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CHEMISTRY
Examination Papers
2008–2013

CONTENT
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CBSE Examination Paper–2008 (Delhi)

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CBSE Examination Paper–2008 (All India)

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CBSE Examination Paper–2009 (Delhi)

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CBSE Examination Paper–2009 (All India)

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CBSE Examination Paper–2009 (Foreign)

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CBSE Examination Paper–2010 (Delhi)

116

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CBSE Examination Paper–2010 (All India)

134

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CBSE Examination Paper–2010 (Foreign)

152

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CBSE Examination Paper–2011 (Delhi)

171

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CBSE Examination Paper–2011 (All India)

191

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CBSE Examination Paper–2011 (Foreign)

209

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CBSE Examination Paper–2012 (Delhi)

229

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CBSE Examination Paper–2012 (All India)

249

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CBSE Examination Paper–2012 (Foreign)

267

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CBSE Examination Paper–2013 (Delhi)

285

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CBSE Examination Paper–2013 (All India)

300

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CBSE Examination Paper–2013 (Foreign)

315

CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS
DELHI—2008
Time allowed: 3 hours

Maximum marks: 70

General Instructions:
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Question nos. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Question nos. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Question nos. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Question nos. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vi) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

CBSE (Delhi) SET–I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the coordination number of each type of ions in a rock-salt type crystal structure?
Define the term ‘order of reaction’ for chemical reactions.
What causes Brownian movement in a colloidal solution?
In which one of the two structures, NO+2 and NO-2 , the bond angle has a higher value?
Write the IUPAC name of the following compound:
H3 C ¾ CH ¾ CH2 ¾ CH ¾ CH ¾ CH2 OH
½
½
½
CH3
OH CH3

Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of their acid strengths:
(CH3 ) 2 CHCOOH, CH3 CH2 CH(Br)COOH, CH3 CH (Br) CH2 COOH
7. Write a chemical reaction in which the iodide ion replaces the diazonium group in a diazonium salt.
8. Name a substance that can be used as an antiseptic as well as a disinfectant.
9. Explain as to why haloarenes are much less reactive than haloalkanes towards nucleophilic
substitution reactions.
OR
Which compound in each of the following pairs will react faster in SN2 reaction with —OH? Why?
(i) CH3 Br or CH3 I
(ii) (CH3 ) 3 CCl or CH3 Cl
10. (a) State the IUPAC name of the following compound:
H
H3C
H
Br
H
H
6.

(b) Complete the following chemical equation:
peroxide

CH3 CH2 CH = CH2 + HBr ¾¾¾¾® ¼¼
11. State Henry’s law correlating the pressure of a gas and its solubility in a solvent and mention two
applications of the law.
12. A first order decomposition reaction takes 40 minutes for 30% decomposition. Calculate its t 1/ 2
value.

4 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII
13. What is meant by the ‘rate constant, k’ of a reaction? If the concentration is expressed in mol L-1
units and time in seconds, what would be the units for k (i) for a zero order reaction and (ii) for a
first order reaction?
14. Define the following terms in relation to proteins:
(i) Peptide linkage
(ii) Denaturation
15. List the reactions of glucose which cannot be explained by its open chain structure.
16. Assign a reason for each of the following statements:
(i) Ammonia is a stronger base than phosphine.
(ii) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits a paramagnetic behaviour.
17. Draw the structure of the following molecules:
(i) SF4
(ii) XeF4
18. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents? Give one example of each class.
19. What is a semiconductor? Describe the two main types of semiconductors and explain mechanisms
for their conduction.
20. Calculate the temperature at which a solution containing 54 g of glucose, (C 6 H12 O6 ), in 250 g of
water will freeze. (K f for water = 1.86 K mol -1 kg)
21. What are lyophilic and lyophobic sols? Give one example of each type. Which one of these two
types of sols is easily coagulated and why?
22. State briefly the principles which serve as basis for the following operations in metallurgy:
(i) Froth floatation process
(ii) Zone refining
(iii) Refining by liquation
23. Write chemical equations for the following processes:
(i) Chlorine reacts with a hot concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide.
(ii) Orthophosphorous acid is heated
(iii) PtF6 and xenon are mixed together.
OR
Complete the following chemical equations:
(i) Ca 3 P2 ( s) + H2 O (l) ¾¾® ¼
(ii) Cu 2+ ( aq) + NH3 ( aq) ¾¾® ¼
(excess)

(iii) F2 ( g) + H2 O (l) ¾¾® ¼
24. (a) What is a ligand? Give an example of a bidentate ligand.
(b) Explain as to how the two complexes of nickel, [Ni (CN) 4 ] 2- and Ni (CO) 4 , have different
structures but do not differ in their magnetic behaviour. (Ni = 28)
25. Name the reagents which are used in the following conversions:
(i) A primary alcohol to an aldehyde
(ii) Butan-2-one to butan-2-ol
(iii) Phenol to 2, 4, 6-tribromophenol
26. Account for the following observations:
(i) pK b for aniline is more than that for methylamine.
(ii) Methylamine solution in water reacts with ferric chloride solution to give a precipitate of ferric
hydroxide.
(iii) Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction.

Examination Papers | 5

27. Write the names and structure of the monomers of the following polymers:
(i) Buna-S
(ii) Neoprene
(iii) Nylon-6
28. Conductivity of 0.00241 M acetic acid solution is 7.896 ´ 10 -5 S cm -1 . Calculate its molar
conductivity in this solution. If L°m for acetic acid is 390.5 S cm 2 mol -1 , what would be its
dissociation constant?
OR
Three electrolytic cells A, B and C containing solutions of zinc sulphate, silver nitrate and copper
sulphate, respectively are connected in series. A steady current of 1.5 ampere was passed through
them until 1.45 g of silver were deposited at the cathode of cell B. How long did the current flow?
What mass of copper and what mass of zinc were deposited in the concerned cells? (Atomic
masses of Ag = 108, Zn = 65.4, Cu = 63.5)
29. Assign reasons for the following:
(i) The enthalpies of atomisation of transition elements are high.
(ii) The transition metals and many of their compounds act as good catalysts.
(iii) From element to element the actinoid contraction is greater than the lanthanoid contraction.
(iv) The E° value for the Mn 3+ / Mn 2+ couple is much more positive than that of Cr 3+ / Cr 2+ .
(v) Scandium ( Z = 21) does not exhibit variable oxidation states and yet it is regarded as a
transition element.
OR
(a) What may be the possible oxidation states of the transition metals with the following d
electronic configurations in the ground state of their atoms:
3d 3 4s 2 , 3d 5 4s 2 and 3d 6 4s 2 . Indicate relative stability of oxidation states in each case.
(b) Write steps involved in the preparation of (i) Na 2 CrO4 from chromite ore and (ii) K 2 MnO4
from pyrolusite ore.
30. (a) Complete the following reaction statements by giving the missing starting material, reagent or
product as required:
O2

(i) ........... ¾¾¾¾¾® 2
Zn ¾ H 2 O

(ii)

.............
CH2 ¾¾¾¾®
CH2 CH3

(iii)

O
¾ CHO

KMnO4

¾¾¾¾® ...........
KOH, heat

(b) Describe the following reactions:
(i) Cannizaro reaction
(ii) Cross aldol condensation
OR
(a) How would you account for the following:
(i) Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones towards nucelophiles.
(ii) The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are lower than of the corresponding acids.
(iii) The aldehydes and ketones undergo a number of addition reactions.
(b) Give chemical tests to distinguish between:
(i) Acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde
(ii) Propanone and propanol.

(a) How will you bring about the following conversions? (i) Ethanol to acetone (ii) Benzene to acetophenone (iii) Benzoic acid to benzaldehyde (b) Describe the following giving a suitable example in each case: (i) Decarboxylation (ii) Cannizaro’s reaction . (b) The half-life for decay of radioactive 14 C is 5730 years.5 ´ 10 -4 mol -1 L s -1 ? OR (a) List the factors on which the rate of a chemical reaction depends. (i) Why is it that haloalkanes are more reactive than haloarenes towards nucleophiles. (iii) The carriers of current within this cell.20 M solution of KCl at 298 K is 0. (ii) Which one of the following reacts faster in an SN1 reaction and why? Cl Or Cl 28. 14. Calculate the age of the artefact. Describe how the molecular mass of a substance can be determined by a method based on measurement of osmotic pressure? 10. Complete the following reaction equations: (i) C 6 H5 N2 Cl + KI ¾¾® ¼ H H CCl 4 (ii) C=C + Br2 ¾¾¾® ¼ H H 15. Formulate the galvanic cell in which the following reaction takes place: Zn(s) + 2Ag + (aq) ¾¾® Zn 2+ (aq) + 2Ag(s) State: (i) Which one of its electrodes is negatively charged? (ii) The reaction taking place at each of its electrode. 29. (a) Derive the general form of the expression for the half-life of a first order reaction. Calculate its molar conductivity. What is the total number of atoms per unit cell in a face-centred cubic (fcc) structure? 2. OR Define the term osmotic pressure. State Raoult’s law for solutions of volatile liquids. 6. The conductivity of a 0. An archaeological artefact containing wood has only 80% of the 14 C activity as found in living trees. Taking suitable examples explain the meaning of positive and negative deviations from Raoult’s law.6 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII CBSE (Delhi) SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set-I 1. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3 COCH2 COCH3 9. What is primary cell? Give an example. What are the rates of production of N2 and H2 if k = 2. 11. (b) The decomposition of NH3 on platinum surface is a zero order reaction.0248 S cm -1 .

On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acids. 11. . The resistance of a conductivity cell containing 0. It does not reduce Tollens’ reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogen sulphite and gives positive iodoform test.Examination Papers | 7 OR (a) An organic compound contains 69. Explain the basic principles of following metallurgical operations: (i) Zone refining (ii) Vapour phase refining (iii) Electrolytic refining 22. 3.146 ´ 10 -3 S cm -1 ? 19. How would you account for the following? (i) Frenkel defects are not found in alkali metal halides. (ii) Schottky defects lower the density of related solids. Explain what is observed when (i) an electrolyte. (iii) Impurity doped silicon is a semiconductor.001 M KCl solution at 298 K is 0. Express the relation between conductivity and molar conductivity of a solution. (ii) an electric current is passed through a colloidal solution. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. CBSE (Delhi) SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and Set–II 1.63% hydrogen and the rest is oxygen. is added to a hydrated ferric oxide sol. (b) State reasons for the following: (i) Monochloroethanoic acid has a higher pKa value than dichloroethanoic acid.001 M KCl solution at 298 K is 1500 W . What is the cell constant if the conductivity of 0. (iii) a beam of strong light is passed through a colloidal solution. What type of substances exhibit antiferromagnetism? 2. (ii) Ethanoic acid is a weaker acid than benzoic acid. OR Explain the following properties giving suitable examples: (i) Ferromagnetism (ii) Paramagnetism (iii) Ferrimagnetism 21. Deduce the possible structure of the organic compound.77% carbon. Which has a higher enthalpy of adsorption. physisorption or chemisorption? 10. KCl.

This is due to the unequal bombardment of colloidal particles by the molecules of dispersion medium. X | +X +X X | + X OR (i) CH3–I reacts faster than CH3–Br as iodine is a better leaving group because of its larger size. Coordination number of Na + ion = 6 Coordination number of Cl . (CH3 ) 2 CHCOOH < CH3 ¾ CH ¾ CH2 ¾ COOH < CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH ¾ COOH ½ ½ Br Br + N2 Cl ½ I ½ D + KI ¾¾¾® 7. . 10. As a result the bond cleavage in haloarenes is difficult than haloalkanes and therefore. 4.CH2 . (a) 1-Bromo but-2-ene. 3. Benzene diazonium chloride 8.CH2 . Peroxide (b) CH3 .ion = 6 The sum of powers of the concentrations of the reactants in the rate law expression is called the order of reaction. 0.Br ¾¾¾® CH3 . 6. In haloarenes C—X bond acquires a partial double bond character due to resonance. 3-diol. 2. 5-Dimethyl hexane-1. NO+2 has higher bond angle as the central atom nitrogen in NO-2 has a lone pair of electrons. (ii) CH3–Cl (1° halide) reacts faster than (CH3 ) 3 CCl (3° halide) since in case tertiary butyl chloride three bulky methyl group hinder the approaching nucleophile. they are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. + KCl + N2 Iodobenzene Phenol.CH2 .Br But-1-ene 1-bromo butane 11.CH2 .2% solution of phenol acts as antiseptic where as 1% solution acts as disinfectant.8 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII SOLUTIONS CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1. 2. 9. 5.CH = CH2 + H . It states that at constant temperature the mass of a gas(m) dissolved in a given volume of the liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas ( P) present in equilibrium with the liquid.

3 min .Examination Papers | 9 Mathematically.91 ´ 10 .428 = ´ 0. 12.n s -1 For a first order reaction n = 1 \ Unit of K = sec . Rate constant is the rate of the reaction when the concentration of each reactant is taken as unity. ö General unit of K = ç ÷ è lit. m µ P or m = KH P where K H is the Henry’s law constant.H2O H2 N ¾ CH2 ¾ C ¾ OH + H NH ¾ CH ¾ COOH ¾¾¾® ½ CH3 (iii) O ½½ H2 NCH2 ¾ C ¾ NH ¾ CH ¾ COOH ½ CH3 Peptide linkage (Gly -Ala) . the bottle is sealed under high pressure.30 7 2. For a first order reaction [R ]0 2.78 min. O ½½ . ø (i) For a zero order reaction n = 0 \ Unit of K = mol lit -1 sec -1 \ 1. Applications of Henry’s law are (i) To increase the solubility of CO2 in soft drinks and soda water. (ii) To minimize the painful effects accompanying the decompression of deep sea divers.693 t 1/ 2 = = K 8.303 2.1 0.1 14.693 0.303 K= log t [R ] [R ]0 100 10 when t = 40 minutes. rate = K [ A ] n Q æ mol.1548 40 7 40 40 K = 8.303 K= log = log 1.303 10 2. = = [ R ] 100 . (i) Peptide linkage: A peptide linkage is an amide linkage ( ¾ CONH ¾ ) formed between ¾ COOH group of one a-amino acid and NH2 group of the other amino acid by the elimination of a water molecule.91 ´ 10 -3 t 1/ 2 = 77. oxygen diluted with less soluble helium gas is used as breathing gas. 13.

the hydrogen bonds are disturbed.. Thus..g. globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and proteins loses its biological activity. Due to this. (iii) When D-glucose is treated with methanol in the presence of dry hydrogen chloride gas. it gives two isomeric mono methyl derivatives known as a-D glucoside and methyl b-D glucoside. coagulation of egg white on boiling. 16. e. hence exhibits paramagnetic behaviour. CH3 ¾ (CH2 ) 11 ¾ ¾ SO-3 Na + . e. = 1 F F See-saw shape (ii) sp 3 d 2 hybridisation F b. sodium–4–(1-dodecyl) benzene sulphonate. = 2 F F Square planar 18.10 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (ii) Denaturation: When a protein in its native form is subjected to physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH. p. These glucosides do not react with hydrogen cyanide or with hydroxylamine. 4-DNP test.g. 17. The following reactions of glucose cannot be explained by its open chain structure. 15. (i) sp 3 d hybridisation. p. ammonia is stronger base than phosphine. F F b. (ii) In vapour state sulphur partly exists as S 2 molecule which has two unpaired electrons in the antibonding p * orbitals like O2 and. (i) Despite having the aldehyde group glucose does not give 2. p. therefore electron density on nitrogen atom is higher than that on phosphorus atom. p. Consequently the tendency of N in NH3 to donate its lone pair of electrons is much higher than that of P in PH3 . = 4 F Xe 6e pairs l. Biodegradable detergents: Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chains are easily degraded by micro-organism and hence called biodegradable detergents. Schiffs test and it does not form the hydrogen sulphite addition product with NaHSO3 . During denaturation 2° and 3° structures of proteins are destroyed but 1° structure remains intact. = 4 5e pairs S l. (ii) The pentacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence of free —CHO group. (i) As the atomic size of nitrogen is smaller than phosphorus.

86 ´ 54 ´ 1000 DTf = = 2. the dopant atom forms four covalent bonds like a Si or Ge atom but the fifth electron. Semiconductors are of two types (i) n-type of semiconductors (ii) p-type of semiconductors n-type semiconductor: When a silicon or germanium crystal is doped with group 15 element like P or As. 19.g..( 2. 3. valence electrons. Silicon atom Mobile electron Positive hole (no electron) As Perfect crystal n-type 20. the dopant has only with three. Mass of glucose (WB ) = 54 g Molecular mass of glucose ( M B ) = 180 Mass of water (WB ) = 250 g K f for water = 1. Thus Si or Ge doped with B or Al is called p type of semiconductor. n indicative of negative.Examination Papers | 11 Non-biodegradable detergents: Detergents having branched hydrocarbon chains are not easily degraded by micro-organisms and hence are called non-biodegradable detergents. Semiconductor: These are the solids with conductivities in the intermediate range from 10 -6 to 10 4 ohm -1 m -1 . becomes delocalised and contribute its share towards electrical conduction. CH3 CH3 ½ ½ CH3 ¾ ( CH ¾ CH2 ¾ ) 3 ¾ CH ¾ ¾ SO-3 Na + Non-biodegradable detergents accumulate in rivers and waterways thereby causing water pollution.23° C B p-type .2.1 kg K f ´ WB ´ 1000 Applying the formula. not used in bonding. Thus silicon or germanium doped with P or As is called n-type semiconductor.23 180 ´ 250 Tf = T ° f . An electron vacancy or a hole is created at the place of the missing fourth electron. 5.DTf = 0 . 7-tetramethyl octyl) benzenesulphonate. since it is the electron that conducts electricity. e.23) Tf = .86 k mol . (P stands for positive hole) since it is the positive hole that is responsible for conduction. p-type semiconductor: When silicon or germanium is doped with group 13 element like B or Al. D Tf = M B ´ WA 1. this hole moves through the crystal like a positive charge giving rise to electrical conductivity. Here. sodium-4(1.

etc. gold sol. (ii) Zone refining is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in (liquid state) than in the solid state of the metal. (i) 3Cl 2 + 6NaOH ¾¾® 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2 O (Hot & conc. Structure: Square planar. Hence pure metal separates out. etc. (iii) The principle of refining by liquation is that the impurities whose melting points are higher than the metal are left behind on melting the impure metal. A ligand should have lone pair of electrons in their valence orbital which can be donated to central metal atom/ion.12 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 21.. Lyophobic sols easily coagulate on the addition of small amount of electrolyte because these are not stable.g. As 2 O3 sol.(aq) + O2 (g) + 24. . whereas the gangue particles are wetted by water. e. 23. (a) The ion. The stability of Lyophobic sols is only due to the presence of charge on the colloidal particles. e.. on the other hand stability of lyophilic sol.) D 4H3 PO3 ¾¾® 3H3 PO4 + PH3 (ii) PtF6 + Xe ¾¾® Xe + [PtF6 ] - (iii) OR (i) Ca 3 P2 (s) + 6H2 O(l) ¾¾® 2PH3 + 3Ca (OH) 2 (ii) Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH3 (aq) r [Cu(NH3 ) 4 ] 2+ (aq) (blue) (iii) (excess) (deep blue) 2F2 (g) + 2H2 O (l) ¾¾® 4H (aq) + 4F . is due to charge as well as solvation of colloidal particles. Lyophobic sols: In this type of sols the particles of dispersed phase have little or no affinity for the dispersion medium. Lyophilic sols: Lyophilic sols are those sols in which the particles of dispersed phase have great affinity for the dispersion medium. atom or molecule bound to the central atom/ion in the coordination entity is called ligand. starch. ·· ·· Bidentate ligand: H2 N ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ N H2 (Ethylene diamine) (b) 3d 4p 4s Orbital of Ni2+ ion dsp 2 hybridised orbitals of Ni2+ dsp 2 hybrid [Ni(CN)4 ]2(Low spin complex) Four pairs of electrons from 4CN. Magnetic behaviour: Diamagnetic due to the absence of unpaired electrons..g. 22.group. (i) The principle of froth floatation process is that sulphide ore particle are preferentially wetted by pine oil. Fe (OH) 3 sol. gelatine. sols of gum.

Therefore aniline is a weaker base than methyl amine and hence its pK b value is higher than that of methyl amine. 27. CH3 ¾ NH2 + H2 O r CH3 N H3 + OH– + (ii) Due to alkaline nature of solution of methylamine precipitation of Fe(OH) 3 occurs. (i) In aniline due to resonance the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom are delocalized over the benzene ring. FeCl 3 + 3OH– ¾¾® Fe (OH) 3 ¯ + 3Cl Ferric hydroxide (Brown ppt) (iii) Aniline being a Lewis base. in methyl amine +I effect of CH3 increases the electron density on the nitrogen atom. reacts with lewis acid AlCl 3 to form a salt. Due to this N atom of aniline acquires positive charge and hence acts as a strong deactivation group for further reaction. + 25. 3-diene Structure of Monomer CH2 = CH ¾ CH = CH2 CH = CH2 and styrene (ii) Neoprene Chloroprene (iii) Nylon-6 Caprolactum ½ H2 C = C ¾ CH = CH2 ½ Cl O C— NH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 . (i) Pyridinium chlorochromate (C5 H5 N HCrO3 Cl . On the other hand. the electron density on the nitrogen decreases. As a result.) or Cu/573 K (ii) LiAlH4 / ether (iii) Br2 / H2 O 26.Examination Papers | 13 Orbital of Ni (O) 4p 4s 3d sp 3 hybridised orbitals of Ni sp 3 hybrid 3d Ni(CO) 4 (Low spin complex) Four pairs of electrons from four CO molecules 3d Structure: Tetrahedral Magnetic behaviour: Diamagnetic due to the absence of unpaired electrons. (i) Polymer Buna-S Monomer Buta-1.

6 = 0.5 g 63.3 \ 1295.6 C deposit Cu = ´ 1295.6 t= = = 863. the transition metal provides a suitable large surface area with free valencies on which reactants are adsorbed.426 g 2 ´ 96500 Ka = Zn 2+ + 2e .5 a = 8.¾® Ag 108 g of Ag are deposited by 96500 C 96500 \ 1.86 ´ 10 -5 (1 .¾¾® Zn 2 ´ 96500 C deposits Zn = 65.a ) ca ca [ CH3 ¾ COO. l¥m = 390. (b) In some cases.a ) 1 .438 g 2 ´ 96500 29. (ii) The catalytic activity of transition metals is attributed to the following reasons: (a) Because of their variable oxidation states transition metals form unstable intermediate compounds and provide a new path with lower activation energy for the reaction.0241(0. K = 7. I 1.5 \ 1295.76 a= m = = 0. . (iii) This is due to poorer shielding by 5f electrons in actinoids than that by 4f electron in the lanthanoids.4% CH3 ¾ COOH r CH3 ¾ COO.+ H+ 0 0 c c(1 . (i) This is because transition metals have strong metallic bonds as they have a large number of unpaired electrons.45 C 108 = 1295.896 ´ 10 -5 S cm -1 .084) 2 = 1.45 g of Ag will be deposited by = ´ 1. ca ca 2 Ka = = = [ CH3 ¾ COOH] c (1 .1 K ´ 1000 lm = c Substituting the values 7.6 C Q 1295.] [ H+ ] ca .a 0.50 Cu 2+ + 2e .76 S cm 2 mol -1 0. c = 0.084) OR Ag + + e .14 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 28.7 s.6 = 0.896 ´ 10 -5 ´ 1000 lm = = 32.6 C deposit Zn = ´ 1295.5 S cm 2 mol .084 ¥ l m 390.3 g 65.¾¾® Cu 2 ´ 96500 C deposit Cu = 63.00241 M.002 lc 32.0.

+ 4. More stable O. . In this reaction one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohol while another is oxidised to carboxylic acid salt. + 4. + 5.S. OR (a) Electronic Configuration 3d 2 4s 2 5 3d 4s 2 3d 6 4s 2 Element Possible O. + 5 +5 Manganese + 2. + 7 + 2. + 3. COO. (v) This is because scandium has partially filled d orbitals in the ground state (3d 1 4s 2 ). + 4. undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. It gives a mixture of four products. 573 K. 2MnO2 + 4KOH + O2 ¾® 2K 2 MnO4 + 2H2 O Pyrolusite ore Potassium maganate 30.Examination Papers | 15 (iv) This is because half filled d-subshell (3d 5 ) in Mn 2+ is more stable. + 7 Iron + 2. + 6. chromate (ii) Pyrolusite ore (MnO2 ) is fused with KOH in the presence of O2 or oxidising agent such as KNO3 . KOH 2HCHO Formaldehyde ¾¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ OH + HCOO. 4FeCr2 O4 + 8Na 2 CO3 + 7O2 ¾® 8Na 2 CrO4 + 2Fe 2 O3 + 8CO2 Chromite ore Sod. conc. + 3. + 3 (b) (i) Chromite ore is fused with sodium carbonate in excess of air. + 6 + 2. (a) (i) (ii) BH3 / THF.K + Methyl alcohol Potasium formate (ii) Cross aldol condensation: When aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and/or ketones. H2 O2 / OH– . O O ¾ CHO + ½½ OH – ¾ C ¾ CH3 ¾¾¾® ½½ ¾ CH = CH ¾ C ¾ 293 K Benzaldehyde Acetophenone Benzal acetophenone If both of them contain a-hydrogen atoms.K + (iii) (b) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an a-hydrogen. it is called cross aldol condensation.S. PCC or Cu. + 3. Vanadium + 2.

. Pentane-2. e. 6.Na + + CHI 3 + 2NaOH Iodoform (yellow ppt) CHO ½ NaOI ¾¾¾¾® No reaction (ii) Propanone give orange-red ppt with 2. CH3 ¾ COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾® CHI 3 + CH3 ¾ COO. i. Raoult’s law: It states that for a solution of volatile liquids the partial pressure of each component is directly proportional to its mole fraction. 2. ..g. whereas 1-propanol does not give these tests. 4-dione. 9. (ii) This is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding in carboxylic acids. Example: A solution of acetone and chloroform.e. 1 1 atom per unit cell + 6 (face atoms) ´ atom per unit cell = 1 + 3 = 4 8 2 A primary cell is one in which the redox reaction occurs only once and the cell becomes dead after some time and cannot be used again. NaOI CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ OH ¾ ¾¾® No yellow ppt. of iodoform CBSE (Delhi) SET–II 1.Na + + 2NaOH Iodoform yellow ppt. the presence of two relatively large substituents in ketones hinders the approach of nucleophile to carbonyl carbon than in aldehydes having only one such substituent. Mathematically PA µ x A PB µ x B PA = PAo x A PB = PBo x B Positive deviation from Raoult’s law: In this type of deviation the partial pressure of each component of solution is greater than that calculated from Raoult’s law. Negative deviation from Raoult’s: In this type of deviation the partial pressure of each component of solution is less than that expected from Raoult’s law.e. dry cell. Sterically. Electronically two alkyl groups reduce the positivity of the carbonyl carbon more effectively in ketones than in aldehydes.. (iii) Due to greater electronegativity of oxygen than carbon the C atom of the C = O bond acquires a partial positive charge in aldehydes and ketones and hence readily undergo nucleophilic addition reactions. (b) (i) Acetaldehyde reacts with NaOI (I 2 / NaOH) to form yellow ppt of iodoform while benzaldehyde does not give this test.16 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII OR (a) (i) This is due to steric and electronic reasons. CH3 ¾ CHO + 3NaOI ¾® HCOO. PA < PAo x A & PB < PBo x B . Example: A solution of water and ethanol. PA > PAo x A & 8 (corner atoms) ´ PB > PBo x B . 4-DNP reagent and yellow ppt of iodoform with sodium hypoiodite. i.

C 6 H5 N2 Cl + KI ¾® 14. M = 0. K + and Cl . M B can be calculated. k = 0.e. they are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. X | +X +X + X X | . (i) H (ii) C 6 H5 I Iodobenzene H H + Br2 ¾¾¾® C=C H CCl 4 + KCl + N2 H H H C¾ C ½ ½ H Br Br 1. As a result the bond cleavage in haloarenes is difficult than haloalkanes and therefore. * Ag + ions in cathodic half cell.) Ag + (conc) Ag (i) Zn electrode is negatively charged. 10. i.¾® 2Ag (iii) Current carriers of cell are * electrons in external wire.0248 ´ 1000 Lm = = M 0. knowing WB .0248 S cm -1 . (i) In haloarenes C—X bond acquires a partial double bond character due to resonance. T .2 L m = 1248 cm 2 mol -1 11. (ii) At anode Zn ¾¾® Zn 2+ + 2e At cathode 2Ag + + e .. 2-Dibromoethane 15.2 mol L-1 Substituting the values k ´ 1000 0.. * Ions of salt bridge. n p = B RT = CRT V where V is the volume of solution in litres containing n B moles of the solute. p and V molecular mass of the solute.Examination Papers | 17 OR Osmotic pressure ( p) is defined as the extra pressure that must be applied to the solution side in order to prevent the flow of solvent molecules into it through a semipermeable membrane. Zn Zn 2+ (conc. If WB grams of the solute whose molecular mass M B is present in the solution then W RT p= B M B RT W RT MB = B pV Thus. * Zn 2+ ions in anodic half cell.

5 ´ 10 mol L S dt d [ H2 ] 3d [ N2 ] = = 3 ´ 2.K ´ 0 + C ln [ R ] 0 = C Substituting the value of C in equation (i) ln [ R ] = .303 \ t 1/ 2 = log [R ]0 K 2 2.303 log Þ t= log [R ] K [R ] [R ]0 when t = t 1/ 2 [R ] = 2 [R ]0 2. Therefore equation (i) can be written as ln [ R ] 0 = .5 ´ 10 -4 mol L-1 S -1 dt dt d [ H2 ] = 7.Kt + ln [ R ] 0 Kt = ln [ R ] 0 .303 Kt = 2.303 2.Kt + C when t = 0.3010 K K 0.303 t 1/ 2 = log 2 = ´ 0.ln [ R ] ln [ R ] 0 Kt = [R ] [R ]0 [R ]0 2.5 ´ 10 -4 1 d [ NH3 ] d [ N2 ] 1 d [ H2 ] Rate = = = 2 dt dt 3 dt d [ N2 ] -4 -1 -1 = 2.693 \ t 1/ 2 = K (b) 2NH3 ¾¾® N2 + 3H2 For a zero order reaction Rate = K [ NH3 ] 0 \ Rate = K = 2. (a) Consider the first order reaction R ¾¾® P d [R ] Rate = = K [R ] dt d [R ] or = .18 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII Cl (ii) Or I Cl II Compound (I) reacts faster in SN1 reaction as it is a 2° alkyl halide.5 ´ 10 -4 mol L-1 S -1 dt …(i) .K dt [R ] Integrating both the sides we get ln [ R ] = . 28. R = [ R ] 0 where [ R ] 0 is the initial concentration of the reactant.

2 1.303 2.303 100 t= log = log K [ R ] 1.303 ´ 10 4 (log 10 .097 ´ 10 4 2.209 t = 1847.303 ´ 0.303 t= ´ 10 4 (1 .3010) = 1.693 \ K= = = 1.Examination Papers | 19 OR (a) Rate of reaction depends on (i) Concentration (ii) Temperature (iii) Nature of reactant (iv) Pressure of the gaseous reactant (v) Surface area (vi) Catalyst (b) t 1/ 2 = 5730 years 0.2 2.209 ´ 10 -4 year -1 t 1/ 2 5730 [R ]0 2.303 ´ 10 4 2. (a) (i) CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ OH ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ CHO ¾® CH3 ¾ COOH (O) Ethyl alcohol Acetic acid O ½½ O ¾ C ¾ CH3 Ca (OH) 2 ¾¾¾® Ca O Dry distill ¾¾¾¾¾® ½½ CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH3 Acetone O ¾ C ¾ CH3 ½½ O Calcium acetate O anhyd.log 8) = (1 .693 0.3 ´ 0.7 years t= K 2 Cr2 O7 /H 2 SO4 (O) 29.2 1.2 ´ 10 -4 80 2. AlCl 3 ½½ + CH3 ¾ C ¾ Cl ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾® (ii) Acetyl chloride Acetophenone O ½½ C ¾ Cl ½ PCl5 O ½½ C¾ H ½ + H2 ¾¾¾® (iii) + HCl Friedel craft acylation Benzene O ½½ C ¾ OH ½ O ½½ C ¾ CH3 ½ ¾¾¾¾® Pd/BaSO4 Benzoic acid Benzoyl chloride Benzaldehyde .3 log 2) 1.

undergo disproportionation reaction on treatment. one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohol while the other is oxidised to carboxylic acid. Since on oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acid its possible structural formula is O ½½ CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH3 Reactions involved: O CH3 CH2 ¾ CH2 ½½ CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH3 + NaHSO3 ¾® Pentan -2-one CH3 SO-3 Na + C addition compound OH .20 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (b) (i) Decarboxylation: Carboxylic acids lose CO2 to form hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated with soda lime (NaOH and CaO in the ratio 3: 1).(69. %H = 11. In this reaction.6 C : H: O = : = = 5.77%.81:11. molecular mass n= Empirical formula mass Molecular mass = 86 Empirical formula mass = 5 ´ 12 + 10 ´ 1 + 1 ´ 16 = 86 86 n= =1 81 \ Molecular formula = n ( Empirical formula) = C5 H10 O The (forms addition compound with NaHSO3 ) given organic compound is methyl ketone as it gives positive iodoform test and also does not reduce Tollen’s reagent.77 + 11. NaOH 2HCHO ¾¾¾¾® Formaldehyde CH3 ¾ OH + Methyl alcohol –+ HCOO Na Sodium formate OR (a) % C = 69.16 12 1 16 \ C : H : O = 5 :10 :1 The empirical formula of the given compound is C5 H10 O.6% 69.63% %O = 100 . conc.63) = 18.63 18.77 11. NaOH and CaO R ¾ COONa ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾® R ¾ H + Na 2 CO3 D COONa ½ NaOH /CaO ¾¾¾¾® + Na 2 CO3 D Sodium benzoate Benzene (ii) Cannizzaro Reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an a-hydrogen atom.63 :1.

R = 1500 ohm 1 0. (i) This is because alkali metal ions have larger size which cannot fit into interstitial sites.219 cm -1 19. k = ´ cell constant R k = 0. OR (i) Ferromagnetism: Ferromagnetic substances are those substance which are strongly attracted by external magnetic fielding. CBSE (Delhi) SET–III 1. Creation of hole causes p-type semiconductor and creation of electron causes n-type semiconductor. 2.146 ´ 10 -3 ´ 1500 = 219 ´ 10 -3 = 0.] Ferromagnetism arises due to spontaneous alignment of magnetic moments in the same direction. (ii) This is because methyl group due to its positive inductive effect destabilize the acetate anion by intensifying the negative charge. e. lm = Alignment of magnetic moments in ferromagnetic substance. nickle and CrO2 . Substance in which domains are oppositely oriented and cancel out each other magnetic moments. etc.g. the mass decreases whereas the volume remains the same.. . (iron. k ´ 1000 c where.146 ´ 10 -3 S cm -1 . Chemisorption 1 10.+ + CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CO O Na + 3NaI + 3H2 O O ½½ : K 2 Cr2 O7 /H 2 SO4 CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH3 ¾¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ COOH + CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ COOH : (O) Ethanoic acid Propanoic acid (b) (i) This is because dichloroethanoic acid is a stronger acid than monochloroethanoic acid. (ii) As the number of ions decreases as a result of Schottky defect.146 ´ 10 -3 = ´ cell constant 1500 cell constant = 0. . L m = Molar conductivity k = Conductivity c = Molar concentration 3.Examination Papers | 21 O ½½ Iodoform CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH3 + 3I 2 + 4NaOH ¾¾¾¾¾® CHI 3 reaction Iodoform Yellow ppt. (iii) This is due to additional electron or creation of hole on dopping with impurity. cobalt.

(ii) Vapour phase refining. 21. (b) the volatile compound should be easily decomposable. (iii) Scattering of light by the colloidal particles takes place and the path of light becomes visible (Tyndall effect). It is the decomposed to give pure metal. so that the recovery is easy. So. colloidal particles move towards the oppositely charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated. (i) Zone refining is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the melt in than solid state of metal. Cr 3+ . Fe 3 O4 (magnetite) and ferrites like MgFe 2 O4 .g. . A strip of the same metal in pure form is used as cathode.g. (iii) Ferrimagnetism: Ferrimagnetism is observed when the magnetic moments of the domains in the substance are aligned in parallel and antiparallel directions in unequal number resulting in some net magnetic moment. the two requirements are: (a) the metal should form a volatile compound with an available reagent. e.O2 . (i) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH) 3 get coagulated by the oppositely charged Cl . Anode: M ¾® M n + + ne Cathode: M n + + ne .¾® M 22. impure metal forms metal ions which are discharged at cathode forming pure metal.. When electric current is passed. (ii) On passing direct current. It is due to the presence of one or more unpaired electrons. metal is converted into its volatile compound and collected elsewhere. Fe 3+ . In this. e. etc.ions provided by KCl. etc. (iii) In electrolytic refining impure metal is made to act as anode.. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of the same metal.22 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (ii) Paramagnetism: Paramagnetic substances are those substances which are weakly attracted by magnetic field.

(ii) Phosphorus (P4 ) is much more reactive than nitrogen (N2 ). hydrogen chloride is a stronger acid than hydrogen fluoride. What is understood by ‘chemotherapy’? Define osmotic pressure. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. How is it that measurement of osmotic pressures is more widely used for determining molar masses of macromolecules than the rise in boiling point or fall in freezing point of their solutions? OR Derive an equation to express that relative lowering of vapour pressure for a solution is equal to the mole fraction of the solute in it when the solvent alone is volatile. Question nos. Co = 27) What happens when bromine reacts with CH3 ¾ C º CH? How would you justify this reaction? 14. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS ALL INDIA—2008 Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 70 General Instructions: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) All questions are compulsory. Discuss the relative stability in aqueous solutions of +2 oxidation state among the elements : Cr. 11. 10. Mn = 25. 7. 2. 12. Fe = 26. Calculate its molar conductivity in this solution. Nos. How would you justify this situation? (At. Mention all the oxidation states exhibited by chlorine in its compounds. 3. Define the ‘forbidden zone’ of an insulator. Question nos. Assign reasons for the following : (i) In liquid state. Mn. use of calculators is not allowed. Why are lower members of aldehydes easily miscible with water? Why do amines behave as nucleophiles? What are disaccharides? Give an example. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 6. Cr = 24.20 M solution of KCl at 298 K is 0.0248 S cm -1 . 8. CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. Define the term ‘polymerisation’. Use log tables if necessary. 9. Question nos. The conductivity of 0. Question nos. Fe and Co. Write the IUPAC names of the following compounds : (i) (CH3 ) 3 CCH2 Br . 4. Mention two ways by which lyophilic colloids can be coagulated. 5. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. 13.

Cl = 35.0.02 ´ 10 23 mol -1 ) OR Explain with suitable examples the following : (a) n-type and p-type semiconductors (b) F-centres (c) Ferromagnetism 20. calculate the atomic radius of niobium. (K f for water = 1. (Atomic mass of Nb = 93 u. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents? Give one example of each type.5) 21.55 g cm -3 . In the button cells widely used in watches and other devices the following reaction takes place : Zn(s) + Ag 2 O + H2 O (l) ¾® Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 Ag(s) + 2OH. 25. Write the chemical reactions which take place in the following operations : (i) Electrolytic reduction of Al 2 O3 . 24. Compare actinoids and lanthanoids with reference to their : (i) electronic configurations of atoms (ii) oxidation states of elements (iii) general chemical reactivity of elements. Atomic mass K = 39. Explain what is observed when (i) a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution. 34 V) 22. (iii) an electric current is passed through a colloidal sol. (ii) Isolation of zinc from zinc blende.24 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII CH2 Cl (ii) 15. Alcohols react both as nucleophiles as well as electrophiles.76 V and E° Ag + Ag = + 0 . (iii) Mond’s process for refining nickel. (Given : E° Zn 2 + /Zn = . If its density is 8. 23. NA = 6. Write one reaction of each type and describe its mechanism. Write the IUPAC name and describe the magnetic behaviour (diamagnetic or paramagnetic) of the following coordination entities: (i) [Cr (H2 O) 2 (C 2 O4 ) 2 ] - . 19. 16. is added to hydrated ferric oxide sol. (ii) an electrolyte NaCl. How would you carry out the following conversions? (i) Ethyl magnesium chloride to propan-1-ol (ii) Benzyl chloride to benzyl alcohol 17.86 K kg mol -1 . Niobium (Nb) crystallises in a body-centred cubic (bcc) structure.(aq) Determine D r G° for the reaction. Calculate the amount of KCl which must be added to 1 kg of water so that its freezing point is depressed by 2 K. Write the structures of the monomers of the following polymers : (i) PVC (ii) Polypropene 18.

. (?) (i) O3 (ii) (?) . (a) Illustrate the following reactions giving one example for each : (i) Cannizzaro reaction (ii) Decarboxylation (b) Complete the following reaction equations by giving the indicated missing substances : H 2 NCONHNH 2 (i) CH3 CHO ¾¾¾¾¾¾® ... ¾¾¾¾¾¾® 2 (ii) Zn . Write the differential rate equation for this reaction... (a) Assign reasons for the following : (i) Bi (V) is a stronger oxidising agent than Sb (V).. (R = 8. (a) A reaction is of first order in A and of second order in B.. (b) Draw the structures of the following molecules : (i) H2 S 2 O7 (ii) BrF3 (iii) XeF2 OR (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations : (i) Ca 3 P2 + H2 O ¾® (ii) XeF4 + H2 O ¾® (b) How would you account for the following observations : (i) NH3 is a stronger base than PH3 .. (ii) Of the noble gases only xenon is known to form established chemical compounds.H 2 O O . (iii) Hydrogen fluoride has a higher boiling point than hydrogen chloride.. Calculate the age of the artefact.. (iii) Ethylamine is freely soluble in water whereas aniline is only slightly soluble. (ii) Aniline does not undergo Friedel–Crafts reaction.. 30. The wooden part of an archaeological artefact has only 80% of the 14 C activity found in fresh wood. Calculate the activation energy for the reaction. Co = 27. (ii) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetism. How will its initial rate be affected if the concentration of both A and B are together doubled? (b) The rate constant k of a reaction increases four fold when the temperature changes from 300 K to 320 K.... 27. Ni = 28) 26.. 29..314 J mol -1 K -1 ) OR (a) List the factor which affect the rate of a chemical reaction.Examination Papers | 25 (ii) [Co (NH3 ) 5 Cl] 2+ (iii) [NiCl 4 ] 2(At. Nos... (b) The half-life for radioactive 14 C is 5730 years.. Define the following in relation to proteins : (i) Primary structure (ii) Denaturation (iii) Peptide linkage 28. : Cr = 24. Account for the following : (i) pK b of methylamine is less than that of aniline.

m. 28...2. Describe the principle involved in the following metallurgical operations: (i) Zone refining (ii) Electrolytic refining (iii) Froth-floatation process of concentrating sulphide ores 27.0001 M) | Cu (s) (Given : E° Mg 2 + /Mg = . Why do soaps not function in hard water. of the following cell at 298 K: Mg (s) | Mg 2+ (0. The rate constant for a first order reaction is 60 s -1 .. Define the following terms giving an example for each: (i) The order of a reaction (ii) The molecularity of a reaction 18.... (ii) what are the carrier of the current in the cell. (a) Depict the galvanic cell in which the following reaction takes place: Zn (s) + 2Ag + (aq) ¾® Zn 2+ (aq) + 2Ag (s) Also indicate that in this cell (i) which electrode is negatively charged. What happens when D-glucose is treated with the following reagents? (i) HNO3 (ii) Bromine water (iii) HI Indicate the products formed.f. What are reducing sugars? Give one example... 8.26 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII ..375 V... (?) CH2 ¾¾¾¾¾® (iii) ¾ CHO OR (a) State tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds : (i) Propanal and propanone (ii) Phenol and benzoic acid (b) How will you bring about the following conversions : (i) Propanone to propene (ii) Benzaldehyde to benzophenone (iii) Ethanol to 3-hydroxybutanal CBSE (All India) SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set-I 1. (b) Write the Nernst equation and determine the e. What is tincture of iodine? 10.001 M) || Cu 2+ (0. (iii) what is the individual reaction at each electrode. How much time will it take to reduce the initial concentration of the reactant to 1/16 th of its initial value? 23.. Which crystal defect lowers the density of a solid? 6..34 V) OR ... E° Cu 2 + /Cu = + 0.. for washing clothes? How are synthetic detergents better than soaps for this purpose? 21..

B and C containing solutions of zinc sulphate. (ii) Simple copper (I) salts are not stable in aqueous solutions. 1. The rate constant for a first order reaction is 60 s -1 . 18. 21. Describe the trends in the following properties of the first series of the transition elements : (i) Oxidation states (ii) Atomic sizes (iii) Magnetic behaviour of dipositive gaseous ions (M 2+ ) .Examination Papers | 27 (a) Define conductivity and molar conductivity for the solution of an electrolyte. How long did the current flow? What mass of copper and what mass of zinc got deposited in their respective cells? (Atomic mass : Zn = 65.4 u. 12.5 amperes is passed through them until 1. A steady current of 1. Cu = 63. Name an element with which silicon may be doped to give a p-type semiconductor. Assign a reason for each of the following: (i) The third ionization energy of Mn (Z = 25) is higher than that of either Cr ( Z = 24) or Fe ( Z = 26).5 u) CBSE (All India) SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and Set–II. How do they vary when the concentration of electrolyte in the solution increases? (b) Three conductivity cells A. What is meant by a pseudo first order reaction? Give an example of a pseudo first order reaction and write the rate equation for the same. How much time will it take to reduce the initial concentration of reactant to 1/10 th of its value? 24.45 g of silver is deposited at the cathode of cell B. silver nitrate and copper sulphate respectively are connected in series. What are artificial sweetening agents? Give two examples. 10. Ag = 108 u.

28 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII SOLUTIONS CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. Cl 2 exhibits . 6. 9. sucrose. O2 . The process of formation of polymers from respective monomers is called polymerisation.PAo x B PAo x B = PAo . on hydrolysis are called disaccharides.x B ) PAo P= . The osmotic pressure method has the advantage over rise in boiling point or fall in freezing point for determining molar masses of macromolecules because (i) Osmotic pressure is measured at the room temperature and the molarity of solution is used instead of molality. + 5. 3. Carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide units. The difference of energy between conduction band and valence band is called forbidden zone and for insulator its value is averaging between 3–6 eV.g. (ii) by adding a suitable solvent.. Osmotic pressure ( p) may be defined as the extra pressure that must be applied to the solution to prevent the flow of solvent molecules into it through a semipermeable membrane. T and V molecular mass of the solute M B can be calculated. ¾ ( CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ )n Polyethene (LDP) (polymer) Chemotherapy: It is the branch of chemistry which deals with the treatment of diseases using suitable chemicals. (ii) Compared to other colligative properties. 350K -570 K 1000-2000 atm nCH2 = CH2 ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾® Polymerisation Ethene (monomer) 8. they are easily miscible with water. 4. T p= M B . Thus knowing p. 7.V where V is the volume of solution in litre containing n B moles of solute of molecular mass M B . Lower members aldehydes are able to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water molecules.1.P (Q x A + x B = 1) . n p = B RT = CRT V WB . This can be done (i) by adding an electrolyte. + 1. Hence. 5. + 3. is given as P = PA + PB If solute (component B) is non-volatile then P = PA = PAo x A P = PAo (1 . + 7 oxidation states in its compounds. WB . its magnitude is large even for very dilute solutions. 2. e. OR For a solution of volatile liquids Raoult’s law. R. Due to the presence of a lone pair of electrons on nitrogen atom.

P—P single bond (213 kJ mol -1 ) in P4 is much weaker than N º N triple bond (941. Higher H—F bond dissociation enthalpy than H—Cl.2 mol L-1 K ´ 1000 0. 2.Examination Papers | 29 PAo .2 l m = 124 S cm 2 mol -1 due to Intermolecular hydrogen bonding in HF. Alcohols as nucleophile: The bond between O—H is broken when an alcohol reacts as a nucleophile. CH3 ½ ¾ CH2 ¾ Cl 14. 2-dimethyl propane 15.0248 ´ 1000 lm = = M 0. the reddish brown colour of bromine is discharged as long as propyne is present in excess. Hence Mn 2+ will be most stable and the increasing stability order will be Co 2+ < Fe 2+ < Cr 2+ < Mn 2+ 13. 2. Co 2+ gets easily reduced to metallic cobalt while it is difficult to reduce Mn 2+ . (i) It is (a) (b) (ii) As M = 0. Br Br Br ½ ½ ½ CCl 4 + Br2 CH3 ¾ C º CH + Br2 ¾® CH3 ¾ C = C ¾ H ¾¾® CH3 ¾ C ¾ C ¾ H Propyne ½ ½ ½ Br Br Br 1. 2-tetrabromo propane which is colourless. relative lowering of vapour pressure is equal to the mole fraction of non-volatile solute. 12. 1. 2. 1. Tetra Bromo propane (colourless) This is due to the formation of 1.P = xB PAo Thus. (i) (ii) CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH2 ¾ Br ½ CH3 Phenyl chloromethane 1-Bromo-2. 10. H+ R ¾ COOH + R¢¾ OH Carboxylic acid Alcohol r R ¾ COOR¢ + H2 O Ester .4 kJ mol -1 ) in N2 . When bromine reacts with propyne.0248 S cm -1 11. On the basis of electrochemical series the standard electrode potential shows the following order E° Mn 2 + /Mn < E° Cr 2 + /Cr < E° Fe2 + /Fe < E° Co 2 + /Co Therefore. K = 0.

R ¾ CH2 ¾ O ¾ H + HCl ¾¾® R ¾ CH2 ¾ Cl + H2 O Alcohol Mechanism ·· + ·· ·· R ¾ CH2 ¾ O ¾ H + H+ ¾¾® R ¾ CH2 ¾ O H2 - 16.30 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII Mechanism: ·· + O OH ·· ·· H+ r R¾ C r ·· · OH O¾H ·· OH ½ + R ¾ C ¾ O· ¾ R¢ R¢ ¾ O ¾ H R¾ C ·· · · ·· ½ ½ · OH H ·· ··· Tetrahedral intermediate ·· Proton transfer + O ·· O¾H ·· . (i) + Cl + CH2 ¾ O H2 ¾¾® Cl ¾ CH2 + H2 O ·· ½ ½ R R OMgCl é ù O ê ú ½ ½½ dd+ ê ú H ¾ C ¾ H + CH3 ¾ CH2 Mg Cl ¾¾® ê H ¾ C ¾ H ú Formaldehyde Ethyl magnesium ê ú ½ chloride ê CH2 ¾ CH3 úû ë H2O ¾¾¾® OH CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ OH Propan -1-ol ½ D + KOH (aq) ¾¾¾® (ii) Benzyl chloride Cl CH2 ¾ OH CH2 ¾ Cl ½ + KCl Benzyl alcohol + Mg .H+ r R¾ C -H2O r R¾ C ·· ·· O ¾ R¢ O ¾ R¢ ·· Ester · · ·· OH ½ R ¾ C ¾ O ¾ R¢ ½ + · · O¾ H ·· ½ H Tetrahedral intermediate Alcohols as electrophile: The bond between C—O is broken when alcohols react as electrophiles.

5579) = 0.01) 3 1 = ( 2.55 .02 ´ 10 23 æ ö 930 a=ç ÷ è 8. 19.01 ø 10 -8 1/ 3 1/ 3 \ \ æ ö 930 log x = log ç ÷ è 8.55 ´ 3.5193 3 x = Antilog ( 0. 7-tetramethyl octyl) benzenesulphonate. 3.Examination Papers | 31 17.01 ø Let 1/ 3 æ ö 930 x =ç ÷ è 8.02 ´ 10 23 z´M d= a3 ´ NA Substituting the values 2 ´ 93 8.log 8. CH3 CH3 ½ ½ + CH3 ¾ ( CH ¾ CH2 ¾ ) 3 ¾ CH ¾ ¾ SO-3 Na Non-biodegradable detergents accumulate in rivers and waterways thereby causing water pollution. a = ? N A = 6. M = 93 g / mol For bcc.4786) 3 1 log x = (1.. sodium-4-(1. Biodegradable detergents: Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chains are easily degraded by micro-organism and hence called biodegradable detergents.g.log 3.g.0. z = 2. 5. sodium–4–(1-dodecyl) benzene sulphonate.55 ´ 3.02 ´ 10 23 2 ´ 93 a3 = 8.306 ´ 10 -8 cm .5193) x = 3.306 a = 3.55 = 3 a ´ 6. e.0. d = 8.01 ø 1 = (log 930 . e. + ¾ SO-3 Na CH3 ¾ (CH2 ) 11 ¾ Non-biodegradable detergents: Detergents having branched hydrocarbon chains are not easily degraded by the micro-organism and hence are called non-biodegradable detergents..55 ´ 3.9685 . Polymer Monomer Structure of the monomer (i) PVC Vinyl chloride CH2 = CH ¾ Cl (ii) Polypropene Propene CH3 ¾ CH = CH2 18.9320 .55 ´ 6.55 g / cm 3 .

g. becomes delocalised and contribute its share towards electrical conduction. (b) F-centres: Electrons trapped in anion vacancies are called F-centres.5 ´ 1000 74.10 V .5 \ WB = = 40.. Here.32 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 3 a 4 1. Thus Si or Ge doped with B or Al is called p type of semiconductor. e. DTf = 2 K.( .86 21.306 ´ 10 -8 3 \ r= ´ 3. n indicative of negative. this hole moves through the crystal like a positive charge giving rise to electrical conductivity. WA = 1000 g i ´ K f ´ WB ´ 1000 DTf = M B ´ WA Substituting the values 2 ´ 1.306 ´ 10 -8 = 4 4 -8 r = 1. They impart characteristic colour to the compound and increase electrical conductivity.34 . Now r= Alignment of magnetic moments in ferromagnetic substance. p-type semiconductor: When silicon or germanium is doped with group 13 element like B or Al. (c) Ferromagnetism: Ferromagnetic substances are those substances which are strongly attracted by external magnetic field. Assuming 100% dissociation of KCl. cobalt. valence electrons. Thus silicon or germanium doped with P or As is called n-type semiconductor. 20.732 ´ 3. An electron vacancy or a hole is created at the place of the missing fourth electron.86 ´ WB ´ 1000 2= 74.86 K kg mol -1 .10 cm r = 143. since it is the electron that conducts electricity. K f = 1. Zn ¾® Zn 2+ + 2e Ag 2 O + H2 O + 2e . the dopant has only with three. (P stands for positive hole) since it is the positive hole that is responsible for conduction.5 g mol -1 .0.15 ´ 10 .E° Zn 2 + /Zn E° cell = 0. i = 2. nickle and CrO2 etc.76) = 1.] Ferromagnetism arises due to spontaneous alignment of magnetic moments in the same direction. not used in bonding. WB = ? M B = 74. (iron. the dopant atom forms four covalent bonds like a Si or Ge atom but the fifth electron.4315 ´ 10 cm = 143.05 g 1.15 pm OR (a) n-type semiconductor: When a silicon or germanium crystal is doped with group 15 element like P or As.E° anode = E° Ag + /Ag .¾® 2Ag + + 2OH– Zn + Ag 2 O + H2 O ¾® Zn 2+ + 2Ag + 2OH– E° cell = E° cathode .

S. . highly towards Greater tendency complex formation. only in a higher O. +6. also because of smaller energy gap between 5f . (i) Electrolytic reduction of Al 2 O 3 : Cathode: Al 3+ (melt) + 3e . +7 few cases. (i) Scattering of light by the colloidal particles takes place and the path of light becomes visible (Tyndall effect). actinoids show show +2 and +3 O.S.ions provided by NaCl.(melt) ¾® CO2 (g) + 4e - (ii) Isolation of zinc from zinc blende: D Roasting: 2 ZnS + 3O2 ¾¾® 2 ZnO + 2 SO2 Zinc blende Reduction: 1673 K ZnO + C ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Zn + CO (iii) Mond’s process for refining nickel: 330-350 K Ni + 4CO ¾¾¾¾® Ni(CO) 4 450-470 K Ni(CO) 4 ¾¾¾¾¾® Ni + 4CO 24. 23.123 ´ 105 J 22. lanthanoids Besides +3 O. 6d and 7s subshell.nFE° cell DG° = .(melt) ¾® CO(g) + 2e C(s) + 2O2 .S. colloidal particles move towards the oppositely charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated. (iii) On passing direct current.¾® Al Anode: C(s) + O2 .Examination Papers | 33 also n=2 DG ° = .2 ´ 96500 ´ 1. reactive towards Do not form oxocation Form oxocation Compounds are less basic.S. (ii) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH) 3 get coagulated by the oppositely charged Cl . These are metals. Compounds are more basic. +5. of +4.10 DG° = 2. Characteristics Lanthanoids 1-14 0 -1 Actinoids 2 1-14 6d 0 -17 s2 (i) Electronic configuration [Xe] 4f (ii) Oxidation states Besides + 3 O. 5d [Rn] 5f 6s (iii) General chemical reactivity of These are less reactive metals elements Lesser tendency complex formation.

. e. (ii) Aniline being a Lewis base reacts with lewis acid AlCl 3 to form a salt..S.2. 27. [NiCl 4 ] 2Tetrachloronickelate (II) ion O. Paramagnetic. the extent of hydrogen bonding decreases considerably and hence aniline is slightly soluble.. H ¾ N ..S.. (i) [Cr(H2 O) 2 (C 2 O4 ) 2 ] Diaquadioxalatochromate (III) ion O. the hydrogen bonds are disturbed.g. Due to this... of Cr = x + 0. (ii) Denaturation: When a protein in its native form is subjected to physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH...... the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom are delocalized over the benzene ring..34 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 25.... H ¾ N . 1 = 2.. (iii) Ethyl amine is freely soluble in water because it forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules... N atom of aniline acquires positive charge and hence acts as a strong deactivation group for further reaction.5 + ( . (ii) [Co(NH3 ) 5 Cl] 2+ Pentaamminechloro cobalt (III) ion O. On the other hand.. Paramagnetic. (i) In aniline.. globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and proteins lose its biological activity. ½ H H ½ d½ dd+ dd+ d+ . H ¾ O . ½ ½ ½ ½ C 2 H5 H C 2 H5 H On the other hand in aniline due to large. (iii) Peptide linkage: A peptide linkage is an amide linkage ( ¾ CONH ¾ ) formed between ¾ COOH group of one a-amino acid and NH2 group of the other amino acid by the elimination of a water molecule. (i) Primary structure of proteins: The sequence in which various amino acids are arranged in a protein is called its primary structure. x = 3 Electronic configuration of Co 3+ = 3d 6 4s 0 = t 26g e g0 (iii) Unpaired electrons ( n) = 0.. . coagulation of egg white on boiling.2 = . Due to this. As a result. x = + 3 Electronic configuration of Cr 3+ = 3d 3 4s 0 = t 23g e g0 Unpaired electrons ( n) = 3.. of Co = x + 0.... hydrocarbon part.1) . Any change in the sequence of amino acids creates different protein which alters biological functions. due to resonance. Diamagnetic.2 + ( -2).. 26.. in methyl amine +ve I effect of CH3 increases the electrondensity on the nitrogen atom. the electron density on the nitrogen decreases. x = + 2 Electronic configuration of Ni 2+ = 3d 8 4s 0 = t 82 g e g0 Unpaired electrons ( n) = 2.. During denaturation 2° and 3° structures of proteins are destroyed but 1° structure remains intact.. H ¾ O. Therefore aniline is a weaker base than methyl amine and hence its pK b value is higher than that of methyl amine. of Ni = x + ( -1) 4 = .1.S.

300 ö ç ÷ 2.e.H2O H2 N ¾ CH2 ¾ C ¾ OH + H NH ¾ CH ¾ COOH ¾¾¾® ½ CH3 O ½½ H2 NCH2 ¾ C ¾ NH ¾ CH ¾ COOH ½ CH3 Peptide linkage (Gly -Ala) 28.Examination Papers | 35 O ½½ . (a) dx = K [A ] [B ]2 dt If concentration of both A and B are doubled.147 ´ 300 ´ 320 Ea = = 55327 J 20 E a = 55. the rate of reaction becomes 8 times.T1 ö log = ç ÷ K1 2.e..147 è 300 ´ 320 ø 2 ´ 0. =4 K1 T1 = 300 K T2 = 320 K K2 E a æ T2 ..303 ´ 8.693 \ K= = = 1.303 2.693 0.209 ´ 10 -4 year -1 t 1/ 2 5730 [R ]0 2. then Rate = K [ 2A ] [ 2B ] 2 Rate = = 8K [ A ] [ B ] 2 i.303 R è T1T2 ø Ea æ 320 .2 ´ 10 80 log 4 = .303 100 t= log = log 4 K [ R ] 1.314 è 300 ´ 320 ø Ea æ ö 20 2 log 2 = ç ÷ 19.327 kJ OR (a) Rate of reaction depends on (i) Concentration (ii) Temperature (iii) Nature of reactant (iv) Pressure of the gaseous reactant (v) Surface area (vi) Catalyst (b) t 1/ 2 = 5730 years 0. K2 (b) K 2 = 4K1 i.3010 ´ 19.

097 ´ 10 4 2.2 2.2 1. The boiling of HCl is therefore low.7 years 29. = 2 F Br F F bent T shaped F (iii) XeF2 sp 3 d hybridisation b.p. t= O ½½ S (b) (i) O O O ½½ S O OH OH H2 S 2 O7 (Pyrosulphuric acid) (ii) BrF3 b. p.303 ´ 0. (a) (i) Due to stronger inert pair effect Bi (V) gets readily reduced to Bi (III) therefore. electron density on nitrogen atom is higher than that on phosphorus atom. (ii) In vapour state sulphur partly exists as S 2 molecule which has two unpaired electrons in the antibonding p * orbital like O2 and hence exhibits paramagnetic behaviour.303 ´ 10 4 2. Thus NH3 is a stronger base than PH3 . only Vander Waal forces are present. p. Due to large size and low electronegativity of chlorine no hydrogen bonding is present in HCl.p. (ii) Xe has least ionization enthalpy among noble gases and hence it readily forms chemical compounds particularly with O2 and F2 .2 1.303 t= ´ 10 4 (1 .36 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 2. the tendency of N in NH3 to denote its lone pair of electrons is much higher than that of P in PH3 .209 t = 1847.3 ´ 0.3 log 2) 1. (iii) Because of hydrogen bonding HF exists as associated molecules in a liquid and therefore has high boiling point. Consequently. KOH 2 H ¾ C ¾ H ¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ OH + H ¾ C ¾ O K Formaldehyde Methyl alcohol Potassium formate .3010) = 1.303 ´ 10 4 (log 10 . Bi (V) is a stronger oxidising agent than Sb (V). = 3 5e sp 3 d hybridisation l.log 8) = (1 . = 2 5e OR (a) (i) Ca 3 P2 + 6H2 O ¾¾® Xe l. 30. = 3 Shape Linear F PH3 + 3 Ca (OH) 2 Phosphine (ii) 6XeF4 + 12H2 O ¾® 2XeO3 + 24HF + 4Xe + 3O2 (b) (i) As the atomic size of nitrogen is smaller than phosphorus.+ conc. (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: O O ½½ ½½ .

CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CHO + 2 [Ag(NH3 ) 2 ] + + 3OH ¾¾® CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ COOPropanal Tollen’s reagent + 2Ag ¯ + 4NH3 + 2H2 O Silver mirror (ii) FeCl 3 test: Phenol gives a violet colouration with neutral FeCl 3 solution while benzoic acid gives buff coloured ppt. H 2 SO4 CH3 ¾ CH ¾ CH3 ¾¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ CH = CH2 443 K Propene .Examination Papers | 37 (ii) Decarboxylation R ¾ COOH + NaOH ¾¾® R ¾ COONa ¾¾¾¾® D R ¾ COONa + H2 O Sodium carboxylate NaOH /CaO R¾ H Hydrocarbon + Na 2 CO3 O CH3 (b) (i) O CH3 ½½ C = O + H2 N NH ¾ C ¾ NH2 ¾ ¾® Semi carbazide H ½½ C = NNH ¾ C ¾ NH2 + H2 O Ethanal semicarbazone H Ethanal O3 ¾¾¾® (ii) 2 O Zn /H 2 O (i) BH 3 /THF CH2 ¾¾¾¾¾¾® (iii) —CHO (ii) H 2 O2 / OH (iii) PCC OR (a) (i) Propanone on treatment with I 2 / NaOH (NaOI) undergoes iodoform reaction to give yellow ppt of iodoform but propanal does not. of Iodoform Propanal Tollen’s test: Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Tollen’s reagent to silver mirror but propanone being a ketone does not. 6 C 6 H5 OH + FeCl 3 ¾¾® [Fe(OC 6 H5 ) 6 ] -3 + 3H+ + 3HCl Violet complex NaHCO 3 test: Benzoic acid being a stronger acid than phenol decomposes NaHCO3 to evolve CO2 but phenol does not. . CH3 COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾® CHI 3 ¯ + CH3 ¾ COONa + 2NaOH Iodoform (Yellow ppt) CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CHO ¾¾¾¾® No yellow ppt.+ C 6 H5 ¾ COOH + NaHCO3 ¾¾® C 6 H5 ¾ CO O Na + H2 O + CO2 ­ Benzoic acid O ½½ LiAlH 4 (b) (i) CH3 ¾ C ¾ CH3 ¾¾¾® Propanone Sodium benzoate OH ½ conc.

18. the order of reaction is 1. [R ]0 21. 8. 2C17 H35 COO. Hence soap cannot be used with hard water. [R ] = 16 t =? [R ]0 2. For example molecularity of the reaction 2HI ¾® H2 + I 2 is 2 as it involves.303 t= log K [R ] . 10. AlCl3 (O) Benzaldehyde Benzoyl chloride Benzophenone OH ½ PCC (iii) CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ OH ¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ CHO ¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ CH ¾ CH2 ¾ CHO NaOH (dil. For example consider the reaction NH4 NO2 ¾¾® N2 + 2H2 O Experimentally. ions or molecules) taking part in an elementary reaction which must collide simultaneously in order to bring about a chemical reaction.Na + + CaCl 2 ¾® 2NaCl + (C17 H35 COO) 2 Ca 1. Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. All carbohydrates which reduce Tollen’s reagent and Fehling’s solution are referred to as reducing sugars.) Ethanol Acetaldehyde 3-Hydroxybutanal CBSE (All India) SET–II Schottky defect. glucose. Soap insoluble calcium stearate (Soap) On the other hand calcium and magnesium salts of detergents are soluble in water so they easily form lather with hard water. e. (ii) Molecularity of a reaction may be defined as the number of reacting species (atoms. it is observed that the rate law for this reaction is Rate = K [NH4 NO2 ] Hence. 6.. Therefore in hard water soap get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soap which being insoluble stick to the cloth as gummy mass. It is used as an antiseptic. K = 60 s -1 . (i) Order of reaction may be defined as the sum of powers of the concentration of the reactants in the rate law expression. A 2-3 per cent solution of iodine in alcohol water mixture is known as tincture of iodine.38 | Xam Idea Chemistry–XII COOH CHO O COCl C + KMnO4 /OH (ii) PCl5 anhyd. Simultaneous collision between two HI molecules.g.

4 log 2 60 60 2.303 t= log 16 = .303 0.) Ag + (conc) Ag (i) Zn electrode is negatively charged.6932 t= ´ 0. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of the same metal. impure metal forms metal ions which are discharged at cathode forming pure metal.62 ´ 10 -2 s. (i) Zone refining is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the liquid state than in the solid state of metal. · Zn 2+ ions in anodic half cell. n -Hexane . 23.3010 = 15 15 t = 4. (ii) Current carriers of cell are · electrons in external wire. whereas the gangue particles are wetted by water. (i) ½ CH2 ¾ OH HNO3 ¾¾¾¾¾® (oxidation) ½ (CHOH) 4 ½ COOH Saccharic acid Glucose CHO (ii) ½ (CHOH) 4 COOH Br2 water ¾¾¾¾¾® ½ (CHOH) 4 ½ CH2 ¾ OH ½ CH2 ¾ OH Glucose Gluconic acid CHO ½ (CHOH) 4 (iii) ½ CH2 ¾ OH HI ¾¾¾¾¾® CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH2 ¾ CH3 D Glucose 28. A strip of the same metal in pure form is used as cathode. (ii) In electrolytic refining the impure metal is made to act as anode.¾® M (iii) The principle of refining by froth floatation process is that sulphide particles are preferentially wetted by pine oil. Anode: M ¾¾® M n + + ne Cathode: M n + + ne . (a) Zn Zn 2+ (conc. CHO COOH ½ (CHOH) 4 27.303 2.303 t= log [R ]0 60 16 2. When electric current is passed.Examination Papers | 39 Substituting the values [R ]0 2.

45 g of Ag will be deposited by = ´ 1.40 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII · Ag + ions in cathodic half cell.¾® 2Ag Mg ¾¾® Mg 2+ + 2e Cu 2+ + 2e . This is because the total volume.34 + 2.059 log n [ Mg] [ Cu 2+ ] E cell = ( E° Cu 2 + /Cu .e.34 .E° Mg 2 + /Mg ) - [ Mg 2+ ] 0.¾¾® Cu Mg + Cu 2+ ¾¾® Cu + Mg 2+ n=2 According to Nernst equation. On increasing the concentration of solution.685 V OR (a) The conductivity of a solution at any given concentration is the conductance of one unit volume of solution kept between two platinum electrodes with unit area of cross section at a distance of unit length.50 = 0.6 C Q 1295.0295 log10 E cell = 2. (b) Ag + + e . Molar conductivity ( L m ) of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of the volume V of solution containing one mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes with area of cross section A and distance of unit length. E cell = E° cell - [ Cu ] [ Mg 2+ ] 0..¾® Ag 108 g of Ag are deposited by 96500 C 96500 \ 1.375) - . V of solution containing one mole of electrolyte also increases.6855 V E cell = 2. I 1. K + and Cl .( -2.059 log 2 [ Cu 2+ ] 0. the number of ions per unit volume of solution increases and thus its conductivity increases. i.0.375 .4 = 0.059 10 .7 s. Therefore kA Lm = =k l Since l = 1 and A = V (volume containing 1 gram mole of electrolyte) L m = kV Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration. It has been found that decrease in K on dilution of solution is more than compensated by increase in its volume.6 t= = = 863. (iii) At anode At cathode (b) Zn ¾¾® Zn 2+ + 2e 2Ag + + e .. · Ions of salt bridge.3 log 2 10 .45 C 108 = 1295.

electrons from both energy levels can be used for chemical bond formation.6 = 0. Its use is limited to cold foods and soft drinks because it is unstable at cooking temperature.5 g 63.303 t= log = log 10 = 0.3 g 65. Saccharin: It is about 550 times as sweet as cane sugar. . Examples: Aspartame: Aspartame is 100 times as sweet as cane sugar. 10. A reaction which is of higher order but follows the kinetics of first order under special conditions is called a pseudo first order reaction.438 g 2 ´ 96500 CBSE (All India) SET–III 1. Example. Therefore.6 = 0. (ii) Cu 2+ (aq) is much more stable than Cu + (aq). therefore.426 g 2 ´ 96500 Zn 2+ + 2e .303 2. This is because. Cu + ion aqueous solution undergoes disproportionation.¾¾® Zn 2 ´ 96500 C deposit Zn = 65. Therefore all elements except Sc and Zn. (i) This is because Mn 2+ is more stable as it has exactly half filled configuration 3d 5 4s 0 . Boron or Aluminium. 21.038 s 24.038 ´ 1 [R ]0 60 60 10 t = 0. it more than compensates for the second ionisation enthalpy of copper. 2Cu + (aq) ¾® Cu 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) 18. the rate law is given by expression Rate = K [ CH3 ¾ COOC 2 H5 ] The concentration of H2 O is so large that it hardly undergoes any change during the reaction. Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. (i) As there is very little energy difference between 4s and 3d orbitals.Examination Papers | 41 Cu 2+ + 2e . of the first transition series show a number of oxidation states as shown in table. K = 60 s -1 [R ]0 2. it does not appear in the rate law. 12.6 C deposit Cu = ´ 1295.6 C deposit Zn = ´ 1295.5 \ 1295. Its use is of great value to diabetic persons and people who need to control intake of calories.3 \ 1295. although second ionization enthalpy of copper is large but for Cu 2+ (aq) is much more negative than that of Cu + (aq) and therefore. H+ CH3 ¾ COOC 2 H5 + H2 O ¾¾® CH3 ¾ COOH + C 2 H5 ¾ OH Here. Artificial sweetening agents: These are the substances which are non-nutritive in nature and used as substitutes for sugar in foods and beverages.303 t= log K [R ] [ R ] 0 2.¾¾® Cu 2 ´ 96500 C deposit Cu = 63.

When the increased nuclear charge and the increased screening effect balance each other in the middle of transition series. the atomic radii becomes almost constant (Mn to Fe).42 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII Oxidation states of the first series transition elements (the most common ones are in bold letter) Sc +3 Ti +2 +3 +4 V +2 +3 +4 +5 Cr +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 Mn +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 Fe +2 +3 +4 Co +2 +3 +4 Ni +2 +3 +4 Cu +1 Zn +2 +2 +6 +7 (ii) Atomic radii of the first transition series decreases from Sc to Cr. they screen the outer 4s electrons from the influence of nuclear charge. Cu 2+ 3d 9 4s0 1 1 (1 + 2) = 1.M. Zn 2+ 3d10 4s0 0 0 ( 0 + 3) = 0 . As a result there is an expansion of the electron cloud. The magnetic moment (m) of the elements of the first transition series can be calculated with the unpaired electrons ( n) by the spin-only formula m = n ( n + 2) B. the repulsive interaction between electrons in d orbitals become very dominant.M. (iii) Except Zn 2+ . Ion Configuration Unpaired electrons Magnetic moment (m ) calculated Mn 2+ 3d5 4s0 5 5 (5 + 2) = 5. The reason of this variation in atomic radii has been attributed to the increase in nuclear charge in the beginning of the series. consequently. But as the electrons continue to be filled in d-orbitals. Towards the end of the series. M. then remains almost constant till Ni and then increases from Cu to Zn. all other divalent gaseous ions of the first series of the transition elements contain unpaired electrons in their 3d subshell and are therefore paramagnetic in nature.92 B.73 B. the atomic size increases.

(ii) Question nos. Why is the froth floatation method selected for the concentration of sulphide ores? 1 4. 1 7. 11. A reaction is of second order with respect to a reactant. use of calculators is not allowed. Give an example of elastomers. Write the structure of 3-oxopentanal. 1 3. (v) Question nos. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) XeF4 2 (ii) BrF3 12. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3—C C—CH2OH 1 CH3 Br 6. Which point defect in crystals does not alter the density of the relevant solid? 1 2. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. Why is Bi (V) a stronger oxidant than Sb (V)? 1 5. (iv) Question nos.( aq ) + H2 O( l ) + O3( g ) ¾¾® 2 . (vi) Use log tables if necessary. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1. How will the rate of reaction be affected if the concentration of this reactant is 2 (i) doubled (ii) reduced to half? 10. Why is an alkylamine more basic than ammonia? 1 8. Explain the role of 2 (i) Cryolite in the electrolytic reduction of alumina. (ii) Carbon monooxide in the purification of nickel. (iii) Question nos. Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) P4( s) + NaOH (aq ) + H2 O( l ) ¾¾® (ii) I . 1 9. Define the term ‘Tyndall effect’. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS DELHI–2009 Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory.

0 mL of solution. Name two water soluble vitamins. The density of iron is 7. Explain what is meant by (i) a peptide linkage 2 (ii) a glycosidic linkage 17. Draw the structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Teflon 2 (ii) Polythene OR What is the repeating unit in the condensation polymer obtained by combining HO2 CCH2 CH2 CO2 H (succinic acid) and H2 NCH2 CH2 NH2 (ethylene diamine). what concentration of reactant will remain in solution after 3 hours? 3 22.) 21. Differentiate between molality and molarity of a solution.10M concentration of the reactant. what is the molar mass of the protein? 3 (R = 0.3 mm Hg at 25oC. 19.65 pm.44 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 13. Which ones in the following pairs of substances undergoes SN2 substitution reaction faster and why? 2 —CH2Cl (i) or I (ii) —Cl Cl or 15. 100 mg of a protein is dissolved in just enough water to make 10. A first order reaction has a rate constant of 0. Iron has a body-centred cubic unit cell with a cell edge of 286.0821 L atm mol–1 K–1 and 760 mm Hg = 1 atm. their sources and the diseases caused due to their deficiency in diet. If this solution has an osmotic pressure of 13.87g cm–3. 3 (i) An aerosol (ii) A hydrosol (iii) An emulsion . 2 18. 3 20. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number (At. mass of Fe = 56g mol–1). Complete the following reaction equations: 2 —OH + SOCl2 (i) CH2OH (ii) + HCl OH 16.0051 min–1. How are the following colloids different from each other in respect of dispersion medium and dispersed phase? Give one example of each type. What is the effect of change in temperature of a solution on its molality and molarity? 2 14. If we begin with 0.

Explain the mechanism of the following reactions: 3 (i) Addition of Grignard’s reagent to the carbonyl group of a compound forming an adduct followed by hydrolysis.Examination Papers | 45 23. and (vi) name of the complex. Giving an example for each. (ii) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen.001 M) | Ag and Cu2+ (0. for each case: 3 (i) Cationic detergents (ii) Food preservatives (iii) Analgesics 28. of Fe = 26) 25. (iii) XeF2 has a straight linear structure and not a bent angular structure. Account for the following: 3 (i) NH3 is a stronger base than PH3. identify 3 (i) the oxidation number of iron. 24. describe the following reactions: 3 (i) Hofmann’s bromamide reaction (ii) Gatterman reaction (iii) A coupling reaction 27. (ii) the hybrid orbitals and the shape of the complex. (iii) Acid catalysed hydration of an alkene forming an alcohol. For the complex [Fe(en)2Cl2]Cl. (ii) SF4 is easily hydrolysed whereas SF6 is not easily hydrolysed. (iv) the number of geometrical isomers. (ii) Acid catalysed dehydration of an alcohol forming an alkene. (en = ethylene diamine). How is such change explained? 5 (b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25 oC with the following half cells: Ag+ (0. the N—O bond (121 pm) is shorter than N—OH bond (140 pm). no. 26.10 M) | Cu What would be the voltage of this cell? (Eocell = 0. Explain the following types of substance with one suitable example. (iii) Bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than that of Cl2. molar conductivity changes with concentration of solute. (v) whether there is an optical isomer also. OR Explain the following situations: (i) In the structure of HNO3 molecule. (At.46 V) . (a) Define molar conductivity of a substance and describe how for weak and strong electrolytes. (iii) the magnetic behaviour of the complex.

The molecular mass of the compound is 86. 11. . How is molar conductivity of a solute related to conductivity of its solution? (b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25oC with the following half-cells: Al | Al3+ (0.001 M) and Ni | Ni2+ (0. 30. (ii) The greatest number of oxidation states are exhibited by the members in the middle of a transition series. (a) Illustrate the following name reactions by giving example: 5 (i) Cannizzaro’s reaction (ii) Clemmensen reduction (b) An organic compound A contain 69. OR (a) Complete the following chemical equations for reactions: (i) MnO4–(aq) + S2O32–(aq) + H2O(l) ¾¾® (ii) CrO7–(aq) + H2S(g) + H+(aq) ¾¾® (b) Give an explanation for each of the following observations: (i) The gradual decrease in size (actinoid contraction) from element to element is greater among the actinoids than that among the lanthanoids (lanthanoid contraction). On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acids. Derive the possible structure of compound ‘A’. EoAl/Al3+ = – 1.77% carbon.50 M) Calculate the cell voltage [EoNi2+/Ni = – 0.66 V] 29. resistance of the solution in the cell and conductivity of the solution.25 V. (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) MnO–4( aq ) + C 2 O2– 4 ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) 5 ¾¾® 2– 2+ + (ii) Cr2 O7( ¾® aq ) + F ( aq ) + H ( aq ) ¾ (b) Explain the following observations about the transition/inner transition elements: (i) There is in general an increase in density of element from titanium (Z = 22) to copper (Z = 29).46 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII OR (a) State the relationship amongst cell constant of a cell.63% hydrogen and rest oxygen. (iii) With the same d-orbital configuration (d4) Cr2+ ion is a reducing agent but Mn3+ ion is an oxidising agent. (ii) There occurs much more frequent metal-metal bonding in compounds of heavy transition elements (3rd series). It does not reduce Tollen’s reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogen sulphite and gives positive iodoform test. (iii) The members in the actinoid series exhibit a large number of oxidation states than the corresponding members in the lanthanoid series.

. (b) Complete each synthesis by giving the missing material. (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) Fe 2+ ( aq ) MnO–4( aq ) + H+ ( aq ) ¾¾® (ii) Cr2 O72– (aq) + I (aq) + H+ (aq) ¾¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Transition elements are known to form many interstitial compounds. (iii) The enthalpies of atomisation of the transition elements are quite high.... Which point defect in its crystal units alters the density of a solid? 4... What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids? Give one example of each..Examination Papers | 47 OR (a) How are the following obtained? (i) Benzoic acid from ethyl benzene.. How are associated colloids different from these two types of colloids? 24..... 28........... .. (ii) The majority of known noble gas compounds are those of Xenon. (iii) Phosphorus is much more reactive than nitrogen.... reagent or products: (i) H2 Pd-BaSO4 C6H5COCl ........... (iii) ... Explain the following observations: (i) Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state. (ii) CH3 Anhydrous AlCl3 O C + . (ii) With the same d4 d-orbital configuration Cr2+ ion is reducing while Mn3+ ion is oxidising... CBSE (Delhi) SET–II Questions different from Set-I 1. O C + ..... Which is a stronger oxidising agent Bi(V) or Sb(V)? 21.. How do antisepitcs differ from disinfectants? Give one example of each type... (ii) Benzaldehyde from toluene.... 27.....

(Given: E oNi 2 + Ni = –0.66V). Calculate the freezing point depression expected for 0.6? 19. How is molar conductivity of a solute related to conductivity of its solution. E oAl 3+ Al = –1. what would be the value of van't Hoff factor? (K f for water is 1. Ni = 28) . (a) What type of a cell is the lead storage battery? Write the anode and the cathode reactions and the overall reaction occurring in a lead storage battery while operating. (b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the half-cells Al | Al3+ (0. Write the equation for the reaction that occurs when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential.001 M) and Ni | Ni2+ (0.86°C mol -1 ).25V. 29.0711m aqueous solution of Na 2 SO4 . CBSE (Delhi) SET–III Questions different from Set-I and Set–II 1. (iii) The actinoids exhibit a greater range of oxidation states than the lanthanoids.40 V. Compare the following complexes with respect to their shape. OR (a) Express the relationship amongst cell constant. Cr = 24. (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction. If this solution actually Freezes at -0. What does the part ‘6. 24. Fe( s) + Cd 2 + ( aq) ® (Given: E oCd 2 + Cd = – 0.44 V).320°C. 6’ mean in the name nylon-6. magnetic behaviour and the hybrid orbitals involved: (i) [CoF4]2– (ii) [Cr(H2O)2(C2O4)2]– (iii) [Ni(CO)4] (Atomic number: Co = 27. (ii) Transition metals exhibit variable oxidation states. resistance of the solution in the cell and conductivity of the solution.48 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII OR (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) CrO72–(aq) + H2S(g) + H+(aq) ¾¾® (ii) MnO2(s) + KOH (aq) + O(2) ¾¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Transition metals form compounds which are usually coloured. E oFe 2 + Fe 2 + (aq ) + Cd( s) Fe = – 0.50 M). Which point defect in its crystal units increases the density of a solid? 8.

(a) Define the term molar conductivity. (ii) Nonionic detergents (iii) Antiseptics (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) Cr2O 72. it is easily oxidised to Co3+ ion in the presence of a strong ligand.Examination Papers | 49 27. (i) Antacid 28.(aq) + I . (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the equilibrium reaction. Eo Fe2 + /Fe = . Explain the reactions occurring during corrosion of iron kept in an open atmosphere. OR (a) What is meant by the term lanthanoid contraction? What is it due to and what consequences does it have on the chemistry of elements following lanthanoids in the periodic table? (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Cu+ ion is unstable in aqueous solutions.0 × 40V.48 V is measured for this cell. Eo Ag 2 + /Ag = + 0 × 80V) OR (a) Corrosion is essentially an electrochemical phenomenon. Its other half-cell consists of a zinc electrode dipping in 1.0 M solution of Zn(NO3)2. Fe( s) + Cd 2(+aq ) l (Given: E o Cd 2 + /Cd Fe 2(+aq ) + Cd( s) = .0 × 76V.0 × 44V) . (ii) The E oM 2 + M for copper is positive (+ 0. It is the only metal in the first series of transition elements showing this type of behaviour. (E o Zn 2 + /Zn = . How is it related to conductivity of the related solution? (b) One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed from a silver wire dipped in silver nitrate solution of unknown concentration.34 V).(aq) + H + (aq) ¾¾® (ii) MnO -4 (aq) + Fe2+(aq) + H + (aq) ¾¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) In general the atomic radii of transition elements decrease with atomic number in a given series. (iii) The Eo value for Mn3+ | Mn2+ couple is much more positive than for Cr3+ | Cr2+ or Fe3+ | Fe2+ couple. 29. (iii) The E oMn 2 + Mn value for manganese is much more than expected from the trend for other elements in the series. Use this information to calculate the concentration of silver nitrate solution used. What are the following substances? Give one example of each type. (ii) Although Co2+ ion appears to be stable. A voltage of 1.

p. 2 1 1 1 éA ù (ii) If [A] is reduced to half then rate. Buna–S. = 3 (ii) No. 8. b. 330 . 2. of electron pairs around central atom (Xe) = F 6 Xe l. 2-Bromo-3-methyl but-2-en-1-ol.e. 3.( aq) + H2 O(l) + O3 (g) ¾¾® 2OH– ( aq) + I 2 ( s) + O2 ( g) F F . · It makes alumina a good conductor of electricity. Let the rate law be. rate becomes 4 times.350 K 450 . (i) No. 12. = 2 The shape would be slightly bent T. = 4 11. r1 = k [A]2 (i) If [A] is doubled than rate r2 = k(2A)2 = 4k [A]2 = 4r1. (i) Role of cryolite · It lowers the melting point of the mixture. Frenkel defect.. (ii) When nickel is heated with carbon monoxide it forms a volatile complex nickel tetracarbonyl which on further heating at higher temperature decomposes to give pure nickel. rate becomes times 4 4 4 ë2û 10.. of electron pairs around central atom (Br) = 5 F F F l. O O || || 6. Because Bi (V) is more stable than Sb (V) due to inert pair effect.470 K Ni + 4 CO ¾ ¾¾¾¾® Ni(CO) 4 ¾ ¾¾¾¾® Ni + 4CO F b. As only sulphide ore particles are wetted by oil while gangue particles are wet by water. 4.p. 5.50 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII SOLUTIONS CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1. neoprene 9. = 2 The shape would be square planar.p. Alkyl amine is more basic than ammonia because the + I effect or electron donating nature of alkyl group increases electron density on ‘N’ atom in alkyl amine. 3-Oxopentanal: CH3 — CH2 — C — CH2 — C — H 7. (i) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2 O ¾¾® Br PH3 + 3NaH2 PO2 Phosphine (ii) 2I .p. i.e. The scattering of light by colloidal particles is known as Tyndall effect. r 3 = k ê ú = k [ A ] 2 = r1 . i.

fish. 17. B group vitamins and vitamins C are soluble in water. Molality is independent of temperature whereas molarity changes with change in temperature as volume changes with temperature.Examination Papers | 51 13. (i) —CH2Cl : It is primary halide therefore undergoes SN2 reaction faster.F H H | | H . Molality is the number of moles of solute per thousand grams of solvent whereas molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution. Name of Vitamins Sources Deficiency diseases (i) Vitamin B12 Meat. (ii) : As iodine is a better leaving group because of its large size.C = C. (ii) The linkage between two monosaccharides molecules through oxygen atom in a disaccharide or polysaccharide is known as glycosidic linkage. 14. (i) OH + SOCl 2 ¾ ¾® Cl + SO2 + HCl CH2—OH (ii) CH2—Cl + HCl ¾¾® + H2 O HO 16. egg and curd Pernicious anaemia (ii) Vitamin C Citrus fruits and amla Scurvy Polymer Teflon Monomer Tetrafluoroethene Polyethene Ethene Structure F F | | F . (i) (ii) OR O O || || n HO — C — CH2 — CH2 — C— OH + n H2 N — CH2 — CH2 — NH2 ¯ O é O ê || || ê C— CH2 — CH2 — C — HN — CH2 — CH2 — NH ê ê ë ù ú ú + 2nH2 O ú ú ûn .H 18. (i) HO O || The — C— NH — bond formed between two amino acid molecules with loss of water in a polypeptide is called peptide linkage.C = C. it will be released at a faster rate in the presence of incoming nucleophile I 15.

3 ´ 10 ´ 10 -3 13980.87g cm–3 = NA = = = 20.3 atm ´ 10 ´ 10 -3 L 760 100 ´ 10 -3 ´ 0.87 g cm -3 2 ´ 56 g mol -1 23.553 ´ 10 -24 cm 3 ´ 7.0821 ´ 298 ´ 760 g mol -1 13. p 2 ´ 56 g mol -1 (286.604 × 1024 mol–1 = 6. z = 2.3 mm Hg = atm 760 p MB = MB = MB = 100 ´ 10 -3 g ´ 0. NA = ? z´ M d= a3 ´ NA 7. M = 56 g mol–1 a = 286.87 g cm–3.65 ´ 10 -3 cm) 3 ´ NA 2 ´ 56 g mol -1 (2.024 × 1023 mol–1 W ´ R ´T = B MB ´V MB = WB ´ R ´ T p´ V Here WB = 100 mg = 100 × 100–3g R = 0.8665 ´ 10 -8 cm) 3 ´ 7.303 log k [R] = 18594 g mol -1 133 .366 ´ 10 -24 = 0.87 g cm -3 112 mol -1 185. d = 7.45 g mol–1 21.3 = 13.0821 L atm K -1 mol -1 ´ 298K 13.65pm = 286.52 | Xam Idea Chemistry–XII 19. For a first order reaction t Here = [R] o 2. For bcc.65 × 10–10cm.0821 L atm K–1 mol–1 T = 25°C = (25 + 273) K = 298K V = 10 mL = 10 × 10–3L 13.

[R]o = 0.0051min–1. [R] = ? 2. (ii) S atom in SF4 is not sterically protected as it is surrounded by only four F atoms.04M 22. (iii) Bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than Cl2 this is due to relatively large electron – electron repulsion among the lone pairs in F2 molecule where they are much closer to each other than in case of Cl2.1 180 min ´ 0 × 0051 min -1 918 = = [R] 2 × 303 2303 0.3986 = Anti log (0. S is sterically protected by six F atoms. This is because the lone pair of electrons on N atom in NH3 is directed and not diffused as it is in PH3 due to larger size of phosphorus and hence more available for donation. . = 0. Protein sol Emulsion Liquid Liquid Milk. N–O bond is shorter than N–OH bond in HNO3. OR O – –– (i) H—O—N – O + – +– –O HO—N – O As a result of resonance. hair cream (i) NH3 is stronger base than PH3.10 180 min = log -1 [R] 0. Therefore. Cloud Hydrosol Solid Water Starch sol. SF6 does not undergo hydrolysis.503 [R] = 01 . in SF6. Fog. Therefore does not allow H2O molecules to attack S atoms. In contract.1 [R] = 0. N–O bond length is average of single bond and double bond whereas N–OH bond has purely single bond character.1 [R] 0.303 0. (ii) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen because S-S bond is stronger than O – O bond due to less interelectronic repulsions.03995 M 2.3986) = 2.10 M.Examination Papers | 53 t = 3 h = 3 × 60 min = 180 min k = 0.0051 min Log log 0. Type of Colloid Dispersed Phase Dispersion medium Example Aerosol Solid or liquid Gas Smoke. 23.503 [R] = 0. so attack of H2O molecules can take place easily and hence hydrolysis takes place easily. As a result of this.

hybridisation: d2 sp3 Shape of the complex: Octahedral (iii) Paramagnetic due to presence of three unpaired electrons (iv) Two. 25. Xe is sp3d hybridised having 2 bond pair and 3 lone pair of electrons. The presence of 3 lone pair of electrons in Xe F2 at equidistance to have minimum repulsion is responsible for its linear structure.54 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (iii) In XeF2. cis and trans isomers (v) Yes. cis isomer will also show optical isomerism (vi) Dichlorido bis (ethane-1. 24. (i) Step I: Nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagent to Carbonyl group. 2 diamine) iron (III) chloride or Dichloro bis (ethylenediamine) iron (III) chloride. C –+ H 2O OMg — X C R OH + Mg(OH)X R Step II: Hydrolysis d+ O C d– d– + R d+ C — Mg — X R –+ OMg — X Adduct + (ii) CH3 — CH2 — OH ¾H¾ ¾® CH2 CH2 + H2 O D Mechanism Step I: Formation of protonated alcohols H H + H— C— C — O — H + H H H Ethyl alcohol H Fast H H + H— C— C — O — H H H Ethyl oxonium ion . Given complex is [Fe (en) 2 Cl 2 ]Cl (i) Let the oxidation number of iron be x. \ x + 2 ´ 0 + 2(–1) + 1( -1) = 0 Þ x =3 4s 3d 4p (ii) Orbitals of Fe (III) Six d2sp 3 hybridised orbitals 3d d2 sp3 hybridised orbitals of Fe (III) Thus.

H H + + —C—C l H2O + —C—C H2O H + —C—C—O—H Step III: Deprotonation to form an alchohol H H + — C— C — O — H 26. migration of an alkyl or aryl group takes place from carbonyl carbon of the amide to the nitrogen atom. ethylene is removed as it is formed. H + H2O OH —C—C— + H3O + (i) Hoffman’s bromamide reaction: When a primary acidamide is heated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of sodium hydroxide. the rate determining step. O R — C — NH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH 1° acid amide R — NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O 1° amine . (iii) —C C— + H2O + l H —C C— Alkene H OH Mechanism Step I: Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic attack of H3O+. In this degradation reaction. it gives a primary amine with one carbon atom less.Examination Papers | 55 Step II: Formation of carbocation: It is the slowest step and hence. + H2O + H H3O + H —C C— + H + H—O—H + Step II: Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation. H H H H H + Slow H— C — C — O — H H + H H Ethyl oxonium ion + H— C — C H2O H Ethyl carbocation Step III: Formation of ethylene by elimination of a proton H H H H + —C C— H— C — C H H H H + + H Ethylene Ethyl carbocation To drive the equilibrium to the right.

56 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (ii) Gattermann reaction: Chlorine or bromine can be introduced in benzene ring by treating the diazonium salt solution with corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder. é CH3 ê ½ ê êCH3 (CH2 ) 15 ¾ N ¾ CH3 ½ ê CH3 êë ù ú ú ú ú úû + Br - Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide Cationic detergents have germicidal properties and are expensive. . chlorides or bromides as anions. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is a popular cationic detergent and is used in hair conditioners. Cationic part possess a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on nitrogen atom. Preservatives prevent the rancidity of food and inhibit growth or kill the microganisms. (ii) Food Preservatives: These are the chemical substances which are added to the food materials to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth and to retain their nutritive value for long periods. The mechanism is basically that of electrophilic aromatic substitution where the diazonium ion is electrophile. + – NCl + H— — NH 2 H (pH 4-5) N Aniline – NCl + H — N— – — NH 2 + Cl + H 2O p-Aminoazobenzene (Yellow dye) — OH – OH (pH 9-10) N Phenol N— – — OH + Cl + H 2O p-Hydroxyazobenzene (Orange dye) (i) Cationic Detergents : Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates. these are of limited use. these are called cationic detergents. + N Benzene diazonium chloride + N Benzene diazonium chloride 27. Cl Cu / HCl + – + N2Cl N2 + CuCl N2 + CuCl Chlorobenzene Br Benzene diazonium chloride Cu / HBr + Bromobenzene (iii) Coupling reaction: Diazonium salts react with aromatic amines in weakly acidic medium and with phenols in weakly alkaline medium to form coloured compounds called azo dyes by coupling at para position of amines or phenols. Hence. therefore.

morphine.0591 log 105 = 0 × 46 ´ 5 log 10 2 2 . These are classified as follow. For weak electrolyte the number of ions as well as mobility of ions increases on dilution as shown by curve in the figure. Lm = k × v or k ´ 1000 Lm = M 400 –1 2 Lm / (S cm mol ) 28. Cu( s) ¾¾® Cu 2 + ( aq) + 2 e (b) At anode: At cathode: 2Ag + ( aq) + 2e ¾¾® 2Ag( s) Cu( s) + 2Ag + ( aq) ¾¾® Cu 2 + ( aq) + 2Ag( s) [Cu 2 + ] 0 × 0591 log n [Ag + ] 2 Here E cell = E ocell - Here E ocell = 0. incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system. e. [Cu 2+ ] = 0. paracetamol etc. CH3COOH 200 KCl Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration or increase in dilution as number of ions as well as mobility of ions increased with dilution.2 1/2 0. 46 V. (a) Molar Conductivity (Lm): It may be defined as the conductance of a solution containing 1 mole of electrolyte such that the entire solution is placed is between two electrodes one centimeter apart.g. Heroin etc. n = 2 [Ag + ] = 0 × 001M = 1´ 10 –3 M. Therefore L m increases a little as shown in graph by a straight line. sugar table salt. Sodium metabisulphite sorbic acid and propanoic acid. mental confusion. 0 0. (a) Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics: Aspirin.4 l/2 c / (mol / L) For strong electrolytes the number of ions do not increase appreciably on dilution and only mobility of ions increases due to decrease in inter-ionic attractions. (iii) Analgesics: Drugs which reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness. Codeine.. sodium benzoate.1M E cell = 0 × 46 - 0 × 0591 0 ×1 log 2 (10 -3 ) 2 E cell = 0 × 46 - 0 × 0591 0. (b) Narcotic drugs: These are known to be habit forming.Examination Papers | 57 The most-common preservations used are.

41 log 6 (0.097) = 1.5) 3 2 = 1. [Ni2+] = 0.66V ) Al 3+ / Al E ocell = 1.3012 = 1.41 – (– 6 + 3 ´ 0.46 V ( ) = 1.0502 E cell = 1.58 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII E cell = 0 × 46 .0591 = 1.41 – log10 –6 + log 2 3 6 6 0.4602V ( ) .0591 0.0591 0.5M E ocell = E o Ni 2 + / Ni -Eo = .0591 10 -6 log 6 0.25V .0 ×14775 = 0 × 31225V E cell = 0.41 + 0.41 ( -5.0591 = 1.(-1.41 + 6 6 = 1. [Al3+] = 0.41V E ocell ( ) 10 -3 0.41 - = 1.312 V OR (a) k = 1 æl ö ´ç ÷ R èAø Where k = Conductivity l = Cell Constant A R = Resistance k ´ 1000 Lm = M Where L m = Molar conductivity k = Conductivity M = Molarity of Solution (b) At anode: At cathode: Al( s) ¾¾®Al 3 + ( aq) + 3e ] ´ 2 Ni 2 + ( aq) + 2e ¾¾® Ni ( s)] ´ 3 2Al ( s) + 3Ni 2 + ( aq) ¾¾® 2Al 3 + ( aq) + Ni( s) E cell = E ocell - [Al 3 + ] 2 0.125 0.41 - 0.3010 ) 6 6 0.0591 0.0.0591 log 10 –6 ´ 8 =1.41 log (– 6 log 10 + 3 log2) = 1.0591 log n [ Ni 2 + ] 3 Here n = 6.0 × 0591 ´ 2 × 5 ´ 1 = 0 × 46 .001M = 1× 10–3M.

] ´ 3 - 8MnO-4 + 3S 2 O23 .04V 2 ´ 0.+ 2 O H (ii) In acidic solutions Cr2 O72 .¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 7H2 O H2 S ¾¾® S + 2H+ + 2e .¾ ¾ ¾® MnO2 + 4OH– ] ´ 8 - S 2 O23 .44) = 0. 08 log kc = = 0. 059 log kc = 1.+ 14H+ + 6e .Examination Papers | 59 29. (iii) This is due to very small energy gap between 5f . 04 0.+ 10 O H ¾ ¾ ¾® 2 SO24 .3536 = 22.+ 16H+ ¾¾® 2Mn 2 + + 10CO2 + 8H2 O (ii) In acidic medium: Cr2 O72– + 14H+ + 6e ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 7H2 O Fe 2 + ¾¾® Fe 3 + + e ] ´ 6 Cr2 O72– + 6Fe 2+ +14H+ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 6Fe 3+ + 7H2 O (b) (i) On moving from titanium to copper in general atomic mass increases where as atomic size decreases. 6d and 7s orbitals in the actinoid series.+ 3H2 S + 8H+ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 3S + 7H2 O (b) Fe( s) + Cd 2 + ( aq) l log k c = n Fe 2 + ( aq) + Cd( s) o E cell 0. n = 2 o o o = E cathode = Eo E cell .¾¾® 2CO2 + 2e ] ´ 5 2MnO-4 + 5C 2 O24 . OR (a) (i) In neutral or faintly alkaline solutions MnO-4 + 2H2 O + 3e . (ii) The frequent metal-metal bonding in compounds of heavy transition elements is due to their high enthalpy of atomization. (a) (i) In acidic medium: Mn O-4 + 8H+ + 5e ¾¾® Mn 2 + + 4H2 O] ´ 2 C 2 O24 .E anode Cd 2 + /Cd -Eo Fe2 + /Fe = – 40 – (– 0. therefore density increases in general. 059 Here.+ H2 O ¾ ¾ ¾® 8MnO2 + 6SO24 .] ´ 3 Cr2 O72 . 059 0.3536 Þ kc = Antilog 1.57 .+ 5 H2 O + 8e .

4) = 18.60 16 18 × 60 = 1 ×16 16 1 ×16 =1 1 ×16 Empirical formula of the compound A = C5 H10 O Molecular formula of the compound A = n (Empirical formula) Molecular mass of compound A n= Empirical formula mass of compound A Molecular mass of compound A = 86 Empirical formula mass of compound A = 5 ´ 12 + 1´ 10 + 1´ 16 = 60 + 10 + 16 = 86 86 n = =1 86 Molecular formula of the compound A = 1(C5 H10 O) l l l = C5 H10 O As the compound A forms addition compound with NaHSO3 therefore it must be either an aldehyde or ketone. (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehyde which do not have an a . —O C— + 4[H] Zn/conc. In this reaction. HCl Aldehyde or ketone CH2 + H2O Hydrocarbon (b) Element Percentage Atomic mass No. one molecule of aldehyde is reduced to alcohol while other is oxidised to carboxylic acid salt. of moles Simplest molar ratio C 69.hydrogen atom. As on oxidation the compound A gives a mixture of ethanoic acid and propanoic acid.KOH 2H — C— H ¾ ¾¾¾¾® CH3 — OH + HCOOK + Formaldehyde Methyl alcohol Potassiumformate (ii) Clemmensen reduction: The carbonyl group of aldehyde and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid. As it does not reduce Tollens reagent and give positive Iodoform test therefore it must be a methyl ketone. undergo disproportionation reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali.60 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 30. therefore compound A is .77 12 69 × 77 = 5 × 81 12 5 × 81 =5 1 ×16 H 11. O || Conc.63 1 11 × 63 = 11 × 63 1 11 × 63 = 10 1 ×16 O (100 – 81.

+ Iodoform ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® reaction CHI 3 ¯ + CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CO O Na + 3NaI + 3H2 O (Iodoform yellow ppt) O || K 2 Cr2 O7 CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® CH3 — COOH + CH3 — CH2 — COOH H 2 SO4 Pentan .one Ethanoic acid OR –+ CH2—CH3 COOK COOH KMnO4 – KOH (a) (i) Propanoic acid H3 O + D Benzoic acid – – O C — CH3 – OO — — C — CH O CrO3 (ii) H3 O O + – – D – CH3 – C CHO 3 – – HC – CH3 O CH3 – C – – – Benzylidene diacetate Benzaldehyde O OR CH3 CHO CH(OCrOHCl2)2 + CrO2Cl2 CS2 H3 O Chromium complex + Benzaldehyde .2 .2 .one .Examination Papers | 61 O || CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 Pentan -2-one The chemical reactions are: O OH || | CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + NaHSO3 ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — C — CH2 — CH2 — CH3 Pentan -2-one | + SO-3 N a Sodium hydrogen sulphite addition product O || CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + 3I 2 + 4NaOH Pentan .

Multimolecular colloids: In this type of colloids.. (iii) Phosphorus is much more reactive than nitrogen as the P–P single bond (213 kJ mol -1 ) is much weaker than N º N triple bond (941. AlCl3 Acetyl chloride Acetophenone Benzene O – – – – O + (iii) Benzene — C — Cl — C — CH3 C anhyd. furacine. soaps and detergents.g. Antiseptics are generally applied to living tissues such as wounds. starch. Such colloids are known as associated colloids. e..4 kJ mol -1 ). soframicine are antiseptics. e. Difference between antiseptics and disinfectants. 27. . etc. Associated colloids: There are certain substances which at low concentrations behave as normal electrolyte. e. ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. l l l Antiseptics are chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms and may even kill them but are not harmful to living tissues. sulphur sol..g. Schottky defect 21. polyethene. cuts. proteins. but at higher concentrations exhibit colloidal behaviour due to the formation of aggregates. colloidal particles are aggregates of atoms or molecules each having size less than 1nm.62 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII – – O C — Cl CHO H2 (b) (i) + Pd – BaSO4 Benzoyl chloride HCl Benzaldehyde – – O – – O + CH3 — C — Cl (ii) anhyd. AlCl3 Benzoyl chloride + HCl Benzophenone CBSE (Delhi) SET–II 1.g. Dettol. (ii) This is due to low ionization enthalpy of xenon. 24. colloidal particles are themselves large molecules of colloidal dimensions. Macromolecular colloids: In this type of colloids. gold sol. (i) Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state as it is the most electro-negative element and does not have d orbitals in its valance shell.

l Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floor. (iii) This is due to comparable energies of 5f . 29. C or N in the interstitial sites in their crystal lattice.] ´ 3 Cr2 O72 .] ´ 5 MnO-4 + 5Fe 2 + + 8H+ ¾ ¾¾® Mn 2 + + 5Fe 3 + + 4H2 O (ii) Cr2 O72 . OR (a) (i) Cr2 O72 - + + 14H + 6e - ¾ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 7H2 O H2 S ¾ ¾¾® S + 2H+ + 2e . l Chlorine in the concentration of 0. the latter having a half filled t2g configuration.Examination Papers | 63 Disinfectants are chemical substances which kill micro-organisms or stop their growth but are harmful to human tissues.+ 6I . (iii) This is because transition metals have strong metallic bonds as they have a large number of unpaired electrons. On the other hand. (ii) Cr 2+ is reducing as its configuration changes from d 4 to d 3 . (a) (i) MnO-4 + 8H+ + 5e .¾ ¾¾® I 2 + 2e . instrument. (a) The lead storage battery is a secondary cell The cell reactions when the battery is in use are given below At anode : Pb( s) + SO24 .+ 3H2 S + 8H+ ¾ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 3S + 7H2 O (ii) 2MnO2 + 4KOH + O2 ¾ ¾¾® 2K 2 MnO4 + 2H2 O (b) (i) This is due to d – d transition as the energy of excitation of d orbital electrons from lower energy to higher energy level lies in the visible region.( aq) ¾ ¾ ¾® PbSO4 ( s) + 2e - At cathode : PbO2 ( s) + SO24 .2 to 0. drainage system. 6d and 7s orbitals of actinoids.4 ppm in aqueous solution and SO2 in very low concentration are disinfectants.¾ ¾ ¾® PbSO4 ( s) + 2H2 O(l) Overall cell reaction : Pb( s) + PbO2 ( s) + 2H2 SO4 ( aq) ¾ ¾ ¾® 2PbSO4 ( s) + 2H2 O(l) .+ 14H+ ¾ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 3I 2 + 7H2 O (b) (i) Transition elements form many interstitial compounds as they are capable of entrapping small atoms like H. the change from Mn 3+ to Mn 2+ results in the half-filled d 5 configuration which has extra stability therefore Mn 3+ is oxidising.+ 14H+ + 6e .] ´ 3 Cr2 O72 .¾ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 7H2 O 2I .( aq) + 4H+ ( aq) + 2e .¾ ¾¾® Mn 2 + + 4H2 O Fe 2 + ¾ ¾¾® Fe 3 + + e . etc. (ii) The variable oxidation states of transition metals are due to the participation of ns and ( n -1) d electrons in bonding as energy difference between ns and ( n -1) d orbitals is small. l 28.

41 + 6 6 ( = 1.41 – log10 –6 + log 2 3 6 6 0.64 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII Al( s) ¾¾®Al 3 + ( aq) + 3e ] ´ 2 (b) At anode: Ni 2 + ( aq) + 2e ¾¾® Ni ( s)] ´ 3 At cathode: 2Al ( s) + 3Ni 2 + ( aq) ¾¾® 2Al 3 + ( aq) + Ni( s) E cell = E ocell - [Al 3 + ] 2 0. n = 2 (b) Fe( s) + Cd 2+ Fe 2 + ( aq) + Cd( s) ( ) .41 log 6 (0.46 V OR 1 æl ö k= ´ç ÷ R èAø (a) Where k = Conductivity l = Cell Constant A R = Resistance k ´ 1000 Lm = M Where L m = Molar conductivity k = Conductivity M = Molarity of Solution ( aq) l E ° cell log k c = n 0.41V E ocell ( ) 10 -3 0.41 - 0.41 – (– 6 + 3 ´ 0.5M E ocell = E o Ni 2 + / Ni -Eo Al 3+ / Al = .059 Here.0591 = 1.0591 10 -6 log 6 0.0591 0.3012 = 1.125 0.0591 log n [ Ni 2 + ] 3 Here n = 6.097) = 1.0591 0. [Al3+] = 0.0591 log 10 –6 ´ 8 =1.0502 = 1.001M = 1× 10–3M.5) 3 2 = 1.41 log (– 6 log 10 + 3 log2) = 1.0591 0.4602V E cell = 1.41 - ) = 1.41 + 0.0591 = 1.3010 ) 6 6 0.(-1.0.25V .41 ( -5. [Ni2+] = 0.66V ) E ocell = 1.

86 K kg mol -1 × 0. K i = 2. contain six carbon atoms each. No. It means the two monomers combine to make nylon 6. 27. Interstitial defect increases the density of a solid. Dettol. S. m = 1.57 CBSE (Delhi) SET–III 1. ranitidine.320K i = = Calculated value of DTf 0132 . One such detergent is formed when stearic acid reacts with polyethylene glycol. cuts. a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide. 8.3536 kc = 22. DTf = [ 273 ×15 .3536 kc = Antilog 1. Complex Central metal ion Configuration of metal ion Hybridisation of metal ion Geometry of the complex Number of unpaired electrons Magnetic behaviour (i) [ CoF4 ]2- Co 2+ d7 sp 3 Tetrahedral 3 Paramagnetic (ii) [Cr(H2O)2 (C2O4 )2 ] Cr 3+ 3d 3 d 2sp 3 Octahedral 3 Paramagnetic (iii) Ni(CO)4 Ni 3d8 4s2 sp 3 Tetrahedral 0 Diamagnetic (i) Antacids: Chemical substances which removes the excess acid in the stomach & raise the pH to appropriate level. soframicine are antiseptics. etc.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate.44) E°cell = 0.Examination Papers | 65 E° cell = E°cathode — E°anode = E°Cd 2 + /Cd – E°Fe 2 + /Fe = – 0. DTf = K f . e.42 24.40 – (– 0.0711 mol kg -1 = 0.04 V 2 ´ 0 × 04 0 × 08 log kc = = 0 × 059 0 × 059 log kc = 1.. Antiseptics are applied to living tissues such as wounds.0 × 320 + 273 ×15)]K = 0 × 320 K 19. ulcers.( . (iii) Antiseptics: These are the chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms and may even kill them but are not harmful to living tissues. .6.132 K Observed value of DTf 0. (ii) Non-ionic Detergents: Non-ionic detergents do not contain any ion in their constitution.

¾ ¾ ¾®Ag( s)] ´ 2 . (ii) This is due to its high enthalpy of atomization and low hydration enthalpy. for every additional proton in the nucleus.66 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII Cr2 O72 . Cause of lanthanoid contraction: As we move along the lanthanoid series. (a) (i) 2I . (iii) This is due to stability of Mn 2+ as it has half filled d 5 configuration. (b) (i) Because the high hydration enthalpy of Cu 2+ easily compensates the second ionization enthalpy of Cu. OR (a) Lanthanoid contraction: The steady decrease in the atomic and ionic radii of lanthanoids with increase in atomic number is known as lanthanoid contraction. This splitting energy overcomes the ionization enthalpy. (iii) This is due to much large third ionisation energy of Mn as Mn 2+ is very stable on account of stable d 5 configuration.¾ ¾¾® Mn 2 + + 4H2 O Fe 2 + ¾ ¾¾® Fe 3 + + e .¾ ¾¾® I 2 + 2e . (a) Molar conductivity ( L m ): It may be defined as the conductivity of one molar electrolytic solution placed between two electrodes one centimeter apart and have enough area of cross section to hold entire volume.+ 6 I . (ii) The basic strength of hydroxides decreases from La(OH) 3 to Lu(OH) 3 .+ 14H+ ¾ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 3I 2 + 7H2 O (ii) MnO-4 + 8H+ + 5e . 29. k Lm = c Where k = Conductivity c = Concentration of solution in mol L -1 (b) At anode : Zn( s) ¾ ¾¾® Zn 2 + ( aq) + 2e - At cathode : Ag + ( aq) + e . the corresponding electron goes into 4f -subshell.+ 14H+ + 6e .] ´ 5 MnO-4 + 5Fe 2 + + 8H+ ¾ ¾¾® Mn 2 + + 5Fe 3 + + 4H2 O (b) (i) The atomic radii of transition metals decreases with atomic number in a series as the nuclear charge increases due to poor shielding effect of d orbitals. (ii) Because strong ligand cause spin pairing giving rise to diamagnetic octahedral complex which are very stable and have very large crystalfield stabilization energy. The imperfect shielding is not able to counterbalance the effect of the increased nuclear charge. Consequences: (i) 5d series elements have nearly same radii as that of 4d-series.] ´ 3 Cr2 O72 . Thus the net result is decrease in size with increase in atomic number.¾ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 7H2 O 28. there is poor shielding of one electron by another in this subshell due to the shapes of these f-orbitals.

