: tle,m;pUltio:i";l- to Ul,kl!idvlnt;~g{' ,olf B~~t] sh ~1It~a]trte5smll,ls.'t h,.lv..,Hj'ee:nr 'Go:njsidt':l~iiJlbte r fH1-rticll,lliJidy sr.l:ice'tbe Pun'~ab wai~ ~¢:nuded of troops inoJtd,er to rt''tiike D~Jhi. h~' did! not 'e\!l;!n r,eoccLI.pY' PE!shi"l!!;v,!U",. 'fh~ VhfWH of toni ~lnbc[fls was, ~hiU 'Hi1!d 11)05\ MQ\I1,,'lDllll'cd tl:UJ;:le'd iigi,l.inst th~ B,ritis.h., :I. do :not 'S€(, hO\\r any· f1ar.t of the country north of HengEd aluld have belen saved'. 1"h:e,· nrlt)sh Ii; wilIrclt!cllli:m hy withdl' . wing hiS ' ub~idy 1h : fOol [owIng ycar.

With ti':le conclusioirl. (If the, Sikh WiUS, a nla~ot ,chang,!;' devl:'~opl!d in the arrrra.1r:;. 11)1 I~he fI()rfh:'lj.\~~lil:em dl,stri(t:'l of t.h,e InrliCl.l'l soJb~~ll1l1f1:t'f1L [lr.iU~ll JntUiJ no\'j' ~i!' ·tJli=d. tr nu~ !7Umatnyan €oflthu]sr' -uti U;u~ r~l!ihtuon tenUO "If between .[nola and .;<\(-clumi.s'lan; ~yht'fu ~~hDiw'iJJr 'W:!I~ 'til[i!lI.:rI)l,~d. antI, <! 'l~rea ~y' :w-as' eonc:lrurdfll,d 'iI(~U:~ df~' KlJl<m o~ , 11:1.'1'11 t')rh1~J1;~:h!m l-l..11(1411: Ii&rHWsr.h 11,'Au '1"1' ; AS tl' 1, W'l . nt:'l She'll 1

horder. the BrItish were n(:W!i C.olUr"fotl.t!ad Wra H'!LL ef f~.~.i.t.q~QtrilJ.t'!$ wt!~S'(!' 'l'ElUd6''k\f'!l;J''~ ,_P@iW_gI:w(1 'l/,\lh.p:se :llru,~ld~mfl ~)t:c.Li¥lrf~rC)Iil'ij t",e;l~lll:~he ·tmpositicHl tlf toHSfJill tJJl.vell,erst tattle f:ai.alf~i· .~l\lJ~ Ql'!rj:hl-':~ (lJJ rn.:er~biLn:ts for ransom, ~md ol'hf!f. llcUviUes,o'r. .a.pl,'edUtl0L_f ,H"J,litlJl,lW.· A,

I ~1 H~ql ,uf W!lrf~ t,ec ~10'\"" de'v~ ~ Q~'L9d. t.'h<!i~ill I t.l'~ft~ by I'Q icl,'~. IQorlng 'I (l'(jI k~d:rrilppil:l1J em tile part 0 the" PuSht(lO.tl "t'rib~ ~m~ PQI ,i~~~ e:xp\!:d.itlons and r '~.aU<ltCI!l:." ·exilctio.n·, on the pill't of Ib!l:"BrHls ~ 'I::;h· l1llte.r nl:ro lonk· h]Ds~~,&es ·'Jijcdm\l glld h:~h(~ ~(lm QH~hc:: p~i't~h ~:rihe~" oiil]d tded to ]}'lfIr}l f);~;: un~ trihe' -a.8~~~lJ:s1r :aJJ(ltn:e'p ~,t. liJ) '" ~Jlil~ time, eJfurts VI' re made to pEl:!'",~entJ so 'far :~s: ppsMblJliil:;,I~e ~g.trn!' In l{iJb!J.~ [rom ~~e1'(,\~tng its i n:nu~n ~e i! l the ~rlbilJ !lI ~n.$" The cl:!;i\ )~\\: l!j ,U k1nstiuied st.dlt1e ,of 'aHliI:LrS on. the F[~Ultj{)r",a.:ii, tQIb~ .a 'u;ec~~I,lTill:lg: cOmpli(~3tim~ i:11 Ithe .reJatiiollnh:i" ~xwhv,(:'!~n -DrittlLW'l. ~nd AJgb~J].ts:Mli1l rJgh t up to :19. (:, n d i t h~id e~. ~ .l Q d iill\'llll'ling: a.:nd prol· f'lgi t!;g f]"lic

A(gham' di~I'[U~t of the B,nUs 1, .

\~''itbln AJgb anlstan, D95~ .·Moham.tned grardu.aU:y re.~sla'nUshru'J h.i:nlYilhority ~Itid acqu:ir. d t~fI1iH(lry; Ttl!:;; he nl\.ledl, du'oug_h i1i :rimnb~f or his manv slOm"who e11'QY;f¢d conside:ul Me al(tofl()m~' over tire p~o\4I]ces. allotted "[0 them, u.~lna~15 be he,E~p i.a. subdue /\Jrghan '1\Jr.kes:rt11U, .buthts m'ljo:r cl~~ ['tin ~hat'dif~t.'tI()Oi was lil I:mnd iJj~fil 1849:, when he finaUy 'gav,~ up hope of reco . rlng Pesli:HI\l'ic'1tt. His s .oDS' Mol:ullume.d ·Akl'am and 'Ghu!<:\lll .!iakl~F' lherr captured 11alkb ail.d. 'l:nshkt,~ltghlll,.11 iil,;!~pl,'c;'liveJy" ijJ.nd 'Moh,(;\nilm€d~'li ru] . ~!t.ll:!'i.PIiOIW1 "~~iv,~[f extended over-the I g~t"l'n in the ,"""Ou.rse ofth~ n~xt (j~c3rtlei t~ntl'er 'n1i~' gO'>"t':rll'lots'hlp el another SCH, M(ilh~mIUl~d .A.za.m, At. tilt, Lh'lle?, Q.os't M{)h~mrr..!Jl;:'d~~ d~.ilbh, o[lly 'MilIJm~'fnJ~ ~nd 1~.ld~,kh~hl\n "I'~uli~'lu!d a, degree ·of i.mldepend~nC'e. .

Kandahar, rne.anwhi.l~1 f· 1I1~ f1~tl ~or sonre yea~!i u11c;i~r '~ht' rule. IOf Lhe: Imv brothers, 'whos'l;i h,iill!i<h '~In,~'I. exto.rnou(lte :SWle ()f ~n'iJi(l:t'nm.i:m'L was i1,-\l'1delynnpo;pular.· No E~i'!,jli~.t Cl'J his: h~lf.tJr.o~h;e'fl)., Dest ~1&h.~nm'lled looked (br WI oP.POIlJl.l:!1iLy t, mOii,l·e.~·,giHns'l Ule-IU, .. bu'1; ·1j!1':!1~:l~ n()'~ 'to hnv . h,ad lhlil 1'~$ourrC,e~ to ,dlo :so ~1l:sfo:n;G ij-$Il 'W~~ ac~iiv~i~' eng-aged in Al';1;';han Tmk.estan. I-l,o~;,~v~ :ri'il".Jlti1eS.]I1I'Ilongst the -DiJ" brtO,!:be.1's, .gn."w, a,S Ul" n~ ~'!:lCl1 Malt ~, D, ema'iiged ;;In d. "".11(:';]] :1}l)Wt;:f stru8b-1l • InJ,k QU' it1 U~5S ~~'twee:n th l.nst ~ur_v''WinH ~l',Oltl1 f. U.1mdil .Khan. ~mdhi~ :llif"!JheVli', Moha:Jl~mcd .S-.\ldID~1Kh~nl l)u§t'Mphtinl.moo sa,"!,,'· 1M::; d]]am.;~. uh .In l'he year he .n.1:a.rched .QJ{lrI~dl.hM'nl.d '~11"', SIJ,.' ~$fu'l il1·nv~,tLng,the [t~ bll til (jI,'t l"I,",! ~p ,_maii1Qd ther,'£a,l' l1I.e;jlJ'!Y· a yca:r bt:ton1! lhandillg ltm~r t~ GtlL'IIarn . I~lidel ~I.g_gc.st t~iu b~ had {!m).s~d(:L.1Jbl~ pl0ble.ms. hit es:~:.!!bHs.b1n~ contrQL ,li~i~ ,a"r; ~~,I ~]!Wi (;] ;lll1d(Hlwi~b ~ ~tN£'t·. '"iJlllln . w,hk:h.'uus/3d 'IJ,tl1t!iI,'l' Ic~~. d1~,h"'" " OOfilpoun m:l blyJlJ!i O!.i! d ~CI find fQod, and f~del!' fprlli1 !lI1'!]Ii~. 'l:in"'~X' '1'111 I ~.lSa~, h ~ i!:ur.!Jqj1(!ll.~d Hr-r$.ltJ, 'q t't""l)1pJ~ h411!~~ ~ht\! I"; ~l.Il I ,~UI;"~I~ n l ~l I~I THk..l~ t "II,· 'it. fH' trI~ n~ ~ ,~~ ~.~. , lit :r-y U'liit II(~N ~Uliin I'Hh 11'1IM.m''I,

pm~~,t Q,IJY -borde_LS. He di ed .'(It' 'HfI"l11;, t\il/I;:l \\:,~J~').:j -.la~e'(.,a.l.1;d ~1!!:iil.$.Itl~l;[jf.!d· j:rJ_ "tb~ (J.1I2Rrg:.li'l.; 'Ulit p~c.~(u.I.'~ndatrllCisp:'~l!l"J,t:: srhl1ne. ,(m~s.ldl!l i:h~cily, Wm~~ alsQ ~OUilltcS the l'€!nl:a:iru :f the(;"e(e'bt!lltedpaet alldi11)'$ti:¢i' ~h_w~l,aAbdlt~l'ah ,A nsarl,

l')O:if·t Mo11;!'lf'~u:-n/l:!d!:!i matn ~elJk"Vl';):lll!:!~l'l: ;\/i,i"aJ$ t~ u;rdfy Afgl.llln,llStafl updet his p~j'oorHu I.'ute, ib!1J.1:1: hll;!' at'btiev,eCl UtU@'··,eJse In' fh.~~~y lof n:a~iJn. b[oUdtn:g. JJespi·t·~ 'Ilis: e.. pelie'ilOE':, ",'hUEd" exUe': -in.,Indi:i!lJo lot ~tJ~h fi.n!),t:ltt1Uo:n~ iHld 1Uethbd~l he t;Ud ]UIl~·l!O'.ooJnrm or ~Iod.eln~s~ ~I;thc:l' the' f\~g.h::iil:1..~Qn.(Hny or .hl.S, CWI:l g;i)\~etmn!l:'n.t. 11UlIun.t11,oli1iir'ld heaU.h. were ·l1ie·gJ.eted,3JS .were Lndu-strya:nd :!);gT.i,ctl.I.i'ure: His ndIlll[ujst:r~Jioll was t'~d'im' 'lil!il~! . l.nth·e., 'exlr~ltw and ~~I:!~!i! \\1e.t(l. ill,Q gQ!iIm~]jI:1Jll~n.t ()iffice.s tli:l:l.d .~~M; olnct-al ~~c(:lld ,. Hi\! did ,h[l,w(!\1tli.'.1 .g'ti to 'QII1€·lengtbi:to, buw]id'upa regul~f iU'i!1J1l' atJ.a.s~m~ ·to hJtv~' tli\r¢(ted m~1 or h" revenues Ln that d:l.riL~cHc:ml :111 th~ !'!xp~rue ,of b'is c[,r.ll ,I],!:.l j1l1 i,j] i:s:t1ffiiJiOl.'l. Ew:n. so ~ hill troo~~s 'W'C'I'l1 frllQ!'e 'ofl~\f11 ~h·., n nifl ~"'pet-ted' to .~%!bs]'s_t on the 'I)i()ic;;eoo'~ (lrf pmu ri.der err rllq~ljsi tii.OI\l" H;¢' w~s·Gilrefil·1 ~br-Qug1n)Ul 10 t{!ep the _reins o( pmve,r in hilS. P,"-!i1 hands an~d. t:1'h)S.e: ,of his sens, Whu b~b",ee.n t!llem ,_onlvvllillKl Vill:tUl:llll'y all. the -lI?rpjV.lt'i(e'~,.I't' seems, h,jJwevel'i that they .used th~i:[ re[at:iw:ln.d:e~n~ d~r:l i!!' to kc if flilO,sl of tn~f!' prav.in.}allev"~nue.s. for: tl'lemselv,es. l~I:!!OI ':\!.h~f~~S hi'S r:M'~dl'C!;"S:SOI" lHld ireil.ed,h~~1 lilY on lh·eir flndjiiJ!n' JJ~~$Si~Itt'S ~r:~beir l~li,.om,(',)·.;he 1'IIlft's: ta['ce~lt(Jlei.y on the rrru.il1 F,9.a~Gl1;·AE'!:\hm~ ~~~Jqn;~~veln,l~. eoU~et.10JII the~'e:f'01'6 Ilendl!!d to. be: J.'l dini~t:1U .a'f.~d lmce~t~:hl .'!ffiUt .• and 'h.~ W~IS hn,os:t l!'Il\'Drvabty short of ftulids .. ln genm-;all, h i$ ~~:ti0In6hip' wi th the ~rusJl't()On tnbes- was WQx'e d.l:l!fiJc,tIR ~ha~ 'tb~t f1~!'!.r-h:ln~~d hr' hi:s' S~!'IdrlP2jlli plj'ediecesoo.l!:l, p,arti y l~~c·lu.s.1t h .. did nQt 1P..()~,.er·. UWI~f"IjUIl~~C5' rl'rmv· ~I from ·dl"'Sl"I:!l'irf. f~om .'\.hmetl Stiahl and p~tt1'Y ~ca:u~~' of the. pressures .on Lrilln ro ("6I~ect .WV·I!!:11U~!l. W.hll.~ he t:.tlll.l.d, 'lo ~Q<U1:e ·ex:h~J.1.L ili.'1~~~(m(t' IU'Id c'QuUQl th@ C:lOOlll tribesl and wu in m'ru1 ase c l1~pe.l11ed. ~e.de'l!l,lwilh .. thp;,P:· w:fr'ICi dominated th@ rO.!lJtes .tf;) .Knnd~li.ili:f' .a:n-l~LPeSJ~.a''I1.9r. th·o'l; at a gJ:1.;!:ate.r rljstat·~Oi! t¢nded La, go lhelli' ow.n way; H,c bad 10 fa:ce :~e::p~'ilf~d .triba.1 ~l1surf~C'th)n~i "11.,1 his sou S:I~er JUt Kl'tllfil. :1l:l (}O\~l'11101' orf oGhaanii i9ugfitlt.heGhilzai. no fe~rer tl1a:n siX timE'$; bef.ol:e th~y """ere linaiif SLibdLll.!d,

I~ :W[~S. pe~h~l'J!l lnc'V'il·'lble. ~iv~tI1 fl:H!!' pro'Vh'l.cl.a~ 'PaV\.''G:r~a$"~f wh~~h. h:~S. s!Jn:s p0!5~.e55!ed and the. !:I!mbttko:nt'; that ~any of threm.hiil'cl.for Hli.': It'tr.onej U j civil W·~.f s·h,oll.Jd ha:\1'e :raged. lam: l1aIJ a iecad'· iii fI:e.u Do~,I, M ~h~i Ii'! m. 'd:"s, diC' lth. T~.J h~gin \iIjI'i l:h., h I ~ ch05~n ~lJ;(:c~~·.Qr r SllIe:u 0U, -:"Va~· s.~rtt-e'ssfl.ll In. "d1ef:e;at~nJJ 1'1.1.5 f"''(l.e1d~r ha~f bo::rtli:cots, Moh31·m.~d Af~a1 arid .. Molham·m'~d I'\Zaro, .!u~d m~i'i1g~f,I I,[) r-pl.!'af t h, pro" .'~, ¥-'l'ithi hili t¥'1'(.)1 full br·r;>U:uafl;. MDh!l'm~i1'ul¢l i'i.mh1 ,amd ~n~l fIJ~"~'ed .'~ll it1'1f. 1-'I'o~v:~I' hi: l'g(J'~~ ilid,~~. ~:t.'}J;I~Ql:mmiW,ri'k!d Aj71a I; r,s, ~. " AI dWl! U IIUJ~.111., ~ol'liJ!i'illn",d i'l)':~lm ~i1In .~III~ 3 'l!i' l~' de l~hbJI1

~Shi?rAli a([~ the .two pW.a.~edlv4ohamrrle.d A.lI'z,aI f:)"n.the _tl~r. I'l~. 'I'h' (ioI!.lOl'.vtl~ y L;!~.n'j ·1.lIa'Wlr~rl.~,Dh~.:m.lil' ~d ~UZ!l} d.l,ed., A bd~;h~ D'Sh 11~1.,n t WUi!l ~. t I'an:ged ftO!IIl, I~b:$ li,mcl~ _ ~1 d ~elit tor Rus:>iillili ter:tii:~Jr¥~ :tln'c;I i nil )1 at1113.ry· 1.8'99' ~Il~r A~i w:r~l~i;l the .thron e bi:l.'!:k fmm Moh~·I .• mlJ(.td A2~~1'ii, NO~'\i iIlrmJy tn. charMe~ hb mil I 111 J)rl!(l(:t:·L:I:[~~ti.Olll·W~ii.,,~ 1Z1!,~,t~(j limO):!;! !2'ifCctlve' .~rmy i'irjd,.'ivnh D,Til::ish.·moflt'y 'and Tut'k,j:sh '~'~'f.!0'rl..j ifhi~' ehtntuaU}i mfrittJ.!t:r,oo. some 5Q.Optll men, p~ll'r mer(l~lli(l(lY1 ~llfil t.""Ils('.t.i [Ill. . H~~ l~ ·llfl.tt.ocJuc~dSQm~ "i::fngh'l(!hed ml!las-W'e~,_ Li!~ ~hlJ.l '~!nll ',Ad\r~!io,]'y IGb~!ndl1'.irH:i iI rn!..niJj~W'o:('InlriTstrt.es, t~,p05t:ffiiI·;sys,t~l:'lIf~:talJ(t A.fg~.aniS:UlIt'-s ftr-Sit putiH .sdlQo~j' . '\'IP.h~cb was c:Uvide-d:i 1:1.t,(l(;,i,v'i1 end !llIlUi.t.u}' d!:!l:»i.rllnl!!~l.~b ~ndOn~:rlf!d I~n~li~-b 'Im~·g'Ir.I~:e s:tudles. "[,il' itlbi~; IC'rtj)l~d :!iorn·.e :\imali,:;j'(;ilJe ·iin(h,Q.$!::~l·es.)trnd rni.'lilii].ii :~·oofkshop.s.~ ~11I.d in~~oo li:ced. some -ta:x'i'uid mQl!lkt~.ry reforms, .H:dWeVE!lf ll.~s rr:e<ecioffi ,o-f tlcH.Ill'l· 'WJ~ -gJ<1 'I:':IJ' hiiUrl],et:ell. h. 'hts go v,· mmc:nlt's, eccnomlc 'W~8i~.ne~s in "the i1Ifte:r'matJl oot ~)OS:f Moha:mmed'8 ·,t::I(I'I1que~sts :'"~nd tl1:,e, yt'!ars .. ();r rivEl.l.ty ftI.r the :'i,1!JItc~·i$Lon. Nor ,w~s he 10 be <lHow.ed. t'O [lU,I~· his k'1!1:gd(_1Irn--lln peace, jltJm ''!i\li-,d Ul"fUs.h concern o""·'I"Rul!ljli1~ lel'p'll1~iouhm \V.I:<i· be~ lfe :m'~my )r·eaf~ W'I;'ff.f Q.u.t; Ito result, ~n yet

~n.ort:lher Bl'lU$h tnvaslon 'of MghJutill,W:n. .

Wl1l1l.! Sl ~i' I'tll ~.t1I~ .C:llYntm~d •. ng wah hi:, brothers J!Oi!r' tit t~1fU)nci' Brlti$l':i p Hey 'l'cllIJllilin,"'·O (lIn gf·striCt neutraU,ty and o:on~iin·tetv~nti()f'I; and tliOO€ in. - Lont,el'l'~11i}l'L'- Wlt'I'le only' ~e'(~og)'lJl'S'ed, tie' ,~d'G' wh~n ·it, ap·ptm.r.~t~ U."I,aL they were ~~t'ure~'J t;sl~hli:\'lh~d ]11 i'":a'b.td, 11(;wt"V~r. ~'nc~< lit was: cl ~l r Ui <It . Sh ~t Al i;~!fil~ -fi:nnly ~ettliL;:d. tm the throne, he' W;1lJj,· given a s.~b~idY·iU1d a gift C?E .00ffilS: and in 1869,. 'at his teque!"it <to 1C;;(;HTf~.I'~nc~ ~O()~· p~at-.e in AllI1'l~~!I.;~ bcIW·~M. ~ljm ,a:tuJ 'the th(!'I:l 'Vl(:i,~.]"IIl'1:r 11,.old M3IYo. .. ~.tt the cunferencahe argu\:'d I'm atevlsicn ·of:tl e rre'ij1ies w'i'th D:bslt Mo:h,arnlned" on. the' bitS;iS that tbeY··Wc.Te one-stded, In '~at ':Ile~' ~6rnU)liil.ted tum t[) bt1i m~!~ 'c~1.e!1n.y 0[' the eF.l,~JDi~!i.~ gf 'the 'g,rJUsJ~ WIthout ~i:ny redprocal ,gblig"dltlo[l 01:1 the p~Irl of theia·tter. f\g,ajn~t'~tht!· bac~g'L-ou:nd ,of the pro[ong'oo strU'~ w-itb. his bmth_ef~; he ~bol()~~d fqr ~'l!cog!'.1lJ~ on not Ju~~ Jor l~lmM:~~~ hut also fur 'h]!nJ~tn~ ,ty -. ·(f ~i) c~gnjfi.l-alllr that ilit no ]IDi:n.t did h'l .me.nti~n 1l.ny lihre[rt' fmn;l RI,:]85~iiI~ and. that llis .toneemsi appeiJ.'OOQ to be pUJiely l.nlernaL Ma:yo ~ sy.ni!paLhetht: in nm.IHI:cr but Cl'l.lilHon. in pracli -e: ll~ ~n~dQ 11(i ('()ml:uitm.erH- o~r 'lhil: s:uote!ls~on .311.d p1'(;lil1Jis:edwha~ ilT!1)IIJunl!2:.dJ to H0' nJlOre :t:i.HH!~ !1:mnd .$up'po:r[ill the e'i1ent of houbl.~', He' ~l~SU :h~]il)4!e:cl o~"{!r ~ furUu!iJ: slllbslRi td . lIU Qf mOlney .\,[111... gift t 'F ~nlnI118, 'Wi!hi 11 e'fH~b]e.d SflC'f AU t.o '['111so1:ida~e hIS rule in l1ortlilt:irfi,Aflfh: nillitan.. \'lIt,ea' AII!-lj;~_qHler .(:tinceu.'l .• tll.al fllO' E!I.u·upean. o'i:ii~e~1.' shQrt!I('! b~ !Jl1ilslletl_.a- •. lEi 8.rl'li:d111)"P~\·~I·.'t.tiYi .In KliIhut, wa.· tlt'sn !'e·lIl1f1mn· (". llihi .iIi"·" _~" l~:ou ,fin ~'fhi h "i'H: h!lll~~ L .lilJl~~ whi'rn \ -,. bolh'··~])oifrl.!~' h~·l(t.~od" 'h.';! 'thl';! C'v"Qrll- fuUY'I,u', 1.1 .llld. In a d((sP[!J':[ch" ~o Lcmd 11, bl~~ Vht"'~'oy li.I!OllJ!· ~I hI" th ;·,jiJi.,lC-"lMI1'I,.' t)f Ih~" • .In' ~"fi ,~. In 111.1 f '1Ii()lill'h1~ II'WIN.

'RiP.l;~J:~. W.ih<11I:Ul:Il:f A:m_~'r l:i net.to l'i:a;V'e -

.,r", ~ .. • I

No. 'Jl\eil~'~, no}l:J\'C"d~"s~I)Sldy, no EUIiOpclu;l 1~~Mcrenl~..:inO d\)' ~ll~ ~k p';II~dSi~5.

S0Ct'uidlV~ 'Wb,al' _!1I!e:Js tp b~\te-

• - I •

W;'T!~ I'll C:Q~~~l~l\l!'ili!ld '1"1 n~ .supp~I!:Lj d.i~~p~!r(lJs{!mc ~~ L '~fl~iSr] v'IDi]it ·m.lli.iJ rj]iltEd~] ass~s:t"]':lii.;f as we ffl~Y-C'9nSJtdl.e['a:bSq~ufd~"tneces~~r:~1' for h~£- lm.r11,edi:ate ~'V1UJlt~: 'ooll1~ta~~~ ~~n~fderiiity 1~:RQ,n.¢diQo thn;lll:lg;h Clur C"'()m,ml:liS'~onct al .Pdsb~\rv<1i]!litl'~d Clm ·.~l·,~H(r(! ilg:ltnt<~ hll"\:(gl1i.!uis:~,j:n: heJf!rhj1'lp~,n; ulr.cd."G'r.I~' kijlnl~' bJ;ijo !ll[': li~' carn f6 rn,1I1nta~n Ile~ceplll j)lJ!f rr¢f:[t'i~e; . ?il'~ '~i? :~ijmJ?JY VI1U~ 'a[~, IQui M$h~s on nlll1!llt~~':) C~rllnGCll{!:~'I,\I~th tl;,IJI~I~.

Bd;ti:lih OOII:t~t"m ~l(:ll 'W neenme r:;nta.ngl,e.i(1 in A,f~h111~ am~in w~.s,. hot"":l1'!!l~r, ~O be shon-h~e:(I;1 .D!S';pr~'gooss:i~ "Ru~rS~iJln ,1Id"liiii.nce'l hr'!Jtj'gb~ tlu!m t.QGokhatlll!l "(1f1~, and Il'O Saot:i(!J.dkaxl!!:1 tl~O' 'li'i:'nrs lurte:r. _i\t~lC Sitrn~ ~~ilH2' tl.~~y tou.ml.fdut~d. ~hdr ~!l.in;,ilrY ~!;tLUng.~p i! fl.~W ,IJrovJrl:(:Cof 'I:u:[b\'i;l:lll!,W~lh 1~~~hkenl ·as us' 'cap.ii.t.1l1, lille:ir C(JIUHJ:~ bf flt1tharn:

Wi1i~ ~I!jn. as p<lirth::ulaFo]r;s~gntr~c;:.:l:nt; ,lJar1:1y lbe~U'~e i l1i:. b.c).[:d~r~ .ltla:~(hOO! ''¥,Itb U10'sedl MSJHll'li~l~~l., and ]l'lo~rH}1 hecaU:$c It had [r~dn::rhnallyiHld d~~!I;l te]<JIlti@n:lv\wlth: the rule.~-.sin 1{"'a"ht:1 t In res,IXlIlS'e.:tO the Rll1s~hclliti1 :!m@iJ«:teli d'l:€'~rlt~sifl gQv~·nu1l!.c;nt <It ftrn C lded.~Qt t~(h a' ~d~( .~nct~ft~I:l(Unal 'I!~i,1d']! dl.'0 't~lJSS:~~U'll (jI)V1i\J1'Wl111C~lt I!i~, to H~ ~~:r(lj~t:ls and Qle.'\lgi-:lli-iL1l, ,a!ntrn-l As111J. "v,1iith tbL)1res~ilrl hm jF! IS 7:Z l~U~rs 'l"i'ere

t!' .. ,,~h<l'! 1.[([ cl.e&j~:n~cl rt), j'f:O:les.:l\tI114.ny eaus~ d;~ di~C);glie e:i'Ilefll'l b~t\'i'e;eil1,

t:bf,t~t dlf1,:1!i p~jlt. ()f .J\!ij i 11·. Tile ·'I~l,\fQ· pow~:r~ <Lg.I.~('d toreeogli1,~~

tUghmi:itiWtl U.s, ~rm: "i:!""lle',lu:e[l'.l·.y 2;Ql1'~' ''rvhfd.l '~~!{);Jll[,dI l'iJ~fl'l)fh"eiI '[lCspootl'Ve' POS&(}S.~lI(}n.$! froID 'im'mediat.e (·on ti1t,t_. .H01'lr~~Erlwn lte 'fhe- Governw.l2!llt ~rILQnd[)n. '~~11W,CQn.l1!nH~d to ·i~dhcj'B~owhal h'f.ilt:1 he~mme . kngwt) as the 'S.tO'ltiOI],llry polh:i f .1] U~~el)' di:stl:u'S~ ,[Jof 11~(~ Uuss.lm.1.So Fl,&isteid a.nd '~~ schoel o~ ·tbiDUght d;~"''B[i'Jped:.v.hjcb. h.ekl! fhat ~a cJ.~'S,h b;~tw~enllirh~iti.!l'iItlid Russi,!:!, :In C~il:~ra.l A~iili'w.1lS Ine'vltabie, ~nd tba:t SEeps SUilO'Llid ,b~ 'lak(;'a to ensure tlmt this IbookptaQ~ .H. 'ff~u; 1Ii.,%IY fm!ll!J. Incia as: posslble, While there were some dlvislo.n.s oJ opii:llidrl. 'be'~W"'1~Jl ~h~rn;ol'e ,C'.w:t!:~ru~an.d mere mOdei!Jl!l.t~ ,adJ"let~nM of Hte '[oJ.:wl!:[d pOliq'! ab(}ul~ "IJh!l:' l[ocJ.ti'IJI'l (l,ff the ' '-ScierUm,r' fmntJ:e.ri~!ihLciri t!lU:::y. S<lW asdeslrable, the 0 bvio1::]s place [or: lit ,j('~:~ atong ~I.1I.e·.1i:r1!e· of the H in ~iuKu:fllc •. POilS.~tmy :i\Vil hautpo,stsat 1<"~ndy~! 1Jl.~~ kl1 ,md ~1hl,il.Elm'lJl i H~~at, tille h,il;\.v:ks ·aOI:]"I:ended, sho'IJ! Id b~ O('~'IJ\i~d «[)d iLl lIi@.5wtle~]l ndssion. ('Stahl.isllOO. 'in .I~3fuJ.jl~ Ito,control P\.fgha.l]I:!i;~<Lnis ro]'e~g.n W!01J~, tiI~ld 1!1::~I< pr(f;.I1.::lnpll: !lim y Im:or",.e,'by tt~e ,R~IS~Sil~lIll5to< 't:ome tlOt'::'11U8 "~!,i~H.1i. Sh.(:(f ~'nl ~nd ,ubs(:)~b JUgl:l andM~u:;J" i W], ~lhoe:ir !liph~,N'~ of fuj]li'~llllJc·el ~ ...

As ~h:e 11!U:0~ IPIl:f.lgLl"(!!i~e-d'r £m'i:I'lflal' evernl'S tl(x:6r~!iBd. wdl kh' ~tI\f~~g;i:t~~ nmd u~.~ bore! n(;~ o€ i'lwep:('tl$it)llliUiilit~ ~~ Hl~ ~"IOfwa:rld I?(JU~. T! I' '1.~:7'~,~ ~he

RUlSsta.n'~ n:~o.~.riJ:~~d' tm, ·~Xpe¢.itWljl apk.ba:f~',~Q th.~ ~'...-wh~.'li ~e ,a .~"'lSll~~) ;sit ;'. Wi1& j~i1·~l~ 1']' r"~aio:n.i1,b]!e~ 2;ive:r,l r11id ~J1i$~ 51~\'"e n:~d,e.t~bLut tlnl g'€ii}(fril:~vi~w 'f~ith Ull w.~ [~lisSi{.!o\ ~~de a,~ldfw;l'til . ~m~lticinf', .!~t ln~ ::;;aliruf;! t]~r P'f;!'nl-Ja .fu:d ~'(-g;hao.ilt~n h

. tef]ltad,a~ (~1Spl~te c.v:e:r: jh 'ltv,a!) ~j1riOU~:o~d'JIl :(Blili .

e;'{[le¢J:~d'r -it'.w~s . "l J

b('!t\w@~1'l them. a· c _. il"J.;tti!l!

1"!1le . di~li~te haC! ~fi~n ITSlll' 'Pei~j~im P-=~5ia.n~; ~he ~1:m~·c9~~G!~t~(I .;wi.U't Jl~!:l adi,,:trtileioT'i ~in11bi~J.o~ .. 'J'n;e. ~ie~~,o: .. \ n~:w [,or,d }il\Icr~tJl,tI~o?k~ '~Q~,Q~~rJ th~lt ~'lr~ s;hr.i~~'ds~J~~ :~1~1 e:ln]!kS~~ tJo 'lKab,u[ l[l~)'jll.a¥n 1ictl~mel"'~I~ b·~t'b U~~~SI,~:~Uffa~~,rd ~!1d the ):l.!1lweemei'H witb 'the .I(~~J:im~~ b~;I; ~:l,1~·tmm;\~TaS 1)S(elll(tam1rt,a~ ~¥~;E' to.

.t;~~ter\1(! a nt'Ili:!ihl)L!'.~[~n~l1,tivj2 ~;t bl.~ ('\OU;;Ii1::, bisl~e~~ll 'Ileun rm~:~fH:~ ~~l!:s, '~~aklllt Siillllam July 'l;fr73 berwC'e1i1 ~he'VtG~my i!li11111. :s.t)jft_1i1.i~ls Chief MiDlJstei·) Nur '~,t-cilh,lI:[1]:IIJ:Il~l~. ati;;l;tb.tdl it OCCUr)]'!:: J:iea:t 'that trH:l Af_gha:ns' W{fr:~ If!i!:)w~.lk.u nctlr~ ~\,"(J rfi~d ill" th.€ n.u~slrn!n 'adY1! ntl~~ i!J'Dcdcon.c~ifned. to U!:ire! theob!il!lO~;!'l 'Bl:1itisJ, ,iln~-e'r~st tn UI~firllt~~ptllty of ~h~j.r tQ!L~rrltry.··'liO bry t~:n.)ib:.ta] n Ulrucl:li. mo're:explh::il .aSs',u []Intt:~ o~ /l.5Sist-illFl.ce. The ViiCel'(})' !:~q.~.Tun~u~l~d II.:l Urlial IrH!lp ,;;hot1~d I)(;', 'gi~l' in the form· of m1()ney, tUl]15 i)ntd. ,if'n¢~,~:rt~['uj'Ops" 'p:ro:~iidt\d tl::1~~t..;.she!i AU Was faced With: lIn:!? 1'O'i.'{),k<!(!. OlI.gFSf;lon i:lIl~I 'ad:epted .[111:1 "/. atl.V!i.(~.:p!l'Offe.red to Itlrn. ,BUt the gprv~unL'li~i'll: 11:1' ,Lmvjo.n w~n~_ ~HI.lt pn:~~~.~M. to f!~l1I~llo:n ~:ttls~ lu~d ~JI that·Sh~r ii.lu ['cce:i\f~~d.\1'!,'ns ~'no:tbe'r 61I"€t" oJ me!l1~~' <jnd- .<Lrnl.&,loge~,het wi ttl .a-n as~ufifITce' lh~t the cngr~e:~rh~I':Il: -be t"\'!!'e~~,l. fhe Bfi.tish<l.nd ~hc lIu:S.$i,om;. nm{!ll.nithOJ!:~~b~~'·'i\im;.·no (:llOC'1.1t II.b hlirn fmnl the ~r'lo~th" 5Ihe,,' Aliwat'i ·l;:on~itd(:r01l.blt p·w,t IQIJ;Jt at t.irl!e' [a~k of ani)'" ·lb:ltbilil·oonlm1lmeut'. and bB dissaHsf~lI;:t~OJllwas llnl'Cretlsedllvtl!m. fb,eVi!.cef()y'~l.'O~"l2' to f\@illlOll:i. ti'ill::e" ~"'1'~th Jlil~)J ov~:r b.i~ ne~t nwnl off hew:!! eldeiOit" ~O!l~ ViII ~u b J(h~Jl .. wh~),m h¢ hil:d It;'lVite~ 'to Kfi'bul under :sOllf(l ctlL1duct, limt h~d ~ihe.n~J:p[1:s.(')ned .. H~ de(':ll,ped ,to recei'l!'e the ftJirU~e,[ BrUtsh :lIi.1~.llI·' '!j,an, ,~.Itl:)·orll:gh he cUd, f!ft,!!:r~ dl;!lay, ~1.CCil';pt Ul'le :!'III1lS.

In LOnd()lill, Gl<J:c~~,to.11.e·5 Ube:rol!~ gO<lr--C'tlI1 !'II.!.l'ir1 t WiilJS then r~fp~iI;Jl::ed by a!

COJ,lJ~rv~lIi\ie iJjqnl:[lji~~T.ltilJn led by D'lslLi!:!:eli •. ~I:!Id,astenSl.o.ll h.e~gj'l;" lencd,~n.l'J~~ MI.(kJIe' f.l!~l" 'bo~h l~](l nr.i:U~h, m,d th~ l~.u~::ii;nn:l!Ip£)li,~d ro r.,el'~i·~l l\$liU!1$. aD a:re-a :lj1 !<dl~chlP':r~I~t1': 'ctl1..dd possib~y. Ib(: 'broMSht: ~'Q I :e~lf o~iUu~ btb.er m \'!~l'lport o,f t'h:e.U' Ob~'e'i;tl~Vtes .nrl-a'~e[ b:olllle.;,hb.\;~.~~ in ~~us~t~ f!;d\lotul~~d :!n~1'\il'~ 1.Iil~h~t rndlt!!·I.W·~tUe ,pi$u~(;i:n ii~~rn1.i,I'!: '[)'I o~w ·~ll1ig~ ~"hav~- r.-Jv'O~l'!'ed.;il !1flUit<.fir¥ini'tiiJ.ti''l,-lij i:rn cl'l<GB~r5i:£11l1r G,IJI~f '~n~,1-lm il.W~'~ Cl,r1 G"'l'I!tt"ll f\!iii:r fm·pl lihe- idl~eii.':t~I!:l<H.oif htdln" .'E:V·en bMP'~ ~h~ ~':I~II~ ,(.~ "~I."~ijt)I.~~ h{Jw~\i~., l,hre ul!\\l1bt~!~h K(r~r~~nn'l\1~l~ h .... H'~J Ik:~f tk~I,H

un ;l)E!Ua.hl;l:tl 'oor~!jd l~~p11!!~cl ;0(1] the' Ii\!P'Lgeml$n't1iYrti:'!~rtI!lS~~ q:'\"Hl" ceJt:ltr.i!1 &i",.3nd~hat :t]]eII'·,!lQ~llm~'5 ',o[ ,~~ t~i·~lg1!!'-n.ce, f,11~'lrl RIJ:lIsffi~fl ~EtiV1il:y th,~i!"~. \<1,~re imli~(lnJ~OO. ]1) J!wu~l:y -nS7.s. Ul~!'.~fo.f~. j}'i~pe~efjJ)pb:lrY~ d~~ptJ;~G.1~h'1·'!/ViiS ~~nt to the' V~li;~HJ(YI,in~m~C!ti:l'l~ hh,n to,oMai11 Sb~l" .L\ll~S'·J~SSJMt ~jO ~b~ ;-estooblls,hlin);eJ'ill1t or.·a 8,rilis.hAg~j]cyM.t l{~['flL Tn.Pf:Js:pq~u~, Nom:h-_ b[l'Jot 1iItp1~d1r6 tl']"t: Ul~i:e wa~ r~g d;~~cqfriIbIC l~~~tft;~r,m~R~~~j~j:':~h~t Sher "Bli. WilJS:1f1 riO wa¥·.i[l'J:seGlM~ 'or ~:Ui.'"I'ffec:'te~,~ tHl~~h(JJlr. m'll1s~~t O.fl~~, ilic~ep'~a~"e' ~r .a misii-iom:'i.~,.'(!)t~ Id,W j:rUJFeat'h (It P1i~vJ8~ 'LJllrlJ[~'Nst~llId1-ng~·:: wich·h.!.I,n~,;~uld th~'Is'!:iu~·~,[.;; :;~ja un;resO[v'q.ij, \iIlh5~n li~ ltL(J~~ Vr;ccfoy;.lj(}:rt! l}~~t,rol1rl~~":r:app.oi,l).:tqd.,.i'\-(\lft!~r (IIiip~!01TI.iit"~t"i~]: an ijnl)l[iJ:Siy:e:,~tit:bletan~ . ,flud b'lt.eU!r!.du~_l~viau08iM!;t o:!an~ LyU:on, w~~.S< ~ J:«J,nV'ln:c~d ~dW}~3t~oT

tb,c ".ro~'I';;~:rdl;).qhey ,ilii~dlhiid no - he~imtion I,n ;~iilm n,~ in 'wj'lJ'lJ tI~Ill' ,g1Qf""emment':'l '~ishtis., H~. n(i\1¥ concQcted ~ ~ U~e' ~'fl"Ffie~Tl],art@~fpa:m~ni~ :~tril~~ge!n :.OF ptCJlX1sil::l1:! -Will! .{!I~$.plit~h .ll]' lal~~nvoy :~tl: ~a.D'ttl ~?'W.HY.tI£1-.~tbl! Alnt~ fQll11:a~lyl;l'fQlll{:~n Vtctorl,a'.'1 i't~u:mpt19n ~f: '!,h~ffU'le 01: Efnpi!'0~:S:if)i~. lt1t1j;~!,a~ w~lIl.-;icSi (if,hls o~m '<IppoiLrntrm~nt a.s ViDe.i"(ly~ }sh:er':4:~r~ [1fI]1ly~;B 'W.itS',,(~]Jltirety pfe:dlct~bl@:: lie. \.i;iJlS, d~JlgJ1.·l!J!!ll :I!o i1.~l!!lr,qf Ch~ o,~~l\!I!'S n.~w tiU~ ~~ ",~(!lf ~:u;~f l:yn<ll~'s- a s~u?1pti!()r1 bf oEfl'te, tll~:l: l1es5!w ,nl(l pOiin,titl reli'~i\\i;rig an ,eA~",(>.:s:ped<'LL]r-sin~'TI1e b.e:l~~. thatbllth partIfH~;rn-W~['~ b_~~plP;i:':~H,b th@I!;ti:5t:1.n,g ·['€~aW.n~51:r~iP' m'lodt:]'n.~-e ,!ie,~nl~C]lt~ :be. no, n'~l!l\l fdl~ fH~th~O'ilnt;a.c~. .~.~ h(,)\!r'eVt'fj.the U~l:'ilt!ilrl!h~i.d ;JJ!l:ytilvn:g 'r:Jew~o, ,~mmllnliC!aite:,. be WQll1(l. ,,~end"gjnageo.t to)eam 6n,t· n'li:!>ppHte.st "o:~ bF,t1;slll·()~(s r pm Yo.,ke'd ~"WI)Q~lS~!!) ~ro;['n iytton w~tbth [ii.l:l'~efr,at~d' U"l.~ ~~~gi;J~Gl1 den1!Drl'1dr tb:!1d' ~l1:~.II_t:!d'wlthth~ l'hre.1VUltf't 'if .tt l,'l!~nll: tI6t~'b.:e?t~ ~ ~llil:I;1iStaI:lw.')!]~~[d ~e'""[ie'gal~e;di -i:i.'!l. "ft 5tal;e,wliith bills, "1J'[Ul1tarrru}:l. ~£ol-j~ed EtS;~t rnrJ1ll( l"li~ 1l.lH;llr!l~1? fi~1d .$~mJl;U[t OLU1C ~\dthdl.'$i,ovem!~' m~nm',\, ~!'ru '~}1o~ ell,e.itan~ls th~t ('OII{l~"'\~(t.Il.ytl\!lln~m;l)iin:~d ~1:jtegortrl~:I 'iiT:l ifl.sj$t~I'llil' th~t ~it:if6 ,~ru,k Jl1Il5t' ·~.u:-tept ,3 .reskteb,t ·.E'liritls..h~;glE!i1Il!:, .iin{!, j:n(,~..t~~d till§! p&s'\Our\:!; on Il'I.in' .by 111akh~g, .11. nlm1b~r 0:[. Iuilllluuy dl;opooj;ti()'FI~ tl1iJ:t cOI;iI}~oi:n~' be~ilrde~- illS . thrl~il\eJ,lln~. Stun AW~' ~,sft.ion wM 'stro1lilgi:~tiQnllJaidz,;;j: hewas 'EQml~~:el~lY sa tlS[!@d~5'iltlc. . Ule ,ej[~~tln~ relaUorrullJllp, a~,df'eqtt[[-eQ:~Oi!~ly that lhi!? h~~o tliL;i!I~~~.'!l ¥.;ri~I'I DO!!,~ ¥ QI:ll.l.fijm~d !l'fidthlt! lil~:ri~ L ranC[':5 gl'\ilIt'!.1 in ti\'jIi~J.]]g b¥~h~t\mr previtmS Vi.cercyS shjo"li.d~. be; .~.H;iIilQ'ured., He we[e:rredl i!:iIl:l.l,;ly 1Ir~.I'ilh~fi!-ai:S ·~bkn .. [ wt"'ei.\li]]g B~IDHsll!!~n"..oys: not (IT!ly W(Ju.id l'ht~ I:r.CIIUi:l[ fiwoif fl(H'!ngt a~lUntl.t'Cs'; tlnlwO\illd c~~nrc1'l.rnot::l:g l.he A:fgltl(~ns '~h~j\~3if"tlrm]¥ 11'Xcd irl th~dr ~1ItIIll'l1ds.l : • .r[Y~l deeply m:l(l~~d(lidl:li;:i:1f h~rl:s,~ hElt if fu1g1isTI.Juen. ali .other E:u.~ope~iu, O.n.(·e~et ilc;O'l:ln rhE! lrountr~!; H wiJl wGn-tr lOr .lj!)t{'J;. l.lal,SS O\~~ of l'Ih~~rhi'lnds' .H~vi!1g 11.0 rrilp]y to t~les~ .m:gul:):1:e~US, l"yt~:O'!J re££It~ed twaFi. iUmmi1m1ltil1 - :rh@te were t1@ be B'O futl:1lifT, CllS'~~~!)'l'l~ a:n~ N,t~ AH.~h lUll:!lt nl,fJikelUlP' .hls m.iind. wl'le,nl'~I~:r t'lr n,ot t~ aoot'p,t J:~il:~ish, tj;ri~(,'tlrs.,. it .s~"Iam!!,-th!ll -IU lb il~, PQh~tl Sher J\lJw~t~ p,~~p"LiI)etLto a;Qcep~ illl L.~·H9,nr~~eQ:'l~nd~~ but [h'~' m<i1tt~.fthel.l p-~e~e.n:lpk,tI. ~lim. b"~,,'d~~j:Qg tL'lI.(t,.

- )']"'i " ni~g~iL,i!I. p,n.

1'he{r~ wa:5~h:eD.il JI:I;:IU Mnil:[ tb.re summee of 1 SYS)whea [he oei.'];Siillr 1~1 ./l!,rcgJ] a :[~ "rm'l.~n Jl]norui],}I'·devel.op~:,. '['he-:Ru$si:.aIJ:rdla,~ .f~f: So.l~e' );\earo£iblren

(i:ot~:~~1'4P:!~dJl1iG·,wl~.h·1Sb .. (lr .AUf b1!ft ~b~,(:"()u~ll.:t oft'hel't ' Ia~C,t'I

[l.IiIUdY.Tli'~HHldit:h(;l;8dtiS"h1Who 11al(lJ,k.I1!.O:Wll Q,f th.etrlj , ~1l~t~l1'ha;d~e-

1.']0 &C~'riomi .{)'bj~cti:o~.1;. Then In tS'7B' ,and 18)''' ,H[~ ·b~cl,:I?~;Ql:t;!~~ .. iI f Ill(!! 'lh.li'ii!:<iiili'~IS· ~l!}D~.t th~rni:. bM~~ W.u~l hJiconclil;l5{ve l1e5ftll,t's; {\-:6l~~ ho.;v~,~:r, 'f..I'i.~' ·p.:u.:s~'~J)S: d(!'G'~cl.ed to. 'aoote ~dlv"\;'r~h:l1'l! ~Y;~~M'~,' oie Mg,h(iui:slm;li ~ncl r[~i~!NI, 'the btakes.·,A. m!ssl.o,n \\1(~~ :!ien.t~ tQ Jl~aljjW-'l.I.nei~:r. a O;:n.cral S;t(J~~l:lri,iClv 'i'iti~h <Ii ~,~l't!l;j C:~),L'Qposlng~l <.tc:,'~f;'IJut\1'~Y ~m~ Q~ll'wll'N: .beairy..( . tlH~' ph.l:¢ing ~f R1!l~\'li<'II;t ttx~;Op.,~ o.~ Af,gha1!1 '~~r;l':t~~rx~· ~nl(f per,j"tlillsiOH tP.b'lrUd lroaitbi, 'lin~d :1(!'.l.~giIaph .Hn'("!'$~ AttlH~, :!j.[jUl~ Ii~~ l!:lls~hrnH'{lJ)p$ i,.'V!~e" fiI:()bili$~d tln 'l"rk~!'it~u, ,Sh,l.1'f. AU1, wb:t;J .'~~dJi~~d

. .wen .~oijgh what the: (;().illi~!;liQ[lletiCe.s might be, <:ILfi:I$t t;riM ,te> bail' .Sboll'i;Lt()iv f[~m lhe eou:m,l;ry. b~~ in. th~rftC(l .oj: Jlu:~i,f1:rn, Ens:b:teil'lce,g.1l'l;'le, w:~y (iild 1,it'11L,W 'Uil'i!!ny rt"!cei:Ved h.hn ~ml ](~l~ljt /J,.r" iI· lC;tnilnlt:l'~ilf4!~lSUi'~. ly~toJl pJloceooedto iiiUi'St,{)n. ni;~:-:i;e.oept.iQU lin K1ib~~l Of a t:or[:egl'iloucJklug Hr[ij~lhll'X'l'i~l(;in ,nij;d a;lUe$~ge,,\r~.g s:et1ll,t to 1<.1ti~1~ I:Pruf1L["()fm5.ber A:11i th,;jl it WR-S ~ln It!ij·~·'''Ry, ![kJth th~ h!Uel :Ifid 1:~1C' gcn .. ~trHlI'ient in LondQn tl.'Jed to: aViOi~d a c~TIi~~f().n~.1I:UOJlj". but~ Lj1iI,to;t1, press:e.<l al1ea~ in q.eHa:nr()2'./5f )ltltlft~ct'l~n1Jl~. ~y~th. t~h~ :r@~I1~r:th!lt:QJ1 2:1 S;erl~riU)e.~' la'S) M.alqrloms· ~Il!ilfl;~ ~-n:i, a mCllr.nl)~r. of the p!'flp(i:l1!~d mi~i'1jl{)n! i!Od!~ ftl'f\\j,i~,rd lu U~,~ 'Rhy,]Jer P·iISS,li.~hem he: wa.s to.~db.y. the loc2i:~ .;\fgh.l.Lfl g:ov,~~n!or, that ' if .b!~ P1OOl;),(:!c!!iid j[tl.r.i~.b~r, .h~ WOtL~~l ~. nlet:W~.trn "JQOClll .. ~L~C 1::ull'nM: 1Ilbeut .i\1,nd t'fida ~~:c~ 10 ·IP'esliiOrlMmr.

Feei[og in l.ondolll WIIS', tbafit VIoI'Olltd. most u,ui,V'i.se ito be undertoillk~ll:g ~~Jl ~~h~lntm~ tn· ~\fgtu.!ill.\i~l~t~" p.a:LJ~·cltllarW ,as, ILly tlieitl. Jen.eG'5 \yle:reb(;::in~; w!!:::u1,qloo. ~tn,~lhl'~~ill! Ill,l:tiJa~~onlit p~ie~l~l.gn ·w.~s now S~C.iI1 t""(i be .at st~ke,l,A' nd . tille ·Cil:lYin'¢t; 'de<;ided ()!tlW'ii~! As:' a pl!"el]'Q:1ina;ry s'll~p) Ly~'~o[lwas .in~t:i'~t'~t:lcl1!~ ~~~ ~r;!k!l'n _a'pP](l'!rY' frot¥l! fhe A_jJl1il' ,iiJli:1 Iti'S ~~cept'~lC~ o£'a "[(leillHl!lll'!2nt mis.5i{~n, L!JlitWiIl g~'IH.r Shtllr Aniu~~t th~t',~ ,lMeiik~ 1),0, cotfupl:y .. ~ind me~n.whi]ie \l>le[ril1: ::a,h.e.a(J With hi~lli~m~azy

I1lrep~,r-.l!,H(}f1$. 'Wl~r':L. no l\eply'b~db~l::n l:IerCe~~d in ~~balt Woa!i~, glV,gI:l '~:r1!1!l' !l:1,3~f;! of iOOn.lfn~I'nj(;~'t~(,~;t~lS. ~f:Ii l~.np{):lI!:ll~ly shor:t Ume gP(Ul~ hi!! c(Clc~alK!~t :W?!l',[J:i fui~, t'ti}~'.nne:~~ th'e~Dn1:bl:n.l!.Holrl o~ iI h.ejJq~tr(l:nl·· Vjlrer~r l\Irucl_(JJn lues ~I ut~ C.tilblnel proEi.'L.ilic-fld <.II .• ~t~i:ontll mlnf~o!ll,t;)tipm. 'Wll'l~ MShlil![1j~lam ·wh.ic111 ilml Il~hf' OI~~I'~lf1i:rU}~.W'il:S '~O b![!! ~Ino II~~ oootly ~:all ure. t.nil:rl 'tDf,- :6lP.it.·

nh~r'Ali"s' responseto the" d:ed~taU()n of: war and tbe It'[~as:lo:l'l., ~b,at ~""qu,jJe"!;;]r. €tlH~~t.\;:~!:ll w.m '. ~If.j $~~I( eo 11~~\"e :tb~" ,'OO~~J1ITy~tid .~I).l'aVi1 U'':!np~uJrtf:t'()m the RtI~5~ a ns, He fcn.!r:td them: ftr.()fqmli1lYl.Jn~¥:.f,iI'ilP<'l~ .~hetkiin:d~ll2; W;'!!!i advis@id, 'to' make ·hb· pe:lll(]1! wirh [he U~'lfi:sl1: fi(J. n\~:,>.'it~l'1:1 ~;r,on~:t, t:h"i~y i 1F1~.,,~Meed. p 1(.()l1Jd, C1111J.~JJid8Jlli.il Af$hlj'(~!'fot'IJ~ dtll'i lfig dliL'\ ·V\'i:a:U¢r,;·S.h,eli II\U th,('::n, propesed tb~t he-sbQ:I11:[a..:g~ ''1;'08,· .. Pete:rr:,;l:m'r,~ to _pleadi 11:IDS: '~(Jl~e: personally ;w:Uh th~{ C ... ..<11[, bu~ l\:FS:['Bql~ies;~ WR~ po~hely rd~.lsed. J~:rrike:" h'l, spli':i't~ he dil'd i u MiIl:rur~i·Sh~rn ~n ]leb.n,Htry: ] 8';'9!, l1iiYViltg len ~1rI1;ll 'c<lipi~'a~ in t:he' h,~n.d1'i of" .his less thaD f.n;()"!J r[~~

'50[1. 'Y,aj:;~lb "iR!lCl<U!1, .

[)\.!!W]l.1g lIte l;:l:ooli);liil!ati,«lt1sfiO\l;' tb~ if1iVi1!~~on .• I.yU\'J'i'rj h,'iild a S(;lliOUS· ~iffe,r;en.ce' ·of: 'Oipin'iol::tw;l1t1ll 'Iibe ·C()n:BJ;mandef"'.in~Ch~~fi GeriLera l~ir ~il:edcG.fhik Hahlesi oeer t.be$Jz_~ of rtbe ~.n~1Jd]tlg,·a"l'1'i!11e.~1 Hawl!~ ~1J'd ~lJ-li su:iI :I,nsi~!i.l:e<I', despite LyttIO'j]/s.i!wi~ty ttJ kC:I:p ,~xpendll:l\1 ~'C: ~o",vnr {,lip! fOIl"fe levels th:nt they 'ool1'lSjd'€red adequa te ·aad :rclill:u8bc1 to jll~~ept Jt,ba~ [::yUQJ1 {)[ an~()ne"ebe: COBhl! o.",~.rlJ.l,ll~,IJ];e~ll. 'n-lley .eve.[]tu~lI!~.~Pt J~hei~. W'lI.y (!~I i:he ·co:lt I():[ be-lng ~1"~~{.'6bllld t~r l.-yt;'tOi~ as 'l'I, CQIlJ,~'!:lJ,tHi(lirm 'ill~ rDi'edUQc~ities and invete[a:~ell.yr [)bs.thJat~ s'lupidirlties'}f b[lt tyl\:1.:~n: tbte[~aft~r issued i()ld~,", di.~c:rtl.y to the CO,m!ll1tl'idle;r.s ill 'th~ :11~~~. OiI.lt <l.Cl'ivh"J Wl"1.iiCI1i i n::Lpro'~cd n~l~hf;r te[llp~¥:; nCi·r~._rn~chmey.,As soon :ll'~ .~'~ ultl IITI.01Ih:lim oexp~red.. Jdva;1J(:~s tl[)o'k. plflceO-r! thr(;1.J;::.fI((lIl1tS.· ~'\ ~C}lufnn;o!: 15,UOtJ meu I):!;lde.: the EOTIlJi:YaJild IOjl G,e.n~~;tl Sill' &;lJ:nu~l nr:UWIfl.~·p wl,~\,. W;}S. to ~d]!'ie\lle i'l f;onn 0 f i l'll'IJuJr.taHty t fuough '~lI'lS"i uve:1ruf19n. ,o:f nn:' mnit~[}· hel~ 1h~t '.>ti!T ll~"u's his nal1.1e, ad\"iIfnce.d th:J:oU'gtl' ~q~~:}~b¢~ l"1I:SS" .1.U5ICaInpI!".11~n~:llllrtQd badly, .t.\1'Jtl::l. . ,iii t!q.nh.J:'i.Ii!d, and .1:~.ijs~Wi'~ ~¢d £l'lI~at?L{ on tb .. ~ if\fJI:t" al I,\U M~::Ijld~ btU tUIQ: A:rI:In,~,n~','~!3"rti'fjr~",U:iCi~offted ~'i!1 'r~llr~ ~~d J~I~ljJIb~(dwA1..~,o~upi~c~ Cln 2fj'lJt1:.~'eni"er, :~ :S\l'OOi~~at (;Q)u~rm'! 0i .1,~,~1{l] rm~n, wh~,eb W!li~ cS~!:~t up' "'~!l tbC:1 It [,lIf1 ll:l!~l!l>-l fH;l,d "~lI!i!U~

under ~(I!'fiIlel:flltk~Ii1~Id. S~~Q:Ii',~i ;[Ini~~ j~l F&i!.1~;"'h~~: ei1lJ<ly ,l.!iII JmJlUaJ.'}f I.!o f'.mil H~<II~ thill2: M;gh,ilIFI.,ga.[[-iSlOt:l lihm;c :had ;Ql~.d~ 1u, Wl11~ ~UIlMililll ?ilU~j 'a thl.:rtJ.:t1ghAJiI,l'f1 ofi5fS{lO. ~n!~u utl~W; GCiim~r~~ ~,'j'ltdt;'JtJl';'~ Hoscli't~ '~mf,l"t~r J.:.oIT~. HQbertS"qr .Kafl;dab'lJj :~m,{!t:;i[jjIr.0PFo~il:i.on ·~,..&ilif~ ,t~ri~!'iIg~ip~~.~ tbe 'I~en ~"i)i.I11l1 !~utll.l, tt.€'!:lm~~ fijI: (he:' f!«.~d1 t)l~ '1ill:me :~U@~~j~l\Wt""'~i:l'" "it ~l i ff1:tult in:iSlfl'k II~ ~:w(!i~ '~l~n][Ji,J'.r~~!,1:dI' bY!TI frorl,1-;a l'"l:tl.S:~!ll,lil't ';jjIi~lt~u!l;lly bJ'~uShL ~~obtU1:s{ b'~~(JiPsiIilt~ ~'l?osjti.onfiOJnwhkb ~t1b~,. ~{illdid '!'ih~JiI. U]!e

Afgh~tlfls'! ["'u~~1)'i' 1.u;K~ th.e.,.··ltitlJ:',r wiH:idlrew. ir,n,:s<alrle'.c:t}Jtfll11S1()1~1l,' .

The wIJllpi l~ S~I Q~1l.: $::S (,)[ nJ,e IhLI tt~.ry i!;;ml(p,~lijl;'I'i~ t, ft: It~~II,Qfil w I th~hJI!

PU)Q]'ifUi, \~hj:cti he, Btl!etills b;) :.bave. ~eft (lett of bi;~: G;a;J'th1.~iLt,ti:q:IJl!l~' @f hM<q to' deal w~ t]:l i\;Eg~1,1rdst~n,. Cpstt;.w~r.fl InOlllll'Hilg' aJ.~id, h.i&·~l!!~~5.! wh~ W~lll1! in barren '~'!.JUntfy ;jilt l'h~ '~'il.t] 'ofi~llig ~~!p,pJr' ·~iu"'~cl Wi"'~:Ii~ bei ng b,amss;ool by the Jti:b:e s. ·Ji\~ lJJlld,et.tJ,l_k.e: a '. peima:nellt ilDC'ctiPIl,t·i0A'-1 01, <rug~1Jt'ii]i!ll'&I'l~ :'Nl'Iie;h ~oliild .ecoifitlJbm~ litUe to U"l.i!l (ndK~' ~)u.:.hcet]1:u!'(" w.n~ild h~ .flinunch'!llIlyaIppHng. 'f~:~ L'i~~;l~Ol'e bi: ~s ~,lffrl~'lldl)' nejgl'rtiD·lJ~ lfJ,Q t~ld req ~lir·ean .ab~e. and 'WeU~d iSPCiS;e.d' ~e.Jidef'i :and none ;~va$: 1 n. S'l:gl:'ll:i. ~.~ eould perbap.s be'.dlvlrl.ed li]ta ~. f'!!,lIn b~ 0f !ufii:!ll pi,'i:fll(lrJ.{!luU~s.i b:~ll lhiilJ! woutd.t'i.~ IiII .ft'!.~irll;: for llUi:labimty ~)l1d I}enl;tje!r th!E"~ C'(!JoUJ). ny vulllw~~tble tv e;'V~'et~'<! I, inttlguE;:s< r 01mCiWj ng' Sl1~f AU.~$· d~~th·,~'W<w~.er..;· :Y~:l(u.b .K niil.11! hilid as!5,[b1.medt'h)~ t.l1r,m'H~<i ,and t~!e 1:::l<L":'!1:t op,t''lOf! ~C!l;:nlli!'d to be to try ~Q f(!iidl ~OOI ac:oo.I~~m(bd.!.IJ'~nn ''''"ttll1 1I.im,~~r. <D.n H'I!·at he ·ga.ve DID, ~~i~p (if b~ing.JjJ S1.l'QiIJ!i or (lap~b~!e lTwlrliart:h. .C1l.va:gn,>I.r~ .. 1)vas &!Lltho.tls~~ "l1Dn~g0Jt~~t@ wttllbh:n <lind" ~H~:f some IT!t'n:th~ ·ol pIUC~~ifk~n:lcn~ he Cil'llQ'lle. om' :to nle~~ 'O~nc1iial Brownm't;; foree, ~l,ih}ch, l'1-~IS:-IlIJOW '11!:;lvanciil!ll'b.~YQnd·Jiil:~<lIlabOlcL Ttl:e UpSl1P'~:, .1111. M~jt 1879". W.II,H UU.· TFiM:ly !JifG~J\d:ll~pl:kh. ~IJ WI1lt.e:;:.I:ru" iill I.',ett:ln'n VO!i tll~f~.'!tciJ!'~~I,on olf .t<(l.rndah1!lr ,!t'tld1: J~j.al!!ib!lrd. Y<l,kulliJi KiUiI!l c.led~d Pi:sh]n .: and :S'ihffi~ .bo(han tliI.e to.ad.lIIp fhl30lJlgh Q1i..lietta,a'nd I,elf~· t~h~ UrlUsh lIn. t::D1ltT.Ql of KU;~r..ltn and ~he. n1yb ~,r. .l?tI£JS:: He ~'I'C'ce1)t~}1 I~ pc~m:Jir'lJ'iliIU m~~:'!ih~,n' ~n, KIliI::lUI, ilI:ndl [5elrli1iliiU~d U'Hl Ih'i~ r~h to cOaIlCI1.1C~ his fj(JIeFgn poHc)":· ill] return for .~ :getil~Ii<'t1 i1mn~~tf, ll: s:tlbsi"d.y- f@IL hl111:\ii~,I:f~[liJ..cJ hi:s sUC~t!'~t),O'f~h 3iJ:lJ.d ~ PIiOf[ll.~e ijf ~s!lii!!tan~~ in ~ht'.,Ji.t\!'i:~.:n~ (",If tUllp.ro"lrol\,ed nggmsKiotL IJ,lOU:iI ;ldyt.l1[)'fiI 1ifil,d UIe gov~'rl1imf.l:rnt l.in l~OIm~t(JnIP'fe,eiil.ed fneo.:s,.elve'.::p tij] wbat tlite-y sa'ic"· ~t~ t~' milihlry: ilfl,dl d iph.m;mU,-~uc~esS I.lJitd. d~ryj_n8&tfo'l1~, p~:rl.:i~ ~nt.!ut~[¥ Cf:~ t:~CI.lnl. lJJSf:il:~U ~>()l1,~r!ltuiJl,ted'21 tytli01'l. ,op having a:~h'ie\!;~d th:f.: '~eicnti,ft,c. Froo, 'I:i:ef' ~ Ca::~~g:fii:ill!'rl ,;~l01i\f 81 r L()l~i S', was aIJf)ollllte:d 'en veyar Y~k:uh ~~UUlfS court: ~nd.w~ttlr a!:;iI11aU t(;mun:g~'tU ·o:fr.".V:UlI.I'Y~ [Qo:k ·~IP' ~ni!f;,. I.lP'i~ oi]1itln~n t ~I1, J"Hy:.

[t ll~d ~M been t{)oe'a5y. 'In t.he ~e,YlIJ)hmia, t:h-a.tPII:'e{1ail'~ ,t:h;e ~l'!"OI'U~' Jl;!;nl t¢lha,,~! ~!.(]I~bdnL;lJlh'e~' Ul!1;!' Ul~nl ~C!id •. !J.u~h~r;it}!'; lb~l i~'1e ~I'I!W r\n:lil' r~,Q~~~!tt\\('l\hl ti~l'~O!l:m't'ltri', UJ)il" ;1l~lit, h~ Wlll~ ~1'l~\:'~i1tM, l1J a taa' 'I' 9. 't:lnpollu'l,il!:r' ffi'~Si]!i'{l'ii wl~'k'h hl~ :~f~~r ~",d s~Q'.drM.'MYll"f!\.!:S~Ci~ . CF l:Ii(!(" ~I:U. ~.l:1 ,Illl'l!'l: j ilU'YAhYlL'lil1 ol'iI'y ,~tt'dClj:!I~~~, ~c\l'~~O~l.;' Iltlhl"f 1~~ld <llJlm~

~mrnd d Shih ~,h~L!ia's 'cGnUngenl; hi: fhe "Fir,')t Af"gba:n\'Var andwhe th~fore 'Ila~ i9vti;el;tc~r a'p,pr~d~t~oll1,tba.n: most, /ieems:to ha.l;-;e b'ad (01I(!b~dln,"'S, ~Ibou't, w'h' t w s ,I] S'IJ.l1IQ. N(l!i' Wl,l:.ll'litl' d.~lt;'il:t:'i. ,h:)1,1S UI!lJ eem iin:i. 'Gavtl,g!liU.i lla:a t!' It been in post more thian 'six vi'e~lill>wheo th.e. Mg:tru~h .r:~g,i.rn!ents, "~'bich ha.d aJi'd,(f.i:!d ln~Kahu] from Il-:Iemt: 'Il!md \Nl'ete to,m.ructridu;d b:JI' Yl.kub Kll~n'ij; bmthA'/ i'tyub Kh<lifl, J,egan to stEo~V 'W~:n)"'tng Sigris (ff, '~;n·s:uboTdi,~,atiCln. On' J. .,'S(',t~mbe.[tJ1u~y .. v:arafdM··.i:Ji.t !the'8ala c~ssar fOf ttl,elf. "ei"~rs of payaud doted wilen onayr aporHon iI'i:l. !;lilt~d, It seems th,pt U ~W" sugge ted tJ.ml '~h.ey. 5li(j!uild go tlfJl ~tn'~'BliUsb ]t~ 'i[!hflllCY for·the bil:l~.n"C!t a:nd t'leIi.<I't.Wh:1:.11 they a:n~Xr"'@d mere~ ~e gu.a.T.rlS, .. opened r~t'e. They I)rolll,t~y went 'ba:r.'k to,. tbJ~lr qUi~lr{'r to coU.I:1'~:t tJ,!(t'ilr jl,ifnl~ ~nd ~\!Jl:fi}ln !Jj·sh()r.I. \I!.!'bw~e:oo:t!.tt;ned. and!i1,tta(;l,*(~ the Reslde:II""U-ry. Thf'r." they were joir.:ledl by a d.ty 11.I!ob :;!II[! d Ith:e ;i,~1'!holi.~ l>Jtuati,ott y..-ent Our o{oontrr-oL YakulJ .Kh~1J1Sent '.hl" G~ttliil~~l.cLc.(.i.h.Ch.ie[ to' l[]l: 'lol."e"1'itonf (),tdlc."r bu~ the Ila,tt~:r \"J,:~~

HihQ.r~(E and was h.tcky to es:ape with bis life~ C,'l\!',1gmrri was 5,ho~ i1t 03,0 ~ar;ly.s.tag:e ,amd !i~it!J:Ii1l·arew hOlUr~i desllitea de~e![,ate de.fen,ce~ h15

1l'l!lu~1 were OV~IIWhel me'Cl. OIrJci .IUU,oo ahn~t in I ~n{in.

1,"Ii, ; he-' llIiew.' of the' m,ass-ilue:mtlched Simla Iorty-elght hQnJr5

·~ri.;t.rur", nokl)xl¥ fn:~p ,1iQ_~~ cl;ciubt of ~l1e. IiletessU,)" of S"peedJ.!'J1._~~nge, but ~h ' Ilhnj @~o~ L~'II~'frol1l~bCv ~IiID~ no long" r 'JU OJ ~'jlU" f6otl:ng and tr msport hill'tl bJ-en :$IJ~d ~IQ"'(ff. 'fbe @n~y I;roop:s ~~j,thi,n reach of ~.illn;w.1 1\VeI;e J;9ihCrbl~\tn ~~liI~ '~1i:tiam., anrl.~o' he '!il'f!lmpdy'l~ft Shnla 'IJD.d W<li!'i back ~n tb fl:o:,ltler I:n 12,Septt!mb r. JJy 'I (kt, DI.U, having Q[l,IJ'1 'd tl'an~p,O'i.tr firi~ for~ of, t,~.oo' nW,n had (;";WSlied the .Sl!U]laiifgarda.n Pass .J1:,tldl" 'Wa:; In ,~1ied;Oga ; \jl'l!l:~~Ii~.y'. There 11 was met by Yakub Kha:ni \'II'ho.

·vidl:nUy Joared for .h~Hfe jill .!ulds,1., yed lin Kabu.l. He sl1b~ll'cl~il::ntrly !ltxHcat~d and Wtl!:'il t'X'iIed liO ·illdi:a" where he e'lif'etlhmUY"dired ill. 11923. , ie:w(}uld. be sald"t 'rather be ~ grass-eutter in rhe .l;!.nglls.h.c4ilJi:p than be the ruJc~ or ,l\ :ghlUI~:l'tnl j; A~' nl;:lb(,lit~,i i.111Ii'ts lI.dv a need on Kabu L they we're opposed O;f·Gifalii'1:fya,b. 'by 1;'1 substantial force, supported lly artHlery-'and irregulau s, and Oil 'ligo.[{)US battle had to be fought b~ QFJ:~

the pa5i!i: WlU c:1ear,oo. On ~;hl!l '9l1{ l.l'Ioj.~y e-n:u~~redKab!JL .

R()b'rllii, p'£floeed"ed to ~Q!fiducl: j,lI. 'Kab!J~ 'wll;JIt colin ,only lie desui'becl as a. fe.~gn of~etfor. Ma$5 arrests W Ie made ~md td3!l~ 11ie.ld lH:mdc·j' mai'tl!~.~. ~aw. A1.mcl:.lt CI.;"l'lil'1!1ly', ilJl'lnny mo're [himgi,rlg~ lon,k pllil,C~ l:1:mJl l'b· ligluy·s~v~n to whi-cll "Roberts tat,er 'adluitted'l: of tho5<e '(!!~"iJt,ed I oni'~ e1,e'iien 'were aill~g~d. tOe ha. ve ·been di.I'~c{1 y. . n"o;o] v t'd :ill '11'1 tuuI.t1er Or c~lw.gnaJti, T..y t~'Oll U rgoo-liiI:OO'b~l1!i '1)11 I iIl.U,il .t:l mp rom lSI'!!Ill I' n:n.s. Eo ~nr A.fgllflll: brOlJ~ht '1:0 ·d'eiII"tJ~ ~. ,sb<lH '~egcu::d as 01j,~ SCmil1!dlrei th.~ less, hl,iiI m~s:t of:S<:QlJIudrol:hl.lH., ... Arl}'Qne.fOUl':1d lin:Mlll;~ i\,i;'!'ilUld be: klltcl ,tth ~ spot Uk~ v,;:n :lln •••• It js:'~Utr l~lrcv' n:1 M,.k t·· ~ ~1'!,iJ1 SUi~it it g·!"lt!2." upon IJ1'e ~a:~n l")'lood til r:ned ~':I;lg:~ (if o~~an 1l,n"l"lii,ls 'J,t$, :'II iJlU s"n the sJ:111: I~cr di,]tie.Q i'de I' 111:14;111 ~~U!' -IjJ~,dU ~ mGll1~il'y o'f ~

.~n;loiitt~n f.Incl,~bjI1la<Jtoo:pe.(iple,;, Hfn~\:'~"~~ no~~rl"S :\O\<~ :~IJ I;)liIik ba-ste 'bl\!f?[\I~ .t.l.~ poUtit'aJi ~'V-'e~lther~tit~k at J!oni:fli ha~. ~J]iftil.~. r ~. 1ll:m, I/,H.iI .~,e. 1TI~i'~ d!1mour ,)~il0rl~{! Q'!lf~~ Ulll ;!jan Qf:!l.sUJist 'n~n,d,6,iw; 1liU~'11 'i1;'i,he~~e tbn;n over a htlJldF:ed h~3i~s: thar Jf~ll all at. O:I3,'oe'. In :th"'s~ he,,\~v~~ L.yttpu W,fj.s,r.rnist;a;k6n~ W~t"i'l'W,as hilflrJ~l1ii:~n.g WJ!5, ~OO"r~ -re"u l!$d 'n ·1.J!lIl¢jO:n. 'in rel1~.r.s from Ittibiilrtsl offl,CJells. n:nd tbe: v.rCQIf 'y:~~~iITI lInl!l,~r ?"t1st_a,il:led i1t1BC~. i.l] iPad.iame'nt. Even some r;nJ~m~.~IS 0:( ~. OiWrI COI!ulcH ""I~~~. ltoc(lI'Y:t':d l;,o· .,dt!:tL,dotmce thill' :e>tSt~Ultio((s mf'j\l~n~lll lJltlr~~~r.'l'. t;rttdl';!':5reilicti.o[ltl ·\'\Ii.!.S 00 tTy to 51'li"ft'tl.:1e blYime on il{-olWits

"and ~0 in.sb:luiJit.e tilt~t .~iI:" W(I'.c, ;-ru C1;l·Sr.- of ttfe, m_jffita:1:}' l'lEi.\lj~liriji'f0i2M !tt~s hl~e:r'Utt1on '~n~l ;~ot 11lllt',O( S!OiDlLw~i

ltobEi',rts, me. ~n~hiile allnOW'l~ietl Va!tu"b ,[Qtan' abdlcMl00 ~IRlhili!S ~Qo~a;s.sl~],}tiQl1' of,s!l;rpr'enie iIIuthorilw' 'In ;!"i:fti1 anil$t·a.n~ ~u1.d ar Bli ti s.iJ 'll).II.iJ;J[},1' g'~'f~m:o,r' was (1:llpp'.lnt(!d ill K~lblLll. As .an ;a,rl Qi :u,'l~~g~ .fqr .~aYii~mlri," J,u~m'le~r th,~ a31,n.UtsS~II;1 abea'Cly di"U,L'4g~d b:y Ul ex;~lasloin of gtmpo",,~der and. antn1u:r]~UOl'll.i li.VilS' ]a'!'gely ~le5troyed:. RQ!b.e-rb h.1.[I!'\~~]f s(!i. up, Ca.'!IlP .1.11 'l!ht' canteament .1It Sh~r.Pll. wbi~h Sh~r. A.H :11,ad OO'IlS"l'wd-e.(l. for hiS:lu!W and ·whi-th w,~~ ,conseQlt1enu:y i~ rfl'l.!:t;'i1 li:io~~eQ~f-en~jb]e p:o:sitiQJl than' I:he eantenment used In- th~ Ft:i:'st ·,Arghau ',\:,\ra:r. 1'I:'!js liIJ~m.l~ tb~ miIJ~In:i~~~:ry W'" il'lsidt! Its WlI.il-~. IJII\O'",1 irn:1: and!hew(l(l(l W~W ~tIIrnd !lIIr and tlh-ell\! w~i.~ulfiltr lilt s'helt't"!li' t{l:r the . tltiop~ and. animals, H@l'J.':l.R9~rt.~ JLnd ~hi5 6500 men set'tled m. forthe .l(yi.n·~~:~~m:ast~.iS .. , beyQ~t1d l(.'llirlul and th{l C-r:)ntonl1:m.efl'lt, 9nly of ,,~.enu();liAs 1 tnt! ,tll t:omn'l'lIllj'ClIIti,on thl!qouig;l1: (;:andlamu!i:: t oJ .;;1 Iabadand Jamnid. He app>oi:jj~ed fO:Uif sird')J.-S. ito representhim in the pt<J'VinC~.s.l)'·but Cr( ~:i1:es~.1 0)10 l-ll'o'3i:!l il:MJed, two ;tuIJe:r.oo \'lujjOtJl!Slndig;.n.i,t~·es. a.!ld the j:O~JrfU~

nle\' 'I'lefl: he: lltifish l"lili'np" . .

