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TOPIC:MICROCOMPUTER MICROPROCESSOR. AND
SUBMITTED SUBMITTED TO
NAME- BITTU KUMAR RUCHIKA MAM SECTION-E2801 OF COMPUTER SC.) ROLL NO. – A05 REGISTRATION NO. -10808479
As usual a large number of people deserve my thanks for the help term paper. First of all I would like to thank my teacher Lect. Ruchika mam for her support during the preparation of this topic. I am very thankful for her guidance. I would also like to thank my friends for the they provided me for the preparation of this
encouragement and information about the topic they provided to me during my efforts to prepare this topic. At last but not the least I would like to thank seniors for providing me their experience and being with me during my work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS -:CHAPTER ONE:MICROCOMPUTER
INTRODUCTION---------------------------------------------------------------MICROCOMPUTER------------------------------------------------------------COMPONENT MICROCOMPUTER--------------------------------------BASIC LAYOUT MICROCOMPUTER-------------------------------------ADVANTAGE MICROCOMPUTER---------------------------------------DISADVANTAGE MICROCOMPUTER------------------------------------:CHAPTER OF OF OF OF
2.2 SECTION MICROPROCESSOR--------------------------------------------2.3 CLASSIFICATION BY MICROPROCESSOR------------WORK DONE
3.1 HISTORY--------------------------------------------------------------------------3.2 ARCHITECTURE OF 8085-----------------------------------------------3.3 OPERATION PERFORMED 8085-----------------------------------------3.4 INSTRUCTION FORMATE 8085------------------------------------------INTEL BY OF
1.1 INTRODUCTION:The word Micro is used very commonly in our daily life. Example, you have microscopes, microphones, microwaves etc. In computer terminology we have microprocessors, microcomputers, microprogramming, microcodes etc., some of which, you must be already familiar with. A Microprocessor is a complete CPU on a single chip and a Microcomputer is a computer whose CPU is a microprocessor. A digital computer consists three major part that are interconnected to each other 1.Central Processing Unit (CPU):- Also simply called as the microprocessor and acts as the brain coordinating all activities within a computer.
2. The Memory:- The program instructions and data are primarily stored. 3. The Input/Output (I/O) Devices: - Allow the computer to input information for processing and then output the results. I/O Devices are also known as computer peripherals. The integrated Circuit (IC) chip containing the CPU is called the microprocessor and the entire computer including the microprocessor, memory and I/O is called a microcomputer.
1.2 MICROCOMPUTER:The main components of a microcomputer, like any other type of a computer, consist of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), Memory, some I/O ports/modules and buses.
1.3 COMPONENT OF MICROCOMPUTER:-
1.INPUT OUTPUT UNIT:There are lot of I/O unit in a microcomputer such as hard-disk, keyboard, printer, mouse, monitor and etc. All these I/O devices 'talk' with the CPU through I/O Ports. The Input /Output Unit mainly consists of these ports. There are two kinds of ports :
1. Parallel Ports 2. Serial Ports 2.MEMORY UNIT:Once the data has been inputted from an input device, it needs to be stored in Memory. Memory can be broadly divided into two categories: A). Main or Primary memory B) Secondary memory Primary or main memory contains information which is currently been acted upon. This is the memory the microcomputer uses in executing and storing programs. The ReadIWrite memory and ROM are general categories of primary memory. They include several types of memory as follows:
A).Read Only Memory (ROM):It is used to store programs and data that need not to be altered, i.e. permanent storage. Programs and data stored in ROMs can only be read by the CPU. Special equipment is used to write programs and data into the ROMs and is called EPROM Programmer.
3.CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT:Central Processing Unit, or CPU, as it is called in short, is the brain of any computer system. The CPU of the computer consists of various registers to store data, the Arithmetic / Logic Unit, ALU, to perform arithmetic and logical computations, instruction decoders, counters, and control lines. The CPU reads instructions from the memory, decodes them, and executes them, with the help of its various components. The CPU also controls the functioning of the various other units of the system, like memory unit, I/O unit, and other interfacing units, by synchronizing their operations with the help of its clock and other control circuitry, called the control unit. It is more discussed in microprocessor.
Buses are a set of wires, connecting various parts of the computer, internally and externally. They are used to send the data in the form of voltages. This data could be the address of the memory location that need to be accessed, or its contents or even the control signals, indicating the type of operation to be performed on the memory. Based on the type of information they are carrying, the buses are classified into three types : A). Address bus, B). Data bus, and, C). Control bus.
1.4 BASIC LAYOUT OF MICROCOMPUTER:In order for the microprocessor to function as a programmable device, it must work in a complete system comprising of three components : microprocessor, memory and input/output. This system is called microprocessor-based system or microcomputer system. These three components will work together or interact with each other to perform a given task.
