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Conceptual strategies that enhance

flexible thinking and number sense and

number skills (critical numeracy)

calculating mentally without the use of

external memory aids.

provides a cornerstone for all estimation

processes offering a variety of alternate

algorithms and non-standard techniques

for finding answers

Adding from

Left to Right

Concept: Addition

Meaning: Using place value understanding to

add 2-digit numerals.

Example: for 25 + 33

think 20 + 30 and 5 + 3 is 50 + 8

or 58

Practising the Strategy

17+22=

26+21=

45+34=

Making 10

Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Students use combinations that

add up to ten to calculate other math facts

and can extend this to multiples of ten in

later grades.

Example: for 8 + 5

think 8 + 2 + 3 is

10 + 3 or 13

Practicing the strategy

8+7=

7+9=

5+7=

Compensation

Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Using other known math facts and

compensating. For example, adding 2 to an

addend and taking 2 away from the sum.

Example:

for 25 + 33

think 25 + 35 2 is

60 2 or 58

Practicing the strategy

47+22=

18+15=

39+17=

Commutative Property

Concept: Addition

Meaning:

Switching the order of the two numbers

being added will not affect the sum.

Example:

4 + 3 is the same as

3 + 4

Compatible Numbers

"Friendly Numbers"

Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Compatible numbers are friendly

numbers (often associated with compatible

numbers to 5 or 10).

Example: for 4 + 3 students may think 4 + 1

is 5 and 2 more makes 7

Practicing the Strategy

4+7=

9+8=

7+8=

Array

Concept: Multiplication, Division

Meaning: Using an ordered arrangement to

show multiplication or division (similar to

area).

Example: for 3 x 4 think

for 12 3 think

Multiplicative Identity

Concept: Multiplication

Meaning:

Multiplying a factor by one will not change

its value.

Dividing a dividend by one will not change its

value.

Example: 1 x 12 is 12

21 1 is 21

Doubling or Halving

Concept: Multiplication, Division

Meaning: Using known facts and doubling or

halving them to determine the answer.

Example: for 7 x 4,

think the double of 7 x 2 is 28

for 48 6,

think the double of 24 6 is 8

8 x 4 =

think double 8 x 2 = ___

32 4 =

think double 16 4 = ____

Practicing the Strategy

Repeated Doubling

Concept: Multiplication

Meaning: Continually doubling to get to an

answer.

Example: for 3 x 8,

think 3 x 2 is 6,

6 x 2 is 12,

12 x 2 is 24

To nd 8 X 8, rst nd 2 X 8, then double, then

double again.

2 X 8 = 16

4 X 8 is double 2 X 8

16 + 16 = 32 so,

4 X 8 = 32

8 X 8 is double 4 X 8

32 + 32 = 64 so,

8 X 8 = 64

Practicing the Strategy

Using multiplication to divide

Concept: Division

Meaning: This is a form of part-part-whole

representation. Thinking of addition as:

part x part = whole

Thinking of subtraction as:

whole part = part

Example: for 35 7

think 7 x ____ = 35

so 35 7 is 5

36 6 =

Think 6 x ___ = 36

42 7 =

Think 7 x ___ = 42

Practicing the Strategy

Distributive property

Concept: Multiplication

Meaning: In arithmetic or algebra, when you

distribute a factor across the brackets:

a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c

(a + b) x (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd

Example: for 2 x 154

think 2 x 100 plus 2 x 50 plus 2 x 4 is

200 + 100 + 8 or 308

Place a straw between two

columns.

What does it now show?

a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c

Record it as 3 x 7 = 3 x 2 + 3 x 5

13 x 12

= (10 + 3) x (10 + 2)

= (10 x 10) + (10 x 2)

+ (3 x 10) + (3 x 2)

(a + b) x (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd

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