. ,'\iVbe:~I~~ some 'n ... 'O }'i("ap;. ha(l.>elt'lfl~·ed in. tiu:! FiBf Af:!glo-A!ghall War ~efi',m~ AlgL't.an l'.eIDi:;;i"!u1.c~ m.~de UseU el~~cli:\~ely' felt, lhls time. the r-e-pi~e Hi'sle(;l only. ~i3w-weeks. Tiler "were'~lye'l:1i1 reasons r6nhr~ s , On .~:be~eadle.r ()lj~S]l)[I, at le-ast aO:tlnard -p[hioe wjs on the ~hro11:~ arid l\4i1!i,;n~ghte.~ IUI~ m~de }~o~d use (If bdh~ ~Ild slLIbvenJlon!l rp ke,(!!p rlte t"riibi'll 1(:!;H!ll'f~ qtli t. Thit,nin1e the Al~s:hnn f\1nir had' h~ n s'lJjrlt~d ~l v.~y; tnd ~' h.e Uti tish ~~~'fe IilJ I itlg. .done ~1.nd·. 'tto 3JI! ,1Ippe<lrancf's, ~![mall~ntly~ }>.1o,~,\, tha~ th~y w~:r~ balk 1.0 the ccnrntrv :f~r :the s@mnd

. tlm~ at~~ 'war,e :,;o!ltIlmimn~"wl~ii1t wel"e' ~~elfl ~1$ ~trOCi11~,:r>1 ~e!1!o,!?hnb~iI, "and beI]1ge.:r:em::y\~el)e that mllich rno[~·jnt:eme. Ha:rds:hip'''"'<Js aga,hl:]

lJ~blg_ f~l~., ,iiI~ t.t:i~, m.my~mugllt up .fOOd ,sup'p.I.i@·.s ... 1fl()pi!.~~a[-.f{i!~U.ng ~t .. '!l ~,I~~'j) ,']~.IUO'Il~tI ~Y Ill. ~!ii'll for 'ii, PliUt~ by iI '0:"hi·~l.·a i I;t:lul hL.IHl~. gf~".ITIt ~.'~l': ·and .liep,'lltel, ·Mn. DIl!ll Mu.h'U:l1mr<:rl, neUer knm'lirn ast,beMus./1J..:t.[-Ala1il" (l!clr'rlU:D,e' of 'l'kl~ Un:l w.rsr.:". hii E!'i'lT.ly [)il!:t~llT.lbW'.. ther~f"(j,~e, I,~~"-lif.'i b '~~1~11 t~ ~~I'IC~1 Jri~,etl'll 111M tWOI !i~pl1lr-a.re roi' eS1 SO,ppof<te-c1 ,'I)' tv Ille~m '111 'w'"'cr- ,gaJ~'b ri:riDg ~Q'attllClk hhn. I:-Ie d (:w'dled ttl sen'd Ol-lt 1'~0 C'll\tiTHUi, ln, ~ln ,~ijfQ'irt .,1] d ~ ',til "lh 111 ~. ,vl~r:~H;r ~ .i:rOlf· U~I<lW t H'Il'1 111'(('1 up .W~I

CQI1('C"ltflleir ~ttac~~ m~: pl;i1n~; how~l'p WMt'·ll'WJ 'h thl.l: AfgJlilnS, iI'l~~lde(l hlls r.ma~·TIi eOb:ll1l:UiS'~ lU1d .·a:,slTlillU . tOtttiJn~l1~ of .,1liQn'H~' tl I:~ie IUIIUJbedcil· IIllr~ .111 ill 'a.pd(')ur lield ~~1!lS Utklcflly fo.wnd themselves liUJce.~ti.}~Ui "Ii!.' wf6h the entire Alg"Ml1'(;U~JTIYi 5iC111J1e lO,OOD .stroJ]H. 'Ibe g-w]~'~Te.ff;!'albi:)!!ldlD~d il5 the b~[rl~!l f()Ilce C()I'Ji.dta.'I!;:~~d'<.I.m.~;ht1.t1}g lretI:ea~ llIil.dJ~r illlrl.," pre, ure, luid l~olnlhs hi.rfJ.Ss,lt who h:o,d ri:dde'n to tllf' '-cene" . nmW\"I7J'y ~:~cllijal belJiI;g t:'ld dQWo. 'The, Uim ."Iy ,nrr:lva.l o;E rehlfQJceme:.l:ts .. p,[e"'!L"f1~ted ,;;I ~.n~ ·eata;st~ophc\ but :th:e· f,rH~~: that the ndtl~ll J'1~ld LJ!I!)en ,olJ~m.i:lno€:1Jvnl".rlI,ii!'JjcrJu l!i~od th:nWl£i Il.ds, '!:If Af~ha'!:H; t(J -johlithefig~l,. :ILI:1 t1~ ,After "~ilM nbeT' Q"r tn:cortdu :Lre 'engil8ll!men ts on the hiUls ~Inutld _KhI:H;I. _o"i!'eti Ilh~ foHawlug: daysi I~obe[lS deo1d·e;rl to alf'lfl.!-ld:!3u l~)~ dty nndli~1ml!,~ t-o ttl ~ ~llt{l:I~nlf!UL' Th~' h'l~u1l'lfJ~:r!~~ l()o~te{1 ~i: b/u11, cuuCt'rttra:til,1g qn the Hindu and Qizrilbil h qU!;llth~Jsj' 'Hid .tb$Ui turned theh' aUt:ntion to -Sherpu .

" N~;~'~O'~~ ,I f.et'Ung 'W!li rHn\f ln~l.i:nS 'I Y.d~uh Rhll n's ;111(Hhe:r 11ii'1:D'ld,,'ld (} .~' lS)!il'r jj w-;'l!S ·~'n:d ffiQ11i1lY 10 finance HI\'1< [G!'lJ5.l;mrelg~ai.n'ir'i'3S 1~'fitdB"U'te.tl t<o I~;iI!id ~b~ trlbe.mu~rl!, and Yakul? .Khnn s. inf~lnt sonwas ~ltf:1Cl'UJJI'II1~'~ 'A'mll'~ ~~QJ.-"Wn']J:llIHi. J~f1, the eommander 'of th.~ iUgh~lrl Fa:',OO:."Ii;, '!]:Ji~ited !R('ib~lt. ttl .1!fi;1:Ur~ ~~t Inltiia, .. On dtu undersbndjJ.)g th~t Y.":J~,u: J{J!. ,~H \\pl.!td be J}ffitI!JlIM and 'b\'o Iil<ritlsh c,ffic~ :;;~I.ITNIdered as I1.M IP!i~ I{d:'lcrq;' hO,~Ini~'r. p...,""Q;!rr d 1,00 s)1" Yo il,nd defend hl,l11!leU in s,h~~b::D'~ ~i'lthi~'r, l'1l'ajnn~k 1W}l'Ietiti,Qrili 0.f ~:Ir:!,~-",·i'l:1lerln~'t~~.a~ of 1 &-42, He tben '~erel'~cl aatl'ml::~ lHtlll.ug~te,'OhID -hn:mlrn.eol40Gsl .... :ugli:lt on th~ C:,""o'l"l!1lerl.t, tlnd fhl<! d _ft!fi'tt~ w 11:01:1 fea.dy .I'm 1 wnU;lng '''''ii!?" this caine ~ilrly on 23 Oe(;m·~er. ',[he .au~::k Iast(;]d ror s,ever,jl hours·. b!;~t w.a~ ddven back-wHhol:H .I.1I1ll!.ch dime~d'ty;'Vl.1'jtb the.attackers Sllift"'t'!riilg', il''!i,ras.e~u.mili.:l;'d, not less ch~l'i'J gOC1.tJ • sUaUies,agai.W'l·t j) Ilrjlfshliol'!(S o'j] L l kUled :~md~4ChvQu.fJ.c1ed. When the.BrlHsh (~~iJll:r' r~cmmoitred tl\~ fQlloWln,g day! they fcrti.nd Illl1:at the .A:tl:ghan, '~l()!I'ce bad disp~~s~d_ h) n.5 ylUa.gcs: and that Illw OiL.lilnrY'~id.e W.;,ri deserted. RQb~rtl::':i 'fJ!CF u] h~d Kahulllnd d!E!C;:I,ared an ffiilllfst T which was·a cepted b Oil. S,IgJllifJ.:eant nunl'be'il" 'Of tribal. chi~:.f$.

Els·ewlJ,et:,'llJ Afgh,~I!Hs'Lafl,~ ~II hn.d 1)0014 I''C.I,~Hvf'l:y qtll~·t. Rd.l tJrc:e·, merits iu'r:ivoed in I<abu.ID and in the s]Jrilng , f ]H8..' General StewalL~ rI,llall"Ch~d there :(-[[0111 Kandahar and took over .()()1I1 ma nd from 1'~ob.~rt1i'. Uls nCiUlJich WlIS, filCH UI;'IeV(l'I:ltr:~ll1 he W~$' h;''U;,~5~~db¥ tdbN;;'M!Wtl ~lfId WOiI" itccOIlnpani,ed lIt a dJ 'creec distance by masses gr"'Hazaras, 'i!h~l:n].rIit and looted t1t~ Afgihao \-i.11a,g!:s be passed, Then ,a.h-'\h.lued Kllel, ~om~ .,.'0 [II]U,," ,(rom Ol,.l:l':rfi, hIe W;'1I:S, con'[mnted ;;qUd~tl;~~C.kt"d by ~ I.rrg!;;! trib.tl i{lslr.k1ilr. j\ wiJd onslaught !by !jj. veral tlrt(,)!Jli~ul(.lj ~~'lt~tlzjS t'hw"<v the BdJ I"t ere 1.a1O, eo'nru.!l;ioll! nnd n one point P(lIlltl: i'1'l:t:e4 00. ;;dtJ;'lill ' f 'W )!'-ll1C'ls t~f . r ne'I',ld !:l'tC'w ~ rt tI:nd lll~,"u.ln~; "Jl'l d [I'(I;IYI'bc~JI .\jl,.r~ ds 'IiIn,~ plL: l~itfe-fi1 t. ... l,' ief'em:l ~ bem~eLv'~;,'i' ,'-A t '1" tbe- <ltt.fl!;lkr'~~~, On.m:]I}~· r p~l(!fl;;

~iI '1 ... 11 UO ~ c!!h3lJ Id~d W'eJC U!i'ltad )J) hI:! ,If-·Ld.

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Soon !i:fte.r S:~ew'lI't as limed oonrmalld lnKabuJ ,the f6.K.e. h~J't k¢Jn~:q.d.ln, .K~nd,~b::ar r~c:e.l ved _l.'le,y'~:S' t:l:t.u·:an Afgban. arm)?: uf'ld,(l!r~yub JQl~f.i WiJIs'EI~l:va~'IICln:g lliGlf! Ue~at. A Hi:lti5h for,c;e wlilnllc out to lJ1Je-e't h:j'l)1 iBina en 27: July the t)l{(!' .armtes met at M__aiwmuj ,fI.'hete, for once, JiH;i.~ub [lie p~w.er ·'WiI:$. ~nll~ ~'1I.].miIT]eI1t -tel repe:~ the attach, ;.of far-,gre<l:t'Gr liumb~rs Jllf Afghans •. A.l!'i1o A :ub KLan mJt,.g~i1e;r~Ucd his E~dU!ib CO!;lnt~p1rrt, "G;ell ral RI!J:rr~~.i and waJd,e' :[!I,ood. use e:fhl$ 30 gf mese a.[l1i.Uer.ypl~s: h1 ~I:he en.su~lIlg r0H~1 .a'Palfl, .000:i.ginal 'foltQe of some .:2S00i !fl~f.lll'fy Hl,OO n!t'tti~b. ·and htdfan .'lJjtllJl't'ii 10, .. ,1 th~lr m'lVI(.'S., M!I.!~ IjInte wb1JJdlii.~I,vle uniJ:oY,lJ1loedly b~~Ollll:" ~~'''S1.1iil.!ti~5 if :~be Mghan,,, .had Jl~.t"~ed nome lh~ir pwsuitt .. ·~·.h~!;urV,'lv.ots :'-:ell back on Kandaha.fl. l'!1,hI;Uil !'hey expeI1~d ll\(~ Itil ale Al;gbllil p@,pulat1on .itnd,. PJ!, :p~;Yn!d f1 1[,'£1 ~ieg~ . .]'nI{;al:i,tll., ~Dbe;rl1i;. w.ho hiJ,d·be('flil tho:t:Oughl, iji:s.(:otmt~a.t.l:~d ii:iJy Jus -l(p'e.nr:~Ss.ion lOy S'te.'r'lorart ea,$.~~l,,! llooept,ed tbe.·UI!.5.k o;£.,go.i.r\g p_. tl~e ,r¢aid qf ~an(l~lba~,;anc:l ~ With [I, ~Jit\ke<l, bo~y af 'lUll()i)ii p.·,oc~r,~~ ~;Li'ild ~ bi~ . filil:nrHU fI::l'fQ:!d ,march be:lween; th~ :tWQ dtt'i~c.o~ering- the. '].00 (~:dd 11UI,ets in. j1lllst t~-enty da¥~f all a'l,·{!rageo.f fJile~n .mlles,oi1 day In the ti,eight OT Ulie }llimfJtl'~ln Al:~htHJ~JI, h~ wilsu;noppo.s~d ~h;N'1t1 '~b~~q[::Ih~j tb:~ ,.~s !if remm'I(Dlole leaf of tll~&a.l1i-at:lion ~fl;d diSi!;iifl:une. H.av-:q;!!I rea:Clled lt~.ridahi'lr,; b:J~ 'iI.md. I;he gamson of tlle c.ity r:n,alcbed. '()'l'~. arId

l.nfil6t: "Ci ~ .(JII ·ls'i\'\I~ d~f;~",,~, on 'Ayub KhOlU. ,. ," .

II~ ~el.m" of liO'li1 't:i,~, Jhaf 'Was th:~'tmdof the' Second ~%~lgl,o.A;~gh~n W~.r~ 'On 'rlllt'! :pa~~\tic'.a~ f£DUi.; m;ean~""'J!JU~r g~rn:!: Pf[jg['I!lSS had~ f:tg,Wi.i:~st all ~h!\lo'itb" bee '1 Ifn:udl" to\'ii1ll,~d;a·Si~:H.emenKAtth. I:iilf): 'g!rYilkub ~l,a,n!' pbdi~~]ti!bR~ the ,tb;3n!:i:~:r'of: 11tiS had <se~n:l,(;ld.so remote.as '~:o. q.~ .iil.1.mo.~t nOI.1-e;uMent/ ;and' iillt.th({! laSit g'~I~rIt{!r Q1J! l'8]9 the lil'fttbh W.~ili ,ag:iin ~:nvi!!~g ng lltlle :r;pJtlf.e,than, the d1 m~mltui!:rn~el=Jll:!nd, iliIJam:l~f.lmi'U1.t of. 'the~OullltW" l~y l~h.e' tum (!I{oHle '}w:J;'runwilling \'0 Im:t1:r .CQD;iI:iIT.mitIg e:;:pe'f.ldmtuEle: -on the OOC1.I.'(1l11::tOI1 of the coumUO'. D~,r\i:\eli'!:>g6y!;':mnle:rrl. W~re I ns:I$t'ili'lg. ana cm:l1plete wlthdrawul by ,;11 : ead or rh,e foUQWi!ng strmmer and' tbe1i:~ seemed !lit th<ltp:il'in~' .little uo.p! ()If ~~ivil'lig be;h iDd a~ (.ohe!'ent :SUIte. in. J(~lfldaharl :She!: AU K.l'~.n, th.@ .son of onl!!; ~f 1!:h.1.!! ~r<ilnd.~h~c S'~I~dlt~5j who:!1t J)Q~t: MC;lhi!li~nl1"u;:d hEld q'l;l'\'fl<n ()I~·t 0·£ tlh.at '~i'ry;~ wa:s,· .cC)nfirmed as go,,~nlO:r, with ;lSl$Uran~es of pemliUilefl!t Br.iti'5.11l. PI'OI:t!c.iiDn .. H€>lt(tt '\<1,;1;,'1" ()~md .to tlie1?e:rslal1!'i,. blllt nop.lZog!'~S \!;",~ being m i'Jde :In lJ~8:otiatl.or!$ ow:r ~II;, w hi te !flo :fJtOSl'WlCUv!l!ful:t;!¥· ~r~.~ ~.n' slghll- f~r Kahul, ~nd e(juai1ynone f.!j'.r the territory nOl:th of dUl..Kindu _K~h. lin a ~o~w, voJte fiu:~ ~yUon • .f~ced 'wi~h the Jj!l!ce.s~~!ty of ah~,llIdq:nl(!g the. fOi'\lif,ud poJk'y~ .. J)OW.' argLI.d\ that iii BrlUs~ withdraw.al nlig;il~ il'r; v·'111 the RlJ!s~~ns. b£;'Jin.~ prm<cke.d into., ,a. ·f~.r~]~ a:~va:ncel ·W~i~~~~s.J:~e-(~r th~~l.: ~be !:~I'IUsh Hid:gtlt mil2!«·h [l,ll):ri:h joom, ~ibu.1 mlght ~1I1d'Uce t:lJte~lfl (.0' lujJk' Pil!.'·f.!UliPdVi'~ .~Ua";l~ jnt~ Hl, A)glri:l:n, ·ten tory W~11d'1IIl,Y I et'l.!, n the AtJllJ1:~ Du,ry-a. !lind thi" ~Jjmt; ~ E{~!'al1. rfU:I!,~[.e:;w.e~~·a:r)lX 11'U}sl:;U1, ;m,'p' ~~4A wt)J;~kt b l'Oi~ l'hi';'.~o:ve:ITlnUl· hl l~rliiJu l h t~duFi Ijrt'!' ~lU',e t~' i !a .•

Ear:ly in tRH!)" h~",,'ev~,t;; :<1 :r;lg,\!,~c~Or ~nte[ed Jl]~ :e(J~ladl;l:n" ;w;Lth '!;he, :U'.rl¥d In NIt:!!flihenl A~gl'nni~~all Of ~llC~. A]V r I!l,eph ~; ~lxhn Ral1:!11~I1'i, 1\'1':h'Jo, ft."H~~iD£, hl.~ deJ:l~rtu~r[f!Qri,l A~8ihm;11i~- ImJt~-1 f.')' ~'rti ea.r.:U'~:r, .hutt beer} Jlyiog, In Ttlsh¥efl'~ .,~~ ,~_ Rm;$:iin]e -p:eqsj~Ji1:Ill' .. l!)uillI, g t~~attl:'ll.~J ~,h~ I{'lufosi.~f.lS 'b~d pf.e:\~tlt~d htrn. fwm IifL,~~~~lJr~'~iJl1 Afi~~n afL'1,ttsi aut ,they f ow IP.v theht o,)lpdfwlmyam:d, SEllt h.n'cn I WI~'

''!,ii~h jjJj S:ift .of. 200 ri:fl~·:a.ntl :a H'(Od,E!:I:>t sual af'm. m~y; lIh'e. c~lle 1<11 "

lyuom 'th~fJ t'Q¢lk s,b,D:w8<. th~. deptti:s of t,ds .~I'lt3P~T$U.t1Q:,;1·1 '\\VQJ 1.'1,,1.'

ohv:lo[J)~ risK o'r A.fgh[~ll i~1 'In ralli fillS' U 11.(l,e:r IlIlS,Silara in~lue:[:f~t; C"C a~~ ]]ot'C',,"i~J kt"'fO~~ p:n~cisr;ty' \,d1e~'E;I': Ab:d!o [ R'ill:unatl was ,~.~d. s:t.iu tess dW It:~ kilO\\:" ,Iiib,at lll~ lnlem~ion~ we.l:li!. Ne\~~rtb It;tl.~11 as ;mtl~l ~(he hElU:tl of i-ri5 pre enee he l:el, "STII,p'I;,- ~13. ~o'L(JIi1;blIO'[;( [Qurtt~"that 'he ;hnulrl b gi'~cn 11ubITc r@'C'~Slf.l~Hdn ~j AmJir, Th.e. gOV\>-1TII!T!;jgn~ in London ·frl~.d dou'bt:!';, 1 ut ag.r: :e~ U~at .LC?pe',1 ,Gti.ffi{.Il, 'l-ll~' p:[llHI:h:~lI:1 Om:Cllll' r1!'ho ~~d b~en 3ppol~1I'U~.~ t9 i{abul, should I!$~bli:sift, co;n.ltacl- '\1lith l\()thlf ROi'ltim.1Jju i1,rii!J~ ·a.s':.'l1iI'e him of Idtush Intersst .and ':good~\l'JiJ1. In Ap.tj.~ 18SP. ~ rri~s.!i~lng(!I' ~¥~ •. 5 ~enot .qoftl, :'F!(jf t:mllt.~.1 ',~Ta!l, .ma_d~; ,tuu.f '1t.1 resp.o'f!rS'~ to 1:1 h.ie'lllclly. ;~f g\!~1[ided. re:p'iYI.,~ funl1!Ltr cleputEllir)n 'W~:S sent and a firl1lli~ffer ctll:1\1~y'gd. Ab{:!ur nahnuu1 witS lri\'il'ed to l'lccepl/tJl:e .Aut.i:rltlll_'.J. no c(")n(~ltlor);s w~[e'mt~dl(!,d, lil~d il;t1l a5su:~'a,:~ce' w,as 'gi,,1~n tl,a;l<a "vjtli1,dmW'Ill from Mgl1.iJ'I1.t:fi~i1:1 w~s lntttmuJed. In thi 'n~<IInlil:G1'/aU tha n~g:oi:iailing·ca,:rds\'\~e:[il:ii'lnd,e(J. ~o Abdul' ,1~:al1:m:ane\l'c~li ~folJ[c·tbe' l1il!goti,n:ll~)'1 ~gan.

AI that p()~n~i' an ,cl,ecUdnfiGi)k pla-e inll'rttainl, in V!~tueh Ar~h.ani'Sta.n f~~:t1J.[ed as; a rrH).icir ~S'S~·e .. 111.(:. o?nserV'.,tiYE··G'o!le'r.tlr~ ent f'eH ,an~ 11'1~dS;~~mJie. ~J.nd tbe 'rJb~',I'~I:5 ~gD;i~'1~Go'l( (:Iv~~. 'I..)'th:t~l ""l!a~' recnU d and: re;p],m;;:12d ~ .. the MarqlJ:i oJ'Rip0rlj and ~tl1e ab'l1j~onmi1lf1it 'CI'f the 'f~:r'~'~'31:rd lJloliq..... '~Ira·~· cp:n:!i.rm.ed. AtU:Bill'f :n,a:l!mfj,ll :rneaRi,:lul;e, pta;9ed. hard to ge't~ he asked qUestl.(Hli!i, ,a'bout I lUi' I ·.I'!:lc-nl 101• ['['I." t,eri'it,o,l'Y h~'V!'OLdd tu19,wli.j;.thcr he wfJiIlldi 11a\~ 'to £"tcc,ept' a Grn:it!ili. agentat Ih.isH::{)Urt.. an4~;"ihatmat:erj1d help .b~ cOllJ~d (!XPl'(t to i~~Ji\"~., .>\1 the ~;1i01C?' IiJl~)li~ h~ '(jrOl::cieded to gatbcl' SI;Rpl:1Ol"l ji.mofllll tho tr1tml. l;e~den,,~ndw mna,ss; ~i~lnl'ci'cn;t s~r'~i\gtil to ,!ivc Itim' the 0P.tin~l (lie s.~,ntimg.bp~tjJm~1 Ifoe.gn~~(}UOflS should JIiI,U, This .iiPp'~u'lim:ramJi:jh'3~ l'~ri("e clJuse.d St,{!\varl and GrUllin t,u.;recCI1l1l'l1Cnd ('hht llegb'tilol:!on5' :~'h[()u'hj 1':il' 'bl:\o~ken ,t)1f; llIud'iRJpO'r!9, w'ho I].adl:ili~ {lWlI doubt~ abCIU AbdUl RahnT!an, 'the _mo.St, Rus~fa]]_ of <ill. tllle (andl.d.ates~, aJjl:d \~b(l, i!lrfj!:[effii!d Yi:n.k'llb (en,an, waii t~!I1Pt~d t() ,ii,g!N!!~" But Yakub Kb~n 'r\~$ Jc'~rlY a broken r{;loo ilnd Abdul' Rahmnr:! aOIJJ~ nb~ nQ-'Yf be 'J:' b"lH:r~1l1 wmotlt tli~ :ri)ik oU:ldving J~li:tlfi in~o (~U~ an16'ot UI.e R.1Jss;i,u .~ :,\\11 d'the ilil1UU'fd (J\f Sll~PI)l)rt he 'I\~a~, guth~ri.li1g "~flii. l(1~t;iUnlll'Ji.a lUI I l:trl'~Hi,ifl\l!I' tllu~1 t9' tb ·llrUi1'~h l~ol!itlol1 In I11iwl:ml, 1ri .jul,¥. hi~ (lI.nriv, d .. h'll 'f:'hl1l:1"Lic It. ,lind ot~ U:lt! 2Z'rld ofith!.t morlll;l5tel'Yart held il fo,m:l:aj, Yr~1 ,ar 10 ~tit: II

~ il ,~H'cL 11.IJ Wi>1'~, r~1IJh~111 . .it~t;tjgnll£11Lld a,~ AU'llr. (ij,[ fffl~1 ~'h.~f11,1!>1t!m mi'! t·:'II

meet him :a:nd \~1iill:s·.laiv.cn:iiH'$b.~¥ Im pr~~sC\[f ne· W~~ '1:~~~D m'o.~t - df. th,~ ?~1;I;!_~.a!nic:!~.'>,be It\Tar:t~~d:·O'rltlllI;"l WU!l,lld, mu :irJl:f!~r~r.tJ'·!.n Afcgl:VjJn tlllU:l'jUILI j~n:~t~'J" 001 HJAit~ ~,h ,1ll1J1Vpyw'O~~ld be Sltl~ ilO'n,(i.chl t K~lbtd~,"aID:~1 31'~~ \\y;c~Lild :be'-l;).i!(J:""lded '1:0 'r1ltpe~~lnpmVla'lo;.~d '<Igg:"['~~'iibJ:l,. III :r,er'1;fl".D; b_e<'i:mi:~~Jtbqi:k npt: .t~ ~HI,\!e ,'~~]w PQ~lU';aJ .Jte-!~r~arnJ'l ,with :<In}!' .. ~pm~lbry "qth;~~thln Irlt~~lnr ~,!jtI)(Ii!:.]'<in·d,iih:af 'WoiJ!!Alrt!mntJ1 tll,dependel']j'~ ~:lf1Id Ule .t€:rr:i~· oo,il$$ ced~d iT] the'<.lli~aly.of;~,F!d:<in.l.~k,)iVOuld: ternil"ip fiha~tnrttis:bt ';conI:I:eIL Or.i.ll Ali.g~!s:t~~lJY9 dM.~ ~~fl"@! ]k1~~r~~',h~ud· ~~n for ~a'ndabil[J ~ ':St,j,\'lw~!H !~.Il1{! tllt: K~ib~w'l·garni:ion n~'J'(l'hed, «li.Vitf,'}'C! lI1di~, h~~!!!m,g' Ab,dlU. ;Rilh~aIll. on theJtbl10ne ,;:Il If'abi:}li ]£';"F.io:t;yef·i'rn;(:~f!l1,~~ ot:Ur~ . ..oo:~u:lHJt~~~~. :3. wh.oi~,.

1il~~ 'I:G~t to il:Ui~hl~",Jj 11 elf'.1 I:t:~ Se~(u~d fo,riS,I.o.Af~J;ia n, Wilf' '1'\~~S~f th:~· !s,<IIl-:t,e·J:;:.[.:let !oE 'magfJIitu'de.,a[l. trui'~ta~-~h;:; fh~t, In . .mt'll.':l€Qry tenn~;.lt i~.\iI"m]~u.tillll~~alnt.),uJ'lt~~"to,a1 ,!l~~:':o't :frl7 ITlUllplli;~ flg~iljj~:il' Ilh,,~ ¢5 mllli"Qll ~h~~~~h·~1Jd be~i1 o~lgi£l'lJ1y. :~ttrruitcd, llll~. to, . di~.~i'l (HY ,and d~~id':tJ!j!~

" a.GO.~1l~1,tiqg,.;ilf:lJ;! ..(I,~difj;l}g, It w~·s npt UJllU veryi:aii;rjnthe d'i3JY th.an:_·.thi$. hu:g>J!!~ls.c~ep;H'!JC;Y· ~J1[~i.:" to UghL ·I'b,~.w· Is ;lilro[) <;:.6n,sl(h!mbl~ UnCe~10lJhlty· 'ith~tll thtle-ImUp,tlf: BfU'I~J~ fi'ij:d lt1,m,~;n C~!S",~~~,I'li~~, ,llI:td nQ~E;m~bte' ~gu ... ~' ~a£'.;~},':e&. ~rod"~l~Gid. yet aig..air_~i the .{;l(\tk ~of tir,~p@.r,f. ani,lulIial1!>, •. ~ j],(l!.Sml~}"J f~f:fl1'l} ·~I]!~4)1~tt~ pr nCl~:th.~V>I$jbenll Ili'1ld:!a.),w·~1i. cl(\cjru1l~t~~, ~(H1~il'f,1~,i1~a;{~'i Ibr;i"~S' p~.l'~~, ~J:s~ ~1:!l~rod $@\1f,!i:eW. Us .~,c,enlOin:ly:,·lIW~'S ~M11

d i~lil.'tPtJ-led ai~di b<:lfl ~O!Q;yl~twti~'rnnq ~ t~Et _ "";~3Ilth oc _U~e ditiES

~:" C1i)l~~d" Itt l,g~, 't~'l~~ ~~e~\f~1[l of l¢.rd l"ilutl!!ligtoill, the

I ·~cC:~.~lf\'t1i of S!:~!I' 'l:Or tlo)dlii;,~ii1:s ~ha t

Ai> tJii;Q ·:r.~~lilJ 'DffW(~ , ~U:!-1~~~m:I.~~m~i~li\~il,~, o{~n~ .~n~ph}y~11;:: nt 6£ ilO ·.¢nQtlJl,~'U;S-'f~,L~ei, ~af.1iJl ,df I::b~ e:'~'I1dit:~l~,e pr l~Ja~e surps t"'.~ rn:ru0!ti:~~!, a,R (t'Hlth:~syl~r" 'b.~e:n. : t~k~~'il'1 pU:!>h.f:!t! ha~ b,~n Ule ~i.$~11~~ogN~~j~Jln pf~h~ S't!'!,~:e w]f"ch ~t W!.l,~·cle:lh:;~a to '!jii~'! ~U;()~S~ frI~;rt.},:. ~ri:d tndt:D:~:ride-ntJ' tbe ~s*l!lr.tlP.ti;();1l ~Sf It.~~l1! a.nd un- 1;!ite:~(bme Uabl,U'tIie5 in 'll!1:gal1d 'bo (l_n~ ,or li~ pOCl'vin<;eti, ~:nd. ~ ROI~,d:itinn {~f ~r!~.riChy..th:mu:glll(l1i.;U lll'll!ri.'Jll;i:l hldL'l.f 'of HlI€ COUr! t'Q~;

ThiU: i~ Wil~ \l!lOn.Fo~lblt' h] amend thls ij!s.~e.ssnIlGn~ (~,r th,e lJleU1!3l' '~'I:'!l;~ d[j~ to ith;e ,~[l,Ie!:&enG~rYm.nre by~:dr;ik th:;I'!J ji:ldg-e[!J,e:O'!1 of :anabl:~ and dep~nd.aI3fl)l1!l:1iergl.lb"our .in th.e .pe'1:5pm o~ Abdurl~lH'11D!~"

T ~[p@l (:;'l;~MI;l1 .{te~~lI:mdl AJ;}~hJ1r RilJIfuI~il:ti .:ljS;

L a I:Il~n of il;blJ~ilt..:(pr'l}',~.r.~~Jdcl!!!:! hetgh:t" and :l'~lhe'r: S~~[lt" .I:lI~

hilS /iiNI ~K~~dl:n ~~y ~nb~llllISt!II1~- flllC~., ~~:~1[)~yp '~r~~ .~. V1 ~a:).JI fl'l ·5l[Jlil~! i;!ndafnlmH~ ()~'iI:Uitl1l:Clu&,m~U:lin(:fI: The impn,;."!'i~,ron- Jhalt hll'! left 0[1 me ·',fJl.ld th~ ~IWia~~ ~vho' ,W'~l?e "[.neliel:tlol1 th!1! jH~~[viil~s, '\}'IJI~ ~mru;.'i~ 'f\lvQ!Jr[lbl I He i,~ Ij.Y f~r the fn~:;:t Pl\~I;)!.J:ssesls~;[I1!lot"tl!n the Il~M~akZ<l.~ Sinia:r;s\!,.'born ,~'11<li~':e _m.et r~ .At~h.~\Jl.istlln~ ~tn~l: :iu cl.;lf1v:~r$;JJi:IQrlt1:i.:I.'IQwed ~;l[)l:.hgoodl-~eI-:lSi.e"t.i nd ,mlJl!Id, j iU:clgert'b't:{l~l ~'. I-I~ k~IU ~·l1or.oug;hJy to thcopmrn under ,d'l'sClI8SWDT1, tl'.tld hj~ rl;;:nl,tirk~

"" • c _ • ~ • ~ _ '" ."1 - .. - .. ... • _

w~r.i· (~h&l['a'l.:t:eru:ed l'ly ~~lreW~ne,Ss. :i:tfi~ ~ii:l.i1Uy:, -He~ppeare{1

~m;~ma~'~~ by ~ s;i~l.ee:ra d~ir,;e [:0 be on coiiUail terms wtth 'lh.e ~ n:ld~.1Itl G OVer!l tne·[ll.

. .

It is no~ fJm~i'cillU'1:o ~l~(!·.rn ,,::'\bd:l,1r [{~hma!IT's ~:nlJ,tj:ves j1](;'hoOsh18 't'h~

liti:Hsh (i]mi~ctiqJj. Hi'S pesltion, :ne's"atdl was ~jhat IDIP had be'e~i1i a gUfi:!)t of: fhe r~U_i?O~~ml~ far ">onu0 l.we'l~l~ ~iil:r"S ;!.~ld h<lidl('at~nl ~h~h' ~IP" l~~ would not "l''i',(ln:t to ~t!}lJ[;')t\1f tlltgr~lt!2'fL!1 to Ulf!fll .lind would w~.S;I': ~:O ObI] HleMe'l'ld of bQt~1 aowers, This was: not, h!OlI\'~~(fr,.~ iII">:l'.~tt]cai

lIt:.!' ,.[1. I

pjlD~~o'.iiUQn. Th~ 111'LHsh, who ~'e!.1Jn.. m:::U!!ilUy hl0q:upi1lLiol1 zyr1d

'th~;I;!~\~~! hillel to be {ili;!i!lt 'Witll/ ~~~1'~ ~:fI::;Ist~nt thibt' h!;l .8,11{)16*1. h~v1C>' 11:r~ NlaJtjx)fl~thip5 'e}ttept wt:th l:hel")Os~~\'-es. ·)i'he ~Jitss:i~:ns.; \)]1 theother _h~nd, ~HJd ·,fI.q':i::! pte!d l:h~t Af,g~l (In ~3t~11I was ol[lSi~d~ HI.e.1 r ~lpl::te~\~ q..f Wn1!~e:n'~il!',Their i,'l2'iLel"~'iion of Sh,m'r AU, 1Mnh(ilHI~IiJ,H th~ :s'UIP'Pp:rl to' @.n{lbl@ hiJl'1t '1:0, ~$1I:~I?~ish bLtflsclfilT Afgha.l'1 ·l'l;Ir!i.:~.~:t:am''''Yilt'!i ~.> -r:I.tiu 1.~~i!~IH{Jm Inl,5l:~malt~.rs. S,bOCl!:t Mior:~Uharl l:hh, iJ.o"'~v.e:ir( J,:l:!l.§~I1~~ llh~Lr ,~! 'l:t~U'I.III~1' A~1d~I~. ,~'iJjt!~mlW;n I'Jrrl,~n ~!'l ... ~~~~r.I'I'fc!d tiht} .. ~ ... ·'I.·.iti$·.,h ,~: nJII~Q ''''l~'·ijllf.~' ~ol1!~r-n~rlI ~~, !~~~;ptl)em Il~ ~:m1';slct]g!trq i h~~'flu i '?:!!~Y 'I;"I!I!I(J ~~~~ ~n~~'W' ~Ir~ ~~~I i rl hll~, ,rJII'llpb.'ll'~1li!f~t ~~h,.~ ~ rni,.~~ L11'1t!' lI'lll~ I ~I~~ ~'!'~~~ '1'~!~1, 'l.!, .1'1;!itI: . .

to S~l;': Mg,ti"lni51tan .ijJj 'r>i:mi]]g ~nd.~pendenl· Govemmen1 - 11: hue. al.ly 1l.dd lb.iIT.r.i·el.J, \r.'he.~~a'S the lill;:sslan~.l;.\,t~h~ 'to.see Afth(lnistatIJ dlvlde=d Into pifeoo~ ,na ery w~'ltk, n,r fUll '~nd'l:ely cl!2a:l'ed out of tli.' it\"'·,} lu In(liifil'.'':'Hei;tlay· h~'t~llTlanoeuvr.ed·w .extl'a.~t<ls much 9!:5 posSible out ~f fu~ Urltisb., but .h~· '[t~b fC.ckancd ~bra.t he· .knewld~Jllus:s;i~m~ . .Ly~W'll~s. gaAlble;i:hel.'c~o:r.~ p,rdd ·orl,.)\lxh.ili R~h![filln carne 'tel' ~~eJ:y ·on n'~~,.n,rlusll fOf .hls Pl!Ot'tXtion 'n]Jl~I, despite difi6clJllti~ from tlme to nme, 't.b~

.IDf:]iI.tjions!1Jp was m"ii!rnntaJI1l.ed thNillagb:ou~: bis ~e~g:I:~;. _ ., ...

't\bdur 1.~JuiUltn~'S h'l.un~did'(' )concem W,U.l'i ~a.ck ,of rramey, Ule.r.~ ~Ir<li5 nJO:!:il" .in the trcas,ulY; -ind~ed, .<1& he. $aySc ']11 ,his .<lll,doibiogr,apby, tillere liVa'S no l.teasuf} ~ ,,)r.'Vl"lell he 'flfri'lled 'In [{alb.u~r he r co.~ds, U\~f:tl' 1!~~:ii no pi.!J~a(""{I:,.ai1d be and hl tOU1tl' haci. te U'!l"~ b~ mud h~i!i. ~mj. ~ents. Hn~fev~i .!l hug~ British 5U"~ ,\'t:I1I:t10rll helped hiDII ()D his ~"ay ·and he was,., thmmghQ!U:iI: his Jleig:D, 'll:) reeelve l'e,b'l,li-<ul' 'British· ·ub e,ntlons. "flnd .gl~t~· olr armh~ •. 1 r. f1.th:l~dJ tih.!e Br!~.:~~.b r)eadi.onto .!]lny·pr,(J!bt "[11 te~ld~d ~:o. ~~. "10, buy lns <tlllq.U[CSOerlce by tliuowlng mor1C:Y .at him .. His other mnUJl coornrn. was tt:N.~s;tab~lsh Iii!) ilut'bority.i'J!cr,OS'ii a t:T.l'llilbywh1!('.h W~IS :y·et UIl,1in .~f,:!U't inm OOL't~[enall0n ()~ in.d;elp!~nd nl A.~'fdoJns,. ~~'~d~l;liiI "nl~ U'a'~ fiJ!it ·~oPiie.GJI: of "hi's a:ti:en~:h:1'11J . ~Jl ~'~~~Ha;lte()~ cGnS;iide.~~I{b~e ffintm'l e[s~ :illl bath llid:la and Brit~11 n over 'til1C. d,e.Si:r~blll.ry '0;£ ltttOi tl.Lng. u:. rrr C~,I. 'u'[:t ,i J:illlll~illii)l"qt)!ni:on 'I;l!fll,S dl Idl";'tJ: bot] . ]h:lIJ,'rl !Ind Haines. 'iilie'~~'(\lj;l1fuJ]td'l1o ,witlt.ar-inwill, b~n.~vio.g that the Aty W·<I:!i\r:J,eej.;le:cl.~~s~~. base fFdm, ~1jJJj;bit(:) Opp€!5re .ady ·enem~{"it:n the .Lnte:dor· Dft!'l.e,!:!ounU',y'. ().tl1.er . ell the 1Il1iLHiary,. m;g~cd tbu'~ 0;1:' bil.\i~ It QIJ~:t'ta, hom whi'll a ll"lo:V~"clrnild: he: mad!e lo"t'l"E!lrtlls~da.b;a:r if s-llLch 'i.;",'er:fl n.f'eded.;.~'otlld :S~lf~iC:t~ 'Cou.1l5€1:~wer:1: ne 1~ ,dl~:I.dIj;!cl In lonidon; and l1e~~ dl~I:Ia\'I!S:), totikp1!1_tdul bmtl~ 't'lkt_.l'd e and ·th,_ CmnmQl)5, Qu_en Vl.·coofl:a. whe rCg1trded l\1.!Issj,01\i1S ]Jri:tamis prin(lpal ~ne:rr.ry. ' ... ·as hi~hlytelllC:llln~_to: lnducl~' m.~nt:i:Oin. ·rjf .1! w:lfbd-ra\\'IlllJ h.il her 18$1 SiPeI!:!ctl fraU] th~ Thrun'!!, and ii: took .all Gh,d~tOflt'i$ pUW'J"1I o~ p. r~uasic:m to ~l'tnl;{lillt'r (,Ouod. Ever:1l1..I.aUy, !ivith opil Ion 1.~rgt!J)' di\iided alolllg partl' l~jl1:e."S1 ~h{) poH_CY'of wh:hd:raw~~ W<I$' adopted, itfH.1 H\'vas ·pl.tt dlpJt'((rtatirn~iy· .lO ;,,'''''rlaU Shl('[ A~li ~h{lt he wo·ul,cl. be w t1 .iJ.d\rl~d ill .;ifb~ncil,t~~ ngtwllLh. . tanding the cO'ntmitme~ot 1:\(;) had. earlier Tleceived from 1:h~~ .BtltiSh Governnlt!l1.t. It h;III1,('d out that he \\'\l:as.by n.o means Tl;luc:l<lTI'I. l.O~OI ,;mdl h~ .. lIgn\ttd wl·tl101[l'l~ ~f~Ll·(·h ticmur ~:t} re'li r·~ '1.0 I'Jntcl'll. on 11 '8i~'iti~h

pen ion. .

Wh!e:Q, ue~'fb[1(i"~ tbe dty w~s 'oll~~d to. ll\,bdu:r 'R~jhl1"<lll, ei.ifl}!,~ln

,~at I~'e 1:i .. ~(J UttJE! op:t.iQnbu~ to an:~pl H, ~~~l)it1f! tb,epm,cl~m ni.~.t ~1,~ did not tm.1iJ.t;: bJ).m~dtat!e.ly avai1nb~~ the mil.itar~' $lltengtl~ .W· hol~' ~,t agalnsli 1us COllS t n i-\ yub" :1<1, iiUl. noW reClNE'dfl,g ~I~, ~H.e·~IU. "from b~!> ,-.~ rller. dde-El:t, n]~ bt~lljJnt:' IJ·.f :'ih~lg~ll ~ il'ld,ee,d} ''''''r'(I~ ·~m:l:t I:l1ill'l. U. ~""'fi '" 1I\f~L1 Otl t'be Cilrd~ tb1ilLt A:ytib «'harn mi.gh~ 'fj~ ,Qib~ not 'Q<n1~"'~:o ~caTi')'W.~' Kandi Y ~,lhu'~} ~~ '0' 1.1 l Imk~' ~:.l1llm11 11,11,1 '~'~ n 1l't~lblllll. I I f\pJl

Jl88'J;,. till;' .fiI..st .Bd~h'·bntlp.s l:eft 1Kaif;l,(li'ili:i. ,iUiU;l Al1fgfl~n:ijst.,an; a(lilli,n

Juty, a~ Flilared; .t\WUib,Kba-tt adYiIi.ncei[ 'Erorn " r def~H'h:~cl'~ IQ;EC-e I~.d·

brt\,tidul' ll .. hmlH:1's·- 01lUf:I~l\nde[..;j· ·'GIl~~, ... - • .rl'l ~Idtlc'tt, Cb~~lit,

und took the city. Re~lis:ingt"hM ~i!_ 'VI~. , im ,iii, '1l1i1<k~Ejr["I~)[:t!U:ASlllu~tlCiJ!l"

Abd;u~' ltaJl:man' mo;b:iJ.l:md xGhiI~"a~ 5-Up~O!;l~I' ~ctt'd ~ ~a:nQ;aLi!af

and; IlLOIV'rug IXl'LIgln IlVlfl' pad' {,l_ ~~~'~'. ,111U_lletf ·iI !i~ 1t1'i! dcireillt CII1 ,bam ,oYfsjde' _the:·~ity •. J!\l ~he ¥i'IKl ri[m~·. he ~- flu ifn ElOlI'):', fJ.'om .~orth!llm .A!fg·]HI.Jlll8t;,1:n :DIfi;~(im:8 ~ Beta l wh 1'~1I ~ Ot::~01m1' d1J~" tee-died in. oec L!J?1'im'l.g '('bon I ·d~y. 1'1., lCllil Oe~l t \ I't-1'6J;~1 a rlld . \!!ell b.J~ I !lor ~o IndJ(lJ ... ood r in ~H'tl'ei mMe'tb;m .1~1I[1) A!lJ : lUi tlliml~I'~ ~l'ii. tl;l ~~r,Ili1~~ ai

II east: -master of" the gl~i!!ter ",al!t:"~of ~.I1e m]\lntJ~. '

1'0 ·('s.tabl·l:\ih 'h~s" ;nHhG:I'1.1:;~; r-~fud~Jl" bJmruan. CUd wl, t rfo P(~V.jo~t~· A ghan Amh Il.ao· dene ~eep!l:' liI'l: l'~nall. r. hre ·larli:rIU."d 'lhlilt . ~d:'i !n'Jl' was based on dl:ii.v]n.e~sall1.~tJQ,n Qltll~i'tth .. rr df:!l'iV"e.o ftmn the (?Orul;€OSllS of the, trll)tl.l rirgr~. ,As. !il:rllfi! l:'c~i'tU,!1 ]'l~<lIIto~ p:~t U~. i,.c ·j.~IW-~.,~, ,Ilel,d' !iIQ-Il"!lewlliilt' iruHated' n(n~!jrlS iii'S 'to the dfvil]£ ]ght·n king.§!: As It:li hlmself ,e _;P(fessed Dt In, h1:!> -a,U:liobi.ograpb}i .,. the p.eap1e 1I111c!. fuU iI,l~.thorlty~('l, choose H eh:ltiiTl~,I~ln 'tb ~ throne ]S ith~· l'UG)perty (If 111~" Alml ghJy "King. ·o,f tclngsi uUlr'. "rea:tQ(, .who o'lIpptJin ts .~ lngs fi~ s;riephem'l.J:s ru .gmrrd hi,llor:k, and.tnro \fi~ho.'ie· ·~re He ,r-orElides, thecreature of hits b: ·.id:!), •• , .[{J:ng:li ~tand Ito 'tb"'ir (r:nlll,tI'"cS. /I." L'he \;·ice·-r.egents of bOO?'. Tb~I~.1S l1l.~ drcll,dJ'~ thi1.t i.:hki. was,. tor hiw., an lIm.dc·o:f .f1lil:h., ~ppa[:e:ndy' ('I:lh1lfo.B:cd by ,a.n element or Ii~ys:tldsm; and he luok ve.ry ,~'ertously ,what .h'e ';.lW 'H. hbi r·1iipomilcl1:ity as an la~~i!-lt!lrnto th': lt11l1ghty .K~ng in tempera] iilff:ai·ns'. ·At the SOIJn.e f:i'lllei however, i.t $el've:d Ihim weU 'in" bl:tl ghllg, reUglous encnons to ,bear ag,aJm,[: h:Ls. oppnnen ts and. 1!1 h 'l[1iII1K 'to b;rei.lk the .1.lG'"WT (l'f. ehe muU.filhs" WllOUl he. :;.aw ,II!!' .;Ma.ngel'cms subverslvesaad l'!.iholl:J. he mOMiy held ill contempt. 'E,\VI':Y 1')d~Sitr 111·IHUHb. ~n,d Eh~I;J of eii;f,ery b::ibi:! and. 'v'rna,ge(,. he ·Krm~·c,'!ij. '. lin Ider·d hhn~ If an lIl.dcpellld~fIIt [.ting·.an.d~i)1: ll!3ou!t 20"QI y. an piI$t th.e, freedom and ~nd I e.J1de·nce'of m.any or tl'lese p.r:i.estS·Will~ neve!' bi[!';Ik_e'Jl ~y ·thefr sO'f~.r~I.f}n., _ .. Thety!.~n.1'lY :and. cruelty of t.l1ese I[~e:n \1'Ii'i;me uinbejjlll"iib~,. '., .1 h') Chilll'.~·c:~e!'[~d the ;'>1lr1crab,:Ii:! Musl::Jk-I-A~iUU .uub~ Mush·l-Altunl; the rt.,fQuse of the Uniiv~r.se'3nd Stignm.iltisoo Ute !1nul.lgr!l,s ill,5 ·igJ'lo'.J[ant pri€'.st.s·whose~eaiChings ~\i1'i2re "entirely c'mltr;;u:y l{) the ID]llll~·l;"il)ie.'ii. tiln[i 'be;j~ddnl:t~ of Mahc-mtl(jj. To ti)I'lnglhi{!'Il'il under l:tOV<"f'.1illLfIl;ent c()(l!tr~iIJ' be~ook' OV€f th.'~ Wf/.qf, Ithe reLi~giO'l.tS tnlsts;' :lQ d~ tti?yi~g t11~lr eootl.omi.C' .i.ndepend - DJ.:e ~md ~u~le:g<l.tillg them to tl e 5.t~11tl~, of ito",,~.rinmlf'l:elll~ fUIf!.ctiQ,110l1~les., H~ iIi'i.lro l l:1Is.tIiiuned e~'(:~F!~li'11.r~'I~lflSi 'Iq ~es,t the:lr r:eriigio1l5·C["~dcnti,;;j.b and to ddenninr:!. depen,ding Oill t'he If '~.l~U.!i, ,he <tno':t'!nlS. :f t!b'iJ' iiltlpcl'lds,+ He bllmttH '~oo.k ~onl'l1nl. of i 1,1'11::1",,1. p:r.ni\j2· l'("~i , ... ~ru b !itilh .. d .' {I" P n~fietl ·:l,y,jj.l~m, of ~h~f"il:l 'IZ'm,lrI'~j E~~ir5(~n,£lIly:I!liIu~lw.n'Si L ilLIl'H;,J 1il''!I''''m NniC1l'.IJ~,!r H!I.kHl~ h~n I~nk:.~~ fJs)~mliit 1 U, '. '[ 1,- ~ I' tJl. WoU: 1'I1f'l I 1",1.m.J (~.~dn!S'! Ilrll'd; I -Itl-l·in tl!:' '. • td

[!!~~'rv~d rOf hjnlls~1J '®I:'OJ:]le 1,~.ll!e rjgitl:t to l""an ';li ji1:r.ifd. tflUnt1:i:tely' M l:D,iafID$-gI~d to r~lliIJ~ fhe:··bll'!~{'o~<U.re:·!G]eI;~·to .ltis·<5;~od.'e a.n,d]" [n. 189:6,,',Mtet I.':IIS tbr~ql;1!!,l.st pf NurfSllliHI 'th~y ·i:().n.~~:l'lie4 on hnn the uUr~ of ·,zir:l· 1~1". lfi.'lrJt.'iIMb '!'~:l~fjitv (Ugh:t'ti!fth.~ N,;ijl~6ti1 and R~I igi tllIn);

mt, w<i:s" itO,t. Jldw~~vei; I1Jl;eoo~y lttie. T.elgl:OU!:1 Iesl:'abn~lmi.ent, l:htlt Ajpd~i\ Itl~hm.~n had lO blling f,j :irltl~ll: ]jll:$ .~lg'n w~~ t~hm'~cl~tI~i.\)t1 by,fl,

:sltlr:les "gif fl'il[b~'] ~Et,Vo]t:S-I'more ~.h.!ln fij~t}"f"tlll i1d1. some gi1~Y :_. .itIUy-·

t~l-;.]je;a.t~nh;j':g', b)l~t §ev€id,d) [or ;~~-i[~pJe ~lJ.li.{Jse bY: tberGl'lJIZ<IH!h . ·Ii€

IJsoo'llt:s, ih'l Ui~B"t~ iUld the B~ril:.~'s 'In H~91-93·; al~ It!B!~Or ccj.l.'is~qu~!)k~. To:C~;~~nt~r fh~m s tle ;~,ai.sedi; ~ .c;:(m'se[ip~. rrhl[liYi ,vblch h~: 'JI~t:rn"iit~tL~IL1 the t'i(1sbit n(jfl~f' (tolxe h<l clght'~ :s.}~sJem a'ncl fo:rwhk.h Ilerecd~-ed .I!il'ittlsh n~$ist!!1m::~ In ·t.he c(Jnri olrmIO~lel~ 'lii:nd :~ffJr~nli!ilnts; ~md h~ ~o\i:tl'" tCfit .. .I'lY·llutl1.[eSiS 'In eHmih~til'lg h;~~' liibill ()pptrni~nt~, ·o.~te:rrin

. ~£¢~~Q}[I,gll;t:u n:lJll~,..1l:5.arn '''y~.yS~ ."\'1)- .ne iPut!l ~ ~,;hJs task was

~D' plIJt."'i!iO ower 3U tb~ hLmct~d~ 'Q'~ petll.:y C'hiefs~ plJl1!Il..de.fers. 100br~r~!l, iJ!fI.d C'~~Nt'lll:U.)ii\~· .. , ·n'i:lflfl~~lj.E:H<i~~dlbtl3'al~rng dQ"!-V~:1 tl;lJ~

fe~j;riU~ allitJf.[I';ffi~·~ . and 51.,fI¥..t:itUltl.n,g. ()ntl ,gr.oi.D:J.1lI [)!J;m:li11uruty

IUI~le~ 'Ii'lln",G' ·bW1;31. (Ji[li:mk~I.· .-

·L:t1@.'Ill~Jr~e·I)~l)l,TI"e· p.fi~$it)i1" he pla.:y-.ed 01'1'" tr,ildlU;on;lIUy h.ostHe ~1\f:bI1i' 1\' Ci,HLh ~ct, ,~m,'i!i1·e.· ,a~t'nl"le~ us~ O~· a f'~,fu~ged inj.ntr dag)!:l\!l tJ;1~l:I'l J;1i'a:lli\ili:.~ i1nd tri-s"@wf,l;, raz,"d iO"rtl:E'~$~'and Ymag~:s; ·u~"af ;~PS,id'~~!i .<I-],l~d tdok~ ~1O[~a:ge!i 11.gain:irtt:'''Sood b~1~,¥~.o'l.!~~ ~ I~ rc~1 i!SKl: i :m·p.lilfUl!~·nlJ~d poUdilS Cl r: ~[ire.eli:lIr:Il,~~·;;tH o I1j

~~f(r.oF!it, ~()r ;·eN.;it:np;l(::~ )5"I~n1!;r'1[Yil~")O(1'- GhH~~ifRnli1re5 Yl1io([~h ;-of thoe Mind'll, RU:;~l, Ih~r{#bj~' bDtt~:·~(eali;Jen ia.~ th<1ttribe.and cli!lut~tl~r the .triba! nmc:lwlCS In lin,,· lh)(!iii~d1!se;t't.~enM~IU!~., Olherw-Il'it!! .AI:gl'lill.ns w~:r(: forbtdden.l"O~Ln[l~'C .In:~{1I[1nd. ~11e e,r.iHI::ltry·:withotH g~efnm~nt. m.i.1r.le:ntr ;;r.'re.~triIt;Uuli1~bae~err!atl]Jod ,In fUflZr.::" IlIUU HJ;(i4. '~b suppress Uile ~I~.za,ras, iJ!.;' P I1Qcl.l~imflld af:! mltl-Sllii.~ M"lwd, i nv.ild~d I he ~~t.'ll~i'I!UUiil twUh GhHzo'Ji ~'lipport, ~ell·j(!d thie- l,)llt~r Cnml]!cJ:!J of the 16Il'Idi <lind: reduced ~.I.tQm';."'~J,!ds. ohil£: ~onn~r ifll.'l:aib]tants to 5"10l:\l\r.!.}' .. hrthe m~l"1890'\i".I'lJ~ WUQuct€:'(j .11 t~m.lXllgn in r.tf.lfu''lSlo'lI1 '1I1'1t11 foJ~o"..,tlt!dup· ~~~~; c:oll!lq~le$t W:ith fo.rdhl:~.' c:·nn""tf·~~on~. tbJe. If"~OI1 the.nce-forth beLngk~:lOfi;Vn a~, Nur[::lt.llfl!, tbe 'larl;{~ of light', Ta e.x~end [US Q()il1tro] over: tbe looun;t]'Y~ k:tra ~IJPoil:u~d _g:ov-e.wno.rs 1[".0 ~;Lct ~.~ h!!i o:iI:B:~nuilndco:Uect ta~e$~. i-'llith F.I.;rI1Ili 1]~.l"IiJ]~t1 f)Urs to Ill! t (J)!oV\o'n ',[lnf .J.ndpifi!'il t rclii;vol:ts. nIle pr:o"\",]m(i,l!l~ lJ(]un(j~Miiesr whi~hrnl~eS~<libn-shed or:t~n ·~iruvided. trU'H1!S,I wdj~rildll.<lJ:~y. lhlll:'l:ci:Wmk Dr go",ernfH'sbot.1g~rl iI!;:i re:pJ,~lt~ idblil~, authoIWtY1 p~tril;:~I' hldy;i~l! itVD:S; wJt'e're;offi(l:i.tll~~ .. clea.~.t~in j~od·s l¥hi,c1h:lmd lP",;evl~u;s:~Y' '~~n ttl .mlIe~nve'Q\'j';.I.le.~-S:i.illi:p .• Nearer to Jh.OUl:D!e!, to -guard r!:.galw~*d!saKf€l·J:.:iitJU 111:1 hi~pwn i:~l"~'!lHy, h~ mJl:tlV:i(I,ed tniC:!·ml)(;lf~ ~"f I~.h,~ MOh~mm~:d2~ul '~i.th g "fI!C It)U~ aU (}li\la:nec..,~, .I'~,l hl,~, ({Ilurl~ he Fa,IiI~ll;.ld .~n ;1.2.:1 nf of . n~~~7 ],r.l~(Mn& ¥bh ... li'lIiIDUclzair .!l'I~~,111!~(1l bj~'ai::'IMl.~ Ul;[,!£I'[lU)' ~:sL~we 1.1HYS.' ~li'i~

yrutti;g bnS~iI·.g}e."i· ftol!11 p.r,.pmLn.e!J t ~a~ltir~e~ ta ,fd'r~' '~h~ !Ii\~! _ ~i~US' ,~r ~'il admlni$t~athlrn . .T!:r~~n~e ftU.e-d O'pJt'by .~r~~t~ng':a. nlllilmJ'lt:rr '0'lI1l.1i!"l· strl~'

. and ~ f'! ,!ldvtstlrry t~Q:undl. w:l~ lch b~,~, II)(J,~:1,i'evC'~,.n~, i1&~I.J1l~II· .

He aiso: ~.sta.bli~~·:hBd·a:·l1at·iJ(J!Il,tl~I(J'~ ~j~~{~1 ',;vhiih' cndl;]~;Iifi1i~; h~~tl\\l.e_, th.a:n . 'B:I~P.f:ov(". the :I11!ftlSYfeS itiaf lle" ICbo!se .~~ P1:Jt ~.d6J!i1l· :tt, Vb; lJscf~lI'Hl~!!' bJ.y· 1!'aUl!.~[~ri t:!1ef~lel~l:uH 14 t~!i'!ily.nh~n·M1 il-'\JOIC~l;1 J]:;l

ruren},ber1i~ri· "th{!' ,capi.~;a ]t~,'t;1J i1w~y 'fooimtf tM'tp(:nve,rli)~S:(M, ~1'!"

I ~ f U ',' "1' ~~.~.,:. .' '.. n, ,.,' ,.

]e~l()'O 1.'Ut"IS lI".5UI_,lulesi: l!.~ e!ita.~J:~~OO ;a,'s;t::ite_··;ad ,... a;n~~,a

St!:[llr:ig!illmYHll~d, ~y,tbe ,e'lU! {!~ h~s l'ei§:1:'i! 'Ih~ ·tood ~Ihi~ 11f;OOl,,~,fmiilfr' b~1l1 'aSI'~bl~ed~eW~t~If~"~o~troI (1IWt.V:iitIJtI~~ly the'wbde cmp:aJu, ~ - ~. pinn1ngtb,e ~tsttl:mWiUl. an ~~rell.s~.~e· . .ne":f:\'I161'!k·,Qj1's:p~esand;· .'

',"'b .1:"I1\e .... ~r"r~' hts 1.a:'idl~·pehdel1!C~ '~nl me f(t[~. of th~' lm ~I's~

pl:1eSSUI1E\S. ,tbat SUtiotinrle"d!·h imf lftldu r lIRnl'lIiillwn: !1colf"ld 'QrnMo'lp:it~!I; (!lxtl'll!l:ne: i:l){llf!HOlli!i:~n .;"rtl?d t~n~: n~~tl;!ih OOfiI\l~~V.on:. :fJ'iie ~'~dhf!ml~ - st<lgntll kH1 dil.f! l~ pi::BJ sUl:t:1 d!J~'i~g )'!i~!',~ign\lli'fI! s .1 ng:n~a L .n].~!o\l.Jl!i~ tluf.: ~,i\ hi:S~"Cl:~luct'HllCeto Iliing .1 n ~U"otl?: than ·a. 'Wfi~r:y'f~~\; forei~t,:l ~.'q)e"rt,s to liiilp modemlse rue ee()nol:l1Yt~, 1l'l'1.1iJc "h("!w4c,sahoallll,ffikl11tly dpp~$ed' 'l'0 ~b~ ~::Ilten:S.i(l:n ~:{'l A~gh:~Jl.i.:l.t~I.1 of tlll~ rn~h~ynlfl'd IhL:! tei((g~;a,plh .. I~f. ol:rje7ted!'il~O~1.gJy to fhe JJm~p"a.!l1nl':e of Ta.i:iw.1)Y ~onfl,tm~t!'OJl lh~t the Br.w}tii5J?I 1!.11:1d~rf;Qbk beyond .Feshm~rar ',lna Ql;lettil., ..m);t be' i"".as d:erirt ~.Ih,iI.tr iID~' '!@llI!1i loyhlle AJgh.MIIIl:i'illiH1 W<I.S,. fran, 'a. imHUah}r pOhH of: 'v.mt'w" ~e~.IIIUv!Z' lJy-'!r¥l1la:l\;~hle' W as not "p']1cpl:lr~d :l:o [:ltu"in p~.tl!::e, W!ll,llh~ Sill'li~('3 ~111 ('a:Sr"lI!le~ flS .of mov-hlg itOOpS".i.llltO .his eeun ~r)'- He (h~9t:ri_bedt 11 the Jh~ie t:Ll'ih:ren tt:~ooMSh the: ·~bt)l·1!k '1.llJnl]J~.1 N) N~w Cllanrl:fln orl"tJ11[) tlordel!t" .Jactm,gKano1£lh<JIl'J aaa ·jkii:tJf,e thrll]~t il1ito my '\/i~'ilIl!S', '<l:ll:d (Jilder~l a h['l)'!i;.'OU o.f the line <lind its t~Hi11nlls!, He' ~Ils:o regiu1{lled Jore:iSll re:;idcnf,~ al.tel .i 11\f!i!! S to"!1~ ''<'I:fI pt:ll:~Htlll~ ·~HJIU;r-(~~ gf tl\l1L~blCri ri::v[Un:g -ex;~:em~11 .·~nt~J"'e'nti~n i~ problem~h'1.v'olv.i!l.g them. I>honld .u"]~e. i~T~ k~pt~h!l1;:Jl[lUsh·a·~e]lUIll.Kabu~ mtaJlUy lsnlated ~fl(!1 did not permltoLlchri

'f;l"i'\r:mto,rnC!;1rt II 110 n~lj1'ii'i.1l 'whG W:~!re !,r;~i:d~[l t !l·h~re. '

"1IH'(ll!g~10ut h is relg~, i\bdlocrRithttlli1l:t':l <liuh'er"ed ·is.cmpl.lknni:~>' to ;il.i.:il .1lgreelu~nt will!.. the 8'll'itj!liiltll.'hiat fheysh,Qu]d mndu{:t ~,'.!S 6l1lte.Dlal L·elitU:U~1S"i~C10W1:isiirlg. !~tafll Ihl.!lr ·rrml.~!};'li~Jll WIlS· hb on]i dderiic~ ~gi1in, $l Rt~Sfiia.rI :ij[]~lIrstbn;."j,. Uw:;}s Ilot ~Orig '<lftj~r t'h-e final Bjli;~'li:d'j wi t:hd.mw 0'1.[ foom l'<:ii.l'ld~htll!'!::hai.tel1Sl.o.ltlli arose on fl:IDeoo:n:lllll.fill !fr()l]ti,gr. til U~C! c;,\!1lr~y H!;BUs) I.he Rl]·ss.~nlu, '1Iftcr an mn~llll!~lreVi(:!!ge:

O:\I'm'~h!,'llmedtbre lI'~kke Turklil1lcn, 'Wll;O ti weI 'to 'the '!i;ou th ·of the Kat~i ·l<uu] d~~e.Jl:l! be<['W('Ig1;'1 the ](l~wtl1t'il.Ghes {)f Ithe {\]]]I.[Do1Ir;yti .• m.d tbe, C~15~hm, ~i'I. ~~he ~l:ni~h!iicmghi <It!,~1mlnCt~s. ~rt ~~ •. PP)[(!ltll;bttrll 'Onll.l:

RW]~$~'lil1.lllt-et1bo:r:rSdJl th~ il!I~~i' brUit .for ~,TIc:'r€ thnu·uv.o y'e~r's rttc~ftdl noO ."ffi!Oa;:eJ Illl:~~1 ,e\l'a~i'!)ie ~ejllth'!s. Tl":li€.11i, ~ill'lZ in. U!8-:rJ •.. :tJlli:l· llu"8:dartj'}S l~nu~~'-iInt:~~ ~hl"', <I"~11:ll~~1JI!tl~in of t~;r~~tr~ (Jl'lls1:ll. I"l'L"I.l'I·~f. ~f,~·ri..'!c hlit!LI~d:rlJ~fi J'I~J:n~8>;iJQ~iJ;h .o~ Itf:~j,~~ '11U'1. ~ rt~e~ l'W~ ;1'Ul1dmJd l1'10'rl'I::H)( W~ta,t, 'II'il:lS RlU t1'~,11~j.dh,jr>Q!.1.s~d~'n Lt:mI:~~!!ll wlllj~~t~h~·lhlJl:.~ of J\wgyln: c.lmli t_. Ir wll»u' I'll

:I)O~~ibly. one of' Ute wov~t purL 'C'\'c'f 'c~m,ed, :'an '~ru't'D ball,t of 'MerYOll;$neliis·r_"2; TIle: $t'lticsn.·. ~!veI1i: 'in. nO'lpooit~on t'(lthaUeng'lf!- the 1tu.ssmo mO;I' but'bptb s:tde~, JtMll~,lng "l'h" tlil'ks,lnilcr:em In l'h>e silU4l!tion. decided thil, 1,1 w»l~ld be $~osl"t:lie' to n.ef():lt~lla! -a. 'wrecilie frontier aloflg''',me mdelt~l:m:m:ate s!l.!lfjkh ,of IliEt:i.'UOory Iyi.ng to th.e SOltd:h:o Me"~ belt~~~fl~he_ AnuUl ~Ol1rya· ilrr.ld lhr~ A, gbinl btndelt Vi.';i th,p, '''r~li~ ,alk)J,[j.g' '111' - 'lifJff nuid.r It ~~$ a~ri.\ll:~tf\ tl:1~lt <I: fQi~flt -de'Jli'iilocil:-ti:Of(l 'c(lmm~st)i~.Nl.shdQl(I·Ih~ set"- wp~ ':and H1'~,jl~' 1:884', the B:dtiisii1'SE',ut"·out·a

.om.missloneli. [1!l)';\:~~~!lf tJ lie: 'm.lI:~:ltanl$' ~'Qlild 'Hol ~€:Sl.li:~ tile ~ef~r~t;l!t'ilo:n b,del,ilj-" the de.s.p~lcll or 'th0m-r ·t)~'!ifl Comn:tiS51.0nel'; ,~n.q,edly QIl gfollJlnd£,of im tuialth;.. '1\\!hUe Ru,~~tJn:g t!J:elr :fp:lce~ ~old.:bwa:['(:l;s from. !1\',leJ;'v~, ~< ~~l':y :apptarn,dled I::,h(!!, m:(Js'~ no·rUl~.r~y J:\,fg:tt~n t)LII~P06t1 a' Pil,rl,Wd.eh, Q:J1 ,~hli: ·Mu.rgba~ rrv"£.r the 'BriUsih d,e;Uvered '(1, 'SD:o:og, wa,tOing. i)'f<l)Wlng' 'a, distinttion ·be1:;-\'\.':een .~ [} octupadon or 'the 1P.,a1i:1d~fI, fi'ilJ~l :and IUl ~dvtlnc~ Qn Hll'fiI~r U11ey nmd-' U diJ'.a,r1,J <th~l' whi~e tll~ f,r.llrrl'it;'f 'mitl~:t J'(ave 'the most ,d,j,sastm.us'; but 1..'IflispeJdfl,r;d .• IC()XlI~eg ue:n~! U'.~ Jajtl'l!J ';'\&~%~ 1d 11 ~ regarded as ~ an a,~t ~).f war, ~rhe Ans~J.:n·ll]'-\fedllt1IE!~!l 1).[!')S!iJi!.~ ,on il!m1 in March 1885 RUSi1.~n ~:nd N'fah~-m fOf - e ~'UI]~\~~ 8 t, 'p{l~~.fdeh~ ~h,e Itl] :l;_s~an:.\,had the better ~:f tbe 1c:~~o:a,~:miilt1troalild ~fwE$ a~~jtH~ed, -~at U)ei_~,ad"tanCe~\'NlOUld .conllul~~' 'rb~'l1i'V~ E'mp'I.'l,',~ \.Jj\el¥t:_lI ~t II~iSt v~ '~1~,1! "'e~ Glf tl1Je CG'IDI'I:una.h;Il WI'h~ll h~()l for J fJ:~li '¢~It7f~~1 ,~1~_:b1l!t..in.ev~tab!I.! •. -n~~L\S(rth'~~iS{l tot:I.u~: u[lj\e;ml1lir~abl~~pDls;J11 (C1! it -i}ncl 'tu~e· "~'01t UlJO the headh.nes-,-a.lld ~~s Ul.6:·{(}CJ~s ~ a o~t~SiL!'>. ~flm rJ.1~g.~l, 'w"t11 hnve d-evel;o_pc"'i:l, h.uoil £\:IJI 'scllli;:

Anglo~Ru~ sian wat ..

'Abdur Raihm,Thlj1 ffi\ad sQIJI1.e~&l:Qunds .tor ,r-.iai.mlng s()l,·.er,~~glit}' .. Qv~r P,<l,ujd.ell •. 'W'lli:l,ch·h .. ~~~.tr:ld:~tJjm~Ml)!' Lla,id Ilrlbute tn H:erlll.l:n bl1th 1I1d~~. a r; d !;,una,P!fI r f,hl:rn~~fbileJ tfi@" R.ll· :"iaT1-mp~ffi' was· seen as an .aet pf ag,g'ress.:j,oo., ~n.dI Ipe e!t11o:tfonal t€p1pexalme 'qulddy ros~.1'ioop-s r\"I3i!e rri.obm;s~d.i.n [u_dla r virtu; ~l"{'.djU ft-e:r,e: voted tn Lcm~lon and uiTt'l:'fll; ~it~ Sf! nt to 1,,[ a(il,i(" {(il'· asse .:s' tIle sta~.· of the' 'City~ forti ficartil()ns. .A.bdll r Riihman" hOill\T~ve)[, whig hal~p~l'IIe'd to be on a .statev$sU to h1.(1ia at tl'le tbne,w,as re~~N.\!~_ly re~loted. f.l.ud rnilde n clt'o1.rri1.a\ whJrII,\\· ht!I'id hfl\l:{! vlews, ahout tbil? illig'nmel1t (liE a 1R.u!:i~g-.Arghan frontier; h{l Wi!l$':I"~Si£rned to 'the .~os~f_of Pan1del'I. The governraent in iondol!l.\>!fho "lQen~at the tlrne 'Ptc-'!Orcul,~ed'li\'ltJl1 c edsisin the Su il:U1, look tb~~r '1,;1 'h'tI!ILri'lhtl~: m'ld ~\'~ithir a short \J\.'Uile accept ~d il RU:h';;UliO 'SU!lges~ton that 'th('_ aflalr' snbold be. r~_fe[[:ed to the .Kling of Denmark.for aruktJ)llt~o:n. In HUS!l<l& itSl~If. oLlt'!.b w~te tUvld.ed,. blLU the t~nll)~)iQ:f ~\I'~l! _eveo:tu~'II.y· p~~ ul!}dll'd I.d 'ilU~fl himse:lf ag,lI'inM- the mni:tm:y .hawks, B.u'~y in Ma>Yi ~h~Ll¥OSiid,es ,began dire.(:tnf!gotti:a.t]ons. In London, aJld j,n S~fU-elmb~r ;- ,Iu i~. . pl \OilS ,1~.rh2~11l!)yJJ1g, dO\''Irn.l1'1e g,ell' [[iI, nn~ Qf 'tl' I!l 'frn~~'tler; ·t:~.~ ;I, "~u'll f"'nntl1 i!:tio,n, l!iowe,' fl :W~'i.! ~O~- te b.~ ~:)Y-~ Ti1e' JJQ~:nt

',' mlnlS;'~ '1Jr" '111)1 "J1II til Qnd ~ ¥ Jw--m Ut'S6 h:l.!i~h,1:Uil'11J1i~~l ~iQ , ~':UI;~pletilll

'Me~.I.jj>;~lliIe:thei.rnhlg:u~1:i !.II,a! ,J!j,fu·dl;J[' ~R.,';lt1]n3,l;l \'11:',,1$ ptlUSili-ng: aJlilolj,:J the ~.r:oIilH r tnbes Wleler clUJ-sl1;lg: th~ tmtbC:)1't~l~s :In :ill,llla 1."fI.{!iciliSli],g coneern. and r{l1s~d il'h::l'tlibh 'bq~h <iIIilQ~jt his; "lf~l,s'lwQ:rU]itl~$;~ ,a,nd O'V~f ,the'it o,,",fn "abllil, i 11,1 keep Jtihe, ll("i,Q;es: 'iIl! .;heck In ra:PQns~i they '.I:e\l'~:cted.to a fo_r;ro c&·'f'On~.irf'dprAl:13Y': i,~a UU.!~~nd.l:890,'l'hc:y t.l~tr~lnt~ .. mUita!"~, ~KpoolCltlilil$ ag~ijnt ~(lm~· .. of the mp;L "If.ou~le5Qme of the tf'U)~;'},. anddn ]S9a: .bOOk!:ln'lder th~Lr p~\i)'tf:cU:O:n tl':i.e :nn'i 'tltbe Q.f the l{ufTll~. V:ilUe_}~. 'l~U mis· .pro pked a. Po h~Clo-n bat:kl~·sl· .and· som ,I. ln~tJ]J., figJl~~ng (oo.k plaee, ~"')IllJ.sdrj\lf.nc I hn:d 'r:epe~l:'~¢d.my' f~U.e:C1 tt~ ,r~pg"d iliOi severa. il1.v.:ita~·on:li Oitddlf!t'SMl~1 h) lili:I;Il·I.l)'· the Amil' to senda [I~fH~ttS(ffita:tlve..it0 ,Ka!brul In sert. QUit Ppli1Q a:f d:!.trel'e!~c~~. 'but ne lrl.ei~'I! 'C!ilIM ttl dll oo.ll,'lu.:iio,u tbat the tH'il~! \"'~iliy to dC!:al wUh the pt'TSii5l:ins pmb:I,Ie.m.15,:e~ ·~:lU!·f[{')nt]e!:'.'w(:l;sJqne:gri}tiflt(l: <11 iin.~ Urat~'ipul~im~rk the liimiCS 0. ]M:t~s-'.h 'l'd .Afghan Influence · ... ut.! ,allnmrlty~ ~ftel" :;Ol:llrL'~ li1lii~i!.d ~~ Ili~ lP.rovai~€d on ~b~l~J J' R:a h.rn~F! to ac:c-(!!~t ,fltTl:i~st.onh~~dec'1 D Sft 1WDrtt~ln~(l urand I the Indian G()It~f'[mneIlt'$ iN:lrr.@ib'Ti Secret!'tIj. m.~l' '~_}J ~ndmi51~,~nr!Lt~,g) ~\1I;'."~s ',Ie:llctt~d •. s-upr;'ijit~~~ b,Y ;I map, ov,~.r 't~e ~1n'!m~;11 lild~:ihotiltt III ld, 11 h 'illml'rwuilli, ii~l!L1ct!:lm '1.[1' .,~:t'C~')' thlg' ~~Iil:~m:(ilntl.wl'fj ·il d'e't~cb~d. of ~~ny of 'm:];H~' ~fj::stel;n Pusb;toon trib~s 'om l'liiiS: :clQllllhdp'f;l~t bLlt ~'\I,;Ji:V~,iiU1Jq~d~lag,U!:~ .. "".lhm IThIS aumral ,!lubs\dy ".'rGiH'l iinc,m'!l-sJ::d fi'Oll~ l.~'~ '~llJ If 01.' l1'). loS mlW-olI'I rupee -a nd' he wajia5~ured ~hat JJW) "GQ1]~d~J!~~)" iI!li;pQr't ~[J'l:ls an~; :l'lmITI,ufJ,i'tion. .

Th~ der:w.n:rmli l~thI!!J,>wraqd UflJ!,'~'UlL1S~d inc s~l\Int d.ifrtCllU,l~

h te l tlnl~1 trl$l'l . tbe Ui~~ lli) imli com:r?leoo(l, ~H1.d '~e'li, therti'tll.~r{!·

V'l-·Ilr~:.stm s0~l!le'~IJrl~1JchflS tn~l '~jj tiJ!ot Ij en' ,c:fn7!e.~e(,1. ur it .ilna] . .ro:l'm~ the Llne lQnk J~UJ~, .llJote~01~, i.1tij:Q.o·gr·ll~lt1cl aml ~om.~·~i!1.i]J~·s !IlO~ "V~ll1 U)pogii'~,pbl,Ci1J1 flJll;lf)(':i. Tdh\;,;, SQJ,!,e'Linv~.:.; 'e\llI1,' milge:;; W~1\_ diVided. Fmm 'the llJgh~IiIpoint of :v',ir(;1''!!'i'; i t ll~ld Se!iiOll.l'l.dmwbac1t~. ~t p,ut;'! lfi11l3l1! end l:O.·3!1lY hop.e:sc.f 5,treu:hjug ~\.rghall.lst(lJri.'s fr n~tl'!IS, '!:ill' d'le S.~., and, as the Br.l:ibh bel1 fI~e f!'!I3Jh:'! ptl'Slle$" 'th~y 'WI;>~. in a [lc)shi,On bJ blO.\k ale miglCl!lt:ion routes used 'by tbe ~ol.lSiderab]e'popul~atiIQn of nom,ad kf~chls; Both d~~Sf!.dvIliEI'.tillge,S w~ :~o L~U J'l,glilJ1tlit i\:itglli.n}j:s:\;!1.n' '1Ii~~1i Brttl:sh rul'~ had :g,h'''n way to that'9fPaJ;:,Man. Any l\Opq."i cifcreattng a state rlla:t weuld ill elude the lotaht:y (lIt. 1th~ l~lS.hWoIll Iiatip~l '\'Ii{e~e alsc ·d~$h!f!d. l'h~ B:dU'ih., [or the r I art, had to d~ld u.hnOs.l IH1.nl"E!dj.llcl,· w~tb II ma] or '[Juls!tl'qO'l:l dPt!:s]nBl~ as t nelatter re.a I i sed, that th,~r W'CIfC lbeb1g collUm i tted tv Bri Ush sovereign t}I'. The P"ushtool'1 s were r~:ncmuaged. by Mgi'la.n ~g~nl.s arrd we're jospi.lI:~d. b~' ~ ntlrJlbll~ 'of o'l'~lnilh~" fh,,· rl1~~l ~;tc'torlou . of whorn W' re fhe: Hildda N,IUlUah" th' MQUiilh li'owjlloa:1rI ,~,illd ~ahdul,li.th [<fum,. t.holE! "Mad N~ulb:h~1 <lnd.1.t~ot>J;: 'l1'~~ ,d 'p[oyf[l~I1,1t air 35,,(Xl(~ t~Qo[l. <end hili'a y.'~~s U'rl~le(i"'Y Ilg!l)tl.fl1t: ~J 'fu,re 'Ulit: j1;~iJi:g 'Wil' ,s~p'p'~~~d.

