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Grade 6 and 7

Mental Math what is it


Conceptual strategies that enhance
flexible thinking and number sense and
number skills (critical numeracy)
calculating mentally without the use of
external memory aids.
provides a cornerstone for all estimation
processes offering a variety of alternate
algorithms and non-standard techniques
for finding answers
Adding from
Left to Right
Concept: Addition

Meaning: Using place value understanding to
add 2-digit numerals.

Example: for 25 + 33
think 20 + 30 and 5 + 3 is 50 + 8
or 58


Practising the Strategy
17+22=
26+21=
45+34=
Making 10
Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Students use combinations that
add up to ten to calculate other math facts
and can extend this to multiples of ten in
later grades.
Example: for 8 + 5
think 8 + 2 + 3 is
10 + 3 or 13


Practicing the strategy

8+7=
7+9=
5+7=

Compensation
Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Using other known math facts and
compensating. For example, adding 2 to an
addend and taking 2 away from the sum.

Example:
for 25 + 33
think 25 + 35 2 is
60 2 or 58

Practicing the strategy

47+22=
18+15=
39+17=
Commutative Property
Concept: Addition

Meaning:
Switching the order of the two numbers
being added will not affect the sum.

Example:
4 + 3 is the same as
3 + 4


Compatible Numbers
"Friendly Numbers"
Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Compatible numbers are friendly
numbers (often associated with compatible
numbers to 5 or 10).

Example: for 4 + 3 students may think 4 + 1
is 5 and 2 more makes 7

Practicing the Strategy

4+7=
9+8=
7+8=


Array
Concept: Multiplication, Division
Meaning: Using an ordered arrangement to
show multiplication or division (similar to
area).
Example: for 3 x 4 think



for 12 3 think




Multiplicative Identity
Concept: Multiplication

Meaning:
Multiplying a factor by one will not change
its value.
Dividing a dividend by one will not change its
value.
Example: 1 x 12 is 12
21 1 is 21
Doubling or Halving
Concept: Multiplication, Division

Meaning: Using known facts and doubling or
halving them to determine the answer.

Example: for 7 x 4,
think the double of 7 x 2 is 28
for 48 6,
think the double of 24 6 is 8

8 x 4 =
think double 8 x 2 = ___

32 4 =
think double 16 4 = ____
Practicing the Strategy
Repeated Doubling
Concept: Multiplication

Meaning: Continually doubling to get to an
answer.

Example: for 3 x 8,
think 3 x 2 is 6,
6 x 2 is 12,
12 x 2 is 24
To nd 8 X 8, rst nd 2 X 8, then double, then
double again.
2 X 8 = 16

4 X 8 is double 2 X 8
16 + 16 = 32 so,
4 X 8 = 32

8 X 8 is double 4 X 8
32 + 32 = 64 so,
8 X 8 = 64
Practicing the Strategy
Using multiplication to divide
Concept: Division
Meaning: This is a form of part-part-whole
representation. Thinking of addition as:
part x part = whole
Thinking of subtraction as:
whole part = part
Example: for 35 7
think 7 x ____ = 35
so 35 7 is 5

36 6 =
Think 6 x ___ = 36

42 7 =
Think 7 x ___ = 42

Practicing the Strategy
Distributive property
Concept: Multiplication
Meaning: In arithmetic or algebra, when you
distribute a factor across the brackets:
a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c
(a + b) x (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd

Example: for 2 x 154
think 2 x 100 plus 2 x 50 plus 2 x 4 is
200 + 100 + 8 or 308

Place a straw between two
columns.
What does it now show?
a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c

Record it as 3 x 7 = 3 x 2 + 3 x 5




















13 x 12
= (10 + 3) x (10 + 2)
= (10 x 10) + (10 x 2)
+ (3 x 10) + (3 x 2)
(a + b) x (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd