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# THERMOMETRY

THERMOMETRY
a science which deals with the study,
design, construction, calibration and testing
of a thermometer.

Thermometer a device used in measuring the
temperature of a body or a system.
System anything that is enclosed and maybe
subjected to study purposes.

Temperature (t or T) a manifestation of heat.
It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body
or a system and tells the direction of the flow of
heat.

Note:
Heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature.
At thermal equilibrium, both bodies have the same temperature
(

## ) and no heat flow occurs.

>

Degree - unit of temperature

Temperature Scales
Metric (CGS and MKS)
Centigrade or Celsius (
o
C)
Kelvin (K)
English (FPS)
Fahrenheit (
o
F)
Rankine (
o
R)

Absolute scale
Absolute scale
Note:

o
C,
o
F, K, and
o
R are temperature readings
directly from the thermometer.
C
o
, F
o
, , and R
o
are units for any difference or
change in the temperature.

o o
o f
C C C t t t 30 20 50 = = = A
o
C t C t
o
f
o
o
50 , 20 = =
Fixed points
used to compare temperature scales.
temperature at which a substance undergo a
change in phase
Boiling Point (BP) point at which liquid and gas
co-exist at normal pressure and at thermal
equilibrium.
Freezing Point (FP) point at which solid and
liquid co-exist at normal pressure and at thermal
equilibrium.
Note: FP and BP are measured at sea level.
Absolute Zero lowest possible temperature.
This is the temperature where there will be
no molecular motion in a gas.
Comparison of Temperature Scales

Conversion by Ratio and Proportion

492 672
492
2 . 273 2 . 373
2 . 273
32 212
32
0 100
0

R k
f
c
t t
t
t
9
5
) 32 ( =
f c
t t
32
5
9
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
c f
t t
Examples
1. Convert 60
o
F to
o
C.
2. Given a hypothetical temperature scale X, the
freezing point is assigned the reading of 40
o
and a
boiling point 160
o
. For another scale Y, the
assigned values are -20
o
and 180
o
respectively.
Convert a reading of 50
o
X to Y scale.
Convert 100
o
X to
o
C (use standard fixed points for
Celsius scale).
3. At what temperature will the Celsius reading and
Fahrenheit reading be the same?