TQ'!iv:liI'Qs fbe'!fI~ pf tl[ij~ 'C€tj:Uf;II ,f\hd.ulf R~,hrn~~l bGlI:1.m.'e· im:~eas· itllllliy pJ~@,t'll[,;'d b)r 'St)ul, Illind. hi: ,l!JL~~n Ir,!il~ ~J s'lb~~ 'llt(j]1 ~l.J,;ld. ,,~, , t I,", !Jill I ,

Ha1ibullah and the Potties of N eutrahty

Aliln!~t urn.quel)" lu·A,fglhilll h.istmy, ni~lt~ ~~as l'~O .conl!t.l, [m the: ~.~IJC('~. 'b.5·iDl"li ""I.lP. ~bdtu:: l:{':.".lh.m~n d. ~,e{~. ll:,h~d gro~·m:ed.l~,~. l~~st 50:n~ Hnb:[bUlll<IJlil., for tj:u!' task and ha~'Ij\'lse]y 1;:ept ail'~ hh liOOl~_ .1.1l K1tb 0 ';idltlw~llg n:on:~ Df thewl 'UJ 'HoC"qL1l.i~.e ~ power I~~~ .hl. l".~.(! . imy ~, I~,!,tbajl;!&1h li'iJ,bjlbl~.i1llh· Wll~ tbescn nt ~ .. s,t,~,ve ,~lflJ and hl~ :f.11'h! "r'!l ~~'li(\lr· W'lt'Oi, Bib! l1atin3:/. 1UIl:d.oubt'oo!:y.,h<l(ll.am~'~tiomror her ,(',v./n 50n.: berth die ·;'tlrm.'\(~ a:i1d1. ?l -IDfi:li~!U Ilmnbe!f of tt.c:ibfl.l lead t~~ ~'1~nk~ 1h p~l:'1 I till tb~ I~J,dj~k~~H~ m~tr1r.l}ol1i:a'l !lman~-.e' that Abdl.U:

~~JUIUUIJ! '1.1Jkd ,fI,rfElnged~ o~~ve. 'l-Ja,l-)UluUaJl tbedr. $lq]P~rl.. ." ..

tn chal,'ia~:t1(lIi""Hi.!IWhuJ1th wa~, -t11:1.:! ~.Iltllhe-~~!: '9:f Abdu!" n:..~~:l.(H'~. I'~ Itolt!'!'al'llt nnJ g()Qd"'Il~t.llrd .iTI,!Jlil, he w<lii;m:.(lI'id'U~s by f.la~fe· ;IOC) (~Ither d! a· .. onslderable :ru:nIllxwor chlldren on hiS: feur l;o\'j\I'cs and thi[ty'-frvc'oJi so c()m::ubil1,~. As ~!,rUh so n:umy.A£g'hans. ,,1 ol:.hJc.r !::'ilaln pll?~1.l~ni' Wf!~ hUll'l1ng" aud l'l alsc weI.:. II:u rI10:f,()~r,ap'h)Y ilnd. meter cars, He \'\01115 f:o,rtullIarte 'lhu,t. ~.argely asa,..resul~ ofhis falh.~r's rep~e~si,ye pol ides, there was UtUe or no bl t;erMl~ unrest (Iuri Dg h~,. :r'Cl'lgn~ t)\11 h~ !fY,as ~:i11i 'iLl1' 'p'I.a(,~lt~ the tribal ~e:td.e!:,hi'P' s Ut'~g, up a5U1te ~oul!l<;d for tl'i'biI1 ~fa~~rs, cML",~ the 5\. :t~nl of c;ompub\()ry OQn,SCflpt[Oli ,,?d $1vi.ng the k"j(lIJS TIl(}I',~.,f.r.eecl()nt:I>O ccndu ~ ~h(l:lJ;.'~wn nl1aixs e . Hl1!.'also. disIf11<lfttle;d, Abdul; ,~1I1,1:un"~'I~fs :'lp~' u,PPiU'.ilJuIio, ~11'Id l?U"i an 'f!m:W l'O some of tI:Ji~i~ltter' more brutal fo:nns-()f punlshment, }\t me s:ame. till1ej the i'el~gloQ& establishment regain d. Influeuce, altbo:Hgh .. (oUowi,ug his :~'aUler's. example, I, I1blbtlllnh 'Vt/,(I;S • _t .I <ain~ to., I~ uire tl'!,~at the,!' 'a!c,c~1uoo the re'ltgio1;]:ti legl:thD(~cy. 'D:f tus, ~!;ll,e. Also: ulilu~l~tl~l, \:ve!t'll\!'seV'eta.l or the ()l'fJmJtlE!1!'lt .Afgh.II:lS 'Wlh~)11\1 Abdul' ftm.~u~~a.r:n.luu;1 rtu: ~d hno,.':d.!~ i'lnd ,whe, v:~r .. fUm.'I':,a.l~o,l;~"·d.ll) 1:~llt~n. A:~~,~~g rl~ef~'1'Y,l~e 1:11" 'Pe-slJiln~ii'irdm:s, Jbe d'~~nd.~] 1S of ~uJtan .~j,Ol amlal d~;mt "Nile tilS"iL' II!- j'M!u'Sahi~n' f.lrJJ~Us, W,~~ l pI t ,il ~!:l'Y IU~11J il:J lli( .hillil

<Ilraij:SiIlttll{~:I!.!lt haLf o,uth~ h~eJo'l'l1et:b ~~ttr,y,~ n](e,.,eld~~l qf the five MU5,~tll~balll _til,,,, .thers, N'~'Ur I~ll,i!1!n~ was b fie!:'!!· l(jf~g Hcppo~~'!t~d C~Rlll1land,e~ .. i'~:~lti'~f". :~un:n, ~h(! ,~t~:~t.-:" .,~a'rs- of ,~pd;iI:~ 4Ji'l,hi11jj:fll~ ~ce~gnl the: lOl'm~T ~O~IIUl1?,nde:r~nn'<luef'''1-Glmt IU HiOCide'l' ·t:l;~lar~i; had t[)!lf~~, ~lt'li.~~,S,~b:J@ Ito be ~w,~y trol-m' ~b~~, ,~~s ,~U:ur.,~l ~lt~ r 1~~sfbl~~, b'l'tHJl!!o of. hl? sons G]'Udilil11 N~b'i ,!''iillt<l ;hU]~::ml 11tliiql Do.W 11,("0 «.:!5~ t~ prom] nen;~'~Ilt!'i'~ ml1 i tary- -.

Abc .'lmoQflg. I~h.~' men ·.o!io·,lIuen',ifl at Habi:b,tVUah I, EOJ!1Iit wa'~ M{:lhj:nYcl iBe'g T,u;"J II .a de,sc€rnda'I1IL 'Of one (6Ir nt~ 'K~~lldlftlhild' s,irt1:t1i-.'~ whose ratbe·r-~gl·~ be~'n ~'~f[el~: -~~ .[)fl,ri1WS,~u~' bj' Abdut n)i'UJ]~~l ;~'n~'" """-~1~1 J;l.o''Vir ,[;e,~u:n~:tid ~~ .K~,bul wnl'i_ hili S.ytiarn wl'te, ,":iIllnl'€lU~lt:t:lLtam" a ~apdtla:~!:st ~lJ1d 'j'I IUil,de,m±~t;, Tarzl WlIlS n;],'lJhinfltl,f'tlCe¢l 110/ H')~' '~()ung ~"urk' m.n:vem~m! ~Ild",,'.a.s ,aJI~o\!O,ed. t0st'<j.f~ tUgn-an'i:st,j'in(s fii$' ~~IIo!S'Pap'~:J'. the ~~,~mj~~/~f~k'lbtN'~ ~iJI.bkb t~O_~D ,Umngly I~al~~b,UI:rWf>.t n:nd anll:i~lm;p!l".;ri~I~~$~' $bn~Q(,. H~ W,i1J~ !'to't afmid to dltii!'fv a1:t,1I:~I.1Uo:n tQ \lV~l~~., b~.· S3~~ aSAfS'll~a'I1J~tiiijj'~' f~jlirigs 'If.[ldler f.iabib,u~l~h·j~ nile, tn P~l.lfll,Cula.r in ~CQnom I,e alld! socta l. b'lc;:'lnv'.ard l:l! ss, andhe l'i!!!I.5, uJ:itkai. 0r:,'relig,i~ll'_, ~~rn~]itionilJ]s':m,.,'lhl' ~elt st!it;n~ly Ihlll Afgh!Ulistall ,af~d nthEr. lsl.a,mit.: states had to -adopt new tdeas and rnoderutse 'their ~tun.?udeS,lf_l"hey 'W(!fl! .not :1.0 ;e(~ai:F11 1~l a JJoOs:itinn 'Df·pe'umme~lt. i:~~funo.r,'itty. U'l 'll11 _f :~n;cll:~ deve~~p~d ~,~b~rittr-rm t h (! il.!}l.a..m pte of JuPil n1'j be ~beved that trilll;i"()ouJd"b'e ilJthjeiv~dl while p,r~s.flrvlng indiif,l;ellioltls' !ioel~tl. and 1CJIglQu ltuclur· s, , IIzl. tut(J~e'd two of H.ahlbuUulli!'s sons, :lnyaitJl'liiih and Aiu;;!n'llUalll, whO .. trll ,tnollrI~i~d ene of' hIS" dall.!! tel'S', andI t ~"1:I_S he '\'!I'h':o was to be the piil1i(!ip~J \arcbnec~' of the

nH1! :'tal amJ 1,1I]i11!~!ll'U~tn.g, tent(j,t·IIlc;.I('!\ ?Ii!"l'1.iclh. W(!fl! 1bo b:e' Ii,

d;ot1ilina:nl f. al1J:re of iHgh ... nl oliey 'dI!lI!'hl~j-I:h firl:s't three d~cd;ae.~, of the 2:Hth f:-entlu:y.

ltV'hUe UabLbulilah I ,I,; uld ~Jlb~d to b!ll n~Jfix'ed 8!(:)OlU .Aigh.a.nisl.anl~ jfltet;u,a,1 .;tlra:i,rsl herexternal re:J~tio·:n!i~'-G.l1~ '~O he ,1'1. C.l1tl:51# fCH oontX:1'n ' ~~ r,~u~l~U ~ :~Js. fe:lg!ll. In, J'n~i.a, thef~]llllg: th.at ',"'lIfts shared by 'the VICl,:'ji(~y" Lord C\ll'l.Q_J.l. aillcl o~h[;!~ :li:~ tJi@' IJri1.e of HaMI ullah'fl accesstcnwss that" they h. c[' ret'ehr(!clv!)',rv UUI ;In' H .. turn for -tl1:~ :suh,'~jdiles' a'nd nndoell"taJdllgs th,ey Il,1,ldlgi,l,i'en. Abdu(R~l'im,ffn. T!l;e.i'€ had ~ls~ ~:leCnl ,sI'lO:rtl.y bc(!'~()11 ' the Iatrer's d~ltnl, nni.'ew.ed RlJ'Ss)~n U~II"~ssurf.!, 1]1. ~hE" S;bIlp:e at ;r.lrO~i~~l r~qu1:Sl'';l f,O![ ;JJ di Met 'lirJl.i\l L-i,tlnsfi i p wi'~h. At~al.ll:lt,t~ n • not of a po111jCtU n'<ktJlI.Il"e'. Gi.li'''€r1 tlhiJt III eo two cOWl:i'r.ies now_ shared a hl'l'lI~tby LonUcf, this If'qU~:st wasnbt unreasonabte, bUI' lhl!: Brit-ish could hi!lt~1I:}i' fl1il 'IT) (18Nnme fh~t ,1'I11}' direct fel,!i1'ionship ~\1011]?in.eyllablf d'e1.fdop 3. iPofitkaW content. '\<\'1.i:ih:" tb~y;l'itl.ana~l$d ta aVGli(]l, gl'vIng, ,~I ,m;I:l'tt rep]}'; nun [I1C.'!\~C l'jj!liI1\lc'Fce.d fl1.ei~a:. ,il.I.'II.:li'JJebr to

e.:s'~~~l~h ., iil~QR . i'~'~UC~ti~1 ~~HIU(jn ',hEIJWUl1 the r\!<gI1;'I;i'1 ifrrlr~ CLlttu.l1l Itth..el 't~~re- ,1U~1,;';' d,t! Hr~ bll!illUa,j]" \'\~1tlt in tellstll,Q lm;,Ilj.tenC'~ $ In: Ill. nU,:o. 'iY'!;'ul 1- 11 ' m "to. judi 'II fnr iiI l·jIit ill 11,.J'iL'It' '1~!i,JI f I

·.Thls Hllltl]!}Untlh ' .... ras h~~hl}tt'elu-~tarJlt· tu do. H~. Tl'~ ,~o.d.bt t{l'O'~ .Ii.t-tie plt':ilS.WIl! :ir.l the'i,ro~rJ'tl-ct' of w~~el:I.ng CtLr.L'Qlll r~\~'~ l,o. f~,ce uful 'Ihen.l: -\-'('mi !II,,) 'he Clu~tr n of ~mrC)lIt pmpr~ .. - was !I tlght Ih~t a ''1l];~d;i!rch 'should g'Cl tlldt\1ll ta mete 'Vic~my7 He jn~i;stEld. ciied~b1Y" ifll:a:f J::fe' ,oollld not lea',h;~. :r<:abul.,Ml' '~~jlly tn hls 1ej,gI1li ~~l:'Ild, tbil,l he' 'wns p"c€t!dl)'"t)!1t'DI t wLJtI th tf,'~11"l'i cr.rtlclud ~d 'WiiJtl,l fli~ 'fa.~eu, a.~ ~n, r, "pOddc(l b}"'insj:ring thai! the !:Ieanes.,~;ad ~h~Il p~r~.,~aJ ,t<: .. "ltt~du~, ~llmi~'I1 ,~lJd .~,~:epl)l'd, up p~~,~S~.IJ,e: (n~ .Ulr: A milt' b~.",l~:I'~\i'C'n"lJ,O~ .. ~h~ l r~n I toW' arm s ,de Uvt.'l'l~S an.d ;W:lt 1:1 l:if' i Clln~ the p~Jiylfiiem of :;'!,lI~Md1e~, H~ liiilin,lUah \~bo bad' i nhetr~d . a h,li!altby h,ali~nc~ 11 tlilI;e-:u~!iii~? altc(nm"l .. contlnued t(l:sudl" ,;lind ,itsl-.ed tJlll;;>'·;uwl , DJ~ (IU~~ t~ '. n wh ·'t her, tl~l~~M'l~~i~cs~~'iN:ep~~rin~·lncl ~'M, m1kj~rtHkh~g.-.; in. rl1~m. rOil Uu'

ubsiales aind fC4ledom 10 i!1:"lplO:iJ;;'IrnJs -, had [ap~~d. t~)b (:lid n.Qit,~hl) DWply 'In t1re 'a;g~e(,ID~~L~ ;o~""(!.r 'H~ Dm:tu~~ li~?:. ~n~~ ~rU 1s.1:b ctltuml {J~ tm :riQ,r~ign r~h.Hh;m~,~ mo ~~npl1"tLsl~c ~h!8, ftmnt. he 31111~uncerl t~~ des~)'atch 'Q:f n,t~ntr·r()ur envoys to ccunt I'l~s areund t.hl\':woi:l?, ~Y U~)] s lline .• mZ~ to '''1,''1S r'e€omn;tendi.ng ,ill d~cla.r~Uoll ,u{ wax and .II1V,a~!Ofl . f Afg~l~'Id~i~'i"f 't,ru.t ~\\'~!i ~f:r"n.1Y tlv~wnd'lc~ Iby ~hfl ,?a~ifiet in~"ondo~lIWh~ .d~~mt'!td, '}l httle lm;:.l.ttedIYl t!tJoht. ttJey ~e~[~'d" np. mOil:~ t~3lan ,a, 1[.e.',Pin.PijO!i1 fIr the' (-e1a~onshl.p H:~~tal~lh..3:d _k:a,~ _ w'lth ,i\bd~i ':~:\lltlU II ,n. While 'CI,uZ(llj wns btliClfi. h~ El1IS~€Ipd WJ' 1 sve and. ,o![11iull"mmn I the 1~1di~~ (ff.~~f:iItl,l(?llIffi- w~lp,q~,d th~~ d.e5p~tth;·of .. at1·eI~voyt~''I<a~l.1l.,:W tt.er:i,egoUatt~ lfie:re:J.a:t1.oDj:'!,I:1up,., H!t1bUnln~ln,.· ''l/h .. ~ h~,d, nmv :-J.~~'ill[]dr.o'f U,ree,'year .ul:d p'obiilUly hit, t i: Jt.e:·u 's~'t .. ~ how far II was ~.lt:e to go,

w'a:s'r! Qt ~lovY in ;?li~t'e'~~'I1)g:. .,'

pn'll'!: malt ·'Chose]I',,~s_e1;:i'\lllay ~ms,.~!I1' lOJ.lh, n~!1.~1 the In(h~Ull I'm'~~g:~l

SCCr.t~DfV, wh.!) did~ ifff 'vetil 1 n A,j:gh(l,!n j,!ii t-~n lilliif:' In 1 904 llli'ttil a ~11 tr~,~ty II~fds l?fKl;;e-t. ttil~ atrnosphen~ ~a:s cordial, but lhe. di5~USSl,~.n1>. were .lomag C!n~ ilifij.~L~it. t h~' :m~hl. p;phU Jl;lC?llIl~~lUOn b'~n~~ 'Ii ,.h~tl'le: uny. 'treaty should be p '~m':ilI, to the .<\mu, I he latter .e~~cnt~ilU) coUll'lten'!d D?4Jlf!'-:; draft ,treat}r '!iyith on~ ~,f ·hi:Sd)\\~n, ""hleh nll:~.I}; ,t'oof!rme.d tbID~ am.lll,geTI~'~Jlt;5 nUI.d~ wit.h. l\bd.~u ~~ahmal". .ll'!'"'~(m obiieC~tld &l.rongl:y ,1I.lu;J, rel.llli1Hll:l'1lded thilt D~ne lh(lilj~:d be Wj1l~dFl}Wll" but- the gov,~rmtle'!lt III l.or.:idon W3$ m,qre. ~(O,n~:e:nle~ .. ,11th the sU:u.ation 011'1 Ute fm.mUer. and th'L:: P. lendal ~hre 1 :h'O~IIU RIiS i. th~ ra w~th L~\llng m b~c,:l\¥ljlt;jal Ul~, .Am,'ir 1 nto SUbn1r15~i()tI. DOlIIueW,ilI::1 il1ltt'1.lc:t&d to sI.gn Ul!e' tn;aty". 'B.abfbu]]~d} receivedthe.Uliei:lf-S, ()[ sulThid}f due.to ,b n olilld I\ol,i.nliUiti'O!lS· 'wl.\!r~ .pl~ced 'n ll1s.:I'1gh'tt. ,l'~j ~m.putl. Jr'I'US. I U~, p'r~I'ii:lig,~ In A:fghnni'stil,n \,r1;l nl~'.h ell~U.l.on~li:'~ ~Y ~!,us t~fn-~h.mti diplCl.j)~iJitit S;U{';lJess,' i:i.IUwugl::ltft~r{'w.llrs OO~hll].Ul l,n., t~.'('

'word 1 g 10 ,thil' tl:'~at , to Sll88I:!S'l .11at It W'M OLl1t'! UIUl p~ »11.11.10' li.ln.s Hi, Ttli:!!, ~appl![Jcl'l(1!.ment .in An:gI.o·Afghnl1 relatir Os, 'Will'"r~:~~fl1~~'l?d nvo W{!M~ I(ai 'f~ wlle'~11i .. l(]:ilbui!~h -a~~~p~~dil'~'i~Vltat1on'l;o '~I~:~ 11.1 ~11l.'.t. I.U2: n hi) i ng III : n f: 'p:1..: "d IlY ,I\::Uu hJr L 'Ill' ~ '~H '1~' rlit 01 r \Iirr' II,

a~:fl0;~~h th~: ;~li:r bjough~ ,'Witl:.! hnn ~; ~'Sideljabje ~'l}tol;T~(~ ~nd O',!et'~II~YCd hi~. 'w~l~n:~f.'·., He li.tl~rt tilE ~n.,eyiJi'l.~I.e tlg~f;r:HJrH!. 'Ii,,~'nt ~1Uii:b ?f ~Il:~ .il:I~",e ~~ Sigh~~@~lng. S(l~ial~~i;ni' <l1'iid. plrop .. (lS'ln8~~adiji!!c tQ ,,'an~us.:. ,En,gh~b' .1a~l~'i. _MO[,@' seriously? hi@ .was' tm pile5~d b irhe l'~~n~t~IY fidyao9ffi SL'1'I:.~ .of h;]'dl,@~~,' 'le.d~nologY'Ul~. eeun.{;)Dl'!1 'n.1l~; l'0C~r?e' ,mor~ ~'e~~:l~~ ... (Ii! ",l'afZIJ~ urb~;rtgs of Ule.l'H:!f,!d r~jl AIFgh!i1 ,~e\l'e.Iopm~nt. HE) wa~.allS? midlL~cted asa F[~.ema~·6.fl"by KttEl;ren~l', ~. C.(.)~:~an~~'f;"~~~C~li'~~· :and t~~~h9S~l:le~ei~t'[~Q~ f(j tId,\{ ttl ~bWi ~l ~ , ~ 11111' til~"'ill~~d 'V!;:h~~~ ,a~[ ~]S -~bJ.l)l:'l1" 11~e ll~d' ~'ti'vt;~'.rd mu tll~lIl' ~X6~ltll~(l~.

. y~. Si()()J} ~~n;.r¥dS~hoWClf'@r, [e:la;ion~ "i_th Hrmi;i:r) W!i'Itfuam'in ,svur-~~ by :LI~~ .s~n.b1gJ,,~ J 9tl7,of ,a~ J~ngto-JJ4'ss,i~u\.G~m''':~tltlQJJr'l:i I'll ~ ,h~d it~ ,nn:gll:t;I~. T~-,.u~e,.,g:rO~'iing !tl:~wre ,of the 't.\;!jrQ' ,oountrie" to' :PIIJ\l ~1 end ,tg ·Ii,be G(-e~t..I. liameJ and mdIi.imise the ri$t"s of oollftia bet&ooIl ttllem,.Jonowtnig: 'th~ I:JII:lmniatiJ@u Russ:r~ h'ael Sll~6ro@d fh: !I:lll~ ltll:StO: ~al?alH~'5e Wtli( 'of 19{J~1'-1iJ51 ;n~.ti~tTi~lhi1-~lf·t':ofri,~d~·:m.;,~ a:fld mrJ{i:~r," lnthrence haa WHI'ICq ~n St. Petel~~bUlfgi ~l;l!d both 1(":(lt.,I) trlies' ,,\~Ae ~. ~'f.llrn,g nereou: ,tt 'thli! J'b:~ ill \ierm:JIfl p(nver. As far IJ.!!' ."'fgl'm!lIlisl~li w.t'i· (O[H; "itflied I the .Russia n' lIg;ainCQllf!tm;dilh ei r 1873 dl;!dar'iA,ti!Oll ~ha.l: the . eoun try 'trad;YruJ.'~~~de tbeh sphese of j.nJ]~le,R,e ,and '[1"I1ide~J.'t'()o1< ~:t)_t:,p~':ldUt.:t U~elr. pOlil.'l:Jc·al.re:lt.1UOl,1' with it t.bruUlJjh Lh, Bril.1~h .. "rhU~ tae latter gunranteed not 1:0 interfere in At~J~~r1 ilff1ii~s and not to {)CClIpr ~r..ilnnle;'il:; ,any part ofth.eoolmtry:. Qu:rin,g the fuft.e&:d ,m'on~:h~ of n(!~1}ha'lJo:u,thac Ied to nile! Qjnvt'nil'j()lIl~ Ith~ie'wtlil>"no oon,~u.JI~wlioll W'~'l,atevt::r wlith t h Afghans. yet 'the sl"i"IH:IIaU,m Wil' mild., Ihat' Ha:~ibu~a;IT'S ~approvaJ· ~~as r€qube:.df fa:!"' tt tc;> come'mto' 'e"J:fect rredl~lllili:llY. ,~,~ A~1il:I:r ft1fLj~d II.u ]~il,~(O;'1nythlDg to dol 'w'l.th 11, .:m.d .e':' .~·tut1l11~ ~he two $igni'ltol:~e' a:ID'e':ed tll ta.m}, n '\vHl1ou't Mgh,;m P~lltl~l[?a~H)[I. The b<llcklask n:~,a.ted ln .. 'J.gI:umis~·anat t~1~ hn,gh- 1h,1.11)c1ed] [.r'l!i~I'r.IHmt s'tn!n$,themoo, WI~HI.W,g,!!: ~() beecme ,k]lo~rtl. l'U th,('!! 'wa r pa rty' centred a rotll'ul Mllill mud TarlJij and r und(! r tl1" ~a.tt·l'r' s infIu,ence~., pifO~·n.u:kli:iih .. , a.ntir-lmlferialisland 'pan-W:l>la:mic se,l:Um.ent' CO~lllnu~d_ ~o. :Sp-rCoII!l;il ~!iftthl.n lhe roya,1 faliu il~l and HIt' l:\fghfrlll e[JI'h~, 'i\rj,th lr .. .d~honaliS'ts C1Jid m(i'dl·'mh;t..~ ~ojnlng f01"C:~i [ny1llt~liah ~ltHi .<\.m~n11iJ.tahi. we:re.,ttogethe:r \i\1;ith t11!eAmirls' bwt:h;e'r:, Nasrt.!Uah, prominent iln Ute iW~r pad)"~ as \ilfCI!C Ule 'Nh.l~ahlb.!l1l ,3:md Chatki ~mllni,e:.s. \~i~h Afgh.arn ~nco'M-r,ag(flrHflll;. mjJj~tie',rmjnd~kl by Na's,n,;,ial;l hosthle .achvfty on the fl':Quttif:t[ increa:~e:d siigiljficantl~' 'lb.el1:';·~en 1907 .I.nd 19'{lt91 (!latching illril:is:h 'e.f:folrts to ~tIOIU ,11 .rQuc\ved ,( .on'rt.ud pOUcy"-in hr:lbid tenUor}" 'Under [,lr(;:~sun~ ·~I.l: I[!Ol.rlt~ 'ta. oom,ti! CUI i'~1 StL I?lPo'rt of the· tri~~, HabJbuUillJik~pt s.ilent, but S~(!ms. to h3ive ".Iaced r~ltrr~~tdc~j(HJ ,on Nf~sruUlli~li~ Icl1",j~I,~:!, and ~o Ilal\;~ f,lg~ree~ tun' ~d fir!."! ,ent any of hjs, :nl~j~ds ,~rom plltU~·I:p.atiIilG in th,C' " n::~]-'. t~9 :rostll.f Will> 1Um.1:'I!I nUIl1.jbe.n' oheUg~Qn."l i!ltcJI,tt_et..s ,(;Iie('l,Jjt'mCi ill (if ~d ~f'ld I,t!¢!

I 11'n, '5 ;) 11(')"lI thr: "}1nm,H '-'0' .

T'Illi '1Ju.tbre.ak "Q[ the .First \-Vcidd 'W~it 'liV;~f> atfi!'st treated WU;h lridi:l!li~lJ~:n'c(! hl Ai\gbanis.tafl" .il1:0 .. H.a~Dib!Jllah '8!,I1rul:llll:lt:e,dl th.al:, th~ ,_-oL;int'l''!f'!lviJtdd [i ·I1l~dn neu.t):~~L lLov.re·ver f~nn~_ (ha:lJIg(l~ ~IS ·soon a~ nlrkc'),: i)et.1li~m:e 'a-.-htl'l1lgctGnt. lrhe C1l1ip'h·~s. ¢'-In for ~I jiJt:"~ .[\~(ei~-e~ PI~ld1:e ,aW,.E'o'vOiI)t.vililc11 wa.~ [~Jnifore~ I)y r:~etbe'r,a$i1o:riS 'rrQcn thQ'~nUn BI,;il~lish agi,tn,rlo!tl \!i¥lhjich W~~~ ~~J:pu-:;,~d. in Mu~U.[n .. 'ir:('I,~S" hi. 1r~d~a. "\1iNi Si:mj"Cll-Ak:fdinr' in' th,e· leadJ <liIlf1-Gdfisb ~nd- .fl-ttti.Ru$S,laJ!l·fee!.ing b'e(~O'l.mel1l{jiroll::. ani.e"dat('.~d s.upport .gre~\': rOIl Mg.J·Ullti:!:l mlpliltl[dptl'" UO'l1l -tn 1:11- wm. '1bbe[lln ~,itt.1 ll.alll,ibu1hI.h, had li1:de ditllt'1il.ty n.1 (;ont~riningIt11efe' pfeSSl::lifes,: h,liJt he '50und Ii:lliJCl:;~'lf -rna m~.d'l more 'dHficuTIt po-tiuon ·'i~·i1.1ert. kl':~p'le:mber ~.,!}'._ltS_,_.a 'ru~:!(~G:eil~ltnJ1J m 11~)i;~OO" whIch l:md lir.u'nn.g~d ttl '_t:rn~~~ .Q'If~Ii:!m~ f1'b.m 13 .. :gI.lidad, -a:trb,~~d. i.n KaibliJlI. The }\t-nilf called Eli i''f#li·~,t y,,'lilii~~h ~heJie '\i.'<l_~·,g.et1J}etal S!llppcftlor '8,0 anti~Bti['dsh jih(l(1. Nl!\'e[tIEl~les_~ Jl1{;! '·~~a,s .. elear th.llt he JlOuld ai;lit·.rt:! tOb!.s· 'Pfllicy o[ n~~llc~_fl!Uy: h~. \111~~,}' tqhu::t:Ln-t ~o rlsk <II milltiJi.t'y "bnfIGlDtaUon wIth t'h~ l$dt:ish and Russhtt'lsi and heliWlis DQt, In. illLIY .ua~~~ a. beiligere·nt man. I.'it alsQ.IiI) doubt !';3W hlml!ilUl!l: bcn:':!I(i lciy' tre.!J,ty <{jbligi;JJt.ln:n~ tld. [' 'tn'incd some of the goodwill ,,·ngeri0.1ered'bY ,h~ ji~it ·t·g India, th~ the-iE:fore devJsoo ar·6.tefLll bl:lla~dF!'g act, bey fSIJ1e5:nm;I}PI@~blElIfhl,c· 5g:I'IHm.~nt\> w."I.d gl:yiln~ $il'~hll-.l\kh/Jlnr U;s, h~d'f IfIU~ ~ll!.llrn:g ea:ll~i:lC))n LII~I~U ,sp.ell t=.1nt18 as 'I.htl Wa:r b€lciW'~a~~ned 'th.~ 1!itiliish--a·FJ.ii it "o,QalA~ae '~~n ·whic.b v\t~y the Sl:rug.gl~ would ,go. To th~ i\lf.ko.·G~llmatn !rn'i58ii)~r' he pr,o[~~o;.lii!d ,fit :T~adWnss. lP ·attRi;k I.ndia, p~twid~d {tllIat h~ W" S. :;;li:ppOl't.~ b)' a st.ibstanti~.l TU.rki·.h· or German an.ny, a,n:d, be- e.V€:llIh;!;1II.*: signet! a' totally utiifecalJs:tit .~Ia~t tre~w .in Y"r'hkh: be pl,ed;~(~suppor:.t· rO.t' Ibll0.111ha]. POwel'll, II~ return furr no ]e8~~ thnn tWfm-:y m~lhnn pc ~.'l:1d.sm flU~cll H)(}"O@!).rtfl£_lj·l.Il1d 300 :ctlnnon. Hatht'I' more -l)m:ialJsly~ the mj~s'Lo'n tllied to p~m:fioU~ unresten the ·ronti.er~ but .aga.I!1J, -~~i'th_ll)ut l;Iri.·(1 :o\l!c:thrQ S,U.P'prllfll fir 'tllt? Amir.j, '{he,ll:' {~:fro.:d:5 I,a:rg.e'ly riJll.(~d ln tlM! fl.l.·~ of rfr~dve llfiU'lihcnunter".uea-surreil arnCl a :iubs:t~nt:ial inGeease in the su~venHpng ~lid to the :mitre5. At the same 'ljrntl,' \'\Ihne (orfl:eI;,U.o;g'; s HU~~ ~IS p.o!iidbJe· to' th- "w~r party.' "'J."'blbuJ1~h",{a - ,qlllijUy ..uri.ng" Lhe Ili:l'.i:lislii iilg mtin Ka.bul th<ltt~i€rre wa .' n(H1Jjf:lg to worry about. - the' Hritl.s·b :s:nould ~~'at.cb hb; ac'lionli. Tather than hls vi,.IO!tds..~~.e ton I'~c'@iwd an j1'i.CJ!e3~G;:'d 11f'ilisb s~i.bv,~iO· don; Ufl:U !?vc:nlulIIIYI 1n)anu8Q' 1'9f {j, lUl agatn ·ded~J.\¢d.hb j:l;ClIl.1a1i.tr

in 'lU'H;;o.:mprom~sing. terms a .t III t]ulbl+c dll~ba:['. _ ._

'rhe C;Yll~c:on!e"ot thl~ wa r jiil.:!stl.ftt!cl llablbu.lta,!'i's pul.icYJ bu I t~l'lll~di tu' placate. 'i,~~li,;'r lIL, 'war p~irty' fir 'the·rceltgjml:i end tf.u)a~J.~d~r:i. in fh~ IZtUl,t of tl1lJ: . country. l1le1!ie ~\';;'~ a w:idespl:·~:ad l}@lle{ tha1 AfgltUlnlisiilll' had Jhet:r:ayed l'l:er rSblllll.i prir.l.d_~,jes_ and had '['iil,t.-U t I' [rallI_' th:e I[ 'piport!\ll1In .' to becolul'.' ,f:ull)l;ih d g fidel'll: tha'L had I')&':I]. pfe.imli~.d to, J 1"1Ir. '~rtii~dar1y aft~r Uie ·frl;uis.t~n re~lu'tian Of (917. RE!afiSjrlg hjs di!1'~)~ {. Uo.I:Hlblli~h a~lk d' tll!1i:' J~imNI\. ~I!i ,0 ~~~u'i:~~ fQI' h~s I t'iI1:~IWL[",C 'I to

: Sran t I~·~~l. ~lld!1l'pe_f.J.diell00 trJ ~ds.·~I€'xterlllaf. .as *~.eH as, ~lI'lJerm.a~, . alia! D roS, nu:. UI>.LI !~]l.; h'Qwuvf!.r, '\Wit)l -al\t!yc ~~-t Uh '1Jti:!:dl~'i"i.k .5b~l~ now ~~.n~a:tOO:ing tcdbenO:[f,h" :faiLed to gilll:e J,1im. ,a c!:~lre.li~;O:l'leply.j s:Qpi;0,bi)J~bly S1gtljng h.is;-death ''i.'aDn\~l;. f:ll.febma~1!H51,. b~'Wa.s mtu:demci lit hls 8:k'epwllU' i1I;war, Ifrom l~brl.d o~,1 - !Jcl:!n~"1Ig ~jii'l,'"

- .<\fll:lO!JB'~ hinde:re~1 h, b.!~k of~ firo.a:nela1 re 01.:1K~~ flablbuJla-ll I~n;'l:ged to illHiate'-.a sl~wproc(;lSS ~ e:~,m't01'i!ille a::od.ood~· 'ef0J::m. H'e~i:i!O l!;, !VIi: Ht~ Il:Ouc[):j t.y lwo ~1.~(!i;l!dliS:lfI£ 1.n!~eI'!Ilfl'l p,oea~ ~'m-ll{l iWt'!tse.d c.omme~La,t a·cth1tY.i,·cwHJ:ref'$~ Ee:ta:~ ¥:e'J~' ro li;!I~e:ds ~1~ (l'r ;gfUVJeIi"flllill!li)~l. DlLU'ttl_g. ,hls:·~~.~g;r:\1 il;n~~1"l,['ld0il"Oil'!~ 'to\~li'e '·"'Itlrt.Jv\?d" vU~fuaillJ:Sbui), ~s. 'fi~t 1'11('1G>pl~.tl iUld hj.'doo·~:Ic.c~l!i' Wh"ff1: 1:\!~1\1,!' bl,ll~~ IlInd-,ij1 11tlAr~jh . I: 01' faQtor:.(~~ 'Wlilll:~ e$t.ibll~bG'(t, Hb\\f.e~e.r h~ !al'~WQ:r "ag,hi~1Ii'~rru:e_Il'~ 1J\\a~ i~l t'.h~ educationaljJ~l~ji .with tih~ llmmd!tiHi(](~.o:£ f~~ i'l,abibla l-Ugb. Sc.;:l1emL QI':! U'iC 11},Qd{l1 ()oft 0'1 k'l)~ h ')r jf .•. !I miJ.I.h 'uy aQald~my al1~r~ t~(.I('IJ:'i~'_'" tl'aining IGQrm8;e~' l'bll!S~ i1mt.iw~i,~f111) -b@jJ3:TI 1:(l1.a'itve :the SOFIS or tlae ACghal[lu!P:pl_.:1lf e!lIis.:s~s an ~.di.U;;iltl;QIiJia'l.,gijjO~I;mHn,g •. hl .p~d at ~e\~st 1~j tUIi'II{,l~¥nl~ '~I:'ll~ rli\:'l~lll'~ml"l:t!OJ~~J'('# ,1 ~WI:I,~~·i.eH;l. cc<l.)tury ;S:talc,; lh~r ~il,s'o ~llI~H]l\i(:ldl_the:. bL'lg~:l)In_ing' of Afgha.f.il i_s-lau' scritica I social di:videj bet,"~e.~tn tIle U"adiUo.i.ll,aL .i\fgi:1~.rli .. so let:y of the trlbe ~J1d ~~\te Iroi.mitl''V';sjd~ .1md.

tl:JaJt uhlnil'1ieii;t'~shi!j!l}' W6temi!l!:<I, ul'b~n eU'te. ~

.' H' 'PT£:R NINE

Amanullah and the Drive for Modernisation

IT-I' '~~~ 1:1:S. ~]:lCl.n!l.~r:t.'lI'!W f? ... ~. tl{~b~b~,U.~i~~'~ murder '?I'm, never Si.1.~~faldO~. ily ~S:1,~lbUSlletl, 'ldthCJili,gb NasmUa.h was form<iUr' accused o~ billVmg im~i~t~:i.t.ill).~ M:rummlitulliLlJe a~m~!" ()mcer~ Vl,fho was idleged to 113.\1' 0'( 'JI1m.IU' d. the a(1htal deatt' o;,s'dtily Hi<d '~,lIIld eJ(tl iJt~i.'d.Ortc ~hilQEY, v.',a:s· t1],<:I1: ti1:e as: il:!1s,hlatioir:i ~:iia an' act of rev.engl,jl· bya 19Cai ·vma1t~r \~ti{HCJ!a:d 5J;J.!;V'i~:'tbe $U,PP~5S~0n. of {a r,evolt Umt ,I ad t~.kien. '[g fic''l{! in tlt~ I'en, ·m~l~e :YIi!!i!c p~ViHl!,!lh. A[1Cld1Cr1 f~",.fO"if'·d by .. In,aln~r "B:tff:l:stl~ oO'D 'l:hf!~Si~ 9X f"1i'J elidie'J:1ce'wha:t:iiof:'ver, wasthat U was the '~'u~c,dm)~ (jf"lli 1~"Ob~~.~~ik H'Jot. ;tel atlOtb.er,put a.bout by the .RU$s,iRns '~f~d. ~eh(l,,~ d ~t; tb~ Ai~I~);~iU; ph~n1;5,e:l ~it!S, . ~",~s tl~aj~;dllc. .. Ur~t'bh WiIi! re be'h~nd iV;I' jld,~b(jtLgl1! \\rlJy""the')'· should hi!lVe'wl~hed to lleX11l0ViC: 'i1 u~·~·so·n.ab]~' well di.spm'M ruler. and createa n~dpe for ir"1sl~abm~y on Ih~ l~.L'()luier ""ras· no!'" ~xplalnecL, The 'aWto~etl\~r mol' ~ pl'obiit,1)le IXplillfItlHoi1ll! 'tJJ,i):t·if,.,,·as.the work ofolle or more of.the Iwar part 1/ either .out of simple GlnbJUo,n .for t1:lre. throne • or 01: iropatienc;e ?Ie 'Hflb·jhllllah's iurl1'fi,/Jills'~~i! ',nnd fail lire It,t) adop'l .1 ".rho,l be!'l~'·t:id antlU,r.U'i5h stailHl~ 0:111 this th(,}OfY, th most lik,ely r~gkitile was' Atnalllu[lah, possibly l!~,:nh the St~Pillo.L:l. or <l:t t'heinst~gatlOlt; .of, 1uS'· hli'mldab[[;'! "flo'lh~r; ~,h~1 lIbf:tl I [iiliZ:r,t!I.~, Uabibunl~h/:; ~HhliCipit:l wi.~, A~ A~Lb~!JiUU~'~l had failed ~C1 rlom~.n11:l1~ ~ fii~JGCm:sSQ:f iuld the princ~pl,c of p:r'u:r~Qge.lfI:i.turn-e ".'as); <l~. \'II'e 11..1W,e: seen, net i1IIdH'!!.~tted .h.1 j\:f'gh.an~s.:tll11! there W'ISiU~ l.l1un~dl.<lh~ contest i'o':rlh . ~ucr~);s;lan, Nasndlah, who had be.en u, member of th~ hunting party prompUy OI.ssmnOO the tith:\ and 10\'11$· UiI'{lQ;ded by 1I1.y.atil.lHa.h/ by many (lif the de'tg¥,and hy' ~hose ,.nn:y uni!'~!'i, ih,'n weJllC' IU:ilIr .11 hand h1 Jid~llilll'f:!cl. 1,"ld~fev:C,r.lt mllilY hlliV:,' b'_nn'lJ ili"dt1e!1~ that :S1:((lI]lIge:r ctuds weJie.hfdd by AmanuUElhi" Who l'lld Ul c:d bei':ljncl bl L{atml OI.lld who ll!leJ'efor<;! ["01;' tml1~~l 'lhe,8'[-SWla~ 0lloit1 ~b .~ U', t! til' 1.111 I W'£IS ab'llll'. hy i:ill~~ b.n~ ,rtf lit~G~~eiQm~ I?Jl~Y -, p, re.1I5 's" to

---------------------------,~~

buy- the sUPl:)oC't. (if the .Kabul' g..·u.I1'lson. H~ wa's· I.IJo, 'abEe to. altnl'Cll !;"engj,ou~ nnd 1~!'ib~:1 ,fi,UE1P H'~j . w,eU ,itS. ~h-al (lr TI!lMi .nd th~ ,I lnGderni'sts:; 'NasrullaM end In,y IIhflhth ~lIib;mm~ ~~thin 1fI .f,tM'< (lays and ~Ylel"e IJl.lpi'isoned, as .. li.o 1iV!efe I~b([j MU$iJlllbw~'l: ri€J1'mUY;ii ,a,l~p!Qu.gb the 'Ij~t er wert' ~!Jg~i d~daJ'(:d in.ner ~'nt ~fijd"ret~~m:t, .on ill !I1ebM~Y 19'19~ A:ln~ll:~ It~.h was Jiot:mally £1OO'Wll:ed.

Ol:'l€ 0' ATI1~ID.u,J.nilil'll Ii, Ibs.~ .. <a.ds~ \1i."gS to send a. l~~t~'lr ~OL.Qllll Gllr'I!flJ~fi";l~I! llit~ '1,(:1, !:toy ef I!J,I;U~'I 'nl': rmbllll, 'hm !If !.9iltbl~'~llh, ~ ch~(l,th iJl1d hlsQwn succe ion." ... \f,gh<l1:l\l~t3n, h,4;l' de~I,'<lred, t!ri'a~ ·ll~U.t~i~~]d~nt and· ·'f~~.'1 but h Jv{ntld,· b~: JI!fepMecl. .to €(;ilJ;l~d:em:: '" n 'Iurdhl& 5U b ,OOI!il !'neltlil t!.'~~~,I, S: ~ji!rh. Jndta aJswoukl h, hl tneirc r~ln."L!,31 ~dv<lf~~"~~, t.li~ P It Ch~l,m$®ord in so-u1.etltirlig·o:f.a \liI~;Fla<ll:ry, sieee the B:r.tltisb [?O!'HtiOri. 'ha,d lreeu . tbu.t th,_e tr'¢aties the)'.', had 1;'l'SP1 iO'I~ed .. tit b ., h, All; hs i\lxhu il'l.ilIh 111!'11ti ·~u~d U<li bi.br~1 nan ',hOldi I\rIfI''tln olf a, P~[~o,t'l,a:] mlJu, re a:l1d tb ~y C{Juldi not e·OI::asis~·cn:tly [~.m,iJ; .. 4.rJ:[Hn:~,tiIJah as bebl:,~ bt:nmd by,'til-e'll'l .•. 1I:r9. 0:lI beW.fi;:l;-e-{1 rep[y~. ,th,e Vjl(.~:rt!,l,f dh.:l,d~ed: l<h~ q'U~~Liof.l ("lI,~ jrilct~pe.llderj,~c "i.lOd WCl,c>ly 1l1m:~dSDfi'iJll'i>!ifh~t d~siJl1;gt::fluoLisiiy; tlI011: be. rook it rliQm Amanullah's Illr~ssage that the [at ier ~flliendJ~d flo [i, t, VI.I'[) U~t;: lr!;laH~,s ~:Od engagem ·t'it~ pOIld)juded 'i,~ ithi th~. l~.fi,t'~h Go: ~nUli1ient:.j bl!' thil:·.IPiir'~\lJI!it:tli I\.mjl:~. (Sl,;dJiil,ldi:~.l'y' eommercsal tTea:t]es·,,(ould b COLlside.f.~d laterl aft,e;r It lis- !pe~:iad .of t)10r~U'l!l,hlg' \~.s' I} er. Anlan1J.11,1I1, I.u;ganwlill(!, .hd '!liiIDfiiOUnC{!d:'l to <I CliJ~b~u' in K;t bli1i! that .. f!i!bnnJ'st~ 1 was now r euUr'~Jy f~el ~n~ nemous aJt'u;l ]ndel~el'lrlenI:J b,C~tb bl:h~FrIi1ny and exl~malJt ... lie th€lfl ls:slljled a. dQ'~Ci~! thr{! I::pu~ of wh.~dl I,l;;'lIS dJ~1'~b~diI1 D~Ud as 'as bad as I?o~'lb~el;. Llfl which he :r(\'£~~~~11 to 'g:f!e'a:l~ ~,:tn,~~~ In trl)i;U~~' m::l.dI: dj;;d,'I;I:il'~1 that '.~~~ ~nd.hm5J in. rfs1~1g; and cliE;!:alhlg d.t~r,:lUt·b.a:[l.c·es, a:re!'ight , •. nxc~pl.ljlg ~h!Crn selves, IiI 9rne ls: eensldered a human bI'lh]lg, by .~,be Ilrlt1~1 ', J~.;III·lYin \'I"[t1l UU £) ~t\lpor.ts5: racht"<l r~!>hi1W",-HI pI: 8, ri..lrltl:l~'r durbar inKabul in whfch be' had declared that the ttme hOld come for a jiJ!£uJ' II,gal!1.5L the B.ritish. JU the ssmetime, ,\fgJ'iia;u t.roOiPS\li"'~H~

'I Iril y d t )wOIlT!.'ls tll franl'!ir :md a srn ll fo:e, OCCl.l] ,iil,~ vill!tg>e near HUe Khybar Po:-1SS, fram'wbkllfhey t'()uiG1 control the '\lllateJ· s"tiippiy In the Bdm'l.s.l1 ga I'll~()n at l.e! ndi '!Cot31 ... 1 there. was one thJng; about whi,(;'h ~l~'e ~lJthCJi<riU(~ I:n Dt!1hl, 1'lI!eJ\~ clear ft •. ·W 'Wi'i!:l thtn unless ·""'.~t}i' prOlnp,t ;ant[ decl$:tv.(t ,acti,ou' wa:s ta,kre'D1; the ·t]':~.be-s 'ntight ~.."eU rise tn ",l~M:S,(' and ~I.ilre whole 5Hu'UrOill gel. out ,of hauCij. B~lU~~h h'oops 'we:& l'Il~1: fy1:'1' cornmnted illl1d the Third Allg]Q-AJghi'lu W~r hl:'g~n,

Th~ Brliti.3h were in :no doubt ~bou:1" Amamtllmarlils mottv~."i. in PfO/V911:·lng Ule vl:olI'. 'lL is d~~tr ~fOtlil lle:PCrM from Ol,;ll' Age'lldn~)~hlti~'~

'hlm~~l')fd t1~p~rtedlh;li M~,m,j!lGtl" 1~1c;! S."!:retal'Y, {}f'i,~f.!hHJrf In~lla., Ith~IJ ,hE;U\uih'~s, nquiry' int . th~ Cl.n;UI:u.nat;la!s ,of th 'I fill !lder "Ube ~ap A.ml'f J~~s 'Jtt"C!d d!..!~1? ,cU~at Atl.£I\n ,',','0'11 L~l.11 JJ;C,!Ip(JE~\Il.'!~. Ilimni ~1g 111. !;.Itl'liit~ 11'1 Ilm[mN~iIJ In !'IJl'~lJ'llJit~n .~u:~ ur ,! 'I, '~'I 'l~' U lr!l'-

·mC.pl. d~l'l'i"le'd rr-t:l-Ill aceoums of Jndi,ul. 1,d.i:;,turba.llCeS, .gm~~t~ e:xagger,nedl he hIlS bee:n. ]eGl~o p:!:ochnnr.~ Holy 1r¥ar, <;tltlple'd wuch p:rcmill.'il1'-ill <:)f eaSY:-1COl'lquest o~ llldlat i.rr order ~@ ·a.vwrt' a: reheUiolll a,~-aim~ 'hln'l~e~[I .. Mdlft',SpQ;c-lfici!l.l~}. the Gii;;l,*ern ment of '[n.dl .. 'bGl.!levGCI that by'. :i.~ml,pr:iSQtlcin~ NasruU~J:!I~ .l\m~Jl11Haa, had ~~rjQ1.iIsLy·- a~l,t'Clg,O.I~iS"ed rh~ -, f\(ghaa a.xJJzy·a.f!.d!fellg]0t!5 leaders, A later tbeOW':fiil:fi~ha;t'~ 'ilN Ol'di!!ll' to

"d]:s~:~ad th~UlJ:mYiAI])]<ru:nUUHh :l'l@llt h, lO"i,,·a.r:lis r.be fr.{)IlIUer~ bur willhou.1I £ll'lJ" imel'ttion {Jof conlll'lJ.enc:Jl'lg l~~d~itt~~, Tl~~e'" ,j)'tl dd:nl'ir.~tI~Y1 ~re t]~e J:elUU: 'or rllim'IOC'.1l'1 Gf)ln.n;la~d~. e'Jii~~edljill,gch~.ri[lIi~n;ic~;ion~. HOli'i'~~"f(!tr there was Iccr.t'limJy. mose to It th,".n: this, AIUiRlUU.lhw1l::i. n,o'~.bili'lg :if .!':lDt II pa:t]'lo~ :~I:I~(1i h~d b,t1bib.ed ard:i-ll!;rUish :5~llHI'n.e.m'l:t::>from hh. m01theliy i'lll"'WeU ~'~~I'om, M .. h.mlud T~.iI"Z!]I .. "~ht!Jlal. he :t,l,c:n'lf'~p:pohl'ted: :Mlntst~[ £()Jr Foteig rl Afra.i.[c.Si,' AIll<lllllHaJl l10taIJJy ww~,lted to compel the l!·ri.t'isih tt) re~o:s.n~:~le; .!\:r'S~I,ll~nim:~~p~nd~[iI(.~. but ,~i:l:sO J'b.II<!:I',I'I,m.b,iti:ons .'~CiI"ecove]" tbe' ·t~trrtory be;hvl?1!a~r) the l)i.u:a:ndlLane and :th!2!' fIildm rtia,," :hliild .. been. ~p.tJ:d "of rhe A:fg'l:ra.n &:in.gltk)fn ~n UI~ Uru.€ of AhID.ed Shah D~;nt~nl:. ~.·~e . .nl;so tUI11tlOUI'I€{1 st[Qflg,lNul~lslaHnit senHn;l,Q!U'l,ts .fI11:d SillW . hjm:t>!~U 1\1:.'1, "~h,ee:hill,ll'lPlOi]';Qf '~he ~J1J~lh1l1 populiBI~lf;}n J):l' ~ntUa. !b i~ . seemed to .]]JI~, Uli[ll'oov(;:ir.tb~ elrcumstenees were Ea.'r!"I)'lI.rnbl-e <tnd the

p[;psrpedl~g~QCI~' 'njJ~lrr~ ~n~~ :mulch "fl,g~r ~I'fIOllg:tllfl' M~~~tm PQPtIJ,~'~1:on ~~Jndl~~. ~;t1,l.1te-Cle;lhat in:f:nurkeyj t]liC" s~..:t Qftll,e. C:aUphln1:~ 'in the·Wo:l'ld -Willr. 'rhe: p.r:l,uctp.i!e of s@U"dele.~lni]].aHo,n ,,~tlS part of t.h~COJlit!llIll1PQ:r'~~f ;?idt&tti;;~ 1,b.lJsli~ :W{tS;'~f~ Itlll,w;moill lln~~ :pOO'e..~:ent:~d ne tb~{1t from the NOrth" ':I,I\!lithi.n I.indln;{he'f'@ wa~t"mjfie ant'! an infJIlenZ'iu oep:id.e'fllic" "¥,\'hlie Jt:~e:oo_was, al'li~. ,oon:5<id enjb~ diliarfj~cti~n/, as the Bdttsh $e~Ill:1.ed.

t'll~t ll(l! 'hI! li,~it)ig U'P I;(J' fhe pwm~;i~t;.~· '~fc~!1sti l:ut;u~ln.d adv·~l:'IoC~ th~~, tlH~Y had rnade dt1:t:lfig ~ theWfU\ QI1I :[he~onJl;rary; tb.e.'IjIlJ;~.de'ly hated RQi~ld~ ·A('~s:~ which. ,!IJ:l'n;on.got'heJ: tmllu:gspil'ovide:d for 'inh'!;Hl:[ll.e~n:t wl~hnut tfl~lf 'W~~' info~~(!; :!lnclhad h:.d d~r~(;iUy Itp d,O'~;!! tn NorU~ot;:r!1l 11ldt(l'9!n.dl the'~iYfuoolOu-s JaUa(lwah: Jlagh massacre. While ·the IndTan exiles hi ~.atu.d dou;btless eJ\agge:r~l.1ed the prospects for an [nd'J,nrru L~pd~ii!'~g, they W~f~ !1(:)~ whp[ly wiUl!!:It:l!l [l)l~~~dl!1t~k'nl' ~~'" lnd()(;:!d the oiJflc~,al BJrlflsihr,e~:lort on, the war adll)Ii'~ted,.· The SO"Ulihe:n1 ~~nlll1bl. "~:L l1eCQJld£ld!i, ~P!!'!IJ.~'l1lca·Hyl·o~ein 1,'·~~UfJO'~!,

/J.. t .~ be ~Zll1'tl;! .~ ilTll,',i,r ~he ~ nd~ij!r~ l\r-!T1Y b 1~d Stl ~rCld aplPl~l Ji:n,g 'n;iliS]J!!l ~ fl~:s au fil';Ig the"\l\J(l!d d War~ I!:~ roo~i1,~ e~cS, IY~ll ,(In(.~ l'(lI~~ch of i' W!lS $UU~h ~e~OPQtaln:l.l. 'l'he Bdtish UEJI:S s:l~tloued in tndi3i •. fUll[' th~k pel't1 WC1.~r'l2c 1:!;l'I!)ith·~I.y [ew Ol)ld W~i[l~' 'shol'~ of ~tom!i ilnd t~!'l.n:'llr:l.cllt, '11 ~;i:;ly' h~d I~o~t lJI1I~ny af theil' mQf>t~x;fH~d~ne~d .m~n,.~,\l"~re- tn ,tlw thr(),~ QI'~ ~I:l':FI'lGlbm'SiI:,UQ,tl. Ol.nd, im.:lmdedl<l large nl!1mb~l' of 'll!nU{)rwJ~rbrcmp¢r<l7 rI~1 pQ$l:ed~tl I:pdi~, Or:! Ilh~ ,Ilm:nti!.';)rr l'b~f~Jigi,C;I!J:.'i' I~Bld~~'.'i, m,i)de ,BljgOll d[~f,~'.'i tl) f~ic~e ~,h~ t.l'jl"b.cs,~,..d'<l}!;~llIftlml t;'QiUn.agra~'iQ;1iJ UIJ~r'Cl' :W~'.ii ~Ati~]y R~Jlb'b,';\.Jrh.~:MiL~ Isuds. itufl ~hl~ ~~iLt:S dId: ~11(j~~i).J ~S;~i"lhUI:/ dwc.$:lh~h~r 1~1'fl>c:s", ~(;.~ii1lr},(l~,\ld (Jl:l.! 1\ ~r:~dr;!'i j, ~1:~ d ,tf.l' btl di,~b~lliidc.d.~ i~19:~'¥!!li0.' r 1~l'i ~bh

-effiJrt8j, 1lI,!lstet·"tli:i:ntied b'yth'e·' Cllliei ,COiImn";s~~~'l~l' of t.11ltlJ N~V[1I~; 3h a,oorg~ Fh:Jo~,"K'€,PifJ~l; bpi. ~l'te- 11,'Lllk (Sf; I~l}~ l.:!iilEre'~' ~JI,C"OD'l;lljn~~'(L

T.h'tt Af&r-Jnln~':i..w!;:re'··<Il.lio, "ta~t';I.t;rulJ¥ inept'., TIlle Ailthiil,tt Ar-lli:L, lIVM"t[[!Ij n.o:~&tl1t€ to ~Ct)r'l!(~~lct 'a ~l1stil]Ile4t~m}1[s.tv:e. ~~~ It -i\le'lJi[rer'-l:1:!tf,H~ke~l'lrulll;m :ftonlls 51IluOulln:eD!Jj.Si~y :n,oli oo"pm:~I:f'll.~~ n~ lDe~s~I'm).an e~J~O'~~d lrpraisi.rlg JIl ~es]],ttWaT. Tiil;~'l:'J], ~il·~· 't:ililie:'"fai1itt!l ~!de:~lnp~,.,;1cf.~C1:lili~iJi!«~,"~ :of trw" Aighan postma:~te'J! l:e isJ1Ir l.i!P tD1jzjul:ll~ ~m ,~or~j;U}lli~ !),y' (!ITOc:tlV'~I1:rl'l:~;5;h tn:t1(1l];1 igern~' ItFln; d~e:i.s~~];1lc~'~iilllJP,rktlil'iI'. 'lrhbdili¥; 1:l~~ th~ iJ{p'Ils~irljg:;;W:l'l:'i<d(le tll! lil~j~ p]I(J;~. ·l\bjili~b,;tliiti'I'.5"~~J~dl ~11IJt"g1n.~"llf l'~ eUyatlld tUtll!.et1. aW ~Ib~ ,\!r.la:~~ 'S1JPJ:l~~'i)til:rrd.] ·th~~·proSlJ1Wetl'\."e im;f.l:r~e.nf-S W~ :s •• :n;f~i'ld:tlliil"d. Th.e Bfl'~:lsl" ~al'~ 1111111,8, ,iijtJ:ll~ l:b Slia:1r.iliI Uif~ ~41:e ,pnsiElidn 'En the I";:h~tI(!J Uri,-'<1l 'afliCl we'Ji~ lllttfr iOO! ·~ltptllJiw the .l-\'fglMll1 f&t.t tl.~ :Spill :J3a]dalk .. on. the 1'U',:d i;)'etl\(ee.n ~Q~e'~u. ·am;1 ~1'ld~Jl'ar. l'il(j'\'!il~r r-11l~ W~LCC ,glC~tly etn.b.n.r'li~,:ed 1')¥ ~jM,~ .1t1~lle I:.:C.!l!Lf!iilI ~leg:I,(ljiJ1 oJf'tL1e rIJOIllti€'cl wKru-.e Nilti~£h~t[l :~mtl(l.e.[:d Jl.J:Ij 15m 'ffN;l)Npt'!!fl.;. iIDltl ;{ltfl}'tkedl tli~e I~'rll;j'sbl f"Q1~ a.l 'fJ;'lllit A :1'l.i1u~b~r: of ID.rwO\lPr;(ll~lJ~~' b~rd 'm'be,.t!'\lllle!,lal~(!]. wlUI. !]!PP~t't: k!b:r~ !(liA'~Ua:lt1iCli, N,tJdU: Kh;Ml did .j:J()ll! lw.w~'ile~~ j!;ne~!:; ll,Ollre Jfs; attad ·ar:ld·wdtt"l.r:t;m'~-$ \!itl11e'u :a relie.VlngBlfilUh £oitee ;rrnjv~rl •

]~v~:ll~sf. t~m~ h'G:wei'l1el') Alnalul11ah J1i<l.d~u'J.l'tfl?d l)[hllla'ike OIvenCl.l'~'" :fQr p~or;:~ :qo dQ0b't lh:d:l.uei'lLlld n@~t' only bY.the!' poor s;bo>y!'og,O'i hI.!! :":lrmy and tbe.tflbs~nlZe ·oJ'· ·.a..J.'11 Iflidi'Ml t~PFI~iID.g~·but ~lso by the at!' cJi~.'l:ack1~W l:h<lt I.'b.eJtmyal. AIr, Poree .rnount-0d .i.ll.loA~,h<l1Jlist<ln. ,~:~[hough they, PQ)l~:.;sed Qt~]:Y>~ f~r IHlItk~I.!~ll~d airCfrl'(t h'n lifU!l~i;1'1 §~ht~ilIblld wac5 ,f.lfl.e'1~Y- t(il{-ge~- aMd )i,;"'~ hit by cue-a il.d+il-hi31U l~nl)" of !b~fmbs.·ilill a .s 1 1.1;g,1~: d~y, \¥h.I~J(? OJ .[~a~F.!.diI.~)! .lt1~g:e.V.-1.S'fl{) had ju~t su.flid(l.nl l'<I.nge 'm [each the Ju;gl ~anc~l\'l t<i;t~ w.b.etl? ~t hit tl'l~ 1'.11 ~~1.oe:J an 'l:rl'll.nl'J'U~nts.~ £a{':lEOl'Y a md :A!lilJr Abdul" RiiI.~mHlra"5wIDib; Aril]a'fl(;l~].a'hJ~· nnle&:i!fg'e:1(I1 ·to theVk:~rD)' talked oj[ jm.isuuctel"s~andill.ngs' '<1.1'11[1 .o:j! :!(1 ~\:'aT .fhocl{!dolllm:ij,r and ('1lJ:O;~)hl.i:n.t'd, r<l.IJiI'C'.r L:lruiJlru iV~rnYf i ~ nO~,WU,h(R~ l seme ill~S Ii Il.t;.lti()I.1j, that:

n: ii~,~, I~nali'~e:l' (.)f ga;l?l,u te:g,r~t i~I."I,'lIi. ~he trnHowlng of borl1b.s by ZeppeUn.~ on tendon wa1i dv.~:nQll:n:tec'l! as <II lll.GiSot S<I;V<l:gCilC:t a.nd the bcmbardment of platt-S, o.~"v,orsh.ip was consklered a most a i]o:mi I,'ilili ble op€".rnnon.w~ili I.e' :now 'V!'C Clln se-et!i'j th. Ol'l r owml cy<!l::!i tlil<!lI SUlch ,ol~eJ[,OIH(lIn:> VIi"E:f"l: .. habU'livh.liCh :isrr.l:G:li«I~n;t amongst illli -ci,rlllS!ed pe.eple·;s o.f th.e W~st:

OveiUI ~ l1 the· VI.cc:Ii'OY ,j l.1 dgeell ~ 'tb.at the ltless..1B~ dh\pl<1yed ~rHi1h::le:fl.t j,cWimb.dtlw.l:t! ~J'II'nf,'dt a ii'i()si~:LVC f~Spg,!1,~~. th'~!!~ W~!i ~vme ~l!rp.!'~~~ gn Ji.;o[l1(i1o;n, at th.e Yic!Zl(l~f!i 't>Tl[Ungl)~ess tOfP'ffSP the· ,o]ive 1)~1fl'(]'DI!, b~lt t!'l.~r.e was 11.0 wish: in .lndla ~Q prol'Qng the wac A dedslve (i),u'I;oo'm!e (,.l(I'~lld :jJ1,Cll: h~ ~'ON';1i!iI;t'tllJ.~hl.llc U~i(.' tribe~ \Ci,ie'~e ~m~ ~m~,fietlrcl'.~bli~~ thl? h~l' ~lf-ealth£J' oi 191'9 W'liIS p~IiHC:lJIJla.dy b"l'[e.ose. li!ocl!tb.oJer;a W\l:fj, :rlf~ a~~Q:!)G ·il!he~ooop.s-, l'I~MUUe~ ".e~i.'le.clll!'!s~ ~~lj~lJ'ru a 11l,an:th ~t~~ ~Jt@.)'; l!,l'!1:d bJji·gUr.l; ;tlt:,tull~,~..s~,~ie· hi~\(ll !~!i.! !mollrl'~d ~ Il;r' ~Igi. ~ II'. - ~r.(l ~!'~h"Pi1 nt'J_g~.

"I'h,e-re th~n fnUm'l'e"d ~~l in.C9r.cI;u'i.l:'lf~: c§XJd;.Jllge of Me~~algl?s 'bet"'~~ ~tl'l.i.HU!1:1.and_·I~,el i'mifmd •. UI)illl at fhe und Of. ~t;lJ)' an .Afghan dieleg~ti'on was i!lvil~,ed 1:;1' RaW'!lIlpb'1di til) fn~goti ·te iii peace treaty. TI;u~:r~ tlJj:~, ;.\(g11w$. astouri.de~ -the, ndLish' no,!: only by ~O,;;mi:t];g thern (JfIt~V:l:tlg(~'l-augoo Uil~ '~iI!Ir bY.~ ~~Q b:}I ~.1.~Ik:~ng, r.q.r frl:~~itaiy SIJI~P0Q ~md pmp.M:fng ~1. ·rl!·a(l~!JI 't.m:ili!lilt 'of 11 '(! f{dn t"i(.!'to Si"t;'tf' Ebltm (on'tn:d in tbe ~1:ilbal3i~;eM, tOg~bh.er \'6~h a 5ulbs.iay to liel;,ay them for th~it l1:'OulEJle .

. Ii:pw~'\'er M;t~lr ~lut.l'·l"I!~ dumy ,t~nt\d .;:nd ;withln _:ii1 ~ ~~ ~lI·ee.I~·s ,tl1!i~

,riccepli:l:o. :a t"lieaty.l2.1 hijlt. ~8 h flv~lY' wfiighted h'l tb~' Brili:s-:h f!IVmi.r.1U . srnplll,a,ted 'I[bm- 'to, m;aI'11; t!'leJ:r displc!l:~u[e'!r 'the ,e'ri'f,i~h "'~~,6uld')l:yUbdli'tH"ii

thf!~·r: (!~ll.~~lQn ,aUowin,g .~h.e A~'d]ri:.J:lil!l t~] Jlnpo~IL <ll!~L1lS thil''Ou~bl:rld,i;ar ~~l,]l. the nn'ei:l'fil' of' slJbi~d'DW()d to HabibuJlfilh would be <tonlllscatcd' ~I no: fut!JThet $t;biiidy paid,' ~clld 'Ih~C U1E:! €?tisting (mulier l'v1)Ujitl ,)t:uJ.(~, gubj:6cl :L'I? M.e! dem,llcI'(;atli()!li!, Tile .fgh.:an; w '[(!\ p'Ul '111 Ilm:bl1,t;if;l:n t~i!' s;lx mtDnthsl ~.t th[!'~;f:jd of whirt1 ti,m~\ l)'"toVide:d their '·~ctlS ~'n~t .(:o.nd.]r~~ J:'eI11i!tfo~~If:j:l.end[y~ ·rllIrtlilJer n.egt1t!atliJl1s 'GQ.~d.d be lw-h61 An~lanlJibi:h ,tQ!:!!!' bad ,..tjn pal~'!"'O lC;;i<l!l~ r' 1n tu:cepl the IDw,r;nnd L]nc

an~ ,Hb2l"ti.dQn 'tl!l:irn IID't~lIC' tubi!' ilfi1'a, lx:),6nd', btlt Ile'w8s mor

th'3J ~mH~ ",' lcmel ~tt;«:lled t9 the treaty by.thech"C'f Brjti"sh

f'l~Vtl~i~N~ . 'liilPl1 \!:~t !l:n.~!Uclt:t'Y U'uu 1','lgh~nlsrou (Wl!is.!i10~~ r,o.HkW.I.ly

~t1 oill1(i datn i'A "Its ~:i1J]:t'inil:l fnru[]e:.iternaJ atfalt.'i' ,~he'w:llJ'

having' 'r~ ll~w Ii'l'at'l.fltml~. 'h'-e;ititts"'; This left . .\maIl:u"lJ.atl.lrturu-

p11~llt. wlith jill' '.I? {1'stlg !rmlil.l:n~ Iy .nhlllJ ed, putllll1tnrn,iUy ilnd on the iltU,mnnLiJl\al ;,n~. l-h: oolil.I.i -and diid: ~ pr. sent the'O'lltro'!.Tlce,ll.S.iI d~fGOiIt '{(l:-[ l\;i;j)l'ish aJrlllsflfn(\ .mellI" lli~1JJ:;ateJy';'.1I.ji mtuldn:g.tl1~ 1!i:rth of-an :1.ndf.l:pE'I1dent ·A:r.~ha.l'l .111.1 ~iD:]l, 'c;(Jn:~:~~'i~IYt on d t~ llJ;i'l.i'~Li] sl.d~' there 'WiU iJj good ~eal 'of r~ ritfifln:~,tiOO'l. 1:l'l' g~')\~EtMmle,[11 in IjondOl~ OIDp]OIIJri/l'ed that t'lle.. bad' ,gi"\'el no' authority Jkir the concesston, 'Nh:iCh. the t d.e~dbed u.~ a I~;u;r.re.nder tOr I)re:"tlj~!r iUul lU'?.Jl!f1, m.hen l~ ij'C!'g-o ~ rcl[af}) diss.;,ciat(2ltl :bitnSI:;!U hXl"m it, But Delhl hil.lIn""ad the situatlon hetter: ~as Che;]rnj(ofd :p~J'l. ~t tn.a .IJej)()i[t13 I~.O' Londen

We·hmt:e to (~e.ll 'WIth -IU;l Afg:hli:tr'l naHon, _i.tn.Jl'I'"egllate::'d. \'\i"~t.h the \",·,o.rld~:s..pirit 61' ,ef.f~d~~:rmll ti""lJl ~ mtd nilUotlaI1:,.',!!t:c;lo1lll.1, nord.iJ11.3te-ly .I!q~ f~mn 11 detU t n its nt'w-l1011 n d em I:l i1,cil)a'tio.n hom '~:l;ut~cm,ey .:'Ind in its sU:fliposedi 'f.'SC<lF [rOlDan :m'E".a(~ fro:m RU~S:l<J •. i,I'rl.pi.tlil;i€!n:l_ or tIny ~ :HraJr.lt (]In Us ~bsnlut~ i:ndlL'p 'nd.Cll·t,e, TO ;i{1X'lct ttl AP~h"Hl~s.t .. n of Loday winingl)!' to iu::tept. 01 Tr,eilrty fe.embodylng pur oldcorlU'Ql .over h'e:rUorei:gn ;pol:i,:y 15 a. rnaITi'~t!st in~pO:S1>i!bUH.:.. th-\! ' l,'lcr(! '(0 ht~po It .nh~ po 1m of IhJ' ~'WU I'd. ~d "h I[:ratu:17 The Tt~~NI)' virOU h;] h n~'I ~e:n torn to shre-ds .l-lin~ mO.iTI:~i:t :1'h~'p~Lnt oJ'rbe 5'iN(}f~ 'i,~,aS \irJ'I~ltdrOl'ol'i!"U.

"lU' i'ri', Jj 'Illrt .tHl~~"lst" the< OI1SU:ll.in,tS: go~mlfli.S' :any dtahflli5 wnl .. A g~cl 11-1, ,cum hal1 ~II I n been u!!~dl jll'lillt d. UO'WilV'af .~I Cf f~lfhrilin d

~~el+ngerill'lg teeU(!g.l.tI.1t I~.1n~g:~u he:pq~~~l:e toma;lrttil.l.n '~J;rue I'~~tty. JJ f1~,),t tl1c .1t!lh~l'i lOr contf,(~m .. A5. Lhc Viceroy we:!'!:l P~! 10 5iJ\l!'~

i\fS~l.~!1!'I!it"Ul'.~ 'cC'nomic ~ndl\ugl:~ph1cif! depC'ndf':n~ OL .Enlhi, 'iu~Ufl~lb:ettO[Je'thilt,we nUly-l~x:>rt O~ll( ~otlt~()l11h th;~··,wb}i!,tan~~ -prOV:i~ed ai:.~Ta}!s tg~r\lred()':llO~: d:~b"~ her·~I~elli..fue'r:t ffdr lhjf~. h~~[il

nF ~.'iltll. h :;Ile '.l~,add:i hl 1i~~1 n ~tL '

There wa'''j. thc:r~rot'~, .a re~idUI! 'tlf be'lf~lf JJ~ 81'iUsl.,f Cii!tdes.llb<Ll Lh.'1 Gonld ,keep Afgha'nlsUm 'i~a's:ta,t~ g,' cL pernd :I~q~ wl1ie.lre ~"h~f ,,~l)ry:s.jd~.rOO he'l" 5'~~],1 !JI~Qpedy t.o, ');I!l@WBgl {:I,Ql'I e;wtff (a1j.'~.m'Sf~lti!lf l:m;ti:V~-aJ hope ~n~!l U .m,.lghl. !:f', pO:!lsibl.~' ~.C)) r'·, t~J;gh~ ,h. ~nifiJjj~,mte <Il1!d l~:eS1!lme tile' ro]e' as her pm:lili!'l,;ter ~1t(;ili5. . ~a 1.5 li .oc1fitt'ffl. AA-'I1r!mth·, I>.ub~'tantive trea.ty\·'i;'a5 e:ventnaUl" Sig_ned. se(}.De l:WG ye,iil'lllater,. ~ter l'llUS lid difficuU ·nG:~btianot'i.·~ 1,~ fWU~L t ~U.sl~~1 a.. on~il'DUhl.", am"l.0'5pheN of .!nu~] di~,r1'l!lIlt;, 1'\I::te ['llli~\~ill,I].G!1:iI "!.hBm.sel.\"'e-5 w~(e hardl}' fo:rwl'Md.ed 1:1)' (11.:1nlC£.'l:IJ~' m;t'Us t14, te, tt!lnce:d~ to ~n A.Jg1,ta-rn· delegaUon VilU ~Ul& .Loin~o~1 Ul"lt ] Itr{! ir()1i(t]gl (,) (flee' had ~m, l'es[ponsibilit·y fm thrul]~ .l\fWhi1ln:i.s1 iiil'lw:as) he: iUi:ibited. tbe sole oncern of the Government ofllndi~. n!J.~[ tnt' terms: o.f n e I:~lll'}; (Upk,)lua:ti!c l'itis!flon s ~,!,of.1l·,~· ~'X.c1::lIl ngtlid.,. hllt,. hi ~h:1 f~ce' of cc)t'!!,tlnUb:lg··· Uinr,e~tah;::I~lIg the frontier, tile "B.ii-ti:s!h' ~~lt jUgm'~l'U,~d~Q lna~e 11iCl~~~iilgl'r ~ggre':"si'y.e attemptsto '.stl.bdll~ 11:l1:e. tiibe:s,. while Amanullah contlnued to 'try to still' them up .. ln 1:2.3 11 ~·weJ.1L tn l).e'l'SQ-rtIL'(l, Ja,htlab.ll.d and he1d II \ribal }1($tI ,atwhkb he ,~;a ... ':· money and encouragement 'bo djisaUecb~d,

leaders f:nom: the rn(LI~m slde of ~]-I~ 'D'l.lr.~rnd line~ <mel ill ~GD.k I1:liQre thiii.t1 ,0. yea;~ [!I;flJ!n thill, 'lh:reut. of ~e:ver~.tl}ee· of dip']'m.li~I;~~l.,!; ·re~~iolW . b!.\!'fo:rv bhi surpp.ort. ceased, At the p .I:lDN()l] lev,€1~ 1.00') lEiw [~Iitce-:s"",'t'Jtl mended, dbna.nul.lab sensed Brltawni·s c.ornin.td:ng .unb.h"','a'ience· and hts sennments :rem.<lbLd :Il't'roIl!gl·auH.i~.od'l'liJh~ who,. Sit rl'nH:-i~ lll.!i1uphrysl' who was '~he 8.~tt:ii.'ih Mlnws;t~:r!n. KubI11 OOI: m,ost .of Am~I1I'lUllaJJ/.!;l reign, allowed his personal dlsU.ke o.f the .1\:ini3: ':0 stand 111 ~he 1I;,ra.y of: liIgetlJLliJ'le £!Uempl: ttl irtlllPiiO''oit' td:~ti:on .. i_;jj. 'ht~ l'u!1gcring, antK'l.g(l'1:1 ismwilis to be to ll..maTlfultilh" s .di;sii.d;vanbg;e .wllen <:d<;ts fInal I· 'I o~l:!Iwbe:l.mled hi.Ill .. ,

0111 I~'is ~.S!l~lnjlJi~inn of POol'\'C'!:., A·:mJn!.!n~!h ~.1~o, f!il)PU, d h~m.~df~n' ~:h~ .relat'ionship with ~;he: SO'lyiets. Orn:ue of his. first a;c;tsW!'!$ t()·s~:nd ... J:rt('Ssiilg,e li~ to lenin expresslog (I. desjr~ Vor rrlenrd..ly ['dati.lflltS" and .herdtl~\.\l' d this up by NcondlID!!l ~. p~r!i(lll1~11 repp)l~n~ •. ,U'\l!? 'to MO_e<il;oW toll plopose· a.n alli~u'l:(e. lbi~ tnitiaflve \~~J.J m<lOH.jII to' 'thl?lilolsheviks.wbo ~o:ei:e having PI t th.~ f fRe h,. fi'ghtEcu UleiI' :suf'i'I'Vtll. and \\\1,eI;~ faciI1g wil;:~~sp.r~lJI.d u.:~H'e:.!;~' i;iiln:I,}I.lG fh['i:1' ML'I:'lnm n~ luo'I:,iUtWls iii. _l'h~ 1,t;'U'l':itoi:!I~- 1:ID1J:l:edil",t-c,ly, !lo:rth 0.[ ,A"jigh~tlis:tarol, I:!;Ii:tiIlJ]Yr ~h(l'y bad: ~jULe' ,Cho:llC'eb~wt ,to :ii.pIP'as~ ',:hlll-se- :mhl<J'I'i,tiiCi,ls'i wh. 'C'h hr:y did p~t~l;,. U~IbIiJ;gb h(lSilJ prom I .~ ol~ .[ u~ .IIi )~11y r 'v"n hl/tllllJ£'1 ~ r IH ''', j,llo;d!1 i . "ill fb, \iii!' "( •

--~~-----------I'II--~ -

perlod Js the m~fJ(e l·gm:tl1caJtu. ih;mIy be,c!n~&'e' ]j~ . i'I~:I.il~ l'{rpl[,.It i fh't9

e~Jtl(;t mamy or t.l:re :r-e:fm'nlli he pmjJlG:'l;edl ~Ii"en; ~~l' he.,d~r~B¢.!t h~v,e till." tirntl 1;01 i.mpJ.afm~~nr: '~hr:1. eo hI:' ,O!nno~ltlt'ed Cu h:I,!I ~tUI\'r] Ir[l~lll HI. t ll~efn.anona.l ~OLl r ..