( -0 × 76V ) E°cell = 1×56V 0 × 0591 1 log 2 [ Ag + ] 2 0 × 0591 1 .0 × 44V At cathode : Reduction of oxygen in the presence of H+ ions.¾¾® H2 O E° H + /O /H O = 1. The H+ ions are produced by either H2 O or H2 CO3 (formed by dissolution of CO2 in moisture) 2H+ ( aq) + 2e .Examination Papers | 67 Zn( s) + 2Ag + ( aq) ¾¾® Zn 2 + + 2Ag( s) Ecell = E°cell Here.23V 2 2 2 The overall reaction 1 Fe( s) + 2H+ ( aq) + O2 ( g) ¾¾® Fe 2 + ( aq) + H2 O(l) E°cell = 1.2 log[ Ag + ] = 2 × 7072 log[ Ag + ] = -1× 3536 = 2 × 6464 [Ag + ] = Anti log( 2 × 6464) = 4 × 43 ´ 10 -2 M [Ag + ] = 0 × 044 M (a) At anode OR : Oxidation of Fe atoms takes place Fe ¾ ¾ ¾® Fe 2 + + 2e - E ° Fe2 + / Fe = . (b) At anode: At cathode: Al( s) ¾¾®Al 3 + ( aq) + 3e ] ´ 2 Ni 2 + ( aq) + 2e ¾¾® Ni ( s)] ´ 3 2Al ( s) + 3Ni 2 + ( aq) ¾¾® 2Al 3 + ( aq) + Ni( s) . [ Zn 2 + ] 0 × 0591 log n [ Ag + ] 2 n = 2.log[ Ag + ] 2 = 2 × 7072 0 .67V 2 The ferrous ions are further oxidised by atmospheric oxygen to ferric ions which come out as rust in the form of hydrated ferric oxide (Fe 2 O3 .0 × 08 = log 2 [ Ag + ] 2 1.¾ ¾¾® 2H 1 2H + O2 ( g) ¾ ¾¾® H2 O 2 Net reaction at cathodic area 1 2H+ ( aq) + O2 + 2e . [ Zn 2 + ] = 1 M E°cell = E ° Ag + / Ag -E °zn 2 + /zn = 0 × 80 V . xH2 O).56 - 1 log + 2 [ Ag ] = 0 ×16 = 2 × 7072 0 × 0591 log1 .48 = 1.

0502 = 1.0591 0. [Al3+] = 0.0591 0.4602V E cell = 1.5M E ocell = E o Ni 2 + / Ni -Eo Al 3+ / Al = .41 log (– 6 log 10 + 3 log2) = 1. [Ni2+] = 0.0591 10 -6 log 6 0.41 - ( = 1.41 - 0.3012 = 1.25V .0591 = 1.0.41 + 6 6 = 1.0591 = 1.5) 3 2 = 1.46 V ) ( ) .41 ( -5.125 0.0591 log 10 –6 ´ 8 =1.3010 ) 6 6 0.41 – log10 –6 + log 2 3 6 6 0.41 – (– 6 + 3 ´ 0.097) = 1.41 + 0.(-1.41V E ocell ( ) 10 -3 0.41 log 6 (0.68 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII E cell = E ocell - [Al 3 + ] 2 0.66V ) E ocell = 1.0591 0.0591 log n [ Ni 2 + ] 3 Here n = 6.001M = 1× 10–3M.

CBSE (All India) SET–I 1.6? 1 9. What type of cell is a lead storage battery? Write the anode and the cathode reactions and the overall cell reaction occurring in the use of a lead storage battery. What does ‘6. (ii) Question nos. Write the structural formula of 1-phenylpentan-1-one. 1 7. Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of basic strengths in their aqueous solutions: 1 NH3.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS ALL INDIA–2009 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. CH3NH2. (CH3)2NH. (v) Question nos. How do metallic and ionic substances differ in conducting electricity? 1 2. (iii) Question nos.® Mn 2 + ( aq) + 4H2 O(l). Why is red phosphorus less reactive than white phosphorus? 1 5.15 V Construct the redox equation from the two half cell reactions and predict if this reaction favours formation of reactants or product shown in the equation. (iv) Question nos. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 2 OR Two half cell reactions of an electrochemical cell are given below: MnO-4 ( aq) + 8H+ ( aq) + 5e .. 10. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.51V Sn 2 + ( aq) ® Sn 4 + ( aq) + 2e . E° = 1. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. (CH3)3N 8. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. What is meant by the term ‘pyrometallurgy’? 1 4. Define the following: (i) Elementary step in a reaction (ii) Rate of a reaction 2 . E° = + 0. 6’ indicate in the name nylon-6. What is the ‘coagulation’ process? 1 3. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound: H2C CH—CH—CH2—CH2—CH3 1 OH 6. use of calculators is not allowed.

Silver crystallises with face-centred cubic unit cells.(aq) + Fe 2+ (aq) + H+(aq) ¾ ¾® 14. Name two fat soluble vitamins. Give one example of each type.0051 min -1 . Complete the following reaction equations: CH3 (i) 2 + HI (ii) CH3 CH2 CH = CH2 + HBr ® 16. A first order reaction has a rate constant of 0.10 M.10 M concentration of the reactant.34 V) . What is the radius of an atom of silver? (Assume that each face atom is touching the four corner atoms. Differentiate between molecular structures and behaviours of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. 2 18. If we begin with 0. 2 19.80V. Describe the underlying principle of each of the following metal refining methods: 2 (i) Electrolytic refining of metals (ii) Vapour phase refining of metals.422 V. Determine the concentration of silver ion in the cell. 12. Complete the following chemical reaction equations: 2 (i) XeF2 + H2O ¾ ¾® (ii) PH3 + HgCl2 ¾ ¾® 13. Complete the following chemical reaction equations: 2 + (i) MnO -4 (aq) + C2O 2¾® 4 (aq) + H (aq) ¾ (ii) Cr2O 72. The copper ion concentration in it is 0. Which one of these is not present in RNA? 2 17. their sources and the diseases caused due to their deficiency in diet. The concentration of silver ion is not known.70 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 11. Each side of the unit cell has a length of 409 pm. A copper-silver cell is set up. 3 (Given: E o Ag + /Ag = +0. Name the four bases present in DNA. E o Cu 2 + /Cu = +0. Which one in the following pairs undergoes S N 1 substitution reaction faster and why? Cl 2 Cl (i) or Cl Cl or (ii) 15. The cell potential measured 0.) 3 21. what concentration of the reactant will be left after 3 hours? 3 20.

Giving a suitable example for each. Complete the following reaction equations: O || 4 (i) R . (ii) The metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition elements are virtually the same as those of the corresponding members of the second series. explain the following: 3 (i) Crystal field splitting (ii) Linkage isomerism (iii) Ambidentate ligand. (iii) There is a greater range of oxidation states among the actinoids than among the lanthanoids. (iii) An electric current is passed through a colloidal solution. 23. Cr = 24.C. [Cr(NH3 ) 6 ] 3 + . Ni(CO) 4 (At No.: Co = 27. (iii) o-and p-nitrophenols are more acidic than phenol. 26. Explain the following observations: 3 (i) The boiling point of ethanol is higher than that of methoxymethane. (ii) A beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution. OR Compare the following complexes with respect to structural shapes of units. (ii) Phenol is more acidic than ethanol. Ni = 28) 24.NH2 ¾LiAlH ¾¾ ¾ ® 3 H2O (ii) C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2+H2O ¾ ¾® (iii) C6H5NH2 + Br2 (aq) ¾ ¾® 27.Examination Papers | 71 22. What happens in the following activities and why? 3 (i) An electrolyte is added to a hydrated ferric oxide sol in water. (a) Define the following terms: (i) Mole fraction (ii) Van’t Hoff factor 5 . How would you account for the following: 3 (i) Many of the transition elements and their compounds can act as good catalysts. Describe the following substances with one suitable example of each type: 3 (i) Non-ionic detergents (ii) Food preservatives (iii) Disinfectants 28. 25. magnetic behaviour and hybrid orbitals involved in units: [Co(NH3 ) 6 ] 3 + .

what is the molar mass of protein? (R = 0. (ii) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. (iii) ICI is more reactive than I2. (a) Draw the structures of the following: (i) H2S2O8 (ii) HClO4 (b) How would you account for the following: (i) NH3 is a stronger base than PH3. total pressure of 1 atmosphere and mole fraction of nitrogen in air of 0. If this solution has an osmotic pressure 13.3 mm Hg at 25° C.) OR What is meant by: (i) Colligative properties (ii) Molality of a solution. (iii) F2 is a stronger oxidising agent than Cl2.78. (b) What concentration of nitrogen should be present in a glass of water at room temperature? Assume a temperature of 25° C. [KH for nitrogen = 8.42 × 10–7 M/mm Hg] 5 29. 5 OR (a) Draw the structures of the following: (i) H2S2O7 (ii) HClO3 (b) Give an explanation for each of the following observations: (i) In the structure of HNO3. 30.72 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (b) 100 mg of a protein is dissolved in enough water to make 100 mL of a solution.0821 L atm mol–1 K–1 and 760 mm Hg = 1 atm. the N – O bond (121 pm) is shorter than the N – OH bond (140 pm) (ii) All the P – Cl bonds in PCl5 are not equivalent. (a) Write chemical equations to illustrate the following name bearing reactions: (i) Cannizzaro’s reaction (ii) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction (b) Give chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Propanal and Propanone (ii) Acetophenone and Benzophenone (iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid 5 .

Examination Papers | 73 OR (a) How will you bring about the following conversions: (i) Ethanol to 3-hydroxybutanal (ii) Benzaldehyde to Benzophenone. (b) An organic compound A has the molecular formula C8H16O2. On vigorous addition. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid. Complete the following reaction equations: 3 (i) C6H5N2Cl + CH3COCl ¾ ¾® (ii) C2H5NH2 + C6H5SO2Cl ¾ ¾® (iii) C2H5NH2 + HNO2 ¾ ¾® 28. Derive the structure of the compound ‘A’. Which point defect of its crystals decrease the density of a solid? 1 8. It gets hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid and gives a carboxylic acid B and an alcohol C.39 × 10–7 L mol–1 s–1 at 700 K Calculate the value of activation energy for this reaction. What is the primary structural feature necessary for a molecule to make it useful in a condensation polymerisation reaction? 1 20. Write equations for the reactions involved. (R = 8. 3. 4-Methoxybenzoic acid (acid strength) (ii) CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH. 5 OR (a) Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of their indicated property: (i) Benzoic acid. C on dehydration reaction gives but-1-ene.15 × 10–8 L mol–1 s–1 at 650 K k2 = 2. it gives ethanoic and propanoic acids.314 J K–1 mol–1) 27. It does not reduce Tollen’s reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogensulphite and gives positive iodoform test. (CH3)2CHCOOH. (a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between compounds in the following pairs of substances: (i) Ethanal and Propanal (ii) Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate (b) An organic compound contains 69.77% carbon. CH3CH2CH2COOH (acid strength) .63% hydrogen and rest oxygen. Oxidation of C with chromic acid also produced B. CBSE (All India) SET–II [Questions different from Set–I] 1.4-Dinitrobenzoic acid. 11. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. CH3CH(Br) CH2COOH. For a decomposition reaction the values of rate constant k at two different temperatures are given below: 3 k1 = 2.

What is the number of atoms in a unit cell of a face-centred cubic crystal? 13. 2 21. 14. (a) Draw the structure of the following: (i) H3PO2 (ii) BrF3 (b) How would you account for the following observations: (i) Phosphorus has a greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen. Give one example each of the resulting polymers. OR (a) Draw the structures of the following: (i) N2O5 5 (ii) XeOF4 (b) Explain the following observations: (i) The electron gain enthalpy of sulphur atom has a greater negative value than that of oxygen atom. (iii) In aqueous solutions HI is a stronger acid than HCl. Define the following: (i) Order of a reaction (ii) Activation energy of a reaction 2 17.25V. CBSE (All India) SET–III [Questions different from Set–I and Set–II] 1. Write the equation for the cell reaction that occurs when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential. (ii) Bond dissociation energy of fluorine is less than that of chlorine. (Given : E o Ni 2 + /Ni = -0.74 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (b) How would you bring about the following conversions: (i) Propanone to Propene (ii) Benzoic acid to Benzaldehyde (iii) Bromobenzene to 1-phenylethanol 29.66V) .50 M). Differentiate between condensation and addition polymerisations. Describe the role of the following: 1 2 (i) NaCN in the extraction of silver from a silver ore. E o Al 3+ /Al = -1. (ii) Cryolite in the extraction of aluminium from pure alumina. (iii) No chemical compound of helium is known.0010 M) and Ni | Ni 3 (0. A voltaic cell is set up 25° C with the following half-cells: Al | Al 3+ 2+ (0. (ii) Nitrogen does not form pentahalides.

OR (a) Draw the structures of the following: (i) PCl5(s) (ii) SO23 (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Ammonia has a higher boiling point than phosphine. What are the following substances? Give one example of each of them. 3 (i) Cationic detergents (ii) Enzymes (iii) Sweetening agents 30. (ii) The p -complexes are known for transition elements only. OR Compare the following complexes with respect to structural shapes of units. (iii) Bi(V) is a stronger oxidising agent than Sb(V). (iii) CO is a stronger ligand than NH3 for many metals. Co = 27] 27.Examination Papers | 75 23. (a) Draw the structures of the following: (i) XeF4 (ii) H2S2O7 (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Phosphorus has a greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen. (iii) Hydrogen fluoride has a much higher boiling point than hydrogen chloride. 5 . (ii) Helium does not form any chemical compound.: Ni = 28. Nos. Explain the following: 3 (i) Low spin octahedral complexes of nickel are not known. (ii) The negative value of electron gain enthalpy is less for fluorine than that for chlorine. magnetic behaviour and hybrid orbitals involved in units: (i) [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2(ii) [NiCl 4 ] 2(iii) [CoFe 6 ] 3[At.

( aq) ¾ ¾® PbSO4 ( s) + 2e At cathode: PbO2 ( s) + SO24 .e. It is a thermal process of extracting a metal from its ore.] ´ 5 Overall reaction: 2MnO-4 ( aq) + 5Sn 2 + ( aq) + 16H+ ( aq) ¾ ¾® 2Mn 2+ ( aq) + 5Sn 4+ ( aq) + 8H2 O(l) Eo Sn 4 + /Sn 2 + = -E o Sn 2 + /Sn 4 + + 5e - ¾ ¾® Mn 2+ ( aq) + 4H2 O(l)] ´ 2 E° = + 1. 4. This is due to polymeric structure of red phosphorus or angular strain in P4 molecule of white phosphorus where the angle is only 60°.Eo Sn 4 + /Sn 2 + = 1. Lead storage battery is a secondary cell.15 V = -0. 1-Phenyl pentan-1-one Hex-l-en-3-ol. 8. H2C = CH – CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH3 | OH 6.E oanode = E o MnO-4 /Mn 2 + . 5. .15 V E ocell = E ocathode .51 – (– 0. The two monomers (adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine) contain 6 carbon atoms each.15) E oCell = 1 . 9.51 V E° = + 0. i.76 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII SOLUTIONS CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. O || CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—C— 7. favours the formation of products.¾ ¾® PbSO4 ( s) + 2H2 O(l) Overall reactions: Pb( s) + PbO2 ( s) + 2H2 SO4 ( aq) ¾ ¾® 2PbSO4 ( s) + 2H2 O(l) OR At cathode: MnO-4 ( aq) + 8H+ At anode: Sn 2 + ¾ ¾® Sn 4 + ( aq) + 2e . 66V As E ocell is +ve therefore the reaction will take place in forward direction. 3. NH3 < (CH3)3N < CH3—NH2 < (CH3)2 NH. Metallic substances conduct electricity through electrons while ionic substances conduct electricity in molten state or in solution through ions. 2. The process of settling of colloidal particles is called coagulation.. At anode: Pb( s) + SO24 .( aq) + 4H+ ( aq) + 2e .

A strip of same metal in pure form is used as cathode.] ´ 5 2MnO–4 + 5C 2 O24 . the impure metal is made to act as anode. (i) Cl 3° halide reacts faster than 2° halide because of the greater stability of tertiary carbocation. 11. (i) Elementary step: Each step of a complex reaction is called an elementary step. (i) MnO-4 3HgCl 2 Mercuric chloride + + 8H + 5e ¾ ¾® Hg 3 P2 ¯ +6HCl - Mercuric phosphide ¾ ¾® Mn 2 + + 4H2 O] ´ 2 C 2 O24 - ¾ ¾® 2CO2 + 2e . (i) Electrolytic refining: In this method. (ii) Rate of reaction: It is the change in the concentration of any of the reactants or products per unit time.Examination Papers | 77 10. crude metal is freed from impurities by first converting it into volatile compound and collected elsewhere.+ 6Fe 2 + + 14H+ ¾ ¾® 2Cr 3 + + 6Fe 3 + + 7H2 O 14.] ´ 6 Cr2 O72 .470K Ni(CO) 4 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO Pure 12. For example refining of nickel by Mond process. tert-Butyl chloride Cl (ii) sec-Hexyl chloride 2° halide reacts faster than 1° halide because of the greater stability of secondary carbocation than primary. CH3 15. The less electropositive impurities settle down below the anode as anode mud. 330 . They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of same metal. (i) 2XeF2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 2Xe + 4HF + O2 (ii) 2PH3 + 13. It is then decomposed to give pure metal.¾ ¾® M (ii) Vapour phase refining of metals: In this method. the metal from the anode goes into solution as ions due to oxidation while pure metal gets deposited at the cathode due to reduction of metal ions.+ 16H+ ¾ ¾® 2Mn 2 + + 10CO2 + 8H2 O (ii) Cr2 O72 .350K Ni + 4CO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Ni(CO) 4 impure Tetracarbonyl nickel (volatile) 450 . When electric current is passed. At anode: M ¾ ¾® M n + + ne At cathode: M n + + ne .+ 14H+ + 6e Fe 2 + ¾ ¾® 2Cr 3 + + 7H2 O ¾ ¾® Fe 3 + + e . (i) + HI CH3 I I–lodo–1–methyl cyclohexane .

Sterility and muscular atrophy sunflower oil.04M . fish and egg.03995 M 2. etc. The four bases present in DNA are adenine (A).303 t= log k [R] Here t = 3 h = 3 × 60 min = 180 min k = 0. guanine (G).78 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (ii) CH3—CH2—CH= CH2 + H—Br ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH2 — CH — CH3 | Br 2 . 19. carrots. terylene. (iii) Some common examples are polyethene.10 M. [R] = ? 2. milk Xerophthalmia.303 0.1 = 0. = 0.3986 [R] 0. cytosine(C) and thymine (T). Night blindness. urea-formaldehyde resins. Thermoplastics Thermosetting plastics (i) These polymer are linear or slightly branched (i) chain molecules These polymers are cross linked or heavily branched molecules (ii) Soften on heating and harden on cooling and (ii) can be remoulded. 18.Bromo butane 16. On heating undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and become infusible.0051min–1.10 180 min = log -1 [R] 0. etc.3986) = 2. Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables Haemorrhages and increased blood clotting time. Fat soluble vitamins Sources Deficiency diseases Vitamin A Fish liver oil.1 = Anti log (0. (iii) PVC.1 180 min ´ 0 × 0051 min -1 918 = = [R] 2 × 303 2303 log 0.503 [R] [R] = 01 . 17. Vitamin E Vegetable oils like wheat germ oil. etc. [R]o = 0. Rickets and osteomalacia.0051 min Log 0. Thymine(T) is not present in RNA. Vitamin D Exposure to sunlight. For a first order reaction [R] o 2. Some common examples are bakelite. polystyrene.503 [R] = 0.

34 = 0.422 = 0.22 V Eo Ag + /Ag = 0.Examination Papers | 79 20.34 V Cu 2 + /Cu E ocell = E ocathode .038 = – 0.46 – 0 .58 pm 21.422 – 0.46 = – 0.0295 log 10 -1 [ Ag + ] 2 10 -1 [ Ag + ] 2 0.0591 log n [Ag + ] 0.038 = log10 -1 .46 V E cell = E ocell - [Cu 2 + ] 0.1 M Given. At anode: Cu( s) ¾ ¾® Cu 2 + ( aq) + 2e – At cathode: 2Ag + ( aq) + e – ¾ ¾® 2Ag( s) Overall reaction: Cu( s) + 2Ag + ( aq) ¾ ¾® Cu 2 + ( aq) + 2Ag( s) [ Ag + ] = ? n = 2.80 V Eo = 0.1 log 2 [Ag + ] 2 0.856 [Ag+] = 7. For fcc unit cell a r= 2 2 Given a = 409 pm \ r= 409 2 2 = 409 2 4 r = 144.Eo Cu 2 + /Cu .178 × 10–2 M .E oanode = E o Ag + /Ag E ocell = 0. E cell = 4.2881 = – log 10 – 2 log [Ag+] 1.0295 log – 0.2881 log [Ag +] = – 1.log[ Ag + ] 2 0.2881 = – 1 – 2 log [Ag+] 2 log [Ag +] = 2. 0591 0 .0295 1. [Cu 2+ ] = 0.144 [Ag+] = Antilog 2.80 – 0.

g.. 25.and p--nitrophenols are more acidic than phenol.g. ethanol exist as associated molecules and hence it has higher boiling point than methoxy ethane which does not form hydrogen bonds. i. the electrons in the d-orbitals of central metal ion will be repelled by the lone pairs of the ligands. the resulting phenolate ion is more stable than phenoxide ion.80 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 22. (ii) Linkage isomerism: The isomers which have same molecular formula but differ in the linkage of ligand atom to the central metal atom are called linkage isomers. (iii) Due to –I effect or –R effect of –NO2 group. ethoxide ion is destabilised by +I effect of ethyl group. Because of these interactions the degeneracy of d orbitals of the metal ion is lost and these split into two sets of orbitals having different energies. NO2 can bind to metal either O through nitrogen. i.e. [Co(NH3 ) 5 NO2 ]Cl 2 and [Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2 Pentaamminenitrito–N–Cobalt (III) chloride.. pentaamminenitrito–O–Cobalt(III) chloride (iii) Ambidentate ligand: A ligand which can bind to the central metal atom through any of the two donor atoms present in it is called ambidentate ligand. (iii) Electrophoresis takes place in which colloidal particles move towards the oppositely charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated.. This is known as crystal field splitting. Therefore o. as nitrito-N ( N O ) or through oxygen atom. .e.. configuration is t32g e1g in the presence of weak field ligand. (ii) The path of light becomes visible due to scattering of light by colloidal particles (Tyndall effect). e. Cr Ni 3d 4s 3d 4s 3 sp Geometry of the complex Number of unpaired electrons Magnetic behaviour (i) Ethanol undergoes intermolecular hydrogen bonding due to the presence of a hydrogen attached to oxygen atom. (ii) Phenol is stronger acid than ethanol because the phenoxide ion left after the release of proton is stabilized by resonance but ethoxide ion is not. (i) Crystal field spliting: When the ligands approach the central metal ion. Moreover. as nitrito –O (¬ O—N=O) OR Complex/Ion Central metal ion/atom Configuration of metal ion Hybridisation of metal ion involved [Co(NH3)6]3+ Co3+ d64s0 d2sp3 octahedral 0 Diamagnetic 3+ 3+ 3 0 d2sp3 octahedral 3 Paramagnetic 3 2 Tetrahedral 0 Diamagnetic [Cr(NH3)6] [Ni(CO)4] 24. e. (i) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH)3 get coagulated by the negatively charged ions provided by electrolyte. 23. for d4.. As a result. e. (i) The catalytic activity of transition metals is attributed to the following reasons: (a) Because of their variable oxidation states transition metals form unstable intermediate compounds and provide a new path with lower activation energy for the reaction.g.

6d and 7s orbital in actinoids.g.g.2 to 0. (ii) Van’t Hoff factor (i): It may be defined as the ratio of normal molar mass to the observed molar mass. salts of sorbic acid and propanoic acid. sodium benzoate.Examination Papers | 81 26. e. polyethylene glycol stearate. (b) In some cases. O || 4 (i) R — C— NH2 ¾LiAlH ¾¾ ¾ ® R — CH2 — NH2 H2O + 1°amine – N2Cl (ii) + H3PO2 + H2O + N2 + H3PO3 + HCl Benzene diazonium chloride Benzene NH2 NH2 Br Br + 3HBr + 3Br2(aq) Aniline Br 2. These are named so because they do not contain any ion in their constitution.4 pm in aqueous solution. etc. potassium metabisulphite.. SO2. e. (iii) Disinfectants: These are the chemical substances which kill micro-organisms or stop their growth but are harmful to human tissues. (i) Non-ionic detergents: These are the esters of high molecular mass alcohols with fatty acids. the transition metal provides a suitable large surface area with free vacancies on which reactants are adsorbed..e. i. 28. (ii) This due to filling of 4f orbitals which have poor shielding effect or due to lanthanoid contraction. 6 – Tribromo aniline 27. e. phenol (1%). chlorine in concentration of 0.g. Van’t Hoff factor Normal molar mass i= Observed molar mass OR Observed colligative property i= Calculated colligative property (b) p = WB ´ R ´ T M B ´V .. (iii) This is due to comparable energies of 5f. 4. (a) (i) Mole fraction: It may be defined as the ratio of number of moles of one component to the total number of moles of all the components present in the solution. (ii) Food preservatives: These are the substances which prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. etc..

77 × 10–2 = 2.3 mm Hg = atm 760 p MB = MB = 100 ´ 10 -3 g ´ 0.99 × 10 -4 X N2 = X N2 X N2 + X H2O = X N2 = X H2O ´ X N2 = X N2 X H2O 1000 ´ 4.286 g mol–1 OR (i) Colligative properties: Those properties which depend on the number of solute particles irrespective of their nature relative to the total number of particles present in the solution are called colligative properties of solutions.0277 18 X N 2 = 2.99 ´ 10 -4 = 0.3 atm ´ 100 ´ 10 -3 L 760 100 ´ 10 -3 ´ 0.0821 L atm K–1 mol–1 T = 25°C = (25 + 273) K = 298K V = 100 mL = 10 × 10–3 L 13.3 ´ 10 ´ 10 -3 = 18594 g mol -1 133 M B = 1398.0821 L atm K -1 mol -1 ´ 298K 13.78 × 760 mm Hg = 592.8 mm Hg KH = 8.3 = 13. (ii) Molality (m): It is the number of moles of the solute per kilogram of the solvent and is expressed as Moles of solute Molality = Mass of solvent in kg (b) PN 2 = 0.82 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII MB= WB ´ R ´ T p´ V Here WB = 100 mg = 100 × 10–3 g R = 0.42 × 10–7 M/mmHg × 592.376 × 10–7 X N 2 = 4.77 × 10–2M .8 mmHg = 4991.0821 ´ 298 ´ 760 g mol -1 13.78 atm = 0.42 × 10–7 M/mmHg X N2 = ? X N 2 = KH × PN 2 = 8.

(iii) This is because I—Cl bond has lower bond dissociation enthalpy than Cl—Cl bond.Examination Papers | 83 O 29. OR S (a) ( i) O H O O O OH O S HO (ii) O Pyrosulphuric acid (Oleum) (H2S2O7) Cl O O Chloric acid (HClO4) (i) Due to resonance. . while the two axial bonds are longer than equational bonds. (ii) This is because S-S single bond is stronger O—O single bond. This is due to the fact that axial bond pairs suffer more repulsion as compared to equatorial bond pairs. the incoming electron does not experience much attraction. (iii) Due to small size of fluorine atom there are strong interelectric repulsions in the relatively small size 2p orbitals of fluorine and thus. (a) ( i) O S O O S O OH HO O Peroxodisulphuric acid (H2S2O8) H O (ii) Cl O O O Perchloric acid (HClO4) (b) (i) This is because the lone pair of electrons on N atom in NH3 is directed and not delocalised as it in PH3 due to larger size of P. (ii) PCl5 has trigonal bipyramidal structure in which the three equatorial P—Cl bonds are equivalent. N—O bond length is the average of single and double bond whereas N—OH bond is purely single bond.

Br a — Halocarboxylic acid (b) ( i) Propanal and Propanone: Tollen’s reagent test: Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Tollens reagent to silver mirror but propanone being a ketone does not.COONa + CHI 3 ¯ + 2NaOH Aceto phenone iodoform (Yellow ppt.dimethyl propanoate (ii) Hell-Volhald-Zelinsky reaction: a (i) X 2 /P(red) R — CH2 — COOH ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® R — C H — COOH (ii) H 2 O | X X = Cl.2 .Dimethyl propanol Sodium 2. 6C6H5—OH + FeCl3 ¾ ¾® [Fe(OC 6 H5 ) 6 ] 3 . (a) (i) Cannizzaro Reaction: CH3 CH3 CH3 | | | – + Conc.NaOH 2CH3 — C — CHO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — C — CH2 — OH+ CH3 — C — CO O N a | | | CH3 CH3 CH3 2.2 .84 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 30. C 6 H5 COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® C 6 H5 .Dimethyl propanal 2.+ 3H+ + 3HCl Violet colouration 3C 6 H5 COOH + FeCl 3 ¾ ¾® (C 6 H5 — COO) 3 Fe + 3HCl Ferric benzoate (Buff coloured ppt) OR OH | dil NaOH (i) CH3 — CH2 — OH ¾PCC ¾ ¾® CH3 — CHO ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — CH— CH2 — CHO Ethanal Ethanol 2 .) (iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid: FeCl3 test: Phenol gives a violet colouration with neutral FeCl3 solution while benzoic acid gives buff coloured ppt ferric benzoate. - CH3 — CH2 — CHO + 2[Ag(NH3 ) 2 ] + + 3 O H Tollens reagent - ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH2 — CO O+ 2Ag + 4NH3 + 2H2 O Propanoate ion Tollens reagent CH3 – COCH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® No silver mirror Propanone (ii) Benzophenone and Acetophenone: Iodoform test: Acetophenone being a methyl ketone on treatment with NaOI (I2/NaOH) gives yellow ppt of iodoform but benzophenone does not.Hydroxy butanal .2 .