1.5 ADVANTAGE OF MICROCOMPUTER (MICROPROCESSOR BASE SYSTEM):1. Computational/processing speed is high. 2. Intelligence has been brought to systems. 3. Automation of industrial processes and office administration. 4. Since the devices are programmable, there is flexibility to alter the system by changing the software alone. 5. Less number of components, compact in size and cost less. Also it is more reliable. 6. Operation and maintenance are easier.
1.6 DISADVANTAGE OF MICROCOMPUTER (MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEM):1. It has limitations on the size of data. 2. The applications are limited by the physical address space. 3. The analog signals cannot be processed directly and digitizing the analog signals introduces errors. 4. The speed of execution is slow and so real time applications are not possible. 5. Most of the microprocessors does not support floating point operations.
2.1 MICROPROCESSOR:The microprocessor is a semiconductor device (Integrated Circuit) manufactured by the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technique. It includes the ALU, register arrays and control circuit on a single chip. To perform a function or useful task we have to form a system by using microprocessor as a CPU and interfacing memory, input and output devices. In another way we say that A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable logic device (IC) that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions, and provide results as output. A multipurpose device means it can be used to perform various sophisticated computing tasks or functions, as well as simple tasks.
A programmable device means that it can be instructed to perform given tasks within its capability. Microprocessor is also called Central Processing Unit (CPU) since it is the functional centre of the computer system an it is used to process data.\ The Microprocessor based system consists of microprocessor as CPU, semiconductor memories like EPROM and RAM, input device, output device and interfacing devices. The memories, input device, output device and interfacing devices are called peripherals. The popular input devices are keyboard and floppy disk and the output devices are printer, LED/LCD displays, CRT monitor. BLOCK DIAGRAME OF ORGANIZATION OF MICROPROCESSOR:-
The above block diagram shows the organization of a microprocessor based system. In this system, the microprocessor is the master and all other peripherals are slaves. The master controls all the peripherals and initiates all operations. The microprocessor is the functional center of the microcomputer system. Its internal construction can be broadly divided into three sections :- Control section, Arithmetic and Logic Unit and Register section.
2.2 SECTION OF MICROPROCESSOR:1.CONTROL SECTION:The control section/unit is the part of the microcomputer that controls its basic operations. It is made up of the control signal generating circuitry (clock) and the command (instruction) decoder. The control section fetches pre-programmed instructions from memory (op-code fetch cycle) as needed and temporarily stores them in the command register (also known as Instruction Register IR). These instructions are then decoded by the operation decoder (decode cycle), which sends control signals to the relevant parts of the microcomputer system (via the system busses) to cause them to carry out the required operation (execute cycle) The timing with which these control signals are generated is determined by the clock. The number of T-states tells the time taken for the CPU to execute that particular instruction. The major types of operations controlled by the control signals are :a. sending of data from one part of the microcomputer to another (read or write cycle) b. inputting and outputting of data to/from the microcomputer (I/O read or write cycle) c. Arithmetic and Logic calculations. d. Halting of computer instructions. e. Jumping to another instruction during running (execution) of a program.
2.ARITHMATIC AND LOGIC UNIT:This section, under the control of control section carries out the actual processing of data, normally describe as data manipulation. This consists largely of arithmetic operations (ADDition, SUBtraction, INCrementing, DECrementing etc) and logical operations (ANDing, ORing, XORing, NOTing etc). The ALU carries out these operations in the following manner :1. stores data fetched from memory or I/O in the registers
2. fetches this data as needed from the registers and/or from relevant accumulators 3. send this data either to its arithmetic circuitry or logical circuitry, where necessary, where the necessary. arithmetic or logical operations are carried out 4. send results of its arithmetic or logical operation to relevant accumulator, to the memory, or to the I/O interfaces.
3.REGISTER SECTION:The register section/array consists completely of circuitry used to temporarily store data or program codes until they are sent to the ALU or to the control section or to memory. The number of registers are different for any particular CPU, and the more register a CPU have will result in easier programming tasks.
4.SYSTEM BUS:The three components of the microcomputer system is connected by three busses, also known as system bus. These busses is used to transfer information (data) internally and externally to the microprocessor.
The address bus is 'unidirectional', over which the microprocessor sends an address code to the memory or 2. input/output. The size (width) of the address bus is specified by the number of bits it can handle. 3. The more bits there are in the address bus, the more memory locations a microprocessor can access. A 16 bit 4. address bus is capable of addressing 65,536 (64K) addresses.
B). Data Bus
The data bus is 'bi-directional', on which data or instruction codes are transferred into the microprocessor or on 2. which the result of an operation or computation is sent out from the microprocessor to the memory or input/output. 3. Depending on the particular microprocessor, the data bus can handle 8 bit or 16 bit data.
C). Control Bus
1. 2. 3.
The control bus is used by the microprocessor to send out or receive timing and control signals in order to coordinate and regulate its operation and to communicate with other devices, i.e. memory or input/output. The lines used to control memory and I/O devices are MEMRQ*, IORQ*, RD* and WR*. Others are general Control signals to handle special external requests (interrupts), special I/O devices (DMA) and special kind of Memory (DRAM).
2.3 CLASSIFICATION MICROPROCESSOR:-
1. Work done internal to the processor 2. Work done external to the processor 3. Operations initiated by the slaves or peripherals. The work done internal to the processors are addition, subtraction, logical operations, data transfer operations, etc. The work done external to the processor are reading/writing the memory and reading/writing the J/O devices or the peripherals. If the peripheral requires the attention of the master then it can
interrupt the master and initiate an operation. The microprocessor is the master, which controls all the activities of the system. To perform a specific job or task, the microprocessor has to execute a program stored in memory. The program consists of a set of instructions. It issues address and control signals and fetches the instruction and data from memory. The instruction is executed one by one internal to the processor and based on the result it takes appropriate action.
CHAPTER -03 INTEL 8085
The first microprocessor was Intel 4004 (early 1970’s) used in calculators. It was designed by Intel Corporation and become known as the 4-bit microprocessor. It was quickly replaced by the 8-bit microprocessor Intel 8080. Within a few years after the emergence of the Intel 8080 CPU the Motorola 6800, the Zilog Z80, and the Intel 8085 microprocessors were developed as improvements over the 8080.
3.2 ARHITECTURE OF INTEL 8085:The architecture of intel 8085 is shown in figure given below. The internal architecture of 8085 includes the ALU, timing and control unit, instruction register and decoder, register array, interrupt control and serial I/O control.
3.3OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY 8085:The ALU performs the arithmetic and logical operations. The operations performed by ALU of 8085 are addition, subtraction, increment, decrement, logical AND, OR, EXCL U8IVE -OR, compare, complement and left / right shift. The accumulator and temporary register are used to hold the data during an arithmetic / logical operation. After an operation the result is stored in the accumulator and the flags are set or reset according to the result of the operation. A). FLAG REGISTER:-
There are five flags in 8085, which are sign flag (8), zero flag (Z), auxiliary carry flag (AC), parity flag (P) and carry flag (CY). The bit positions reserved for these flags in the flag register are shown in figure below.
B). TIMING & CONTROL UNIT:The timing and control unit synchronizes all the microprocessor operations with the clock and generates the control signals necessary for communication between the microprocessor and peripherals. C). INSTRUCTION REGISTER & DECODER:When an instruction is fetched from memory it is placed in instruction register. Then it is decoded and encoded into various machine cycles.
REGISTER ARRAY:1. Apart from Accumulator (A-register), there are six general-purpose programmable registers B, C, D, E, H and L. 2. They can be used as 8-bit registers or paired to store l6-bit data. The allowed pairs are B-C, D-E and H-L. 3. The temporary registers W and Z are intended for internal use of the processor and it cannot be used by the programmer.
a). STACK POINTER (SP):The stack pointer SP, holds the address of the stack top. The stack is a sequence of RAM memory locations defined by the programmer. The stack is used to save the content of registers during the execution of a program.
b). . PROGRAM COUNTER (PC):-
The program counter (PC) keeps track of program execution. To execute a program the starting address of the program is loaded in program counter. The PC sends out an address to fetch a byte of instruction from memory and increment its content automatically. Hence, when a byte of instruction is fetched, the PC holds the address of the next byte of the instruction or next instruction
3.4 INSTRUCTION FORMAT OF 8085
The 8085 have 74 basic instructions and 246 total instructions. The instruction set of 8085 is defined by the manufacturer Intel Corporation. Each instruction of 8085 has 1 byte opcode. With 8 bit binary code, we can generate 256 different binary codes. In this, 246 codes have been used for opcodes. The size of 8085 instructions can be 1 byte, 2 bytes or 3 bytes. 1. The 1-byte instruction has an opcode alone. 2. The 2 bytes instruction has an opcode followed by an eight-bit address or data. 3. The 3 bytes instruction has an opcode followed by 16 bit address or data. While storing the 3 bytes instruction in memory, the sequence of storage is, opcode first followed by low byte of address or data and then high byte of address or data.
Every instruction of a program has to operate on a data. The method of specifying the data to be operated by the instruction is called Addressing. The 8085 has the following 5 different types of addressing. 1. Immediate Addressing 2. Direct Addressing 3. Register Addressing 4. Register Indirect Addressing 5. Implied Addressing
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http://188.8.131.52/search? q=cache:uG04anYJMQYJ:www.angelfire.com/ultra/muzir/microp/microco mputer.pdf+microprocessor+and+microcomputer&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&g l=in
2. www.scribd.com/doc/4616314/8085-Microprocessor 3.
Book:1. Computer architecture and organization- M. Mano
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