. Am.ano Il~hi,s :rexor.m l')~rCl,g;ra::m.m:e t;l!lli!,l.tilEflJJ ~betllll''!lg~ ~,I J\'lil;'I;j@f;lii'l 'lI:!fM·a.. foli' rbrc I'l r.sl ti:me; ". \i\'1'fr~er~1 oeJll'iS'lil.'l H~WO!n j . ,Y·a C;1fll!Wn ~Pl ·~j'h.d Pl!om.ul&aed. In it; b~ riliii d to, :lellte.I,Im· the: 'h!titilifi ~lIn:l;p~_e, 'il. ·~~.!.da:r Jn~e.worik ;:'I,'Ii1!;h~n 'whi'~h tb .. mm:n:.al!'d.hy ani;l gtj~~nm~l ~ou~d Qlpe.rnte-; and m,de>fll~~"'lhe' \el~lill:miJjJ:P 'l.:k!Il:·~l!n rehgJ~n i1INiel tAie .~tab;ll HO'liil'ev-ec, the mo(l~i.:!is witte unh'llp;py"wiUl t.I1e'¢.~n(;eii~iig,nl!i to, reUgiou8 ,13 1.1'1ICepbi, w.l1:fi.e:h. t Ifl1(;!O:qJ,crnalfed t whjllif' .the t~dlll_o1ill1l! 'S!'1$ l;€)ok~~;1i;!l;.~Ir:J'UfJn to< dll~ ~d~o ~~lliU m~ ,~H:iJtil 1I~1;lill~ ~'i_:!i:'~ HI pjQ~iy'y.:c:ul,dr basi!i;rntbe[ tban €:7).li5ili,pnrely a1li; ElN eKil'lt'S'lt)O of 1(iJ:iW!n~.l"m, Af. publ it m:reeflJl~~ ,,;~I;le 'he.-,ttm @.f the. v.el1e a1~OO M".ta~cli fu·mijy; ~.i1~~ the :icl\i,n,Jo~,!j1'I~d~d l:~USl~u~ 1.,r:mCier 'of l~]~ ~t.l~~!jt'fJ ,th!l!" J .UI~~at :5ablb ,of S1.'lor B.lza"l"ri th-,e.~· the!. te1Ct oftlle camtftultl:o:n to, 'lila grpiUiIlH:lj ej,enoUJrI.d.llg, it ~-;a. C;:,i)if;Unll!.J!uiSt pu~mic:aiiion •. ,-\manli.tlab also. look steps ttl r~fof"J:n11u~ ]e~·iJ,l :struetme,. 'C'1.'~~:ln;g ~:n indepcud·m iu.~;UCi.~.rYJ :a s,y:sfem . of CQU!lt5~ wnd 1[1' liewia:r pen"l cede, He placed. pa:ttjIGula:r e:l'nph~s,li Oi[i ·l>dD.C3 rian, e blbll$hedl··a ".nI.u'iUlb~.r 0.;: seconda'l)' and' ot.bel seheol !,cl1cil!.'ld~n~,s, 'Qme fu1" ,gif'l~, and :$,tiii.l:it dte jlt''fl.d young ,'~fl!!'ha-Ll~ 'abroad for ,hj g:tl ell": :s~uclier;. He ~lIltmllll1ted ~'ie!c~ll~r ,ilDd 'If(;jcatitl\[la~. eurrleala ,and' br()IJ,Bh.t··iIl l.e~lc.htng staff uum Prance, Gemla..ny and Ind[;a, H~. efHl·t 'dl;lr(}V;i::da.!ls 'to, enhance th ' leg~l.rlghl~f women and '-lstm!ed decrees abC1.li'sbj~'Ilg domestic s1,iilVer)' and forced JaD()1.u. On .the :linaindal. side, hj;::; re.forms ~\[eJ~ 'ex~e~1s:l.v,e. He. :insthured a. govilfl'ullc;lnl .b:udgt!c~j 'or,g.i:m 5'e~' the tax sy: tt'!ffi lutd eSli;l.blishil:dl II cust.olI!tS"tarr:if"_. He C;Qlie"(:tecl taxes ll1il (ash whete: pl:eYi!aJiu:sly they had ~eel1 l,LWied inkb,d-, a:I:1Id set up 11 Uvesrt.o.ck. census and <I .. ~and. t>lU"'ll'€y' fC)1' ta)ii: purposes. H' ilfitu,>dll.~~l 'id~nl~l.ty 'cards with Il'im:Hed :!l"C~!;1; and enforced ccnscnptlon by means .ora loUerl" 1.i1"1Item, He:,TlilJolished :a host oftit1@"ll, ,and. stnecures, cw:ta:[m~~ !;,tlPIHlds.: and icti:n1p1ti,g[l,ed n,c,tiv,(;:'ly ;a.gillij,.n.lltco mpliClI'l1 ~Ind .In!poU~ln. 'fh.e· re~H;:Uon,,'within lh'c COll!1t:ry!O 'these ,and other measme.!ii ',and theili .r<et"\':MlI'CC to 'h.i:s e . e.i1tu~:ll dO'livnfaU. hav(!'oc.ctls~oll,edlUu:cb d~fuab~. The controversial n~~tln,"ri! of S~lil.le M hls social r,d~lim~. in p,.rUC~I,~~~1 thWill .affectiilr1g' womeh~s' rights ~.riId educa'lio'l'il. bas l-ed many to iillg!J'ethat th yw~,re' ~o. u~llvel'S3Uy tepugnantte the :rlgldWy c:on.serV:<litiv~ sod~ty. ox that time th~~ttbey VIt"erc Tn ~h.'~m.S(l'~v~.~ tillC' diiCd nlj1,Jl~ Q,f hb lru~~r:1g Ms th\IDn.~ A. dissentIng' view i:!; that l'he damage WrJ.:;l· done-not :;la-much b~" tl'u~ reJDlim~ th'IU'!iI!'lV~S" U.mit~d as 'lJleypto~""lyw,C![e .11 !~elr e:f~'t! t~ uc rGli,S th,l'! C::Q'~l.I'itry i"U 1:Ii rg~.... bid I;",fh-'~ be ;:a:t:l.~· 1,,1 [ll 'oni q;Hfll 'lchernIl. ·Nnt~:i1.iJlla"ll loot d!ill 'th~' fimc;lJ'i~Q~lllll I crW'!3lr ·1~)'p.Il."QJ'~ tlw Irlbe!1 8l11!d f' Iig~oU$ 111:![u:.I.I:H1)~ ~rnd ~hf >ut 'il "'~ l1:l1.l~\ ~,ijrlth u ~tlo.ws: IOMi or

t~tl'advanccs schteved b Turk y-nnd"h111D. hbHzollli'i;iern 111:0 ill de.l:lli:fse Mgh~I\.l.s~~,n was. I.'lQ1"1.1 o(ll~n"bel.ttliD:g,. ,[fu,t h,t! l~ud' . .;dsc:!' 1'(:)'1'1: an ~lO'i1,.·pth:Hl, Oof Uw b.ol'C!;ld~ (Jf the ~,cc:~~ti1lbile U!,l1d J'\!',h)iiHt hI.'! I:t'Ml,litl!ll bo.:Kab"li.11 inJuly 19':~ dlriving:lliis n wlilr t1eQluh;ec1 RoII:s.'RfilY:ce all the li~'D'~'OOf!r1: ',reh~c~U)r J:rull!'r.rfl!I~.pl~"!~I~!l :~I~~r~ll!i~~lJe~,,'el!l~!l.!!! l!l11iL,t ~~me :~'(l' I, j!c[ 19 h15 elJJTE'yld .'l.;'i!'~f'lill. ,!~Jbnr$t',t!ct!iiro8 to !i:IiU a;D4)I.I~ ,r ltiJ~tj f~ltl.lJ of ~ome. U10US<il},d ttiba.i 'l.!il:iltllC~! l",~h@mh!l filItmmtilt~d lit:t· il\lS,i ttrllf ~ba~ t~1ey sheJlJ.ld·i1:~RC!ilf~'witb. b~~_fdlslM'l:€lIJ:H ... Jin (;~'oi;. wld d!l'U'S~ed ~o. t:JiJrtltil:, cuirt·, wai:\i.b }.ilhi H:fld ! rou:~·t~J ~htrl:l.k a,i1d~Ii(i!", ibJiill~, ~~:o t., ~ l'id hOi(l1,b~]!tg h..al,s,. llI:dGl'C U1!li;s '~bRl1'\\D.!l~hJIy: tii'l]c()'mfart,dlle,;:.iil1'1d li,n11l::a<f.m ~1.I;lrl!ell(:e, he d~ ri~Jed hils iilJ.!L[ ilHi1I !i)I;II!le,d Ills :ttet6'Jiilm:rHiJdi.@'11. ttha:t: ,~.r~~1'i1lllst~n sl~nL!!1d f:'I~~ h I.'lJt.~lth ·tb.~ mQreildvlal;1~ecllJ~i'l'ln.s l"ll h,,'i.d' ViI,slfted, H~s.iln1JiQ'lJn(ielTl~l1.r'th~,b l! Ri~I' ~,t more ~:ibe:Jil.'lJ' c(J,filsttil:Jl1ie;1n· !"~'o1ltJd be plf:(imulga~!.)dl ar, trsed·~.<l~1!i.vdyil,t~l.of;:J:rlt(,!lestl. but tbe'$odal ·!'iIiI?~:;rU~ii he ~!'[I',:!D.iljm~~d - mClrlIQ~I~I.:W fur !t\O'\·~I[nn.~nt· l~mpkIY'l!lc!:'; .jJ, minlmum a,g:e.llmLt\:Qor. I1mT;I'iag@"l'he"irl,1t,tb'!elt 'OOY'ilJll on of w.QlJiie D,,!fbc: .El:bol:l:tloI'J, oOf' P!(rd.{J~t ;i1rtUl ttl' ,'!r\'l!;aJ;bl.8· Ql w~st~lm dress npubUc U1lim~:lshu~d kiJJ'lul - alu~~t ri1l,j hrt,: rl.~O~,e of .,n SU1'. Otllle~ measares, notably Ule furtl1er' C~I1,uiii1]'ncI!-t vf, the powers (lj; th mullahs, an t1Ji.('Tea~@ .ill land r~~~~J1l!e jiJ1.d tl)e b)ll,gthcllli.ng. of Hie :pev:lod of c~~I&CrlpUon fm~If1. ~~. ~!J,'':i~U thre~'; hl~n;'iI:'i~d1 hb ~l!1'pCipulilfjt~, ~\,hell the Hazrat"$ahiQ ,0f:$1'101 .Ba:~a~ mga.ni,sed· a petit-ion agrnirlls(tlle.~i;:';fl?forms,." .he, \:vaS,: £U~'!i'.i'llU!rn~· jail.{-ci, whil~~ ol:hgr mu].I~i,h'5., incl,HdiiLng ~J11~ ~'h'I~f fit''; of Kilb'l,iJj~ W)11:1. C"hiHg~d whh treason and ~xec'Ul'!Cd .. 1;'ViM ·Sh)f.i1e$ l\~[e SOOJl] beilil,g put anOouh t.hat Ama{l~.,I~ahi f~ad fo~t.tfjtme~ I.slam nnd embracsd .catho[ljd~.mmJ and rth.lIt hehad b!."Cc)me d,nn,g-ed flu1 ,Li,gh drinki1iJg ~IcQh ~1 arid 'din,!l,' por!;;, 'nl~re 'was i1I.ts:o mu:ch 'taUt at ,Q.ueen SO\iaa :ba""i:n~; app~r.l:red.~Jw;~U@dJ tnl W~SU:'fJ~. gaU1edn,g. ,:'inckhil:vi11lg been phQllogl'OIpbed in that Sl~ate (OIlld In :hl,t:,t ''1.co:nt~mpn~ary pho~ogl:e!rhll :fi'h~')Wii her in ~I ,~lr 'Ii$ th;j)l'II,~1lI11e!:' shouldersilnd i'l'l ,T.ifI~ ailm()st c;o,m,plle tely bilrie).

_ . Th~ ·rrecJ!!e eve:tJt'S 'that tdg~~re(1. Amal1uUaJl's ftidl titre uncertain, bu t:~l~e treubie '1:)I[;!:gl';i.n lj,m()f)g l hi.'! Sh hI w_a wi ['rlb~ i ~ J ~hG 'Klrlyt)tJI' il ~ea, p(}'&sl'bly 315, 11 protest I:lh'lllEtlst tax levles.i and seen .resnlted 'in the ,t:apt~lf(:~ .of J'al:i~abad and tl~l' sackb:i!~I or 'the town, t he royal palace and Itl~' 1;I:ritil'lh'COI:1i~~U~l;1;tc. A]::n<li"iuIl1.l~il &h'O'lltedi ~h~ ~XI~!ll ~Iflhh d~i'iiiIJCrc~. !JOIl byt:hefacttoJulit in the weeks that.f()llow~d. he hdceSmIUl'iOfif!\~'l~ -:'in f:11.'<1 ~~! i>HuU'1 ph ry!i and ,l1)ked hls a(MiC~. 'l 'he !~tbi~i!' ';"."as -outsp.o.kE)iIl ~i~m It. t lJe wldl,e'!lpre,itU ~1'll eml'H(iiJ:'l fll'o I'll h: re gLrm: an (jhch'~e~ Il11:d ~h. trl bes !i~Qtl!d 00. ~ndJiall ~(L;as ,.1 matlr,'I' of Ul'ge:n c:y. HJ()wevelr. liiUe -ha.d lJ-ee·.r.lt~Dn~ Wh~!li,.If'L![)'lIl~·r ~'!:lVOo~I, bl'OKe (jut 11i·Ko'h>I.U~m.at'!, F.I.o'ttlt] CI I~ b'ill. ,1_dI hy ,iI, li1liIH~ by the name ijf . ~'iI!blb!uH[!h, tl~SiJ' 1\m1 Wn ~, 1:1,. 1:I:!lCIil!l··i.S"i~lio'lD,. t!:a.eJ,90 0, Hi'ewtlh~J atri.'~r', 'Irh~Bj,li~t~n'\l,l3i ,apprlf.\?'HU l.!l~' 1'1 . .r:m:r d i!i!r ~ "r WI'U:l., l~ Ill,.'ltlJr j;'ij! tI ~l;l I~ "r fJIUl lUI;' "I ~ I 'tl '1Ir~!;I

Am1l.n~Blla.b:s'f:a.l~, w'hateV'eii offichd I@ii;!Ungs OIbout hi'j:n rna ~ ha~"·bf.-en. 'Wht~t.)10"'l\l'~~.l!r ·ts ce'r.t~_l1l1 .Its l.{I1El,t 'lh~}r:~lll h!"lst.L'['J,li.inl:a.l.rJl"~(1 'I, (li'Iil~lu:e:J[Q\f s(Tlc't neutra'U Ily and Uli~t- ilh~ h;jt'li;uJ(.-dI~:11UOu.~:e«..orh to dis~uiidJ~ ~i1y. ?! tb~ 'Fm~tt.eli ~l'jb~ who .were 5(1'·ind.i.n~d.h(llrn .Joming, it the rta!~ 'J:.~hlm,,~m~ct meaJ'U.. :d~pjl:l'vil:ig l'iJll'l<'!inu.1lod.l crf suppo.rl:ftha't ~11ghJ.

hl¥~ ul,~~ed ~Jl,e.s Illes In bi$ fa'Yoll:Jf. ' .

. A:m,~{milt]:a:hl \~~a.~, 3(!,cordj[l_g' to, Quntempom.r,· accounjs, ~IDr!e'.nei!".glf!!t·~c_ a:nd tl~.dl\;;a·~~d,.:Q];an. !lill'ud,l:llOlklf'i& ai[lCel")e 1.n his b.e:'I:i~fs, rold_ fit,Dc1.e5t .in I'lis lIe ~YJ~. 1'1'1$. t:1 !1l'4bJyaIU .tlud ·tTo¥\,~r~, p~r~f)rulU~y ~nlta~'O:mR'd m;.t~}'~.litlr h:ew,a. Ho,t iu:Jii:nte1lige.n.t.and J;I,e PQ.:;~:eS5ed ~ :gopd me~l"!ffl' o-f d;l.ir.!!.'m. 1illld.·~('ju1'~ge. A1.l'h(l~gh h L~ aJt~emJltl'l to achi~ve .SQ(!l·IB,~, p.~t(jlg:~e~!i ~~OO th~ m,uwe 'I;y~-I; tchins. hm~ plloJrl~~'~ng; eOOnOillinc ~nd fi1la:J;lCI,al It'foll'"ms lQ)j,gbt ;31 0. illId he SilW'"ivcd·; bij':ll{l' {l(D,p't:"Jbu ~d . B:ub5tll'11'l~ lJy ·b:.1 th,~ de:ve~('jprlle ~'~ .of hts COu ntrv . .' 'nrl.l!:1)e 11as.l!u..-en much ·C.t.UicJ:i'ill1 o~ h ls ~'Xp~lldH,IHl,;.'j;j , .n dl:I;j,OI~.~"l"'c r~pre8en~tion.ab~oad, on hIs, tour, on uJJcoordinated and unproduettV"t!.I:nclu!u::t'i.J;l1 ~tnd :oVU:'! \l:et1JtUN's. tindOiJ'jl a.ID'~ndlo:se tI!e'W capi.t,id. ~a~ I (~!rulanta_n. UfJ(jo1l.1IJhd:l}f tJ~,erQ \'I'[lS !fliludl that h~ ,dd tb.dw~'i' ,i.l:l~ ·to~s:id~'r~d __ and ,wa~t~fn.l; ~d he lade(jl the (:t~.a~ and compet~mt

1Jdm.ll][JS"El:.nUon th;a:( Ile fU;li;!lriloo .il'.itti~~a&'u'tpliof~t~ ''Ve'l1eo tesacceed. PIl1~~\'}1 <liS 'tl .~~stllt ,~f his fmli.e.: of Ur-il:lsh ~'i~I;I)sJ~i~; his; fln~nd[Q,l iF.'!:.'I(;nm:~ t·\i'I?l'f;': ill~oi:n3de.quilh~ for the purposes he bad hi mind, H(w"leyer. :dwtn.g his time, Afg'h!:ln.l5,~an ~~a$, bo~v,evet'.r ]'001, an eco:!1:omlcaUy 'Vi;8Ibh~ 'I:OUr:l~r~I., !<I<rgel}r se~f-!l'uffid'~fl~ ilnd. rlue~ Df [lubUc deht, ~md it i~ tt'rtrl~nUj';i inl ex<!ggetm-Ion to. ill,Lege; as 'Some of- his deLll'actO'l:ll hav,e '<i?:~·e. UllJ!.tlh' _l!~(!~d{!'dml:'f~l:y ]n bankn.ilp~iug .. it .t)n th~ tmltl'al~ he chd m:IIl.I!I.f!fl. to w,Ke ·'th~ n~. tcnta:Uve s.bii!!pIS. Iri:Jwavds a; i1nod~m., mon~tl:seC! " ectll!0nTF. 'and his tax reforms in pnrtk:uhn 'weleboth .'ioeIl~lbl~ ~Ild bad).,.. Il~ded" !)IJhn~18h UII~ \,\tldl"$pre;l.d tese'llitme'r1t_H1@l'

ll'm,1J,l1!(1 c"O!t:~tib.1.lt I.d to Hlt! ,groWiIIIg ]Jo:res.su1..1;!.$ a~.II,im~ hhn. -

l\manuIlall1'~.iti~~dywas th"al h{"TA'aS .aman ''!i~h(n,,·a5..IIQng'o,il1 ~e('Orml.sl zei!!1 ami '~horl on wHI'ld:ly 'Wlsd~jm. O~ pjt-- hJ manv :~n~w..~J;I-ly~ tl.tHlrHte.\.; h,~ 'W;~s ::lrll'Oa~1 nt, It:llPiil tient and l,m,pu lSi:vc; II:l1d ·~.Ii~e,aSlngl~' Sttu::tottrHlec:[ !1:imsetf wi'~h tn.oomJ~telllts and sycophants. Vr,:lhUe he was .. coneemed to roct.out co mpl pJ'~le~~CI\!!). ~hese.wete. fl .. ~~.ad:(:)~j _.:~lil:V' i nCf,te nsed . th l'tlU~l':J '11 [s erea ~ ron of (I bm;e-a'!.lt:fOiC~/' III iii t, ,',,3S, I[J~'I;~n l'~b]y; sUsC~pUble to 'COffil:ptiorii and illepotls:.m.. His nai.vlQty ,was illsp such th"in he al?p~afEld 10 think Hmt the .lnh~r1fn:1 re:Uon~ ~bliE!neli~oJ ~'II:io reftltm~W{i'uld ~!U,~Ir.r;~' th~ir ''::H;;'(;~ptii11Ce' ~:nd thnt ~IUkl '~Iemn.'g· of_ 'thiem, 'lei ~lQue ELn¥ for:dbl~€i.mlJQ~i.uOiD.. "wdMld be nl~cEJ!~.·f1.r)'. ~\s fhl.! ,~r~ndsOI' ojl Ab.dm [t _l1ma .. u and the ~Ot"" ,of.~ ~ht.l'n8~1't'i:h1d~d 'wo~~ar" W,~lt:l~~~ll'l"h·f lil~d h '~n ,~ul " ,''' l'Il~ mv~t' 'l1":ro:rni~_ r.n~ tlEiib~l}e~id,~,mi,of U'pCi .tH1:Ir.y~ _~J~ sHiclLl~!JI 1l~ii!'C>. '~~~'!1 'w~WI ,IWWI'iI UFl""" n~l: I.U:I' l!:lh~lll' Min r, tlU!«'1N:1 J ~ur ~ nbl.:!, II Ilh~I' l~

.CHAPTER TEN

T' l~!;!' 'I)~C'~,O,.j:.$j!i"lj~PII. ·,.:nltiG!. n"c;l., -. t'lfll~ r~~le. t~1iJ .K~bUI.\1\. 'cas. e. lill:1:rilc.'lle.'1'~5e~ by oilin."l!Ii~h.yj'ptW:a:llI,e ~nd ten:Or. I-L~ fnrmed a govli!'tn III ent C:Ol(llPlJ5!?d 9f H~!<Itj¥~ lllld' fF'Wntt,~, tl:):~ ~;a~6lity of 'whom ·w:e;r~ jJlih!(i!,te~ Adh}~'r~~ts t'l'q:ul'tl~d H rat' ',and K ndah r~"fhHe: .i)PP()ic:fon In :~he' north~'initlideQ b)Y Ghul,alfl. abi Ch1lfkiand 'Support/itt byth'· 50ifi "ts metred a~Wty~ ~pd, t~'f~' PI] ,h toou tnbes.jnucnas fh:~y ,.djsUke~ . eeing t.iIl '.kllflgdloJll itl tb~ hands ,o;F !l Tai~ WCH:1: unable 01' ul'l'wlU:ln,g. to, oon]bi:n~ to ,i;l1'lvc him nut. AItiiJul.un~h·~r'e'f,ui'm·:iwer '9mrneti:en. s'i,y'~,~y r~s-t'in,dedl. scb,(l'~1Is Vt.\~!{e dose.d and yOUtl'g '~vomell wboD:1f,l An:i~u:nlthdh, 11,'1Z1id Sf)fU l(l ·i'u~'k.e~1 fOf edU!\lfltt611 'wer£~ l1~t~.UI.el!L T.I]}~ BliI~h"':5 sole SiJPPIDllt carne fr([)I~; EIH> reUgi:ous: ~ea.d' r:~1 -t:o ·1.YI~~n'l," tle returned l:he~i1Jpon:S;1bili.ty l'O.l[j us ~ lee lind ,edD,lC;llti~n.. wnh~n 'el1J1pty l~l'J!!~I~Yi!md,l'1I() means of raiing ftmd:i tht'Q\lghr~lxil't'lo!:l. he .resorted 1'0' ')it rtien mid phm(l, [,and many·, olf Amammall\'s officials, and .adlter:ents 'were murdezed, along t.\rith p.um1bers of people of wealth ,lim:!. po~Ill:iIon~ Including tw(') v'f rufHlnuUalt's hil,I.f··Il:rotl1~lI's;.

WHt1 their habjlL-ufi1 sU:'iiph:;jons !iQ'lli$itHU'pened by ,Idt!olo,gtcal ant(~gon.l!OIll'1 neHh'e:r: tb.~ rib-lUsb nOI~ ;I:be Sov1:ets.I,~Jish.fd tlhh S'itqaho:n. ~aJch fearlng nH~.t the btl'll!:! .l(llgllt M iJbl,~ 'to e'"pltJll .1'1 .. 'T1lu;!' nriCl~h adnjned an arms' l~m~Jh pq~h;'}', 'They wwthdlftl'livt'Jiuilr d~p,,~Oltil~l.~ ilfid, whlle accordmg the Bacba .de {t:U:,[CI R:cog~'i.u1jOIl. ackrJID\<\I~~elillgi.ll_g that he hekl elfl~ct"l vepo,w'er" t h"Y w.II:I':I I~eld rJe i~,Ifi1! rt:!t' _ gn Ult)f1, 'w hlch ~li!tiL!ld ~l~ve sig:nillll d that th~yfegWided his rule {I" r- li;!gitimate. Th~ 'SOl'\o'id~! on the other .hand, retalned ill. Leganon ill. Kalbul. but w~ III r.VOll:S, :o·V 'Ih ,llnlfrlu '110' u}~!: U'l~ lla!::hlh .as it T~j.lk .. ndg.h'l ,;Il>"S·\?Il- In ,sovrx'Cen'~tal l\si:8., '.',I1I.\Y- mOl.\n~tl'l I bilfr'llg~ C)f 11 ~~j[. pmlp'ag~ndil 'a,Wlln t IJ ihllllifid.il cus d th.!!:' Brl.1 ~h of h.a;vln8 supported hbn>as1i·in,~n A DC. u:Jul, h. Tlu.!I,' i:ltI.(:I~1 ~:,n Inn, dL r lOUU liU~, Ul II ~l ~Lt I. J '1 ,kl "I'nly

ON' Ul~rlf.n1)lSa':g'~~in l%'Jtmtl. aIDIi!il.oejrn.g?~~·r.:r.th~\·rQcI'"ll \t\~mipb~1Itfie.tQQU;l([ Qay r.~l~iU' ha riJd:!l~

W.h~i1 U'(i! 1:lIic;ll;lriu:1[~~ a I\liy.tl!d M I!j'ijl ap~tt> from brtie:i:f tril~1'I1 ~J.tP~Lt. '

:[m'lul'l~43!]\ J:ci~LI r~~lI\ ~~~!e I.I:~ 1il r<,

t. Q.I',el!l:).1),I.. Th!1!lt:e.;\;\."'f,;lru .. ·· .. ~:·"1.,'I. fi~Jj ,

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tliete: 'II'i''ltT€ ·ill:1BU:l\-~ •. \!'J) .. :~.

~ '\.. '..... il 'oe 'V i,.:.~.~

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ell r,u~te fo'f .tldrie rh. " 111 ~. n u'll,ith ~firt .

d~m~im "(¥,J);3:t tT'!.;:'~Y ~~}ll ~s.,·,a. . " l(lf?j ~{d{Yh u~ 1'[l::d

~~[VU~ K~bulJst !~~,~~ .d~~ ~O<t a.baJl!dpi~ ~bp~ ,', ". ',q' /.

Mt:~OW!l:I (!j~;: It.i(i\lil[,rl 'I\!$tt&IJ,~cliL~, li].e rit!w .~d~f~~il1Vatl s;~'eJ' 1'1'1 ,~~~~I~~f ~~po,.r.tgd.2 ,

TI.fIlolig1l0U!l1 h:~'i:::qtu))ir}~ Hie a.G,~:a.t1~g~~ olf';a~'¢hR ~e~m tqih~Y:~ b~pnb~Ul!r31IPp:r:ed: .. te,~1 U~,E1J~ U,!" ~~I]!IWb~l:lks~ aud .t,lu~ Lr:tb~\~ ~"'~rC a~k'iug ~lhJ,~n~!idvieswh:Y nH~Y ~lu5il1~d l'~i,glll ~l~~ f~(ie~~;m:n\cVI[lit;h thE! h~d. ~;niC!y.@df9r the ·PP:llt~I@~.r'r, a~d su6:lllli.ft ,38al n tb <I'.t@nt!a~ <IuJjlf:lrHy Y"'1~:1~~1 \cVio~~Jd. Jrnl''''I.!OIIb~y, ([:~~'f1m~iR .Pll'yr:Il~n!l of :larn.dJ R1~IWI'IIUIl!'" C~I~t:IJilh!)': 'J'U'thl)~"~rid b~ib~s ~~jTnS, ofltci!I:I'~i ~m(l pli'ssi.]:),1y .~~€,' [~§tclf';JJ~on ,o.r <tb~ !lmi:~ lcf(}~'[l(rom the;~~o,'\.:¢rn.trl:eJ'ljf po'STS' il'O¢j a~,se.d'L !!l.t

l'be'~es.PfJl.l~fi ,~f N:ad~r :S;h.~l~l~ a1)'h~I1!~'wr~~t 1:0 ~~~1 these Pllj),~~l~.n~~ l1!:Wi a .iI5ombl,inatiio.tl tJlf.. cOirici~l~ltiiqj1 and brt~tf' [\~'P:r~'!j;!I~6fi, During 1,1'93U1 fbe S;hin~ .. ~ari's".~r,~5e ag:flltlsr hun and l':Il" t1ad 1:10 huy :£i:fl'tJ:te.ttJ,ea(;ieftS, a[p:~ Ith~:re "'~mi~1',!lsb l.ooub~~w l.th th~ Ghllp!Il:i. In Kol1!istanJ tl:te[ilW,n~" so~n{! hflrd ilghtl~\g .overa pe'l'iiQcl (]if se'lllerl.llW mlont1~:s:·· befo.re· ~. ~1:~:5bl:'fs~flg ~}Ic~t'.l w~;s :subdue:~'I~lth' lIt[lb'a~ Sl,iltp,p.9r~ a.n:d Ithe, us-~, Qi a~:rl:.:.[,a:f~: t!he [r~priI!~~lol1 U1~t fol.I.t;Ji\¥b'C1! ltV-1l.:l rm,rtlcuh1 d:y' bm lal EI rn[~ .I'niIJnli'Kohi~ta~d1i \<yie!rt :ro,u[)id~d up olnd ·,e~etl.lt~d,WhH~ 'd~dl;:;Lr~Hg hinl~l'f ~r:!i f'aVq_l,Jr 'o,f jpI)Qgr~il; ~nd .1.\I1'~OJe[l]$i~ru]] p'I'actic(,:l ~~d:i.f. Sh.d\] 'iftrnt~(~ ~nm~ l.~iI1gtbc!i. t;Q~ appe.~s~ ~'h~ .~:,~Uglou:'> '~£.tnIM!~J!in~!l[(rJ L. ~I.~ aJ'nnu!l&;1 a.m AIJfl't~lntJU<ll.Ij'Is: seculll.T ~lt'gi~:I~n[]n 311d conftnn~d I.h~ U~t:h<lr!-i, 'C'n:fl;lr.ctri~nG1Il1~.· rif ~~ljIJD]it; .h't:w thwqgn ie~]giOl!~. c.olm1tli ... 11~ ,a~so end(i'rS(j,d lli~ l~i:tef.'S canb.f:l[tl-· ~lWIl of ;LII of. t\,I.IJ.~m.lllru~Jl'~~ u:moDG I.iberal !i(l'~~~~ me~8iUl'CS, hThC'I:ud]~~.g ~:hoxt,~.ov€' m ill1i!!r WQI11elll':s. rig'Ms. l~t ~cin tuor::luce'd pnhltdt ill! n'i.i ~I:):force(ll the ~"ie~dng-· ,of the chmfri, In 1931 he. plom'l:~1!rate~1 Q:, oe');Y ~~'n~I'~mtl('m:l '~\i11kh, ;d't l'llo!.ilgh i t wfj~ mo,st.lyb~$;ed Gin ~m'arinlU~-'l'~ ~rld 'WJl~ by no, ml~illlll~ w~U Oil" even ctJJI!S~~t'I;l"ltl:y~ir.;!f~~dllils-tOOr.lI'1"i.th m;l.nor ,amendule-rJl$j Jrutntl:oe thfiill thiIit,Jl~iea,rs, j~ard:$..()if It ti',ofie';).mf4'd .cl~menf~,(),[ d~m6~qr •. a:11di.thcre vtj'la1> prov.l.~lQn :(Of p,iln~mt~,M{rl';l '~Ylth ~1iletr,rtmll~il1~~e~~ 1~ lm;."im:o·of.il bH:lil.l1ll.lei'.1I1 p~rli{jme.tH. 1!(;tS !~f w1h~:wi fIJI,.em·ll,;,~.oowe:l1e S~'re(ii'~d @t! .~ {;e~lS!Jl ~"'~~llvl(;l Niltkiulllil C(llIJJfLlt l\1,:I1f J.t"! ['ll~,",Ul.;jJ th!i,i r~h~I~W~~ fi(~[,Jf,(;'n)l'. !:1]~ld Nlldl'lj ,wid l\lH~ il~11[~I.I~~~~, ~iVeiUU~[~,

··aggre .~:ioJlJ. ·]~h·e btit1 sh- ~ ... -ete nat 1J11I!iy.]~H:pa;tliet1c, bu t·}\;ti I I<: d I:Q oi1:ef

. an}~th.bl,g:.c(}n'm:~~. . .

. Ihv3' in~' :j't~.bW I tb~kt! Pi,lJ "kiJ,:11 it . fi~ler new- oHI,· 13rllil1:sh :!iub ,tdy and gUt of ~Tll'Il!i: be~am 'p-uhll.t!, ~N~1:11 'I" ¥:1:\1~ h_g~ !JrHlnt:is dl.Dr.' poUc)' li'i'Olii]:d

~·li.r:uu:!l!e' Slrol!l;~ ·sl1sp1don, .'tl~ "~l!l~1. 'nt~:te, ~I!$O i'1l!:[~1UIiiifte:-d,!.11 i!2O.[~ .~)J: t~JH'Il~l;li wbo W re may.'l t 'J'\nu~fJ~ldlliah J','l1d~efS!i~ ,ed, In, :,\~g~fd!i:l"I\g Nadh Shah [I,S til u!Sl,nper, The ltlit-,se- jou:;··.Il:mni[~sl,. ti'!in·:o11l1P'1X)!'iirim1l" tn July ~9'33. 't\7.Hi . the ass<lISlSIrnaltlon ,of Moltiiill1med 1'rz.i:ii:;· :tben Amb;;l·~~I(tP~t ilr~ ,;ll5e.rJhl, by ~ ~tlJ)d~flt who de·el,Qrr:!d th t he h,lld ·.c-om:rmtt~d th:~ _d ~ a &"t!P'Po!.1er ~f t'im,il'J:ndr\~Llfj ~'l:il.iJI 11"1' Sit-Jed~c pl1Pt~l)t ,~ga&l1st the g'Ov,ermull!'nl.:'s, Unks 'w'!dC'li, Ilbe. H.Ii'I'~lti,]~, ·Sho.ctiy ,~r~ ·t~\!iI,'d!~. U I nth 'r yO~I.ug A I:ha!l1 eutft!OO:. ~~hc: lh1itl~h 11litpliOi::l wi bh t,he atm ofknru'lt~ the. Mi:nist~r. but f;;lUed tOo·flnd llfltHILiI\rj" .insl~iid .shot tlue 'j;he .~'l",'~~' 81!.l:t U was' pr-oQo1Ihl:y ,3. pflJsnnal '(.,1!'ll,deHa., !!1~H]€.rt'btUl ~ll,t 1'~~li,tl 'til m 1,th.~t.1,t:I~,I'I. WI~lld\ ,~~.! '~,Q tb~.;;Jj:i~(!-!i;:j,'1n(ltironOlof; N~di;I'.Sh5.th l1inlsfU In Nm,'erulJer 1933.: ln 193%, hoe b'ad had aJ meetlJllij wrth ·<J,htlla!11 Nabl Ch,ar,·i .. <11 whleh the l.ong-s:tandJng .~l1tag,Ot, Isms 1;J~h'l1t'I!!! th" MU!iilh iblll'j; ~md -tl~d4 .ap~d1~, hadeeme. t,Q tJl~ r{)'~c. NfI<Hr fertIla!l1y accused Gbuhm Nabi of 'c:()n:lpltc~ty- tn an uprlslngIn the \"!\lISt ,of .~llC ~(}lmiry a ad I \)l;"he'lfl the Ia H~~1i responded tIT tlqlll4.1'ntly. N'Q<U:r:, In ,j"i .~~ or '(ai!J,t:, Oll'tt··ir\iI:~1 hl~ lnu n~dhlt~~X!e{tlitiQJ.'~, ",\:I;tll:,[ the cryl'!llltl 'N.\licHr 'q]iIJdd1f. S:UJotnoin~d <I. jirgu .aad pnJducedl ll(lIDf.s. of Gbula:m NiilJt'S, 'treaso:nabl~ft~tivi:~le!io blLlt' he r .. Iled to allay n:l'I:! CQm,.ldf!1'II~ ii1tl.:'iBh'{ns~ Ih~I,1 the x 'IJtiion had !JIrolJ~d'. O"ntbll! nrmjVi~r$:a~(lf t:he (ot1fcontatiloI1h,1!;l was $.~;()t .dead dUl'il)~ ,41: [;l'l,lbUc ~.ppea:r~~!l~' by a 'you.ng ma.n w,rto ~",~s v€illrlcru:dy.descr.i.i:Jed as:·Ghul,lI.1]J1 Nl1ibl's i1!!1h,lIrIl,l. fif <'H·I, pl~l;)d. sun, I ut '~''1ho ,m'lI), l1'11l11:!i!iy :i'1,i'lV~ bi\!."'U ~h~ son of one o'f Itis retaineJi',S.

N'~dl:r Shah d.id muehre 5tabU, 5 Aghani~,kau. and helpItaeeover fn)['1~ a I,ong lal' ~ :dI Clf s t'Dif~ ~fid, ~i r~hl:!i\o";I:~. lil;1 bt·,s.lI:1I!T)' u~~lo,rn ~ Illi' 'jbl,dlu5.1LTjaU e the 'econoll~ly'; enll' U,ID,g f{)i'~he- purpml(! the .s~kitlfi of a .~mlU number (If AIgba1'}, f!'t'li"lep!(Ic:l'leliJ:i':>, under wl).o1}e fllllll:.iil.~e.ment eetten b carne tin hnporl Inl~ -lpc1i'I' TilpJ in a ddltlon t,_ fnlH" andl

ka.m:alml. S,!,'",!,te revenneacame tncr as~n~y from the exporthm.port

tl''!de·, wi'lh the a.d\!::m~age that JI~!).~ had to b levied from ,IloUHrnHy se~lsi th~ t~s, (In, tfind jJ,nd iilgri:C-u I~tn-e. t'\·'tll r Kh ~ 11 ~ ~!iO u!'ff.Jnl"U:~llhe t"Ur!i~l.\cY·1i·md ~s:tdblishf."d the Da,-:r]k .. i~MilLli, Afgha_nishlil's ffi.fS:I· bank. He b~l,n t. Impro!/!l;! cot - mtHIILk:atlO[)S, buUdlng UH~lif$'l m.()t(li(·ab~e·tWad thn,lugh Ul ~ Hlindu 1<11-,11, H~ regl'o 1[1 d and n~crger.l the ~I!YUY~, whk"h gl'adu aUy becam El. m ore .f.OmpeteIl t ~_nd.1I?r:O'fe.8.";iollillL. Wl)J ~e h j:li\le,gime .~~ .n,IIJUu:u1itadfln <1:n~ll'll~ sqc:ila,J, poHel'~.'>~ :oo:g,~gjil;'~~ t.h.tl~'II!'M hASirol)' i~'le if Sta bm 1:-1 'wa. ' . :t I ~ ~~s:''i~'\~d; • n~1 III (liid. r: '.ll iiill s('h t Illil ~lrl J 'l:9.n~j!w~, to ~eri'LJ Y0U-ilm. Af-gh. n" .. b'liiFlDIC ~~r high~ . tlJlld 'S" I) reif'lltJl[!.'ILi II g • .! kI _ Ibl ~I < ~ J~~UI l~lH ~, ... '·_'Ullil:f I' clou"~ ~lh;l".

i\~ Nadir Sllilihls death, tl1~' thre,~ s:urw:llPi'iD-& hJ1i'Qlhers rallted round, hb~ nl~11~~ee[1~'¥:eili~ ,~old SQin. Zahlr S_hah, ~1:11~ ,~orl'l:ln,'AAltr Gf: l'u~e 'W,;!.;;;; ~!i51J1~d. ["lasl~lfllr' J<hillJ'i !.='e'm i:1ii'l'ed' ]lrHn' Mlwdst~, ,:~ nd over U'I'"ne:l!:t M,~nty yea~, .J~-e ,and $.!hiati )'f~Jimll\(jl ,~.:;.::eid, ed ,wJili!l!t~iia,:s i:Jl eJfeOI <J: fi2gle.m:y., 11Q~ t,q,~"l:n.oS'~ FmC' 1 't:l#~,1,I~illS, H~ {jl!'!ll'o.~ pf!,aC'~':fI:I]jCJj st'alM.jJn}!~ .A.~ Ulldeo£: Nacl'lr 'Sh~i1~ tJl!:'!~r re-ipe for stiJIbIH:l:y', was, b~ di,a n<HJUng 'to arouse Ie] i;l:II]ot:l~aQ.~aSi~l]l~p1. 'tp' gi\~~ the- 't~ihara,[ld T@l igiio.us: l~a((e:rs a r~l(!! i:n"igo'i2em~l:Ij~]'l.,t t1i~Qllg# ttfl~ Jt4ttomiJ Cd'ltp.cH· ( ..... "hir-.b, J:lkr Al?tlu.r l~a~m1J~n,~!i 7I'r"11 i'rg1il.J!ll1d rfc f,~h~~.lU,riIg,~ ,pf k.e:~~)~ng I"hC'!I1rl ,ilwar - fl"~!I1~, their :!?~~(e'r b)s~;m:q tID p:l<l:CiI~, 'pmgRssivf.' .op1u:Ucm!lt .. rith a -bllilit~~ stlOW{~f d~nolfl$1l~y' l~n!;!J!Q~m.,:'Wll:h'Ol~~X~CHtiOU 'ur lrH~r_oota,tJ.rm (Jr 'th~~c bt!ld i'c&1tQI1",~l~ll! :frt:u,' tl1l~-,'n~!i~~ittil,:ti,c31n~ o:F HJ:l:2 ~md lGl~3/ tb"en~ \'_.a n:rim'n~~1 '1!t$idj.;J~ I support 'wrthi~TJ the wl[1l try lor !he r@s t>:!1!)'i~Qlt ,0 ~'I<~\jf '~)1i!h",.lExtenl~l, Jle)ati'ons" paflt;"d ~ud 'In 1934, A:r,~ba,ni'U:lp. }i'J~n,e{(l ~;~;jiil:' ',I~e:lIUie c,fNa1:i.dJils. 11:1 :1:I~e, tin~, 19'30~. the ~~'~gb~ ([l'lJil, ]1:nt~,(1 ~lr'l'1kellj'tc[,~t?ii1Thd rUleS. frQm al.'i~(lhl. ~'lJt were stil_~ 'bary,', r mow u~ -.' li.l.~ '~:n'i.i'tl <QJI the Sovlle. Unl9!1 'to enhance theil'

PIl;!se'~~' m: If1JfU~'I\I ,e' !I'!i'iltJ!li~l",t1'ii~ cminU!. They th,lill,'efo~~ tll.l'fIi~d t(~ '~rtrlw!t~~ ~ta ~a!nd J [11.0 felt ~~'il<Olp:~jc: 'aJli.d ed1;;I.<;atU~ruI1 IJISsJ,:s.:tantei, lnI~d Ijg ~bt!u.l'9.30·, '. ~J:~nilu 1'lIl;f~JJg~, "c !5fi[!W, die,spi ttl _~n uneh .. ,ri.ct[!,d!ltic' In ,~.f '!J.'OUIJl ~~!;!U@, _II' ttl If ' ,W!i,neer1nsv.tofl{: 'tl'le da IllS ,and, b,iQ,P'ii ~~~f, ~Jl'~l.~'1I.IIit~d' %i:!JfbJ3- ~'hts ~1,Jl1::e- ;ha~ 'aQ - ~j!li~~lrra.ssi !tg ~,~l}'it '-orbeOCr!~:

W\. I ,tf~ alw.f,,'_,a:~ '121~ji! ,f!lns~Il,~r tl:IrI,~ .:!iBI'IIlts;',:f.all,llS.. Hp\W~v{!,1r !thflY" \\!el',emo"~, 'II ~$!i:hd illJl ;~ntll)inlt' A:fS,lliliili t;UI ex:pa,nd its me,Cl.ttre, 'OU'I:illU~ of

,ehh::tFic:aJ, pffiI!?el:'-in:d ~i!lnl~'fi-~ l;nB:I;rage~ to ~tabU~h ~-~full_ pre'Sf!nc:@£, :Lu~thansa .'~ds,o s,'ta:['~\I2P_ ,~;!1 {i,lr ~t\l':le!l!' bE!'tween _l5;'i'lbuJu1.d Beirlin. ,A. ,onoomitan. to thiswa '~h.i'l 'rfl,a"y lOp Afgh ii,S Ib~C'am~ (lisili'I"i,: tlfpro;-Gerwan. ,Elf even pw-NZY~f.~ €na)1.1Itlg~d-b}; the :r1i]yth~ of :m.ciiat snJP(l'r~orri l)1 ,and 'bt.q'lh~l'th~o~ ~l1.fll~,lle Geran ns ,P.t~p3.g~.I:,e(!. ~u,~i1 W:1S< nO\l-;(he:u·d oBh • j(j, i1I. HUlrI:he ,i\fgh;:I'nSi 'wer,e ",:UItLI,e A-rFii blood ai'll~] UI:tJe',oonveTSelv, ''Of il:be myth,ic:lliat lt~tdlPtte,ViC)usl:v been. current, that

t,he}I'\~~er~ one'~[ Ute' L05t~lfll~es,q.f l:sraeJ:,' ,

A~M' 'I n the 19 ;Uls,1 SPill e Itl gd~ ~t'conQm i p~H.iign!SS Will) 'l'h i v,e~~ aJlthiou-gih ,AfghMtl:sta_n_ rema'ined preponderantly an agdctdulw arllq plt,I;W:C~:J nat1~lll. Com.panleli'~ know!::1 a$ 'Shjrk3t5:'1 wen,:'pr:og;j'~~iV:~~y nQfl'l~cl by 'Ihe Wlmk·~-Mm\L'flth~llIjll:r-ing 11 mun()!)I!l}~' in ;t;i ,p<t'll,rUlCulo/il'

&tor of tli)e ec¢inirmYI with bOLO ~r!:,j~~ate and g(j;'J~mmental' p~Lrljdp3ith~n. Gh!'(!'f.J tneir .ml:1()r1I!oppl st3ltl1$, these ,col1lpa.n:lel;, tell~ed td d'D!Ne~11 to, I'he heul:lm [t of It h ~ fI)]!l!tn b~fS of I, Ir'I ~ my~ I, f.all'~nl' !iHl I OUll.;it nl;l't3Jbl~ \o\rho he:l(ll sh,a:res illl th!l;l1!l.fmth<l!E' ro~,{b; .¥e~~ ,ails ' buil~r .il.tl-ruuugb "~)'l t!;adltion;al ca.r.w<I.os ~"O'nU:lluJ~d 'to"C~.r.fY' tilt:! buH{ of iIlU!.

QiJllf!ltJ'r; Ill:m;I~. Bd Llza'l'toJ1 " -i n luli.1 hlg 1,4gl::)l. t ~thJI .l!lli(jJl.W,Ii!> ;~. p.'llllldecl, i! l'U]~)ill1b it :still ~it~ ~iI!G'!d '(ml,k ~ ~tniJ ,!In:i_~ad~~; 't])f U1e:3 ~':ia_o~l~. age 'B'Ipuluu-'I-,. I~CJljr ,s,¢,c:,ond cl'y ~I'I ., h. [yn~Hu'liMj Ul I, Oil ul, Jrld[l;)hhl

.and Ist.i<J11dwidl, $~l1.h ~:ill,i "Uu~ceJ' Ne;l!:!; wlfth. G:iJl'n~!1l1!i ~~' .~~I n ':.! O1'JiIlE1 Gbazj witb stlfE,fmm.llii.:I'I:t:j -11 ,I,n(ijtt t~t'e't ~l!ie: A r11etiitaru ·f;fiJl!I! >, o~~-eli: -tf~ ru 1':1 f1'I'r~!r o~ Habibw :from th - :I"WJ,)'_ h. ''Whl,I,_ the ~liti!iJ.:i: 'G,~II .I!l~i'tl. d to 171.111 Gbdzt ,]hr~s v~ l' ~ty of, t£i1c!hiJlg 11l!1etll:On~ 0,11<1 r:n· dj~ ,tlfr instmct~tHI d:ldnodl.1,ng-:for the t,oh.e'n~mB~dJ ~1i1J~ ed-ua.lio[J!~lil, sll"i'e!flf a;lld)\ttl" r']'p' ·rt'lf!.~' 'd <lImong the (~lcl!hJres 'D~ Kubul- LJ'fl~ver~'it" '9\'b'IQI1

"",as,·f!)uu.de<I-m 193,2; ", '

tlu!'.I'.llg' ~;he .s~tmld W'orld Wim:, (!,e.s]lite Lb,e.i:1!' iPn;)·(l'~(:wIiarn;~, 'en.t:l", nleIllU;' i:l1'i.' Afgbrml GiOver:nnlcl,l'l IiIgi fen ildopkd tJIQUt"y of S~I':Jtl neultril:iUy. and -thi:s 'w~ui--conl\rm' d hy a 'la,1(!I'j1rga-.iU ],9,4]" I\t.one ~iln,t il: the ear.~y",a.~Y~lU" ,,~~e O~rl'l1ans wel~ to~~d~ll,rig thei,[J~t)j~a'tlqp o:~ aJ or,u!':t In Kalbu[ tUld ~he ,rfstQ[lltldn 01; J\,frt;1knUU~,tl; m M1tJt~')tll;' IJjllJff:v 'W~I[{;~ w.i:th the- Ir,alians-. :I'Qokr""g; for \Vil'y' to trea,te lIou,llle "fnr' lhe R:riltiJsh on the ~ronlieF" In Oduber 194J",dIe JIl.ri[tsll and Sovi:\1t goy:e'I,'nmen!;~ dif;!lJvered lc'lilIl:8,il,ej u[~l.llultum~' ie the M'gbill1 ,S;9V£!]1)_ .. merit .. ,demam:illii:tlg- the expul!iion <of the two hundrtldl Of ~U ,Ge;rma1'! a~nd ltallian. <:i.dzem; fLolll, the eeunjrv, This G<.lU[sed mud'] resentment among cl:'I' MghjJ,n:!';~, "al1ti ulady in Vj~"'I,r 01 '11'1~LI; ,1'oU~y {)fil~l!.!~r~mYI' b!.l~, tb:e:y had .no reati~ti£ 1:l[b:n,lll<l~ive 'butt(~"o'm.p,]y: (Jl1my<n few'Ull'oiilth!l pn!\doU$ly~ the Briti:s,~ and Rus1i,IlJI.S. bad lo.lntlyin'Va.ded l!;:ao-· wilen. tllere had beet'! ~ h ti.lltlll11 n'!'SlJ(lrl~ t astmucr d:ell~~~lld.

!PoJ lowi.i1lg, thcw',8,ri Nfgl'utmIis-taJ1 'liWaJ~, (o'l1Utlt:liJed bylli'o"hoUy ney.' challenges, She was ~t1'o{'!;' irna:ndaUy buoyant; as. ,she,trn!1 been'ijbl, -to, '-jiIl;md Uftlc d:tuing the W<ii)'('ilfSj wblh:'s:tiU lieHiing abn.iad her kal'lJk1.I:1 and ,'i-I,gticl11,tu mD produce, 'the ,form.Grwent mi:lini.}rto Anl:ericaj~n.(;i !tltter muinly to hldi.a. where' bu:ge .nrn']~s had ha,£\ to be ,kept ItH'o\':i.~~Q,,nC;!d. l'he means ruhu, seem 1 to be '~v,fillnbJeto fid.f:LI t:l'.t' d!tsilrffil w.,bleh ,e~J:'ltea lin: Mg,banistann!;l' l'Iiil:iS than In orb 'f ccuntrtes e1'l.i1.t'['~n!, from. 't\~!lrUrlll,e-.~tT]nge'l1CY, fOIi -[1 .~'lS[l,e.r h~Jnpo cd: eto:n~nnk. d v,tl1opm nt, It was .Iii:I~ nni.ut'dl '1h:-n:, gaJin illS in so mn Illy :_oulitrii.!!i in 'iI, post·wal -environ[:n~nt, there should htl'!l'C be 111<1 dil~n':!I,te f~~'O'1l:rable ~,o p.ol U1cal Hbel[aH:~m ,and; lei1:lr.I11." Eul~ 1n L 941,6, H,ll.s1Jij_i:m [(1~u~1 l'd'l'l1~dj der,[!.rdng to tb(!' I'cellit'lg ~l;[lOI'lg th;~ mytll !r~jil'l.ny: !i:llal hO~",-evlef desjrable hi~ comerva'li"llle ir,U:ld i1UHl(rrUilflan ;'l;Ly.le 111iig,lil ha~ve b.ee 1"1 l],fter. t he traumas of the ].9205 anJJ eillIy 19.~" ill: was, out o~ ttL"!: w~tli ~h~ ,l'l;'qJJt~:I:1:ml~n~- ofth'~ pos'I·Wl1!r ~g;l!'. He W~tiS Sl]:('i!::e.~ded br [th . Yoi;U1.gest MlllsahiOOIil bin;i~ll'e'[1 Shah 'Mah'mudr a l~'i'I}r'.iSh,cd.·blj.t"muc:hmol'loleliant and Ubend lUm, who 'went on to lI'eI~s~ pol,i'tit,aJ, I'l'I:SO~~~[!l,';llljo~'01 ;1'll("[tSl,!ll'e o,~, .pfEifi~fa'eedmn. a,~(~ p~[rnu ,~h~' ertt~t,~!Il'~i} t,h~ It20·me-linbcl; Jl8!11liilfilelll of S:0.me ~ffiny :re~am'~ly l'ad~t;ill m~,m.b-~F~" '~!ho p.ll~e:cled~o,e:<:alr.n~n nnd cllfkise mhrlln 1'lllill act:Mti~~:i. Ar:rl,llu,\g tl'th1 'L III !&(,!'1~1;::iiil\l, U !'lU;W UreJl:orflnJiSt [1[]fl,lliVem(> II t" Lhn~:ai11.i~,~({'~J,~~,om~1 ,j,Alll;\lll!ren d YOU(th")I;!{!1I:!l :1 !!!''l''nd ,L~d I'. i,l,:r"r !U'~ ~bJII ~1Ii't m1.1lbr ~)ul

Itt: 'i@tllgl' 1oI(!f!l"1 I I mr. '_nl.o bc~nM l tICal.u'l 1·lill\l'{J·~ [I • S I III

f,w,ntler/d:iplQ'Il'l,iilt!c:: rel.tl'tj()rD. W!!I1~~:\\l~f.'.:red and, iIlt DI1e '5Ihi~l¢i lPakistan 'impo'S£d a bl:ockadfil ,OIl, 'p1!rrr:~1~'l1'r:J,l! 11:r{)d.llCm):.'de.sti.ll~ij fm A~ghat;~lSitiUl. tills gaVI:!' 'tne,·Som!:',t ,Un}on:th~",opp·O.rt,lH:llt~' t~ ;; .ep hl, ,n~dl.n 1950 ~ I:rnth£ n.g!'ew:n~nt w .. ~ ,c~md~I~!2,~I, 'OJ:l l'e'ltm" fiilvqutiib1i::l' to "fu e .J\fgb.aru:" under . which 4fgJlarr wii'al ~ll:9 .f8i'thi' 'c~tb:;m ~~II.'lt-e ba:rt~:['ed 110.<.r pe:~[@l~:nuill' a~~d IQtlri:t!'t ~_~,mi;~l\'Id:iH~~. ~~ ~_ resliJJt, :5.ij.\tl.el In:tlu~n!,;e: in ,Afgl~~r'i'bt(in. re8~' tJ:!!~dl1'ts"f!rst til~.j,O'f ;a,cl,,~ncill. WJtlt~n ,\wo\y.etlri's',ttade bi.UJ··doub.l,ed ·a;:I1~ !!;oo,n Ut" .n't~ssJ'f!.ns were ~ilP~l}'i1;jg~MgJutni$tru n~t (l!lly l'\i'ii'!h p~'lI'ol~U1n bitd ;t1~1 ~'iN~' sqc::j:I. ,mHllmotUtiru as cmlli uu a::l!ld ':"{l'fton d!bth~11f1.1 tHld pre!! i,()~s'yl:n;: en dfciil'tr·ewd! Hu;ough ·P.a:k.iisrtan. Russian' IJIl")i5P~~;ffiwg: foot oU ~io:ct gas also ~.egii):tl~ln Nf1ithe:rn Afgilf1:ni r )lh.lrn:

iQ,i:I tl:leW'[,},I~cr e~nomij: ftQIlI/ matter~, -bAd ·3.>],5(]1 ~'1firl 1;J~1'l going .well lox ~hi9 ~gbaJncs:. 1iiei~ tnis:iind' in the hnm.~diirte_ poo;t~'\'!1'il:.r. period l~tIlCl 11£:00_ ~ ~lJf~;ril ,~~,.1!.~~ Aiil~tr.cllll'l$ roll" 'as!list:~L~, p;Jl.tly b~CLU~i;! lh.Qy

hatl, iii ,!1rem;~1]Jtle r:, :tilO(ij' lot :t. cou Iltry Wl;Ikh rll PIJ~_a]'edJ to h~ve

:8ouJ;il~1 .[l\thc:~~' ffll1ential$, and \'~H::i _nQ'~v a strong and itnflllen tial

gL6~pl £IDli\I:!!r. L~(t!l~ ~ ~Q, ~lirQ'S! m~w' tb~ A:!n,~dc&n$' es i~ph:dn.g tl1(j;1 IBii'hIh,tlJ11 prtmf.i.difl:g flial~l;!lIPtP.tl!l~~ to: U,e~t.'LI:ss·illJl~ .• The J\1l1!El.rican:l bil,d :r~iT Yiuu 1&11W~'11tnj:~j:i!na' int,ere'st il'D Mgh.anics,~an; ~1 'rr~aty 0'[' If,~endIsll1i;J1AdJ':b_-f!!J! 'IJ nl1ll~,(ted tlitll~ ,lnid~19'30$) but j'l \,l;'ilS l~~t until i91~m _~nd l~. '4 I:ll~.t d'flo~fliu{j. ffiJsion~, were excbanged •. No.1, ' fo,[j,Ql-wng tl.le "'.!it<lJr. Wa,'i"'JitiAmll!l!i€lJI(L .G,Q~renu:nent <l~' aUle:mthusJ:a!ltk a,"!i'(!IIl' p~l~ . ~d'lllg.,!Ii!OO:tlm'lLl~ lr ·a.~~s,~rilC;(jl. and the AfgJnn:tS Wen:: ,C() IU peUed; 101 n-g~~'1.iti·i10 an ·!.l8J:~~fNl~'llil' ~~i~h a p~;l'lfate. A~l'l,eri,can: com {'iHIYr' MqrrispnaK'iuids~tI, 'fQi:' t~e ini]l('Emf'llta:tt()n oflrhe H'ebn"lflt.1 V.a.I.I~y, srheme. .A.I.mo_~I, .i:.fJlnl1e(lmal~IYi' bow-ever. setlc)u-s pl1tlibll.rrrs, tl1)pCIi!r~d. CO~l'5, qui'kIY'e5e~Jilit~d;, 'W;aY h~y~t~.d tllie .M8h[ln~.' abll:i'lj"hl pay 'lir.olin 'their ~:c-cu[ril"[II.ait,ed :resef\t~es •. and the, n.e,goti,n~o1l1 of leansro (:{).\"et. the '5;hQ:rU~U. wl:lieh !d·.n'lnU~d 0.md~ tAm - rff'_ an I:r~""'ulv '"ruen I ic gave ns ~ .It? Ill~th ,~efclmmiy.v\l'hen tht! AJgb311':' 'lrtitiil] requ{:st roJ:.a 10 .... 0 of SUS! liI:IiJ]ion-~pm the. OS E:xi)(),fl'~]mpC!:[t .B<lnk l'l!'a>Y,plll'ed ·down ~o alJ~re $2:1 mi1l.lul:"i. ~hli!!it :r.es_entrm~J],~ WllS.i:!x.ln!m~. 1'0 save 'ItI,Orl€iY, MO!iIiI:scu1J:Km.!ld~,e!1l ~lt3l:ted ~Q U'! C(lsL5 ~nd some e'~seI1'~11i11 J)[eV3firt(ny liUl'\~~ were UAAfected. ~iU(e rhought1i.'i"{lJ;5 gi'ite.o to the 1!)()~.el1tia1 p:robIe:1f.iti Of ~'!I:h]_I'ty -l1d 11\1'1,11 ,tloggh'1,g, iJj~ld.Io'''·'fl:n les -to 'th' 'culuual" ~~,];I{\ch, ~rth~ p,rolec.'~: 1t eems I'~) h[l''O'le: ~leei:.l, ast>lIim~d "tithout que:;;ti"on that bCi~h ~~lsti.ll:~ (bmlUlIJ:niv.ie~ ;Ell[Jd-ne:w imi.g:r;1r~t5j 110t 'to mentlon the nO.Q.l!!J¢s \:M.11:o'm 'lhl;!.lUg!lal'1~ ~li'b~:l;Ied H'IS' UI al'j' agdc;ll.uuiiSI's9 )~oMld b • ~bl' :f,,! ~dllp~ W rt:hout difjj-ul'l:y to tbe'lle~y W'ily:J oHivm.g;·,ju;Jd"uU;\rntio1l1 'th~t waul] be 'I;':rlt:i,i~~tL There ~:'Ii'ef.e 'also' pl!'ob.E' lI.1l:si ill tbalt 11l.d,ther. th:~, J\,J11!I!I~I(au1· l'Ofl:i.p~:n:)t l~;~U- tl1,'~' A.fghnrts,· k:r-l.~ 'l'!Io,w tiDl d a.1 a 'tl,p'ttlhl!¥ \'I1:t h i"hlo! 'f,ltlQlgn;" ,l'I~1l Alfn.eilil ~"11'li' 'w~rtl ttl tin I, 311.1'1 ,Iit.flii~nil:, hut lilld, Ii ctle r: ~gl~J1d r er A~b~n " ~'Q' It:iy.lei'c,1 w1lil..: I h, Agh~n~ h:u.d n.1 tift ':r

D- ~ r· ·'h' F+ 'D' d

,. I "," '."', , I ' ,~ , "

_ aou I'~,e L'lrst~ieCRte

D~ ,a~11d, W.,iIIIS,:t~ 1:11:1'1 ~r '!mJJis.if~~llII.bJ·ltl ,rt;i~['~ 'of e-hnl:)[l!::t!fl PO!iSibl'~. a.tl1tr )u~tlur , ~,nll'l',ml~,rt • 1t1,~e mQ:,~, dr,:J~;(Ij~UC ,~~n:der thOit A~Kl1,' ~,ni~M'iru" hiDS , ;' seen, '~QYo~i:1ELJ! ti1~ futbe'~tr~~r:<lssmatl,g'Hj ,h,e and Ins able brother, Mph"(l!l;n.n:n!d. Nt:! III ~~~~~, Ull:! lne hi l1?;r-ei-g!l MlnUs'le:.r) we~e b[ought

n~ b;y, Ha~ih-'m ~.o \\"h g ",I, ll~qm ,.1'~~O,ro!;I'~~;. ,q\iI;iCilS, ~:n'tl

a:dmlfliSb'at,'lY.,€ tru:i, , Ifl>Jond W~~ edi!Jc~ted .at, HlIlriltU,i)! ,eonege'?J nd

~h,e ,llt,fgtL,n ~llU&~,r-r ,i ::Idemy_ Wbl~C~ ~~'~, ~tt r~de~ _atongsWI~ ,J(~ng,

Zlil1~r. '11,~ 'II;WP , ICO d:O ~ frl~nd!l a['I,i;'! 1'I~,spl:ml;e~", afl~, l)aou.d

m;arri,€!d the." fn "eI, u~Plrer ~h:~h, M!!Jh,niu:c;l, D~al~ud J:lia.d ~eelr

).iUn:ls~er oJ: W~.~(ln~ ':l~{1i s6,:111.p:Ui~r ~f: It:t~ ~e'q!,im(!;~'l ro~' ~;nn:5-l11lk,il, ,rnUC:~1 l-o' 'lIs jjj,[1t'loya-[j,C'ie' ~fl:1ld~rust~'1I~t'bn., th!;! ~me,l:h;an~'hf]d t~jtned q(nvu~:ra, pursue 'what he and hhft'iUo\,vtI1l8 bf""Yiotmg~~f1B!.lnLtbe,m~~~I. f:allllllX saw 'a;l; /\. ghalli'~t a n's Sl}elltla:l In'l:~:rest~. h~ Pi~,Q'p(J~,!-d .more m'Jg'~~~h:: o.ctkm over econerm tjJev~IQP!lj1et1.t ,Clod 1l10dcm~.iilliml, 'togttbef 'Will h a.more J)ol>U's:~appr,ooc1h La'th:e Pusll'toq:nist.i,n i$~,u:e. He had 110' time for poUtlc~d Hbe'rali5m ~nd 1:11$. conduct ofn,fil.d,f1i wns ~Il'i,!"!li.rlah~y: a,u.tocl:at~C!ilnd oft"n lliJ,f~,h. l-Ie~,'!io'ild f,ltdbalJly have preferred 'tthu,t Afghanistan's pri:t:'ria~3Jman(€ S]19utd,bave beeol'!.ilh the ,!\merk"ll'1S; but o.m:'f! ~~hey llliad strown, lh.ems~tv~s nnw~Wng to make a, ceJ.m:l11it ... Olentl J'UI' :I''i:lId no h' ~f:b!ltJimi. 11'1 :5~~k~ng ii, clcse rda'lto:n~:tJjp wUh nH~ US$.R. D~$:]1~t~' the de~Rlr:tur:e ofth¢ Brdti.sh trom the ! nd:IaD -$U~l,['()ntilf1en~l h d~d nut see !th~ll lb~ RLISij.'ian,s W(l!UW, IH~ h:l'npltcd to ,at:;~ ~!:l.grllssn \I'd:, l:wa rds ,Mgh,~nh{;ml in -, he, b~nl()vi!d ,tl'J..al l hllY WQ'[l~cl find ']t not 0:01, d~u:nting militarilYi 'bL~t a~~o d,iI,magbl,g tlodl . conomic.illl:v 'I,ud tm '(I,@nr 111I'lc.,I'n~Uom~l reputHt on a' rtL"Ltlll;tl, .:0 Wi'll 11 ~, utl'i,'I"n ~h€:' cam~ _ of time. r e al'n[l'l,jr bom OLllt). H' \l!,ras hy n;o ml;!j!)ns, blind ,tr.ftbe'.Jii~~ Oil COmmU],lj$t §lubvecnJfl, ImC/in his Vi'~,Wi E(Orl'mil!lr1.l 11) h' d n I 'pt .~ 'I wn'lrl'll A!r~hd~fi ~'ft-l h t11. Ilh'

I::rridiitiotliii:! ilrid"ie"dLII,t:ated ;Cla'S,'::;eS,"J,liil,i~ ai.:sm,!I;~I' ]tl,' th,.(:t',e, )lds/f,U' SO"di:d

I'dCrl;~,lhlleth(!)~~o]!l.1e;).U l1g ,wUh U~~t[~4fi.rnlen€ ,t@ '!jiba!ld fl'hill:l:i.c W'O)f:~..wel'e f~~ ~moy~ fl"?n~' th,~' pr,oIDel'~ma:~ whl h 1iMD!I tll(l', aiX~pttld' v'ebl,(~~ (),~ ill ,QOrt1'illUJ1l~.t r~otu:t),on., He'1!,'i"-~S1 ~'n ';1iit:F ~s~. ~9I\1f]~ieJ.iit Ull!it, hi:!! ~~r~uU:y~,Rrp1.!J~,hll!i c~ilLll:d ;k.~~[~ m!l~, ;,s~:]i¥~~~W!l ''1~~ll ~nde:t. CQnlr,oi.

In ,ll!.ItiiflY \"~I:}',S. th~~efo.re., '~h'e~ ad'I\~'[lJ :Q'" fJ.ijl LIIGI In~rlk.!(;ld 'fA,' waler.sh(!(d ILh (~h,a:n ~J'lbjj!!~ wh~dl ~, s !fj\':t& en~p~ til l:lt bv "~~

. Oii~l "idrl:!l1~ ~U~h ~Illl ~:P!'! (lid ~IF Ebh:1 ~~r rep 'Ii ,~l'slQ'~1 t(), b!1\ - V. tUe' Eas!L a!,!d SelIth' A~ia. &ul:y In 19,:5::'4! tlire :1:;J:..,~ted:I'~.te, )rell.'oo, irtil -'~l~,I~~~n~'~DI' ,~:b~ ~~]ppl}/.~.f ,~n ¥ Itt'l, ~,aJtr l~~l,,arcl t~,~~ ll) I~h '}~l\!iI1'hh~' 1q:1:I.'C~ (Cml~~~ry ~Q'Il!OO '~t~'~O,U'I~' ,~:,'·t _~~i~l, nl.\§~r ~l')'g,'~I1l.i~ati!On '(l~1_" t! .~il~ Jj~jng 9t mlll.lt~,f)' ,alharl~e~ Wilih WtJ;e lfJi"';l'M GJr~at~t} a1 lJl;;I:1~4 M~:~~~J.l:.J.t~j '~:lv~,l~ml'H~dt~~~ p, o;F U:1L:i t)~j,lt ,adtG,!t1,Diu1I1.i:sJ:

01 ~ na, J1j,)I'f:,U i,~N~'j, r.ThJS;I.iSl'!lll~ :1 r~ed liJ:l'~ ~;mJh;cMl1d Al,,,,~ (,l.liih:1' thJ:1

O.:~nt'l"~,1 Tt:€'~tr ,a'rg<lrr~tiD!1' ~,\:Whtltff 3J~i:n~'ll1.A~d fj~ USA", 'iLltit'illiIl/ l1itlfloley, .~raq and .barr!:; (it I~, ~.()ubtfl1il if ,l~iIi,kb~·aH W,H8 In filet Ell'J/lcli cxcr'C:rsed, by thi ::;pet~(· "D~ ~ l'Jlii1rlj~ry' U11'~;lt '1fr('}'tf:I ei'~~l {' g,[ nl~ oeorrununi t I:10~d'rs-~ ~~llih x' hrlim, Slil~, 'lJad ~ mi.llitIla~~omm,iln 'I]nontiel:. Rdll 'I', hf!r maln Qllt!!~~ V'I\! ~~~a'S to ,tlleJ g:tb~n her hand, both l!liUta:~:lf an~,. ~i~h}~~[1i I ~~n)) ,iJg1iil'l~' [111. • i:lus:siblUty gJ' ~i, C'Oliff\JI''UU~]O~~ WltIhi, JnUn ... Dilltf,1Jo a":, Jesser tlcgJ@e-" l\;fg11.1nista't1. i\ ~fur[hc:r 11lear '~ClI!~C,ld ~l?it'~ 1l,V,as ~hQ' ~1~1!~h Oil Stull'!l ~ Jl9$3 nd .aroI'I,s&l~!"L'it ,change 1111' SovIN :POlIc-f~ I:OiM,ill f1dL'j: the Third Wodd,. \1,,'1':1011' zas 5hll~:J:1 ihiili,a SltOlV!l Jlttie.or no ~Ilitel:'e$Un :fhe ThIrd World.' <I!n,Q had .dil~1]~'i5'Sed(hs l~1Ddf!r!l, ~s ';]Iilckil:!y~' tl,~ hI];1~X:~4!.I!8rll\ Ihl' new Sdvl@t rulers 'S~~\! !~t~omJ!;~l~r1l~d stl.'alel~ilc u;clvantag,1.l: in~'I:rengUl,eJ~i':n,g l:hfi[~!, r,-~atiol1.S \"!ti~lt Jll'tird: 'W~rld coumnes and .LrnLtrylngto'~l1:l1pJa,i1J,"Y~ste.m itifluenc@'w,ithth.eh OWIJ, ~I't Ilhtl Illh;kl!, 50s, AJghrllnhilt n b@C'.fi11'111ll une ,0.1 the til'sot t:l]tlflU:le~ to' 11"' cetve Sovi'et attennon ,of fills l1ab,lc~; $orne rib~, 'n/, I'S~ iUd! ed. h-nve speC'~lated fhti.t~ wl,t!1its convenient gef.l'g.rapl1mcaJ ocanon, the Rllssi,.ll~ Inay bnlVe, scen II ns tI U.!',\O[ .l'~.

An' these developments s'ti,mulated I)."o!..ld~s al£piljll'liOrJ!) fdr hi$ COLUli.El'}". He il;g'.aiull tried [0' ,nego.ti~iilte anaerns d.~a]I' with t~e Arn:eli"jGans, bUI r \¥l~ .. m n~g:tIHfl.tlott~ Ii) I'oke dm\'u iH the ~.I:1Id 0 1 ~'S4, he a.hOO;!i,t irnlnE'd~r<ll'ely hlr,I'1J!dI to ~he ,'ig"ri·el, bloc. rt [s 1"~ot~t!ll"iJ\ely ,t_']euf WhJL 1I .. ~&sed between the. Afgli)ms, a/nd the :'\ru,erica:ns; at this, 'point'l. On~ ~n.g'g~tlo~ l~ rhat ~hr A~ll 'rh:::nn,;· in.Eld~ It ri, t:otl(1l~lQll! o an ,[Jgl'~:rm,~nt ~hat~'h~ A(ghan~ :'ihclLIld :'iig:1l a MlItu~:1 S~C:l~!'U}' 1)~'ll)1 CJI:r j()h~] th~ na:gh~ad P,acli but that the Af!~(hilll,$ '~veire UI1~,ri 'Irug ,to '1;10' 1'iljS • Ali\: til l' hI [Ill II lhl\:: tlfgll.ilU !i\1Ctc U t ~iI;Thilny 19lUJ:v but lh. l the , :m ii ~an'~ f~1t '1,nlilJl~, .j'rh1 ~lily ftil' lll~t~~il ~lIld 1t)8i'~li f, 'I f ~"5 mi" L, l'es,p:o'r1!!l ttl an Af.gh:w It'l1ig ~es,t tbl!i,t~ i1$ [1ill'I- 0'(- th~ c~!.l,ijl" Ul~ - ~ ~nntllild RWI'l'ljtl'~ ;t' ll~l'l1iL: 'mj,II,'Y!'Jif It:h nl:Ujln 111 ,'a~ ·v·nDI~. '"I S.h\\lIJ~'1 ~MiI ~:t~ I'~

int-('):m!;tl Siubversion. A '~,tiation :pnU1Jis tl::tE:Qry: ,js fhil'l~r but fb:r U1J~:iJt Insl1)~tllce'"on a gu~,t"'ltre~~ ~h~ fl!.JrSlnn,s w~'l,l!d ha'\l~1et;~ Yl!~ A!l'Jl!~~Ci1.rl IlliHtalfy nssl 'tiljJCC WI:t,i,llo 'pqmi:cal ~trilng~ a:Ui(~h,~d. WJt3:t~V'. rtlhe, t:.m,th of the Dlatt'l'lI'; tb~ orat-comeW!L-s that by the tni:dcUe ofm9S?~ tbe' . . Mgbilfubad ,t;;0p'q:~dij~ JlJn ~~1rr_~lnel~,'I: 'wtth C~~Cl~t1'~~Q~~*i,~'. fX:l'~_~ Ull~ , '5u'PE~Y' of.$~ll'l'lmkll:l wuf't'h ,tIl, a'r:T,i and 'th(ll-lcu~r Uti, t~1e '~!~~ O;l.~?\J,d managed ,to. ~:uade' ,3 l(!}(a; w¥a tIll a:pp~'eJ"'~' the ''i,Q'P',:p,t. ~)~ -a t.boro~j,ghgptng 11ijJll:a~f :(:.l;!la:tioflJl,[1ip '\I\IHh the ~DV~elt!i. 1J'1. u:ilml Weildif.:'i5 hetd :ot-t'Ql1gmJ~,SNi~~S~ O\1\!a" CleDm1_g~ wnll, "i[l:ffid~l":, (qlJ~u"t.,jj:C.'f and·:the Uk Iy ll!:rengt:lJ.eping of th~ gcvemment's Ilq\'\t~[ t9, rl:'];en O~\Illi. dJ~adilru:nag~/._,b"ut J,l':RH:ad 'W3!s·.",b~e'lo p~~~i:Of!l tb~ ~l'''i!Q"n~~ FIiII.s~cl 'Dr the Pmi'i~Jt'tflti'!lJ,~l'.rn' l'st-l~,ei as, w~'1 as to PDW~I"t to' '~t'!c' 'l'~l)ulf, ~'h~ ~h, . rre;n:I, or ii1JegJ;!dl re'lefuv.ed from '~bi!!·JA:n:i:eri~.niIll the J::i'l.dklle (,If ]~56 •. the' USSR .e'tte~dl'lcl ~ $ ~.:!"S mllllcn Loa,1 01' ntiUtazy ~lld;. a move 1::_""1 set i\fghclfi;i$~Inl '!'Jitl D, cm.ln~ of mUHiio/ dep~ndiOlli1ce QnMos,co'li,V. AmQn~ th:k~tIDS suppHecJI We,E' T34 tanks, M1G. l7$~ U~:_!JISj_fl 4-8s, 'l;nl~. hi l,l,ooplVr.$.:l\iori! g~gn:!f'Jj 'iLUI i~' i.i~fj'l 1~'l:~!j~~1in .mi.l.i:t~.f:}r LI:'.1.rliJl,gstaT~Cd hrli ~.u:n,l,!" t ,rid !lhDt .it suC"qss.ion of ,4 fgh:an offtctHs and 'l:hll'r ril:n1S;

I~,e~n t!o g0 l\<l t1C!~ US$H ·~tir![hij}j Pl1:r:p(ill~". . ,

Olj. th . ~C:Oll1tJ mit: .sld~, ~.1llG} RU5<S'4ns5tJil'~ett'~ldy 1.111 19S4'i/!,'1'i:th ~ lem,n. rti:f lh(! c-,nS'~Tu ~UOn I~hw'fi ~a~n' $116, ,iI nouJ~lnm and H:I:m'k~f1";' 3f'Ld ~d~iHJ!]:l1'Ii~:L t~fliS': "~;r,,e' '~OO~).:th;d' 't3!t:e.r. the s.am1~ y@,a:r for mad bJlJJld1n:g' i:!~u.p)n(!n~ ~Iltl _eor ~bke .c.onstn.u-'tlofl of gJa:5: storag 'rJada'tI{l~, aDd· _ ga~ plpel'in~ U1 nQrliuml ~fgl 8nW,t~n. The CZechoslm'<lIkS; :ilIISQ Slep:ped 'lID ll~ifill. 'Pt~li'tsi:Q:t(mli' ~fIl~eilt plants and qtber JP'l[~*~:(t:s~l[ lru:' bak(!!:r'Y;~"h. ch pl~Hdu,cli!tJ bf~~di wh:I.'l~I~. I he' Afgh<H1S dJM!plsC'ci by '~om,pari:5o:n Wi,m t1'!te;f1l' IndlS,~n~L1", n~m;t"'a.~ 110 gr.~at 'plrOpllganda s'UQO'!ss, the same e~Rn(Jt be : aId of'tbe-paving of ~he'$b:eets ,of l(_abul" '\\vltic.h tha n1J~~~a!1:s, !Jlflo ~ffinai"u::lf!d. ~.n.tis; 'W~~, ~]'I thE! more ill. pubuq relatlioris, trh.tfn.ph '~ l'h,e Americans Md ear~ler refused l-oh~Ve anvth.iIlg to do '~'1l1th it .. From thea on, ,a, &tloce'$si,on of barter alJiq prro]@tt a:!!lW~.f!.Hmt. "'IIlCl:~ a h~·atra:lf{,! o,EM:gJ'l"'n~s~~lI1!:!i .m[ iUons~l~ll' Wi~ thie SoYl, 't, UIU{Hl Imd her Btl!'l"~'1eaJ:J; s::rtfl.Utes,. Som~' o[ the p(fJo.l~t,8, were less tl OlD successful, but othees made a pos;itive' conmbunon to

A:Eg;biln'ista.n·s :inlr~sh'ucu.:we ill1d !3(;on.arnj'_ .'. "

The ~US!i;lfirn rnn1 w .. s lllll;lL'~fo'i'i:! al:[\~~dl' w~n in tlie dm;a;r whe11 ul 1955. a further crisis occurred in Afgl1an •. Pakida.ni. relations, hI ~'tlH~:11 of 'Lh~ t year, ~lipr cr('~Hbl 111l"l'r.rt~ l rCllS0'1'i.S, Prukl5uul. I.m'll,gll IUli} [Ilea t.he [J;Fcrvirn ees ofWe.o;,t r~a,kl stan into 'nOCi' Ullit'. l'l1 e ,I dea wa~ to '!str:ength'~n Il~t.i;o1ilill cohesion b};r giv]Jlg fl1e~t and East \"'{mi~ of th~ ,Ollnl1"Y equ llty O.f ·[(!I,res,enl,;i!.'I:)-,J1 hi the Na:L1'OfHd ,,,"!!lS'tl'lObl.,I llf"ha~n '~~~ II,n:weve'.r. WI!I[I.;' Oill the c: Ilsequ nt (Iiethi "of I he NOf<Ul W~~,t liWO.Httr ftcn'l1n:ce .. BY~.rn ,~hO!~lg,h ~htl 'Tdbill _ i\t~~:8, w.~(', rno~~-

11 011"" d tl ~I, un ,!~ rn. iI.l 'n, t~L'Y ~ha 'Co :ile" I~ ~,: Il! 1,lm _'(_II:"

It' \o\.,i!. clear tOo us thnt Uhij Aqtlel.;i'Cam were fJ'1J:tll;itl'.d:ing .Mgba,nlstanWith the Ob\i.om purpose of s~lttiIlg up '.[;1: IIliJih'lfy' I).; SC! •••• tb I,;' .ill nount of Il'llQllC'J WI:" :l.ll\e!U'l tn gratuitous a5si,"lealllC~ 1,'0 MGh~UJi.stan i,~ <1, dw:r In ~hi:1 OCi? __ 1fl compar 1 w'il:fh ttl - pri e 'WJ:~ wDllld have had l:(I. I)3Y i:11 9~del' to ~rount:E!r fhE' threatof an Ann~riica.1 mJlltary b~~ on AJghi'Ul t~ult1ury. 'n1i1tk of the, Ca~),uLal w "WQ~,:I~llltn't' ~ad to lliY nutl;ct Il,n,anee' rha de[)~oYl11enl of ,ur .ow:n.ml.lltMY rmght,3Jong ~UI Sid@ or the' Afghan l)Ofder ••

,,1\[ U~l~,~ p.cifntl. J!i't:e hi tl~,e. ,day. the AmefJcaru f{I.!'acted. 'I'h~y ]](;WI~ - Ol1C~ ~!d '1(1. t b~lt tl~ei II' I[~:C:.·S I,!;, {UCt::t'li.l!., 111J1atAfgh ani .~~,n ihou~el nol' bl;! ~ 'n ;","1 ~"t:~¥] 'Y~~ Ilftu''is:iiln p:re$e;t\te and :l'b~y ~ 1n W·'If1.t !nlu is. ,i'!'()U~ Ilm$ltlt!i~i Il~'~flS. In t~.e' rn J H:'BtiJ IeI'd,. they i:J~ln lo '~J~:t:Jr com~~~ til ue;. dlifi nC'c . II,I'~ J1'>, wh~ I ,\1'111' "lifUI! rltJ'VL~I'il [r J'!f! (~(d"'i i:fll,'i,jl II ~,Il.

b~tl:me (;!Jl1t¥j;ged"oi1~]e 11 [:~II~m, ~lnhe educar! nal system, nUl'nIQ!J[t' of thelt' ~fltirras "ilfl(l!l'llrJWd on '~'1nUU! a ~1~'Ii!'n~ and_nonIfltiim· 'ry' ~uciliion. ,AlIll~dc~n t~IiIIC:i1.er\i" arrIVed in I<abuJ arrd A~'Chi'lfl stitmd~Tns'sta.r!tlt~dbO 'g0 u). A!n&dca,~coUege~,. 1b ,Il],~lt~]\ lb~ l)oviet road- 1)l!n:(Un~, 1Il!Ji'Og~al[lWle :liq~ILb.lCl K~b,~ll aI, g tb.rougll: n~r~l: lo I;~;J'n:d'1I!11~:~~ the ~~n:wri~~,:i1- wok - 're-:!Ipon~ibi,mi &J,~ 'the road -:~'om, lcTmal~ to tlw kanJ.<In-hmoel:, ~h-' io.~d hctW€e,~, ~<:1.n(l21.111lj:_~ ~<I:[j,d Ku.bu~ and tll1~ ro~d~ .. - :froD1 t_ht'!'s~ tWf! t'IU'S, r~l UHf l~jll{I$,~.!;U1-ftol(~tl~Ii.,ln '~'lvH ,tivlfaHOll1 the lni)fl,agetl [o'ga~n, f:lin' msi'dii1 hlll 'Ii; ~tld developed, til 'I!<ltiomtl aiddne. iVbn2l" ,j n !..:bnaoor~rion 'li'\.ith ':Pan.,:t\~nct,!GaJ;l .~lrway.5. Whetlw or. :UGI. ti'!lpa;rt of lh ~"d,iI!3,L _th~ iiihOl:lnbarkl:\(j uri lbe 'cun LilLi l'~ n ,of iii 1 'lm~:rnatiml~~ 3itp rt ,lIti(liHid~hilf. 'The od:dthiug aliout thi~ IPwje-ct 15 t,rwt wlu.ift,e'l't was Qstei\sibly d:f!-''ii,GJlOO L-O be, a st()p-(l\~,el for p:iSUl:n!ltl;giuct\ ,~.I~tra (l ,1J.Ei's.~ing ,b(ltli\lc~]l 't'IlQ ~1iddl' ',:1st .l:rbd Si'llUl1 J\si,(I., '1"1)' 'i'he 'uime it'~'i!:li cCII,rqJlI~~'etri!n 19,62 lOr.1ge't r~lltlll let u.l'cri:lf~ Imd taken (Jiv-et The alr.l!d'Ntwtl'il tbei!~2Ifl':'~~ rnlJJely' used lbri:nJ~iI'JlaH~)~<d n~gh~9 ~nd wa!'; o,n l~'l:l! 1;.100 o11t" a t(ll,~l whit!.!: !.'lleph,~n~'" ~h,e.[~h~y·, 1.1or~eve'tl been ~lIGS'~~ti'llrnS 'In W.unlugton, thar fM from there' h~~i,ng been anv la(!t uf 1c,r~:sigh.~r the real pllrpOSf: of theahpen 'l'l!11~ l'l.l.lIlmtfY ind. sIll';~il~glc,' t, . olfur ',~lt~a.u',;,mtLti'iI;'; lUliV'n fOF ,Alnerk:1;l1:1 air mfl l,auT1t'hlng ~ nucl "i1rt:rnu~ on the Sa\l:ie:( Ul1won. OR. the l~:idcr scene, I~lo.re many y¢an" had pas'sed, lihe RurS5·ians 'f}_ d ,i\fIl:er:k~m 'ou.nd 'Lher:n~cl<ti'Q. nO'I: Jlc:N:~l~1 'OOI'np ;Hng. in Algh,;ur.dS1t!l'tl, but (Ju'1lt11 dQ' 10 taiUrn,g,tbl?i,r' pruj,e( U' an d. ,eveni.rldnJging 'i.l.li 11. measure o.f ,ep-opeI't'd:[on. Sever<l~ pti:wer' m,d lrrlptlqn schemes l-'Ii'eN~ constmctedJil:S ~J1,e':a r~noJI.lil!'l" ,01 ~rn:iilJl lltil_~lslri~S, ~pcl(;h;jJi.s;h~.g 111 tl,'l'e pr.oce~$-In.g ,~r l1giknl'tluilil; pfri;i!il!!l-e, S!JIC.h. .as Stl!el r and cotton, .i\.griC!l.d.h:tte ttsJ.f startedtc picli. ~p. as the res[I]ts of the G~"een !{~·ol.U'~i()1'II Jound th~l:r ~"<~1IV h. to the Co.W11tr~. ~nd the 1llClSStiliH!I I:.dvl!;;ed' on t=i1@ ~!F-!I'Cln 0.1: iii 4;:QlI]e:cti,ve h1.mlirlcg ,pro'iect near J~]aJal:m_d.lr~oo by the :p~edot'):lrjl1i:l:n~ :OJ ',..\med, ~Oim and other \'\l'eslel'H (It;hj("ation:~~,is'ts <lit K<libu.l lJnlv'~IS~~}~1 lhil~u~,;~:iaJns _at!>u _p,[t'ss!o,!d for 'U'lI::1rwn' 'innl.tut:e of 1. igh r 'dUCijlti()n

,md 'wef'l:"~lloII!\'OO to setup ill pmlyte;ffiI1li(" ,

- NCl.twi~h;st<LIldliug these' dcye.~opment j th~ ~ate 1950s we.l'e n,m wi,thO!.l,t dlnj!:!;:!:l:l'Y ~OJ Daoud. TlH,~ nlrl1l!!n.~, VaU~y scheme slil.l fdl.~l If,)'pir'O~pCIi' and tn 'scl.Ille a :rfia~'ii" dUE to sa U'D.l \1" <lind '\.v.at,efl()ggi~t1 Sr ~I;'OP vie'l&' "'\Te.n~' e\I-e'ulllflUv til be less than hal r those iJld'uiI!\'oo to ~t~ LUJ;l.Wl ~Q~:r;l. In 1951;, ~ 11.1,_' r·tfll:'Hd "gh'lt I'lg bl'O'lk~ 01..1.1 In r,~ klY .. ;I_ P',[Olhl'l.:ll~, ~ni ti'- '~ly -m;ci!i' t 11;e ownershtp of tr ~Ej" ,1!,!ld _ folil,o .... i,ngthe' kill in ~ 0 I: til n l\fgha,l1 'army olncer ~~ho ft4d been Irylng. cO'fl,egotiale a truce, s ve c I U:lou~lll.d tdb 'S:r11 'n n~d to Pa.h islan. The ,Afgh;~n lfmt!llnl uventl.!'I WillS U1Tl)[!'c.ccdel1teGil : S\'1111\ ·and I life(;Uve and" pflrt~y asa f, 'il~1't, 'Dijioitild was ,e:r'lcOllfiilleq,.o 'UIiit:¢-,ild:itrong HD' with tr.ib~l teadndl'l ~OImmal"l[ 'SIJ,v~ljl,}· :un'u:! or ~'\hUle.tl,SlUlh 'Dur,rmd, ~h(!s" h.nd 'b fI .~ '!lUI'~ I,

. ,

but th.e Mgbam '\\1'('!Ie. '!iatn, ddeated b¥',~ ro~lbJJI)lrj OTI of Jl~IIrl:ii:.'itaui 'U He·s 1!!~'~11. ,ilnd Hi~ lo;~I '; ·'~lril;;,"1 ~ 1 ~VYI' Itl" D"~1.iu,l.f: seouts, U\.!:J;llIg: 11'1:' Sli.mrrle.f; hOWe!llleTI 'man'k'iI,I,~ in tlTsion' 'li(mti'mlt!d and 'lhe!l~ were : .• :1 ste:ady .s:1-re~m of'l;',.rsll:itlties on the' ,Pa,ktstanl fi,1~[', '~!fhtb:~ J~ikl~tar.d (,'O~:;U.lli!ll:!'$ 'w~re ~:~bi!e~t(ld to, i:9 t;zym,palfJ1 10.£ t~~ta,~~f~ljNl't.