Schottky defect.Examination Papers | 85 (ii) O OMgBr C—H O CH—CH3 H—C—CH3 H2O/H+ + CH3—MgBr K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 (O) Benzal dehyde O C—CH3 Aceto phenon (b) A = Butyl butanoate B = Butanoic acid C = Butanol D = But–1–ene Reactions involved: O || H 2 SO4 CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — C— O — CH2 — CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + H2 O ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Butylbutanoate(A) O || CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — C— OH + CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CH2 — OH Butanoic acid(B) Butanol(C) (O) (O) CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CH2 — OH ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CHO ¾ ¾® Butanol(C) H 2 CrO4 CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — COOH Butanolic acid (B) conc. Heat But–1– ene. Here.65 × 10–10 cm = 2. d = 7. .87 g cm–3 a = 286. 19. 8.65 pm = 286 . M = 56 g mol–1. z = 2. The monomers must be bifunctional.H SO 4 CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CH2 — OH ¾ ¾ ¾2¾¾ ® CH3 — CH2 — CH = CH2 + H2 O Butan –1– ol CBSE (All India) SET–II 1.8 Substituting the values in the expression.

24 kJ mol–1. (i) Ethanol. log k2 E a æ T2 .3324)J mol -1 E a = 174237. ´ 650 ´ 700 log (23.0459 J mol–1 = 182235.7 ´ 1.303R çè T1 T2 ÷ø Ea = 2. we get 2 ´ 56 g mol –1 ( 286.042 × 1023 mol–1 20.39 ´ 10 -7 log 700 K – 650 K 215 .303 ´ R ´ T1 ´ T2 k log 2 T2 – T1 k1 Ea = 2. ´ 10 -8 Ea = 19147 . + – + N2Cl – N2Cl O 27.9 – log 2. (i) + CH3—C—Cl COCH3 (ii) C 2 H5 NH2 + C 6 H5 SO2 Cl ¾ ¾® C 6 H5 SO2 NHC 2 H5 (iii) C 2 H5 — NH2 + HNO2 ¾ ¾® C 2 H5 — OH + H2 O + N2 28.65 ´ 10 -10 cm) 3 ´ 7.303 ´ 8. – + C 6 H5 — COOH+ NaHCO3 ¾ ¾® C 6 H5 — CO O N a + CO2 ­ + H2 O Benzoic acid Sodium benzoate C 6 H5 — COOC 2 H5 + NaHCO3 ¾ ¾® No evolution of CO2 gas Ethyl benzoate . – 0.314J mol -1 K -1 ´ 650 K ´ 700 K 2. when warmed with NaOI (I2/NaOH) gives yellow ppt of Iodoform while propanal does not Heat + CH3 — CHO+ 3I 2 + 4NaOH ¾ ¾ ¾® HCOO N a + CHI 3 ¯ + 3NaI + 3H2 O Ethanol lodoform (yellow ppt) (ii) Benzoic acid being an acid.7(13783 .T1 ö ç ÷ = k1 2.15)J mol–1 50 E a = 174237.87 g cm –3 = 6.2 J mol–1 E a =182. decomposes NaHCO3 to produce brisk effervescence due to evolution of CO2 while ethyl benzoate does not.86 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII NA = NA = z´ M a3 ´ d .

Examination Papers | 87 (b) Element Percentage Atomic mass No. As on oxidation the compound A gives a mixture of ethanoic acid and propanoic acid.60 16 69 × 77 = 5 × 81 12 11× 63 = 11× 63 1 18 × 60 = 1×16 16 Simplest molar ratio 5 × 81 =5 1×16 11× 63 = 10 1×16 1×16 =1 1×16 Empirical formula of the compound A = C5 H10 O Molecular formula of the compound A = n (Empirical formula) Molecular mass of compound A n= Empirical formula mass of compound A Molecular mass of compound A = 86 Empirical formula mass of compound A = 5 ´ 12 + 1´ 10 + 1´ 16 = 60 + 10 + 16 = 86 86 n= =1 86 Molecular formula of the compound A = 1(C5 H10 O) = C5 H10 O As the compound A forms addition compound with NaHSO3 therefore it must be either an aldehyde or ketone. As it does not reduce Tollens reagent and give positive Iodoform test therefore it must be a methyl ketone. of moles C 69.63 1 O (100 – 81.4) = 18. therefore compound A is O || CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 Pentan -2-one The chemical reactions are: O OH || | CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + NaHSO3 ¾ ¾® CH3 — C — CH2 — CH2 — CH3 Pentan -2-one | + SO-3 N a Sodium hydrogen sulphite addition product .77 12 H 11.

(iii) Due to very high ionization enthalpy of helium.S PCl5 (ii) Benzoyl chloride Benzoic acid Propene Benzaldehyde OH Br MgBr Mg dry ether (iii) (i) CH3—C—H (ii) H2O Bromobenzene 1-phenyl ethanol F O 29.2 . 4-Dinitrobenzoic acid.88 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII O || CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + 3I 2 + 4NaOH Pentan .2 . . (a) (i) (b) (ii) P H CH—CH3 O Br F OH H H3PO2 F BrF3: Bent “T” (i) Due to greater bond strength of P—P single than N—N single bond.one H 2 SO4 Ethanoic acid Propanoic acid OR (a) (i) Acid strength: 4-Methoxy benzoic acid <Benzoic acid < 4-Nitrobenzoic acid < 3. (ii) Due to large electron-electron repulsion among the lone pairs in F2 as fluorine has very small size. (ii) Acid strength: (CH3)2CHCOOH < CH3CH2CH2COOH < CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH < CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH O OH || | LiAlH 4 Conc.2 .H SO4 CH3 — C— CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH — CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ 2¾¾ ® CH3 — CH = CH2 (b) (i) Propanone Heat Propan .one .+ Iodoform ¾ ¾ ¾¾® reaction CHI 3 ¯ + CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CO O Na + 3NaI + 3H2 O (Iodoform yellow ppt) O || K 2 Cr2 O7 CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — COOH + CH3 — CH2 — COOH Pentan .ol COOH COCl CHO H2 Pd/BaSO4.

Monomers combine together with the loss of molecules like H2O. (i) Order of a reaction: It may be defined as the sum of exponents of the concentration terms in the rate law expression. etc. (iii) Formed by adding monomers to a growing (iii) chain without loss of any molecules. (i) Dilute NaCN forms a soluble complex with Ag or Ag2S while the impurities remain unaffected which are filtered off. Bakelite. (iii) Due to low bond dissociation enthalpy of H-I as compared to H—Cl. l It increase the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (ii) Involves chain reaction (ii) Does not involve chain reaction. etc. 14. (ii) Due to non-availability of d orbitals in valence shell nitrogen does not form pentahalide. Addition Polymerisation Condensation Polymerisation (i) Monomers are unsaturated molecules (i) Monomers have di or polyfunctional groups. CBSE (All India) SET–III 1 1 1. 4Ag + 8NaCN + O2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 4Na[Ag(CN2)] + 4NaOH Or Ag2S + 4NaCN ¾ ¾® 2Na[Ag(CN) 2 ] + Na 2 S Sodium dicyanoargentate(I) (Soluble complex) (ii) The role of cryolite is two fold. Nylon-66. . Teflon etc. (ii) Activation energy of a reaction: It may be defined as the extra amount of energy over and above the average energy of reactants which must be supplied to them to undergo a chemical reaction.Examination Papers | 89 OR O N (a) (i) O O O N O N N O O O O O (ii) XeOF4: F F O Xe (N2O5) F F Square pyramidal (b) (i) Due to small size of oxygen atom there will be greater interelectronic repulsions in oxygen. l It lowers the melting point of the mixture to about 1140K. NH3. Polystyrene. Examples: Terylene. Examples: Polyethene. 17. (8 corner atoms) ´ + (6 face centre atoms) ´ = 1 + 3 = 4 8 2 13.

0502 = 1.3010 ) 6 6 0.3012 = 1. Thus dp . CH2 = CH2.0591 0..0591 = 1.66V ) E ocell = 1.Pp bonding is possible.41 ( -5.(-1.4602V E cell = 1.5) 3 2 = 1.46 V 23.25V . C6H6. Al( s) ¾ ¾® Al 3 + ( aq) + 3e ] ´ 2 At anode: At cathode: Ni 2 + ( aq) + 2e ¾ ¾® Ni ( s)] ´ 3 2Al ( s) + 3Ni 2 + ( aq) ¾ ¾® 2Al 3 + ( aq) + Ni( s) E cell = E ocell - [ Al 3 + ] 2 0.097) = 1. e.0591 0.0591 log 10 –6 ´ 8 =1.41 log 6 (0.g.0591 0. (i) Ni in its atomic ionic state can not afford two vacant 3d orbitals hence d 2 sp 3 hybridisation is not possible.41V E ocell ( ) 10 -3 0.41 - 0.41 – (– 6 + 3 ´ 0.0591 10 -6 log 6 0.125 0.41 + 6 6 ( = 1. (ii) Transition metals have vacant d orbitals in their atoms or ions into which the electron pairs can be donated by ligands containing p electrons.41 + 0.41 log (– 6 log 10 + 3 log2) = 1.0.41 – log10 –6 + log 2 3 6 6 0. etc.90 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 21. [Al3+] = 0.001M = 1× 10–3M.5M E ocell = E o Ni 2 + / Ni -Eo Al 3+ / Al = . [Ni2+] = 0. (iii) Because in case of CO back bonding takes place in which the central metal uses its filled d orbital with empty anti bonding p* molecular orbital of CO. OR Complex ion Central metal ion Configuration of metal ion Hybridisation of metal ion involved Geometry of Number of complex ion unpaired electrons Magnetic behaviour [Ni(CN)4]2 Ni2+ d8 dsp2 Square planar 0 Diamagnetic [Ni(Cl)4]2– Ni2+ d8 sp3 Tetrahedral 2 Paramagnetic [CoF6]3– Co3+ d6 sp3d2 Octahedral 4 Paramagnetic .41 - ) ( ) = 1.0591 log n [ Ni 2 + ] 3 Here n = 6.0591 = 1.

. sucrolose. e. e. F F 30. and form colloidal solution in water. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (i) Cationic detergents: These are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates. (a) (i) O (ii) Xe F S O F O S OH O OH Pyrosulphuric acid (H2S2O7) Square planar (XeF4) (b) O (i) This is because P–P single bond is stronger than the N–N single bond.000 to 1. A number of reactions that occur in the body of animals and plants to maintain the life process are catalysed by enzymes therefore enzymes are termed as biochemical catalysts. OR + Cl Cl (a) (i) P Cl S (ii) P Cl Cl – Cl O Cl Cl Cl Cl – – O O (SO32– ) PCl5(s) (b) (i) Due to small size and high electronegativity of nitrogen. aspartame. molecules of ammonia are highly associated through hydrogen bonding. (iii) There is H-bonding in HF molecules due to high electronegativity and small size of fluorine atom but there is no H-bonding in HCl. (ii) Enzymes: Enzymes are globular proteins with high molecular mass ranging from 15. . (b) Sweetening agents: These are non-nutritive substances which are used as substitute of sugar in food and beverages. ortho-sulphobenzimide (saccharin).000 g mol–1. (ii) Due to extremely small size of F atom.Examination Papers | 91 27.. chlorides or bromides as anions. (iii) As Bi(V) is more stable than Sb(V) due to inert pair effect. interelectronic repulsions are more in fluorine.000.g. etc. (ii) This is due to small size and high ionization enthalpy of helium.g.

(ii) Question nos. What is the effect of rise in temperature on molality and molarity of the solution? 2 10. sulphur or oxygen? 1 4.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS FOREIGN–2009 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. (v) Question nos. use of calculators is not allowed. Write the name of an antacid which is often used as a medicine. Corrosion is essentially an electrochemical phenomenon. Write the structural formula of 3-oxopentanal. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. (iii) Question nos. CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1. 1 7. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. (iv) Question nos. 1 6. R 3 N 1 8. 2 . RNH2 . What is the number of atoms in a body-centred cubic unit cell of a crystal? 1 2. Describe the role of the following: 2 (i) NaCN in the extraction of silver (ii) CO in the purification of nickel 11. Name two metals which occur in nature as oxides. 2 OR Define the term molar conductivity and indicate how molar conductivity of a substance changes with change in concentration of a weak electrolyte and a strong electrolyte in its solution. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. 1 9. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of their basic strength in aqueous solutions: NH3 . R 2 NH. Differentiate between molality and molarity of a solution. Which one has higher electron gain enthalpy with negative sign. What is an emulsion? 1 3. With the help of a diagram explain the reactions occurring during the corrosion of iron kept in open atmosphere. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound: H3C CH3 1 H H CH3 Br 5.

Silver crystallises in face-centred cubic unit cells. Name two water soluble vitamins. is added to hydrated ferric oxide sol. Calculate the freezing point depression for 0. What are the following substances? (i) Invert sugar 2 (ii) Polypeptides 18. (ii) a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution. 2 17.320 °C. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) BrF3 2 (ii) H2 S 2 O7 13. what is the value of Van’t Hoff factor for it at the freezing point? (Kf for water is 1. state their sources and the diseases caused due to their deficiency in diet. (iii) an electrolyte such as NaCl.44V 3 21.E o Fe2 + /Fe = -0.86°C mol–1) 3 22. If this solution actually freezes at – 0. 3 . 19. 14.0711 m aqueous solution of sodium sulphate.Examination Papers | 93 12. Describe what is observed when (i) an electric current is passed through a colloidal solution. Each side of the unit cell has a length of 409 pm. (ii) Synthetic detergents are preferred to soaps in washing machines. State reasons for the following occurrences: 2 (i) Soaps do not do the cleansing in hard water. 16.40V. OR What is the repeating unit in the condensation polymer obtained by combining HO2 CCH2 CH2 CO2 H (succinic acid) and H2 NCH2 CH2 NH2 (ethylenediamine). (ii) There is a greater horizontal similarity in the properties of the transition elements than of the main group elements. State reasons for the following observations: 2 (i) The enthalpies of atomisation of transition elements are quite high. What is the radius of silver atom? (Assume that each face atom is touching the four corner atoms in the unit cell. Give a chemical equation for each of the following reactions: 2 (i) Williamson’s synthesis (ii) Reimer-Tiemann reaction 15.) 3 20. Explain the mechanism of each of the following processes: 2 (i) Acid catalysed dehydration of an alcohol (ii) Hydration of ethene to yield ethanol. if it is completely ionised in solution. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction equilibrium Fe(s) + Cd2+(aq) l Given: Eo Cd 2 + /Cd Fe2+(aq) + Cd(s) = -0.

.. (iii) Among the 3d series of transition elements. reagent or product: (i) 2 C6H5COCl ¾ ¾H¾ ¾® .... 3 25.. Pd– BaSO4 .. Three geometrical isomers are possible for [Co(en)(H2O)2(NH3)2]3+...... How are the following conversions carried out: 3 (i) Aniline to nitrobenzene (ii) Ethanamine to N-ethylethanamide (iii) Chloroethane to propan-1-amine OR Give one chemical test each to distinguish between the compounds in the following pairs: (i) Methylamine and dimethylamine (ii) Aniline and benzylamine (iii) Ethylamine and aniline 27. 24.. Explain the following observations: 3 4 2+ (i) With the same d-orbital configuration (d ) Cr oxidising agent. 3+ ion is a reducing agent while Mn ion is an (ii) Cu+ ion is not stable in aqueous solutions.. the largest number of oxidation states are exhibited by manganese.. Give one example of each of these formations.. Draw molecular structure of these three isomers and indicate which one of them is chiral. Complete the equations for the following reactions: 3 H (i) + HBr H H CH3 + HI (ii) —OH + SOCl2 (iii) 26... (a) How are the following obtained: (i) Benzoic acid from ethylbenzene (ii) Benzaldehyde from toluene (b) Complete each of the following reactions by giving the missing reactant.. Differentiate between the modes of formation of an addition polymer and a condensation polymer.. 3 28..94 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 23.

Ar/R Anhydrous AlCl3 O C (iii) + .... The molecular mass of the compound is 86. (iii) In solutions of H2SO4 in water..... . It does not react with Tollen’s reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogen sulphite and gives a positive iodoform test. 29. On vigorous oxidation it gives a mixture of ethanoic and propanoic acids.. (iii) Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state. (ii) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetism. (a) Complete the following reaction equations: (i) XeF2 + PF5 ¾ ¾® (ii) Cl 2 ( g) + NaOH( aq) ¾ ¾® ( hot and conc... 5 OR (a) How will you bring about the following conversions: (i) Ethanol to 3-hydroxybutanal (ii) Benzaldehyde to benzophenone (b) An organic compound A contains 69. 11..77% carbon........63% hydrogen and the rest oxygen.Examination Papers | 95 O C (ii) + . . (ii) Phosphorus has a greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen... ) (b) Explain the following observations: (i) +3 oxidation state becomes more and more stable from As to Bi in the group... Derive the structure of compound A.. 5 OR (a) Complete the following reaction equations: (i) PCl5 + H2O (excess) ¾ ¾® (ii) F2 + H2O ¾ ¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) No distinct chemical compound of helium is known... the second dissociation constant K a 2 . is less than the first dissociation constant K a1 ..

Decomposition of phosphine (PH3) at 120°C proceeds according to the equation: 4PH3(g) ¾ ¾® P4(g) + 6H2(g) It is found that this reaction follows the following rate equation: . What is ‘reverse osmosis’? 1 6. Cr = 24. Ni = 28) 30. The density of iron is 7. Iron has a body-centred cubic unit cell with a cell edge of 286. (R = 8.87 g cm–3. (ii) Elementary step in a reaction (b) For a decomposition reaction. (At. Describe the following types of substances giving one example of each: 2 (i) Cationic detergents (ii) Food preservatives 19. what will be the concentration of the reactant left after 3 hours? 5 OR (a) Define the following: (i) Rate of reaction. No. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number. the values of rate constant k at two different temperature are given below: k1 = 2. 3 24.10 M concentration of the reactant. (ii) reduced to half? (b) A first order reaction has a rate constant of 0. Write three special features of chemisorption which are not found in physisorption. Fe = 26. Complete the following chemical equations: (i) C 2 O72 .314 J K–1 mol–1) CBSE (Foreign) SET–II [Questions different from Set–I] 2. mass of Fe = 56 g mol–1) 3 22. (a) A reaction is of second order with respect to a reactant.( aq) + H+ ( aq) 2 ¾ ¾® (ii) MnO-4 ( aq) + Fe 2 + ( aq) + H+ ( aq) ¾ ¾® 17. Why is it that sulphide ores are concentrated by the ‘froth floatation process’? 1 8. What is meant by the ‘broad spectrum antibiotics’? 1 13.96 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 30.15 × 10–8 L mol–1 s–1 at 650 K k2 = 2.( aq) + C 2 O24 .65 pm. If we begin with 0. How is the rate of reaction affected if the concentration of this reactant is (i) doubled. Compare the following complexes with respect to their molecular shape and magnetic behaviour: 3 (i) [Cr(NH3)6] 3+ (ii) [Fe(CN)6] 4– (iii) [NiCl4] 2– (At.39 × 10–7 L mol–1 s–1 at 700 K Calculate the value of activation energy (Ea) for this reaction.0051 min–1.

3 . Draw the structures of the monomers of the following materials: (i) PVC 30. State what the following are and how they differ from each other: (i) a nucleotide. State the principles on which the following operations are based: (i) Zone refining (ii) Vapour phase refining.Examination Papers | 97 Rate = k[PH3] The half-life of PH3 is 37. Write the structure of pent-2-enal. (ii) Teflon (iii) Neoprene (a) Complete the following reaction equations: (i) SO2 + MnO -4 + H2O ¾ ¾® (ii) HgCl2 + PH3 ¾ ¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. 1 9. k = 1. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) XeF4 (ii) H2S2O7 2 16. H2O2 (aq) decomposes to H2O(l) and O2(g) in a reaction that is of first order in H2O2 and has a rate constant. 2 24.06 × 10–3 min–1. Which point defect in its crystal unit cells decreases the density of a solid? 1 2. (i) How much time will be required for 3/4 of PH3 to decompose? (ii) What fraction of the original amount of PH3 will remain undecomposed after 1 minute? 5 OR Hydrogen peroxide. and (ii) a nucleoside. 2 18. (i) How long will it take 15% of a sample of H2O2 to decompose? (ii) How long will it take 85% of a sample of H2O2 to decompose? CBSE (Foreign) SET–III [Questions different from Set–I and Set–II] 1. Explain the following giving an example in each case: (i) Linkage isomerism (ii) An outer orbital complex (iii) A bidentate ligand 3 27. 2 12. Name two fat soluble vitamins. State their sources and the diseases caused due to their deficiency in diet.9 s at 120°C. (ii) Fluorine is a stronger oxidising agent than chlorine.

inspite of a higher molecular mass. (ii) iron dissolves in HCl to form FeCl2 and not FeCl3. 5 OR (a) Complete the following reaction equations: (i) P4 + NaOH + H2O ¾ ¾® (ii) Cu + HNO3 (dilute) ¾ ¾® (b) Explain why (i) H2O is a liquid while. (iii) helium is used in diving equipment .98 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (iii) The +5 oxidation state becomes less stable down the group in group 15 of the periodic table. H2S is a gas.

g. Aluminium occurs as Al2O3. 8 (Corner atoms) × 3. Sulphur.¾ ¾ ¾® 2H . 10. 330– 350K Ni + 4CO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Impure Ni(CO) 4 Nickel tetracarbonyl 450 . 3–oxopentanal: CH3 — CH2 — C— CH2 — C— H 6. cod liver oil. etc. (i) Dilute NaCN forms a soluble complex with Ag or Ag2S while the impurities remain unaffected which are filtered off. NH3 < R–NH2 < R3N < R2NH 8. At anode : Oxidation of Fe atoms takes place Fe ¾ ¾ ¾® Fe 2 + + 2e - E ° Fe2 + / Fe = . 4Ag + 8NaCN + O2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 4Na[Ag(CN2)] + 4NaOH Or Ag2S + 4NaCN ¾ ¾® 2Na[Ag(CN) 2 ] + Na 2 S Sodium dicyanoargentate(I) (Soluble complex) (ii) Carbon monoxide forms a volatile complex.Examination Papers | 99 SOLUTIONS CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1 + 1 (body centre atom) × 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 8 2. 9.470K Ni(CO) 4 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO Pure 11. milk. 1.0 × 44V At cathode : Reduction of oxygen in the presence of H+ ions. nickel tetracarbonyl with nickel which on decomposition gives pure nickel. O O || || 5. Ranitidine (zantac).2H2O Iron occurs as Fe2O3 7. Emulsion is a colloidal solution in which both the dispersed phase and dispersion medium are liquids e. CH3Br 4. The H+ ions are produced by either H2 O or H2 CO3 (formed by dissolution of CO2 in moisture) 2H+ ( aq) + 2e . Molality is independent of temperature whereas molarity changes with change in temperature as volume changes with temperature. CH3—CH = C—CH—CH3 : 4–Bromo–3–methylpent–2–ene. Molality is the number of moles of solute per thousand grams of solvent whereas molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution.

OR Molar Conductivity (Lm): It may be defined as the conductance of a solution containing 1 mole of electrolyte such that the entire solution is placed is between two electrodes one centimeter apart. = 3 12.67V 2 2H + The ferrous ions are further oxidised by atmospheric oxygen to ferric ions which come out as rust in the form of hydrated ferric oxide (Fe 2 O3 . F b. Therefore L m increases a little as shown in graph by a straight line. 400 CH3COOH 200 KCl 0 0. –1 2 Lm / (S cm mol ) Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration or increase in dilution as number of ions as well as mobility of ions increased with dilution.4 l/2 c / (mol / L) For weak electrolyte the number of ions as well as mobility of ions increases on dilution as shown by curve in the figure. = 2 Br The shape would be slightly bent T.2 1/2 0. of electron pairs around central atom (Br) = 5 l.23V 2 2 2 The overall reaction 1 Fe( s) + 2H+ ( aq) + O2 ( g) ¾ ¾® Fe 2 + ( aq) + H2 O(l) E°cell = 1.p.p. Lm = k × v or k ´ 1000 Lm = M For strong electrolytes the number of ions do not increase appreciably on dilution and only mobility or ions increases due to decrease in inter-ionic attractions. O S (ii) O OH F O O S O OH Pyrosulphuric acid (H2S2O7) F .100 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 1 O ( g) ¾ ¾¾® H2 O 2 2 Net reaction at cathodic area 1 2H+ ( aq) + O2 + 2e .¾¾® H2 O E° H + /O /H O = 1. (i) No. xH2 O).

transition elements have strong metallic bonds due to presence of large number of unpaired electrons. the rate determining step. the incoming electron goes to outermost shell.Examination Papers | 101 13. . 14. (i) Williamson’s Synthesis: CH3 CH3 CH3—C—ONa+CH3—Br CH3—C—O—CH3+NaBr CH3 CH3 Methyl tert-butyl (ether) Sodium tert-butoxide H H H H— C — C — O — H + H H H + Fast + H H— C — C — O — H H H Ethyl alcohol H Ethyl oxonium ion (ii) Reimer-Tiemann reaction: – + – + ONa OH CHCl3+NaOH(aq) ONa CHCl2 OH CHO Phenol 15. (ii) This is because in transition elements incoming electron goes into d-orbitals of inner shell whereas in main group elements. (i) This is because. CHO H+ NaOH Salicyl aldehyde H+ (i) CH3 — CH2 — OH ¾ ¾® CH2 D CH2 + H2 O Mechanism Step I: Formation of carbocation: It is the slowest step and hence. H H H H H + H— C — C — O — H H Slow H Ethyl oxonium ion + + H— C — C H H2O H Ethyl carbocation Step II: Formation of protonated alcohols Step III: Formation of ethylene by elimination of a proton H H H H + —C C— H— C — C H H H H Ethyl carbocation + + H Ethylene To drive the equilibrium to the right. ethylene is removed as it is formed.

it produces a mixture of D–C(+)–glucose and D–(–)–fructose which is laevorotatory called invert sugar. + H2O + H H3O + H —C C— + H + + Step II: Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation.102 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII —C C— (ii) + H2O + l H C—C Alkene H OH Mechanism Step I: Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic attack of H3O+. 18. egg and curd Pernicious anaemia (ii) Vitamin C Citrus fruits and amla Scurvy (i) Invert Sugar: Sucrose is dextrorotatory. on hydrolysis in the presence of HCl or enzyme invertase. Name of Vitamins Sources Deficiency diseases (i) Vitamin B12 Meat. as sulphuric acid and their calcium and magnesium salts are soluble in water but the fatty acids and their calcium and magnesium salts are insoluble. H H + —C—C + H2O + —C—C H—O—H l H2O H + —C—C—O—H Step III: Deprotonation to form an alchohol H H + — C— C — O — H H + H2O OH —C—C— + H3O + 16. . 17. B group vitamin and vitamin C are soluble in water. fish. (i) This is because the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present in hard water get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soap which being insoluble stick to the clothes as gummy mass. (ii) Polypeptide: If more than ten a-amino acids are joined together by peptide bond (–CONH–) the polyamide thus formed is called polypeptide. (ii) This is because detergents can be used in hard water as well as in acidic solutions.

For fcc unit cell a r= 2 2 Given a = 409 pm \ r= 409 2 2 = 409 2 4 r = 144.0 × 320 + 273 ×15)]K = 0 × 320 K DTf = K f .059 Here.86 K kg mol -1 × 0. n = 2 E° cell = E°cathode — E°anode = E°Cd 2+ /Cd – E°Fe 2+ /Fe = – 0. DTf = [ 273 ×15 .58 pm 20. m = 1.( .57 21.40 – (– 0.0711 mol kg -1 = 0.132 K Observed value of DTf 0 × 320K i = = Calculated value of DTf 0 ×132K i = 2 × 42 + 2nH2 O .04V 2 ´ 0 × 04 0 × 08 log kc = = 0 × 059 0 × 059 log kc = 1.3536 kc = 22. Fe( s) + Cd 2 + ( aq) l Fe 2 + ( aq) + Cd( s) E ° cell log k c = n 0.Examination Papers | 103 OR O O || || n HO — C — CH2 — CH2 — C— OH + n H2 N — CH2 — CH2 — NH2 ¯ O éO ù || ê| | ú —êC— CH2 — CH2 — C — HN — CH2 — CH2 — NHú— ê ú êë úû n 19.44) E°cell = 0.3536 kc = Antilog 1.