In A!.~~l~~ lSl:pl. tl:illi! P~k-n;,l1m,i,!iii'h(n:'lr under the ':e:n~r~tit~e:~d,e,1~ :j:hlp of PfC1~id~nn ~\yulJ:K1::raJl1. • .I'Wn~~H.a l!USh.l:tl(l!n.,. 6:miIl;)I}c!:1ose· te.act, Th~\I' 'chi!>1l:!d ,Ith{!jr ,~on:sulitl:e't, il:nl,alataba.d· ancl Kflt,] Ih,jI ·!Dd dei[1~~md~d Ib,~' drL: i Ifl g. ~'f' the M~hm{ tDlis,u !lI:te';:' nod bade ·tnissiou.s ill p~J!:"i:sta:lJ., . V'rl:riJ.e;;tru.s .Il1igIJi:l· have dlslnp:.,h:d. th~:A;I5gbansl '~de hi' "'OU1~ ~[enl., the :danmg.c w'C)1.!!)d net h.avc l1e~n ~li:'tf;'!n~'lV,e and they would lhmrG: bee'n wclJ,iI(fvl,std t'OI 'Let !lHlI~t. rs tll,.t:tbe,l;tl:. lnst-eadl tllUl:Y bro.k:e "FI:i;p19mauc le]i\,t,](l11S and t~tosed' the ~Erontier.. The Pakj.t>tan:i~ a It' . ...1 h~'~ U:"Uatn :!ihouJd QfEidii.dly ,clll'pr'~'~Hl thel.f ]nlm~~.tsi.h f\Egha,liIii5t!JI1, 'but, ~n ~ move that wa!!i,·"lr1:lI~illy :'Wulpre.ce([enredij Uile .Mg.ba1'lS lefus~d t,Q iligt;~e tGliIJ~Js... ~UC[; 'W~5. tbe.oh5esti~,qn ebout Elrita:iI1. stlll prelo'a)en:t In l(ulJ!td tiliJ:t l11il,t1,Y tnere ,Ctmll~f1U(-d l( see a 8dl.is.h hand bt'hind therakijst,!),ttj~'ad:iionli~ TIClf' ],iUter therefore had to make do .~ Hl fhe Sa Idl. .Afab~iffi.'s,.

The 1C1.~u.:ce ~if !the [t;II:.\:rd~;r hu(1 :;l!dtlcty of dil.rnagln.g, eUThcu. It nG\~ orn;I:" bit the Argh~'l!l1'~.'; trn,cle, but'al~o·~t'O'pped '~h~' ~JrufluaI mi~Tati1lrn ~t the.nomad ku:d~;s. to ;11.]](1 frum, ~'akrna;n. -a: r~tljclill.on that caused them m~lt:b ha:[.cJs~ii:p,. U also prt:'v' inted dH~ ilrill1:j:t '~fSl~p'pn{l1i needecj for ,AtneHca.1l. aid lli'o"j:octs; y.et agtlill the I S$R Wa~ the' only Iwulmy. 10 neflle.Il~, 'l~ ~.iI~l'],OO It-otl$mdl~rllible poUli¢·al and e{'()llo:m~c a,datl'ti11ge 11~1 nj,ooJJti!"iI.g :11 .!il~l:ssiv-e a!dif'l 'D~: II.Jijh.illn grl;ll'~ ilnd o{b!.'l:t h'csl1 r:f! .. ~Jf. tb U1 eo Sp!iFie.~ "Union; Ml!ile:Ari:nia-- -a irf~tglil red further (lu('JJil tiities t'£l lndla. ]n-~~962,.a long-end didkult route-was opened: '~of<hm.rarnsha.l.'lI. 'iI) * te ,Pt:rsl~m 'GuH and \"'ir<l!ii us·[I l')r]rluuHy foil:' the UanlipOl"i: of Amelicll.n:k] :S.J..!~ppUes. r~.lhe ,Afghans chose t(J:'rc:nUlH' Anl,ed'cilJI ':Jittempts, tQpe[stl.ad~ 'them to open tbeoord~ wU:lh [;D~l'kl~l;an .f:br ti'rle release (l'r the liiifl su.rjJjU~S straadad tllW"€/ btu ,e(ll,l'eJ1in.u~l]y '111iil)' agwe'f<1 to ,an eight week respue, Mor~ ~,ene:raJlYi blO~\,~~1;~ '(,the' do.'iuf1eb~pll . e.riouslylliQ damag-e t!liC Mgh,U1 ei..Xl<fiomy, Ilecause ]n <couseql.lence·t'i~ ,il lul!g"'!it~nrd.lngpDUcy of Illa,aUng 'lhct:rlib~!ri~ .:i~J~'\;!'!:"!n'ill.l1em 'h.n::aUCH'l ti'iTa's by ~]QW' -only mtnil'ID1~.~l1y· d:erfi\~d fr{)m ]al1.d and. I~,,-:e~to&ki It wai Jlal.'Ucnhu'ly vtdmmib"le to the lnter rl:.Jptl.on ·of It'ii Wl.1'tmeJl'C'l': .. Som~ 45% of gocrlUne;nl r~ve:l1UCS, (,'une from custOrfllj, dllle.".1 lind threl.'l' qua:ne!' of thi ,vas b~ing lo~~. Financia'i pro~,SUII'\'!1i ·l,"'i'el:!'.t Il]:S0 InU!IIl.S]rl~d by .hea'V~r expenditlu!!les on devel.opmental. p.ro·iects. ''Vltii.lz!b weru b~om I. rig i11Q((l than the oet'O!1loJny' ~""Ould, b~m':". ,I~I:£!:!:~ lt1ng, Ith· gCl"'~mlJil!ent'li>'OlIs s·h.urt ~,J some £7 m:illion w-o:rth! of iiCVern1i.l:1l iilil'i:d. ~~~ fOJ!e]gn ~.N,d!]illl,g~ telleN€S were el\ih .. mt~d. '[oflali .. I~r. nd bo,rt:a~~ b: cail~'lo PQrmiflu"'ut i11i:1U<e 0' 't'h.!! l!Itou ~r.rL. 'In J'lJily, til" 811 h. '61<~ lmn

.glfe.rC'!d :111:<:; goO:(i. 'OJ~l-es:· to tl!f 110 reS:'o11j\le-':tl~~ ,tU~pYrte mdltl'11~~e.ilecl to ~}(J:t]'l. t'tllJ.u.<Ib"ln~lue!d of a. soh.ni.ol1. klow _ vtit" h:ts l!'1IitlatJ.v'C foundeIe-di 011 the I'Cl('l.:s .tlf AfloofliUIi tn:ii~tenlli! tbat i',{. l:,{J 1diti"on ·ofill y setdlilmem:rno:3,t be a: total :r;etl.:mtt tothe status ~lt01llJj'r~, As l b~ rh.m'lllhlJ wtlnl b~ .arlidl a~mijU~:l~ In the 'au~umili:l '"Qf t~I.1.2., dI:~r-e"el1~ f'i:1[fnher fnaili~h€'e aJrUflll' of Afgtuu:i) :ftuit1io I:ndi1'lil:md tbe :go!l-iet tJrtlo'm, It :be~!11i~ .iliQ'eii~tn~lf _ d~:r that the Afghan. "Oi:iim1~! ·auld flI€lt· s!Usltal.n i1'1.d.efulIitdy the strrm.ns bC~llg,p&lt Ott it. An 1Mb Mlssia1tl \~l\lr:ldl o1)r.rived in the ,D'U tumn, of 196"2 'p'llUed no p'IJ11CZRi;i~ill settiuB (lliIJ "'he .!!'rob!l~m~," 1([ Marcl11l963- 'tbe lands1Lde. oceu!f,n;!d: ;!11i':1. ~:n'l'l''9'blil ci( Ui!';. IlUM'i.tb. it 'mas', b:ri~d" ~nn{)'m<!ed on 1ladlu Ajl~.!1U1'f1:s.fafl~hat lliif~}"l.fC~ frjj'~1 r\lil,lin~d and [that a; COnt1'DQ1'mI and g[!1Iid~~iirt't; i:npw:y~l,ts -alii fi'lJitttngen Unhl~[,i.'ty. 'D[ :Moh.a.mrm.lm l!'o:u!!>'1.Ilf~ I~a.d been ,milted ttO fOl'fn·.a n~w g~\lerml1ent.

it ,\\;;'3S not i ~~ st fne ni!ae~: ttl Ill'mlcl a. :501 ution. to -th.e tm.p:~s.5e wIth P.1l:ki.stanrC'J'udal[:l:l"a!lIig;~'I: tthis, '~'YIIS'r ·,~1'liOli~- -, bwugl'l,t abofu:t Daov.fl~\S downfall!" r:(1!'~ii )';~ill( 'Qr r;]HlFe Ill~ r'()~I'fJ1 i~liInUy,hHd b~:1;l d :bIU:~l1g til'" (1,11 u I'~ of 11:h.·~. ctluntl'y' ·OIn'tl· wtac:r ~()h:s,jd:emt'io:ns had come iilJ~:o pla)'~ ra;r~Ly,:; they were Del\iII'()l~liS 'or the· inc:l1'e~sb1g' de(lendeJlc:e on th~. StlvlelI: 'tJ,n~~):1l l'h~ft Dilout(.'s I1l~U"'t~~ ·'w"re ~Jlt!l!Hn;g:.LM()'·~ 'fundu'Ulin1.hdly~ h,.(]We\~fl tJleTe \lL!t'I'8 ~he f:e<allsatlol'l th~t· P~TI.iGu~<l'rl:f· 'll\rHh[:h~ emergence of ail 'i:ls;Ser-Uv-e if.!du(:at,~d cJa$S,. lJa(:)Uld~.!i ~xces,sh"!llly i.nU: rntl l'UIC' W~:;: b' {Imina In. Hl, "ll'l.gJy ~!lic;lllh~d •. Thtl~{} ~!;'~fjj in fa,cG. iii gtowwg incom.p<i'tfbHitf between t.n,~ p~l~lQies of lIlodcl. educi!tiollaill ~nd ·e>(.!Onomk ~dlva:l1!cl:) that lii~ \'I!ElS~ 'wUh '.~OJu~'s'tlOC~S~ p.~i'Suh"g ~nd b~~. de ~~!l1m luu'tiof-l 'be>. k~l;ljj the h~VC1'!io oFpow'(i'r in IfI i S owu hands, tlte rO'}',;'iIl famJfy h:'ldtaken not.~ q.f developments in s~y.el'lll f."f ddJe U~:t, ~ount.rle.s .• where t,lt"adi.ti,t:mM .n.il!~ts biid '}1 ~Cefit '~:!lU;S been ol-'!?rlhnll'.rn and r(!I)'~Ged by rQv.oh,IUO:t1o'iry r.cgi,mes. ·fi~tnicu.arr shockiillgh"ld beenthe mlJllld.e.1I' in 1957 of Ul.e,m·[,aqiKing [:e'iSnl and hi'.; Pril.n:u:· ~~,iUni~1JL?~ Nt]]:i. S~lid, hU'~ .upsets had abo iQC.C:-ll.\T~'CJ el&e.:w.h~(!, ~n~H rect:ndy Tin lUte North V~IU(:Ii1. The ge.ile~al feeling tn the :roly~d family W<I:S that a movetowards a 'con5{-itutioiJ~1 mo:i};3iidi!.Y anda .(no.!I'tl dem():(;H1Ue stYle of government \·;l!!!:lla. Ill:!cess;l:ty.H 'they wer,e .not to ~l,Jrr~~: B: 'sin..'lii,tu f~te:. To {l hi'eve rhe'~C' biectlv~s,Ute fLr-Sl: requi[~n;n."lllit\lw&S tlitt' n~mov~1 of Da.oud~ bUI~ th[s W~~ 'on'iy ,a(hteved. wollen h.e p~'oV'lded ~hri!'OP[l(Hh:11l1ty. T[l th~ COUi!l'S'~ 0111 th.{! m·y.].1 ~all:lli[ly;s, .debales, h~ hlms!i!H put forn'lud proposals fOil." ,iii 'C nsti:t1:ltlo'IJld 11Ulmu' 'h~, .with ,a parliament iii wbkh a s:ill,gte poUfi~al pa.rty \Vould be allo.w ,1 toO f!!lIl'c[lDII1. Hoy.r,L'!wr the King and ot'be,rs .rellred t)a.lt th~:s 1iYU<~lld nc~ bJ: 'il, geJl.ulil1~ I!lWV~ 'IJ,oIWllrds dfm~~CFotI:!Y:~ but Ulilt; lS, lbjIl.nl.,t(!Jb,le ~e~d:e:i' QnJl!J;t']N1t~y~ D~ou.~, T,i~~Oliil,dn:le:fiel;y·a<tq1l'li(~ ~nt:f~~~ .I ~~ f. WbeJ"l. llw I<lng d."",db~,~d til !I~ud~~ IUmiaud" ·Pt(]P~ III J lh ~ ~,ltt'l

!l1'R'~ ·t IH ."Ii Igl1~ 1~ln" Tit !i tl' . le' nU: ,UI·_.I~'I I. -

A111. en ~~1:!11~ w:nlil1tttS. ~(fb!j'1~ t'll,e: '!l1!ot;'V~~" l[u:td~d:thlig ~o)riei, .0, l~ol.J!)';h·I?~':lnc:,W[~s. WJ~Y' did l1l.ep"!.<ltslst ;IO() ~ph:g Wi! h .1l:n, Clby:i(jl~I.$~Y I:iInwjnn-alb]e:J("()uf1!Dl]jt,a111()JlJ., "id th I',akt!;;~n 1 \!VaoS' .h;e.,..jn- .the ,nliIJn~ile'l'~ oj ~u :m,1J;uy de-!\p~:)~,: merely pUlfiUlulg' fffl., ~t~[ru] -quilr:1i11!11 tnotGJel'. 1'0 dl~~~t ,nH'C.~t~ot' ifr;:",[ll h~t:e!'n3Jl d.i~~\ii!t~~rra(Uon~~'!· oi, Wfl'S' h~ •. a~ :l~m(l h3Jv:e- '0Utel\ld{l'Gr~ dleruDe[il!te~}'"pl~ilJY]n.g {:n:J tbfni!:motiOi.~.5. of :Uteil;~ibflj~ l~ad:e._t.l!, "and tJt(f. mlLnlt~ ~t fug~\ ~I:i or(h~,t [u pc:[;s'l.!Lll'd~It'l~m ,~o ~'lli"\:.i;L;O~~Ce'! n Jhe. ;)(Q~p:t:!ln~tl'oJ .l1!l.~g~~~~inC Soviet mU I Nl:(Y ol:i:a,? 11\1 or~l1·er' 1,!,1uF'dfl,vo.'aSC ne' "pl'im'<l;lI':nf~wlt(;'e[nli:t11 J lI:Jt:o,Q ~'ia' "Qii!J!:hset~ti"g-!\}('o~m~Ji'l!' ~nd BQlGial d'l~u\lg:e.. to- ~1]~5t~r~ thepred.()m:inarn.{f of:tblll"qe'-ttre~s;iP1'Wer Ii'! ~:el~Ut1!!1 Ire:)! flu'L d.f:ltl:eUi:l?e!~;rOrwj\Jjs he ])~'.r'~()!'1!o!lny ~o ·(!iu;oU0i!l.ull, i n'KII,~~d 1m: the ]?Uis:b,WOlllista_.u l_S.;;;gg--cth.i1t 11l(l,'w'!I,~bllnd tp"f.ti~ lr~~1I:UIt.i'e~1' Was his., p~rS(lnal asoe:l]jf~'l.nc1V and q~!d£k:f(:'lfn;pH'S'l:I~h' 1'l1fl:it J3:CHrH~: da;ted to!.9;[l~','1. hi~ ~}\~:;; .. lu. the: fact thtlt~:~:N:~i3s~fe llnm~~d very. li~U(1 en thl!JsIJIsm:1'I mo.ng::th~ l>t:r~h l;()o~lI:Faud lklhllGhi s .• Mi~oos:_ lbtf.oo;rdlC:({ It !'I~m~nSi 'IJI]"l~i~r.ti!]JlI.:w:he'l:e the balance -0.1 lhe truth· Li~~t

. - -.. "_ . --,--

laQud~s m1O;o;:IHurl. 'W,'.l~ h:iJlie-.reo.~~y .stt:ong •. Hfs ;;'Js~oclIJUon wH'1h tllrC anllc:d forces ~dendr~.d back oyer ;cll~llly Y~"'~ihe p.Md ;[[[e:lt.lonl,QI.U.~ <!uenUOl'i1 to P];QIn:0t~onJ:l<. Hncla1PI)"oi'Ulm:ell~3i ~nd he had close pe:rson.rI,1 [~Jii:~rlOf1:~ with 'OI:iiCf;!lA'll "':II~ .:!iienior ~1'l,dl1111idtl~elc:!\r'~I, rhe:Jl~ (;~'~'l1j be·i~,ttl]e··.doll]bt' fbOli~ he (Ou]d'.tr-a:VJe:~eUc:d on the ·~nliIly.~"".;StJ.ppGl"rt fn ~.l:i1,y' Sh~I\li,.ldQwn w.ith,Ul.~ re&t. ~.f U'le 1l0"WiJI~ :r:a:n·:cHy_. ]J11[!a: .h.e a.g-roed 00 .g;O IJoI!l~~lIiIIIy. 'W"~, p.r-oibably due J:lafl,I~/ tOr t'he .Io}ml rll;~~,'IIny's ttracUI!Jr:)!'l biE talking it!IM"DliIG;hitfuj.1)j I: p!:Q~lems and .m::::ti n;g 'IJ}' t;om~nius. f~.ow~ver if .lU,ust .n~.:$CI l1aeVe, stemmed from ~hb· 01ll![1 <_ eVl'ntl1i'!1 - ,[e.~lls![ltion ,that I1LW5[J(1'lk~e$1 pil:t',1'h~l~1!l~1Y' O'ii'~r P1.i!:li.!1 tOD~nJS;t~Hl! W~~~· l!lllildl~fI go nrnwhtl':[\~ and tbatl}:,1s, d¢p.]:lrturq t.vits .. :thed)&:I.~.ymeil!nS·>ofJif~oo:lJlI~~h{! 'fresh SHut l:itat was, ufg;£'f"!tly L.eedBdJ ..... kl~ !lla'~llJlsO have .FIl!i!.1t that there 'WOl;L~d ~!!J~HT .h~ <II p'~:aee ifOil.h iiil:n i Jl: a d~lT.!6C"I;1!ft,i~I:!{I- s¥st'e.lU, In ~ny ~"'~m, h~ Jjetu~Mt intT.q:)[rVa~e liff! andljilded. his ·Um-e,

King Zahir and Cautious Constitallttn&limt

A C~~1'clll1.g,t.CI ~lp:lr.QII~!~1:bl.iu. rr'.'I'.bU~) l:n.llIe.l'~ ~'.~~ ~.u. '~~.CI"Y'.;. n{l .. t.'~.ce .. ' .. f.~.bl~." e.~!ih1 cltten~mn ~h~'m!;;a.~,i~~()'Pr E!S l~hCi:;' 11"C'1M5' of Dareu.'ll;1s d,epillil:"!JJ!1

_ . sunk II)]. Afghor:ns wt=I."eI 'IJOW'PJli~llrnted. 'to tl!.ik h'J~df·lciJ 'fo!i:dgner~. ~a£ie· frolu th.!1!' '~Ltt~n'l:li~.r'i:Sc 'O'r: h i,'tl ,nQL;!!t~J:y. app!!fIirl~~~, A €oli!nop,t~Ut~l~ .s!@cie'tJ' b~gfl\t;'i ~.(\I~:dIe,'lIleJom i [:I J'ill:ic:h. j'\igb.ans :iTI.:b::ed wi.fh dtplowat~~ UN lJer,sQnne~'J ·l.'I.'ld,~"\lIDrkel's .• "'I:ndfol',eignres.1denh;, Th.e· b.I;[~d!n~ZY(:l\ .lind ahJ oOll'J;:~.unHyl,jjfe're 'r.m.riI,~l,l.lil~rly e~nr~om'f!il:~cl, ,{;'jI!\p~'ting ~:h,llt ,tl~~ bo[\t;jer wi11:1 'p~kist.u'J··.fOtd:~i soon ,be opened <1!nd r.l;Gll'rt"Hd traile ~t:;id dCB.\!'~;~opme:rXliDil tI'C1lt""ii't~ restune .•. J~Ol' Ute ',krl~gep '; ~~J,::m~ fQUO~li,'tfl!.l:i:l::!ld:lci"!ll'l;im~,s: gi'\I'~.1':I ~J:y D~: Vt)u:.'i~ff jJ! iJI~rol~ d(~fit dI;:U'V'e~d ~ few d~y~ wfl~lu' hj~ illJ1Uoilintrml'nt, tfiecoo; was ;tbe~:l1 peclatto!J .()f"~ 1) ,111(:~,~~d mt@..fml p:riv~"~ e!'l1l-e:rI~dse. 'a il"DIQ]Jeli~.~ polUk:al sp>"tern and <I ~tlT !Sut::itElfy :~e'rie[;it!J.y~

JI' ~a~ fi!:r frorn (,llSY f'G:r the rH .. "W gQVe[I1I,,);-:kQmlt Ito 'lhre' ~~.P to a]] 'lilc$!l': exp,e(1;altlm:l$~ bu~ some qUirL.1< &~l OI;~s~res ,1,,('.Cle achieved, ITt MJ· h~IPi?!.t(i~dI tha~ a la.um~e~ of ~(Conom;k3ind. ai"dme-aSurnS liwere h'1 thre p'~p.e'i~n~. ~ndLSi[) ~p:f~;~l :r.:oul.diJe. ~l1~d~ ("m~ of th~hiIil1m(lUfil('~m,~nt .• 1\~(jIrI\g them was ~~l ;;l;grr,eem~nlt 'wffi~ll:~he IMIl'J new road rCplUit.nu:1:i0Jl! (l~~e;n);el'J~\"Ii~ri th the 'soviet- Union and. th~.U ~'i:te:(1 ~'ia$teSt fh~ pl.l:r:dl!as~ Ofg!~1'M ~ll !'"\~'r~ln~Clr !.\, l'~!lln~ ;:lInd a r1 '\IJI!::!rlC!l111 ,g,r~t;.t fo l'~Ii'tii:e,i(PiiJifl!ilo~1, of Kil.bu l iJl1J.Ve.:r:il·~ ty~ fiJ'IJ):QnpJ dTpWunm.ti,C"I:illo!i1-es ill~O~\i'e:r:~ madeto resol v.e ~h~: tntpl'l:S~ wJl;lll .l(O.aJdstilllH, '~¥.i!tb. the result U1Ell by t]lC end {if M<!y~ .. ~('~I~.~ilU.on~fl'mn ~~dil m~w;IfI,I':I;y~'I.!!dJ'J1i~t ]n'l:eh~Iafi ~t tl'leiIDlviJtMfol, o~ ~'be Shah oif [Willfl allGhad agwed to re"es.h~b]jshh:ade and (;·rp'l(lill~ISi~'ffi.:;:

I)~a,~h:.m.s~ as l\1e~~ .a,S t,o :reope_w the fiConU®:r. AU'hQu8:1;\~)~, i.fgh~!lSi ~nm1n n~1 ~,(l t o pily Ii !l'!,'il1'fvi€;J;:, ~o 'll1l51~ t'P'G1.a1::rio\tan' 1.~h!H!.i!lli'ee!1!'ienr p!lll~~ 11~ i~'5ue lmiL'Jld)t on thl?" ,lijilck b.urner. While- 'it '';Q!HJi~t!~(I 'l{) C'~~u~e t~n~l<Qn f,[(:)'Ol iI.1iJt'l}e.,~o ljtljll~\l-ll n~~"!i):~ .iJ~hl.I1t~"Vi: l"l~ b"4~ U!rl~WS" ~:~.lfoolJJ.UIr:I:Qrn b~l~w"(m 'II JI~ I \"ill~ru 'I:;.l)_\i! r] ~ rill";,

E!q~!.~Uy' jJn:PPn:t~lit!·<l~th:(:lI[~~~1. H~§y too.k.lon,ge:r: t(:)(:'l:A!~¢.t1: we~~ :~b~ mrtpvj$ th!e.g()~[nl1~CI1'l,t I:n-ad,c· ~'O ill~'tr1;){hu:;~j) I~'~I Irvn,O.I,11ll dg~nOO'i,!~lt> £l,QIJ:siti.tultior'l. 1'0. ·3ii:hds-e ou· its ]~re.p1j:r01lHonl D{ ·)~tlil.ll.sild announeoo. the fO.flTI!.a) ~toUL tJI a .. ~jj.\i'lm7.~]'i.,m 'l't,i(:1~jtitu.tiOJ).d J::piIJnrlil.t~e,. whJc;:h ~Flelu~l@'d ~~~ It:ii!i!t (rnfi(1l pto~lIlifl~nt Jib,efii!l~. M(lJ~a.!l:lHH;l~ ;~ld~i9 JlIl1fchaf1"g,. '\"II'bo h!.ld ble"eTJ ilcbl:lj1i;. inth)~ po6tkil,~FJeTlUle)llil: of the' l,~ik 194(h, <l!->.~d;~"llf1>\, 1950$; rile C't)I'i.U.'ilt ttee. b-ega1l;L tDme~h-i.t U,l!~ ~ndl ().f :Mal;d] .l'\)6)3~. <rnd,.:o1rssist~. by- fl Illwellefll Ic,;QI)$~ Ttt'Ylttor~.!ilI .. i;!ldlvjliefl w\'l~:bdS:I~!'!:dI~9r. f'(ill' '~"IJ~~ d y. ~ Y'~~I~ wh~:ti~t·l~m~~Jcl::ld .1.L dml..fl-"'l~li,d],'l1!;~'~ fh~I11 e.xlili'l:tilst:i"\.\dy e--xaru'ined lJ}\·: .. , 32,.[t1i~]bet. Cun;s.Ut).:!tioill~l.Ati"Yl"ooi.ry CQfm1l1i1l£1o!l].F:lnraJJly, in S~pt¢J[l" h~~ 1?64, a .1tIJtl:cllfrgKl/lj':a~ 'CG;!liIV~~~.!:~. ~O c;oinlsidc'j" the d~f:lj'1 (;ons~H1Jlic~n Uil\1d f(mm~nr..ilp!pf(Jve i.1.\ !to[lmcl~r~lble efloJ.tii wl:!r-.ril·.malie to g:rV,c this. body a Jl~~nJ be:rs~li[D .th1itWfiS ,l!i~ 1\~'PE~A2~M;qt~v(r us P0Ss]bl;e. Oi.~ tt1iI;'H;"oi'boiotl:

I~[ltl6il {~Itl::i,(}ugh; (ill'~ts ,;IS 2 :rneEl1: be.rs.,. i~~.,t [o,t~.r Wt~f~ _ W'Giti1211}. ~.1~d i:lldLt-el.it~;e~ecti.(l·.l1is l:'\<;e[~ ·hd.~~, iJiC:rO&i the ,(Jo.lJuhy to _Juodl[l~~ d·d@g;ilt~~ ~~QI;U~ ~<l~b provlltlc~ • .Perh~_P$ net sL!Ip.rlsingly, fI.lIi:ref'Ore; Uhe #1,&0 'WUiS afiytbi:ng but ii l'"ubO.er· i:i:t.~m.p., MaJri]l' oif '{b; ~nl[:Jrn tru~~ "r.(il1J(;:~.oodLo;.cdi IJ f€lrea]~h1g il'l_hribi)1 jbrsas .'iI~u:rmt level of(J[ffiI:10{yllc'lf~:ii o.fte,[l.impre'ssiv;.e. Th~, bulk of .the ·oo]\lll!i) ... e~.s;y oQ~U:LNd' i:()'~iud .~t:J-e. ro.~e oJf ;r.he t()y~l 11l!oll.i.! ~;nd I!h,e' [lJID.u!U~ 'OlE theiu.d;~ci:i.l;1 ;~ys;tenl.-j\~ :it was d~;]ft~d. ·.find j~~'i~~ly pll!s':'.>!2d I ,the o()nsti)lltt~O!r:l ~. dec! aredthat .:tl~';:.l"oYil !~mil f$h()~j ld ·.~ollsi~:t ~o&e!~.j~ of th~ cliE!:5.(!(\lJda:rn.~:s· of~1Idh' Shab- .lnd s:e:[ !fJ.LI~ "f~J~. I~J:r tflli! s.l,li,lJ:~$'Lon! •. HO'w"er the #i~~(l slu)w~d Lis ~ndep~n~len(e- by' ~me'f!Jd.l~g the'$6€tjon ,,;:!enrmifJi.g Hie [a[11H~T:1I role, 'Wlllerea,8 the 9rl],i' t~rfictt1iQll.$ Co.liKt:a:lnfldl.inl1hLl! d:raft Wll!.T0 m:hil.l~ TIi.1.~.i,T1hiI!~ (Df l:h~ Jim, .. ·1 fMmiiliv· muM no l ' h old. l:hi.'! 1!)~i1~~S: Q't:' [JTh~i!~(;~~t1s1~r.Mi:l]h tE'r, M~[il'b,~i . ~r Pn;t1i<Him.~nt or l]J:rl!loe ·'of the S1.)!pteJlle eondt t:he i~.r/Iain5isitad~ no dOil\JlltwLth a \i'~~llY ~o p],-e'vf!ntilllg file ~:t11.ITl !bopl1bll~c l~fL1! Q,fllaoud ;;Iud NtJi.l:lll p~ 1IIIcl!;Td~tlg ,;l . p,:r~vl:5·t{)n Ul!;:!tttl'l~ ~o:y~d. famU y .~llOI;I!(I. 'IlJOlit ]Rl.l1:ill?jip<Ji)~:al'.l ·pn:litj'dlll p!]n~es~';' and a! p:rop(j,}~j ~1?1'l they' '$:hqu~d be blli:rr_tcd J![iOinll p'jl::~ki.pllt~llg In :poU l ~!€I!.~ actbilt il's_rnq'l1e :g~ln~[<I] Icy r~U@',d. Nill ybe(:·,~~~:\i.~· (Jf Ut~ diiffwcu.i.ty pf d~·f~!1.1:tlg: ~"Ila'~! 5.m:_h ~~cUYlti~s ~llght ~. T.ll.em was a]'S(j! a vig.O"r,ou.ll clelliElt:ei1l:bOrr:lt t:h~ legal.system and tne judlci.tlr)'. Hl:!!Hl, tl~fj:fleW'lS .~t.~{~~1I" cUvi.'(j!~ betw~en thl:! tmclUkl'nali~'S t.! !~dn·l,t~cl'c'l:rii:s'~~ wh i.d~ !il:nld~d , .~lflLe[ '11 {'om,b.i n~ t]10i1l. oif I~~a~'~e-J:Y" G~l~ol~y tlll{l f>a~U¥ \>:e.HE,[1 thIe'il;t~"2, 'i"i!i:tb th@ loal<Il:lJce ~avICitu:1'n-;g the 13litt@r. Th~ 1iwud tex~ :!lb,pw-ed J ,ellen p.r@re.t~lltCe (OI ~ s~eu.la~ leg!ll.syst~m, al,I.:!l3'jt wi~~hhl! ,111"1 t)ye~t~]1 I:!ll~nri,f.!' c(tntirl,1d •. 'sIUH1.g ~·~!l!Ung.1\ W(llll'e also 'C:%':_lJH!!lS(l{i. O\!~1 t!b:,e "qnesUom of. inillema.l bani~lj1Il<lftit anclrowed, -~ai!JQ1Jl!II"~ -,(t,ri~~to wbkhMgh;an5had lW~ i1':1I]iequeIlil~y .b¢efll subj!(3~te..d i]] the. p~~:S,t. Unclc:l'. ·1 hI.: ~X~tl~t it l~ tiOt.l, tM er·~ w.t!~ prr;.w.~~i.otl fOIf ~l b!~cilUjl1~rIlil pl111:1 :1111. m~n[' ~the SfU,ifi!I}, \vith. ~. fuHy e:lec~ed -+Ui~mf'lnber; ~ow:(tl~ll0nJ:S'e:/t:I~H'l' \tVot~J.i #rg1"fe~.e.c;.te:d by:s:.ec·[e:l ~a~~Ol!,r :lind ,~u:i 8~I'Jllem~t l!!l~lli)e.r h(1l.\!si!" U'l~ M~,f;rr't~'~,rl Jirf!lf~. Pilrt'·)'·.~l~~C!i.~ .~~ndl.lilfliIW c,L'~~lnvn~~~ by fh~1 11'112.

!:1IO:"V.~e.'f U.1;£ ._qU!~'Sth)Wl tilf i;l'Ul fOnm:<lff]oi'l ·aili _ tmtitle~l pgrU~~·~, ~3~ dcrilll'~d" for hfithi!:~ ~OiI""lS'~d~:r~bi01l.:, t~tl~H~ ~tl-:h l:in~~' .ii~ ,i). $p~cm!C po&iiical, pa:r-titl$\ laY\'. -;(H:tl.a, b~ ;[1lr.~p~~~1: .itl~il ~ .~efeirW. filn. ;Iat~.f· (;)Qn~~d~·r<lJ:i~;:r~. W~j'~ !fIle1lm-f{!:"'" lJQ ll!~~"t?Jb~J] ~~dt:l~f p,~IG~h!lftl~;~ ._Mld

mn.r,!h;d\fi'fl 1>c,':OUI)d!~i. .. _

\"r.-'~tb i:n le.ssi th(l!TI. ill fomrl~lt1~ :~nd the ~)g Si'iPl~d tfl~ljl.If-",\\! t964, This:~'tI!ii'< pel'~'HliP~ ·t:]l~' . tr..a(Jltion~l J,flO ·e,dI.j.Gjj;oo: ,s~

1_l!rb1']lj~(I, the flJ'l:llJ~ O:\l,~

pdmar,y ,c.QnOi!nl~' ~~~~_ ~. I _ .,

as welll <lli, pC;JweI' lor\tfl,e:Jl~s:e~\V·~lt :~(;nV:.jo:r~,allS:tS . "'\i~~ .,'

1i,abl!Ifthi, tbi5·b~,{'£I'Q'!l1'l ~l~f ~1<ld ~'l1!f,al. ·a~~!:i: :Oif tij~i1:r On..\lIl:L ~flJ gri,~:d. P~r'u,;. thlC-y lh~c!. ~~~_~d ]:H'ild~~I.' O~I.Q~ld .tI11;d Wei:'e.l)~Vamcl1q m?\~e ccm(l($Si(Ul,S ilrithE:' il?p~ ;;fiJ~JWri,'gliIli~ . tl1i~o·-~;i'.j~t@nc:~ c1I.V!t'mt~[l:iJght· s.~n);~~m l:fu1L :'i\o~u1d1 n1i;nk~ j'LdH1iJ~!JJ~~of i'jlln .~ 'ID~~ll mro.eb~.(:!k,. '~·.t l~Y liii;.Q ~ru~o s:uJre:ud :fr~U'I! U~!,q"rg;up);t"' ~1·11!~~ (lfbr:~·ra·ry i1IctiVJ:tfes, oftlle p[{)y~mci~1 l~.~li ruiliH hl~;stll'.~:t!~e;. ;];net p~11ceJml:1o!liijies .. and 'w>ere: lb U:!i in :fa~()!ur 0:f ~L ,fJ~!f~ir:n:m.lp~il!l,dlld.a.ry .a.ml provh,~t~Ds,.-gm!:lr..llJi:ng human .p'i,gll'tS. Ai;1.,il:ddl~~!).~a~ Ji~1!l;;l:~il·. Wll ~ til ~.t t'f:llfy ~1!rlll IH~Ii'llrliFig to J:!eaH~!! that ~lOWe;[ :'~!:l!S Hl;i~1y· t.Q!ihili }Itev@!I?-l'I~jl·y.froriTI the:i:11I b;n. tbe 'lJlpdem sEie]l.'ir ·if lh~f d.ki. f1!O!tlnmb:c- thell: lfll[1uenGi!, ·fil1t:; l"L~f:lJr: t{lJer~n:ll!:l!! Olr 'cefo:rm 1'"il~ ·t.I'lJercforq iLl lin tHllnec~de~'!t·ed rue.well, l:n;~t~,K'.~!;~ h~~ ·the :re.ail:isa1tlou thil:t bl'1~,Y ·tl1.T!Qu~1l aCt~ye' p~J:uc;ip<liion Qb~ld! they - erIS!I;1.:re .tha.t ~b~y WD~L'~d attraet 'd;e.'VeLopmfl'.!t~ta. 'til'l\ilr .!!·[~~!S ~u{j: brock 1]]!#:iSul'e$ t.bll'l'w~r~ CQilrl;r-aty 10 theftf i,nWre.sul.

rulec·I~(inS u:;nd~.r- thjj' fi12:W :SJ&tl;I:_l1t.y'e~~.lJLylti.('lId 'itl AUgiUS.t aW!l~ -S!~p.t~JI:Ibl~r~ ~ ~85. J~.iI:rl:lc:ularl.y I'll 'U;lep.m:cvjne:es. lh.('!ru(!<v@b;o:~ pilrtl!dpanof:lw·~-ft~OW{ .Tl1~ memh~~~llip of ~tllc Sfllm~: Wl''5 h~ili\dlV ~~eighted. tm 'f<!VJQltl' of the m[~ll~~dership m:1d lits St:lppqrtl'li's~~vh(o ·~~re be;slr a!b.le IlQ ··iBj]br:c!~he r'I!.!~l:f1~~ly .. t]lgtl. !cuw~. of .:>tll.n."Jn.g .(1:$ c~Injl~d.~'~:q5.1 ~I!th i.h::. rr!1 igit"l~U; ·~t"a 1~!llft~l· ]edl)~r Nlie'I'!iIITl.rJ.jad_ldlfall1 ily';",\il~ro jiJlro\'l.I.e:.ll[l~p[-es.ern.t6.(t The·r~wp.s ~!!)me ollid 1:l.li.uteT'V1enUlHlilo p[i@;MeIWt [he .e.~f:icHo,ripfr e:xt~t;)fJ:l is:t m'~mt)~[l$, ·wllet'he.r: .of Llhifl:! ll'n· or ,of' tU:h@ tr.lgbl~ bn~ in ~ert~ml th~ rre<llu1t~ V!t"er:~ f(H"~n.cI :iI(ceptab~e.. 1~[Ql."_" 'ViL?ir In;lldtJI1l! bggan as .sOGlfl [l.~ tJle Stl~t"tl,.<l~~nbled.Partl.y thilis wajt 1:}I.~c~t1]se,.m .thf' llib~t:!llict:! e.E PQJUicai p;altJe-s fllDDl. ~~!I:tldl .~ gQ~.lLIJJ:!ln~'llt IUii_:ghl'l bEl' Ir'O'lr,ltajl\d; ntete W~!Io !:H1 im f1'lMiO ~Q "tl:i~m. Ilimti m' ~ituanon ,p;<IUicldarl¥ ~lIt fhe.· 'W@r{~i. NSf'," Few IneI[lbersh~d any ·m{~ntlYI@~q .~v~ .th~ gQ·v~,nm<l:!'fll Ul\!~J' .!'lUppOil~ l.n1.\1, Wh~[l D.r Yo LI!'lUlIaroc! ~:n~. l~'im if. t~,~ .f~.IP:peil~e.d~o gJve '(I 1',~.lJ"r! 100 t I:IQ:~!r .:J~tiI'!":i:tii~~ SliS ~I:n i f:l:1)~:rjrm s:qver:nfne~nl ti:i~;W.~[t!· ~llibtect@d tp··a ~~I;il[~~ ofvrtumlcitati~~~ril1iGism.. SQm;e' I"m~I'MIb~:I'!i! ,!l.I~o C;ll(ut!,!i~i;J. 'I~h(l !loy:~)1 ' . '· .. ~n~" J n '!ii'~J!~d~~:r.mlll~ e~Qn l'b l ~hil;ij ~I ~'lI1~.l;:!H~ A F~~' d,'ili]fc.' ,I ~~ia'I\ ~h ., r y(")I~~:\iLJtt ~~ i U {L'I~J:I' w~1 to

P'1!~¢91 his ne'!;'" o1!:dtl'i!ini.s;t.f.~t~6o.~ . a ,i:Jl]prei::ed~nte"d! pnencmenen occurred. ill c.tC'~onli't:ri'l~i!}n b}~llU~I[Jrus fif(1m :Kl!lnll Unrv~r5Hy and th.e ·eaIJ~t. .. ]"s mligh se'hools/1 he- sl;U.den1~, ocGllpied .th-e public' gilll.lety andeven someer the sctJ.tsln. rue cham"beI·lts.elf and ~eftlsed to W~avl! '~.nUI li:lIi,etr ':t'l~:hrt~· 0,;: 'ere sM;I~ij~dr, 'S~]cih w-.ft!ah~'dl~nl~t1i:;'1111'U,l.Iit. 11111? Walesi'

firsd W~.li' forGcid '~O IilgjOiWJ:i'!: its. J?~in::ee;dii.Il;gs;; .

. 'E.ssellti,31Ly:..:th,f' $tud~l1I~~ .. ,grIeV'Ol.IlCt!i, ~ere nc:>t so much 'against the ,g,overr.unenJ 01[ the' p(;t]i'~1C;i I $lIst ·m. 11$ t1 er Ilhl:!:lr. ownproS:l~ ,h. "For Juan}' )'raE"!':>. 5uch was th'e ':;horUtg,e: of ·'edni.!ated .m:al!l,poW"tlr thllt the gtl\,i@t,IlJi]Enti,i1nJiil. ,other, ~!~'te bqdiie.s, hed 'been able' to iibso<~b as .miiIly ·~ebOo.ru ~:Qcl. t;ml,fv~rs,Uy grtl,r ua t.· S' as ~~ont11!'d~, !.'':If!,sdl.v"1s, fbr (1.1'111)(loy. ment, ~N~l¥. 'hC:il'i',e;\Te:.; 11:re':r1l1m Q~I:' ,cd m;u,ien rs' had been incFecas:t\ng EMI, tllarHt., pa'rtly to Am.edta}1 ,md.oth~ndd to the edu,ci.ltional sector, wbile ,gi1l'ci~l"l fll'nk$ w"~~ bcc.om.ln,S: full arid the pwmp. Cit of gfiil,dua'~t! u.ncm:p,:~o~l1t eve-ralOt€: ·th.re~te~lYlng, l\':roieOVIE:;r~.'c,o;;,e"r:l if 'clnpi]oymer:lJt was tlbrtain-e<!. glad-wale jobs l'l;·e.[~ ndser,,)ibtrp~ld., .Ette.n SOJ' On.ly a luhl.clrUy o,t ~h.l<cle:l:J~~, ilJlntti U~~, den'l.onsllf·;tt'ioJ1J5,td.11c:h erupted onto,

-the streen of Ka,bul. on ·25 Oc~tobt:':r (tbeSrJmm.i .. Aqmi'. tbe.teSlJ1 er to be ·~o.mn:ie.m:9fal.]e:([ ·'·as·· a ':mnrr~r~' d.a:tl,· the day after· 'the l1a$oo In the ~~~&~; n,,&, •• ',lllwl3lrds lb!3 end c·.f 'th~ dRYI 'Lhe ,Mlu.y T .. r,e:~'e: iC"ilUe(1 II1 and Gi~tU:ld. (lll?,. 'If~ttl'l ~h~ fL'J:illJlll' that Itwo "students' anda: byM!3,n..det"lIil'l:J.'e ~medf' aUd'TIm.n.y more' iniit.u~ed. kI the ).h,efllliul.th .. Or Yousuf !I'csigned ,and WillS ,m(j~:-dred by Mol1,ammfd tiollhhnMariw,tindwaL) :11 Fori'll "t ,;Aml'lass,a{Jor tn, london .rn.d \'\1j},sJili1,goon,l ~'ho ewn,ma] Iy nlana~tt 'to ~ert t.he. &()v.!e:m:lneI~:t's ati1~hotlty. and, by ap;peari.lII.g p!f!:rsonaIUy at the .L1n~"'~~{ll,~t~ c.f,lhti~d, tJ'l<4!'. ~'IJIfd~n~,s;' Uowev~r :p,reC(l!detth'l :for (j'Oil'lHudil-vc pa!l''1:iaITIt:llIlilfi'y" ,QPplJ'.5H:~on amd studerrt mimancy had! allk~· been. establishoo",It; was a:gaJ.nst" tints ba,c:li<grou.nd" and with the oppoeu . .t-nii.Ucis pl'o"ld~d by a mere open poUtic'll s:y's"l, - rn, U1:a'l the: ,(oul'ldations oJa eeuununist 'pill'l:Y were qUi.etiy Jai-d. Among' as; leaders were three men 1;;\"110- were to he fumre 'P:r.Iil!i.u:dJent:s .. of:. Arg.b.mJnis1;a[!j~ N'iU,r

Moibal1l11:lled 'ONrakJ1 IJmlb.rak Karmal and HIt;A~mah ;"llli,I'l. .

::t;,uakl - WM, bomtn 191,7 and! came: born a seml-nomadtc k!~d~i ft<imJl r: Hm'l1eVE!1' hls :r~I.tber mann;g,ed ;to send h.i.m toO an elemeJl"~a];y sei1oo] ~nd [n 1'9:n he ·b~C'<l.rll!i1 ~ dill:rk in oil ~1I!~d1h'lg (:OIJr~PI!l:fI)t In Kilndi'llhar .. ,[h~:,e, 'he dJd ,S.oV\;;gU tbat th~ t()m.p~tl}' sent !lim to the~r offlCit In .. lklJ.nbay, !lvb,e.~e ~ allh0l1~,h nothi:ng .is ·kt"lQw.n Eo!: <;elil:.dn - It is Ukemy. 1.h~.t he '{ a.s C'ujtmv~il:ed by the -'I)u:utl! .. mhl'~ .P~lty of lnd.I~, J:n H.I'37 he r~turned 1:0 Af:ghallbbana:nd, after SOItle time 1n 'hifjrb~r ~dtl.ca 1::1.011/ l;'IlO"Ikl-d ttl ~he DeiPiil'im,ent of J!i l:ess ·and l:nf()rln![tionp :lir'lj~. h] U~d'l']dub!Jn. £j,nd ~b(\ln .iu Kiil~ul IAlter~ h'~m,()Iv.~d t~';l K~bu}~ ~1:!i1J~U~O ami the' nakhr~a:r N~ws. Ag,c:nqr; l:n 1948 he ~Qj~Q.e.d 't.lle 'P:V'ikh-iZf.I!h'n(drau H rid 'st<lltedi ~o. ~"iI UJ ili l1:epl~ ~.atio.f') .as lm mJtbQf <ll"-ld· p@II;tl~aJ, "I "[livl5:I:, l'lll I.~,j. ,Ii r ub.li h d ~h," hI·",\, ·elklf ;!h~'f"''r .(I~ft"he'~~ • wUh, ill'

~lnti~au'tthO~H.liiln .md .aI1tt~ari5:n)Q<ltk :f.llllltiBtIlk, In 1.'9J53 , hl~'\\1'as~nt tl) W~ r1h1s.tbn a~,'Ptes~ Att!;1lclllCI but den ~U'i ~d l:f)i'" nn:o!t~1 go q:lTI~ . ment,' ~fben J was 'fOIllill<ed ftl'ild'wns, 'PiJomp~I:~ reeaHecl r H~' ''Ii'as~ not ht!we' err l:aUed ',and he' ·spe._n,t ~b:e 1Il~ decade 1'tmf1'tlfJg h~ UW~l 'tra)'O'ij,DtI~n ag~flCy) t~r:ltU'c' 'slin '~'l'~th'l:g Et,nd . renulilthu- j~~Lt~fc - ..r~Cti;re. Am9"!lI:g~ 1Qtnet thJlilI;gS, he 'did 1l'm":JI1,Sliil,ti"(i)lli,,1ilrof~ F€lr,~l'];:e . .&nba,S5,y; H.~ lJV<lS; tu1s~lct',esS£lJ.ll'1ltb~ Hl~£: e.Le lL'tH j', !U!t iti]~"·~![[IJl:e.~~liffj

"111. tl m~eting' in ]l.is hJmil~~ attended Ibf lusl ~hillty r0Qln(;lJelii~ drawn

'~.~om a I.n~~ri.lhlU of p .. l'e--eX_istl.~ '!:t.hlid,E PiS.!. he-ro.ufl~iIl'~ "td'1c .. efl.qlll.le'lt

. q.e~OCl'a,tl:c .P .... rt:}~ of j\fJJb~nl!>~&[J '~P @f '!)\'h],-""h h@ Ql;:QiJllln~t;~

n~ne'ml S:1..'(:J:c,,n,ty. ,

H tar-aki ''1I~!li ufo hluhbJ~ birt~l, ,tb~··Sltllilfei:t;'~I1),!Jot tI~,~aiIJ'IDfB~~JJk K1I.TmiJ] ~~h:()"'was dl.· ~'n at a lospect'eci Ma,~~:i)t .. GW1!~I;aJ) "",hin imel b ~. G'ov(!;'wnol' of Pa.'kJl}l(! .'.w:\t~m."e. l\~wr(lhl!;lr. h.' r~ j£lv dI tl~'I! .'urper erusr' ~ducati.IJTI, iililJ:d ti\~u <I.. );n1l:!~n:t at ~h€. ,IG~PJ'la..\I"1I· lan,g:l.:tiJIJ,g~.:Ne·ial:. High Bl:bJo()l .. 'fw'e~ve y.t2an 'Y(liu.oge'll',.UUI.I1 "l'a:~:~dtli he-l>'i'M'~~, ~C~~'t~~l- 'fit ill ea~]y 3g~ trind '~ali ·{lr··mll·tilge llllfrOO rrnl'l1 t~ld~g up iI, pltlC'e S.t, J(ailbll Unf~cr!jit-y 11awever-'. he' ,WillS subseqlUeniUy. adm.i.tted to t'11!!£! Paculty of law '~:nd l,':o1Hicdl S lence, ()1,:d}=I" ttl. 'b13 iU'lpJ:b;oJtl~d for three y<:tt,i'S when Sh(1ibl:'"M~1~1I:in Ii.Id' supp;~C'.<;~cd ,t:hlC Ii b~~a,llm-oW::Tn!:n:t in wh.i:c;'h Thrillki hEld ~l~Q,p;alidcilpat~" Itseems '~O']lavebt~D1I whi~e. Ka:ru.1.a:l·w;as.. in prisoIl tll.a~be beeame 11 comrolttml ilJDl1mlUl'1lst~ 'iV'hen hl'!Was rele,1:I5c':(l'i hI!' COI]lph~t'd hts dg~ '~dl:ld 'h'l$I;;O,Il'lrpl'll:mr m,iluaI'Y: er:vL e <:lud "l1001:;, a gover,nm !lilt tab'. In 1965.1ru:~ ·~'\.'<lJS ·elect,C'd to the I;~m'e,.~:i :/irg(1, ~:i1cl illL was he who.was t:h~ l~wln1e mover il~, iflS.tlg~Utlg Ithe stIi.ldenl demomtIa'tJ;.,oJ.'a1 wh~ch wred{~d t~.s·initi1l1 !l~iQn. ,r<\ IDHil:lJI .ur H1l~'ns,-e' fl.mb'ltlou. lhe'wa~, a compelling QJJ1Jitm and dor.njtJi~ted thle- .];'ViJ;I&.~~ lfriJi' r:rom session te sesslon, He had-no-qualms abDutllall.n~(ng,h.i's Russlan conne 'Uol1S nd \YUS - frequi?!iI'l' ,gu-e'st at the SovIet ~mbns!i.Y.

M'eamvhUe' Hafizu,ll.lIh ,Amhil..~yho ,"'V,as .. arcund the. same rige as:

Ka~.m."I.I:; had been itl'a.in~d ~ts·a~e;O:ldler. II'1 ~9.57 he w~n'~ te the USA.\~() ~tudy ~(,Jr 'hi~ MA ~nd In 1!'962, fO'F ~:i"is PhD; A ~p~b1:i!l orga[ll1i~ef" and a.drn:~nbt!;ilt@t~ by the cll:Iily ]9605 be' was P.dncipllil of tbe' Kl'ltJu~ '·ei.l:ch,e:rs,.Trainhlg _oUe,lj,e. \~'hLie in Amerk:<t, h beamePi'esklent.of Lh" 'Uuion flf AFgh~w. Sl..LJdel1U, 'iI:nd 1l!:iS ,u;'rlvi,t:i's'l cootb'i.necl. with th~ ·"'Pmgres:rive'~·l~~,'ii'.she wasD1O'W e;l:]1rL?S.SlIilg" l~d, ·t(~ hi.s :r.~cfl.u itQ A[ghiUltl$'lam in 19~5. Llke 'Tamld, h!:! dId nOlgain iii s~:u, :n I,hl: 'bd;i()ln, He loll~~, I'htl 1 DPA" b1Jl~: ~t1Ii1til1tjl;:!d tClwmk In ~lle M!ni,~tTl' OfJtc.t!!!Jid~(m. In 196'9' he- '.,'Ii'S ele.cted to the Wales'i Jirga.

Th~ PlllPA, of wtu;h 'arlltl .\'Iud Ka.rmal were Iounding Jr~:!'~bl;!:r!!.1 ~~$~' in ~U l:nitDam~. th'e Comrnunhlt 'P~lily of Arghillt!i;~:ltl:n~ ~:l:1.d ::.viIJi1 Ieg~:!:(ih,!d 'by' iit~, 'ijdll~e[Cnts. 'oiIiS s[qch. Us tp_,em bel'S}] if./ 1.i k;~ t:hia t- 0.+ m~!l";J .Q1.b.~1' (;onl:rulJ~, li'l Jl!i1I:r~~il!S.it] U,e '['klirrdi WOl;ld, \i'l3.!l \i ·f~'i.'h :lnu!,;!y Jnl,·n • ·tunl ,Jl I mld1:J11 ' J~lr's= J1, I 'IL~I' fhAAI '~!I' 11 d1 ~'U "rl 'I,U"! '"

. SU"l('e -the Ind.ustrloillwtirklflg'. c:lass\.\"f:;te fe~·.t.iill1;(:lml!:lel'·a.nd lDosl.ty iU_,ttC1!'r,a~'" nd ~he:re w~s. no way'·frell.chlng, tlliC'; pt.l;nJ~i!r:t:iofl lill ·~he· ·Qottlih;ySidle:r-··~ .. il~e.re fhe ~iY 011' li'f~'»,!Jli ~.tin ave'f~VI'i~~.mj,~.gl~ tnba:~ d~~d Ld~!;llli(:" Wher~: ',rM P.IQPA i'l'l'~! ~ilbiy U1.Ild.e-, _~moQd~, . was .,~.~Qn;g :~~be d-~Il!(lM yi)'UI~b '3]t :KiI.b:u.l L!trltv.i0l1'i~:'ly I1Itld Jo.~-h.¢r ,e,~u~i:);tl"'n'la~ i:w;t:ltut~C(~s. 'm'~ \!iloO"!i~(j1 be rla~~~ ~fI.~~nppD.\iC tl:-lat ]t didl~llr~1 from the !.")~,ds:'et. .ha. .. ieA::I@selhiks: Wifh,.ttI~ ~G»; an.;l-.l't·:iis, ]j~jy tl1~t :m';UIY of us llLi'3i~E[~ ·wmr.~ -on '11~1® lutt~r·.$ bt'l.Gks~· A mIn m.il'}! 11lalV-€ b~en .~'ll(;l'ldted w:'~UlIe J:n AIQillr.iC<:I" "Inti. it S'L1'c.!ITiI:Ii.tl];lJJt TDr~ki '1;YilS ~'UPpofled ar(: an ea:rIY· sti!l~e 'by tb~ 'P"ynie:nt"of 'I,O),a.tQ~~· '~m tJi~ suppo}:e~ tr,ansililli?'HSfOf,:~.l.s ~~rn~!Il:gS l:rUo Ib~~5ilU'l .. I\s·h 'ha,d fi~lin'qu~ he(,l bjs tl':iiln J~,tlQIl1 w()l'k Ull.I163,.he 9Qilll~ lfmrdry.: ·h~i-c ·suppo{l~ed 'hirt1SeU, its I'le W~'i 'supposeCl._l:ci· have' ·~lo:m,e .. 011 the prore~g.,Qf, th~ lvdl!l ogs :U1!cm.s'eJvcl". 'l.nd .:! t Is likel}, JJH1! l'l.wa~i!i. ~be5ie ~fo:Y:'tlIlt1e5,'ij .th,.ot €:nabl~~ tile 1 JIP}\, eo fi~lHrl~!:l' ]'tts 1965 ·eh~J,;~t-i.(nl (~,(np'aign. Th.e . d,o~.ed ess "of :fi3re IdJsom~!-]a:tkm'.8h.]P!!l'i'itl']. thil':" SoViet Uni<QJ:f j£,ShO'\-\il] by the ~act thall: dUr.Lng 1~6~ih he t!lO't cmAy l\\ren t i11l:fe' far ·.m~dlc~l '~rcut'tnle'~l t but \>f1l sal so gi \'c:n· an ~~t~f!!si,'e ~DlU: or Uuilc('niJi trr: tmi OWJl 'vlew4 l·Ya~ "~hJilt hf! .hill(! been h-eat-e<1 as ~f.he were I a Head of state, In 19'6:6, the party 'W"aS b.tlce1,1:y ·¢1:1JOOll(.agOO by t~l'e .p,asl~~g~' ttl.tou.~t" p-'~:~iam-~rl'l of ,f! rm.'!S!- 'tU~'i1 'l'1'hLll opened the W,lI)! lor tl~c pubUc<ltion QF 1j:'vartcit' of '-papei$ imi~iourJ1a~s, m~~y' oflDe~. C]fi Uta! of the' govemmestt, }\,mong them was 'Khalil ~] he People' \,v]l.iCI1 ~\~,aSl pI:\O(I,Uiccdby·Thr.~lId ln Al_'rH of that ~<lr~ U Ja.ngufiBf fe-II ~hqr~ ofohe:ill:g' openlji com.f.l1'l.Hlist, l~tm! 'would 'have been ill.n:·?lis;~alrn?~e to. any student elf communlst propaganda, U Wa>5 banned 1!i'ht~l a feW

W'f;:~k,"" h 1viH,gfJub~i$h~d ~u~~ !il:,\( ~~."ll·e.'ii; ..

,it '\J'p~a5 n.ot 'iongl. hoWevtf. b~fore: Che PD"fiA"s, .injtiaI hnpcllHi. 'y.~;lt lost andlt lapsed :!.i1lO t~acL1Qnal:i.sm. In 1966, .'ffl:raki: and Kannal feU aut IIntl in P:Jbr. the l!lth~r Wl!fli. oll'fh:l.found hls own Pll1tty, "jdl'i'cl1 he

- -- I ------ --- -

called 'li'(Jrr.l'I'nrii (IThe &nn·l?r~). The :spIlt de'lid~ had its roots ill pe,so-nal dV;ilhYi in whitch dass. di1~eIenCes. were _nodoubll . a maim (:oJ telil': .'Whlle 't<anmd l'UlJd man' frl.~nds and fda~livf!'J.i i!.mong, th ~l]lpl:'~~middle d~8SI f'ar<lkl (;ilIm~ "f:rom a '[c;:Jwer·dt!85'; ntfa.ll-o~le~!la:ted bl3i:c:kgIuund.H{)w~\iet the:t-e were·also tli1feJ:-ence.s of emphas~s .1.1:11 :tb~ s!l;~at~:ies ~dD'l!HC'd by H](I: two. The mCl1:~ s-Qc:lab~e and. Qutgo~~g r{arma'~;1 ·wh.oh .. )d lili:i plil;tJoml:l 'im parli1lm~t1Lt, s~rn$· '~!\I ha"~e' bee:mI .~Jl fa.voll:r ·of 'working tb.e· s}'~tem ~ I !by exp reStlil [l.g loyalt)f to. the 'King}, by l;,!'kl.n:g lcmpora.,''y '1l111<Cil", ~n.d by' recrul ttng .• l'[~d .innt:II!f.'I1iCln.:g ofi'i~iab: <'lnd tJther ·.In public li(~, The mar'_ t·ed:l'utg and ~m~\:ol"l:dry::rara.kI!,tu~, the other handi msIst·ed tha'l the Pa.r:tl' shGlu.I,d ret;u.n .Its ldeoioglcal PUl1"Ly and confme :I.tself 'W pur:iulng th~51~lss srruggte .. Coml;K~~l.n ~lllij tllie.IJeE'Sonal i1nim01ii~t:lie5 ill.ldpo:Ucy durCrcllC~lii'i the: ·1:.11Jo10,piu'l:les. e[lso h1c~ame mote tdool1V ml'e'l:1:l]llte:d, KaDll.fJ.I· iI:tl:r';I,ctinFsuppoliters 'I' n: ' vru;lel}' 0 'efhm1. J('OUjp'Si and Klmtr'l IFo~m ·d by ~[am,ld~ b;; .)lJU i n~, J oN

(il.)i'du.:iliv.~ 1)' Pusbtoen, Khnlq '\iitaj, ,titLES' m@fe CQil'j,temOO! 'filth r.tthe Pusliltoo:nJsttan 'issue:j .P.archai'~, mo~~ 1:FI4'ff'l'@re;,Ot. ,b1a~·~1liil1.An.dh I' rn ill.ruJ lOy'a~ to Tfl,lakJ. ~1ild ~e~Qlre .I~l .. g" tVfI~ pJ~ hl!gr'~n IldlU-1fl,tt'1\al o~nisi;n:g .!!o~.'e Withl.n KJu~ltl,r ~:rwen "t~ :r~.-mil!l1i~ fro~ a~~1 .. :g; fJ;iJ-e·

tea.eh~l1g prloi~~tcliil: and, ~a.ter. ,1'n th . .e:~1i;1DIfiCWJw~~. .

Klooll-/ rnd PtJI\;lra~" <.y·e,re .by.' RiO .f111'e1t~1~ ·.'he .md:.~k nC1' "1'lOt ,~~n the large:St; .@f '~he {l~Fnl·ditIJldcj~moc P!llliti'ooil SI:.ouplillg. tlla1f ,t;lIlm'ie ·to,getbet d.W'ing. the l',60s and. ("<Jil~' . 'r91Q~ l 'illedi w ~I!::' uthll.'l'E 1~.l)tlv.mg !'iuti. ~s. mitn!! ertU\f!Hl12' i!,[Ld Yen: 'MiI!Pls~"~ ;C'fllllfU.' Itl'l.~, no,\, Ill:Y. H . .,PIt& Cw'i1e.se .,SJml~i~rillf-'irl {f.tR"Hai~ filal~t I iillUfldfd b· t'bl.. M nmU,di f'am.:i1y. and the Sttl.>ett1-I·i\ifltl'i t~:g~.l.t.'ll ~at.efl);dOpp'lr . .t'.€In). :f!:il~und!'~fl ~y ·J~':heJ.' Da,dtil!;:.J:'lhil'l ! 'r:;a,flR: wI1rn Jil.ooil ]jD'(fivlmu$ty ln~eu '" f,~Ul:ld h~g; m.t'm:labell·o the fD:J?A., Ort tJt~ dghl~ -tl.e M~.iiddil(1I1 far:uiit We1J: pl1omin.en i: . a.n\?_l'l;g· reliigl:O~l'l.m]~l.t.a.tOOj~T'{l,illl'iS~. S{l'J~er~~;ed m\ ihe L~~,jj!' 1~1IA;;[lh.y of lli:aJ1u] Un.i\\'(!1ait~, ~f iic~"~ir,ent~l:!lbl~ni~~ ~udO()k .l.n '~'n~ centre, ~M,iI,iiw~nd'~i!l ~o:l;i:'lled a -mii]d]-~~~::i.,;r~i1l'i'5t -p~:r~yp ·tbe WI:rogtess;rve -DetilocI.atie P:<U'ty;-. ,kllodietpa,rtYt' o! ·~h'e ,(enl1r.e~]e.ftp A.fl:J1pn MIn-at.. ~uc.cl1l&Jed in pubLhiliittllg a lH:YlI'sl*,p.-r'lll)." tlilIU name fOl:most of th.e consU.rnUonml. pel'i.oa." In Ilhe 'OOse-n(>(;l gf .legitinmc': r~ hO'l','e\7erl none 'gf these :groupin,gs:',;~e:le Clible ·to pla:y'~.ll·ovett role In the nati.oni:'!l al'fa.I!l"$y:· wbich. feU into inc.l:e--ilsl!ll. dtairilY, In "[967f M-l,w'u'ld'Wal b~:l;'iUn~ ,sedou:dy i III n[li] Wil,S. succeeded as l?IiIme Minisu:'t by [:Illt J\hmedl ~t1:: . .fnadjl; abo a f~&I'mef di,plol'ila~U', 1<'11.':110 had ro dea.l~,,~jt:htl.Wril/fiSi firga tna t. wu,S, no Iess v~ 1,!J;l P~iiltl1 \I'e II. h •• il d) on faced by tlr ¥ous k1f., 1-\ lW m.1:l~r of bm~ l'li'ere p<1i.~~~dlbtlt nlOlie' \'il'ereleH in illimlXl, '~hi~.e.· the SIUTrtii ['ndnl~d 'Its;e,I,t; ]nobstnl('~l()n.. and witcb .. htU1Itll1g. A trpi(al ffincid<eut 'o(cu:rretl :111 1'967~ when fl:'l~' gO'Ye.l;nm:¢~u. !td~oL~~dn::!d an irnp'!:)tl'(111'1 I,iv~.tocik tax rather than face ,1 storm in the Shurd, ~ .. i th the resul t that the !:rudge-lOlIr1' str.uaJt[on took.amarkedturn 'r:O'l the 'Wo'l'.s'e.

I:t it' d'I~1 p.othtng cl'~'1 all lilils demC'l1:Slll:-al.ud Ilh,U' I'hc~e W,iS :subs:t:aJ,nl:;,!l) in thee D-rmQCtffCy--i-Nau (the· 'New· Democmq" ~.5, it wa!! faDlill.ii.dy. ·C<liU~d.}· al1d nhal· th.C' StmnJ: poss€sSled. p.c»'!t'er},' :if (m:ly of a. 11~,Sn.ti:·;· f;~'i.II·aci[~~r .. ,4c Qrd uglYI 1-when. :fl!jf'sh lii'lC"~,ton· '",'el:~ h,~Jd IF!! 1961:)'1 t.hi(;;.badffitionaJ ldbahlli!di i~ttd.Q"wnliilg ,Iead.euh.ip e:li:Cl.'too h:self (;OiJ!ifltrv-wid.e,wlth the l'e:sult·fhat \;\"hen ~lle·tI~w Shttm <1ss:em:bh!dj. it 'ij,fj;l1i ('t)~:m.d h;IF .!:In:'!i.Ii2C'JI~ ·t n;m.jo:r ~J:df~ to tbe dght. On;]~r :ibn)' :tll!iimbe:~:s of tbe fOfl'Jllt'ir '~ff~ilr~;i lirrga. mo.'!~ of thenl of it! COillIS.\'lrvuUve ollJUrook. survl.''Ir;ed, .j:arba:n,g rind 'Mtliwanc.:lh;v.al W'el!'e a.rn-r;nlg t.l1e ci.'isuaH:ies.;· • l'lhiQu,s.h K~Hil'iIUlr r<!..":tal1u,ldhi!l :!Jt\'· •• t ~md Wil::; jQln~d by 1-ln~~u!la,h Am~in. 1::1:ema,dii 'ms letlpp()int'ed~~rim.e.Mi1flj~ter and lasted UfltL1' :l;9i7:iJ.., 'Nb~ll b 'W'~ repla:c:ed byD.r Abd.uW Zah.ir, IOICfII1@r.ly '~he: S.pll~'nker o.r "he W~·I',,~f J"~J.

Ol!Jltli~ tt1e SjJ~ll:~. ti1:e ut1.ly ~:sit.y :flllJ;;nah;l1 d Iu 411 til't o:f I luooh::

I;,lnro~'I',~1111- 'J'l'Ia j,o:rlJ;st!il'.ilGfl' 's ~ ":tin! 'lflK 11'1 1.£1 ;fI'I' I:" '!')I)I ilJ',d 1 ()?f),

g~iV,~ri.l![ .we·, J~!trcn~ib!,y' LlfllillipPQrt ott strjke~. '1):)1 I,ndrusl::rfal:' -"vorkers. !io"h.i~b, al.oobet~aill:e 'a' ¥e!;!tn.r,e eJ tl~'~' D~t1on:al ,sd~n@ (~l~~l!~~gh Jhe.r~ lis ni)'W'l~fJr~ any S11o.tgg~It:'9Dl ~~liil Ii!.t~:]I~r KhtJkj' or 'l~Q:l'C'r~l:fm If):o!k It.he sliiglJ.~'e.~U"~:en1.s.t h':l ~h: rn; 91' ~tl tll~. 'wiiddn,g ·ht~ nl'o:I~~ ~ene.[al~y) .. III 'l9170" ~: ~tl~()ll;l$ b;tdkl<l;i:b 6~~1'(_~d~ ~tH~n l.afge· d~mo,:D]~tb':atl(l:n$ t'oak pl~rn 1!J1 p:r,ote"t -at -aa 3Ugg~Iy.. ~~crU¢gilO:~:5. poem:; ''r,rItHc:b lid a,pipoote~ ill ,Rn:n:~'}.flm, '~b~~Wef'kl'y' ~Q1.!U'n'j;iilj"tlb~~~he~tby··~nrmllil~ p<ltll:j1'" l'he goVii,'~mme:rit 1ie.~poTldred.- b~ttmpri~blung Of, ;~1{pelJilng. flPfIl _Kabql ~ ,]'IIllm)bef:' -o{the. pl'9't;rnc'ia( 11)~]_lilJ:J::Ii ~,iho twd jhm~d tile ~~mnon~I:r~:'tle'n, and Ith-'11 h,.ad eo use tli, 3I!1ny-''to 5uppreS!i the "FcsuLtin" dtsturban,ires:ilfl 'th),@ 'l'ilifOYilfiLc'es, '.I:'h~:le ,\qas alSo an ug,lYolJltlm."ea:k. 6f lji,eid

r 1'" ~ I. •• ;.;. • , "

,aHn.ckson "!i!r~rn,e:tl Wh'6 ''!l@r'~ w~,arjng,· woS,tfl.r~1 dre~1 W'IIl.d'l in tum

~l'Iowoked ~ wnl,'~")~ic 'dOO1O:rLS~"rIi;tlt:llrl. by scu1flfi S i 000 ~~tl{!~en, IfciHo\Ying whoi'ch the ,clItpr:ib ~, .. ere gl,):en leug prisnn sdlte.rtce~~ r ConfHd's', b<!l!'t"w~en reUgio~~15" and 1l'!Ui.S1. groups M~() h ~;gn1,t! i:ll,r.IiI1HilS~n~~~ [Jrli!v~11 ent :if!1- ~Cllools al1itl th~ tI.ni~~riii'o/.r lfililldtog to sever~ll ·fntalifie:.. ,~I this i!J!n:r'e!ii;['Iel]i~':hed gw('i~i;ng ilIl\'Ii:s..lons \l'1;·nhiin ~oci!Bty; not-just of a !rc.Ligjo:lU/lq~o'loIM-eail .IU'I.lU;r.C. but alli.'ll-} as between t1tU! succe~sful m(;!:r~~)~I\~. CIW the tLt~:;m_jh e;;;'hu:.~:t-,~cl 'ntiddlii! lil.ass 1!tnd '!;hafie who 't'\-,ere tr,lCte~slio,gJy aliei1:at-edi he:c~uJse: tl),ey 1,]ol,ll'd Jilal- llQ\i'V asplre to thelr; [al,t.~~. ~~~ 'we~j_~~ b:ek!!'II'jtl~n U~!H ~Ht,e i,l:nd HlI ~!m~j.()rU:y orr the IlQit,lQP" sun "tHi;lJonMi:n l; tradiUOl1liii]1 lfUia~hi'H:'kgrotIlH,1 •..