(i) Cr 2+ is reducing as its configuration changes from d 4 to d 3 . (ii) The path of light becomes visible due to scattering of light by colloidal particles (Tyndall effect). 24. (ii) Because the high hydration enthalpy of Cu 2+ easily compensates the second ionization enthalpy of Cu. en CO H 2O CO H 3N OH2 H 2O NH3 OH2 Chiral (i) Chiral (ii) Chiral (iii) Br H H +H—Br (i) H H H H H 1–Bromo–1–phenyl–ethane CH3 (ii) CH3 I + HI 1–Iodo–1–methyl cyclohexane —OH + SOCl2 (iii) —Cl + SO2 + HCl Chlorocylohexane + — NH2 26. D Nitrobenzene . (iii) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH)3 get coagulated by the negatively charged ions provided by electrolyte. with five unpaired electrons in 3d orbitals. the latter having a half filled t2g configuration. (iii) This is because manganese has electronic configuration [Ar]3d54s2.104 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 22. 3+ 3+ 3+ NH3 NH3 en H 2N H 3N H 2O en CO H 2O 25. the change from Mn 3+ to Mn 2+ results in the half-filled d 5 configuration which has extra stability therefore Mn 3+ is oxidising. NaNO2/HCl 273–278K (i) Aniline + N2Cl – N2BF4 HBF4 NO2 NaNO2 Cu. 23. (i) Electrophoresis takes place in which colloidal particles move towards the oppositely charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated. On the other hand.

etc. Bakelite. Polystyrene.KCN ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — CH2 — CN ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — NH2 or Chloroethane Propan –1– amine Na /C2 H5 – OH OR (i) Methylamine on treatment with alcoholic KOH and CHCl3 gives offensive smell of methyl isocyanide but dimethyl amine does not. 4. CH3 — NH2 + CHCl 3 + 3KOH ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH2 — NC + 3KCl + 3H2 O (alc) Methyl amine (1°amine) Ethyl isocyanide (Offensive smell) CHCl /KOH (CH3 ) 2 NH ¾ ¾ ¾3 ¾¾® No reaction. NH3.Examination Papers | 105 O O || || (ii) CH3 — CH2 — NH2 + CH3 — C— Cl ¾ ¾® CH3 — C— NH — CH2 — CH3 + HCl Ethanamine Ethanoyl chloride N – Ethyl ethanamine LiAlH 4 (iii) CH3 — CH2 — Cl ¾alc. Teflon etc. Examples: Terylene. Addition Polymerisation Condensation Polymerisation (i) Monomers are unsaturated molecules (i) Monomers have di or polyfunctional groups. . (ii) Involves chain reaction (ii) Does not involve chain reaction. Nylon-66. (iii) Formed by adding monomers to a growing (iii) Monomers combine together with the loss of chain without loss of any molecules. etc. 6–Tribromo aniline (white ppt) 27. OH NH2 NaNO2/HCl 0–5°C + – b-Naphthol N = NCl dil NaOH N = N— Aniline Orange dye (iii) Add Br2(aq). Dimethyl amine (2 °amine) D (ii) Aniline on treatment with NaNO2/HCl (HNO2) at 0–5°C followed by treatment with an alkaline solution of b -naphthol gives an orange coloured azodye while benzylamine does not give this test. NH2 NH2 Br Br +3HBr +3Br2(aq) Aniline Br 2. molecules like H2O. Examples: Polyethene. aniline forms white ppt while ethyl amine does not form such ppt.

AlCl3 Acetyl chloride O – – O + (iii) Benzene — C — Cl Benzoyl chloride — C — CH3 Acetophenone Benzene – – (b) CHO – – 28.106 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (a) (i) –+ CH2—CH3 COOK COOH KMnO4 – KOH H3 O + D Benzoic acid O – – (ii) HC C — CH3 – OO — — C — CH O CrO3 H3 O O + – – D – CH3 – C CHO 3 – – CH3 – O CH3 – C – – – Benzylideue diacetate Benzaldehyde O OR CH3 CHO CH(OCrOHCl2)2 CS2 + CrO2Cl2 H3 O + Chromium complex Benzaldehyde O – – C — Cl H2 (i) + Pd – BaSO4 Benzoyl chloride HCl Benzaldehyde – – O O + Ar/R — C — Cl (ii) anhyd. C anhyd. AlCl3 + Benzophenone HCl .

63 1 11 × 63 = 11 × 63 1 11 × 63 = 10 1 ×16 O (100 – 81.Hydroxy butanol OMgBr C—H OH CH—C6H5 H—C—C6H5 H2O/H+ + C6H5—MgBr Benzaldehyde (O) K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 O C—C6H5 Benzophenone (b) Element Percentage Atomic mass No.Examination Papers | 107 OR (a) OH | PCC dil NaOH (i) CH3 — CH2 — OH ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CHO ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — CH— CH2 — CH3 Ethanol Ethanol O (ii) 2 .4) = 18.60 16 18 × 60 = 1 ×16 16 1 ×16 =1 1 ×16 Empirical formula of the compound A = C5 H10 O Molecular formula of the compound A = n (Empirical formula) Molecular mass of compound A n= Empirical formula mass of compound A Molecular mass of compound A = 86 Empirical formula mass of compound A = 5 ´ 12 + 1´ 10 + 1´ 16 = 60 + 10 + 16 = 86 .77 12 69 × 77 = 5 × 81 12 5 × 81 =5 1 ×16 H 11. of moles Simplest molar ratio C 69.

As on oxidation the compound A gives a mixture of ethanoic acid and propanoic acid. (ii) In vapour state sulphur partly exists as S2 molecule having two unpaired electrons in the anti bonding p* orbitals like O2 and.one .108 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII n = 86 =1 86 Molecular formula of the compound A = 1(C5 H10 O) = C5 H10 O As the compound A forms addition compound with NaHSO3 therefore it must be either an aldehyde or ketone. (iii) This is because fluorine is the most electronegative element and does not have d orbitals in its valence shell.2 . As it does not reduce Tollens reagent and give positive iodoform test therefore it must be a methyl ketone. hence exhibits paramagnetism. therefore compound A is O || CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 Pentan -2-one The chemical reactions are: O OH || | CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + NaHSO3 ¾ ¾® CH3 — C — CH2 — CH2 — CH3 Pentan -2-one | + SO-3 N a Sodium hydrogen sulphite addition product O || CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 + 3I 2 + 4NaOH Pentan .one 29. .+ Iodoform ¾ ¾ ¾¾® reaction CHI 3 ¯ + CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CO O Na + 3NaI + 3H2 O (Iodoform yellow ppt) O || K Cr2 O7 CH3 — C— CH2 — CH2 — CH3 ¾ ¾2 ¾¾ ® CH3 — COOH + CH3 — CH2 — COOH Pentan .2 .) (b) (i) This is due to inert pair effect. (a) H 2 SO4 Ethanoic acid Propanoic acid (i) XeF2 + PF5 ¾ ¾® [XeF] + [PF6 ] (ii) 3 Cl 2 ( g) + 6NaOH( aq) ¾ ¾® 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2 O (Hot and conc.

(iii) Ka2 << Ka1.e.303R çè T1 T2 ÷ø .503 [R] = 0..Examination Papers | 109 OR (a) (i) PCl5 + 4H2O (excess) ¾ ¾® H3PO4 + 5HCl (ii) 2F2(g) + 2H2O(l) ¾ ¾® 4H+(aq) + 4F–(aq) + O2(g) (b) (i) This is due to small size. (ii) Rate of reaction: It is the change in the concentration of any of the reactants or products per unit time.503 [R] [R]= 01 . rate becomes êë 2 úû 4 4 4 times (b) For a first order reaction [R] o 2.10 M.04M OR (a) (i) Elementary step: Each step of a complex reaction is called an elementary step. (ii) This is because P–P single bond is stronger than N–N single bond. high ionisation enthalpy and stable electronic configuration of helium.303 t= log k [R] Here. = 0. (a) Let the rate law be.10 180 min = log -1 [R] 0. i. i.303 0. r 3 = k é ù = k [ A ] 2 = r1 .. [R]o = 0. because HSO -4 ion has much less tendency to donate a proton to H2O as compared to H2SO4.1 = 0.e.T1 ö = ç ÷ k1 2.1 180 min ´ 0 × 0051 min -1 918 = = [R] 2 × 303 2303 log 0.03995 M 2.3986) = 2.0051min–1.3986 [R] 0. 2 A 1 1 1 (ii) If [A] is reduced to half then rate. rate becomes 4 times. r1 = k [A]2 (i) If [A] is doubled than rate r2 = k(2A)2 = 4k [A]2 = 4r1.0051min Log 0. [R] = ? 2. (b) log k2 E a æ T2 . 30. t = 3 h = 3 × 60 min = 180 min k = 0.1 = Anti log (0.

13. Reverse osmosis: If the pressure applied on the solution is greater than the osmotic pressure then the solvent molecules start to move from solution into solvent through semipermeable membrane. ´ 650 ´ 700 log (23.( aq) + 14H+ ( aq) + 6e – C 2 O24 . Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is a popular cationic detergent and is used in hair conditioners. Cationic part possess a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on nitrogen atom.3324)J mol -1 E a = 174237.24 kJ mol–1.( aq) ¾ ¾® 2Cr 3 + ( aq) + 7H2 O ¾ ¾® 2CO2 + 2e – ] ´ 3 Cr2 O72 .2 J mol–1 E a =182.303 ´ 8.7(13783 . é CH3 ê ½ êCH (CH ) ¾ N ¾ CH 2 15 3 ê 3 ½ ê CH3 êë ù ú ú ú ú úû + Br - Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide Cationic detergents have germicidal properties and are expensive. ofloxacin. .( aq) + 3(C 2 O24 . 8. Hence. (i) Cr2 O72 .0459 J mol–1 = 182235. (i) Cationic Detergents: Cationic detergents are quaternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates.110 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII Ea = 2. CBSE (Foreign) SET–II 2. these are called cationic detergents. This process is called reverse osmosis.g. therefore. e. etc. vancomycin..314J mol -1 K -1 ´ 650 K ´ 700 K 2. As only sulphide ore particles are wet by oil while gangue particles are wet by water.15)J mol–1 50 E a = 174237. chloramphenicol.303 ´ R ´ T1 ´ T2 k log 2 T2 – T1 k1 Ea = 2.9 – log 2. ´ 10 -8 Ea = 19147 . chlorides or bromides as anions.39 ´ 10 -7 log 700 K – 650 K 215 .7 ´ 1. these are of limited use. 6.( aq) + 14H+ ( aq) ¾ ¾® 2Cr 3 + ( aq) + 6CO2 + 7H2 O (ii) MnO-4 ( aq) + 8H+ ( aq) + 5e – Fe 2+ ( aq) ¾ ¾® Mn 2 + ( aq) + 4H2 O ¾ ¾® Fe 3 + ( aq) + e – ] ´ 5 MnO-4 ( aq) + 5Fe 2 + ( aq) + 8H+ ( aq) ¾ ¾® Mn 2 + ( aq) + 5Fe 3 + ( aq) + 4H2 O 17. Broad spectrum antibiotic: Antibiotics which kill or inhibit a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are known as broad spectrum antibiotics. – 0.

(i) Orbitals of Cr3+ ion 3d 4s 4p d2sp3 hybridised orbitals of Cr3+ 3d d 2sp 3hybrid 3d Six pairs of electrons from six NH3 molecules [Co(NH3)6]3+ Shape: Octahedral Magnetic behaviour: Paramagnetic. Preservatives prevent the rancidity of food and inhibit growth or kill the microorganisms.87 g cm–3. M = 56 g mol–1 a = 286.553 ´ 10 -24 cm 3 ´ 7. then decreases while physisorption decreases with increase in temperature. 24.604 × 1024 mol–1 = 6. 19. NA = ? Z´ M d= a 3 ´ NA 7.65 × 10–10cm. (iii) Chemisorption results multimolecular layers. sodium benzoate.024 × 1023 mol–1.87g cm–3 = NA = = = 2 ´ 56 g mol -1 (286.65pm = 286. Z = 2. .87 g cm -3 2 ´ 56 g mol -1 23.87 g cm -3 112 mol -1 185. sugar table salt.366 ´ 10 -24 = 0. 22.65 ´ 10 -3 cm) 3 ´ NA 2 ´ 56 g mol -1 (2. (ii) Chemisorption is highly specific in nature whereas physisorption is not specific. into unimolecular layer whereas physisorption results into (iv) Chemisorption is irreversible in nature whereas physisorption is reversible in nature. Sodium metabisulphite sorbic acid and propanoic acid. For bcc. (i) Chemisorption is caused by chemical bond formation where as physisorption arises due to Van der Waals’ forces. The most-common preservations used are.Examination Papers | 111 (ii) Food Preservatives: These are the chemical substances which are added to the food materials to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth and to retain their nutritive value for long periods. (v) Chemisorption first increases with increase in temperature. d = 7.8665 ´ 10 -8 cm) 3 ´ 7.

693 0.303 ´ 100 ´ 2 ´ 0. 183 .303 = ´ 100 log 2 2 s [ A ] 183 .83 × 10–2 s–1 .30105 138.9 t = 1 minute = 60 s [A ]0 2. ´ 10 log –2 -1 s log [A ]0 [A ] [ A ] 0 60 ´ 183 . k= k t 1/ 2 [A ]0 0.76s 0.303 –2 –1 log t 3 / 4 = 75. (i) Given t1/2 = 37.303 Four pairs of electrons from four Cl–ions .303 183 . ´ 10 -2 = = 0. t= log 37. 0 183 . ´ 10 –2 s -1 t 1/ 2 37.303 t= log k [A ] 60 s = 2.303 s .64 = = s 183 . ´ 10 s 4 2.95 0.4768 [A ] 2. t 3/ 4 = t 3/ 4 2.693 -1 2.112 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII (ii) Orbitals of Fe2+ ion 3d d2sp3 hybridised orbitals of 4p 4s Fe2+ d 2sp 3hybrid 3d [Fe(CN)6]4– Shape: Octahedral Magnetic behaviour: Diamagnetic 3d Six pairs of electrons from six CN–ions (iii) Orbitals of Ni2+ ions 3d sp3 hybridised orbitals of 4p 4s Ni2+ 3d sp 3hybrid [Ni(Cl)4]2– 3d Shape: Tetrahedral Magnetic behaviour: Paramagnetic 30.693 -1 (ii) k = = s = 183 .693 0.9 k [A ] k= [ A ] 0 2.693 t1/2 = = 1.

t= 2.334 [A ]0 OR [A ]0 2.3336 [A ]0 [A ] = 0.4768 = 1.06 ´ 10 min 2303 2303 ´ 0.06 ´ 10 min 2303 2303 ´ 0.9294] = = 153. For example refining of nickel by Mond process.06 ´ 10 -3 min -1 . Pent–2–enol: CH3—CH2—CH = CH—C—H 9. O || 2. Schottky defect. crude metal is freed from impurities by first converting it into volatile compound and collected elsewhere.06 1.303 -3 -1 . (ii) Given: k = 1.0706 t= [ 2 ´ 1 -1. ]= min 1.5232 [A ]0 [A ] = Anti log 1.06 1.Examination Papers | 113 log [A ] = -0.log15] min 15 1. It is then decomposed to give pure metal. (i) Zone refining based on the principle that impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state of the metal.303 (i) t = log k [A ] Given: k = 1. CBSE (Foreign) SET–III 1.5232 = 0.303 -3 -1 log [ A ] 0 100 = [A ] 85 100 2303 = [ 2 log10 . log [ A ] 0 100 = [A ] 15 100 2303 = [ 2 log10 .06 1.06 t =153. .39 min 1.8239 = [ 2 ´ 1 -11761 .06 1. t= 2.log 85] min 85 1. (ii) Vapour phase refining of metals: In this method.06 t =1790 min.06 × 10–3 mm–1.4 min.

O 5¢ Base HO—H2C 4¢H H 3¢ OH O– H1¢ 2¢ 5¢ H OH Nucleoside 24.470K Ni(CO) 4 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO Pure b. Vitamin D Exposure to sunlight. carrots. Night blindness. = 2 Xe The shape would be square planar. Sources Deficiency diseases Vitamin A Fish liver oil. Base O—P—O—H2C 4¢H H 3¢ OH H1¢ 2¢ H OH Nucleotide (i) Linkage isomerism: The isomers which have same molecular formula but differ in the linkage of ligand atom to the central metal atom are called linkage isomers. e. of electron pairs around central atom (Xe) = F 6 F l.350K Ni + 4CO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Ni(CO) 4 impure Tetracarbonyl nickel (volatile) 450 . etc.. [Co(NH3 ) 5 NO2 ]Cl 2 and [Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2 Pentaamminenitrito–N–Cobalt (III) chloride pentaamminenitrito–O–Cobalt (III) chloride .p. Rickets and osteomalacia. (i) No. Sterility and muscular atrophy sunflower oil. = 4 12. Vitamin E Vegetable oils like wheat germ oil. we get nucleotide. (ii) Nucleoside: A nucleoside is the condensation product of purine or pyrimidine base with pentose sugar.g. Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables Haemorrhages and clotting time. When a nucleoside is linked to phosphoric acid at 5’ position of sugar moiety.114 | Xam idea Chemistry–XII 330 . O ½½ S (ii) O F O ½½ S O F O OH OH H2 S 2 O7 (Pyrosulphuric acid) 16. fish and egg. milk Xerophthalmia. increased blood (i) Nucleotides: The monomeric unit of nucleic acid is called nucleotide.p. Fat soluble vitamins 18.

27. e..+ 4H+ (ii) 3HgCl 2 + 2PH3 ¾ ¾® Hg 3 P2 + 6HCl (b) (i) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen because S-S bond is stronger than O – O bond due to less interelectronic repulsions. OR (a) ( i) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ¾ ¾® PH3 + 3NaH2PO2 (ii) 3Cu + 8HNO3 (dilute) ¾ ¾® 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O (b) (i) Because of small size and high electro negativity of oxygen. Polymer Monomer Structure PVC Vinyl chloride CH2 = CH–Cl Teflon Tetrafluro ethene CF2 = CF2 Neoprene Chloroprene 30. (a) (i) SO2 + 2H2 O MnO-4 + 8H+ + 5 -e ¾ ¾® SO24 - CH2 = C — CH = CH2 | Cl + 4H+ + 2e . C 2 O 4 (oxalate). e. etc.. outer orbital complex is formed.g. (ii) It is due to l low enthalpy of dissociation of F–F bond. (iii) Because of its very low solubility in blood it prevents ‘bends’. (iii) Bidentate ligand: When a ligand is bound to a metal ion through two donor atoms it is said to be 2&& — CH — CH — NH && bidentate ligand. np and nd orbitals are involved in hybridisation.Examination Papers | 115 (ii) Outer orbital complex: When ns. molecules of water are highly associated through H-bonding resulting in its liquid state. l high hydration enthalpy of F–.in which cobalt is sp 3 d 2 hybridised.g. H2 N 2 2 2 (ethane–1.] ´ 5 ¾ ¾® Mn 2 + + 4H2 O] ´ 2 2MnO-4 + 5SO2 + 2H2 O ¾ ¾® 2Mn 2 + + 5SO24 . (iii) This is due to inert pair effect. (ii) Its reaction with iron produces H2 Fe + 2HCl ¾ ¾® FeCl2 + H2 Liberation of hydrogen prevents the formation of ferric chloride. [CoF6 ] 2. . 2–diamine.

Which one of these is more easily hydrolysed? 7. The rate constant for a reaction of zero order in A is 0. (iv) Question nos.075M? 12. What are these deviations and why are they caused? Explain with one example for each type. (ii) Question nos. (ii) Transition elements and their compounds are generally found to be good catalysts in chemical reactions. A reaction is of first order in reactant A and of second order in reactant B. Write a feature which will distinguish a metallic solid from an ionic solid. What is an emulsion? 4. Draw the structural formula of 1-phenylpropan-1-one molecule. 2. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. 6. Explain the following observations: (i) Generally there is an increase in density of elements from titanium (Z = 22) to copper (Z = 29) in the first series of transition elements. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. (v) Question nos. 8. Give the IUPAC name of H2N – CH2 – CH2 – CH = CH2. Why does NO2 dimerise? 5. (iii) Question nos. A solution of KOH hydrolyses CH3CHClCH2CH3 and CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl. use of calculators is not allowed. Give an example of linkage isomerism. Define 'order of a reaction'. 9.0030 mol L–1 s–1.10 M to 0. Draw the structures of white phosphorus and red phosphorus. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. How is the rate of this reaction affected when (i) the concentration of B alone is increased to three times (ii) the concentrations of A as well as B are doubled? 11. 10. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. Non-ideal solutions exhibit either positive or negative deviations from Raoult's law.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS DELHI–2010 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. 3. Which one of these two types of phosphorus is more reactive and why? 13. . How long will it take for the initial concentration of A to fall from 0. CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1.

(en = ethane –1.31°C. 23. Use this information to calculate Avogadro's number (Molar mass of CaF2 = 78. Determine the molar mass of this compound. How are the following conversions carried out? (i) Benzyl chloride to benzyl alcohol.53°C kg mol–1) 21. Name the following coordination compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature: (i) [Co(NH3)4 (H2O) Cl]Cl2 (ii) [CrCl2(en)2]Cl. Illustrate the following reactions giving a chemical equation for each: (i) Kolbe's reaction. Describe how the following changes are brought about: (i) Pig iron into steel.P. The density of the solid is 3. (ii) Zinc oxide into metallic zinc.Examination Papers 117 14. (ii) Williamson synthesis. OR Describe the role of (i) NaCN in the extraction of gold from gold ore.10°C and Kb for benzene = 2. The edge of the unit cell is 5.08 g mol–1) 20. 16. .0 g of benzene has a boiling point of 80. What are essential and non-essential amino acids in human food? Give one example of each type. It is known that in one unit cell of this mineral there are 4 Ca2+ ions and 8 F– ions and that Ca2+ ions are arranged in a fcc lattice. (ii) Methyl magnesium bromide to 2-methylpropan-2-ol.18 g cm–3. 19. (B. What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids? Give one example of each type. The F– ions fill all the tetrahedral holes in the face centred cubic lattice of Ca2+ ions. of pure Benzene = 80. (ii) SiO2 in the extraction of copper from copper matte (iii) Iodine in the refining of Zirconium Write chemical equations for the involved reactions. Why is sucrose not a reducing sugar? 18. How are associated colloids different from these two types of colloids? 22. Explain the following terms: (i) Invert sugar (ii) Polypeptides OR Name the products of hydrolysis of sucrose. 17. How would you account for the following? (i) The atomic radii of the metals of the third (5d) series of transition elements are virtually the same as those of the corresponding members of the second (4d) series. The well known mineral fluorite is chemically calcium fluoride. (iii) Impure titanium into pure titanium. 2 – diamine) 15.25 g of oil of winter green (methyl salicylate) in 99.46 × 10–8 cm in length. A solution prepared by dissolving 1.

118 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) The E° value for the Mn 3 + / Mn 2 + couple is much more positive than that for Cr 3 + / Cr 2 + couple or Fe 3 + / Fe 2 + couple. The concentration of silver ion is not known. Write an expression for the molar conductivity of acetic acid at infinite dilution according to Kohlrausch law. (iii) copolymers. 25. ( C 2 H5 ) 2 NH and C 6 H5 NH2 26. (Given E°Ag + /Ag = +0. (a) State Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions. The cell potential when measured was 0. (i) State one use each of DDT and iodoform. C 6 H5 NHCH3 . (ii) Which compound in the following couples will react faster in S N 2 displacement and why? (a) 1-Bromopentane or 2-bromopentane (b) 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane or 2-bromo-2-methylbutane. What are analgesic medicines? How are they classified and when are they commonly recommended for use? 28. C 6 H5 N(CH3 ) 2 . Give one example each of (i) addition polymers. E° Cu 2 + /Cu = 0. (b) A copper-silver cell is set up. 27. (C 2 H5 ) 2 NH and CH3 NH2 (ii) In a decreasing order of basic strength: Aniline. 24.) (ii) XeF6 ( s) + H2 O(l) ¾ ¾® . In the following cases rearrange the compounds as directed: (i) In an increasing order of basic strength: C 6 H5 NH2 . Determine the concentration of silver ions in the cell. The copper ion concentration is 0.34 V) 29. Given that L°m (HCl) = 426 S cm2 mol–1 L°m (NaCl) = 126 S cm2 mol–1 L°m (CH3COONa) = 91 S cm2 mol–1 OR (a) Write the anode and cathode reactions and the overall reaction occurring in a lead storage battery. p-nitroaniline and p-toluidine (iii) In an increasing order of pKb values: C 2 H5 NH2 .10 M.80V. (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) NaOH(aq) + Cl 2(g) ¾ ¾® (Hot and conc. (iii) The highest oxidation state of a metal is exhibited in its oxide or fluoride.422 V. (ii) condensation polymers. (b) Calculate L°m for acetic acid.

On dehydration (C) gives but-1-ene. OR (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations:: (i) P4 + SO2 Cl 2 ¾ ¾® (ii) XeF4 + H2 O ¾ ¾® (b) Explain the following observations giving appropriate reasons: (i) The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases down the group in group 15 of the periodic table. 30. Write the equations for the reactions involved. Oxidation of (C) with chromic acid also produced (B). (ii) NF3 is an exothermic compound but NCl3 is endothermic compound.Examination Papers 119 (b) How would you account for the following? (i) The value of electron gain enthalpy with negative sign for sulphur is higher than that for oxygen. Give an example of coordination isomerism. (b) An organic compound (A) (molecular formula C8 H16 O2 ) was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid to give a carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C). 12. (iii) ClF3 molecule has a T-shaped structure and not a trigonal planar one. What is the oxidation number of phosphorus in H3 PO2 molecule? 5. OR (a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Ethanal and propanal (ii) Phenol and Benzoic acid (b) How will you bring about the following conversions? (i) Benzoic acid to benzaldehyde (ii) Ethanal to but-2-enal (iii) Propanone to propene Give complete reaction in each case. Draw the structural formulae of molecules of following compounds: (i) BrF3 and (ii) XeF4 . CBSE (Delhi) SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set-I 1. (a) Explain the mechanism of a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl group of an aldehyde or a ketone. (ii) Solid phosphorus pentachloride behaves as an ionic compound. (iii) Halogens are strong oxidizing agents. Which point defect in crystals of a solid does not change the density of the solid? 4.

95 g cm -3 . 13. Draw the structure of O3 molecule. Define ‘rate of a reaction’.022 × 1023 mol -1 ) . The density of copper metal is 8. Write the name and structure of the monomer of each of the following polymers: (i) Neoprene (ii) Buna-S (iii) Teflon CBSE (Delhi) SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and Set–II. This solution has a boiling point of 100. Which point defect in crystals of a solid decreases the density of the solid? 2. 22. Explain the following reactions with an example for each: (i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction (ii) Friedel-Crafts reaction.54 g mol -1 and NA = 6. 16. No. State clearly what are known as nucleosides and nucleotides. Co = 27. 4. a body-centred cubic or a face-centred cubic structure? (Given: At. 19. Describe the shape and magnetic behaviour of following complexes: (i) [Co(NH3)6] 3+ (ii) [Ni(CN4)] 2. 1. molar mass = 92 g mol -1 ) in water was prepared by dissolving some glycerol in 500 g of water. (At. mass of Cu=63. Give an example of ‘shape-selective catalyst’. How are the following conversions carried out? (i) Propene to propan-2-ol (ii) Ethylmagnesium chloride to propan-1-ol. Explain the following observations: (i) Transition elements generally form coloured compounds. (ii) Zinc is not regarded as a transition element.42°C. is the copper unit cell a simple cubic.512 K kg mol -1 . Complete the following chemical equations: - (i) C6H5N2Cl + C6H5NH2 ¾OH ¾¾® (ii) C6H5N2Cl + CH3CH2OH ¾ ¾ ¾® (iii) RNH2 + CHCl3 + KOH ¾ ¾ ¾® 25.120 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 14. 5.. What mass of glycerol was dissolved to make this solution? K b for water = 0. If the radius of copper atom is 127. Ni = 28) 15. 3. A solution of glycerol (C3H8O3. 18.8 pm. 24. Give an example of ionization isomerism.