'rh~ e,c(}l]).pmy~ Ito·6Iw~:tS,g9I!fl:g. ffq:Jr.I bad '~o worse, ]1ore'Ign ;ald t whl'cb bad Ib~~l fhl'!c g~'~€lmm'e:llIit:I~, II1HIUl ~tlUf'C;: -.of fi:l~ nc:l~~ ~upport" ht':giin 'tnl :ilh),W down, ",llrli],e e!ullerloan$ w10ire hd,lh~g due 'and the' oo'Ul1try!s·ab"UiiIl'..-tO' 'e~,in IO))eigllilx.chml:~ ~"a'-~·..:t best '!'iliil.gnant. '\Vith o;v,!@!I' haU th~~f !~~d.{! clo.pelfHlent. {)U Lbl' SDVlel U:I'Ii~(ln. th,~ 'Mg,!uHls, were ,f~r'I:.:e'd to' ,aCti'pl" sta)lcJ~irds nod term: "v~jc:h wer' gerncl'alliy' i.IJ:I.i'edi9t. -to~hpse1/.\'hidl lI!i,ght h<'ive' b.e~iiIi obt&ln:ed on. the w{)'r::Id· market. V~~lth I.UI.~ ~o'lrl~ll ot' lmports, rnueh Jf .Mg~anls.wo'!I c,,..rriit1,gii ~'ire[i 'd v()l·d 1:0 the iu,qui s.ttiOI1 of wc~t~ri1-l>tYI,e .[():rlS1.'1m~l' g€lods. -The. lIDa:jorll),nstJ"O'ction .and i:iJdust:liial. p'J;ojerls' hevlng beea com, pleh;!d I ILl\Iic.· need WM, for 1.;1i!~I~lel'lll !Il~ ~['!I'lc.nE'! nee andnlanf!,g: 'U1 en at bill 10cal expsrrtse 11 l'n~lfJ:ed in '\~C'ry' s'hor~~ ,uprly., M()~t U1~.ustti·e~ were mnniJlg ,ccins.i.del:3bly helow capacitYI \ .. ~hUef ~\fllh a .Umlted 'li:l;.'![;Itlml base, II!he:arlnedf()tc<:~ W'e"r~ iii Oml'l!int d:r'nhJj on ~t:s.o'Llrc~s atl.di btU;lg~t<lW de:fkit~ .. ~'e;re piling up ill all nnst~stalnilIJI.(" rate, Tb.(l gq\J('l;;tll_'l.;ent machine remained corrupt and e:xc~<j.si.\i!dy.l:m(elJ;l1.'l;cl'al:1C';· and ~,rolllle:d ~ulr 'whoUy Ulll'q"HJ.l 'lo the ~-a~l" o~ miH':ItI(lll8 'lile econol1lY; Ttte nmnl'fY)!I pHglu became '~'lief1. ""'OTfie Wlt~I!I~he l'ah[l' faII·oo ~nJ the' ye~f5.bet\'Y'een t969 and I 912. ~:y 1'9'i1 t'l1emwas ~~ldl!s.prel.d fan:d!le ;1111<1. wU'11 r~:Uer: OJ>C'.li.'I!iucms l~.\;'1~'i'1p,sr'cell~:y il'llt:crll"l.'. p~ll:In > i'Lil'd COif!iUp~'1:!:m. pt,ob~bly ,n5 ;rn-:otn-:- as Hl(MlOO peop:~e - s,m" '~Ll m(}t4: - dl'eii.'. 111'111912. tb;eL'~' :\\~a~ yal ;!Irmt:L\le;r: eh!!:lll.g~ of '1'·j;-'II11:1;1I

The Return of DaouJ and the Saur Revolution

W'r,'~r .. i_i,'l,I .. ,. t,o' the,l;OIfe.,l.,gn,OI.ti:c.e' shortly.afteT Da?lld'~,J'~~igmaf.i!~n in 1963,. th.e' IlI'iiUsh A:m:b;,u~ado'i' in K£lOU!, !\IUch~I~J Gm~u,

v.(jJIU;u~d the fu'eUl.s:~ t tha t

H th~ r!;']~x~ti,[lnil1 til' control of the press and 1:b1:l gr<ldua) i ntr6dudion at a 'U1Jet'ail ptditj(ul :system 5hQuld lead jo i'lirl up'~u!rfl~ .oanti-~'9,v·erm.o!~l'1t s~fnimcf!l:u1!d ,il l~i'!('tious ,i)ppo.5'l~ bon, thefie V erta in 19 enlel:.gc ',iii gXOqJP w,ith s,upportc[s anl!ong the .I:oytH fa.mU~! ·uqj:ing 31. _n:ebrJ:.tIl. to strons· govemment tinder P:(~nC','~ ~~.o:~~d ~nd, pOOS,U~ly, 'lb';SIl!~pt'tl~im1 of th Cmuliit~ttl'o:rl,

W 1I et ~ wnuldprobi.!.:lJly h_av~ ~ll:E!eh (!d n:;hort~'r timli.5 sp.i.n th~!! the ten yean that it took (or his {OI:J,;:budi[]]~!ii to be r&lH'~'~1 but DiiilIOi;,ld':; rerum lully bore them put.DLloud hiDl.sel'· 'il.id.:!.;

For mere than a year, 'he subje'Ctv;'as.b~l:ng.COfis:id~(:ed by some Melids.ltud vaJ11oU:!I r~~;1Jn~ di~Cli$~(;'d., (hlly\1!I'~!'li'rl fftiltliN:llya!1d the tmU.!'IIaltlo;rial al'~~~wde of the l1egime reached its peak was the d!~(J:sio~ fo{ 1.,1IJdJ]g· action made',

During hlis tea. years of enforced ~dlem~s!'i, Daoud never ceased to: dbi!':US,~ affiLir.'l With h15r~,l1ic~f and hli' lwd pm'l:;J'lbly h~eml pl~,nr1'ing 3 c(Hl1!C'.bflCk Jora much lnl1gerp~rlod than ,1 vear, The tr~gg1l!r may-well have been, not tl'l.€ilfIJ;;I:rc.hy that he aUeged,. but rather the fa.ct tbnl 'Ml'loa SI.lfl,llql;~,o:JS bcglnni.ng to .I!OoR asifhe ~nlgl.l' be' able 'U) ~,\I,('Il tile 'ml!:il,try round, n,rlu~~d mEl.}/' hu1lib .. fH~,,.l!;i'ed th0il1 fr be' di:d not lif.lQ~ when.he did, theremight no longer appear t~)':oo any j-w:tmca'ti:?,n_ fe'l' tI t~ lIJclio n i\s l.t ~1'j\'~~S, the KI.ng' s d~ II!!OCf' .He: eklt:!'~'ll~ u~,nn. WlI.S, '~~oeckorli d lin h,lil,'tl''f'ilH I" and Daoud was abEe 'to'.mlste'rsum.d:elll;t~u.I}I0j't rC'[ ~h1i!;··

mIO\'!:.

tlpr1u'ebl'Ly ~iSCI1~~ed hJi'i plii1rill, not' iU:oit wttll t ris~il:'d 1l.'upp~')rl;e!";, 'hUit ~bp wi~l:b~ili,~ll an 1 ,*. Pn.td'lfU?~ a~tu:::UrtI.':'S1 tl:Ms :Jlaihll'e W.15 an !!l1'~'li:ldr~K ~~tdh:UOJ,l of. d~lt~ ·~1J.!f()\lgh~i!.l!1 the Iwhole IQf the (tln:s,~~'hI" tional ,p'(tr~,~?d. ~., ithe'r the 'Kh:1g ,U.of, hli·- gbvc.i:nment'· em ~Q ha.vt: ,t,~k~n' s~1ffi(J~nttty ~'~1':10!l'~:sI't the st_~bVreJstve 'tbrefj1 pq,~d hy Daoud ·1l.'l:~d hiOi !.U~.ipCllllh\lI'S,"(m tile'i!lJ:IJ.e luII'ld r and b~ M~f.·"j~IF mov'e:rrlt'ul I n '111,''·:Ul:~r.-

11 toollt liijtl'e eitqrrl f¢'r D<10u<J. Wtlitm . his '.supPQrte rs. to CiHTj1 th.rough th~l:t coup, On 11 Jul,y 1913', a f~w tllW~itll:t>d, ~ mci[u~ h!d b'f u, h.u'1dfu 1 (ir~ Offlcl.lrs/·'scljt;e(J 'U p' pallt!it.·ec~nd·iither ke;1 pas,itio'Ji'i in, KabuW. ,,-\bdliJWall bri~fiy le~s~'edl b!:.lt :'Ilu~r,endel[ed ~ljll~emf:~ T'.'ll1k, put 0 shell through the 1~,aU 0,1 h'5: hotl~~~l:-lle was kr'pt 11!1C:~ctr hous art:'e~t :tor N.;O }' oMS h.r-,(jrt! h'~'!;~'ilI~; 1iil,l;)we~J'~:o johl:-t:h:e I(lcng ,in e':xmllf.!, Aliriuls~- Unmed['ili~el·. ,;Lllotbel: plct ~'il£ di5~(J~',ere.d, abo. orlglnaH·· aimed at dffpo.smg the _ :lng. Alrnong l'11()',').C blll:lUcil'l,edi '!MiI~ M~.I'w,~,;lld~WII, who. Wi!Hi, fUi:ty-rCl1I1: mi~itar,y' cirffi, ,'I:S' m'ld ci:YiUt1S"j W~I arre t djUM two J]lIO'Ilttl1S ai'ter ;ru;pucf/ S -3JSStlJIljltion Qf.pb~'!I'e:ri. There 1;;i¥It:1 oof:n th.~ expectanon thaili:

MaIwiilndlli/!'l)I!!l. l,;V:ll0 J, (I Nti.ml~d ;from: ,fjll:H'O d after th~ OUPI mlg1111 -jOh1 [InoUid~'~ ~bjn0t, E.i,ii:1d:the glen~r,'I:l dinni1l~' al his [I,r!' sttumed tn shock ·~l!i'h~JlJ. it W<l~: Ieamt !that he'· J]r~,~ bell' sl'rang •. -d wWle under 11'i~e~ro'g:~lf~n" "t'hlis 'i,r\'Il:S ~ tlH!ltJ~' set! :ilc.l,~ f(H' tne n!PU'l~ ~h,ifl {:.If the m:!w r,eg.ime, which b d ,[t't fit t been t'li'~)t:omcd hy m'l!1ywho' WI, hed to-see .~ r.etJJtIl t(\l firm .~;O"lil1lme:nt •. ,Anq1ther ecup aUl:!mpt was foiled the same j'~.rl' mil ·8&' oral Il~c:il'e lin 'li1 - Y~1US fol1o~\!mg. $OOll II'IQ

fJllHury'j J[i!IIn~ tn::gilli to filJl with: PIJIIi't~(a.~ l)ttf(b:niJrs~' and stories of lOrltll.lr~<lind e'x,iOCUJJons made llir?, round . Same :xec!']i:iot"l,$ ·l'l1e:r,;, !n~'~e(ll plutlHdy ;tnnouncLO!d.

,Onol!!: the t.iUlup~,\las complete, U!il(i'l~d assumed the ot1:icC's oJ Presldent, l')rimre lvil_uiste.r; l~Qi:ej:gn Mi.nis~:ff and MlnJ,stelfr 'Gl,r, D~fenC'e~ I~~d .1 C@r,1UIU Co 11Ul,UtL ej eomposed mainly Il1f army ~:l:i1ke.rii" WIi,Ij brt~~l1y formed, I'os.sibly be'cm:i 'll~ 'I;"\'a$ not pctsonMily iLn 'tQu!:::h wlth ofl1£!e{s in the u]]ddle anti junior ranks. of the (lJI1Ued Jorees, DlTloii.ld. seems to ha,vl'I1I.!U~d Oill K1lfl1~.a1 .and U'l~ Pal'l:tol.mis, who .i:n til" eatE~. 1970~h,adbeguntCil'ecruit Suppfl.rters ifrorl1.a]]j0ug ff'l,12: olltn::Ji: (;Qt]~s. "Uttilie jj known abcmt llaQu,r,S relatlonship \Ii.~ith Karma.!, b't!l H ]$ llCls!dbl~ lh'lt th two Irlefl hllJd been In tnuch to.J' stmo.Q ye:ar-s iilnd tbwt Dacnld tela'd PI'O!.!iltitcd, Kll nnlll 'with funds. Ce·md.nl:y a "'lIm'.' r oQif lP'altham is \'If!r~ illtive partie1 pan't~. in tile '()llPI/~ n:e:ir ,ea:lcula,tion no' dJo!.lblb~lng .lh;U, orn.ce in the :gov' fll!tit'tU, 11.11 ~y wr.m:lld te o:btl;' ttl 'ex~ncl Ih ·jf -lnEhlelfice -and fOtl!i,iillil'Q ~helr [,ollitk(l:1 Ob~e:U'1(l~" A rep1Jbll.c'llYt;t5 ij st~p _i.u 'lhe.r.ightditection and .1)a()udJ ilJJ1rV a,{II(!ldlrly !l~:i:llll '\I\IUc5, m'llm((H'j?' Lo ~Il!st ~!jug. Kal'ninll,l:r()w!.'!~IIilj!, did 1,1, l lo:h} l'li'l~" gl)"t n~rn 'HI, !i:\ld :'1t.lon [laioud l'IlilHlui tly !,,_Ilie inJip)'F~th'IJ~ P-Q~:l'!i m~1l 'uf ~c:J'ti, l ~~m.rHfl'lI:Les~ 'bmfl. In ~heg;()Y )mm.elll~ nr'lld I'll 'l~llie I'WnLU,llury, '!ttli!

1ibq !!'ent a :1:)JliIlllj)er !tif yDUJclil1?aKhaJlltl'~ to liI~rJ\'in~-tal: ~~rliiJJid~:trn,ti,', .. e' pps:ts. ~(h~~£'~ tl':lelll' n~fn!!lll. s,t ;r~~J, Wil:~ ~:u:kI;:JLy sUlIlIm.l. li:ly'l~caL ~,llIQrHa ~n,d bC!:ltllilty~ Be~cw;~,o.ng 'Jlil'di(lr~".,~J~!§11:r,i~' <, DYt,'p'r'~'Jl.l;re~,s:E"'!\~!,~:~dllsJ(Jn ,j!rOJ,1 ~ffecti,"~epollve~j I~t ;i'~ ~,q$.e ~fd~j'Ye-!il Ji pmpuse,"'hiJ,i!!' IQr.-q!'il! ·w'l:l~e~'l. ~~IS bl .p:rln~wpl~i.nt l"1.<'!l;qq~, of ~~~~UdIS t~kie .. (Y\!er. blH, h',"1d refi',C1.ined fr ·~n active SI1I.IPPO'l'l\, n~'" fcll,mtd, H:D:V!;llrll'l,gHotl ~d. ~rtlJe other e'nd,t 9f 'l"I:W sped~'UIlitI, D~:a~cit -a]~~ {jL~Red uaa-w~ O.r:l~sl~:~if~.t t'eUl!lt~:,nlis :gl,mll'S, wrdcl-,:: ",,!~IJ[! I,nc t~.· b~J!ly hf~~~!lti;g ,sl\blJetSilve: l~J1- Cler'licl:.-::" in· 19741, Mol1,/lIIuimo.d: N.."-a:~dl tn _ leadt~ of the !klsl ... ltl'n,·~·:~fl~all~in:i.n (~fu.SJi.rn tl:n).fuiiih~liUj. "io''iils- j,~ • ,afnlng 'lI~ittJl some: r)_'o rnmfirud- of his"E1~tl,Vi3,~L:!Si ~,h_He ;~fm~ m~~ 6U~;IE!J1~o f)~d lQ l~ac~J!it~~l. ~h~l' th.~Y ~ t ~~p o.tJJP<l:~!titm ~1~'ite11l711,111i. l'i1ie~lin.,]u:d·~d. t\".\;',o men of wh~1U mu~h lU'O¥~e\~Gu~~ b .ti~1]f, '~'P.lb~~tI(H.b H~tma~'1J',·~:b .. ~ngul{!e.l':lingstlllde:l1:t an.d;ncNYisl ,n,t ~bl.d (In)~iI'li:l~y .. m,'lld. JJu:rh.Ulllcid:i:n I.(abhani,. ,a ]fl,ctu:re-r i~ 'f: ill mil la: .• The :rllI{4,:!i;~i1n gCi\~(j:rnmellt g.~.ve them aJl!!yltlirll;~ yalu:mg. -ibe:n;f f~J: ~li!' t[b'utl:ter~pis~ be) PU.5ih~~£lnist~l:1I1

. Jl !!;l~Miru:i, _lIlU!t ~!~I. r :roPI~,ds_e 11 'led. ,'lI'b,~'V tQcik 'Up :r~it~~l'Jc@I_1l .11(~!ih3i~y'u ~m~, untH testii~h'le~!: f)Y<'!llii If!p~ 111i~1t 11:~i-~l\' .,t-n-·th: two go:v.;~rnm 1:11,

~org.u!iw~ i:[I:pjjr&~il1:I~~,C;~:.:tt!e ]'mll'll,e:r: Hlq~'!Iev,'~rthif1¥ .,aclil.i~veJi .1 itt~!e SllI:CCesSI llIlnd l1la~y .of ~p.e1f. $tllJiP~l.'1:tI:r~' "'ere captured, F~'b:e1t' must !oi:~gl'ti:mQl.n,I·all'C'rr~pt ~~ll'in, nl- Pillftj~'h~l' yall Ylwh~:rc it. 8'roup,l~Fb, another it)[1ue:( 'Sitll]a ~lltl A:J:Ul1t!:d ... Shall MasS{lilld, briefly took :s.-Onii:e ~m.·.~mmen.t pps~ ~I!!.(or~ b@'i:m£ ~fo:~t"ed to wUlldlm.\'I". L3h~:r in ) S174 H '~n~~}riH iU1iCl l~itl':I}';'1I~llpUl" Ilfur f(Jlr~iJ;l(H' l~t~.I)iHih~i.ng ~~1(:' H;elb~i= ,!.:S,lem)J (tsll':ln:JlC :PaTil:y) and the latter Hie Jo.:l1liot--i"-lslituni. ·.Islamic SOC1@t:y).

M~arl'~:!itlfn~, In J(ilI'bU!i an in~!II,?asjllI]g nu.mbel' of men, ,of con ervathre outlook,- ",dl.o ·we:re,·tru.stOOJ. by l)~Oll1:d and had served h.lm, dl.l_lIi'~J.i;g his ~a:rU@.r 'h.f!HUl'~ of uti'l!e~ w'ciE! l"~ifOOd :in Pt).~ltll[),"s o.:f!J(!SI !lJl;ii,Ibl.ll.ty. N'1i: rest ~'k;lled, '(;'on ta,~ts w~ ~h OOii'etgllers In K.."Ib~,d, and c]o&red down~h'e press, which WfIS. [epr~Crl,~.d by" .nopn~rjnousjS:hillb/,f..tfI'f-;i(lJIII ,~vE!ni.llg r1!~W.!J,..she~t:s)." (li~td buied rc:'.larldlt!s~~:nel, by opp:psU io!m ~'J'()up~.E n .1 '!:Ii' 5, he foundO'([ -hiS awn pa,tt~i, th:t" t-I(ll/rl"'if/'rli.rtib-i-.\Jf'1I'i National T~:evoU.ultk)W1.ry~~j.u:ty). arid h1 e~iily ~9r.7 he (;omven~d iI. iGyo li:/i3l'rl whirl appro, ed It nJ: "sh COfl!!UttuUnn·' aud l']@C'led hUn ;l!>· Presh:li~ll~ll: .rsr 01 si)l y~lfIlf '~'rm,. 'Hu' CO:mo;Ht!l.ltt,on provi,ded 6;)r -.l 'lihi,ctI.mt1tl1l~ padi~1m:ent i1n~ It. one·p'ai:1:}T st,ateJVo(ith tbe,]o;'u ,lir-gaas the 'sup[~me fRlJ!,nl(e:!it,a.l~(jU of LI~'~ p~'wel: llllll,d. w:I~.~ of Lh'f!'·I)~op:I(!I".A~tclr II\Omiiul'I:lilJili b}1 pillfli~:mentJ the Pr~stdent '\\I',i! tfl' lbe - 'l?l~('tC'd by it t-wo .. tl1ird~ -rnajljJdty of th~ ,':o,~~. iir,grif. l-:kl\Ve'OPeT ;any hnples:siontb&it tl~.el!syS,~ef!I~ w .,u1dv{! dlt~lll(lc:rn'lk\filfls rapidl,' dhiIJ(:,iJed ~vl'i :1'1 n be, a,m .It~~!)r tl·uu t~~t',UJl"/ll: #rs.f,f:W()o'l~W tn ... ]a.J:;g~1.y 'i;Qln:p.~~cl of Ptc~r:~dC1fil,Uill~ Iilliiin'lln~~s nn~1 r p :~C'f1tatl:v~ ci:f tile ,(:u:n,M lo~(;~~A' the.' lPalft}' i1i!nd the i1.rJ'\~ '~fI~e,nl", ~ nd n, ~,~ ~ ,ndi'd,diJ w'c,r u~ ~~ I1I!;iU1iJ!1 '11ft'~ wtm id be :1 m Ilmil 'GLl 'y Lhl

r)a:it:y~ tll~c ~usr~~.u.tton ,:c~nt;;l.i.nlild ~[g~9d ·:Q~'lIl of ;S-9~[ai~tst. 'aJ'ld ~4}~,!1I~j;01n"U'y' t"b~~orlcl an~;h~O\iU~iI:~ :¥o~ r'i1!C:(J)\Qnd~ M ud ·.~{)G!1l1r~i.l;In·, ~ltheJ!Ctlrm inatit"l i1 QL~:"I(;pl!Jiit!!~:iO:t1J, ~.~n~~~~c ff!1I and: l1~li:~n)f,in~a:tilQ'.n. rln ~~,c~i~El? bOJ""(l.:,>e:ri 'if dtQ.·,no ntpl!eU]~]l.farmal~i;S'eWJ]i1rt 'II"'~§(1J.I:reild¥· i~l ~x)l!lt~,";;::J~ •.• Ln ~:X,t~ntc~~,r;~lIIt~~p;(:~:'i!:I":k~ tle'.n.t.r~lli!ll~d::a,n{H:-.epr~~pv~ Ee~f,ff;~('!, ~'l!hl~~l ,~~~y its ~tNl.ng:~l1 frQm~11e OI,lUl0d ~qr,"(e1}· .a:nd tW'I.~·.t:,I~I~~~Lllc-:J:aC)J'~

yvfu'U:e'pl!Ioa'dl ~v~ t~;}I'i;n;· tOi:eor~SDndrnlt~':1H]Td Ile.gkfi:(Ij]S'e ln~sr.e,W.me; lU~: ~mHts. \'l:'~F~ progoo~~t ()fi~~t by' e~,t}IOIll it.' ~r.()ut:ll~~ .•. ;,d'Y~ ~~r~~~ 'liP fl. QOi.n~fni~~lng ~U tn ~l~f;~~Gi,P~'S' :A'!i. ~ ~~}lJt. thc·.&hi~d f.1'vJ~ Ytlar.BIlilml "h.l~ :t.Q. be cut ji:n.u:;I(·t.o, ~:~.m,.e4.Gcm'fJf tb:e p~e\"i.Q.p5 [llil~1".~n?'.to~14Mttlo 'I:J.I'lJe: 2,{lO% i;n("lt:e~;s~ tti"at. li~HI t~e!!r.I [J]io1n"~. 1'l1W: Un1J~ S~~'~e. .. · ¥l'as !i:'~(:I:'e:i1iSlngly ,~ti.t1l:i ng·ll;ilck ju .~iCt:;pi~()g;fn;mTI:t~~ ~mt;l fbcu~~ln~ IOU S¢:~tth·· It .. 15f Asj~~ W~il.~· 'tbere esn ·;'Tl\S:p'bel.Utt~e d(;l~~b1: tJI~:t l'Il!e SOvllet i[}~~&in yr.a~. p~qfil'ing;ut Afg;h'a111"f!i't~ln~~ ~.!l-'!(ln.:!!i!;!,' TItIl'1k;;:U:lIJ~\Jl n~·m~l-:~t h~ld bl':!C!!m1. mO'fl'd !I'Oj~ '~)!t'id01~to ]~n~i~~:rad. ~!l~d j ts· ea mln~ wel::e be If~g ·1I..ppHed ~"Q' '5ervi~1!f Af~{!'J~istair'& dt1}j'J:;. ~\iW.~~; ~;t~spw~ the I(i:~e in -Lrrt·!?rna~ Uon;aJ .oH pl'WC~!l, tho~~ P?l1cl·by U1ll~~:U~Il,iJlriS, florMgbm.li~l'ar:r's gas remlflned :at Ii"Ock 'bottolli le\l{;'ls·~. jntem~HY, ~grl(:U~'h~'r:fl1 produ!CtlOIll. i.vas 'b,;l'1iGlf'I.\,~pl~lllg] ... !(ee,r"\·lth pOpUlaill:iGP ,g.f6,¥~:hfvi,..ffithle ft}ltu]:]'e,$ "",e~ OOh:li2: rnorud!e by: I!l.re\~ -Oll1clj!]::o.~~i:(toW'as. hnw~.g L:1'IIe n'DIilil!~'W~ bi~afre<ilttoo WitS .~:t~(J COllt1ng j,na'lO ~rQ~, it mOI~.G' f~Ullt?::~tl~d gf!~.du~t;~·l'i. ill1d: ~]1 Dol 1ct'{l!'I!~~.·n<)i()!lrId' l±.!~41.ml!1;m'whH~ begun MI' '~n:s:ti1)].te ]]lea!S!!tte~~pt .~thiid ,,~form, W.o.i.l·lch,_.aUl1Cn-l:£!'h h.e WElS, iLl11IiJe.fLil tOilfll!~rod.uc. e th.en.lt1JadJu~J!"~J

: .. .' _ ~ . .... _ _'O..':_ • (" _ _ ~ , _ __ _, _ eo _ ;;~

Wl're, iwiflil (ltthl~r' 'irflrpQS~HfilIilS" ,",llU5:nng mll.elm dis-ctltlt£:l!It '1111 the

t30!;l]1~isrd~: ·r6rei!!ibtl~~il~.~()n~.c :"f~:Hl:~U1~~1 ,balDiltd 1"£1'00 to t,J,ke ~dVJ.ntai8e O;WI:i1le 1).IEW 'inD~(\!l'tc~. tlult \~~efe eru!~.!'glJ1g on. tJilie int6r.na>l'iorl.!l1 ~cem,~. The ShwJi1, of ]'mf1iJ nt)w'rer~lc[:e widl oilm'.lfl~yj ·ry,.~SJ· "'~ith A;lIlerl~~lleJ[IJ;bur~g~m.en't,~nlj~nt ··on ;1;I:1l.IIUdi £.g'. up ;;I.~g:iqq~ .5lP\M~(!~f tj~:I1:U!.~lJ.c.~" Nego)t~~t~9.1):1!; ~18;()n be~ran b~:ttx¥~nUll1'tw~ py .... ~~'nm!l!~hs·~lld ~n undar ... ~andi,l1!:g WII,s; :11~lchGC~ iWl 1'97'wUereh~ .Afgh<In~Si'a[l wcll.Ud :ri!t~1,:e a~ wlUch as .,$2.::. billion In <I]"d over the jj~]~C;l~\I~f!.g :~~iI,QJ~, A ]:~IJl~.~IU· ~f proi~,z:t~wer~'~9{FteFt. lr]du~:~9fl !11 :61lill~v .. y :llinl~ a<;J:Q:5~ 'l\r:gh;n!'lj:S'iIJ~l nOm.rl;,1.!ilI OIl1d lll;e I[JSSRt 0.11 tl~e ant! side to Pakistan on th,e ether -. Sy 1917"7'" .ho,,\'e~;I) it wil!sbe'GLilnj~LD!Il pa:[:nIlu.liyob'V~(::ms tl~'.~ th~ Sh.r~.lirs. 'pv@tteoslQ.ns. We·~~'lfl!J,~ [J.nlrlS· fat 3!!h~illd of his l')tI,[Il\da! lIle·SQU~(;:~:S~llli.d a Ii l.Jltl!k.liillt~ngpr-a:ceIs of bta€ll;:tt:ll(b;:~IiIi~ t.oOK pla,te, ":S:l:lJi1i~e'l' pl'~~8:e~, of oi~d ",,"'ere a~.sp llladt- by other ·q_irl~.['idj ceunntes, lncludin:g SaudJ f'~abi!-l'lh~lq and l(VWli~L Afgh~m$~\r~~ it]creaSjng~ytowotki n J ~llr:l il.nd t~e ·G~dfl,fltltlre~:i~tfl,rn"esb~~~n ... ro help the ,'.mHntl]r)s~ balan.oe of pay.lll-ents" t~.lel"i~lblYJ ~ai)i~.d .·~"'ats. lJt;!~rnpt(ld tn tryl.Q t:~v ~V~ mil;' PIJ~~'bt~}Q!1 ]_~st!l n. ls!>u'!.!j and .. JltrllP.~~i.!-ll~l~ (~imlp..11,gn ~.il~ moun hid tn the ~~1!1~ yeats. of h is Set~n~' ~ . '~ple~

'~n~pt!t'il;g€d by the Jjwib.~e[n$ th;e J~l1J.Jlt~i.fi~~tm.~·'~~ai~~~i!lp@. _i~~g""\'~t[~.

Oill~lh db1·Kldtml';'i .. f:~o~~gVID.r: tl'1~, S:h~.rn:l M~tt u ~~1~1'!1i u~g.e~, ~r~ltrilIIJU ~n!;1

~~ys:~inlIl~~ IhZl,dbellinllijigbJy ·senS\jtjv~ 'o;ke[ -l"l\l'e1r [mrlti.e.r wlth Af~;haol.., . fsbtiL Al~.l1g "its ;]iC'rfgilth;. O)jgrm~.1nUlill:n~d ~n ~b70n ·~urt:a.:iM.'6'j oC"t'lIllpl~t~ witln. '!ll':lll't&ilto'\1'li!~j' wiN~ f~n<;'!i1s ~tnd d~El:ood-'~~dps., !J}'fI;d nO" ·S~tl:II~'ff.lerit j,,'MS a,]1olt·1'!(;!d wlll'h:J'n ;.70 ~Jj,omC'tt~~ 'I~:~' .1<hru~,(:iIi:l;eN' reveaJ:'Cld. in Ville ll~tiPs •. tb~hlSa1;!(r. it (;O_UUU[I.1:J,~n,gtHr~~l: ,(lii' A~led,cm p~llehaitiQn.~nd W~f,r!. pre'I2.~!l'~(J. ~Dgo~o t5'Dn~1d~~b]e'I~:nln~~ ~t) ~Il:]!jn~e.~th,at t~~ei_!i

. innUende h1 A flthEiitl.ii;t,~(nrefu:iilIT]f1(1 :!i~t!relry pre.d.ot:tii1.Hlnt. In ·pmctlroo/. [f· ~l1IJ' fO.!r w~a~qn~ '\ilI .gpoi"l:'a,pf;[!~ 'li~'ey h a d ~l1j1lt]¢ llO ]ea:rr aad oo.ul:d~\.'eU 111~v:e:,'IJ.::fi~c:n~r,'I':h~1'1" ~q'lect;lve tQ~·'cQnli.niJ'I,& lhe~~~!\"!es I:() €ul,thl'ii!:tlg;~S' r."l~~e ~irt(;r~]' ~aj a :ti"~lIS; biJJ~kcd hlK'll1lm'l'arcy a.n~, ~o:not:ni,Q.,:tlssh~il:ll!oe. ,ilH Itld~llCTI~Edt. tlr,glh,a~Ji,staD •. l1On'";:Im1gm~d bu'!; w]~h~ntheh:'l.~p]:U~<f~ -. ot .inUue'nb~ ,wou"'. h,a.vc 5'~~'v~ them, ·w~U" tItH"~!il\lj!r ,'ih-ey,,,, ~80 b~id. tb:~i III ida01()g!t~1 ('\}tlvjjctiOtF!s ",UJd '\",e't~ tn~e: If11fIS . [e;"vertlo,g ~10' th.tf. Sta\l1nust ~q_[l~~pt~hat more GOuld. b~ 'aid'J£1evll!d ,tlUOO~~) Mar,xi~tUntnfj."I: .ffi}~II:ne~ .~.~ Uj~ Third. Wo:!:'ltl l:~1"'!1 ~Jrll.'!)u.gh .~1,om..tiOmJnl:lm~~, n~ti'o£);a]~:eOlder5,. m.;jJIJY (lfwil:.tonl· had pJ:it)'Ve.>d to b~ un8l~bh;l ali":, unli~~iliJ:jh~ .. '111112: .rtm~CI.Ull ,-self·bad'..: 1m. 'Yi.eU1aQl''''u also I;Jl!COuI<I:~in.g" ~h~rll in -1:1':1.(;' antiS."Llfl:t lJ':liiri' thill~ Cooomnunhm. ~!ts a:cbteviug '''~l U~ ~It:op~bl:~ \V'otld..:¥\,j.de 111IOille"f'!:tu.m'l ln 'I. h~ Afghltn ~C"OJlIteKtl: UUIl, .causEd,thenl fd:,shiH .y,b~;lr .:'iUp.p!JiFtt·:Ojj~,f,!y fl!Gnl: .IJ~o.tld and'tol\v<lj1ds.. ~Jh~! AfghiH1M~r~~~.t !!~ ~\lf.lnr~n t, w.1.'II.U~ Ct_,lll1~inuing~O; tf1'to 'S!i.~D~d }fOU~'i~\ i\fght1in QI[j~C',er$ wlflmt'l f:h.ey .~IGc~pt(!:dfo:r m'rmary tf~~ ~1:n'8: .~. th~:

Sn"l1i!et .l:JI1i ~n, . .' .1\.11 tb.e~,al!ter. a~not!1]itll.~g t:o :!le\!e'r'a~~hp~S,il:l]d Ilnth~, vkt'lil'~b~lWi~n ~9,;5~H,.d 191&/ 'wliin: I'Qut.lnQ~y ,u"r1ldoc:tdl1~lted,. P!1di~(lblYl O'n!":!f a n.1iflorllj', bec;m~e oomE1':ij.tlled . Ma:rxifi&S'r but: '.~ .5]g,rii:ElC<IlT!'t~ numbeJf ·w,e:!l1e ·su:f.!i('l~ntly. diSilU&ted·~to :te~tponidtQ Paft1hQn~t~' !ll)l~~~dl~t, MOl!e,!l-o;~n:~ di~!iRtl,sJ]~dau.IIWair .P(};d~ .p~y ~.m;l. ~)~~~~d~S!. si110e~ ~"'.illl th~i[ Ry,}s;~'i!11 ll!l,cl.:gr{J)!Jlfld.~ they '(ended ~o· be {Jj;i;i;Cf;,.mi;" :o~'~ed ·,agil:i.l.1s;t: wh~1fl. pro.l11(ldof:l;1j.Y<l~ belog cOl;lslde.r-t.ltl. and th~kiIi

l~lYlllty' I.e tihe Nfus's.hlbt:l.!'18 \"~I,~ d~lb:h(JU'S., .

~n':a55e~"iilq~ the ·:ewent'S ].eadinlf "to Dn()lud'05 ·.o~!mthfo'W' .and. th~ i~mhn!B"di.irtI2W suib8!l1':qu!en~ deveiopm.ents; ~ll~ prohlt'IJi is tl1~t .zy,~; CQl1c~:rfn:rd ?,\lere tigfI~IJ.I:'t)be':!:Uhf~ IV mle:nd,~do~~" Hl~l1OfY wa.<; con;snll:il'I]v ['!fiwriltefl,·(lf(ifj)JC.til, 1e..1ider'~Si~nIJ~!~i power and td·ed tiD: pre,$~nt t:vl~s;'lfm. the best: :possible Ug;bt h1 many G.l:~~'~1 tlti:l:: facts <l'M (11.H~ ,ob~C~~t(:. de:lpi:teUI~~oonflideutt WHl'a,. wJl.~~I.1.n'J,!!ny I;~Jlnn1@n~~il'O:t'o"l hwr.r,~ p're'~il~:TI!~ed (h~m.How'e\lm; H: seems H1at ili--prepa.rail..i,GliIl..·fo!r ~ coup, l:i:lelmp,;\ dt~(;kied to st,ut: T€<;rultiI1gi.i:'\ the .il:l'J:tlru:~ lfunG;!s~ p:[~rU~,ua~dY'amon~r1,;l:s;hl;m)'[l . tflil-lrevti. 11!lfi~[l U'lh A\nli:fl,~'V:~:ii. ·pttt,.l'1 ,i:h1tirgr (If' ;hJfl ~fxe~'he!ilndw<,;s ·:;ooum~(i:ilt;ing '.~!1 . lE!.nc,Q, .. ' . . re:fPQ:rr.se. F m~r~dj.b~1. whUll! DnolJl(I.'s $@I;:'ILI.l'.i.gr lllplp:~rn~m.hati Jl(Ul~[ln [I)cnf~c~t~~r Ul~ [l'DPl\ ~m.d ~nm1 ha~l': rul()i~,\,1imliJCh of'~!l~lw~s~otng ~rnl! ri~Cl'fhlcL1S:~~t~l,ve -wM0:Qn~. J.d!ltibrl~ 'bet~ee;H 1('nrJ11~'II.JJidl~U~~~1I-~' I'~~~"ilhl~d mClim!~!fI_jo'liIs "l,n~n l tt.7:1 wl~'i~nr. ~~ ~~~:I1!QmS~ ~tl :;;.~7iI'11J

The :P[):Pl\thersfme had th .. etr own ~i:!4l!n(fui lind the· suhv~rSi;ve t~t"O!dem:y,' bo'thdvllilllini :l1nd m;mlWLY1 wtl~th grew .lrl.!:itrellft,g~.l'i[ ~,.,'\i~h ~!cUVf;: Stlvie~ '~Jl'\i(,i~'Vem.t£:!:r:it~ flU!n the :Ml~d-1950s ()1'1.w'l1rds,l,y ~he w/o~ h~diru'(;'tJu[ro~1 a 'oonlmt:lt of u~ O\lfllL A (out~ Wit'ic .1J'I<lID!1>td, hU:l al] eencetaed we:~· tll.ken bY sl.l.l:j)r~ae b.rilhe-~e\1enb that trigge:f'NI. n,.

The C'.ri~l~ ·llegfl.1.l.WiUt the l1!l~uxl{:'r on 17 April 1971'1' eaT MiriAkba.1; 1);;J[lybe:r. 'a ptomJn«.I:l.tPOlI:n:::lli1:m.l:st rd~i[il()gl,!e find mg:.lni~e'f.· The respo[~sibiJlty fbI the murder remains uniCl€(l!r. the 01io:!j~: .. likelv (JOfliSlb1litl,(:!'!\ b~h1g Ih~~t i.tw~,~, th~ m1btk ~Ithel' ·o.f O~llnd'~ secret Pf)]~Ce Of. o;ff H@l1i:UlH:a.b AJ]],'1.i:tl.·lI!RGi: the f{halj~, Populial' flplniion,.hQweYcrrlltl~),k :ittll1til: HB~ A mell.:,j'OliJil llii1ba.1lS}~ ,and 1-:]](': CI.A \\'ElI.'ett.he !I: ul PlCtts,_ anda la"l't~ 1»H ~l·A Iilll;rl''J:~n ik!f110U:!lLI'1}.fitll'l .itllt!.:;k~d t:ll~ s:!;r·f1ets o,f t'Wb~l pr:t 1 ~l;e day {.1'f Kfl;ybeJ:'::i.'hlf.u~rlll. D,il(md tonk ai.iU:'lU at lhis evi d.e:noe fir ~~ I)J~n [0[' t'h~ P,[WAand. dedde.d to (!:!Jte!;lt Its>k\ti.diElr:)j "\1.1{)We.l'~~ou!JJ(h:~d ~!P H,~~t1I 'il!l~.W{!~I,'('m fh~ nlli1:i~n !I~lCl Glll'l:y l'li~~il',n]t:I~ tif,;~5/2:thApfU. Ml~l l.lnfl! t~~!Pl)~n(id is ;j, f~'I<l'rll'Ell!.(lr smnr.l \l:ri:Ol'nm:IlI\1" lIDI'lI~L:til,~,ll/\flXhV:li 'ilo['!!;:tJun~ WitS! Iud ~J.'l[.!l1iirhe pO~lit;Gl: C'm'H"C to lWl'eS;1 ~111.fl, ht.l W(I:S AW~,'fI UinllP :.ilfil('1

YfU'Clttunl'tv. to :s~nd_ m~s'qgE!s. t'o hts tilUhad~ asO"daItes. t<eUio,g them wg!llt ~~s,- bJiJPp~ll:i~Jgc: .~n:i(l.,gjJVoog Ul~:tJ] ,deta:ile<l' i.illQ~[1O]ctlml~', ·.fpr a .m,Un.rty t~k,e.:(~~~f !til' foUO~'i]Jg m~l'ph'hg, Z7 ,AprU. n. Is, !I1Qwmrelt. ,eq u~11 !Y.' P9~w111e 'that ~h~ ~s:~o,- ia'l~~ . '~lle~,,~,eU ,~nQugll, w~ at ,.~'iJ!~~_ lIlappe~l]i]]ig HiD¥! -r~~Us¢d ~tl':!1!:t··t11ey ,~~&re <llsoa:t "riskl "and_ thr1t _~bey: l:lie~d@d HiO i11SL11J tlon}j' Vil:i:1alCo do. 1n any lev I~ttl IClU the n10.ulln,g at

.'1,7 -AP;iti~.t·l'i_'I! t~;nift""i~rnl:() JiUU. . _ .'.

A~, w'ith J[)(j!Oli!dfs ~,ii:d.i.er tau [:l" th.E att4~:l{h,,!g. (-orCie-s: r,.,tClt~ ~ma.I.~!, p:r~,b~blr ~,[}, r.i1~re '~h~U\ a, r~~il1ln .. "~1 m )11 . Ild~b1,~~~, .... 50 '~.!i.I!nksl.,II. II~ii~twef: luck fil!~oured th~ rebll:mS ali rJt.~~~'tiJilfl:ks·m,.and~liI"'l'!~d··tl]lOi.tgli: the, c.ii;pit~ I~sli:rarll~ 31!Jid a]Jrong.:PO~wds· afW,oit:i(ef!ltF .. Ieav:iug thetr ef~1Ice~! ('01' ~hl; \o't~I!!lnm \j-v!€clf:end, }:,Of ~m~.(~uluus. .1'L;:i!lS(lH. il1ls;tfl~c.nQn$ had heen ,~I\/e:n ~:O the ,:im;,,'l~ Joi,ces to (l~lem~te tHe'~l~uest"i ~rf the _1~:.DV:f.il. lei(de[sJul)1 aad.so tb€de ~,.ra'~ a. t~rtl1i.lill,acI~ of gnod o:r~e-I and!~.~[[blif'j" dl,loiclpHn~ i;ll t:h,~' tii]'Ul!. l!.c~·q':rd.ln~g;ty" '1Nhli!':r~ 1)~O'l,ld, '~\!II]a WAsl)w!d!Im <t cabinet me II.tn.1; to d-'~idii' the' fwtio(tthe 3r1isted PDP."': leaders, s~n~ hls·Cb1ief'p~ Staff t-? :rall:y ~'l;Dppm1:, the !aJ~€f.h.advery.U.ml'U~rl success. lie br:(l~~ un ·'tLI".JU 'W1'Iel1_ bi:s. sb'lff car l umped 'a tf91:"o(; nght ~I:nd hlt .fi tatxl, !In I he \\!'~:S in, ons[der,ahle .pam fi()r the' n~ t of tne d~)'. ThE first ul'lith@ <ipp~{:Jac:hedl' .the ';S,th D~viisl()11 at It::a:q:l;.l}i!. '~~'a5 'i.;.i'ruthout U& ,eom!'ll;Jbncitn:g offlter,a'lld tb~ IUI'l.!oir oi~k~rs,{W"ml unable to p!l:5'\.U~de· w,t to l)1arft:h on Kilbul. E\\1ll.ntl.1mUy;the 7th fJiv.lili'ion ~f rW.l1kor, ;)]llfiO'.OlT the P1lt'.srurh::af K{lhuill wa;~.S:1I.Itces$fuUy mustered I but It disihlte.g1:aled as, a :~,ghtLng fo·J'C{1!·\i Jv~n U "'!i'~~_U.iJ.cked frorn un~< l!I~r !,;\':hUe l11~n' llilu~ (:in enlumn of' founD t~)~"lllIi~d::S the C:l'ilfl'iHI1. 'TIt,(: lllL'l}el:i "faUl,ild 'to ort [)aOOt,i"s (m.uri1l~m:icatknls· tillnd . aj ~c:tafi: were summoned ffOim the s;i:liil(~a:rld ~r b,~S:(;lj but ih~y were very lo~· on llt!~l 'wh~!l I:bt'y ~ rriwd ~nd ~~~re'· un;"],'~II~ "I o<j,del:'J:.ti-f}t the' lI'lt~ic:kil;IrI~: -(uJC'e In ~hc f~'w·mjjni!.n:es (l'!'!aJla.bleto. them oeer Kabu].! here .. "as., tllerefore,1ittl~ to hlnder tlilt! aSos:aull mounted t}:V th' j;J~LFi[2! ,4th AriUourecl Ud~ .. d • '~ed b)1 MI!IJor MoJilJa,il'!l'li.ed fbl']n] '\'Villt~.rniatj 'wln)' hild itL s o ~~en pmmmeD1. 11:1 Daoud:" own coup five Teal'S. p.'l·ev.~(ltlsE.y. \lVaumj1l1 llCit secured the i!.i'11imtv Whl{l!Ji~·'I,Il!j '0U11~!J ~tlUp .I.cade[; Co,.lone'!.AbdM] ~tLlr 11a,G?ll'rWill~ left I)y heUc'optt:r' ,[IOil' the 1i[lgrillTl.lir hillle. Tile-reo he ·t:O():l\; charg~. ,iilnt~l. etg<! n i S<I:!{~ air sttikes OI!l me' royal pa lace, where Daoud and the J;liI'~~idelltllli guard ~!i:'re . O[~~ud:lng;Ji desperate ~l~(I:!'!t~e. l'igh'rih; '(oultj,11ul2'd il:1!t.e -!l-'\!'h,?l,e c,al' and mto I ne ntghlf. when the delle'lllicicn WIne' Ii'n:J:idl'y o"''C'nvhe.~m'ed. [)aoli.~(~ .~iild ii:IIJHOsl. til] hls fu:mily~ Ine!1.:iCUng women and dliJildre.r-l., died ~j ehe 11ghtu1ig, AtEoS~IJt.~rl tlh: i'e\<\~f.·"' J)(;r!illThl}r as rnany as tW(l thousand fatalttles, bOI'l'h mHttary nnd elvitlarr.

ss nUidly. H;.)"efoOO'r thl$\~'as nn !llh,IIZY,CCUp. 1I11"1'i by men oJ1 Wli!ft·-\'I1~ng ~ympj),L"Il~eS; ca:rri, d. (:l1lt when. tb~ clvUiI1lJlI PDP~ k'm:-kushlp i!j\1 'il" j ~~ be~ltl1d bam'S .• '~la\!\re1"er ul' wa n'ilt long b1e: orr:: ~11 ,~m~[~S

Khalq Rule and Soviet Invasion

O nee the ne1<"" :PDI~A goveniment Had ber:R puttoge~heI.,.nh:JId twu ii.n~.n.ed]nte._. Off. ',cel'~, T.~e llr!!:~, .\""I.lil~ 1't.'Wa~ .tlnUtlm~~,o~~ts grl~?\ was 'to iroaS:li.f." the n,iltlOin ab' 'l.1l its ]tH.' nl:'lons~ tiL i;;t:C!l1d'was to

settle'its 1n~~'r!I1al riv~iries. "'\~hil:e tlleff w"s a good. de.al of [eU~ fat the dt~a~ I.~! ran'c ·of lla(l'Ulsi., thed~ Vi1cr(!' ~ho tl1~_dutih~ do~Ubl..' about t~~ lii"OeU_ir~o~ wlh{JIU ~t(!rrUt;l~ \;\1m;. kll( \"11 m the cr,)01il~~fy at li:!r,g~.1.G b~gi 1:11 ~vit it, .n1.:e~et~~e, . Ml)fXisfIl .~;'as Co soir;-p'~d2me~. and .a;ttd~~\~~i~S such .as ~n~'ttio:mdl.srl "d£!HJ.o(:ralllc j and [\~'wrm.i~t. wcn~ emp~oyl:J'~1 W:I,lU.e- iiP·~~r'il\~e w.a~ 1,:l.itcl te l'~l.;m:l. A~]1 ·~:rowe~si~.' and lvlclinl:sdif [)~~()!J:d!'S:' ~ep1e:sf~on'~~{~~e . ~L'I\'it'l"d te ,help 'il1~ ,theJ·c:oll:~;try~$. ~e"le~~,~. nll~:M. The So\:'J,et.g,()verrmwlllL 'Ii I;n~ q'l:l~l:li:, tu [I,;'(';:u'gruse the re.~11fi.t)r btU d~nl~d Uult tl1.')! .h.ad ~Il~l hnndiil U:s lo~militjC~ '1!'fhHc tile ~~l~~,~~t~ government; fot th)ej r paftJweJ:'e I~f:!i:ntll:ltt about b~nd~n:g. ~ t.' as . eornmanlst, '1'11 ' reason wn!i. pa.l:l.t)1 that Ihey dll<Ci. no~w1:sh IL'(_) buj';l'I an' b ,tt~,' hy . a;us:ins, t]'lJ~ 'inv, eatlon of 'thl' f(l·~~:n Ass~st:a:?~~ i\~~ Whi(h plobibited ,;tid to commnntst countrles, Ii '_be. regune ~ 11lU,I,~1 ICrnmoullage was not qwddy p~m.,~'{]'atea, ill'I'~:'\; only 1)eC;;~~US' d. nla(l!.~ mn~,' Ll11ni~d ~ tile l-rwa,p~.ct ]111 Up t('llt!l1J'iTf at lilIg . '\o"e II beHne ti:le y~~:r '!r'il~ out, llo·w~'~ r/i t emi2l"ged in its t:rn.e 'col:01!u~! not a.nl.y as, ove~~-l-~ oCo[um'lJln.l$"t~ but .~bo as u,n!ienTltU:ogly bnJ'lIi~ ,'1Ind detY-rm]ru~~. t~ ~€'voluilhnl~!!.€ .i,Mgni:1Il ~C:icty rtCilWl me !!.Tf(tS~ fon':~ up, by tt'r~G!r If

.neoEss';:!'I"j'. '. . " . .' ..

An in t'{'.ltnal polto,re.r stwg.gtl!l r iho'Wcver1, I·l.a~~fnrst:. to b.' Mm,le~,

lJeiI'\.!i'c'n l<.11'i.ll,fiJ atld l"luidUJm,'l lIle If.YI.:I'tc!l:, th~ rlDPAc,abrmlel; ·w~s almosf 'equ<:Ill.y djv1~ed benVe(m the tv~"O J,lldl?n~. ~1\1~th ~I}f}~a~o,"~\~l~ and \'Vatrmi 11: Sl;!r~hlg :liB D~·puty Prcl.l:.UC 'l\i!lifl.'I!!Itfllrs to ,Ililikl. ~.hj)nl(~ pi~'r.lIty· lfl :H;:;IilZull~h AUnilo)'''J, \jot]5id 1i~~b~, OrrgaI1E~,~tional c~Jl::l,r"1;f _rid ~,·;c:n:~'~.'h]I!<l'''sH'O'!~Z.''' b:f~,~~~ve~·I·Khi~tq ~-' .. as, ~'s,?~ne: J~~a,rg1n th,e srIlOll~!r'

p~ru{ r and ~oon had the upp:r hnnd,. i'~;fljJl tmcl, "Unli li,All1-'et](l~ no· U:Quht .[;I;]a:~ tfle'i:rpmt ,i l;t th:~b¢.~a:k· up; K-a;fW.d ~nfj A1"I1i.[I W€llIre,1lt (I,~g~l$ d.ril'W~:1,!,tl,rI.dI 1:11 '~e '\!'I~sabo .r.11O. LQ~I>l<,I~ tt·h~'lee.l1 Mat,l:iIll.al amil l1ilnn~l;; tp,?liY ~:l~ll~oj::e~m~~I"'~ 11,Q\~!C{y~lii '!;~'~ t1~,an~ i:m,~Q~hIU~'~ tltc .P~K"lll,~I1 r s .C(l:I([ti;~.~~d t~ f1fWJur a~f;;l,(£t~a:i~.~!a:l>.]no.ru;;h. b~li1 '1i6e'EhaJq:c $i al~d .A,:nldn in.P'fi~~~~u.l;lr. W:-Ie de·~erill~neirt·o:q,~. (qed" and b.mnch ~cr()tEl,1 ~nd ,·~t(m~mil~ "lgyo'I,~I.til~I1 .. "1'11.' ~('r i~t (;~iIl . .n.I·J~ PrulY: ~ l(-lnJ~!,~ !Ul QIUC'1a1 to try tf:l E~()ciMiJle. d1€' h"ll~ f'tt~iOIli:l, bq-t ~iij1~w>1' SllCC~:i!t.. ,Wi ~I~ 'n it l'w wet:jt;$ siX '1,;!'.l'l~llns J'are.hatJlIlEi., 'We~\· bdloE.d.aS:'i!~lllass~dli).1'~ l([lfm~lc h)'C:z~c:li.cl1iIOVtlkia. ":N.",o .. mo,p.ttis 'IUp! l\lillY \)!ere stul'JRl:c.U'I!ld:1 :t11_ to' [ace tl:i~! ~~:{ll!ltt{m!k.tI}~ w-~s~·Il~}l.~~oUH~!lppeMn, fmn],"~ile:Wr.":i.th SPV1!~'II.connLy'~nc_e ~ 11. n~rUl1',!'Qut. Met1!ll.wIil.Je .tl ~Ol ugqg.ding"p!.litge of .1)arCh~mi . il1(jtl~ 1fl,1ic,:ct: J:~') .l(~h!t 111 All'S. ".' < J\J~d'OI:~{2f~dk ~ll,(foiht~i1l we~ an:es.vri!j.aJl~gt~U)i 'r~r p'l~tJ(ilI.l'l. 'j'JOtifR' F1)1!fn]~I:.-.:an~l'.t~ .. 'O'f m.nit.1n:y

~.ndl [j(JIlh:;!.'l 'Ofncer8 .'lI1\(j ~,f gijwt\lDl~tl,~ ·~~itJ1il!'l~ Jaij~c.lI'We.d~ j:l1ld. ,tTI$l,[lry.' Wi:re: tOI"~t:lI"c.I(J iill nd kU lea. S.e~·1:\nlll, ~iltl'lltJm d !]~ i)~' Y !~~ d ~si~ld!'!s~1 rtnr,u thie.lr p~St5 .a[l~ ~p'!~(lifd'6¥ RhiJ.fGfi.~ B.~~~!:.dY"'1L\l)J.Iln 'f!i,o;M the 'Sole Uepu:tr P.l'II1~lt'. M.I.n!is~@l' tIi'l'ild il) ('bar&~, i'lil~ 'l:h~ ·JiGt·Jllllg:~.:\1~~~lrltyapp a ratus :('thtn known. as, ASCii/\. - ilf~" EdgU!J~: tl'1ins]arU~n, bh},fga!!li:s~.Hc)n ['01- tbe ,lPr.otecti.OI1 ?if I;.he l:!lif~lif:slS of A;fgh;imi,sta.fl) •. Ry tli'l.o,end of t ]1: -sunTDJ€ij ~~l~ I, 'g _ll'1!C cons ,S.t~dl. ~lnlQ~llOI'l.lly 01 Ja:mJqls J~iIld Amlnwa beC'Olu1I'1g: illCri\l~5ingllf q,om.f.n· nt,

Rha.lq n()l.w ;~l]~, 'Oin tnto VI"l:e Dpe[~ arid ~y tbe end ofth~·. ~'ill:.ha:d produ(. d '" num.IH'!~ g.~ d:ecn!{!~ and ·pther m~asu.~ that, tabn t().IJIIl'·~tJ.e'fY 'i'l-~e'r~ t.~ll~)' th~ (j' "~nl"~y into I;~I elltcn. O!,·the ,ecQI:l;'Q(mdc stde, thl~ mecUcl1nlI PI!J;~cnbed 1lWIIS tho:roughgQ[n~ land [dom-m :rind ,t]1U1' .•. ht)llllou "f)f 'usury. '!'J!.cIJl1d: It:'fonl1 'l,U~:t:[@@;.wa,.$ d~ii~8,ned t,o 'bring about iii (;u~~(fac.hHlg f·liWlirihUitin If.)'! iand. tt ph.",: '{j ~'trkt Umn~ Q'l'l and .tJ:oldi~g;.; ililll" su:~pi]'~I.s.laI?d b~i Ileg (cOnfi~ca te~ '~"':itbO'l1t com pensa ..

!:ie)!) .fIIUJ d 11i~ r.lt u bul 'toil 1!Q nd I ass. P(!31~JJI!lltS; B.nd. Or~berl.e.seIVmg cases, The I1liiUf'Y, decr,e..: ~iIIllren"'d most mbrf.gagcs ~- nr:.l ind'I."JJtedueS!.l, ilJlild redUC,~d payments ~n the J[@matl'lder~ filltme crecliit. behll the ~es[nm~'ibLliry of th~ ('vfl'roa!I,y nOIfH:l"b~~n~)Agli(:ul.tu,r'l) D.e'lo"~k)pme~u- Bank, Au aCoQiI1.1p·i!It1yil1g, riactment p1t'Ovidt!d fur th~ establi~li'i~ r.m~lI1t of o[};;~pe'~lItj~ej .~~ take the' plai,;;e of ~h~ b~dltiomd U~lmJ ~eoncmi~ 11\C'I~'iJi;()r'llOhip's-. Along ~.If~thl Ui~~ :r.n(!~~~lJiI'l'S. a mai.'~Ji;il)ge ,dB~e Vl'IlS I?nm:mlgil~OO, \'~hkh ilb()li~hli:\~ mrJ'Wj blidl:·C! pj~<:', :5~I' '1'i'l'in~m~UIi

ges .fo~ l'l,la_ni~ ·!:H1!.(li:ili~ it down t1i.~l free d om (jili' cbQk:e nlu.s~ b,~ Iltllmll{fJd. "I h 'I:egf,ru, also, 'l']'it"d to,s~ '.l in train lit drive 'h:lT;Ii'i!rcis m:l~'@!'~ U~Qr'i1.cy. h::~I2-:th,1" '~\1'ith fbI]! fmwdn ·tlon . lIlIi1i'er' 'II "iu 'U on fbI bt) l11 s·ex.e~ bas ~a Qml <l. ~1,ux.i 511 <:~/t.ktll.Mrn ~nd 'Wi.lh Rus' i,an ,.0 l'h~

met! .lim o!~1 mil rtl.t:l itll 'a. tl i'! :Q~on~i)· i~ L!I, '

The}:l'fI.'I":m IIl"Iuuj IhftliC l'll"ii~!~1J1If "\':f~ Ih~~ Lh'

l1li IltIiJl '. ~l'1 oo·:m:pll~n·s. '"r~ Mah,('~l s~ctt!'IVd~'~.11

0conon11 and iloc:h~1 tdaU()mh&ps IOn 'wl'lliYl'Iit de~lutrHlied, mf ~,t !i').r;ijlS. ~UIi'lOU5 lfJI.itl',[natull,ah ,rid not [fioiesrec' ~luz,;oonseq1J.f-'IH~e5 ~iff the r:e(hrms be proposed ill [the 19~()s,J[~ is ,i~l,11!~l;,:ln~'~l)ll,c~bl~ that H'l~st (\lUll' K:fl(,lqRead[ J~I .;))nti not !le,k\&t'li<tm,Id.,.· whO .l'i.l.ld b~r::i bW,ugtWIl.P Uri. ttl ~)al sqtiety, were ~,h'f1U-eI!:h\ blit}k~[~d r 1d,~:ology' ilo~e~e.I!'; "\""ili5' u:~'ileI~ ma~,f~ ,and the acnons ,0',[ Hl!! .KJu.rJ(J l(>ad, r5hlp' , ',bviwft! thatthrey !.ll:tiili.hll!:d r:r:W' conn (tb;)l'1s 'wJi[thl ~n.~j ~lm9s,t n6' undet 't'ifldin~r()'f:I' the' 't\for~:c;s·,amJpei!;'iimlts.' In,'whose n:~'me 'the.}' \~1f?1:'1,'!: rh~!!@ticllil]}' ac~ill!f. Ttl!:'Y W'ellll. ~J$O -s[u.pr1ern;wly, co:n'l:iideot '~h,a~ Irh~~. wfl:~~t11 be abl,e:_, to[ lI,es~I"oy, tllel r.wat lJOW 'j; ~~I;iiicfl1cre~ JHrld ro'-ed"lcalc the. pea&al'lt~, With '~h~ .se~ll1IirLglt '1;I'flrc:(.)ndniioniil~ b:i1i.,cRiog ,M the S0""let U nj'q~!\ JlOW ·could ,they btl'th,v:a,rtN,1:,

Wil ill tbe ,vaflPull m[t!~·Si.n't's 'WCIi'~ fm~5t annoUn,!;Iioj• nC1body WillS mUGh 1!'),'.i;n:tiedl remembenng Daoud's. inco-rll(:!us;i:~ie land retorms alIa U1€:, ft~i))lessness. of 'thit.', you;ng :z:ealot'S ,h~ hj[d :S~f:lt out 'tp lh~ rprovl,l!lces,. '1:1l1~ Ulne:~ llQw"~\~'i, n1JI.t'!!I~'fiJ.",'V'ere d:i'tr'ellt:nt;; 11h~ K1mlq.i:~ cl:lspaitthed to effe.ct 't"1ie t(llrtl:t~m:s 1D~;mt busi[,ne$S 'and '~~I:e ·backed. 'by th€ pliovlpchl1 :al!ltbO!dtl~s :arnd. the pQ1i~, w:l,thi tbe' ~f:my 'ill U~~ bild~,g~oull1d. rfh!{y ~Iit're '. emJiLnl.] riGh:'~ i.n ~ cl4e~'tns :~lla.lthe(tJ w~'!'i, &'l.1t:Jch :Jne'qu[llUt),,'am1 e:x;p~D.i,'til}lh:l'ah:ri 'h;i~ .e.' i~~iJ:l;g system. ~buiY' mmt'~g~ c:ontf::lcts ,i,ri1po,~c;J ~"":I:roUl·1.J:l,J,{.to.f'tl:OfJte ~G:l(tns ()!fl the l?oll!Q'!'i~~r. \'V'J:HltKludq ~£fLDlitHi. ht'Jwl:.:v~'rn W~8' ~hK~' pt1.tJtQt1i11~ and ,deljeudent were h1t£g.rru paL"Mi 'or thl,l ~'~~n:'l .. h ~'i'"<Jfo '':;ql:~ ~tjl$t:a:'guei'sUon 'of 1,1}i1:d.:: len~nts otten ~Hed on laJl4C)w.n!~rsJCI'J ~~d:i fitr'l'il'li~@r~ credit ~d (Iritug]'lt ~ll!L'mfllF/ whil~· ,\l),!i.i[t;"'i: 'li.Lgll·~~ 1Ilf.evie ~1:!ijj cr~J;c'!,~J. MO'I~l}f rum. ill])'~:I"':5 i'Lnd ssrvlces were· provtded "00 mllfl'l'!;1nal,ly, l',{ft)tl.et- tl'lllrll bought and 'sold ..... A, fur-tbe! OO.lllpllciI:UO:n.W.<llS that cnd,a:s:tL't'l!l ,;;urrv~ys. 'we~~ Wh,plJy in om",!. l'~ and

,~ '.th. re Will v'eUj' UHl~ j)~nilb:I[e- knowi1~dge abuut '~'\fhg owned \Vhilt,.

Often JMl.d had'been reglst~~ed J:o the name of a [tribal er elan chi,ef! WlLne' in p~'a'di'e l'~"S :owIle~:s.1l1Il wall.'omn).'IJtirI;liU)' 'b.rlred. lh~ 1itf!J;~cr O'Irt{,' ,'duc;I,UQrmI iii. fO~11S, ~~l,th rhdl" 1 ncl:ttsien 0,( wQmcn~ the'lrt iJmpo6iil'ion on, the ,ii]derl.yl the i:tII'tOCiduCliQU of teachers from OIt;I:tS~.de: the· Cmll1mu.I1J.'ly~nd:, the e'fJ1',pl't.U;iS. on MafXlslllE!nd U'ilt!' H,USSIilrJ. la.il.~tl.'l8~j wl':~e·"l '0 biH,··rly te~(,lTt.' ' JI. $'0 f~,r.a$ th~; .l:iT1.'IIni.ag~ deCreCi'i'l,r1iS'. ermcemed, 'wha~~ve~ maybe' tnought .about the prca.[ctke of !l:myu~ and 5@IHng: ,wl.',,'e:~:. bdd~pr:1O!' was part :f ~ t:l'ad1tit'!r1!!!l Hb 1'.I"i~gid c('lI1lnl,c~~j. l,}}f Will, ~1 lhe Mri(l~ ~~iiiS. g,ivie:n ,·coml}f'l1~lti:ng .sICCU.rUl; .lind. the r·~d{)Ii'ri] stJ'l]:ck :n the heiu:t ·rif wmllial relation,'s.h.ips.I"

.By U)e- spring of 1979f d1!i.IJU 'Wf;;!:re ,~ll1g pul IQrrW!ild IJ~ ~'llbu,l.i ~~I;O,mflilal,'ied by l:I W~iJJ[ti1 tl'f ~t.nwsti s, 'th!;l.t tilt' iieCUI'm.S 'had been earned fhU{j1!ligh;wg~1i1. sreM ~ll~fSS:_ The r~JiJy, hOlVrev('J', ,q;.as Ulat the ,staUstic " 'V\'"eH1 '\;ijI'ho~ly bogu~ ~n;;l, Ul~.t l~~,t' c'Q!iH1:lty had! 'U!a:~ilidJ b(J.'f,l\I.·~ U~f ''OliGht unst.! ~'11Qd ;)Iud i.lr'l:'l:l<lg{')nil~~d. Th • 'I ·m htctl'ls €~"u:'i~d, J y: ,ih0. pfm' w.im nltull1£ilfto;U,!I, ~\\1h'l~ ~tlrJh'lII~r&~ :;;!:J,ld OOt~l'!'rtillnt ablJu,t

ned· 'tbe;!: ~)()untlJ! ~(l'.liore they w~~d be ,'tale']]:. Ira 't~ ~a<~I:ntr}'S~el rciJgio,lt:5 anl(,h~!!;cul<!.I1'·]!I£ade~.~;i,C'!re IjJ,« ':la~g'!l~~.d. Th~ ~'lOt }',ltJU$.P'~lS in at ·~~lG1.8i,~Cl~,:t!Jii'kl. ~n tlliii!' c,ullts~(jHS of K~,bul:{",a,Ht',b Jliad 'nDt 1;l¢"n (Qilnpl·ere~taOld:!i'4' .. ~.~rifthO;ut sallitaryJaemt.!es!, \va'ii pr9pe~l>i.v:el:Y fillecf ~!,i1'ltb. JlPU:1tC'l.l, pd~(n~ltfs} l;!U~l!~1ii:cutJl:ii)I1~:; '\~i'~tilt !!: d~Uf ~lu;~.ehc:e. MOOS!l .:Shilllq w, s o,ll,e clf ~1'W.' !.dyl!'i~UI1Ui. If! 'l:fl.~ autumn oft9}8t .-\ lJ);n~$ty l'lt~'tnJ[it0n:ilJ "recp;o'ne~ 'lbii\t tll~e 'w!;n: &ollu'e 4/},Q;O P'~~~~tic,a~ p!:l'iOI!Ji.!:'P.i:. il.1!!d· ,n lr.~.1ir I~w[' t:ticy pll~,t the.:. nlJlu~,~i: . '.r n~t)_~'iJ~Hl~I.~: \~~.t hQn;t td~l'm 5h'i.t'~ U'l~ Sml.l'l' 'if\cVohJI:H)1il lin ilitQund 12,000. [JlUe nr no. i:~fom1·at'Gn was released iIlbpur1t: itl~~:m .• ··.jnd th.~i, tBhl!tl"e~:'.iJs.Uilll} ~:l.a.dc 1,'l.l."d.de:a ·Whe:[.~ they w~~, 1I,1~1: '~r.l!n II. t~.~j 'W~n;! .~}lIyl':) ,'()[':~il..g. In II II! liidflUl:l of l~t8, tih> reg,lmt Mr'eill-Qdthe 'wtll'lh~' Qf tJ-l'Ii:' MiJla:didr fil:inUy ,~nd [e<l]rly '~b 19:791dll.e4_ ns ~!lu.:l~ :n:H~'mb,er.s1. ~OlI11re ~e:v~ent)". i!l 'iLU~ Itt june ortl1al, ·'y~_r. all the Islalnist' m.1I rants wllpr 11 DilJoud til~(.1 ~nn:ilt~dIi119.7~ '~;,;'(tre :rl:WI,ro~n;,d 'Ii!,. ill :;;inglfil night .. Rural ttlltmlunt~iW' were ·;;1JW. the vi~tinis p,f r~prj:s~15.· ih~1;iJla,ge 'of KeraJil ii1 'K:tJri~.t: l'lQ-viIJ).c:e. DOl" ~ . ~.nrpl~~ was u{~cl::lidl and ,~'a7..ed ~i:!' 'L~UJgllou.nd In .. Ap"( l, Cl 9'79[, ~ll1d m.ore Ul~'m a Ih'olils.''i:flld ()f ~t$ illh~libltaln:IJil wer . kilh-::d .•

The ~lQ""~i~t'SQ}Tie.rrim(!nt· was in.c~e.aS'j[ngJf ooina=n);ed ,?It. wha.t ''''d$ gomgol:lI" bnt found thai it l;)(JL."lS<@~E!.d rHUll: j!tl:V·~ra~~. A~, th~ _Pllla'g"', to,,* P:liii.~,(;! i:n the J',\fabi!l!'1 .gq,'f(m1m~l1t ~Ind ~'rmc,~ fo,rc~~;, so, Sovi.tlt (lJOvi!iOf:.i, w't'.te-: dra.rtoo 1.11 to 1FJ(11 the. gaps, W~Hl.m. a teWIl).cinths. t,he[~ w@'~ PI;l!Ph.ups .as J'llfl.~Y as ~~im .hunc;lrnd.' wiHl ~hle.rme~1 fo;r'~'" !lind 8e'V(!rbl thousand 'In t.he' irrd.mj:'$tri~ Mld the ;~SGA..~y the su,rl'iIJ:h~f ·bf 1.9,1.9; .. ·tb.e'j:\l w,ew pmbabJ}"t~t~:t,,;e.eb JOli:f and :fl:,,-e tbousllucl. ,rutogethe~, DJJ.fLI!tg 1978j(.~ slibsl£I,~) ~.i.~1 q~jJt~ury ~lf :~hnrj J 'we:apo:ru~y 'l\r~s, 1J L!!fl[p·Ut:d., \~11'il:1i! a j,Oin:t':orl'timis:siol1 \\f~$ 'stabH'5Jtl;'d 1p r'eglll:at)e econom:ic '(0- cperatfon . .'f11@ p~bltib~mfoK the i.tu~l<ldi-!i ~V"d5. that ~e~pite 'alllh15' Iin.lUflu:y and ;eoono~i~ ~~sis:fa.:n!;e, .1J1Cl tnepr ie.m::'e of 'th "If 11'~HUa!."y ilind. elviUa.n ild'~i ~m~, thr.w we:re una b!le enll,e~ . to in f:iI uen.ce: the oo,~· ImUcteS ~n]d .I~cthrili€~ 'of HJE! 1~~l(Ilq re!\\im,e, Qir to J11~tigate th~Jt con_t!qut!ne€s, ""he olj,l!-S:I],n,;g (_~f the R"d.ll'el'itlmi,:s~ tb.g:ri.\'!i~ll l}f ~erl"ol:,: Ut'~ ct].tde ~m~::po~lJiol1 o~f Maqd't d'glmll liu~ ntral db.alli!€tien:. an!ll{cte beyond! tile:~§ teach. ''lihUe ~lerle. ,~~e[-,e also lirm~tN ~o 'what th~}" could dCl" :lto~ couruer the grow.illg ndfld@l1cy (II a bu.reLU1·~~!': .. inc!1~ Siliigf Sl1I;ff~dby :in~Np.;;!~ie'II'IC:l':d ;PI:n:lJ\. ~~.IiJ]~J'!'$. Yd thct equId not [ust ~~I;' th.eiLr losses and '\'\i'3iI1.b:. .",way. Apart from their s~nsitjvltty abOlJ!tt thett ~ol:ll'lb~JD hOlrct'!!'t, tI~e i;UlL,'! 11ih.ing that was wiI'ltOlly t~nacc~pt;llblte Wt!'lS CQI1JI1t'f-re',.rif.j,)uWi,on. Th'E onward ifiJ1'if h of Commu.nisllJ W<lS in \i 1- s;rble.and. there ~'<'l'5: nowa.y that Oil Cm;nmuni.s1: segtme, cmce in PO'\~·(.'J:p cO!ij!~d be a.UoOwed to faU. Any' uen _~ilu.u.· wml1d. he gr vel. da:magJI:l;'S to Stlviet 'fi!rtstig~' and' WCi'IJli:1 :r/!l~s.e doubts abotl~ the USSR~~ '\IDUtt;jf 'tQ' S:1)):itpo..rt ~ihf'l' -¢rmmmbt J:~gin'l..es~ No .I'es~ ban In Cz:edlosh')v .kla in l~p~ Hli~ H;rt!~h~1.~\" q'o ttrl.'!!.! w~~.Jlt!.!l.{1'I:Cill.[JPl,. II n1'a~h.l1l·!Vi~ ~l(:m:d5·~.

,I\!llin (lghtol''i,ed liB, :gri,p on the ,:gQY~"lrnu~~nlt ,a~d.a~s·,ur~l'I.~d tile: .P.~t, Q~ lfl.rj:m:e ,Mi.ri:i.s:l:er. l.a'~~ he ~{)o.k l(!:Spo)]'SUiill!l<y E~[' Inll.i:t~,~y: .'(1~) • ';i!,tlOI:1~ and i,n:;tlg,~I:'ed fL:lrtl:lfH'~urg~~ },\ '. rCi'lli;?taiflce gt~~~I.'~~ depe,n~(~,mce'.et:ll til.i· iSg.~i·'ril1·l Union .and i:t't¥ ad:Vi:sot",~nerea;sed. M9~e W~pO:il'S; [n~t~{liJJ]g Ml-2lJ:, h.el~OO':p'ter :g11J~:'l1M;P~~ W~ l::l.ISCi!iJ,ght in,. Ill;f,,?~e ~,O'pg" lfI~weyer;. u.n'rest .!lad {it '~\:l·fI(I.t,o i~hlally·~:n pads' ''lf :,thf ~U~1u:rr la~d ~~y~l':rnl'of thlii' 'Irnaior·tGliirn:i aa'm'Ellrni1ia,~[ attf.lck~.,An .mi;s~ult)(}"j,1 J~l a~~I?,a~, ~ 1I.1,1I!r 1:9Q'.9 11l?3S iepulS€d' l'llih)1t hl?a!!l:y·I()5Se$~ lr,I" L:h~nor$~ ~'itltitb,ad ;{~~.~. '1)C:il~g~d, a was u.i!:mj~'liI in _til· Haza[,ajl~I'L 1,11 J~~li\ ~,Ill.aIO" dltl;m.omtf~:tjoj;'l. in I(.ablil a~ilIb:i.M: 'the :regiu;few,as d,~~p~ne.~ b¥ U:'POPS'I'. I.ei,ving mimi" km~d 'and' \'ltlound~(L 'l'b!!:,~li'gbtm .IU']))Y· ·!tl.iiO. b~:8,:lll', ~1lc.reil;Sb1G~Y tHSDn~,l.~d. lil1 Apdli :~ lij' .j01: 'multrlY in J~lill~aIJad~w~S .lTq&h~d, all:,"W~ni ·tlit1ofher ] 11 ·AIj).gl;ll~tl thts l'~'rr~e ~y an <limlo"~~;, \JIU1,~"1 n Kah'lJd. In...:Mi1t}'i <! eGmpl,ete.motorised bdg~lded, eCb~(h.yI~U(! n~e(,~tn'~ In ]J!!i.!,;:J<V1iIj, \,~'I;t~1C I'n. August" '~:he tl,ni~ dQf~:[uJ~nS ,Asm,!lr, m the KUllllir. Vitlley 'if1i~~d 'l:h~ 'f'esj1lfance' In ,)ttacktlil.g _th~ ,,'pllo;vlndal '(,entre,_,?f C1';I.~ga' Sei:a,t bl~qwe've;r the ~ua'Lk d1~nt~gf'!lr~d 111 a ,\~'eIU!~ of tuu:~!~111 oot:f;lmih~:~),an ·~nd l.nru'l"Y 'O~: the ilithlC'-~er~ ~t-(tp\lTrI:!lld Ifvlf P",k~;~till n ~<ose~.l

t~, Jtr wQ"i.\pon:s. . . _ _ _ '. .'. '. _',~ .., _ "._

~.\ ;IIUQU "deti(!irio.li'!')t~ddu;rifD,g,.'19·79" 50 tlt~ Sovu,ct ~ovl.;m·

Im,tllt" Jtl1\ to (hlt1. ;n 5~1.: ,t.iOI'l. .i\1; s,~aifle:d hi ~t~'~$in,g U1uge'_ncy. U1ey 'tAtted .~ sf!lliding a "'~'e-I.:~ra:m_ d;ipl\o~at,'~.r~ily S~bon]chllk., t~' Jlrg,e, Ib:i':~Il:d .an~:t Ws nti.I'i.is;~e!l.";s' cro1!£kl!pi~. ,;l-;Ji('l~'~ t:~nfmn't~t~un .. l aILU't~l~e ,!U1~ br@ad 'n Hlppc;nl ftlr t.li1!a,ir ref!! }. by ~'Iin~j,ns nt?n"C?m~:atl,L1js~;~nw tl'ie g)!rite't~l:JJnie·nt."Lar,~el)5 it-'1i.~!ll:.m.s,; <1:5 a f~ult (if .A:mUl.'s O'PPg~ftliOl~p Sa.f1l"or.;,C:hiuk':s" ro:1ssiol'lJ. :ra]le€J. 'Ln Ap:nl; ~.m.itsS~iQn 1'n1e!.ld@d by' G~n!:!r;ll Vepi~tJe"~j. Ulltl Chi f Q:f Gl.AVPlJR. ll.e ,t;e.n~~i',Il l~ouutal oflirce. of tlrm S:o\ri€;tarrm~ ti()rce:s~ 3iITi:v.ed '~fJ!' :r,e~ptew the ~JlW~tIDn+ It-seems that hill '~"'21~'trre(liUy(;on[-eOlied.b ~'lih.it h~sill\ .... '·,~,u9-recor:Jl.un_udC!'d a 5;1.g_i'lUlc~l!t Sb:~~gtbe,iing IQI( rhe Afgh~J1 "wry' ,Ei"lild Elirfnl:'I;;~" In AI!J~DJs,t: _he '~"\ia5' ~0ll:qwedb}r (r.el1el\111 P:<J-A,ov~ky •. the·.oonlTIl:a~:H;il?~. o.f th~ i?~8I.[1'V~'S~O:I~ of Czcec.t)bs:]ovilkfa. accomeanied by )I,I..X~y·lll .. n mlUttn~y tel!.m::1" Os,tcl:13nllv. he Wil!:it ~l!:e(e to !l'llv~'~'~' t[lIe /XJg;h,uin g'ov~lrmnent how to . oWlte'f ri-:t:e g:l\owing. IJlJsttrg~.nq; butt in faft hewas als(j~ S1Jft!ey:iJ~g;:·tb;e, gromnd Iat a 'jlQlSs·iJb.I!ll illva.'slIJl1. '.1 he ct)nCllJis-,itll'l ceac I.u;'d . by ~~I.'l;C ~mri;~t g(l('o!'e'run~ en t seems ~() h~'\'e b~~!.;'~t Ullat~M KJ1~,I,WfJ te-l,>1i]ffiie W~ III da'I1j,C,~l' oftot'a~ collapse a:nd ~h.at the root cause IQf the ~:n'O~I~tl~ was '~~1.i> [efl.ii$a~ to eounrenance any '!l10denit10L1 ('Jif the!l'"r,glme~~ 'ti!lllDll'Itf,!w t·lono.!" .}OlicU:l~. T1:H.~ d.edsh:n:l Wf~S, HlkC'r!. ~,(~ remove mm ftOl,~ tile &~'CD.e~, and the 'l:lppO[hmilywil . take~ to (Onsu~t Tl~aki ~bOUtP1~S wb~n lll~ Ia1tt,e;rs.lflppecl, oil'in M05t:QW 1.]1 S~)fl1.!.!u~,be:r on hi~ Willy b. ek ftom ,j)

llun .. a.ligA~d '. J,n,l: ren'ce, In quba.,

~P'r¢ Iftely Wb<lf. pas.'Sfld 1be-t~e~n Ta]l::a.kl~rtd the'~~l'~ettca 1rllb:!p ~.l~ tm', (l i;f.s;o~l hi :1l0k.m;)WI~,.OI'1~ .~O;I- I' til:a~ lIv ~tl.il"\l.mn~ lu'ot1~Citl[l

"J~ .ltb~:aj.r-b~. ar B~gtam . .FLllrfber ltnl-ts ~tl the lll1'kdta!ILl"-IH:'1d -~n'J'~!

A~~~ :~~IU:b![~Y;:,;t?is:tri:EI~, 'w~re broug!lJUJ?<'~ suen 'tl¥P,llgh th~.

(;e,~~I~.,.~f 7Si{!f'l~I~ls.~n,d ItlQC ~d~QWin;d:!i ~hc MgJ-ltilO :." ·'i. _Illy lh~

~?~1~ o~_~~' mOi1thl Uni!:',\:me1ic<;Im hO[{l d'elllUG~tI~rDn-r.iiilt lWige:n;C1s

SOl,UCt1>S'LJ'1l'1l S(;ivLd l'llf.li·Q(_)~ Wel':~·-abQIl't- tb C!!llWr. -unit '~ere

~,vi1l\&l publiC ljri~l,ilng$ to tll.at etr~ t, 'JAfe,lm ,2,1:;) _Db T 'Wllr:eSf~i!

l~~~ 1.95,~~t;I -9ua:ITdS'~·~t?,?mell!vjs,iQ~':l start,~d ttl bmd : [(.~'QJI a1qar.i~;, le~~p~~y,I.n.~ a ~un~"~hl,!:-doC~~flhu~{I~ ef2\~:N'~Z:~ il.,nd fu~Le4 tl:'1l~;:.mrt·

,ifi~[:a!~. By ,l3Jt;~ Qft njl' Z7t~,~!~~,rhad bui'J.:k u~.,;) Fm '@s); 11-

to a~1.a0~.1I1e _ tty, ,~~an~\!h tle, ~~i1~fNld~t~G'i£S\!:lild !~iiitl, ~~:h~c

~,~~c .Qf t~~,¥.~,~~J~~~ _u.nlr~W ,or ,nlil:~n'"1\he",¢amrtal. bf ]d(j~g, \tip (:lien oll~('e(s"J'i~IT:M0'v,~~g ~j]nk_ bilttl.erl,~'raf ·fI-lKn1\el1~llil~ ",and Ii pbl/in,@ il\!'~· all~'.1ll_u~tm!'l~~'ltl"l b~ainkj~ to[ ,"tQl.n;hJ'g leX:t!I<'£rrse5'~. _.a't~ on rti'e7t~1., ~J~}"I' .Q~~J~,e: ~'tu~,Shl'll fQ~~~ took ~:1~ ·:e.~nlJ:/d:1 V<'l;n- 61 fh~ en" and M·~e maib mlil:ls~r~~,. wl1l:tl,i!1 ll'_S1Pe~§,ni!¥ Ul)(IJ b ~I~l~d 'ra;e ~a,n.j}a;nl'r!l::1. S'@ll~etlme .I!.n, the mgI it" i.ll·t~e :fa~ ;ol··~tr.o'nf" re'sl\SitPifl.~ rl~@ p'arJ"~GWlls'aiSsal;ltt~1 a-!n~. ~'mdn. :w;£ ~.m~ .. ·UJ.'~ ,]'~~ ~1]1!l!J1a~ng. 'bJi,..,"() " Suv[~t ,n\ot,orisl~d ,diV~,Sj;arUi Ci'?ll~~ed,n~e ~~'ni[II.»,fl~iI: ,~[)a ~H~~d~d s;tu.trl\ .flJ:Uowed 'i~'.:Ii!,r h).! l~O, ~~;,re. J ,aU pJ tb~~Q;rl(fe ~lth~·5oVlet-"bu~.llt load! over"th(dialan:g p~is~!._\~tli~h .:I~a~ '~.a"'Uy;~ I~ji,l@~n_~~urn~ b~p.l!lI]jts, fratlil Bagram,wl:lUe the rema:w"d t C'1.m~ed 'the~I!C)n~I.'. rn~l(h I' west and hrnll:JCld ~!lr Re.r~t. l'lru'ah ~.n~ ~~,p~tt!f. W~:tt.dt'l 'a few' ~!.'L,:y~,., 50/000 tIl0(},lJ.f ,DfUJ U)l)o armo'IJ rnd . .'~t!.I,I.I~, wW';~:~~p PY,IH_g. tille m~dn pepulation centres o{ 'the 1JOlL!~t~: VVltl:iliin 31. f~~w-~~ekliJ' ti'lr!!G fur-th ~F' dlvJ:siol1!> ~, rc ~omlniHI and. lo-~a!~r.;Irt!fl'llber.'J g[,~~!- W s0!1ie'85,OOO;:

.. ,A !!tHnt'wha,t ~~Z3t!l:~~ ~tol'Y f~ls,ls'.a'bf)ull:he events 'on the ,27H1.'. U:. t$ that~min undhis J~mliil:y l?ec,;ttl~Ci ~ltl.l),o:s{;1()lj~ art't eating ,Iuneh p~pa,ed illy Itbel.r .Jl.uss,ian cooks, The idea ·ap,parenUy .\.\'"3'51:0 rerncve L~in1. bltt~ ~U55~~~' _[nediC~I~ Ctl~t~~Y" '~'hIJe_ the coup took plate arid th~n'. (unttontmg him wnh.'il fN~r- (u:I."'OIII/JIl,give, hhn ehe flUi!."I:!1,illiIV'CS: ~r eX1~e O[:it.~'riC~ u;odei: l(~c~nal. :Ei4l)W,e;Ii@f, herecovered COJ1,l,til:}LJ'!ines b~'lor,e }1~_,cQ~d:l" m,Qv~d •. ,~I!id: the pt!l.!l eollapsed .. 1\. Soviet ge,fieraj~ ~~ctor.l'aputul .. ,WIhO' [:.l]Jll'<lred in lq;:~llIltl,J _I theend ,of y;,;n~e.trtber Is ,l:h.Gltl.~~t .by:·s(}r.metOb3"\'¢ lb~e'll,the man ~'Mp.o.l]sible' for thls staratag :rn. ,I, ~. 'W;M. ~pnl"lOO, ~~ hi~V:~ di~i\ on .2:8 ~c~m.be.r, and sp€CIJIlation haS It t.h:'l:t,f·H~·t?~'!l11J)hted 5t~'wti~,e aYer hms: f~Wh;w~ l~~~' ·'I~,ry it dlr.ocugh, w11111 left t.b,e_. kfUb~g ot Anll:n as the only r~luaini.ng optilon. Anotherl, aga i n .lOlj!,lewl1a~ ~~:cr ~ (lIbte,) "tory i.s ;thal. untIl I:be ''J~l!y ~n:d. AUi11n did! not bl.1lll;:-re tI~~ It 'YilSS(;Wi.~I:h'6ops.\.\ihO W~Ilf. l5I"Ufldimrg bi m,

_ • to E.f!tilUl tlLi~~east _,-slued oJ ~~~Tijjtlmil~.y (on' the~rim'a siem, '1'h~ ,~. _I,.lt ,gp~linil1~f;!~'~lt W,o'UI.~ h.ul,l'@' l'l~d to .s,bo~"!i .tl'lln'l dl~Y!lad re'~iPonded t. ,a ,genun;te requ -~I P1itlf:U .11 ~'UI,y .oH-,t·!'I1I,lt~d Aj~h{ln liI.llnbClrit . ~nfu,rt~u~ttll' -fcr:r_ tl~rem" Uut Il.~1 ~he1 cqu d VlodliJ;re· w''; ') ~m '111" MOI'¥s II hu II W ,'It' 1 ulih, In" - I! 1!iJ!iI bII.' t fil' t rnu.: .a ,I~ 0'· n'hi" Ilc I'.) ~" ·',111·

.\:V.~;s; that they> bi;id I=!ti(d 11: ~~qlue:1i'~ :f.mp,rn. E!::~u::lllal~ l\VJ:l!P •. :Utey: ~~.l¢.pd J ,ha~ f;'!i~d~;~1' l~l~~n cJl\let dl!il. grilViefnl"!ite~t1~A ilra;l(lcljlkJid 11JpD:i:l~!~1~J OIl R~'djll1:J' :~~Itlul g!l E.~l'e;l ,o'r''t~ii;! ;aUiL!.':~~ ii'~lili~Ulil'din$ AR].-iti~ ~y.eJrttlffl!;~" iHid hi!>' 6'!i!.l'HI ~.' - J~l~~pit .~,s.f.'Jlt6c~jd~llIt .. Ulis, 'l'i~J~J1Ji~onl J1:tfiw.e~'~, did not 'JisPQ~~pf: tb~ \~~je.c:~L6rn t'batt It ,i,,1{u;' A;r.uln f a~lCl] J]lcilt_Kanm.a(l~ wh:o ~\j\i'Ui ll~ ~ll;ii!t;g!e 'tlP t!fJ !'Jn~l intlrLui~i;~;!,g"l1l;.e' ~?t1'1.~~{(iil',~6Vt~~j'~~,~;.;i:ot!l'n hlicani'e de~t ii:HU"~~ti1~~u'llS'h 1:6:e b~Qa:aql!\f,\'[~~"'Ojl tb:e R:a(;ilijo,~.a;b~t (Teq'lllentyr i~ {(lii!H]~OOl fn11lt] :~abu~J biit f:ronL,']erfn~.;I:"ln I'h~ £o"·il~t·WniGn." :K1!rn'll;t~ 11!1i!ls'eWf r; ~~ "~~Ol,~:~c~ till t~~-boi~~jj,(}Je 1 J~;n U~l~'y~l1~~\r~:I~g~, i'~. ~s -s~~dL ]been f1~'n 'llJ;to'~~gr:~m .anlil. d;ri:t'~D to: ;the IGiIIP~it~l Ji.i1~' iI. SOV"11fr tank, ./4 ~{,.n~Hldk~~Iry" 5~gll~ :wn$ th,lIl[ n~11S' Aplin ili;In~(l'lfwlu.l ~'~(~~I,~t,~d S.~. v~~[ .tU~il.1i;t\I .£l~:tlsf;:a:n(i:~1 . Ho, we.- V:~JI. he' ~i} .. Ii. O!ll ·t1ecQrdi\lc'i 11'fl:vin.~·.g s,.1:id

1,;- ! i' l.~ • ;. , fl'"",, '

on. ,~eWAt.a1 ~t(,'a~tons h.1 19 7'9 '~1j.;;il h.~ lHid il!().m,~~d_ af: 'S,olll!'l~;t ttOOp~.

Also _l,he~ .iJ~~;!il~ri. l~a'dI ~:.I rc(t~Y, '*1"lr~~'d ,~f 1.lie,da~l~;bllt~fl.UY :g~we~i i~! tlte Russi ~n$ ftU I:Iui t~ l~i!S~~' - ~9 l)~'·~elJ1iber: oorr tha l," by 'AIl'lin and 2/ pocem~er ~A" B:iat'bi: K~'t:rrial. M:o:r~q~; I.f th~~tw~r.~ -, re]ip:o'lldlrtg.t:G.ll! request. fJ\~ll"!lr\mij'~r_ 'Why ~h?lIh;l. ~"I!~!I h~N k1.11oo hilt1,? mlh~,rw~OYIP Ulle'f'l r"1l,Ued t(jlilU}r 11,UI C:9nc:eal th:c ,tmtll~ "'1"111.;:13, lV.]L8 tha:r fhiey' .1,1I<ld :un~rB.!~elt~l~y s~[Jl' bG9P$\ lOl~9 <l!nijl~~e'p)t~ild.(tnl, _Ron~a.lrg:lled,. I~1'amic countr~i" :kill~d Hs 'J~f~,kf.en(an.d installed ~l P:~!.PI~t jli""gbl1!~. [-lu' fmm ~~"!.!bmslF.Lg~11 ~ ~~tt]~:e1()flJ l h~yw..'~n?i1 o~.,.· even d€'~per in ~he!1[l'i.n::,

1~.f}ftrnI~ lOr ,Akll(¥i~~dle:f t:hl:! Gr:l:!lff on,~. ~:Hv>C'r bHJ~ dt{J[C'!tm of hb, ge'l;l~f~J ti'~.i;m~dlllli"C!~~5 Be

G:rl'!;~p.]~;j~h'~,iiiln l>Oy.t;-.rr lef:t~dul:idl!rtJ ,lJirll~Ii1.~t:r.fu.lt:i; [ Ij~'L\~]h'!I)n ~1i~r~, zOO-190 BC,

o "~. ,

Indo·i;;I'r~Jj~J~sU'i:ll;lr ti;lll'il~h;"'~.!Hl1. of M~ll~JJ der l, A[l:H~[!<! Of! '~~\'e'~!I!. ~!55· BO m:~_

Kushilll) :~kcl 'i~f'fH!1I of K~,H ishk:! .~. Ml1'.I:tj,~·S enreeerse. lUO'-176 AD ..

Go]d dinO!~· ·()f MilhmlJd of Gha;i'.J'li.. luU. J\]).",

.~~tl?~e m 1[!..;\bn, lin .l:Lh ·Cal'dCl1

12 Am~r I o~i:-'{()har.nnled

Plir.te 19 i\J;nir Hablbu'il.ail:t d~ldngb:is visit tu India

P'latr.' '9 Prestde t N "j -

_ . .. .• uelil ." .iiji 'hl11ah

Na,rc :N Tlle Exe'Cuhm of ~~J~tjtll.l;!lh

It ts ~m)jkd;y tlmf U'U! :So,'l4~1: 1~i;1idersh~a)' fOl1i3SilW iJ1:(,l 1e;'II,tenl ~f rhe mtetn_a,tjli1m1ll1Pi~1;i)bi:jum ~h~t I,he~~ i~va~io~, of b~f8Iilan]~tan wotl:dl attroot. l!~l1Jl!IllSj 11,0\,{:!\'Cr, I.t .I:> u;nl~kdy that, had tbey foreseen It. th~ywou,ld ll~:\\ie\att _ d d i.l1el'el'1:t,1 y. 'm'o lh~ :e!( ten t tha:~ I h, '}f 10\' - i:gh'd the lrnemarttO!!l!.1'i ~i')11~eHWl;!liIc~.s of their acoon, they we:[e no douht, ~llICQU ['a,~ed iJy till!: spectadi:' I f the U'nUed Sta'~es~prooc(;~.lPal.ion with lran, wb.,~re(;5'Ojffi'U' jUt,y of ibi dli,l~mtlats hndbt:- n' h~h:1 hos,t.!l8" dnc eaTly'No;,~,ernhea:.: Th.ey S~,W tb~Qlrte:1:' adlHiTlish:,atiom as ''i\[:e;gIk and, '~.fl:er:' dl~ Vi,etruun e1tp~l:ie-I::l,~·~. l.'eh:u';ll(llQ.'t ~o, become bll"~Qlv~d .inthe 'Jihii'rd 'W()rl:c;Lt\:s:~t:,re:-11i f:r.o,n th(;lJ{,~~llli:rg"r.n@l{~o'V,'~rl lb~r~ ,,"'\'~~,[~' few dam<JgrI)Jg ~<'~n(lti,Oo:I::U;ii'that the t\n:l!~dc.af.liS ooulq' apPWYi.l(l(\i'-e:nif t]]UW l'I'~~~ 'so .m:illided, Ur.ey 1:11'gh'l de]ay ~Jl!C' wtifi<:@tl.o:n Oirth~ SaU n arms; lim'lt~uknt t ~lYl b'U'1 H s ... emed iU; U'lh~ US:~n~~'t' 1'Ilould del!!l!ytl1,at

. anyway.' As. foli, tl~' restot the V;'(l,r~d, the Russhmsmay have been prepared 'or ,aUCjdsD'll. but.~r·(!:flll. ~q)Ui!lUy' p.rep.ued,loshru,'" it 01'[ lbey bop 'd ~"I be ,itble tID If~lU:li' It 'by nm~C:i~htg th.' h'i'!!'1~lt:i,on fm~Qm Amin ~o ·Kflnnal '."'ithr)1,lt it appearing that the)~';\·e.Je,dirl:c:tly ,[t:spoLu.ible, iI.:lld

tbey expected to be able to witbdr~w lhelf IJU1.1U'E!d mUUary con!in~r~n'~I' I:~do<fi' fn~ll}i':w~ k:s W900 OU~" frU'I.>Iil'ut':' ~ve.L:c tl'r:Ii]nl~,H'()l1id (l~~~,ctyi~h.e[~fl)n~, they di@ not see' it ]i1iI!iting IonS'.

In. 'kyim.g tuesplaln tnt! 11€J:l;50Ils oo:r th.e ~nyasjCiI~r lhcC n~lssl:?if.ls li(!!tPI'll . (I -hil crude, u nsu I)$. ta:iM tf.l:t,c'd j1111~i';l(Uufi,~" ro'l'lin, they' (I,ll~S.~d I' \'1i;'~~ a 'US ,~py"jtaml their action W';;I:lS taken in responseto 'exliemall EI~Sb"l'e.sSiiQ.n and iIl:ter.re'ter.l!.:ej• l.t is uue thai'L Pakistan had by th,:el1d.(J.f 1 $)'7'9, gi:ve~ a~hl,llll, bJ",8,Q.m!e 8;f),OUU 'Alj;jh.m Il!ftI8e~'_ ~,ndi' Uw:t,as '~ n:a\\'& ~elO,. Teiii~bl:rlt(.'e liIroup~ had b till f-Onll}ed .and we[·~ "~P)J]:rij'J1g smal,I:"CSiClldt! In "r!'!leu:s nto AJgf13nl-Sllli!1. :t;1'lCi ' J!ll;El.,y ha'~, bf!lI!,n Iii ~,~ b'i.i,I'i hlg '~"''l.p d ~ I tl'l' [11;unti 'nlinl ~n oct SOfU I IiIH !'IIS,I I' Y ·h(l, " Hh'\! d;

;1'.iv~d frpm Chin,a.. B];l~~b!~f~ l!vofJ.i:e aL~,O_ gr,!;)I,Il)S l'l?~rja:ti:ng In Nitti,SUH'l1 i~(~;ikl_jst~'ar:l~ tll:el~ ~:~l'r~,ja't ,un~ ~:;~'Wbli!.:t!< 'wh.Lqll i~,~d, ne con tad, 8t ... 11 '1th th, out~l(le lVQrU1.0ve.:iiJl" fci_lle~gn -:invo]yem"rit was, at 'th~[ ~11)g€l f:iniamala.~d~l1~'_~~s);;ian&I,a~~gif(bn~:,'~~{r~ - ,a~~~h'e~,~ ~e,n to be ~ aJ;! !t~,li!Wpt ~o 1000$1 wlt,:ll, ~ t!, aL1ill;!ji '~I,nd '~D tlh,4!<rt-~'tttli':ntlJ)J"I .:l-ron, ILh~ ~-oo'bi of; re £l'r~b]~l111, WIflJCB, *e'l~e oVe,i:W'~:n~Jlmil1g!y: bil;a;tci.ral',tnr lnterrsal. N(),t, iq]dsing~i; ~he RUS5tant.t~II'~ ~h,~J?le\fO p'~¥ide:'c~(llb]1e'e'tri~;eri,C(t ~Q ,l,tlSI:-iUl~~;1'~1.t ~~_Ar ~hat.8)~~

Thill ,A:illejl'tCtl'n~;[qr-tJl1ie!lt P~lr:I'l 'th;)'lipu[J~d fJn~':il1v1I'siotl ase "threat } peace' and P[esi-(lh~ht ~6alte£ pr()!'Jllil~,~d that tfie ~ QSSll WQuld l!JJot be! t:lowed to 'L:a~r. fh:r{)IU!!!h'i~ a~'Uo:r;' ""i'~'th !mL~Un~'~}·,~ ,dI1l2'a,Ver;:emb~tr ;~,~t~,;~ :exC']Ui:l1s:,etl i:n~~i!!lI~' ',ill] R,rtiZl~lhf.liLi:'V ,hnd '~ub~el,luently cha~~ t~edsed the laHer!!: ~~w~~,t as ~(OF.i1ph~tdy jdta(!ecluate arnd com~eJ~lily mbde~dbl'l1f., ,A:s a bUff. ""'otf 9f Wo[d~ d~yelope(L th,~ Cilft.~r ttmini'Stl'ation ('\;v.h.o'j despite 'I"1le:~videnc_e of llb~:i~irj)jnl?iieparl~ti(lns r:Q luve I'll ~.r~It7~J tt~!i :rn;ot 'dopne un,}! 'OOintiilg'E'~cy~'p:l~~,ingJ east around

,j~ 11l'€::.t 1.lJ)~ u~ I.LI,ke~ ;1:£1 u(idut sn ,i:o del.ayl"llgtbc Salt n tn:a,ty;. tI:JGY pu:t :llelt,n.e:r'se.veJ'ill 'd:h@t sa,t:lcticin~ '-t-h:~ r,n~~~tsf~njfi',:ilIQJ of whlet) ~ve:lte ~e ,~~lit1~rl.arti:'n ?!.a 'cc$;Atfact -t9:l;~ppl:y the USSl\t ~~i.th severrbeeD ~:ljUl,t!Jill ll?l>~' ~ sr,tI;ln i1l1iCC!nded J~r c:a:ttl~~fe:M. a ban,~ 01:11 (.~nC:tl3iets 1,\~u:f~~'l'iIg htg'l1i l"i.¢1 '1o~ ·ti1l,1!I3fern,IIIl'1.1.1 ,t u~:~anment of RUliSl.m ~tiin;g in: A~~l1l(;itR' OB. tiff lIf:TCe" fi:ies~":rne~:sll:res probably bun ,- ~ 1I:JU@rJ~H1J n:l,QI:':~ '1, t'l tnl!!,', d!1.d th,e 'fldssllUi;S., Ainer.:J.I.'1!.11. filml~r!l ~1ft';1i j;hljj~'UJe fJ.Hit~p St~t:~~ felJ.~'taffion as ~ r,C:Ji.a.bl.e ttadwg partner l.ro:r-rlt,'!i 1'<:hit4ng aim~ge. ,O:tller 'qil,1~tri:e:!i. no:ttab~F'" ~he Argel1;Unel t~JlIJ?od ~I: Il ~O' rQplf1lqetIM~ ~;A.nlei!eiu~ ~t~i.:Jl iU .1 ow·w IirJ~~Sr; wh U~ llilropqilillil" Itiltd' ot1~:er-'~'r(pi¥tjLe, pfc;i'teedr~d to sel! #'lie tllctinolog,y ~hi'(;h tlbeiJ A:ru;e.rlcan 'cP,nnttl'l]parhl 7!yer~ now debarred frOG"! 'suppl}t,. jg. 'r:i:'le' U n i:t,~d Sta(t~~':i )Ibo, , c;le¢jd~t~ '1.0 iloytutl the ] 9,80 M[J~t0,'i\!' )lym,pi(;~:1 ilIli d 't!!t-md(;'d'iJ[lipiUl ;,~Q the ext'enf th:~ttllelil univema,1ity la' destNyed. ,AlllOil1,g' others. three ccuntrtes who' had pl'e"linusUy\e(!nm~J~r n~cttal ~'i:nner5. U16 U.s,A. 'Wt'~,~ O~ntl.~uwy and J<lpari bsented themselves, New'rthele::i1~"1 Sig'nifh:mtly .more ~omltrlt~ '~rtJiitip3ited th,an ':"htyed ,away,

rJ,h.e SoViet Inl::~tv,ention' also, t tigg~:red t'onl rov('~~y ~Il OiLil hs !1 cti-:v'ation. The Cartel:' ,;tdm]njstt altOn, w1~h Its (jtild W~,r pm5upp9iSl:1. ~o.mi uppemJClSl, J1aL~ed 1ts- 'Co-rOUES to Ith~ mast iQf 1:he ':str~teglcl l'1~OIi,¥. i\t"of'cUng ((1 I~hi$" thee !nove 'y-,a,~ d(j~igntd 'tOpiJ!'!, the USSR' ;;trlJliY!1 strBdn.g cli:Uii'[We' of Ute t':er~:ia f1 Ci ~lU' oU :ftdds' ·~rn1.l warm '~1;U:ft 16ft J ,:flnd '~'.ihr9\dd '~Ih1!!'relQf-I,~' be- ~el:l a~a Jiurther step 111: the p~og;!'es . (\')[ tU'sli.ltln ""·p~nsiot~l~n'll lh"l h,al i(~afI'. ·bfoUghl, rh'ID 't 1 ':11~ 'Amy Ja:f}'tI .. n'~-wm{ perl1-~p~ ine~ritai)l'e tba't Prtlli'j,deIlI Zhl ~f Pilk.biil'ill,t! ~houl~1 ~1Iife ~'l!i;plbi'ledi H~Js lh~orf .~~i' <lU 1~ was "'Vofl'th. rn r:t~po~l ~[Io, J~~res,id~l:'I ~ llIi l!'!! -,:nUJlrlultecd lh • ~. '~ii'l 'j 'I:M l l'l!C\~, ~,h~C1lIID'!-IJtl.G1L ,~~m~ Hit! U u:U ·d

S~.atej; .hadvital :i m . e rests i fII lite 'Ile~ ia u ,~IlH a!ld Hun ,iH:l\~ l;assiUl[e en 't~l~'I:' region WOll ,ld b~' [~fI~ll,~cl ~ J r; u''li~,"':!iil~1i)' l~~ 11]1 il~I[!t~ !l~'knc~ .. Tp :hlll tk thH up,'rhe' sdrn i nis'i:r.a,ti em set,a]Jolll.t 'm~blishiinl!! ill tilipid deployme1d f( r£~'. ,C<1~b[,C of opiI[\i1.ting in till.'! G'ulf ,[ shQiU Ill.CIlti fh. Stub equent e'VI'!'[n:~d:n A .. ~lHrI9.1:st,~'fl,1f1~I~ II1JC.llili lUrl:til ttl js~ rorhnifi '~tllJ(lry' b~s n ... ~r bee'I(1j'iPUJL' [in the't~t,~an(liit l~o<JIiQweft'It!0'~ft§Il)Ftl0 m~re ~h,a'naca,cl~l'!'il c iU,(~rest. 11 is {!IDS ib~.e tl'.a.1: t.hc I~\iiS.'i:ian· l\'Iatl J he bark oHl%eu ~l!I'h;t~ ('he 'i:ho~~ghl ihtl.t iF 'L1~ . "(JI;lI~1 t;M;tn.$!il~'rd~l,c !Z' 1[1 n~LUllS-tn r~ .alU,·

,li'l:a:~~l fit:ra'm:Efil~ a,&'Wjl-mt..x~es ':m'i~1:ll ~li!)IU@'W~ lut ~Iwllt' ~":!lJ 'kl~ [il1~1 ,r.lIi1b.f;

that lt ~ ... zas ~h IT rear",' about the l[J;ID)l;n:!;lr!!'~ <:QU!IDp~r, Q,f a €omnl}uR·b;~ t 'Htrnc. n I ,'Ih ' ()I!I$~uenl 'lhr~~l I"~h!l~~~ btls l~tly ltl"~ct 'on'lliltni~:,m~ tJ:nm. \~1'O'lil~1H.~~olttl.1~11.'iIllfl;~~1:lii.ej;} tha t ~reli~ thll;t p;!i@ij,c!11IlLll;n.i'J1lt (',1l'1:::tm,Ri In ~bei,]' Udl~_h

ih \!1I111:JWJ 'fa' t;I' .... ()f, 1 ndcl1l'll;i!jc:m !'It'~,~~'lrH~ UnH~.d Ni'llrh)~"I',.

0111 14 J~)nl!l1aty" :aEtel< t he l.:}'SSn Jl~u;r VEtolild .(I' In ~1'II~a:1 ign~~ ~~Q I iilJlOJl( babied .h.l W:'lC Sel;udty. "C~)ll~dt" the Gt'IlJer.d }bsti'mb),y' Plt$.S'i!(] "!, . C~Q[uti~J:lI, .. !lIf'IJ ]"'IJII'!h1!~·Itl1.~ i,n\i'!_J,s~on QY. ~b~' f.lIvc:r;w'lllCIfl.lifijl miliO'f~ty of lQ~' to J.8.,.,wHh 8 aiJstentie.m. Virtually, Hte. o;rily, s~ltis;f.a(:'tioil the USSJ~ C(YU,hIl!d~d~ fmmtE.~ v.nt'~ V)l.,iils"tb~lt' hlrufl.~ dte hig!.l-p~j;~~ of rWJ H'iIW'lgunl~f.ltJI IIb.,,~biJif),~d i' mtl)~r th~m ]01_11. the ~~ajQnty elf nen~1:nbl'J1redr 'a:ua-ri~t~ voting in favour; Romania, on the 'otherh,arnd, Was mn"'pk~t'I:t)&~~~, NJt.n:t. The Vl!,te ,held Iip~ ~Il!ld l'}',O'l: I;'\~euimprov\oo up;IJr!1. in 'G.~l'~ml Ati'S;il'll1.bWy VQte,~~n ~ttb:l.cquent 'fi2<ilrs. If' Hl-!:!7" ~11'~ ""Dung ,'lV3, J::il:,3.,.., 19'-,11. In th1t"'-ThirdWptld ,. ,II, st'(Ong' ~in.e\-Y'as-tal(j~n. by the ls~aifni'c, 0l;tl'rert',J'l<e "nd,lhe. Niu11,·AlIgrl,0d M,q\'~nn~m~. ,A, mee,ting oll,he ~o:n:!}a;n m~l'i,l~t1C!~~,of: thfi,',LsJam.lii; Cq!nleNnce, ht;!Jd Hli ll'akilt~ul early' illl 'J 960. roundly condemned the irl'Vas,j_on, wl}il€:' .1Lta.~'gnMlgpltlJ 'Ol'~,(gIJ n:dJlli~l'I!r.i.J m,eE!Un:g. .h3, O@lhi hartly afl~r\'Vad.sr iii I:e,~ol 1,I'tiOI"i -wil!~ ,! Iii~ s! . ed i~n,lng for the withd ~,\I WIlJ of fcu:-~:i glil '~If'[)]i'U and re,'Ji~ject n.J![ Mgh~v;l,l:;tan'-8 'h1<;i:epi1t]il,cLrmde, ,soveTt'j.g1lty."teni:toj;iia~ iUh:'gr 1)' 'and non .. lIU,gtFI. d .status",

It ~,;!\.n:lld pe ,[)o: ,e"ggeraton, [lei. a.y that -rh,is !j1i:IrIS[c a;! of hlVi~!!,i,plii didiltl,m:e d~nl'a,g-~"l:0' (re ,So'ili~t Hn101l1':S r~'1!llti1ution thal'l a;~].y 'O'ttier e r.:'nt JT.lrce dl.iO!, revoJ,uti.oM o.R 0 t.ob"r 1917. 'l te: ioUeetlivj,saUQ1'U!:; P1l:If~;~!. and ge ,o"lde I,b, 'I 20 ilud, 1?30"" 'In 'which perhap~' f~!JII:£ee:1l i'~) i1 Uan !p~qp~,(;): hia,d dii,ed I haiti -pii ss.ed .m.(:J£tl~,.' Ulnnl(j~ilr.::edl b.y ~Ilf! wpl'ld ,at 1<i:r,g~J' lI;$, J'iad the, cn~atlo.1'il (jj rgu.l~g'$· andi 'tblL! 1kJ!r'cc~d n'd!\l :i'I~~ l' 1~11,'L h~.d occutifl (:1 Jjoth 111'fI, j;lhd lili-er. Au_-'!'u-ku~ I'Ld

- lT~~HIQ l,ajJy b~e~l centred 'on. 'S:i[lt-wa~e-r" ctdo:GJaUsw, an~ the. !{~<I~t ~~]'I_f-I~o.l'l05 ~~I~ti ~y '1l1,e, ~u:mie5 oJ lh:r.!!' '['Si!!r,!;. and. FC'_tai'J:led, .. by '-he ,,'olsI1.iNtk! 11adl,lllfld' t~ ntlon i:!·lI!W1!IIS, d (.ulm 'lll,t! I ,~ •• m.n' 10'111., QI] tll1e oon~i'a[1', tne u:ss.r~ ,1la;d'St1c.~ecbuLLU est~li,.fiiflK ~'O~iQ flul~~ I utpe,rlill'I,5l '1~«I~u ~,!lIJ'5', N'Of 'l~tl- :~l\~\nt)Pl~~~gl.. -dm J ~dly ~j.l 'rl nd~ch

QV 1l'i(,.d \1' I h I ~~,J1I'1 til' 1-1'VI(m~ d HiUl'II~U~P ,~IU I L. ': ;nl. iIl:lu .... '(iU,n, II

,00y J~.ec;ause these cuatries were ~,tlitopeaO and "pan of, rl1e,-S()\::ler l~j.c". Nowf hr}W-" 1.:'1', [h~ 8nvi!ctUnton,ls ~,I'lV' ~ i'em of one 0 '('Jell' Itlm.~e[ 't:reo:i1'e1di sb.oCk~'Wil1"e!:i Jha,t >tht:eatene.d h}t under,l:tl.u"le" tt1re ~n:cept Of ll()['I=:qU.gll11l~en t gseJ:£. IE: '~~$ seell!l:5,:'a ~etro,d~~~ld!: o,f (:) kiln lilI~~~Tn" fv(u!-.. 'W,h'ICh. ilhnJ '~'il.~l m ~I>D~'UJ '[If the non-al ignll:~~1 ~~~t:~ ~:rtlgg1fd tn frecth.'e(lu'S'elves,; a11l[l' tlre v~(.'ti:m ,,\;,tlS~, moreO'v~e[. ,a,'C'()I~l.J1t.ry l'l.fi:t had, tbr~lJ!ghQU_tii~s - ~lll:s'l:Q!()j ~I.Jc;:ce:')slld[1t .11iIi'I!~m.Ilt;l~d .us lnde;. lendef.l~e tn I:h" '.t:a 't! of Itb]{i,nU:I~t pl't[$.'1tm;;:.

!GOnt~'e.:rn:n;(lltlOll, of the' iRv.as;ion~, therefore, w.a'S lie.rtely expres ed ad ~NeJl-ni.gli untversal. Howetl'e'!, it '~'iT:a;5 temcpeilled by lheas,Slllllp'ltQI'), bat tt W!l~ ',1!lmo,st bmmd UI:! b~ futUe, ElleClhr~ sancuons did no] e:x.1S.tj ad tne 5?vle~ Ui~,O~l S~,~\'e~ uo sign ~{all, ftlO'Wi[l~:~CHbe 1I\'I~jht vf ,mld;op1n1on. ~9I ~hl~ rea59f!. many gt}v{:!rn.m.e,l'l'tts! p.mticularly ]11 :U!fOp~', tornk th~ vlewthat l he United S~,at~ had Qven"~!b (edi' and t hOI l Ifg'hiVnllitMm'W,IlS l~Oit imp(Jrr,ant -e!l:1otl~b 'to', r,i5k d,,1Im.a~'f"l'Q. ~he'l'!i'id~t nBenla'Uonal order. f'ot slm ila:r reMo'l;T5; tb~f~, ~va~ Httle.di'~pasiti.ol1 to ,Ll:erl'l[Jit a g~l!'g_oua'l(',cl :;;O']k!U;tlU. On the [nma~!ve or Lord ~[fingH)tl" h~ Ur,i.'lt'h I'QI1e.ign Secretl!liiy, the- lc !.mpean Union ,cUd put fbl'lry.11.rd ~l u~ace plan b"'wbi-ch So\riet wltihdr,a\:llal would ha\ili~.b~n balanced by n "I\U1>htiHjpC" ~r 'lI!l1l~enlm~, ~'!.IP:I nrl'r! by ~uill:a,ruees. boUt. hlt~.rJ'l!11 nid etx'1erna1,. '!If 'j-\fg.h.an ne'ur~.r;ilI]ity, 111>, .I1.lC'dllJ,ni,:;:n1W1IJ'lll1d have pCiI'U he ({}Dvellhi,C qf 'twa co'n.fe.r~n€~'s~ ene of pot@ntiam -ex:tt.ernali ;ll"}fll.n'(Oi's, th~ tllh~lr Qf ~1.he 1I1il~.n'l.ldpflrli~. Th'~ In,iiUaiU'vc pr~di.·. tabl.y aundered IOf theluC;:M ofr'h~ SOll1ief Umen's i:n5ist:em:~ that j,t '~'\I<l.S mit n;t~lf!s!J::e:d in oil, 'S:(lU~e,mJt!:nt; otlJli:!'J.' than oI1'~' that WO'i:lld g~l.Ma,n~,eetille !1,]i!f'm;:]~::U:1t1'Ce, Clf '~.h.e Kiltml~] ~gil1lQ~, So f.'illI' !'I,S' ~,h.~ ou:l'Sl.dQ' 'WIorl.cl ~"~j.al encerned I tlJi(m~fQore/ ~ln~ .Af,gh.UlS stcKad. Virtual] y alone. '1t'wa s ,crepted that little was like,~y~o happen on the ground dtJ,_i:lng (he I(utl A gl'Ul:nt winter. bUL l'h-,gc.n!(!l,ra:1 b~U { VirtbS UlIU(:lS SOCi<n as; h(m:'.!' It'ell.therr came, thc-R''Ils~ian .f'OP('~.!> would have Ii'itl:1~ dIfficulty, if not in Umhlatin.~ :aU armed opposition" then ,at Ieast ln l-edudn~ .11, to 01 r ·ole 1~'- C!'U •

''As after the Saur T!1'f\f01'UJ!::iOill. the: irtiUTltllCtiate pr'~1:iQwpllrion of the leW regime was to gain ]I temal al"Ceptance. Karwal s~aJrLedby il'OmJ:lih':tg' ,11 b:roodly bM.edg,ow~nm1!mt" ,nlU:I(YLlgh in pta(;t'ice the De~!II' egmm(: \1!.t!:l:S bWilld]yb:ase~ r}n:tyto the ~dent fh(lt U; jindo(h'l,d i t~:~t -tl.~tee ' nini.'!i:l:errs -whtl \~~:re nm. me1.nber$ of tthe 1~IDPA~tog@th~:r !$Ilr,ith a fe'ltV Zh,.flqhi who w~re nbll: c.lcjl-!i~.ly a~socihl't~d w:id~ .Alnb:~ .. P;cm;ltl,.m ~1V~iS rredomil ,<')ntl and intend\"cl 110' renlain so. Ka.trlliii!J gl~fl' ,promised '<1 N!:!?i' TJha$I!'" O[ U)£ $OIR.lf R'I':!\"QWlItlon, to i.m:ludf! <II :[re'sb. can:sU'ltu'rion I!lth prov]so:t:) wr electlQ.m;: and iI. rnum.'tJ-p.llr't}" ~r$t'enl.i ;a I~jh~'\I\t Qt tbt! a:nd rero.rm prognmlllle, 3,1ll amt1e,'ity f(,n: ire't~m:I'Il' t~fu~«t';!1!" anti, Ibe ":iI.lease f pol.;iHca.1 'pil'isQner.s. '~~h~ .reg_in'le "c,l;ctimal, I:b<l~ SUlll'C" 8000 ll:ltiurn r 1:1'1<.1 b(!:~H' n"lti1!i~tll btlt j,'k SUi :ml i h ,t lilese w'oo Il'lflil;l,

I .11 _

Par~haIfiI_$"iui~jt',\\!'as ~lea.[ tfmt ,.:elJlfiStdel1a~tel,l!l.I1l1bi "I pe;dlap. a~ m;mY,ii. , 1-f500(t.~'af -' 11ll11.e~:d.Kt'u'rl,wli'£lc,-c~t Ol1~, €On:t.IllU.~~ lInd flle"tq :i11IITr!tSt{i' WE'r~ m,;tde', n~tH ln~ri.'ifl:' Irn!lnt1'is W"'itf' c!1Ji-1 A~brlD ~ailS, ~te~fw~fl: (tIUe~~ith,;u~~l1:~ nad , un'detrJ/I..mj ,1-, J 9'llIum:l}'. t11.@[\~~I~fJ~I'I<'lIrrQM Ifl.g !if~~"'!ii~"llL J~Ld-i-(~lrua]1k1~~helil, ,g. GL I9f A~$htiIllSWhi..i'hi~d -at·heted to r,elF,ehrc- -n(l;llifil};eI1,'f t'~,eilf ,foaMli, • 'wt<i:~ '!j\"eie't.o be. .~ 'etlSovlet :bfli!ilXW< l1nd4;n:\jia,d~d- ~b~prj'$ ulAo;llIen: o:rnly ]2fhlfii50n f I.ii..mer:gQd. T··of'dian.)', tllt5"~la~ t.b nd of~!'t.J. ~!op_c;lf !Ie' ·,'ng; :t'hti.r TI::Ji1f1i~ i'llh'e,

~an!il'!l _'iiqS,'lil'U;1,~1 t~1;' ,pia ate relJ.gioi.ls ~ipiA,i9n l:"y. ":8I,la1i1!l]t~l?lu" ' .r1'l!cdbm o( I'qJng1ori ~,nd by l!Sl~thl.t"hll~g, new hll,a'!l'lic .fnsli.tUtiQl!1S 110' gall dr "ll{l:n -t( nati'onill j,iWairo. 'inner l() tlppe,ase: ;o]Ii:niftfn . ~iQre" getl,e~il1l~ br ~~r1fJ:g the (,111c:1 b!a,cl:~ 't~~d:andgr~en n'atlqn~ ,:fI~~~ ~I:cls mov l~my()JJ:\~ !i~m'OJ;1g X':Ulj:q loppOSmCit1ilJ":1!d It Wafll1(),te~"I'Onl~¥ 'I:hil,~ !'l't ll:h~' April' 1tllili-bfirYPiltlllde c-lt~b~,~ijl~l~t Ute Sat~r ~.evol~n.Qn. "lli,.uiliJ{l ~a:tlks COl-lJ:[!l)ium b:l, ~~pL!I)~ ,~he :n:~llJag-. H~ .also .trlcd to b:rD<ljl~~~ s:uppc;d by c:r~~t:tug SO'\I~et-:&tyle n13S$orgiUl~'iHio:t'l:S "i:ndl, aI' U)oe ~nd 6!f 'lgaO, he 'fu["ri~'el ,: Nill"icinilJ II Pat!') out: fronl'tl hl,re:r J\g be tl~e' N~t:ioiO~ fa.th~hi:I');~'.111t~lltl )In an eflbrt :tOo (a'lly' <lU shades of QpLlljon .. Jh:~11.i.Q.4 th~ faoe'ader' b~w'~\~c~ tile :t'(!';,!IHty ~\r.il8 Ulillt 'tIlt! fle-W 're!!!tnn~ W'IS fii:l:nly FI, thf$ hends o~ '1· et S'{)''illlet masters, ~'r,a 11]' InOJ1e" Ru!i~lan "~'di\fi&e:£5' -\'1!er~ 'ploccQ, In, [be, IllJ;nii~trl,($. and the KhAD G(_wer_[Im~nt, J:nl-eLl.ige nee Ag,enqj~, wl'1.lch 1'1ia(;jl[·~P1~(!'(fd AI~±:Il's; 1'{fu'Vf. ~mdl:t SO()U b'!G"-l!m· ''\}id.'iIU tll,ll:ri'l W!l~ ~11Iiej' \\. .... 11@ were lllkj,n~1 aJI the :lite, d:6ci:s:i,(JP8" St1:t~O:i:'lIctU.'iJf,;. still, 'm, the Sp{if('l1 ~:)lIIb<'!;~"jj ,k.ejJt 11 Ii!:!]] ,g!Dipo:l1~ the c01Jlfi16:fs ~h!C'lfi] .r(:Cm~:ti'Ju~'. 'nu~ o~~ dvul~Y b@t~\!I~el'll fCI.r(.irlll ;:If!'c.ij . .r{.iorr:liJ(,f~~11 ,~i1iio ~flDrn ~~ .. e me rged ,i!lrtd the 'lwo~;a'Ctl(ln$ 'ifl:gai n became ~ng~lge,di.il bitter ]11~ fishting, P.OW'i~~tflJgg~e:s -witbin the cabinet '03,11(1 "th~ ,a(m~d fortes w~~e to be oill lc"Onst'8llt fea'llllre,,~ 'I'll ' !.'cginl' ~Inti ,g(:!lv~ly w,cnkiC'nedi irs ability ito 1",10 support, ,l\sdL'iallection :ooittillued' to spread, trade",: industry; a~,iCiUltun:~ and the edUGIDt1m1:! S¥. temalll began, Ito collapse, T:t:H,\5e p)ut ' (ilf n:I4,~ (."O'IHlI:ry SII,m under g:Yv~flUl1:Cm "tllllr 1 b. came almost ''V\oihorrly dependent on the. S6\~I€t Un~o'.11 for su,choo:i,iic .f.1ec~~sjU~s a:s: mod i1iJd fp,et

TtJ!e Si~vl,~l i,nYI~8k~n rncmlwhHa:! lii'il1!'ilfofr~}~d lhl' p0i:iilion 0[ til!! gI1(Jia:~pS w,IJlikL, lil!!,(!1 I)eg;u,ti t'G Oil'-gtifits.:e, thertlS'rives til I?'~lkj:li l~;J!Tl. 1]m::~I' being' sr\1iall ,find largely !..mlmowlli .they e.xp,anded anti ~1n:l'm!Ied thil:' lil:llk~i~~ b!:ii~lecti f!lL~d! oJ the tnte:mal~slshr~,ee af~d nl~ 'DrlUido~

, W,Oi'!cL Othe'.I:',.mainly Sl'll.f!. group OT)ff.ared in the C~JlIh'e ,~l1Jd! {~~l'~t ,or Afghanistan, innd drew SUp,port frofn Iran,. l'hes~ grou'ps ha-d,Ojl:i' -ad-) th:df l' ~I EI JUwf,1 a~31115l the hbul f~glnilJ; lind LbH ~'O\\r \l~t nd d lhl~, 'f() rhe infidel, iI:lVHde.'r~, ;on' 'Il;PQndjin~1YI 'till ir corn'l:llllll::m:t ' iii' t{ 1)' g,netaUy krI(]~fn as.,rl1~r}rJM(lit1. A~ thQ- ctrm:p:s Uo:n IUlil 1JgFlI\;lPm~ n~' (hlil!i:e. ,rQUI1~ to!;'I:liLj~lI~lhll. 'luh:~dl( lh~."'a- " cl I'lil'!'ll~ lml hL'h1~ U~I

:l.ogi::oal:i~ tn ijl:!sttibilRg ,1I1ld ',slassU)"ing U'(~:m. fh)\\\eV,eI-' in 1'9~() fhe 'aid t:iI.nh" i1.JrO(eed(f~1 t. l rt!.G:cIg-1!dst! !I.Q'i/ in 1'I1(1"ll1l gI'O!lPS bilS~d, b~ P'~'-h;;n[ ~ ri ]i ~"''ith a $t1irllili~t'eligrCllj:s ±de'Ql,og.y, lriur !f.'JJthen] .r'~I.m,mi5t,r. lid' thor~ !ll''adBitio'Dafis.t~., 'rile' dL~:-efern'CI! ''llfftlvee:n th:e t",~b gtou[1s~, .. ~<ts .

• " • _ .' I _.", (1. '_

:tl!pndly \~~1,e1'~ t!bij '1]:s,~.'m1~:l~· WI.:!U~ r'ldJaJ, iilr:i ,Qill·l:h)okl li~g'll:rdtl,1~, 1t~~tr

i,~;,rtnggle as J.irhXl,nrll.y 'Ort'f' "rolf ~ .. :litii:~;~ ilr.l;t!:-5~:Jdety fj"tshi[iJ'.'1.e~ lh i9~of.d3m.ce \-'1litlt1i J51(utiic p/b~c~ple'I' .whiJe Ute ,·:t.M,tUtton~l.ists"· S(I'!!" J~t prl.ma:~.ly as .i:l s,t r\_tggi~ :"" Et'.W ·rla LiOon 1 Ul, ranon, 'fh~l1i tne I~tl,,'rr: \"·t'!I'~' Iv'uling, tQ; see a:I:~HHI:l ·of 'I(".ng Z~i:·hi"lirbll:t· t11~ :K~rnlertegmded a n,10na.I€liIy .a1~ un-I' Lamie; [0' the Islam:iisiI; groups, N~kinillt}·<I.r;:s Rlt'l.J;,·i" t$~lmji, was I,ht!! mQ!'L l'~.dl,~~f . rid tln':1 ~·ptomlsll:]~. UI!-la¥Hlty~rr hlnis~'llr W'.ilS i1 6'ljil~:Zi1 J~u" htoon r:,rom nord" rn fgh~lJ'!1:>'~~ll, and hi's ::o:mri::iil:rnent al1d Powe1'i .of [Oigal'lisa:ti.on made h.im HI, :E:a.vowdte not ~tilY ~nh l'h~ Pa'ItIstil~~i lvi.I-J.~n ~md 'mU'tlll:r)"l'~;tabLi~]i1llI$nt:5l hut ul~b ~¥iUl' Ute" Cl.i\., fr~d()nlilnElnUylP'~i~~'1Jrxl'ri ~n 'rolffip·o~1.itjO!1'j hiS flc:'l'b..,.j·· IS{l1m-l wa's tl:l~;dJe~htrlJlrtll:re~l'~l:id dJs;dp(lhl.t'(i 0:[ the mui't'~ilill:r~ jg;rGiupSt W~· 'w~'11 _ UPL'Ofh~c;]. \\".lEh'l.n the r.~r'!llg~l!;"gtOullS, hi 1 'eshJfI.Vir~m 'U m,;:tirnit~hle·. Us o""'I'lI··~ch6Gl:i. murr braining ('il!hp,s', 'ii1U[l'DlH~mted. Il'.lainly iii Nangra.h.:!J .Pwv1no¢ and 'aroundsunduz and .Bil;~h.lal'i in the north .. l. . WI;:! 'I" OfmQl'·:onre~ll to .. 'lelgneltyUl' tbl'ltl. the rt:~I:l!t:ii.nce-w re hIs perS:on;aIIOlUl'll;:dtiom .md 11i:n.lbie~ti.'va OhUl1s)amiic re:-volutiofl· and, hi> quest for do:Inin.atii:ll1 re_5'"W1.te.d h~ more by. VIla.)1 of_CBnnle~ l'l:idI othe..r 1f~l)JtlMrJ{n ,glr;(")1I.p5 ti1f}n 'of en~CuyC 'l)ppmlU(1:r! to lh~ So ie~ Invad.n ril'1id Ull;' KOJ:bill t~~rtne, He iililSQ became hea.\,lly Invoh~(',l ~ij: dm,g manufa.ctu:ie.alll.d t-x:afficking. The 1990 .set-pleee "'.ttack on Iqlbul by h:r.sl,rjJil~A;nr .. ~ .. ,I':)fl\f,{A:rmy'oJS~.cdfi~"",)' r.1,\il:~II.!'l!d m a 'wJ~1pl!ell(l f;)Uu.r~ and hewas cvent1JJllilly j"'.~elli· oW i~Jflon(ilirlj01l1""W "I:>Y~he Ta~iban. Th~T~wa ~.1~o O'!'~eC:i,)I!:d He?:b-i·ls&iufl" ,it b!r("lIkaway fron') l.iek:11la.tyat's, led b",c3. 1::;opulisI111L111uh'by tbe name O''! Ynn1l} 1<h .. 11:1. f\lthclL1gh eorulng fro,l'll 'the sl1l:<1HKlhugjani Uibel heatrracted s~~p.p . rt among the f"J,lnm"m the east of t}~le c9UJ1l.:ry' and )IliIOU!.\II/idc.ly among the Ghilzai andaround 'I<andnhar~ One of hi.) mO~l!ri!: 'Iiv'i: com.ll1~ .rid~rs·'was Abdul HIIq,'~ ho niilrILr,:scd, to bufld up'an t.ff"ectiVe guernlla mO'i'Cl11erut OHtU~:ild a~ld \I!;Ubl:n Kalnlll while another Wr'ts Maulvl Jal.a~uddln! ,who ope.raled In P~laya wHh. ,lla_kls,ta!nl ~!ml CIA '''inppj)r~.

The' I hi~d nf .\fhlil '1.!!;[~LHItst.' :m:D'i'fJ1'!I€'nl;;'i1 Rabl~i1.r1Y~ laj~liolili·i·lsl:(!'mi. "'\1;15 more IJJO.dem~e in Its onernatlon shan the 1;"\"'0 H:ez.b.1i. It was. reerulted p'ril:r.l<ll:lJy fl:om ~rnC)ng '1~lliks and: thcr tlOl1:·'PU!~h~tlQ:nS" 'ol[,nd 1:1"::. main sl.l'e-ngth I,~fyi.n me north-east, altlhlol:llgh It .~o had an operational PH'.'sC-IIG,e around Kandahar. l:\hm.ed. ~ ha.h M.'I"S,SOtl.dI bcC'~~m~' one of II,' '(mlm~rjd~f!l1111:I1 !ilvlth hLs coLleague!i,,\\"jll~ a.ll.o",,"' '( rru;;'r~ f~e~dlJlll 'of actton -y Habb nt lh, 11~IoIM normal among th(l r~~$I::Oll]!ct~ @coup.s. This Ereedbm: w,as fiutl, elF.:- enll.ll need Ii;lY itiIh.~ . ista no(" lJ(oLW ·tt. ~mm, Qf lhdr flr~s . f OP"1!',3Ut1IfI rand ihc r~l'kl~HUI fro.nUo.,~p

iru:ll"jpc:nde,nt gQ"emm.~.lll under trn·9.[t:i.b:n~.~.IeadJe.psp~p. H9Wie','-elr fa.ct!.on.aHsm .,mll1 ~'anY! rtie· ;lU,d a lIiUrnb<l1lL .pi ~QUlp~tlllg Sh1:'I. g_roIJJPS" ofvlJlfylng, id,~nlogio."l.~ oo·nlJ1~nttrUL·IiII:j ,\o\.'t'IIt! fu'r.m,ed~ ,all wh+(:1h the lI119:!\t fort,ef1ull,\!ils 'Ulle StJzmt#,1·£~N(,15f-j\..4fg~i,lJn.i.5tau VI,ctlJ)iJ Orga:ll.1sathHl pf AI.'gl:ul!IlI-'['an)l, ('(liml1:ipn.ly ~n!lwn as ~·AS'R" whle,h' 119'1lk it ja.d:i~.d ~si.iI[llil,c .:Stance" AS(Ql r:e . !lit, 'th~' I-r~~"i'a jilt· ,s\lfIe.red ~m6:f1! from. clivi[ \,'\ta'T ll~~ri;' ·!',om t~.e qfec;t,,·:ui:. 'tbe $o\iiet:iIrV~I:sJOrt, a:nq. it .... ~~:s 110t umll a.ft-c.r the' SrliVl,el WI,th~.r.ill\~~~ thill thi:1 lranlans' J!:i.i1nOl·g~d ~D

-r,nriitc'tlumlIinlo d,1e' Jie2b"i~'Wllhi1k1:r (Ui'l[Wi?'~r[iIJ')!' .' . ,

Ou'leI than the:!r ho:stUity to t!·fe.'.'Ru$jlat]~c ~nd·t:l1e ](apuJ te,glnle, . the re ,is'I;all1ce ,gP)UI'~ 111Id lUde tn c9PlJnO'f~1 and th,_e:hr rec~£d. W,IU';, ,Or1i~ ·ofpersllil1e.nt filJctDoHal dhpute. :liw;ID 'Hie beginning,1 f1Jh._f:l}fWl'ni 'as a.pt to .~~ t each other· as: to co-operare. Neither tl1elr s11 ar~dMuSJi~ til~th :r:I.(n . tbe 'concept of J~h(l(..i ",.~e r~ s.t;r(I'l~g erMJu.!.'l]l to ,o~.t~(i!.g:h. Hl!;!t~ peasonal, ti:ibtii] endethruc lHJlUp.'lIt:hIe$lilf!f,ld. ali 'C:lfOfl, to :bri'rlg t he:til , tt)8:e~;JH::!.i: !into ,I}tluffi:ed moveme tnfaHe·1. ll'l May 1.980 ~ lifj(,~ \'I'rtS h0:ld ,i,llI ~t~~shaw~!:t :10 cry to fnrg4.':! ~ .. untted fmfH/ b~lt tllis' sClon re~l, il[ ~:It. The'l;e'was f:a'Lk hDW .tilDe to' ttrne of unit;" undc~ 'illeJeack~rnhip of Kfn,g ,Zallh.ir. bert It'hi:~"~~a.in eame tti-l1oUlli!ng. '~Vll]h~ GaUiaLnt t1:nd ]\dujadidi, ~s

fIW,ei1 III; JI)~bijbt_y", ,n: ,I'tnaj-oI.'H9: of ~h~ w~:fug1l!Ii:., ~v(!ilie In fU"O:IJ~1I "HekmiJItyu anti" tile Il!Iitn.er blami ts wt,e Itnp~,~.ca:bl.y: opp!Os'ed. Unity :~ras 111 am;, caH ··agaln:s,~ th€i po.l.b .. )'" of the r~'ak:ist,a[l] 'go~;':iZ1mnlent, w'ljh I'H!d no 'Wi -_11 ito. s~ 1flStliongi Wlilied " W~U-il t~ncd .;.\fjhan 'orgat'nj.sili~lt:m ,~~tabliJ!lOO". ord:Li1~iI ~st.lrfI, ,~~, ,arms' h'61u~· ether C0Ul:lt'[r,f',~ heg!1i n h;r fiG ,y in, the l1zdd.s'iilrn. au.'I!ho.l'i.l:f::e:s assumed the r'esp~ri$tbi&itr for i.sS,Iu.i;q'g· them, te the i n.(U v~du'1I1. g:rouPii\r 1tl'lld(lij; ~.l1:e d tn~dJDFlr ,~f the 1J1rettDni!lt,c of In'ter·Sefvices. l:ntellig.etl((! USO., 'Th,i;s aUOI\v'ed, them. I.Cl·~ep ih,t gro~p$' under (Qllibi'o.l and ra:i:1QUi Q eliv.-erIDesa'it what th~y s.t_I.1f'l! <1:5,0: .. prud~l~t IJ~V! t R tlbo' pr()v,ided oP'I>"o -ti!lifJJUI3~ ft1!' I orrupuon, ill !;)"pical .'aimt:Q;Fme-ID;t belngfor <br~ist~;flct" gr,~up.to slgn fot mote i1!l:mJ,1iI.~'i1II! ~t had received, the balance ·bei.ng sold aild the proceeds. spUt betw.etm_ thc' g~)QULJ {aln:dl ~hcIS!. f-ri aldd:IUtm to tn te.run:Uoh iii I ald, th~ p,mt~ll"~iCbJI and sale .. Qrf natcottcs beclIme.a major $OUf<:e (llf ~nc'orlle :for bOt]] ~:tJ:,e ~-n;.tjahidb~ and '~he· AFghiiill ,refugee ,cQmmtulity~ Arm:s ~p~:[ed :ill:! Afg,han ls,:ta.!1 were !i!1~(') nl~~ j'USi lI~'ed by the 'flujaltidiu.; (l ftefli U.' X WI '1'.so~(1. :ir:J :the b03z1ul~[n P,akis:t~.JiIi a:nd.~h,e11[e;pu[l;:hD;sed ~'e'Hh AIDofWiSitc; S:aud10.r otller mnds, wtlh slippUen and .m.ld J.lemen. Ulkin[g ill ptOfit-lIl e,u:h ~'lil:g.e of th(,"! I:,ln:;u:-e~]';. The l'~PbltaUQn of t.1,l,a gl'.(:lU~)S hllla,klis~iill:l ae,rordirvgly dd~riorated '!)yet the yea:rs,w; di! h: lnfl.gihtit[!,C contin 'I~d ·and they beC~.ll:H~ ir]creastngly In.vol.ved tn. gLln-r\~ru1inJ!·;'d:fu:g'dea~~n~ tlnd COITUplt.lol1l g['n~rall],'" . U

Thi~, ;~3!ck of I:mity mle~nt 1'h~t, elliicepl v,~tY :mlen);~ tbtI! 'nn~f;iI"l~l'~'1 w'~rn unal Je t:o 'cj)-ol'(jJtn,~ibe theira.c:Mvi.ti.eos L:ns'.id~ M~-liru1iist,rul 'or 'C'~m:'J QUit· nr greed :it-l~t· g .. ' !~In\fIPV~~' U. ~~-t 11~~'~ll tun:1 U'I ta~ol ~ ~1lhl t til'

________ I~".-----------~------'

YElrh;itlili, gf9UWl b:~lw,~~n t!lem ",¢p~~sen·red. a .(i'I'Mr~lty'fh(il ~~~ ]~}.MSI~~ V'lrt11laU),~ Ui~ whole' Afg}1.a.11 . 1Ii ... ~lt:m, Mo~ve.r' tt "~13~ D.at ,a 'c]eC'i'Si'w :iJi!1El6(nm,_!~[ t'ID tli1e 'oonduct Qlt U~e.· S:1!;~CI'f.ma wr.ar. Gi\i',~n tille nattJi'l!ehJf ·d.1R tll!'ffflh1J in "l,lv'hh;h they .fqxlght. UJl~~.r oft~nloual s,r-mprrth'le", ~m}d 1j,1!i.k 1(Jif' .mtlliil;itlo/ sciphJ1i~:.ica1tionl" the)" a:m]tl. In aO', ,·.as~· nutm~n~ 11nJy ful1ClirJn il~ sm3U~ i:lll~;l._pel:ldent !.mils" MlUtfrY OOml1U1rt(i]eJ'S(,.~t~ '~lh!?&goedl ,tR,:scid{ii f\fgihlani:5t'ilfl wheo 'we:r'lii ,!llble 10' n,s{Jt 'e:IFeetiveIv.'\\!idibdt much [ fercenoe to tbe g;mups-iJ] ·Pa.ldst<ln 'and V'~Il~ l'r,ep'I1~d~ l'tl OO";'(;}'I~-l;lil;ll" en ~h,~ MltUIDnr:t 11;(11:-' ,11'lIkiSlI,Wlli'S; .11'1IMu:'!wbil,e ,esta.blished ~mitlIDg cam.pstbrcmgllw.bich. .a gW{~1It ::rllainy of the

m~'i~hl;dtrt-p~s:se'd. lJ;e,to1:e beln,g mMmn~ed to llllostitlti'e5" ._

The si:r.J~tlgj Ih~tr,· .lb.- nys.s~a;rtS hnd hidp"d tl1 alda.J't wa I'!\" :iI ~lmJtle one, :h. l'!lEi" s to.,i'3&CiliIl:PY «111;00:5 ·of popuhlitlon. and k,e)!,' ~it'€lS, ood.pro\fi.d:e fi1JJepo\'lleT. and lQg]stk: su.:pp'Oft fm .the. Afghan (.Ijrmy as the latter dL?~:J(h.:,ye.d !nt.~ Ill!!: ('O'LlImJ'!i:ld'~ to de!'lt wl~h rhel,,~s:i:;;~l.I"(e .. AC U~~"~}i!_n.H.~ ti.ro!.\ll they \~@L'IIlrct strengthen 'the i\fgba.narm .• 50 that,_ hOI~efuny a.fter a few mon:'::'hs~ UwuJd. be ~eft to'mnuu.l' the ~ll[;'l:U'Y' i,tseU ,. !twas' no panol ~hC' :in~U~'1 f :1.0 l:~ll:k'i. thrt ne Ii Army should Itsel] bi:.~ ome. ,lnvo.l\'C'tl i.n h.(f\1i;mlJi"~S"·.uul: p'rob~ems. arose a~, ,~OOl:! 'as thu.5 beC';aJme tnescapeble, it hIi.di been hawed lOE cotlventionall .Ia~g~sca1e/ fastmoving OPQi,.\firb;ns iil:ga,inst ChilliilJi or across the: !;:~mltr,;}1 Ut~r{)lllan plain, and -fGu:ncl> Ule ul.ou:ntili~n(m5t:en;ldn, O'fAfgha'l'1Ii-StilJn a to •. iIIlly Unfall.illlar proposlrlon, It had bl'oug'b,t· ill.' a: disp.110pOdionai,te number 0' tanki, and, 9'th,er h.l0<11!VY Iilqu1pnu:nl.:, which weroo lillabl,e tc dep'.~oy. e~ctively In the narrow "i\Jghim valleys, It w~'<IIble:to brhn; immense B.repo.wf;l! h) bga.r, both ,on the ~ol.1!nd ita'). (tom lhe ,rull:', but. the l((':::;l$tance .I:mp,ly.left theitl'ea l.mder <l,tt~u::~~oJiJ,y to rctum liHet artd resume 1J1e ham{>sm:elllt ~ud ambus:l'ung of RtI~siat'!l un:its. 't\n: ,eady example was a.n, Qifun~l.ye m(}mlli:~d in. Marrh E98~] 1n the l~unilJ' VIlIUeYf w:I'1k~h f~U~v!;d tbe belei!l.guered g.a.rd~Qn ,itt C:h~~gaJ Se~{l~ but

made' IlQ blilting im.pa('b;)111 the' area, _, .

The .Afghan: C1'I:.rilY, ~or w~:qmd. :\va:s,·.21tleru;t to b~gtn with, La:r_gety In "IfI;',ct i v.... Pu fg~~!i. ex -Cl.ll i()us ~,nd d,B'fI'r.tiQn;s, h~;d 1~¢llh:LOfd i l'~ 'o:mG~t C()lIJ!s~() pef~Hlt:pS. haU i.t!i, migina:l. numlb~I;, \.,fhUe 11'i1<1'ny nf the, r.m.k !Ii~l d tHe a.lsu deserted" with th~'i.1' 1I.nus- if possi.lJle. as· ~oon Iil/5, tbc'j''t\1ere gJ\'!;:n I'he dloi',ln ~. SQme~i~n~~ wh-lile ul'iil~ _~Jm't.lid!;!(l Oil: wc~ll- 'oV' 'I' 'tQ rhi;l ('e5~stafj;Ce. B)· the end of 1980 the. Afghi]flillInlr had pI[O~1)ly .$hrunk·'ftom ;11. fm:,ce,of am1l:lr:td 90()OO ,m.el1~O one of: ElrOiJl"ld30.000,

- iIlnd tht.:, :r~UabUHy of tbc Ui'lirt:.;, thall w r 'h:,fl- ''I'i,l:i (If;l,',"u 'du'b,jou~, f.,~·ri'lb~e CQlI1scrjiptwon \'llM hltmd~ce4, b1.d made nuJ~ Impact:'Qn U e pr-obllffll.. Aru.rthl!r-enl:~nir.r~$5"rm.e:rnt. fo,r t.he Sovl\e~ w~s tha!t" 'tllJe'1I.flWS Hie:, l~i\~' UdULU~1 l~f\~)nght lin (::on~!!IHe.d f1i;;'m.h~(~,. Qli' l'llifl'k, [,J:!1Ilbri':;, lCl1fg:I:Jl~ 'ani "'rt.\l' -mff [J :tf~OPSi p,al;tl'~ Q iU.lISi~ :tlWy- r . [ lI~H:' !1~i1II1;~J'l' h ~·~1. f~glol'ij';' 'ij) "tt p~1'~1 'I~:~ ·t.l Hl~ l~m*1t' i'l'1 U'llIkl'lJi1,H ~

;ucce"Ssflil 'h·{lJfls;.and n;!ll~ndSr-iil11p~ct'On tl_e Afg,!~'al~ pp-pu1,i1rkm, 111f)Y ,Qoor,ound. howl~'!'er; tflat me.se· t'l.:O.ops \~fere ~ym~fhlt~~·to, and :ra til!'lqdsi:ng ~V.U.h,.,l'h..~ 19~a;!I}~0plCi!, aittd lh!2:}1 were b-~~D!tt 'long ra:p.ll:lc d ;;'!i'lth el'1l'i11i~ Rll~~1,'dn.~ ..

!l[1 t11.e-re:[om~ t~'i'i! ~'u'iir.t U.l"llti~i ·e~er·ltn..3._{~ .l;ti!~'~'- m~lsio.m ~bo-ut the

~ertPtabmty.D,f.l~ " p.(I.'pp;~J r'e'gJ_~~ to ~bt:l' i-\~ghiliP t~Eqpl~' I~[ld It~'O-~"~ ~bU.it;y to l-VnI'Id ,Q:!I'!~ it· tl\Ot;!j~,~vitlh:itl C1l~ih:6n nme .~lPatll t'l'Je5e'. \Vefe :iQt)fll . .dispeU~d. L s'rtJii!i~ ~'n W~ek~:' ,after the lmvasiO;u!llie ~'o:ndon '['i,mes ('(Il:r:es:pond~lb, .R{)b~!I';t Jl}sl-:",. ~~p l'todJ al.~ ~m~J'Y~h- .of a lRU$,i;:1l1. tio.nvoy .Il Ui' m:i't:l . o~.~ ~ O.U'l i1 of the Sllla!l8 PilSS!: and-tit'. W'i! s al:so pr~;el1~ a.'~. a, :!ill rthet~ atfIH;;k fl fe:~~ dar!)" la·t'er jilt -S~obi, on. the, road between. 1fu'b;~d a!,ld·J~tl'laB)ad. In Kabu'l and Qtlw.w ('W~. ill ~€mll,l'k:-li'le l!i~:r:ie$' tllE p~~I2'~S~ UeS~Lf" dyWj 08' flii:tlr~l;~l~. . w:~en~ d!.;lry[ng. ("~u~few~" vhbtalJyfllie \'YE1~[~.lP~P:";1~;;'!;fitn]li.g~thered ~m th.eit woftops·at-uI,ghtfa1.ll :1.!u.d ;chal'd:t!tl the Mi,.t~:1'iin call 'l6 prolyc.lI~ A.l'(!i}iI·t)-.Akb~,· {'Giod is (j~f1I~). S1~i~·""u~.~'!'1:~_~I:, ~'I!~:r~ ~f'l"PillOl!"ed .:lind prec "ss[ml:'i. ,and d~m{,l;11:>tr.atiion5 Ildod~ l)rl11-221?ebi':paiy. at l~~~t .::!f)(J dyi.Lfamn\'eitd~fned dnrtnga S~ ll~e: ,ol:llid &lm,ur'ilSlfa:tl~u jn.,[<abl~l,; • :u~ calm ~~r~:!> not-re ,tOI'{'q until ll':i.(' t'ud at ~!~ mll,}~t;h. till 1,4fe Ap:r"ii ani early )I:la,y. .. stud~tsand th.O?]chtldeen b~ld a. st'ri~ qf'peto'0bSRfIUem and niere ~t~re almost d.uly ,cQ'nllt'p.flla.U"on,' ,,'~"'lL11 'till!, .!/t; u:.r:lly [Qrct''s, NU!'P'li,{!r:; o,r 'studl.!lrit-, Including glt ,SiIIldt'fIIS,I, I\~eire kll:Ue'¢I. and more wen ·~'!j!Qundo.d ,:or :a~I"(l~~d, D~ff1.c#ait,s; ·.:If 'S(\ildl~isj go\~etlUm.ent 'Qffidals~ dip]cmatslr pUDt~ i:lind(!i,>:,J!!tl'!lpm"~,S·.'~4m,sl m,I1,~tip'1Jil:d" At':l'O~ liI:l~ 'Gount~'Y gl;'i;'!~r",_ll.,.1 ~b[l l~UI!f~hJllJ'!S SO([l;fJj ftJ'Lfld thnr rI11"f.ir¥~rirt :1,'3:11 'Ill!) fi~~the" ·than the pTjndl~al ~11LtI'e.i of PQPu~~~df:f, S,t:r.;1hegllc.base.s··an~ main. llnes (}E mll'l:I11l.~ruC.I:Uo.n.. Even dl~ 1~u!;!J' ~,yen,! nOftsHf:t: nnr.l an mOV0mef:1~ had to he In conVoyS'I' "WIi1~Ch " W(!te rr"'qt:LGIll.tlY' ,~tr:<I'ckoo,. ).I[os,t ·oftt:b • e cesmtrv; bv some accounts ;11:5 muchas 900 pelf cent, waS mttside theui' conrroi, ~\ ~ r'~f~lg',,~S f1e.d In. 1.llicr 1l~,I.llg innlll-"rs. 'to Pilklst m,· snd' 'ilafl, SQ' th'e g: ou I~s 1m:.!2:d ll1,ete t· c'Il'IVo'd fresh '1npl,l1iii ot fightln,g nien .. ~Y May 'm9801, tbere were :PJob.ably;;l·~ m.Hiy <ri 750,000< r,efugees ' l.IIitkls.t~1'I1 mlo arll:rt[l~f HM},QOO lli, lr~m .. A yewr 1[I'IJCf, th!1l1r n\ili:iibcl' Ih'ld gwown~o 1.7 ndUiol1l ,:lrl.d ~~O(},.OQO ~'~petUvly, By 19'94~ the n~lInbe~ n.ild glI'l.)wn t,p 3.Smi.I.I:~p;n an.d 11'5 r:nnn~lll~ JHote th:ulI_ on.e In. th[te"oF t]:!J(i; '~o~a'i popul'tith.JI1:'ti~hi.l.PS a:UCI~lu!'i' '1.5"" Z. m!il~o:n_I)}(;'>c~I~'e ~ 1"i.t<l'Jll?'~ j)e:I'l1~esi1l:\d f1~d f1'.onl ~h,~' ICntl]l~I'f~ille (0' thli:W'~l~tiVeS(l~'e'r of t.l'1~ b)l;,\oTIlS., At th~ peill< of 'their s;t,iF'l1bitl'lit tbe "~1njjtlludln m:llj' have,-b~ able to. must!2:.f mo;r~ UllIn .l5.0,Of)U.t:lumb4llta L l$~ IllUhc1lfgh ')1 no me'an

all \~ u.ld h~~ e' Ilr!e'll t1fiiiu:tion~ i)'1 .l:ij,'; on - t:im~; '.

Mu,cb oi '1:11 rl!\!'p(}~nllg or t_h:C' AfglllHi slTu:~le_ 'wa's grss.ly ,~ngg,raled, ~t d ·us !rlot, for i\!' ;J!ftl] 1'1 I "m -u,_ t ILlIte li'Ls'$j rt ~,'iPlr j.,UJ ~~~ , h. tn L ,_ ~ ~t'_·;I;';)I~.s de splt.~ f\ !TIed n .. ~ U!;f~attomf. ~h] ~e rmr,j~ till· ,~,fn 1(iI.. 'QI,II'Rl1:l or ~ U~ 'ghitil'lU·llI'i'L:iVU:l'l~~' Imi?~[l\\i'iGd ()0n~ldembty _n U l:

teUir-l~~ Neveitbei,ess': e\o~il1 by thie stand!il.r:l:lIs at th:i~, G6IUUzyl:S ,gJl~rtiIla. w,a~s~;lba._t' waged In ~Ug~n]5t!i:ll dlir[ll~~ tbtl: .98>& W!MlS ex..::~pt~tm.itll)" :'1 WClt1!!!i, Pli ruy~ I.h I~ '\I\m:s. hl;c!I U !::'Qi. wre!.:ill a l' t!he GU'L~eil Yl1~n a .few ''\:\~'l:em ;OOfi\e,~spqlJ-de~,t!r l'vf!I1e;:i'n ·di.:e G~~h1tJ.". nw,a',lj. ti(jlildtilL1b?cl'~TtlU C)U~ (l,r [J;:re ''l;!:le'\I,~ et [he .fu1te~n;atl,i"!l'illarrtt!lrnilfllLlu:1t';V •. ''A~ lMtS Iti e:n$o~~eJ1 lrrr 'l~nil~IQ~l,&!J .conn:1;CI .• ;1Ull hl;.!ttt!'!' t.elJIlIIJ .tlwli1~ .. lI'l·l!lt Jitl .[1 It'l''ll]![,I(jbj,~ 11 orel wI~hin reach, In :AfghOlmS,too'; Gmt·; 'Ilhie '0m~$M.dtt:l carife:spotF-ctefIJt managed. over th.e yea.fS IltJ '~lla&e me r~ZlJ1:g ~lid: Ida' ;g'eiJ10us JlliIlJf!.\Jfi LO I: hear II ~ ,!:n ~'llhkh, th j nllj(I.l!llttl "' Jjie 11 _ft! llnll. Of I II ~,t:' f ~w intem.3tiolni!llol'gaflisatiQ'D en the ,~[:~nmd. ~Jedet<fJ:g ~ h,};' FriJ11twJ'(,"S tiit) f!lportli . sumetb.ingo:l' !/r'dl~t :..v ... :qfo~ng Oil .... '1iJ1lt Wi3.S ·o.:n emM '~l'Ot [0 jcnpa[['Cn~e its.limUBCiahl'Ih:), 110 'I ~'~;~h~ \l'it"I~II]!\ or lit! w,u, i'i ""eri!T't)r the ho.sF"~t31~"'lt WilliS mann i "'$ inl rhe, l:rU~'Fllbf W'\'!?Ja ~~,~ ~e '9!Zitnbed ~,the j~u:s.!f[,mfis. tn _mo.'1t gu~n~l~a\~arsi~be ~1J:,;j.t~~)~r tbe 0~C~IPY~E1~ p@\'!l'~r bas ~)~ll'I~ '1:0, ,S! ,m'~~l~~ ljhY~ SU(lr1liLllllu~ rsr'fln:t ~hJl1!' 1~~npl'l; .(;)f U-iI,;:, .coun.t~:i.'d1~r ~[I' fllo1i1t' Iljhl~ ar"~ Ael!;lr;~1I\!,etl {\lUi'JD~i sbelrer'and UlJtbrma .. ti'on; 'l'.h.e: .. nOtflHJJ D'Hl'<I!IlS .f ;hef.1:1(;!'V:i.El~' il.b.fs~ parti.ctl.la])ty 1!;L})d.ex tl1e·.g'~l\c:

O~.ltlblit.Il;~J' .hili!! boc'lii U) II'nO~ tljee!\1''III,Ell1 pfj~liLli!lU(,m into /Pil'f)l~ I~Jcd "'~lUage /j gmfrth:ml ~'liJi:Dc;pS or mimiasj 1W·"k~pjhg them a,part:ilfom U ~ insuf.g~ms. "A\; 'hia.lld wal is ibe:n f()lJight a,g.ii.in:st the ,li!liUe-r, ,whUte ... a 'hl'l'5 andm1iriljcl/:.oI~-eit~'iiQ.n is a.im.~d:';I)Jt rho Ulld - ,I']l'ft'J'll' 110 iii" wUh 'the aim orf m'Plru:rrg, tlu:i'[' lOY.Ollty to the. OCCU.lllYjlng pewer, In ,.'\(ghat1Js·t~fl~ the 'L~l.tss!ans, did not begln to ;llne1rilP'r- thistvp:~~ 0,[ "tl:ate,gy. ~n~~~,c;);d,~ they :!Ii,lmilly dld l'h~eh' besr 1'0 dI0r~Dl~'lm~fII'le th~ COuIltr}J'Srd(: hy.a'ttacking dv:jU<LTI~ in ~:he''Vifna~e5 in ;whicll ~th.'!!rl!i.""Mfl. T-J1ey .l.!enJ ¢l.·r;mQured eolucms, SJl~pp.G!i.l;l1ed by <1,ii:UHe:r.y., ailx.mft .iI.n:d h~t~(.~DI)it~H. j,rn\') arees .'V';:'here rl:'i(,~ ttlUjdtllrllit,m igh t b _l'J'csl?n t. ~~I hen the popularton fled into the hills to ~:-;tiJjj!e them they le:lll]f.dgyed a 'seorched ea.rtb' policy, deslrflyi~g buUd,il'l:iJs,! anlmals, cropsend 11'1: 'g~H on liy:s~'tnlh lind kj,IJed cmyone whQ ,Iilacl be:D I t b~hlnd .. \'~he:n th ey depa rted, the: ~ left booby traps be hInd them, Semetlrnes fhey simp~j' earp~t bomb:ed '\!m~l:t\'e:; .and vall~ys:

. n~8JJmh')ghi tbe :S;lll:rnJ:~k~! _If l'!il6ij, mdhey Ie~n!i(!d that they \!j.~!;1I',e 1~1 fOil.' <l long ha\~~r the' RU5Si,ilIU n:gl'ouped their -Eou:ccs and, ~elilJ'ied thei:~' sh~lf':gy. They n~piilulah~d m any: ,or 'l.h;~lr t~n ks and- hmrvy ~~lutprl'Umtf i1tnd .I1'llfI,d~~. g~ill~J'H~ 'i:rn(:n"i!l:;1~:Hj UiSe of h.elll(.:',op~er~1 both fur guu1l..lnd 'attac-]l; ('I~cl.to tr~!ilS,p(llrt troQP:sr. Command was d1e-voh,'"ed ,and tllC:l1~ rnade. ~nQi{t~ O.exibl.e, M.lt;Ol' S-;1l.~~pS w@[e pr~(\ed~d by ..:tLr bo:mlkl!"<Jll'm 'Ilt, and tn'~ils, Wil'Ii~' ,I~n.dl by heU(,'l'lIpit~r !.n Urq,o r.~~r I) mujaliicl'iH groups to ,cut 'off tlhdl' Jl'G~1;I.t "vhiWe a '11,'()f1Ik'all ~si3'_1't W~!i mud" . h'l [;e<spofi5e to ht!1 i,mpte.r a'lt:acks1 :the mujahitill,1 tQok~o 01'l,{)vll'l& b~ IIIIMhl.~. 'm'~ ·if!uUnl~~Ii,',,"l, ~iO d,5'I~P!:fo 1Ii~ ''1tt.~l 'k;~ :t- ol Ilal-!;" 1\ h!'I;I1'i'n~ aft;·'f '~b [h~SS,l,iUhlmt . .I\ §,~'iU'l fQn"r~ hiKll._.ft .. A' p'l'rlt ~II. ~ ~IJ '~l" 11\':\1 th

1 flj~hJ' \'nIl I y~ 'Whel\~ U·I!.':lud I)Url,~1 '(j~ 'I .ili:i1I1\~. ~n ~lmJl Willi h

Wa:s: ·s~~~e~icflily pl~~~d t1i~ftI1li~ n;;rad roO"rtl1 fl'o:m.~tibUl'l't{)"·ibie satang [~a'~, Di!!lrlng~ II:h~ ~alr:S, of tioviJet ()cCQip~.ti6i:1T Massoud, ,a.<:.qulred an' !:[l'OO'~:J:1:ilItL6trual~pu:t.atieN as i~m' o!J~~tf~nclliJ:I~,gue:l'rn~ijr ·~tbd~4'., Hls in:tentg~p"W "i,P,i};1l' ~od~I.!!i;Y: cil,n\Fid~gniQ!' ~~f.1i~·ar:i"d Hj~ fI..~j.I ~'6:r p'u'b¥i~ .tt~l'a!trnmi..s 'SB(:O[1'dj to none: O"er lhe yg>U"S~~e:Keep,~ \,,!;'he.rn: he Ihad !1egbt'l!l,t~d ~ '~e'm~oltal!"Y trUl(;'0.~h~ R(qSSil:l ns: mQL11'~ tl\d I' sut'te.'ls:~~fnI Ol[ f,n<ai~ol' ,a5Sat~~'t~iTI'!~~hC' ¥aU~}~. ~~iPd'0,yi[tI;g hel1'Y ail still~e.w,rxs well as S'e'li,~ral :thnlll.s.iillf.l!d· lTOO~·,~. Ga~u;1l1ti.1&S on. beth siJd~s w!;.:re invariably blgl}.'~1!i''enttl® Uf thij '\IilIlhlly w~~ elt'Ol r:etl, both '(iff Ilb~ ,rn.l~J(:JI:'ilUr,I' {;L f~d' ef ctvj l~mr;J51' and M-a,$HUd ttlIlIir~:ftHed hi,s o·p:e.llatJon::; to the. rnJot'ih 'of die

Hindu. ]{Uls.bi~!iher,e he cOdorXLiI1:ftt~rlre!il$taHc'e tly;, the' Sl1'1J,ft:M,

Nm~rlil:' ![Ci)lJ:ncn (}(~11i::: N,Y~~h).. T~te 'n:H~~:iM~ OIII!iO ,tri: ~ mml~e.d

SUiCIIt(:l.-SSj' t;{1iRTItetditt th.e roads: aIldt~r-.l!Us, jteacd'i ng i 11tO; tb~cou'l1ltl}' by s;trewi.ng·t:hemtJlrtm.l. 'Imtl1e.dly:':bo.mb$~J' antll.perlio.l:lill€l.! .m.iuti:s dtopp~d. fr:t},!1i~lfC,r.;1Jj~ tl!' he11c~pt(jirs:·t~I]t:~e :¥Vt~re t'lrl""'nc~bIIUtOui]I~~d as $bon~'s Ol'" 'ch~~(h'(i'[j{s teys, <'In.di 't."iI'ere; dtes-Jg-rl!ed re UII'<l:l.m- rather than kin, I>1othltnl{ was l]!hone dls(l!bJ1n.g tJo"'ague'I.·.rUla ~gJou.p: 11Il£l:rJI. t(} hllve to.cepe wi U'I a 'wi' O!l!lI ded CO!11fllltl:e wh!'J, l:urk~Jr!I', rn~dlei'l.l a~'iilg~;~ Il(l(!;f was 'liikely,' ttH.d~e jh irfly<·C~1iSf..; -['he Jillffie!i '\'I,1'e'r-e ~ljtflf.1 !J:'lli('u ~ in. ·dcsiJroyLng; .1 i.\f(Mi;to(;k. . ]j'~ J:ta:ItIOID,$ '11'[1.10 ~ woirld'i<!(Gu!.d. .hll.'I.f:e w1th\8tood tbis type oj ~'C!!rr.O!l;~ bUll .Mgb!lnlfM\il11 wa'!'i, "'Ill J~XIi;,"~I)~.i.,o~'1. Th~ ~"J~jb~I~~dj,r. cOIll.til:1necl tQ O"~.a{)ei~ clf'S);liit'U h~gh cflI.s.l!I<lltim" ~""=hlle th!;!iile~ple went Intoe~m]e jf ~b.e:raml'Jd l1rOt st![r'wth~-@ th~1 \'i\i~I[~~ ln this ithe::y!weJ'e .~(JUo.Whli~roosh:c :r~In.(:]1k pr;€"C~l:'I'I:~. 1M jl~illt:l:",i1t1ld ~j,il11[~: U: l'JiIlas IIifii.]~g'itlfi1Jl~C to ·uphG:ld UlJe f<l~tli1 'by: 1.~3iV'L11Igan '~a <:CO'IJtmUe<I,'by kaflr8i1;S ',it was to . fight the!l'l:\, Ivi.tI'!<tltwhHe 'a stltl<tdll~" fun~Y([:s, taken . of 5'ovlet: two;p~ a n.d I12qulpl'lllen~. The few \t}ul<s~de cbservers 'w;ho 1[lmvell:~dI t:n, JU-gh[!Dbt~Hl ;totlndi U~'t\ Af:gh,1;l1lIiigllWilly5 5tm;\'I'f.l~itl~ the '''Jed'is.oK Sor.te:t ranks ,amd~hicl~:5.i :8nlil late in: HH:! ~~]'. the rIUf!ahlidl,! wer:~· nu:eJy ablle tel <1rss.a:Ii1Jt :'!lhungho.lds or nx.edpo~ii l'io~lS; a!nd~'l:llreoodhe~I"~y. ·t~!S111)1 tU~s bd(m,l' 'they learnt tlili~l:r~es::>un.. Wrtlh: I:he tlfwnn""e:re i:r.l(t~a:5iJ)giy f\{lIrt~fW!,;ld, tJ]£<y \~'re however ab~ 10 [pene ~r~t1; them \\wlllJl smuLl.gpQl1p!) ·.jJ:~ld ~'!i!.,G:!~e ~uter ~ble to bOfl1hfili:'-d itlirel:Nw!lhr(H.;k<et~, lu l<a~bu!,~b'~[I!)' Wl;:.~ contjnuh],~ <l~fl&'Sin,llUO"n:i· and :atl'f!ICIkiY' 0.0 k~y ta~,8;ets, '():fg~,[Ji~tHj m~mly by KhaUs'f1(~Il!i·}.J$ihur1[. fightin;g'<11so oroke,ouJ fmlfl'i Hrn:~ tGl time tn~lcen~tl K~m(lul~wl; Mul 'Qithl;l:r lu.n'llil;w.II'li'guy~n~:rLlJi:'I1t~h~lLJ t~:'\rn$.

F~(!ed JNU h .~ CnnHITLJIFlg s~.~lc.m;ater UDJ~ que.:'!;U('Jmti.l'i;sl!l:~ whytl~ S.g,'\j'l~~' UnmQrl dtd!!'tot es{'~dintle:tb((l 1,V,a r •. '~ih,~ ~l ~.~ [1] l)~;~!i. CJ;f~I:l:.1QP~ til"'1 emr ~Gyed y~ rme.a bel~)-.;e:e].l abQu ~9{l1 GOO ,<lind ~ 1 :)~IDQClJ follr t~lQ ij;lJ"l lie: ~('i.!tl! the .fIDnHe~s '3.nd· mol:. QIJl!t th·e mt,p.·lhitJii~. Ffl;ieiUJs,",':eI[; 8:-@em8)i:o.ll~ th,!!'t· th~y. (,'1U]]1~ to, ,r~3jU~' tb;~~ t~v:~:n ma~l,ve tI'(;I~}P (~~nfOll.cf:[j1.:·n!\ l'l[{):uld . h.@ v~nk,~~y~o jll:;.h~.e~:e. ~ diIM: II..t!i_~l\l. !il,i~tQQ'i '(Ind, !~'iJld Cli'nly h.Q]ll!I' U~iJJt.'!i~OW '~,t~d~:itp,n '~\l'Qulh~1 e~luriiJI'f ~~~Il ~1(jC" mi;l'F. In '~ny ~t1S~.,

pl:Qbilem;s oLC'OfilIlJ.:urueatio!lU, miil1t.glla.ID;tt~~rt]d ;8t!PP~f ¥I~e1le Sll'l.ch thOllt lr ... ,!)~u!d. Ihrfl~'hJ~Q"O :an ID[ln~:e.n~e ta":k,~o' n~!lil'nt",:rn h.i.;gh~l: f.Q1tC,e le~'BI.~. ~m d1t~ll',en~~e,<:rf!~1 dl;[:[n.7uJl ~~.Ullil!of.y.Ad(U:I:~,(n1f<lII:ll\ ~1'I6re ~'11\" ~l'Jle .quecSuoH, ,dr '00:'>1.. ~(')V-'I~11 e~'tJe:n:dll'~:~U\eQ1[[ lfu-e :""'(11' .. d'l.~f'1i:tOllg'l:t 'D:l'lIl ,11!CC1l1l.'<ltf:l.J:y :kEi6~Yn:rl,il<iS been €.~;tlInal\:!d. at!;Hl!t.\ili'lZ!Cn $' ,and. ,~12 '1;l.iIU@"!ll (I· "y-e<[r t)~r ,~h.e rr~tl!l.r &eOlt~ of .~~ ~II)iI rl 01 ~, ,GII"\.!~[.1, J~fi' .,(nh¢lr dflJU...rlO,e ':GOD;! ml~mieli'lt.!j~<Inlj!i ]r.~ ,,~'N.e.mJ inafi1l.:;:ia,~. <l:lfDdG ~oo'1]m:Jnk;:. cDnstt::.1ffi:nbiil, iFhl'

dOllhtfi[~]. If ;ill:i!E! ~uvj!@1t .cgcill@rnm.~I1t t:oulcl b.tl:'lbe: ~toJ~1:att!tl ',EJ. fillt1J(lh 1':I:i~l'tel[' Ilg""Ullta, T@)s,rJ;~:t~Sl(IH'lI~ It~H[il' £t)1tU'llIJ[]l,ca~1;Gnsl th-c .l\l!lsf.ii;i'I.n.~ hunl, < r peJ:'nl'll1iL!'nb'w<l:d.jIJ)~TIII~~JCI.~, "l'JiCI1rn>S the ~i\:[Jlm. D<J.ry.rr and und.ertook .a '\ll);ri-ety, ·oh:-1Hl:e..r· J~l-sii~l'ilnp'110:'il'eU1:{lI1lJSj dI.esignetil. '~0 'support f:h.e.l()"fig 1~:llI[[d; '11:lQ:~!!bitl ~ OO\~l.ltil~ ~1.b.o."l:o~;)IJ( n~Gl~~IlI,~l'e.stci ~nl.ilitg~ i:ts pilf.tl\.mlmiIU:Y ro~l;;e8 .. nd P1Ut~:BW' nlJIJi:ti,Ol'S,: ~~bne 'l;bie;lKltI.AD 'W,ilS' ~Xpl~Irudoo;. under t!heCO\lllm~(n:d' of ,;" P,aR·t~:mi' do(;!:'@,r and "activi st, .Mob:arluned

.NilijlllJuUn:h. O\llJ:ilUi] . D!I1 ~h!e~,1:n'~5 ,00f nD,~ '!<GIl:; .nl)Q,aTIl~ C.ll::iit;!:ft hl

i 11 rdt1'01ittLJ:1I.8 GJ(o.u~s and in $lu!baJrni:ng·tf,ibes nod. ;illdlvJciltlal s, n:mll'be'!;s·'t(llf, ~h!Qm f-.@:rfiled, Pt~;.g;o'l!,er~m:l!mll :Hl,UUiil'S,.

'rhe, Im,jtl'1:1IMl,.l~ lnliir'j\'t:lwJl,~hi:<~Q!J\t~n.'d "ln~nl itild~)etl;eJ1t ~r;ms; a.nJd ,gmduill~I:~ t,~cact:tl;C mli)£~'~l)r~jii:l!able opponents, ~"'1'l(,fll',H;~ at tbJ:e blI'g;lrnnfn;jf. :l'b~y;' 'Illl~~ ~1rm~liI with 'oi:)"some:tc!' \'?I!<Ipons"notahly fhl:! ar.il'~l~h .• 31113 dfEe,';;-!n~ e.v:en n.hl't:WCk!V~lnd 'hut~t!l1g' rmfle~1 ~oor:tth~}~ -';'~'e!re be:l~'ll' ,eqlili.Tp;ped rJLQ~t .Q.t~ ly w~th: "IJJtl$ brot.!'g,h~· across, by deS!~r~1G:f1> or c'j:lph.tm'~~ tn ilb,tl,~ft~e.i .mlt \,'lfl:[h l""'"@"pon~, suppU-erl b~r l'~l~ :omts.td~ wadeL UI'!!tU 1986~ :~hll! l\f!lerb;:ml.';lwC;l'J!!;.l c:~u:e ut nJ'J!f~o ;s'l!pply t,ii~~:F" own ,;1.!!~ntj;, but:. bO!,ls:h~"wvJ~t-~1'I.ade l'\1'e<lp()nli 11\0,[(1 ll;gyP~f 1l'!II'fJ.ei i!;nd ~boe.\-vh~re. and s.e"nt them. intl;(:[Qugh Pa,I\:::ls:JNr:l.,. Mj].n~i~""\mte 'Losl' en Nl.U.t:e.. l)1Jl~~ C\lno~'811 ~Q~ fI~'rOll!ijh lQ lli!l~lk~ *i~:igl,)j)iflt'~1II1i~'i '1Ii!1:td 8L·{l1j, .. i,i'~" ~1!iffl;llJ~l~q~. T'h~·C:b:in@.'iI'l also s,'llJppli(.'ld aIiF)l~:! 1Af'hil.I;l:·Oothe-l' tOO.UJl~~ri!C!s. ,Tluhl.hly Saudi Amlbitt· fi]'ld tb~Glltf <~tl'.ltt1:s, cO)Ill:db.u.tedl f],]t1i.Tldiatiy. Th~ P.akiisilifl~r~ !\r0l!:'t;1;rll~'Iu\,l1(tj r'l:r illS p,,~;rt. fti.u,u od i tl":/illt lJ ]"n, ~ tJ i l:tc~~~~o'li,il,gl y u:n!:!~1 :'ill" posftion 'us the ~,1tI dE:\"elo:p~d. IPres,itt~Tillt 2it~ carne under rnrense 'vel~ba! ·.t"lll.cl ~.i:plonHJtic. pn~.$Sll.[e· :[rxn1lll the RUS5iiir1S;' '~[ld t:hef~' W~I:e I:jJp~~lti:ld vi("ll,;'!ticm:-! of PI1~j:li1~~:rii ui'[·i:il:).j~cc. The pJ:lii;ili~lnLc~: uf ~!lJ ma rlY :r"efu81ees, "".th th!e ~0.00'lnp(if-11~~Ilgpt~SSW[\es Oll ,~and! eW]}j:iloynlent and s<ef';lices, ,also .(.rea t~(l ,())us.ide:ri(,ble- dHlic;u.1 ti~!i,. e"Tte~l Ihmj>g~l, tempered, by the prilll,t:'i~'d!li: rJf r,u.4mr.ls!ltt, IrJI9g,~)!. tI.l~ C!itlfteir .gpvc~'rliMtellU:o:llTI'r~d $!:I:QGI mimonwQ.:nh of mUlt:lfj' ~i'lid.erc{)H1!Om~!i.:ilJd, bl!j.~,'. i,t) an ~.st'lJlbe:, n~{)i\1'"e, Zifl dlsmb~d Urls a.nJ;ot.H1it illS "P~Ia:f!iPt:s·', He bi!i.d· hl;.s ::reWllW h1: ]'9'81, ,i!ft~liI P~!>.il~h;'lll' n~ag~m CMnc~(.J 'pQW 'r,~ ~/!1h~n h~: W,[:H'I!1.;,rr~W(!:d1:.ilnd

"lQLepted, ,OJ. $3.2· fu,]n~IOTI die,,1 t "'

(In th~ f~II.J1i~:[Ian,. si.d~., H1B~~,,-,rl@re b'llC'!leo1l:$\ngly d!:J:g(i:~ltpOOtlle.!:nS"'9f nU"I,fllllcil'. ,i~I::OI1'M1~ llO.~~bl:ntl!l,gl H wru; ',il ~1'l1~.~ f'Qlr 'U:V(!i L\(!d, 1\]lI1lY"~Q' IirH:I, tl1!ruJI "M' I~"Q~TI b~tn~ .~~ AEgt);JIijiSli1U'}'" ~l'~liJfi I] r~llI()w ·m.iIiIlm~n1H '~t::I!,Jlntrr I\"C-Nl~t ~ll~1!I1ftl '~':~!OJ'f$lI~tpn~ l,t W~l.'!; d ':i~,k).<l~' '~I ,t!:fil.t!II1!~~~WilH~ul~

i{;I:iI~o ~eie defending theiJ: h~ll!dam i!lgaj.ll~l the R€d {''flll; U:fi"lU. QI:.dtt' ipart trout Ui~.b~tHe ~u'aL1=i:t\js'- bi}~ tl e: nd of [983 some fi;·.oOO ct, ad ~rld ,ijon.: 'II~~n ;1:t1.ot)O 'w(:lunded ' .. :,: !i~~nd~n·d~'·of hYB1e:r~!li i~ni;J lilt odjt~~d :tlre w.eu;;: 5'ol¢w tluilf 'tiJl5:Uillt.1.e!'i~.fT,Oi,n ~uch C9Im];daiIV~ llyb,E;'U EIUOke, ~eJi,i~lt1s •. ,ty,:pblJl~.~. dy;s~lJ~t~lY~i!Iile:i.1~ng1Us and l'ru]a]at~a W€i\e: (nJ'iP~mIlig, ind fI:JIL: Ru~ s i,~n~. ''Wef.'G. hiiLl.'d1 pot.lot to: I t 'h~ kf.!el:i thelr u uj ts 'Ulii lc l !!l~.ife:l1.g~ h. }iiUJiI' :aDid akohpl ~lm,:1Nf; ',1: lib·· be{:ame ~."tio[J~ problems, nle Afa'hiJfl" IJ~Ql)\ oD,·tbe"oth~r .nmfl. J~,,'e it bette'1' aceeunt (if -itsdf'-a:;' ['he 'O'tI'<Ir. ]f'-f;lr"~~d, Oncfa;~tbrw~,~ Ilh&l,.whel'~a~s the mUj(lI'idlll hll.d wel.t?omed le:relJ::t;ers, in the earlr 1"t1gf'S. tht!y vprelatermor(}inclined"'to kill any \Jghil:l,l sK')adler-s'wl1o migl,t -come aCluss. 'his slilrenoo OOj"lsidera.bl'y

:b~ Afs,h~,m il.l'myl.~. 'W'l:llln~rn<ls'~ to fig,b'l. ."

11I1H {or ,a ],m:;:l~ of' .tIW;"Ii(·t),ess. in 'tihe '!i(l'It'l'ct Union ··of \VhM '",<lS i~.'l!pG.hll(1g. it lis, dQ_ubt.ful If [be .. gow:r:li;ru:l~~ wtdd: ha~ tliiL s ~ai:nect the· ~:~r b,$' h:m,g ~s, I.~ did. Uy ~nd Jl'II1.g:~. '~I :Il'C''WS 1t!1~ll~kJ:YIJIt 'w.its.~mnlil'linMI~n~d r 'p.:~ tI'I.I.~.tle:IiS (]If. Mll'i,d'et 1m I ed find v¥O~.md:~d . were kf'r;J:t secre ~ and .vGluiided s61dlers. were St'IIII. tn remote .. 1.ccatiOll.:!i fer i:n&1.ttmcn.t.1£Iv. k9iM; Ii> _.'!I\~' . ~ r,. ·lncr1ms!ng, .. m!lmil1ers of rtoUJJ;tl: ~I or; detp. ,lb·! II i SI?~ Af,Glfmll.~~: WC![e Ilrlnging' Oil. k nccounes of tile war. and th~ fact of ~onsmeI\ablg fl~~mld~rs ". '(j( . SH1!'i.e~ casua tles coul.d. .no' 1011g'er be :0.111 .e1 I "1. Or,at)u"dl¥> thf!A~rt1on bt!Jg' tI tor il.11.lll! l:hnl AJgh i1i'n t'D ~a ·ilfe fa ti.n ~ jt ;.w,i;th an i rtr:w(;~abl~ pn;jb~.em .. At til e: end! of 1'9841:il.[1 ~d :a~!'MI5~i!ln, 'app_c,ii:fecl ill1 .. lZw.'Slda thaL'~!'lmls' casualties' we're, )~ing lm;u.rr~tl. '.N"U!tu~· ot blS' J:lnU~_[~:tt.'tl the Sll(JL·c'l~\lon ofl.d men, El~ h nev, Apdil!():~O'·t, ,ifnd CI,W'fJTI(l;r:l1to. \l'iiJw benl'!l:ee n them h~ld tb e t:e'l'ns"o~' IGade-~:!i1~jp· .in the '!tilI::J!ly 1980s.lD. Man:h 19t!;5; .~l.o·\!\~eve.r, a new :l'ir'e.ct1mi w~ti given to tJ'i'i!l' !ili'M, wh)1:1 C.hera:u~nk;o was succ edcd b MIkhail Goch1lch_v. TlurSOivl'(;t lJ'nion Wt1i 'lilO'iI"J' fur the. first tim', to have a .I'~<llisU polky [or del1lii'lg wltt:l\ ·wlllat btl' ",,"<lS 'to desert be In Fleibnu!lTY' 1~'86i1s il "IlI- ·dl.ng Wei und' .

W'~l1.le ._ G .. p:~bl.d. :Ie:l.'. ti.1~!..8 1~!.'!~'1. gl~~Jl ,~. "~c~r: ".d.- Jt j~Ir.' .~ •.. ~. (:e!l~t.il.J' .. gt_l .. ~.' e l!1evltil.P'l~~l.~d~ ~ndJIrlg ~h Simn\ 1 UI~H:m ''8 dl'j~O:'i tWIIUi:S m'i''Q']V:001ieLit

In Af,g;l'f1lni$..l;im, It i.s :t~ss 0fi:e'lJ: .i;em,e1l1beli:etlttmt 11f" started bv .gi·v:ling tb.~·.ql'II'~':jry i-:.y at illl. ,\1 il;i.·· h"~Q S~i~ vii:hetlJi.cll1 11'11~r oulld gel O'n 'top -of th,e. pnal1i1m. He "\f-n~'\inJb~bt), I Jc~JI'hQrn 1'111 .. , utset that. a withdr.tW~ \"ilS~~ne\r~.liable :nptjtq:st.kieca iJS€:·tbe. Wat cOtll!;l. not be won ... bu l ,a.l· 9 ~c,!U.i.~e ]:l~~ ~ 'qlll~U nU8 nee WQuld) Im,pedt' ~hl2 wider b~t-ert\i!'I~ tion.al]in~tia:~ivt~ 'fiif! ~w .a ~ 'i.nd:is[Xin~illbl£', r'iOliibly E':st~W~'s!tt detente tI.n(l ~l(a.pP'\6Qt~e1rlent l,'l,~~th Cbdl].,f. HQ\c;'eve:l:i tn ]:{r:ie'lld~t1 [,e''nn:.> he w),!$ llblmrd~y young! .: liI!:!: hr.ad been a m'~mbf'~·')f the l~o!ttbtllIO full" bjj,ltw~lY'livt' yC'.<I~:ii Elrld hL'li el~cJiolli a,. Genera] ~·ueti!ry ~Jf the crau had -b~en 's:trol1,gJl contested, He' .aJS'()i. had a; full a:nd. p'~es~el1g agr-enda for the I'dorm and modetfllil~~\t'lIoll of· t"l:l.e Siw~et: Union. It i::i uuJlke1V. th.'r,efclf(;!" thilt h· '. Quid have g'fFolided at that s,L"ilg¢ to clJa.Ih,;!,n"ge !:.he:

IilliUtary-and ~(unt}T,e5tabUshn;J.elitl5 whose prcsti.ge \!filS \'~r~r:much at ·slake bl Afglurn.:bul.n. A·'Y~'i'~liJtl~t '\~Uh bis personal "u51t.ion mCHF Afll'dy e$t~bU(;hed, rhe til~'i,k Ipv(ndd he u ,gr~at deal ~·'l5~m·. .

] 98S: t,vas. accerdl ngi)'·., 11 ye.ll!r lra which the l:lgl1tLng W'iS pa~tic.:ul!l!dy ~nt~1ut' ,liI.n'llll.:'llt:;:lI.'I.l'~~ies;, '!::loth. d.vUi.a.n ~ln'l min ~:~rYI h.igh. i urtng It,r the Soviet and f\fgh<lll, for~~ m.!ld.~ tr\h.h. ,c:nbrtj··ttl ptc\!.rt~nt arms and 5.UlPlJ'llJe's, from reaching the' li'ltfja,tlidlu E·atu'l,'l. raki3ta.n ';tnd JJa,I] .. ~nMi\Y ·I.nd June Ult':y laun 'h~dmalot '~I~!i1'i:lW'lli tn thl:!Kuriigl\'

- ~iilll.G)r, apparc:rHly u:'li.lig napalm 111: tl]~ -process, but ~m.i:ed b ·113vlllg to· t·,':itl~df<l'lv·. They, ~llsu mounted 5e'i."e.rta1 d rlves into the Lop" w.ll~f an I. U ell- wa fi"fC~ IlghUng in '~kt).l!l:. ,_vUh.h muluJl,lrJm"unilblc '~O 'I;ak-e tho :{otrtrcss tlDl·m 'of Ktlo t/ :I-ut'the Ru~~sin lIJ!·3bl·· l ~ r Hey, U. !:n ,['G,jU'; if 3,1.\11 nllrue' ,C'n.lrp:lil:.'iln,g use W __ s made tlf hene Illt .]':~. ud !i~ !.!ils'n.!l~ t .flit!i" ,~md th~II;' ~ '1i'!:I rl~q~e!ll viltl.ll{IUml~' uf P lit 'l.wn n

;g<ad. '!lilJ:lrlra~ii:ls.·ac:rOIiS tb~ J'X¢.I.[iYet. TI:jI~ ijutC:O:I11~~ hO:t"'l't~'[; w.rui::.l]ltti,,e frilJe:l'er~'i' ;ri'()l'li ~hfi:t' ,()(; p:~~v:~Q~s: Yilll.i$, I~Olh '(h,@ rmj'~~~;j{lt~1 : nd t1w, RllIS"si:llI n 'a\l1Id ,A.r:gh~rl if'Q,r'tt>.'i,tooi;;: '[<ISUil,l,tl!(,S, b~~t th£~iI:(ter wen'! !lim ~ [ttlj1.ll~te l~'ip\t¢r~tiC"~ tb~. 'nwj,~I~i{iio;f -~l,ilf?;l?~Y" OO'l,~~es ~O[d'0mi~te" th,:e ~m,.:n~r~!~ldie:. '1111 ~:'tQJ,)~n"f~bb 'iI£I.II~~~!~ Ul~lr, s:u.t~~moo s~r:~Clu:S!iie~ll~iCb~. ~t1~ ~b,;nVQ'Y~:' ;C'~~: .it.l~~e "~1 . 'r .pc11nt~nllrd:~l) b~ ~,Jn~Il!$)lll~cI. '. [n J~H~"~~ M,~£.soud};~,"Io~~ .[1;tt.~:~k.~d. ,',d tc:t~~ a st~ongrl-¥~eJd $O!)I'€IO:tnen t p~st ~~l l~CI,gu:~. ~j"lpl:~U'H(!g. 3~.enlql: j\fglla~l an~'IIy (oo~f!;gtl.'tlonm tbr;!'p~Q,gl~~. rhle ,'f1.'I,rrj'ltlualn a I SCI m~d:tz .. ~!U(!Qe-ss;ftil~ ~tt~~l~ nn th~ ,il:.i.r'b~:;~!!];a:t Bag:ram~ &;:~'ifl~~ha~al'lH:rSh~nd ~U4.! ·'wJ~if t'ije 16.~~iM:l fN:gb;an. gTIp: O',[li t'h.e l ar.g~r tbw:!E)$. 5l.!cb as Ne'~i\~~ [(~I'iI!~~hil!jr ,ilnd G.h~ll:]~t \~"~, hll t~+mtft~o:t ~a [l:lse:{1;uoo:e. 1<tibul·+i:s.~llfc":iintiL1,lIJl:idlx) b~ '!nlllin:;j!,~e~ ,i~nd b01nb~r(t~1 [joy ~pclk~t~.

Ti~~~~~lS ,~I~o' hH.'r~i!I~Jl1g .h~~~:t:~lo1!UrQiJ'l4~ 6q~'lc.~tI1J 'Oi'IJ.@rl,'i!+H1'J!<t~[ rr~1~5~~lp~a:Hmn tn ATl,ghanils.tan. In cM~lrcb 1.9~Sri !,u~Qortp~~'p!li!;~d ~~r thie 00 Hm.l1ii:n t~i:gh"'~ Commiss],on1 t;'l!lVC an a,cmu"htp[ 'serio[ls <lIJ:nd WJkI~~J.!r~~!~!'(%1~tD;~~~~. ~J:tI'n:l'!g;.~. ~'O]l$; b~,~ b~@~l.:fo.lllld. ~o b~ ~lll~Ptj,]fl£ it

:I:t!:liib~rait~ ~i~' ~f lfjomb'l:ng ''V~ ~ I \lI:S:~s r rn~ls.'iOp,(!;thl ~ 'c,h~Hi-a n.'lilin"d

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~x:~~m~' . Ji:~'[1!'d ·gl]j~:riifi.ll.la~, ~hlle ~.~1iI!e..~00.0cm p.o,I.lrt'lC<'l. p[l~Glne['.'i

~~,,~~e bti r, ~g. ~i:t.4l1 6"1' Ir;u~~gh~.iil ,g~~lli11~~nt A 11~it:!M ~~pl;}ir:~ t'Q"nC]~de~~,

tbM On!! h'l:iId~~~qh l:JoJTI~dQ\'¢r a PQ:~idd Q1t I1lIl'e

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m.o.eo ~'1I.l!'~ha.1] ..,~aSu,.:'I,II!tles. ~,m:ture ',I.l~."1 Itn:<::t].

':tG'ut . ~s~·: tra:p!I d~~~UI~~]"~1l: tqY:'~' ~~~l'li!fed a!'('.l."flcf theC9!~Hlttyii,c.lf~., 'Wel. ~ftu/!G. dVlJ'I')' T.'je,~ ;~irlflt~(!d tll :t;omm~:nd'~ll~ suppO'tt-

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:zyl: 'l"::t~' .. "V,a:st nl,ailqPDl~t'o.tl1lll~,,"'3!~l~o., , .

. A:gil!ln'S. ~hi~; b~ck~IJ''!,~I" lih¢~,e W!ll~' JU.'iW .<I. $hif~,111 UI1~~!.'ld S~'li~~C:!;1l pCllj~y~ tH~hefhJ'j :the Arnene,~us~ had . p\~Q'v[ded .~'rms til) the' ~1·f,!'~idhitli1~ i'udj6~:;lt.t:~I.y and:q:l~r¢~uy. Pl:;e;s:t~~n~ 'RlI'!aga!TIr~ ai'I1:I. ~~e-~·:t.'l!S,ro birv'Il:!,' !b:£~"4' ~O" kl\!!\ll:l' th~ RU!i!i,~ .. u wtu:~o,~r b~.Qoo.i.n:g. r"lIJ,'er C:h,~n h~ ll, .pm'lY l{:J ~w ritrli'tlh:~rJill' vi:C:l:nr,Y'- ·rb~ Arn~r~!mJi[J~had' C-X.dlls:id~r a bl(ll'l?:SciJ'lf<Iitious Olr',tlll~ Z::in-illd-Ba~·$dtti.a.Ii!{ihiPr'l\'oci:th i~$ daux~I~'Js'fin~el':lil,d.earp:rb#~mn'Le. j:tt.' ~?~l!lral1lc,e ,o:~ d:r~g ~:mll~,g·1ilng. iJJncj. _If,()lie-y 'Q~ givr.ng PfJ~f;aliG:doe ~q U~ \ morr,~J!:treme fJf ttle' ,i!Lrgh<lin I"~Slstaace grou.p~. The !tormpfio:o ilD~' di.vl~lo.m. ,iIi~nbng' these 'g[OUP~ were . .also senous q1S1n.Oir'J1U.ve~' to It po~~cy :of ,~I.i ... O~l sui)portit~hJle the t1sk of So¥i~t ~~.pr~5'InJ~· h,ad '~o ~\1 boul.c in 1fi~T1d,ifiP'.1il"I:;~'iil,Jlwen:' seen to be Plil)!t"fJ;s~otll,allf~ (!pm.~t~rn ~.rmi,ng -and ;~l/iJvpofUng 'Uooe reS!i.st~!1,ce, ;1)01 hau~. ever ':;1CIp'lrititka~tfi,1:;l WOOIp.oUS·j ~ut;h a$· s.u!'fil!(.';~ ·~o.~h: .!nls~1]es~,wlth ~. (,~Jt'eSipo1~d'Lt4g In~s- 'tiI,I' wn~ m,lmle'r t~l,eiretl"~ntuil~ de1i.~l natto 11I/!,1\las v ~~~o seen. a~t! Ii w~:'le ~ njjl

~ven 'diIJ'i1.gerow. . . .

In ~~9'B!I!.. ll:UW'~'lff;l!:~U'I!~ A~ue:rk'!IO$ g~J~' .:th.eir, .first O'vi~d ~J~~~jtl'(l~ ~s~ijjiw:Il(;'e ~ $'50 nlHl.kll~, .. to Ute mrrJ#rhfilidl ~nd ~!;:!ey tnC!''eiil5~Q. ~:f;lJ5. ~uhst~:nliilUy: 1.1]1 J 9B?f'\''ij':it~1'" fr.d:licl~@'o(" $,2itii~ '1.-.i.l1iflll]", (I~spIiH~J>~d, {I"{.lln Ul~ 'CI:A l;li~ag~;t,cqn~i,~~Ir1ibl~' ,~~udJl~ :Ch~[1lesc- {in~l l'!~ht:Ir' rl~~~ ,11111~'n

le!ld·ersh:j,p"~ c.on,s·j~tin:g,Qf himseUJ'-!<Jl.rma.1 as P'r~sid~n:I-au'd Sll!~an ~\U K .. 5h I~nl~ind , a 11Qth,~r v,~tel',!ln P<l.,T:(;b:.q.m:l, D' Pfine M iJil S,[~~ _ In Nov.~nb r, r(3.[:IJ,laIWill~ finally eased I:H.!,t and eX:i.loo, '~O fhe?~~~t Uni.Oill, ·OI.nd\l'l,~as rep.~aced as, l~~!.d!!il nt by . a Ilelative ,n.(ln~n.IIHy~ Moh,tUl!l:ffitl,(i Cl'l.MfI.k,anl .•. Jn P.l'~ctli;[:l~. Ilo;ai~buW~h. W~" ,e.r:n;_~b!i'l.l'~ly '1.111 ,~h~lr~e, 'l'ht:I'1l: y;"~s bllk.of KarlllHll betn.g .an .1i~looI;:iO;!,i:(;. Oil' 12\l'(,!,:n. "t~'~i~,g' fmm e.l:niI2¢:r; ,B:utitbe. reasons fo:r :hl:S. dlEpa"[tlu,e, were c:LearLy p~::l1mpl~: 'im ail(J.gether s,tl,"Oflg'e i .and n'lOr~,de<::iS!iv.t!cllr~f'-d!-,[e:!( W(l!s.ut!~· d it tile ~n!I?A VI;a~ :lo !:illfViv" ,~ S~vw'.t d -pauturn,. :suppo.rt kl(r him nl'i;!\!~f'lh!!Ue&s lin,;gete(J, withifll the- PlJlPA~ ~)il£'n ~.f1:e:iN~ll_~butbl~l~a's'~led{ld, Pi~'Sid(fnt b¥a.,fur·bhe,i' lo'rf Jirgn in Novmn~jf 1~&1. . .At lhb Jj'fgl~, yet. am:,l'th~'f ll! rte:w CC'!'i!il'iltl if.ltHl.Ia: r . p,rQ~lilll,Sfl.t,oo;'pr()v,wding. in tiIItVJ'Y. EOI'.iI mu'lyj,'p3i1tydemQ~ra;('y- s:om@wb~.t on the. _Itries of that J~~t)(l~:~~;. in 196~~

mectirms .were·hJ~ld III AprU. 1988, but we-:r ug~ m 1.1.IT:ut~d to a~~.M ut~der ~'CI'V nnment c.rioJl ~:ro'" h:'I l)rllcti-;.::~~ :['I;~~UbllU.alll 'I!'!(~WC~ ~;ed Ii tight {'on.tJ,:1()J of e-N~Cl]ti.'\1e pcfVJ,leli:

'On ~h'l!. nmJah',Mlu' !ii~!I"i!, .f:r~h ,el'fmt-s: 'W1I:.'11i! made :t.n J 985 tQ _ estabH~,h unity, A 'Uri'l!l:~\(J MiUtant Command' \''\''3S ·fOl'!1lI:d1 but' oen fell_ llP~,1:t, .• as d.idan assoetatkm o:ff the ~le""€tilm.~inresI5talJJ\;e Sl,lJtJp:~ il:ll~s:h8it,"";ar s . kn'[Hi!i'n ~i.S the "B.L1l'Ui'C' tJnlt~r c)$"A.fghards.ti'l!Il' . .A ~r!ii~l:en!ttd.I:5:1:rlCI.i;n.~lkm ~')n '~h""l POlI'Pt ,ot ~ll,W eWl!C~rned "ts. 8I.:l'':Io~d~nute~itdlrvi dlilaJ iw~~r~s:l"'S ',\T<IS ~ompo'1;md~d byrtl1.-\ Oe.RQrts;whiE::h met .wtth rome success, in sowing ~i.ssmsi'ou aud. (j galllrS:i.ll:g .a!l.~l1S~ij[mtions 01' :key'ln:d:lvlduaJS!.',A P:~l'fEI;';l~li11:~ prnblam WI the ~;rot!ps" "iii'S til ' '. amllHle' ,tlf. G~~llbutl(_lyn Hekmatyar;, whq set his fu(:et\gailuit arn1,;att:empts.alI', coro:proil.ntS:~j \~~l~e ~OmltblUl.flg, '00 enll,yJhe b~ddng.o~ tbe·II'a~lsJan gqve'uUlilietl't. llllhl'h ii>'C~(! al50 'm,[ilde i.n 1985 to' unlU:e 'tI1e Shia g:mrups, SYL:J:ported 'by Iran,

II mong whom In'·'fighting had beiin va!l.1i·(.llhti'"I.}'i·fl.t~ose. .

In u~8,lnmd 19'8:7, . biHer Ilgihling continued, but tht?· p'I:t~'~fn, d th,tl'Waii fe:Il'W,i11:l2d l!)r,g~'l~ unclrtmwged., The RU5Sbmi'>~~llld Atf&ll(1n~ Iilnrad:e i:lJlcr~~ing use o~ brJbes and "C-)·tlh.etpl~e~ures, iil ·():id~rto ;g'a:i.1l1 l~Ultlill &UPpOl't/ and meumed 6.ll!ct«:o' ~ttn;c~ tn ,[l!f(!as. !!\~lle .• e th.~ ~U. {!t. N:elped by "!nlpri()\I!l'd hUe "mg~Il' e ,:;Ind ttleti~Si Ihey oft~n h~d ~~e' better of the fighling'duiing .specific O]Je<rat:loHs. In Apnl 19816 .. ~r e )UII,np]cC!; t.h!:l I'Ilu}'{,~fpl:(~lil i. slljJemd beavy (~l!l!u.;d t!.'~ (I.ur111g aI1 .. ~.I ~.(il~ $.-()'l/i.~tlAfgh&_1'!, OitTens:j,,~'tl hl 'P1lII'kl)"iI, wh~:n UHl,J'lfroI11:.i~r 'I'~ .e O'J:t ,Zha~~',1fr '!r:Ta~ ICi:llphu~d. Scorcbed ,earth poitCl'ei! arid the depopu~atlrln qf t1~e c()unlri'sid12 , ... 150 [nade '1'l'p'n:)greS$i'\'fd~~ mo.rt:! d]l'l'ft ult [o,r lhl,! 'UI~~!(d'J~Uu to 1I1Jst~bin tb~lm! Ilv~s. UIJ' 1;11 "Iill" ,~\lpply Hnus rol1lliiili:HlU OpeDIU1.~Y ~tm got '~h.e::bC'tt@'I ·of m~.i::i.y enCO!l.!nteIiSjil.n~. Dpthing cQ,u]dpll'e~e~t, L.h~ir' N~tLI:rnh'l,!g to! al1e'."I:S In (on~e:t1tlon, ()n.c~ gOVl@'1'mf~r;m~ ru.l'f~!i. I')llr;! w' ~ h:dlua ~\tn, fighti ng con U_!l'lJf'd i ~ lll'nt1. 'iU900~t.I~I,~:rot:.md" Killn~~ ~~r, ~.Il(1 Kabl,iill ''i'1aS again bombard!ec 'byrockertii .... \"Vlie re.l<Sr "it co~dd t1t ~uh;1 till, I In Hil.li~ 11d ~Eltl MI:I;! Hd~ W:~:ll; iti'gl,:llItllll~ tgt ~Llrn ~Q •• ld1 , dle

.'nUjrlflr,llirr, th~y ~r' 1Il'!J~\r ~hm"dng tl1~t Ith')r could . U~i"\l'e"i1'1ild ~1;1 iJJ.ldk.atWrln!'ii, \vere 'pG,fHI!:ifng to a t~b.lltlnuiQg ~'~aletnJlte~

SlUice 1.918,2.. ·~,1"hl.1 I}.icg.o .(wdt,Vi l 01 n._'IJ. 'drl'l" W.~i,~ !lPP iut ,'d, t(~ UN S~r~iiI'l'1" 't4e,".ru',al~~ P''Tso!flEil Repte.scnitoilti:w 'for /"f:gb3'..n~stfi:t:l,; !le,gotllatiCltJSi lIDifd h~N;!!!l und.er' w'ay lot. ,(I, 'jJl"esb:]\lfj~'n (lI~ '(he l\f$l:rt~i ii!s'!Jc, A :liU{l~ _ ~,i'··10 ot 'pmxlm I ty Uti kSi bet \'~lel!:!'11 .~k!~ A.fg,i UI.I'l 1IL~,d ,PakiisfanI gm~mFflil}nt:'ii' had talrei:ii -p:l,tit,~ tn. 'Ge.n va, so ,tined becat15¢' the -l~ald~t,aIll g;lI1'~mIt'lll:!flt fIa:t1refuS!!dil'o .t:~_gnHre 1ill~AJgh~ll .. re.gitii~,· and !ull ~li.l-g,' Ut:!t!$' rwmn the tW;(j' ,1de.~· 5111: . if I 'Pi"! rate menu J' 1I.'I'liih~ C0:fdol'fllli; o1u"ld t:H s:~a:tF'-:lb~l1ttlin~fb~li-We~'l:lifl~l~nl, In ,do"~~ ,1~I:O·ltiJ,nitY1 '~C)() .. wtl.iEe 'nl1':ires-enJa:U'II'i;':5 'of lhe::SOV1'et a:l'lrl us· ··:go~i'e:[nO;U'!!1ltsi \'i":ll0\\},e .!il:!1 Pt)fl foil", find ;Ut~~ il!l\t~s, QI I 'ca !idllern~nl '';01..1 I (]I n c~M1rUy b~ crUciaL. The h\~~i1I§(n'~ifllmen'trerU[:i~~ ~~~' t:ll,te '[llJjf~, ini-1.~e ~alkS,b'lll kern LtseJI .Io~y [llf:O[Hl~ij_. b~II'!1Ul~'?Utlj~1 "i\tere not lIn'V'It-erl and r.~~'~.r:v~X1 .: ~ hrtlr i'1g'r'n tE) i,!!:no:r~ n.tJiy 1~51~~mten~ t~u;;):b:ed, tn.bt1!t'l~~'t.lJ~ UU! Gene;.l"a s~s'S\iOfiSr ·@orr~m..-e~ ~_hYL'tloo bt',t.W'eI!:r:1 M~~$to\1'" Kabul, r],T;;I.ri1ii'1· bad and T b If:"dtfi, i.l1i . ,,!foIl'S to' f no a ~ St!5: ki:l' tallin:.!f title process .•. ,wlh!2r. 11 I:r~' \,\';w five Inal!'] T},h'li::s. or iln~n'Ui't1ent s', 0'1) wl:iJ. h agreement was 'J.;]!'ee'd~d:" nOli·mterf~tt~f,1lC ,ti~ld nal~j~i,llkPo' ·ntion ~n .A.f'gh,m int.'et'lla] aQi,IT5~ rIilt~r.:n:a,rle:ha.l gu1fra~'te~ .for the 'settleinent ra!! :il~~d, ~hc j\OW.fn fit[ ru.ru,g~', thco wnhclftlW~l 'or SOI(Jlell UOO.fL ~.nd th~ iorflrl!,!,ti(lrL ()Fa~fri;a:[1dlt lr,<IIi)sitllnnal governmel1t'. Until 19H51 very Ilttle ~g[em'll.·lIrt wa.:s~reat'hed. on .3!II'l;}'.of these poll1t~1 1~U!t ft~ the 1P.I:uxirnily II. 1I~~ h~ld.ln iJU" (if that y~,ul' :'Hilnle ~.gl'et'r'n~nu W~:~ re, J\lied OIl non.i'n~:el'\i!"e'~tl:om: and at th~ end or ehe fl;,'J~if' the United i5t.IJ.t!l'1S agreed In p:ri.ndpJel!o act as de guarantor. BuL the talks re[}l!.~'1irl.eCl: dotldJ If:l.::dI on tht! lWI1 Il1llmnr I Slg:-S, th~ '.dthd:r[l1lValloff,ovri::!1 troops and cont:i.ll'l.li:ng support far the Afghim gownmli'e!i1:t on fh-s one hi1lim:'l and the rrmjli'lIiiiiJmn 'tlil!: (i)l her. 'h.eli~ W"it":;·:a lso much dtsqulet over ti, e pl'o.~JPecj l.lhjfJJ ~ ~gr~~m1i1 en I In iMh'!. 1:11('1'[ b~ rt!l!:d\~d m~~'l' the ·'cmn]MJsl'uon. 'of ill OO.Lm:fuO:1] A,f~:llan )~iJli~entmlel'lt.t() tal~ nver '{!fter :n.: SOviet· wl;~bd r;l~',aJ. The Sod et government '~'1'as' nervous: abour the SUr\'i:\;abiHty or the NajibuUa,h reg,if!l~,~, ll\l(;; Pf.lkls-tjljjrns ilhall 111 UU.l ~bs~!I1(;(l Ot . a ((J~titi.OIl1.; fhe dvilwal£'\yollid be Ilkel::;-to contll1u(;,:',aud the refugee~ t~n'w In on Paids:li<'im son;

In. ~,9b1'6, i."h'l<WC'V(!'.I'.1 iilI! 'l.he 'Y~~~!'Wiveln hy :t'1r.1~l;Hadu,yv [0 h.~s II':llU.1tdJr.y expited, tn· ~Io~~i.m~ st,Hl:'i:ed ~o move., Altel:Jdy,ln No\'?"embelr198:5.'1 at.lI ~mmna!!'ll:>eHng whlll.!!i!'sidenl Reagan at Geneva. he hard mnvey:ed tlJe l00.p!ieo sl DIl th"tll h \'0/'11 l.ieri:(m~:ly look :ng f~r ' wY 'ClUlt, In Ju:ty F986, he ltHltllll1~d, ij,'ii a tQk~n of g~od faith) tb.ewitbdr'i.I!~''iI] ~f S'!(m t.mop~lrwhld:l took phH.:~ ~n Octnbeir·()f ~IH!'l,yea(., H,c d,lWlJ:r~.b~d.' ttll:'t .~.':i II'nl~ndifid w ,~i\l' I U!~.t"'" itj\p-ett~1'>. ttl p)l ~ lelll ,d· ~l(}I'tn'~~U an'~' \;!'J'lldl d ok UHIII • I ruop!l w' lJld be '~""t~hd: n,WH ~I It 1 D.1O II !i 11-J~lr'~d~)I: :l,' 1 t '!lll co ~d I uiid :l1r,PIfI ,.. I t.~tL W I 'Iii) L'b 'f4.l' w&.~ )1 II Hit-

~eelJtidKpn [j'~Qi~it 1]1 e~:iiU 1;51<1 rU::tl'.ofd!l!e ·~iritlh.dr.ift'if.d~. ,\"~~~sJgnN~;r:a.tJ~ as a.· gJ('~,t:i.:tre: \/iicilS .. ~eaL .'f~1tHie e~l·cl oy' the- r~ar~ GOI:lbatJ1J~\' SU:l:illi.m:I.1I.Il'e"t1' Nni.ibllM."jlJ.I.~ t:o M~cow ahd :In"fm'Tn,ed Inm :~hUi~; it wWhd,I.·~·mll~!~'s 'I'mw .~!ll't;~]e~. '[Jf.dk;Y; The·~.e-ilIi"ti:lir, fhe·j):fHl'in[u:{lb]~m.'wa:S. ~h~ n~lgtL~dn of.a ti.Lm.;ern:~le" H)e. A,fgL)un .fi~g~Ua:wlI'·$ l1'e'~!Jlntng by' ;(11ifEr)n.g IDll;[ :t~MS @liM.!hle II~illtifshlni~·~~l[PiIJl.ath~!;gtb~~11.' 00 'wm' ~nal'1id"liii,. Illy ]\;I(t1~d, l[lf the (tilli\o!iVLn!g j,d;~ll[u I '1::h.e.AfJl;hi~r"i~ w~nf oJw:e;r]'!ilr ei:;t..~@eJf.l~ mi@nths., ·t:lw l~ol~lsrn.l1i(.ilJ:l:siis.l;:jng lo.'J1 nO!1l'on~ than '.s.e~.eIl1.Tbe· dend.kH:k '~,,"""a.'l.1Il(\) cmi:nrme u:oU:~ F~I;iL'1i!arjll~8g~ ~'i!herJ, Go.rflIM;lfI~v ·lbftlk~·ll lbY"it!TI.l'lCHII1I cil]i£-fhdt .Il) f:id'?i.et tI::O'[)I!(!! ~~ou~d be wIthd.rawn )o~er ill teo:m.onth p~.~.i.(I;tl.sla~liIJ!g: on L 5 ·M;;Jly, o~ U11.ttY.~<l[ .. subJect to t11:~ ,ttm.(~liI:$~(l:l]· Oifan Q've'fall ~~gE~em'!);!n:t b·)t 15 MQ~.fe:h. ']"'h"~ ~'I(itlldr~'i"i'i.l. W('~ll.]dl'l!e" ~Fmn.l· l~ilid~d' J 'I!~ri,th Wl al f the~rg{}~.:'i 'b~il1ifwithdJa'ynby th'e en:d.:;(Jr ~he .1J.,,~t· d:uee~lon~h~ Tb.~s ·\'1."~s.·b.r-e'Sj:itctiive of ~lg,['eemM~ OWl' thG ,eom.p0"si:Non Qlf 1l. new oConLition gQV@~.n.:lf[UlltUiJl IKMbnl/ "",'hh;h W'd~ ;~ Ipurel)' Af~hlln f~~]~t, Go~b?l.dhOv tV",l'l·.[)]Jp!<Ir."{;,IIlt1)~ now p~plBf'eid t.oi·g'an.1blie Gin th~. :5un:~~'!,i;a~ (lr a PDP~~ -n:egim.e~ wh.i1.I.e ~he l)-akbta[l:i."3; ~4ljll·'-1.nl rJ!;l~'tl~!~f~ing 'lth~ ~llif)OS"SibiU~)1I of dr.!¥m.~iii~lg .. ii. r[WAbJy,~j,fdlift~n t-o.a.n~ tio)~~ ·reh!~~i!t:liy.;~:gu;ood.to l'ef t~:e ptrwq~o~' Trns ~ef:i.:Il(fhll:'Ht:'!il(lc]ved th;e; q:lI;ils'fi~:t:l (lrc.:~f~~l :ass'j;:n:~d1ce' 1'0 ~he 1;,,\<0. i5:1des" ·.rh!~Russian:$dlIJlwia"lg i:i0;i~ctel::l ' .~~ ::lYfll'l:~n·(dll:yj -:- an l:r".c;lef't:;lldf~~ to· ~£1:!llJ' 1ll1'm~ns ~he t""'n',:Sld~ .r.rn(toa~:iY. 'tn/e' AJneti.tan:liJ· ~t:lfrned to ~poliiti\'e '15ymm~~ tr}\'~ time .((jl.l"('~~pt that ~h~"Shb14lId ,GaFlti[Jl!.t~ lalu:m the J,pmi(JiJiJiJi.~1.ro td~tk ;_l!J~' U:1cl l1~J~Slijn~. ~tmJl;1]lil,ii~1' 'Iu .n:rmi.he .~.r~l~~fin .g(rli"l!f,~l.lIent~: ·~b~!I' ~¥aS-1til.dt];y ;;u:x:ep[~~[. IilndtlTe:'[}ene:51<1. 't\ttDrwf'~ '1!!:me iIil:nll:m:y ~;igtll.ecl"llliIlr

14 Ap·tlli 1988.. . .. .

PrlO]';t~pl'ly. Qt'l ts M"ll_Y •. rhe 'A:~nu l'1'.l,rnl~ngQl:np. (~f ~();mc l2~:OO'a l'l't~r~~ I,eh~Ja].a]ilb~:~ fbr the Sovwet U,;J:inn. As the witb.d,£"'~1il1!~1 procooded.th~ tfwjr,d·"II.lJ,rl ili\'ere/.Ii1!:!i !i,lsual~<lit.io<:ld,s ·about .b()'W ~Q respond- S01.IDlle wo:l!\.lu~cl to l;akc' ~t!"!lri.'l1g~ by ;~lmck~~':1!:'l'~:llefk~:SS~i'lHS,[lS theywe1:e; ~lt th~li!' JJ,tO~l e'xpo~e'd" others tholJ.gil~~· jt better to '£lllow.~f1~n:~ it trou:b~@-ojfr,~ d.~1?:{.![ttnle..~lb. be:glo"s'lI-ith •. HH! Jtitl:~.r'li,iew· 'ljH'e·~~~ned.f?!Uhon.8'h <Ii

of h~u/.~!ii~mt!l1it dld t~l.{e plil!i:-e and Ii1elft' W~.~ a m~lo'l' h;"d-d 'g:-undu~j 11Vb;!?r-e ~'!x~i(;.·lzid!hil leoted the town .schon!y i!'fber il:hfi' ',')Jo,~~~ L11)0r11ii. had l.effi:. Itt. lrreespoase, acomblned SClIlilJetJAfghallli fDr.c:t:! IoC'}a,L!I'k I.h(!· 1.oW'"r~,. w~t~~ o'li'l?rl\lb~1I11'1in,[!; air: ~·I,:4.pPQ1~, ~i.W;J~ lnml(.'lij~ I~~H:~": ea:fi1L1.3:11~'i.es· on ~he mL1jflrhltl'in. E~5e~'he.lie,. g'l)vclrmment uDits ab!llrl!d01tilii*d :gmr.r.i:somi<:isitll.€ Itu:S$i!Uli~ left, C0r!ce!lItr wtiing: ~h~ir If@][<G:f!S in'O!I rtlL.utlv;eJ~ fe'~"l ik~y pOlSts.ln fMctiOri 1;0 thek'lln.du~ ~:ric;ld~I'~!t; ~m(f:as t~lC'~~i~h: ~r hllL'as..,rIl'~nt i~lc;reas~dp the S()v~.e~ witlldrawaJ. ~Iow~l< .tInd :;t~;n IfI~di alJ.d :Im£ie sUPIP!ies of ~,r€.1I!JU.JJ] r;r.l~Ii;!,,~ brought .i.lll ~DI~li(JlIl~~t.the:~ r !)e~oot ar,ld Iro,l flU'l'r durs;o:v..~~nl~(:'rl.t~Am.~.ng thJ~ .11;~'iJ'Ii' w~'tJ:I?I!1J[I~ W~I)J: ~ iCi ..;27 i1Ii~{;rnfJl::·,jJlflld 8,GUD~B! s!ulll!ae.r~o.J!!"nf,~!(:!il! !WJ!~~5U~$. :Ood:iillcbeli l~l"S~ s~n~ • ~n ·UlIe [wiv.;·t I)~PHt~ 1!1J!f0~gl'l·~rlh~1~l~c;!'r~. 'ViJn 'VU[(i'I~I~!:liZil'l'. YltU'h lit fml~U m

tl!ego~liilte \:!!I'ith ~~\~ ~1~'t;fjrjh~d~fffllf1ld try ~~I fill1Jd ~~~:."i!i:!OlO!:' ~tI'b.lj]bI[~"fi~~ W11tI\'q~!'\\'\l1)li~tl <11,. ~~aHltl,O$ll gO~'en:..f1.1.tlnl~: H~ t~ll~W' :the l'~~~i\si~ gH)llP~i;RI~tnniil~,~\lIcl :and 11.·(1· ~;;djb~nfl JI1 ~iJudJ ,'\ ~~b~~,ilS'~'II!U ,~l; trio t be 5');1ia:· or:g~in,~il'miti)i:lr.'{Lli· il min. c1ltid"~~~n 'l{:l'":Ki Ilg Z'a Ltir ]tl R<ll1:ile, i~J"[)lwev:-ef

he '~inl!~{] [I, d€ 'tl~e~resjs"~.ilh..:t.' gro't):'P.t~ {6':~t~~e_[Hte:r t"Q' ~;C~;IS~~

mJl~ O!,·Jto~1 . tl'i\1!;'! '!!If '.:ve~l: an rtt~'i'~[b:1li JPWJi:l1 ~n\!l.!u:~ n:~ H1.1,:', ~J1d of'

tll!~ 'y.eillj nicl~·, ~ft~ji!l·tiw ~iI1 Kitlbu~ b~g~dt~. look {l1l'lS~J'i!1illite.,. as ttJ.'i#. ~J'mj~rJ~dtnre.p at,~Y' ,12l~~.~.ed.l~hie w\1.:d .Qor-fh )'l.r,ad~tI.~ip.Li@:s,::o,f rood ,~rn.<t

f1;V~~ fQir 1"1' ·t1Wb~ct:lL~~L ~n!hll! .:col:I~~;i~ (()fj"~1~af'}j :I oolisid~I:1I:hl~

mtlit(;i:!Jf~el'f:lT' ~'~ he' ~'!.lde" M:U:li ii]r ~!),ppor~I'''IiP "Je<lf the rOi!~ n~l'd:

k:eep. it ope';Wj'. ][b'5. t:v,J:U;Ji(ll'!ru\'!i'al r.i~~r·tJl:I::!,¢S.s.t~sl'atteci ,':'a1tldd:)':wt il1lued: !;i[;'i' llo th~§, t'i!:j)_'get (!.;f!:e ,oJ: 15re~Ji1.Jt!!lry, wh~]] the. fin~f ~Q"1Jtl~~g~l1L (ir

SQ1f,!~Iiil:l: ~1!";"Q' .. ilJ fhe Ann. 'lb~l:iWa: hrl,l'q- .. I[li ~ S9:~i~+ Utlil;l'fl .. T~tI'I(ls~

m,a:il: to ct: fV~o.l!1:ff{Comnibilti~C'[,:G~ner,<Ji,:Gr:~nlrt~rv~.\#;ltQ~ ~ h~'

de,l~rl~d I ~b ~hC a~$,cr.n11blled IIU€t1i:ij tI:~~tt1li.Sl R~ld. Al'u:ny h.ld

'furul·I.I.(l('I '. i~ illl'ltI1i!\~tQria.l- du:~y to tt.l~€i1dJ'. cQ)rDJmeltt~~Ili'iI\ 1i~~rn~~1 him to ~.h~ .t<l~~['a!n)';l,£iI'Smkil)g shlp."th,e I,iillit "(:'(;10 ]riil!Jil'~ .it.,IlS if \'I'"'!f'n~ dti·~vtl.

.·lihe·Gnirl:~v.>!-! Ac.c!l:frd~'i. go! the' Rll[.!s51linS'"o:W'the·'h(ink Q~1 whlch U11~~ry naJt;l llliJJ'i;lhNJi t~f1t'm.!S~Jvt'hl but ther;t'W~ Utd.ej.n It'tIJem :fair th~' Mg!1~u:r$, hi. lh~ Wtil'<ls of. one; d~!pkw!!.~£~I·J!I,. till:! 'lll'llh·lJt1il.W;J1 '~\r~~lbEl QnJ~V s~lbst.:lll1l!tl.~e a.c:[i"Ji~~v~ine(l!" ,"G'ili!!ryl:hi n: ehe l"S~tl~t ·W'h~dO:~'i!r-dre~s~ng;. T hrere w~Si"J]j(r~eif8'6[il\e·a;ntCl up·.und!erta kJng 'on _UiU:1i~1;g ,1Inll~~$i.ur~p::pfi.e,s. A rm~~1 bld~y' I~~JI@ SO!v'!Ct ri.~r.mign M~!I1J$te(',~d'pya~rcrUI.l~li'~~I;~J ·tv,JrI;Q weni!J@c, l~a~]stiU! a rltw' dil~1i be:fD.1:t::l!:.h~ com pJetion bt~:b~''Vithdr~!I.'!j''a 1 tel ·h.y to. petllr.~p!e ~be f~:'ill;S~~n:u:;e g~on~, ito lj"a[Mtip~l{1f'in 3i.~C1r;ltlu:n()!1l gnVi>t'llrnent~. met "With no more ~·u~c~ Ith~mp.re"~icU!:~·&~j~foftS. Shnil·a.~I·yj th.e ":ri(J[]~in~~rf-eIit!:fl(je pm\l"j~lClnti tn 'the i~CC(:!!tcljLSj' '1l\~:hioCI1 ranto Ull.~.r~n det.lHe([ and sp~lf"U!ea.Iticles, and wbrlch. tf i1dh'CI1®dI tOJ wOII!i.1 haV\1,;' bhli~~d rakl,Sl.wn~ W CNls:-e ali !lIul'Poltfo:r ~b~ Lt-e:S.i.st~H(Je group:ll 3JiI1.d p1e"~nt th!2i~ of.!~ratih,g ou't 'of: Jl~l.kist~n,remi!1lrll~d!l. ,;J.e~d

Ietter: . ,

I; n 'i h"ll n~it1~ Jl!~ilfi! ll.l'mt t'I1:~ ::ioV'if(:!I~(}t:~a l.I.)ii"lt.km l;[!isr,M t some .I 5 ,1000 Soviet~Q.J.djers ,and aiJ::l1l]en.~-er~ flll:iclj1.my~.idn,~iUed to. !"1liaVe di.illd aildf'[I h.lrUle.r 3't:.~luf)O WQ!lU1d('dP, Tilt' true I:ltru.lllbe4'sw·e:re.'po5$~bly olE U~. Ql'dlCl1 of lt~II'E!'~ limes these Iigu~;)Ii, '1'I1!C' (m5t. '10' the 5-Dv:let OnlQI:t ~O term,:; olf I[hlli ~;x:I~ie:Ud~t1u~ ofr-eSflUtc-tes ~h'1.t 1IV~rc l:)~d]y ll€et'llilQ ~11·1 S~w.he:Fe lt~'.as wm Ilfleme ,ilS-:w<l.s tb@16:S,%.·. ofint£,~:Q~l~f~latp.tesijgA;.·· antft'~!put~ti011 l~~1,~hld1 ~lH~in"J'Hdon g~'iI~ rl~e .. The A(g,h!'llF-I: f!.~5~',l "i~i~, also one,of the. (:<l1;<lIY811; tbll.t led to fbe h!'ii':f.lk~u~ of ~:rH~ ~·rJ\.!iet lIJJ;iffiot1 un th.e .. I~·~em9·BOo;; 'aln!d '~r~y .i9'9.0fo\Hmvel\'\e1' dle oo~~~ :ld Afgi.~l'iHrr!~tli1rh I.~~eifl!lr~ll. n,~.lali'!l.tl!l'I.y much gW~lm!F~ The iln~ll e~1i,i'Uit!tFI dl~tiH]I~.t:i~r~{!I~ ,tcw· 'r ~j.n~ ~lnldofi.; T~~. eX:i"e~ilr,)f t1::i ~t'fu~~. (i~·{;ldll~ IMid' ~;In:' ~mr~:ti1,1it" "li~l;!bl~;i(l!I'1i~ ·@t IUllnm""1 ~I.n~im lNli\jlfl ~~~~ mil, l'lt:1.!n . .IlIIH~JIL~1 ~1), .lMld

p1\lil't~ptton$' of the 11'l.U .rr llll;rer ·~nir;~W:!.id ib},· ,ii fUfU, til: . lNCHl!I:re[l[l_C~j"l:i' ln 198.61 ~lilbiJc1i spiOke:'of ,3'. j:s~I:lI21t~.oo app.w:adllil'l& -geq9C'Jdt:. Lidl~eunO, My l,aJi.t}'pe lli:t·ciddes, weJe n p~al:-d m~k,l\,y 'tiff.ao; 01\" r. Th ''Wheh~. cO~Lnt.r1:~IcS,Q :S~I:r£I![~~ ~tr '1111.' ~~bri'Q,mih~ di~~p,tjOf1. Mil:ny j~it5':m~"']J~ we:h~ 'e,X1teil:s±vel~tl(l;m:l~:g¢d. wtnle the ("9001rrSidew'u pol!Jl~lted by·tlm Illlii.lior'l'.!lcd mlnes wh.kh t~~.f<Il!'es'[lltltllteellc hav~ lbC'C~l :!Iill'llllil1. in it mQ;li1 Q[ thil;:~:ii" ~n unmilr~ed In~n1effi~(d~.

Th~. 'W'Itlu:lj.aw"d left" .milU)f .~~u(leflt~: Or. ... S:OV;!.et ~)Ra],r.:i 'In. a stale ,pI'

shock., ,As nne of tlu.uup.n:t lt~,

TI,lI't:,. wl·n.~lk;jbnsh'~ I'i~t-Oll'l fhllt 'the rtJ,.p::e~!Jf ~(!I]~~U:stnrl1uu'd'l C:lJlIL}~ il~ pn:e djr~tli,on' h<llGl 'I:oli'"rin~ed neaJrij;' all o.f ~ .: , wb{l studied.tth-e $o\fie't Unio.n:tliat \"l:tbdr~.W'ai s.i,lj~iP'J)'Wft511·t.p'05Blbh~ -1lI:laL it \~·llt.atl ~'l1"lOtli'llil to the kl.llld of a~h.~sSitmo'f "l"t(tr th'll"n. SQ\tihlifatler WQu'ld f.1illit~., nW'Ollld ;11:;0 be an iJlvUiiltioIl, 'to ot1te'{ ~(jufl.lde.s lnyolulltad.lY Of.'"Ctipied W. SO\':i.et fi()~:oes' to begln ~o, h6pt! Uiill pl;lrht_rp'.'i. 'Lh !il' 'tc:up~tlo:1l W,fI nul p~:rmtU1'~'n'l - anomer reasonwn)' Vl:1illldril,w:li seemed Umpoo:iib]C"

\hrhj!ltJ:'i, und,rstandBbl:Y:1 Gotbi.lIChev' st!" cQmpiuil:I'i\' 'Iy UtUe lin 11i~, ;\-fernoib:[J ~bQu;t ,,\dj,ilt h.e;caLls the ~.ho'pcLe's,s. m.i.lll:tary adv~ntuf"ei ;in AfgitilL!ll.lstflLl!I, (iithl!r ~h fL tD!i~n:!.Iut. ~1'1,!lL ru one lIe. ~)hl:~1QW lUIU1Y .mVtl~ this wal' (ost: u~; how nlUl:Y 'young [l£:oplf:~-e:(e c.li:ipl,p,t~d for nf~. a'J.~d th~'lrus :;u:ld \$mfbhl,gs of the Afgh:an peeple, one (,1:1f! nn.de!l"Stand !.I.J:e' I;lMpi:~ion u~ .1~O;[je uuu~ ~m,l! fJeom IIJl111 !ll',mmi,Rc to end thL, o(~onfl:~~t, thn.t had b!:o'l.l!£'h~ shame Oft OUT !li<l.t1unl. Mm- t?:iU$p{lok~Jl, w."il~ ;~~~e SQ\"'iel: tli!is'idetlt, Andrei, Sa:!wr.o:v., !lli: th.e. fi1S'lxmg~'ess' of_ I)o~Ol~1{{5 IJe'pul:ilt!!i., h Id ill M __ cow ill M ~y 196ft In 1'~5p(m~e '~1;).an;Agadtt9~" that hy cOl""l'chihnning wl a'~' hUld 'happened in I\:fgh'ilnj~tan. 'he hIlt! i.n.s'uHed the Sqvlet ··anny, the' natfon an(~ ~lle war dead:; iIle r{'pUt'~o~·

. ,~ the waiii' m Afgh;:m.Lst.a[lj Wit,S 'in its.~lf (:d:min.al" (I. 'C' :mnlal ~d\'CJmll'e !r.iAl~en. ' III I"md~,rt~j(: ·i, l'ly who knows ~,I/ho. and who knowlii;)eo!l't:; 'Ih,o fE!"pon~Oibmity for this ennrmtlus crlme of ()il1' Mothelil:and. ThIs cr me t:QSm the lives of about a Infn~Ol~ Afghl'lm; •. w,a:[ .oJ t1t!SIITU:~! km "~1.1 s wra g;~d ,iI'g, hl.li~ iAn ~nd:roe p~o'ph:. , .• And thot 1$ wha:t lles 0111 usas <I terrible sin, 'a terrible i:el)(O.acb.. \I'Ve must cll!eil[]5e' ()ufseh"es 0.£ thls shame ILbat lles on

, i~M' l~ders~1i:JJ.

C·' 11 \VT

, lVI- vvat

'I' .

I t'!\!'ora:'Wld¢]~~ p,tediet~.nt-at .~he: Na]i'b.~II';:lh :rebi>jjrn~ w{~ul,d G>lLarpse In U'U~ t,~.c.e :1)', 1~~'~Y~4'drr~~1 Pll'~ss.~ rc, "~llb~ a .~e,~v .ln~.Jlm:b'~joi: . evenweeks, of ~h .€i'omlpJettlOIll of ttl ""$0' ',.1 "!lthd~a\'!,f~l.. 1'11"1.11- !t p.1i.d 110la(\) so was-due too, t'W:D'1lQal1."1. ~c::tOjls, nlas~i\;o;e' S,o'.!i.etStlpp01:t.andl the.failu:re (if ~b~' :re!l:i:~t!ll.~'·c.g.rQul)'" '1.o.i€Qn1bjl'l~ and plirSlll!!._an J~rrcc:thre; s:t:rH~gy .full: us removal.

Th.t d~pal'tjng;Si)"i~et .fo:oce's took w~tlti them LitUe ~iliIO'[e {han 'their \I~hic,les and :~:te&5(l'fa ill W'l,l',;j.j]oo\l1~, rtnel th~ J\:~:g:bo;Frn ·,gOVlii~' t] IJO:~TI't-at:qulfoo. the. htl'ge qUi'.ll1.tiitl~ otll~:m:lio, ,anil ~J,ui:pm,C!'n~ t'hfit Wliji!:'e left ~h~nd; SlI,wh:t" 't!ts~.istil!m:-e ,a.lsO oontlrnued, dn the oorm of:ftl'lancl.al ald and oJ mIHiuuy iiind ()lhl:'i'iupp~j!!t,ilt ~.IElwll'hat was t~tJoo:JilGld ItG amoimt to .~o,nl<e_ S;:hi,$4 bi.llion· OJ! y,e~r; Mlrh of the nn.on Til aid ;W3l)i ",Cleo, by tiP A:t'~hiJlJnGover~::Ht to (,;~lillti.mre tiO buy.the support I OJ; a,t lejls:l the quie~g:::(!n(~, ;g:f n~lQIII and au~rrm.!l .I~ad(!r$. A ~n:orl WbHL! a.HI!J th*!! 1!\rlllulla,\Val" S'ubst;aw-m;al: .d~'llv,erte~ of tanks. ·!.irHIl~ry, ,a,rm.ouw.e~~ persoflne] ca.F ners : and {)It~b er (\nea poor"), 'i!l.I.:rii'~'"{;:d, ll;'iith th~ resu In that tht~ I1d:gl'um .army .p'ro]:ml:)i~r ,11.ui more .aII"fflJHllents. I, han It ~ould pmfll:!lbt· use. nlc R~15s'lni:ils abill sup,plied the g()V~rI1Jl"ent wl,tl:'il ~ stock of SCUD-O tl1:i:s5ilesj with.21 ~["~n,g't.:" 9f upto 1:1'5. mjle5t~'I{ht(;h could be used .1galil!d ,;m11IJhitiJn bases anC::.1 collccmt:ra:tlo:ns, 'Il1e, e were not parrieul ... rly i~tcllq:·lte •. blJt~\'il'er', n lotr.:! t tCE'I'OI' '~It'!l,pO!.'lJ' as tllJ-Y ~!t~yed '~],~'h{lut wnming 'and . c-oldd . not l~e int(!roopt~di, \!Vhil~ l'\al.lbul,lah .ii regtme l,il!C:lIt~d dl.G plmt~~1'0~1 or S.rn,!iet ail' jpO,Wt1I'; "l.l:d'i::b h 't~ been ind:ii~pefllllmbleil1 OOVf2.ri"rl.glh~ 'I,~.dIl'lc1:raw~I,lt!l illr tor 'G' ,W,ii,'i !.lUll ~unct]ofnl and possessed sp,w.@ t~v6 hUIIDlOirOO ,liiIiii.~tal~t o:r '!imdous t pes, as W~U s h~lIt:o.pl'l:'. r~1' q:utx.; ba1l1 iliir~~ m,~~. Sii~i! e~te'lu be~ reb'lIn ,. iHlt, m{n11ii-r'~ II~rn~' S,~ oo~ m "Il~ ~hll~, il P,I'e:Ilh: iII'~ ,llj,~ I d • I, ~o[m Il(), IUU md ,t ~enn'lJ'I' If IHI'on fI'Itilrl·,H tllf/:U I, ,'" ( t,' I ~If

·~ndJ a$prl sd [:)lu':I")1 lind ofhetttr!li't;ia;s. Dl i i"onS·[tC:mam,ed wiithi!n th~ g.ov~"'r.n.mlen:1tj :~<!j:tth Ri~n:-h(lf;] s.ti II':Cip'pOS:e~ to "KMZq,. 'aud. p,qrbham~II':!;~.f cf\rtclcd b~~~~'l :!IUjPPOI:'he.f:l·~.nd ',CJp,Ptiln~n:t.:s, ofN,a JUJU Hal"· Hmllrevt'll', hl the' Imrnii,l-l,u! a.ft-e"l'(I1,at!:1 of 'th~ ~Q!ri~-t 'wilihthi-u''1~al, Ni;l,jihldlil:h took d'i?!d&i\'{). steps. 'to :~S'~ff:a(lgUl~i~ tjJS' Jlle:Th.flI~ldl 'pq:?1UO;11I, :,lndw,Jmg the d&1 i1l[ilI tLou' 0 _~ ·a: si.'ilIte}oif e!lI!~tge:lll "y and Ul-li! '·U· pl:n~l:i .. 11 of t'I·,- f] dshts, Mosl'a.f f:hel~o'ri·;.r'1]pA ml~.mbe-r!1lCi(r th;e c.~binJrHwefeOll:slted and <I. FlJ€W Pairdtq'm.~Q.m.lm-Hl~·snp'(-Irti}ie C9UJ1t"il set up. ':Vhtle"t1t_"re g9ye:mmel:D.1I. reLliia.ine-d l""id~t LHll'[IQP1lda'r~ the m.or~ d<octdua1re r:I~bect'5, oir I", po~:i,de5 W(J'ei; ,~r~p'ped ~lilld 11 "',~,$ nbl'e 'I:~ m'lli:.:e 111'U~b cr~:lje·.ali'gu:m~lIu that. tile: jiJiu~d' \'V:~s, .G:v~r ari:d, tbiu ~r-g;n;ill~~timls t~cn~I)IIe:~ sl'iulild be I.1~JQI'1ire~ p~.:ft"'e ~lt~ 1y, I~t}.r ,~~ghan .f."l)usum.pttolFl" Nil;) lbuUUih ~t,'lug,ht lit') r~n~h! t Mfj1self ~s il,Pf'~'C!-iSlns. :MUNlltu and I1iln[}nillbi'l,"'whlle i.r,J:l~em<ltitJnaUy he trled to present hiJtll~eU::a:s. a blll\<'\1a.rk agaInst

1.!;l~mllC ~}(~:~~~nl~.m. ' . . '.

, ttl res haw. 1') m,e' nwhll'~ the p~rm'lfn:lam:;e r.lf the rctilsr,ll!u;:,c' groups wi_lis".'ii~:lJJ.iimpn';$sh!}2·~S eve~. \",11th the d!2;p.a.lillE:i: :oJ the RU..lisill.l1s·oo4 in '~ 1e,:'iI.l::.eIlOf pe-fs.on:!.I] and: ~thnilC t'l.v~ ll'[(·~j Inuch of -the' ]lHJt'lv~tlon wWh. l'\iJd "k'f'Ii1~ tl:tlUTl ~'dl~ I'liel' ¢\'apOit'llt~d. :,~ shi~fn' \vil!S ,ca'uedill' .~qtuil.ry~W~'~1 to ~b,e~t ,~n liml:"~I~D1 ~Ov.eUJLliReJtlt'i but H wilS 'blaJi.nn tlJ !1utn.ipul,~t!i.d bf. 'l:h.il:lJSl .:rm:S'laillshly brlb~d wUh S~I.iUdllnOn." ,'Ii to ~be tr eej:'n~ itv~hl'S ,aid,," 4iJf"$,2ifb::Hlm'~:m, tn ·aU a!l1:d, ~.25"O(tO OT more for 'ea:dt

. ..iII 'l '''~~!E :.1..' w / . ".:0 ,. tri·,.." 1 '['.:1. .' J!.or b.. • ~

1iI.e. e~t.e~ .'!.;n:lIr ' Ijl' ene "cq-wLlTUl'lIliQ~'r:;' Ol\' '. . oa eaaers in ru'g!mUI!:h,an

aU:~'I'~I~(li n:a:f. ~~ils ~ i:)fac~'~Ol\rid fOf tile Shh g!l'uups; l:U.iliM;.I! In 'Inrn. M'!tj~(Udj '\'Vas~ l;tY· ~t'M: rl;am1~,.,,-f(:sr6f,· miu'gi,r'irit .fh~cCed P[lesldenl of 30 'Afgh:an 'Int~ll'iru Q'O~ .. lE!rnm:enf3!n~ '('l 'Gabln![!~' )i'!.'0!S ormed, "!i"'Tl~h Sa}lyllJ .~S J~iI'.im: I MI:nlst 't. ·1.ClW ''V. t even the Pt4k.ii.t~f1J'l:s \:\dilhheld ret:aiJ;l1ilinri,\"hH~ the ',A,n:1elic.tlD paSition Willi:':! th~lt "tItley would olll.~ tel!Q.glli$@ the AIG !i'i'beB Bit coald sho\'!t: tha E It held s~glUJCan:t te:n:lta ~. tn .il\rH~1:alfil~:l""31f!. .a.nd IUlij[}yedl:lraZlCI. ~I)op!.l!]mr 5UppUl't •. Thill! ncxrc mQ'Ii/'Ii':, th~.rd(l'~I;'- ~1:g:;lil1 under tille' I U~~l;tion 'of the 'ISlj ;W(.!S, to tr)'" to gal" wrriirror.y, buttatll,e.r than a,elfiieve tl1~s pli;ec:C[ne~l and bulle! Of:! H!lt' .1I'1l;r"l.<OI:' acqlU~~4tl()n&, 1[0":. ~1I!al'!lpl(': I 'I '.Imkh.aumin th~Khyl}lil~ I!~ss i,u).c!! ~t pin lInh:lak1 '\\'\"I:1it:h had fl'E. n made while the ~R!':.I~s:laO$. Wt;1R;! wit1:u:lrra ~ing. the .de(Jslon \~"as. taken- to stake eve'liyth:i:n;g OR au 31~,tll,~k on hl,alalb#~I. whit'h could ~h~1"l act ~s a l'!·tllb[,l' !i~iU otg()VeJ~nIP:n1. hi Mim:l111 a ror~ of SQfHl; iSloon gue:rriUa:s a'tlllitl;ed, the town •. b1J~, . (~oflt({l:ry to ;til .e:xpectatiloJIiiS, met stubbem r~i~t;'lBoe,· P,;urt '(,Jf~h '

[::Ifobl<em. ra.t ~1.g!jjll1nl wns. UHIL the mujr,ir~hJln w .. ~IL:.' no, p'rep~r'lt-d bD ~Dk,: , IlljlsrJllIi~Y'S, '~m([' till iu ~vi,Hlblr ::.hliened the defem~. for a while, tbi~' town \.vas.t:ut'olfa:ndl had to be' SI.lpp.tted by air, btd ~ft,er a I~e-w \7i'I2i~ th~ 8~11T1'0I1l wa reoin.~o[l·· d and WDlS, !ljl ;Iti. I:ooun·tc't:tl!lt.,~k. with ._'r :5~il)ra"Hi't, ~hne. the Ilt1i!.l('~:~I~ last ',,!{b~riC":ver al:nJes-:ln:n ~n:d d'i:iC'i,nl~q; . 1111 h' d p"(fJisC!~'se~, Il .mld.~May. ~~'h" as'!><I:li.dt htvd p~l~n~l~y fan 'd, 'Iv. tIh