These deviation are caused when solute-solvent molecular interactions ( A . Positive Deviation: When ( A . When the vapour pressure of a solution is either higher or lower than that predicted by Raoult’s law then the solution exhibits deviation from Raoult’s law. 2.A) and ( B . 27.B) are either weak or stronger than solvent-solvent ( A . (i) Aerosol (ii) Emulsion (iii) Hydrosol 26. Metals are malleable and ductile whereas ionic solids are hard and brittle. Explain the following terms with one suitable example in each case.A) and ( B .B) molecular interactions are weaker than ( A . milk etc.Examination Papers 121 20. For example. For example a mixture of ethanol and acetone.B) molecular interactions. 9. The dimerisation of NO2 is because of unpaired electron on nitrogen atom to form N2O4 molecule with even number of electrons. The order of a reaction can be defined as the sum of the powers of the concentration terms as expressed in rate law. 3. CH3CH2ClCHCH3 O 7. cod liver oil. The example of linkage isomerism: [Co(NH3 ) 5 NO2 ] 2+ and [Co(NH3 ) 5 ONO] 2+ .B) molecular interactions are stronger than ( A .A) or solute-solute ( B . Give one example of each. (i) Cationic detergents (ii) Enzymes (iii) Antifertility drugs Solutions CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1. 4. . CH3 — CH2 — C — 8.B) molecular interactions. l 262 K 2NO2 Paramagnetic N2 O4 Colourless and diamagnetic 5.B) molecular interactions. How are the following colloids different from each other in respect of their dispersion medium and dispersed phase? Give one example of each. But-3-en-1-amine. An emulsion is a colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another liquid. For example a mixture of chloroform and acetone. Negative deviation: When ( A . – – 6. Differentiate between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers.

122 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
Cl

H3C

C

O

H

C

H3C

Cl
Cl

Hydrogen bond

10. According to the given reaction:
Rate = k [A] [B]2
(i) When the concentration of reactant ‘B’ is increased three times the rate of reaction becomes 9
times.
i.e., Rate = k [A] [3B]2 = 9k[A] [B]2
(ii) When the concentration of reactants A and B are doubled, then rate becomes 8 times.
i.e., Rate = k [2A]1 [2B]2 = 8k[A] [B]2
11. According to available data:
k = 0.0030 mol L–1s–1,

[R]0 = 0.10 M, [R] = 0.075 M

We know that
[R] = – kt + [R]0
0.075 = – 0.0030 t + 0.10
Þ 3t = 100 - 75

Þ

t = 8.33 second

12. White phosphorus is more reactive due to its discrete tetrahedral structure and angular strain.
or
Red phosphorus is less reactive due to its polymeric structure.

(i) White phosphorus

13.

(ii) Red phosphorus

(i) The density of elements from titanium to copper increase in the first series of transition
elements. This is due to decrease in metallic radius coupled with increase in atomic mass
results in a general increase in the density.
(ii) Many transition metals and their components show catalytic properties. This property is due to
their ability to exhibit variable oxidation states (incomplete d-orbitals) which enable them to
form unstable intermediates.

14. (i) Tetraammineaquachloridocobalt (III) chloride
(ii) Dichlorido-bis (ethane-1, 2-diamine) chromium(III)chloride

Examination Papers 123

15. (i) Kolbe’s reaction
OH
½

ONa

OH

½

½

NaOH

400 K
4-7 atm.

¾¾®

¾¾¾®

OH
½
COONa

H

COOH

+

¾¾®

+ CO2
Sodium
phenoxide

Sodium salicylate

Salicylic acid
(2-Hydroxybenzoic acid)
Major product

(ii) Williamson synthesis
C 2 H5 ONa
Sod. ethoxide

+

ICH3
Methyl iodide

¾ ¾¾® C 2 H5 OCH3 + NaI
Methyl ethyl ether

(i)

16.

CH2 Cl
½

CH2 OH
½
KOH (aq), heat

¾¾¾¾®
– KCl
Benzyl chloride

Benzyl alcohol

(ii)
O
OMgBr ù
OH
é
||
dry ether ê
|
|
ú HOH
d+
d+
CH 3 ¾ C ¾ CH 3 + CH 3 ¾ Mg Br ¾¾® êCH 3 ¾ C ¾ CH 3 ú ¾® CH 3 ¾ C ¾ CH 3
|
|
ê
ú
Methyl
CH
CH 3
ê
ú
Acetone
magnesium
3
ë
û

2 -Methyl propan-2-ol

bromide

17.

(i) Invert Sugar: The dextrorotatory sucrose when hydrolysed by boiling with mineral acid
produces an equal number of molecules of dextrorotatory fructose. The resulting mixture is
laevorotatory and termed as invert sugar.
C12 H22 OH

+

H2O

H+

¾ ¾ ¾®

Sucrose
[a]D = 66.5°

C6H12O6

+

C6H12O6

Glucose

Fructose

[a]D = 52.5°

[a]D = – 93°
Invert sugar

(ii) Polypeptides: Polypeptides are polymers formed by condensation of more than ten amino
acids. They have large number of peptides bonds in them. Polypeptides are amphoteric
because of the presence of terminal-ammonium and carboxylate ions as well as the ionized
side chains of amino acid residues
OR
Sucrose gives glucose and fructose on hydrolysis. It is a non-reducing sugar as it does not contain
free ketone or aldehyde group in its ring form.

124 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
18. Essential amino acids: Amino acids which cannot be synthesized in the body but must be obtained
through diet, are called essential amino acids. For example: valine, leucine.
Non-essential amino acids: The amino acids, which can be synthesized in the body are known as
non-essential amino acids. For example: Glycine, Alanine.
19. Given:

\

d = 3.18 g cm–3, Z = 4, a = 5.46 × 10–8 cm
M = 78.08 g mol–1 NA = ?
Z´M
d=
a3 ´ NA
NA =

Z´M

a3 ´ P
Substituting the given values, we get
4 ´ 78.08
NA =
(5.46 ´ 10 -8 ) -3 ´ 318
.
NA =

313 × 32 ´ 10 24
517 × 61

NA = 6.035 × 1023 mol -1
20. Given DTB = 80.31 – 80.10 = 0.21 °C or 0.21 K
WB = 1.25g, Kb = 2.53°C kg mol–1
MB = ?
WA = 99g
K ´ WB
MB = b
´ 1000
DTb ´ WA
=
\

2 × 53 ´ 1× 25 ´ 1000 3162.5
=
0 × 21´ 99
20.79

MB = 152 g/mol

21. Multimolecular colloids: In this type of colloids, colloidal particles are aggregates of atoms or
molecules each having size less than 1nm, e.g., sulphur sol, gold sol.
Macromolecular colloids: In this type of colloids, colloidal particles are themselves large molecules
of colloidal dimensions, e.g., starch, proteins, polyethene, etc.
Associated colloids: There are certain substances which at low concentrations behave as normal
electrolyte, but at higher concentrations exhibit colloidal behaviour due to the formation of
aggregates. Such colloids are known as associated colloids, e.g., soaps and detergents.
22.

(i) Pig iron into steel: Pig iron is converted into steel by heating in a converter. A blast of oxygen
diluted with carbon dioxide is blown through the converter. Oxygen reacts with impurities and
raised the temperature to 2173K. Carbon gets oxidised to CO which burns off at the mouth of
the converter. Oxides of silicon and Mg form slag. When the flame is stopped, slag is tapped
off and other metals like Mn, Cr, Ni, W may be added in the end.
(ii) Metallic zinc can be obtained from zinc oxide. At first calcination of ZnO is done and
converted into sinters of oxide.

Examination Papers 125

ZnO

+

C

D

¾¾®

Zn

+ CO

The oxide is then made into brickettes with coke and clay and heated by producer gas in
vertical retorts at 1673 K, zinc, boiling point is 1183 K, distills off and is collected by rapid
chilling.
(iii) Impure Titanium into pure Titanium: Impure Titanium is heated with I2 to form volatile
complex (TiI4), which on heating at higher temperature decomposes to give pure titanium.
Ti (impure)

+

2 I2

¾¾
¾® TiI4

D
¾ ¾¾® Ti (pure)

+

I2

OR
(i) Role of NaCN in the extraction of gold is to do the leaching of gold ore in the presence of air
from which the gold is obtained later by replacement.
4Au(s) + 8NaCN(aq) + 2H2O + O2 ¾
¾® 4Na[Au(CN)2] + 4KOH
(ii) SiO2 is added to copper matte to convert the leftout FeS, FeO into slag.
FeO

+

SiO2

¾¾®

FeSiO3 (Slag)

(iii) Iodine is heated with impure Zr to form volatile compound which on further heating
decomposes to give pure zirconium.
Zr (Impure) + I2
23.

D

¾ ¾¾®

ZrI4

D

¾ ¾¾®

Zr (pure) +

2I2

(i) This is due to lanthanide contraction.
or
This is due to filling of 4f orbitals which have poor shielding effect.
(ii) The E° value for the Mn3+/Mn2+ couple is much positive than Cr3+/Cr2+ couple or Fe3+/Fe2+
couple because Mn3+ ion receiving an electron gets d-subshell half-filled which is highly
stable. While in case of Fe3+ d-sub shell is already half-filled, so it does not receive electron
easily.
(iii) This is because fluorine and oxygen are highly electronegative elements and have small size.

24.

(i) DDT: It is used as insecticide to control flies, mosquitoes, etc.
Iodoform: Iodoform is used as an antiseptic.
(ii) 1-Bromopentane, as it is a primary alkyl halide. and
(b) 1-Bromo-2-methyl butane, as it is a primary alkylhalide.

25.

(i) Increasing order of basic strength is:
C6H5NH2 < C6H5N(CH3)2 < CH3NH2 < (C2H5)2NH
(ii) p-Toluidine > Aniline > tr-nitroaniline
(iii) (C2H5)2 NH2 < C2H5NH2 < C6H5NHCH3 < C6H5NH2

26.

(i) Polythene, PVC.
(ii) Nylon 6, Nylon 6,6.
(iii) Buna-S, Buna-N.

126 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
27. Analgesics: They are the drugs used for relieving pain. Analgesics are classified into two categories:
(a) Narcotics (addictive) drugs

(b) Non-narcotics (non-addictive) drugs

(a) Narcotics: Narcotic drugs are recommended for cardiac pain, post operative pains, terminal
cancer and in child birth.
(b) Non-narcotics: Non-narcotic drugs are effective in relieving skeletal pain, reducing fever,
preventing heart attack.
28.

(a) Kohlrausch Law: “The molar conductance of an electrolyte at infinite dilution is equal to the
sum of the molar conductances of the two ions, i.e., the cation and the anion.”
Lom = Lo+ + Lo-

Mathematically,

Expression for the molar conductivity of acetic acid:
Lom CH3 COOH = Lom CH3 COO- + Lo

H+

or

Lom CH3 COOH = Lom (CH3 COO- ) + Lo

H+

(b) Given

Lom ( HCl) = 426 S cm 2 mol -1
Lom ( NaCl) = 126 S cm 2 mol -1
Lom ( CH3 COONa) = 91S cm 2 mol -1
Lom ( CH3 COOH) = Lom ( CH3 COO- ) + Lom ( H+ )
Lom ( CH3 COONA) = Lom ( CH3 COO- ) + Lom ( Na + )

...(1)

Lom

...(2)

( NaCl) = Lom ( Na + ) +

Lom ( Cl + )

Lom ( HCl) = Lom ( H+ ) + Lom ( Cl + )

...(3)

Subtracting (2) from the sum of (1) and (3), we get:
Lom ( CH3 COO- ) + Lom ( Na + ) + Lom ( H+ ) + Lom ( Cl - ) - Lom (( Na + ) + Lom Cl - )
= Lom (CH3 COO- ) + Lom (H+ ) = Lom (CH3 COOH)
\ Lom ( CH3 COOH) = 91.0 + 426 -126 S cm 2 mol -1
= 391.0 S cm2 mol–1
OR
(a) When lead battery operates, the following cell reactions occur:
Anode half cell reaction:
Pb (s)

+

SO24 (aq)

¾
¾®

PbSO4 (s)

+

2e–

Cathode half cell reaction:

PbO2 (s) + 4 H+ (aq) + SO2¾®
4 + 2e ¾

PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l)

Net reaction, Pb(s) + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 (aq) ¾
¾® 2PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l)

Examination Papers 127

(b) Given

EoAg+/Ag = 0.80V,

Eo Cu 2 + /Cu = + 0.34V

[Cu2+] = 0.10 M

[Ag+] = ?

Eocell = EoR – EoL = 0.80 – 0.34V = 0.46V
From Nernst Equation:
Ecell = Eocell -

[ Cu 2 + ]
0.0591
log
2
[Ag + ] 2

0.422 = 0.46 log

010
.
[Ag + ] 2

[ 010
. ]
0.591
log
2
[Ag + ] 2

= 1.2881

[Ag+]2 = 0.0051
[Ag+] = 7.1× 10–2 M

\
29.

(i) 6 NaOH

+

3Cl2

(ii) XeF6 +

3H2O

¾¾®
or

XeO3

XeF6 +

H2O

¾¾®

XeOF4 + 2HF

¾¾®

5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O
+ 6HF

(i) Due to smaller size of oxygen the electron cloud is distributed over a small region of space,
making electron density high which repels the incoming electrons.
(ii) This is due to lower bond dissociation enthalpy of F2 than Cl2 and comparable size of fluorine
and nitrogen.
(iii) ClF3 molecule has a T-shaped structure. This is due to presence of two lone pairs in the outer
shell of chlorine in ClF3 molecule which repel the bond pairs.
OR
(a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations:
(i) P4 + 8SO2Cl2

¾
¾®

4PCl3 + 4SO2 + 2S2Cl2

(ii) 6XeF4 + 12H2O ¾
¾® 4Xe + 2XeO3 + 24HF + 3O2
(b) (i)

The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases down the group in group 15 of the periodic
table. The + 3 oxidation state becomes more and more common on moving down the group
from N to Bi. This is because of inert pair effect.

(ii) Solid PCl5 behaves as an ionic compound because it is a salt containing the tetrahedral
cation [PCl4]+ and octahedral anion [PCl6]–.
(iii) Halogens are strong oxidising agents because they have high electron affinities, so, they
pick up electrons from other substances.
30.

(a) Mechanism of nucleophilic addition reactions:
A nucleophile attacks the electrophilic carbon atom of the polar carbonyl group from a
direction approximately perpendicular to the plane of sp2 hybridized orbitals of carbonyl
carbon. The hybridization of carbon changes from sp2 to sp3 in this process and a tetrahedral

128 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
intermediate is produced. The intermediate captures a proton from the medium to give the
neutral product.
Nu
Nu
d+

O

C

d–

+

Nu

l

slow
step-1

Aldehyde or ketone
(Planar)

lfast


O

C

H

Tetrahedral
intermediate

+

C

step-2

H

O

Addition product

(b) The hydrolysis of the given compound with dil H2SO4 to give a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
suggests that the compound is an ester.
O
O
||
||
dil. H SO4
R — C— OR' ¾ ¾ ¾2 ¾
¾® R — C— OH + R — OH
( B)

( C)

So, the possible structure of ‘A’ is
O
||
CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — C— O — CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
Butyl butanoate

O
||
(i) CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — C— O — CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
(A)

dil. H SO

4
¾ ¾ ¾2 ¾
¾
®

CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH + CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH
Butanoic acid
(B)

chromic acid

(ii) CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH

¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾®
oxidation

Butanol
(C)

Butanol
(C)

CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH
Butanoic acid
(B)

(iii) CH3 — CH2 CH2 CH2 OH ¾dehydration
¾¾¾
¾®

CH3 — CH2 — CH

Butanol

CH2

But-1-ene

OR
(a) Chemical tests to distinguish between ethanal and propanal
Iodoform Test: Ethanol gives iodoform test positive while propanal does not give this test.
CH3CHO + 3I2 + 4 NaOH

¾
¾® CHI3 ¯ + HCOONa + 3NaI + 3H2O
(yellow)

(b) Phenol and benzoic acid:
Phenol gives violet colour with neutral FeCl3 solution. Benzoic acid does not give violet colour
with FeCl3.
OH

+

6
Phenol

FeCl3

[Fe(OC6H5)6]

3–

+ 3H

Violet complex

+

+ HCl

Examination Papers 129

CH2OH

COOH

CHO

LiAlH4

P.C.C

(i)
Benzoic acid

Benzyl alcohol

Benzaldehyde

(ii) Ethanal to but-2-enal
OH
|
dil. NaOH
D
CH3 CHO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH— CH2 — CHO ¾¾® CH3 — CH
-H2O

aldol

(iii) Propanone to propane
CH3
C
O + 4[H]
CH3

Zn–Hg/HCl(conc.)

CH3 — CH2 — CH3
Propane

Propanone

CBSE (Delhi) SET–II
1. Frankel defects do not change the density of the solids.
4. Oxidation number of phosphorous in H3PO2 is +1.
5. Example of coordination isomerism.
[Co(NH3)6][Cr(CN)6] and [Cr(NH3 ) 6 ][Co(CN) 6 ]
12.

(i) Structure of BrF3
F

F

Br

F

Bent T-shaped

(ii) Structure of XeF4 molecule
F

F

Xe

F

F

Square planar

CH — CHO

But - 2-en - al

+ H2O

(i) \

Co 3+

l

14.

l

130 Xam idea Chemistry—XII

3d6

4s

4p

l

Co 3+

l

\

l

Pairing of electrons takes place against the Hund’s role

3d

4s

4p
2

d sp

3

hybridization

Thus, the complex will be octahedral and diamagnetic.
(ii) [Ni(CN)4] 2-

l

l

(atom number 28)

l

Ni

l

The electronic configuration of the nickel atom and Ni 2+ ion are depicted below:
3d2

4s2

4p0

Since coordination number in the complex is 4. It shows that complex is formed by sp 3 or
dsp 2 hybridization.

l

l

l

\ Ni 2+ (after rearrangement)

l

However, experiments show that the complex is diamagnetic.

dsp2

hybridization

The resulting complex is square planar and diamagnetic as it has no unpaired electrons.
15.

(i) Reimer Tiemann Reaction
OH
½

é
ê
ê
CHCl 3 (aq.) NaOH ê
¾¾¾¾¾® ê
340 K
ê
ê
ê
êë

ONa
½

ù
ú
CHCl 2ú
ú NaOH
ú ¾¾®
ú
ú
ú
úû

ONa
½

OH
CHO

½
H 3O

CHO

+

¾®
Salicyladehyde
(2-Hydroxy benzaldehyde)

(ii) Friedel - Craft Reactions
Acylation:
O
||
C— CH3
O
||
Anhyd. AlCl
+ CH3 — C— Cl ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾3 ®
Benzene

½
+ HCl
Acetophenone

Examination Papers 131

Alkylation:
CH3
½
Anhyd. AlCl

+ CH3 Cl ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾3 ®
Methyl
chloride

Benzene

16.
(i) CH3 — CH

Toluene

OH
|
dil. H SO4
CH2 ¾ ¾ ¾2 ¾
¾® CH3 — CH — CH3

Propene

(ii)

+ HCl

Propane-2-ol

C 2 H5 MgCl
Ethyl magnesium chloride

( i ) HCHO

¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH2 — CH2 OH
(ii) H +

Propan -1-ol

MB = 92 g mol -1

22. Given

WA = 500 g
DTb = 100.42 – 100 = 0.42°C or 0.42 K
WB = ?
\

Kb = 0.512 kg mol -1
W 1000
DTb = K b B ´
M B WA

or

0.42 =

\

0.512 ´ WB ´ 1000
92 ´ 500
0.42 ´ 92 ´ 500
WB =
0.512 ´ 1000
19320
WB =
= 37.73 g
512
+

24.

(i)

H+

-

¾ N º N Cl + H ¾

¾ NH2 ¾¾¾¾¾®
(pH 4 -5)

Aniline

¾ N = N¾

(ii)

+
Ar N2

¾ NH2 + HCl

p -Amino azobenzene
(yellow dye)

Cl - + CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ OH ¾® ArH + N2 + CH3 ¾ CHO + HCl
D

(iii) R ¾ NH2 + CHCl 3 + 3KOH (alc.)
1° amine

¾¾¾®

R ¾ NC
Alkyl isocyanide

+ 3KCl + 3H2 O

132 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
25.

(i) The monomer of neoprone is chloroprene.
Cl
|
CH2
CH — C CH2
chloroprene

(ii) The monomer of Buna-S is Buta-1,3-diene and styrene.
CH2

CH2 and C 6 H5 CH

CH — CH
Buta -1,3 - diene

(iii) The monomer
F
|
F— C

CH2

Styrene

of teflon is Tetrafluoroethene.
F
|
C— F

Tetrafluoroethene

CBSE (Delhi) SET–III
1. Schottky defect.
2. Rate may be defined as the decrease in the concentration of reactant per unit time or increase in the
concentration of product per unit time.
3. The example of shape selective catalyst is ZSM–5.
4.

O

O

O

116.8°

pm

O

7.8

O

O

O

12

O

O

5. Example of ionisation isomerism is –
[Pt(NH3)4Cl2]Br2
13.

and

[Pt(NH3)4Br2]Cl2

(i) This is due to d-d transition. When visible (white) light falls on a compound, it absorbs certain
radiations of white light and transmit the remaining ones. The transmitted light has the
complementary colour to that of the absorbed light.
(ii) Because the atoms or simple ions of zinc never have partially filled d orbitals.

18.

(i) Nucleoside: A nucleoside is the condensation product of purine or pyrimidine base with
pentose sugar.
(ii) Nucleotides: The monomeric unit of nucleic acid is called nucleotide. When a nucleoside is
linked to phosphoric acid at 5’ position of sugar moiety, we get nucleotide.
O

Base

HO—H2C
4¢H

H

OH

H1¢

O–
H

OH

Nucleoside

Base

O—P—O—H2C
4¢H

H

OH

H1¢

H
OH

Nucleotide

For example: Smoke.723 ´ 10 -23 8.54 g mol -1 NA = 6. zymase. PVC. polystyrene. Aerosol Emulsion Hydrosol 1. Given.8 pm For fcc a = 2 2 r a 3 = ( 2 2r ) 3 = 4. norethindrone.95 g cm -3 Z´M d= NA ´ a3 Þ \ 8. Differences between thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers. novestrol. Radius (r) = 127. For example.00 63. dust For example: gum sol.95 = Z ´ 63. 27. For example: water. For example: Cetyltrimethyl-ammonium chlorides. (iii) Antifertility drugs: The drugs which are used to control the birth rate are known as antifertility drugs.54 6. trypsin. etc. cod liver oil. Sols in which the 1. invertase. etc. (iii) Some common examples are polyethene.723 ´ 10 -23 cm 3 \ Atomic mass of Cu = 63.95 ´ 6. pepsin.54 Thus copper has fcc structure. Sols in which the dispersed dispersion medium is gas dispersion medium and phase is solid and and dispersed phase is solid dispersed phase both are dispersion medium is or liquid. 26. (i) Cationic detergents: Cationic detergents are mostly acetate or chlorides of quaternary amines.Examination Papers 133 19. On heating undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and become infusible. (ii) Enzymes: Enzymes are the essential biological catalysts which catalyse specific biological reactions at a very high rate under mild conditions of temperature and pH. terylene. etc. 20. A colloidal system in which 1. urea-formaldehyde resins. (iii) Some common examples are bakelite. etc.022 × 1023 mol -1 Density = 8. .023 ´ 10 23 ´ 4.022 ´ 4. liquids.723 Z= Þ Z = 4. For example. Thermoplastics Thermosetting plastics (i) These polymer are linear or slightly (i) branched chain molecules These polymers are cross linked or heavily branched molecules (ii) Soften on heating and harden on cooling (ii) and can be remoulded. Milk.

6? 9.37V.0. 44V. Fe 2+ / Fe = .CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS ALL INDIA–2010 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory.34 V. What is meant by ‘reducing sugars’? 8. What type of interactions hold the molecules together in a polar molecular solid? 2. 7. 6’ mean in the name nylon-6. Cu 2+ Cu = 0. How is the conductivity of a solution related to its molar conductivity? 11. Write the structure of the molecule of a compound whose IUPAC name is 1-phenylpropan-2-ol 6.80V. Given that the standard electrode potential (E°) of metals are: K + K = – 2. CBSE (All India) SET–I 1.74V. the resistance of the solution in the cell and the conductivity of the solution. (v) Question nos. ‘osmosis’ and ‘osmotic pressure’.93 V. What is meant by ‘limiting molar conductivity’? 3. What is Tollen’s reagent? Write one usefulness of this reagent. Define the terms. Why? 4. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. (iii) Question nos. use of calculators is not allowed. Arrange these metals in an increasing order of their reducing power. Mg 2+ / Mg = -2. Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state. (iv) Question nos. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. Cr 3 + / Cr = -0. What is the advantage of using osmotic pressure as compared to other colligative properties for the determination of molar masses of solutes in solutions. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. Ag + / Ag = 0. Express the relation among the cell constant. 10. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. What does the designation ‘6. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3 H3C H H CH3 Br 5. OR Two half-reactions of an electrochemical cell are given below: . (ii) Question nos.

54 g mol–1 and NA = 6. Identify A and B in each of the following processes: Reduction (i) CH3CH2Cl ¾NaCN ¾¾ ¾® A ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® B Ni/H 2 NaNO2 / HCl C H NH 6 5 2 (ii) C6H5NH2 ¾ ¾¾¾¾® A ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾ ®B OH – 18. 12. Assume van’t Hoff factor for NaCl is 1. Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) I2 + HNO3 ¾¾® (ii) HgCl2 + PH3 ¾¾® (conc. Give the chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Ethylamine and Aniline (ii) Aniline and Benzylamine 17.5 g mol–1) must be dissolved in 65 g of water to lower the freezing point by 7. Sn2+(aq) ¾¾® Sn4+(aq) + 2e–. Draw the molecular structures of the monomers of (i) PVC (ii) Teflon 19. Kf .15V Construct the redox reaction equation from the two half-reactions and calculate the cell potential from the standard potentials and predict if the reaction is reactant or product favoured. The density of copper metal is 8. body-centred cubic or face-centred cubic? (Given: atomic mass of Cu = 63.5°C? The freezing point depression constant.95 g cm–3.Examination Papers 135 MnO–4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e– ¾¾® Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l). 14.87.51 V E° = + 0. What is meant by coagulation of a colloidal solution? Name any method by which coagulation of lyophobic sols can be carried out. Describe the following: (i) Tyndal effect (ii) Shape-selective catalysis 13.86 K kg mol–1. Draw the structural formulae of the following compounds: (i) H4P2O5 (ii) XeF4 16. E° = + 1. What mass of NaCl (molar mass = 58.8 pm. 21.) 15. If the radius of copper atom be 127. Describe the role of the following: (i) NaCN in the extraction of silver from a silver ore (ii) Iodine in the refining of titanium (ii) Cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium OR Describe the principle involved in each of the following processes of metallurgy: (i) Froth floatation method (ii) Electrolytic refining of metals (ii) Zone refining of metals .02 × 1023 mol–1) 20. for water is 1. is the copper unit cell simple cubic.

proceeds according to the following equation: 4PH3(g) ¾¾® P4(g) + 6H2(g) It is found that the reaction follows the following rate equation: Rate = k[PH3] The half-life of PH3 is 37. still fluorine is a stronger oxidising agent than chlorine. 23. Explain the following terms with one example in each case: (i) Food preservatives (ii) Enzymes (iii) Detergents 28.136 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 22. (a) Explain the following terms: (i) Rate of a reaction (ii) Activation energy of a reaction (b) The decomposition of phosphine. (ii) The p-complexes are known for the transition metals only. 26. (ii) XeF2 is a linear molecule without a bend. PH3. How would you differentiate between SN1 and SN2 mechanisms of substitution reactions? Give one example of each. How would you convert the following: (i) Phenol to benzoquinone (ii) Propanone to 2-methylpropan-2-ol (iii) Propene to propan-2-ol 25. 24.9 s at 120°C. Amino acids may be acidic. How would you account for the following: (i) NCl3 is an endothermic compound while NF3 is an exothermic one. How does this happen? What are essential and non-essential amino acids? Name one of each type. alkaline or neutral. (iii) Co2+ is easily oxidised to Co3+ in the presence of a strong ligand. (i) How much time is required for 3/4th of PH3 to decompose? (ii) What fraction of the original sample of PH3 remains behind after 1 minute? OR (a) Explain the following terms: (i) Order of a reaction (ii) Molecularity of a reaction . Explain the following cases giving appropriate reasons: (i) Nickel does not form low spin octahedral complexes. 27. (iii) The electron gain enthalpy with negative sign for fluorine is less than that for chlorine.

30. assuming that it does not change with temperature. (ii) Among the divalent cations in the first series of transition elements. (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) Cr2 O72– (aq) + H2S(g) + H+(aq) ¾¾® (ii) Cu2+(aq) + I–(aq) ¾¾® (b) How would you account for the following: (i) The oxidising power of oxoanions are in the order VO+2 < Cr2 O72– < MnO–4 . (a) Illustrate the following name reactions giving a chemical equation in each case: (i) Clemmensen reaction (ii) Cannizzaro’s reaction (b) Describe how the following conversions can be brought about: (i) Cyclohexanol to cyclohexan-1-one (ii) Ethylbenzene to benzoic acid (iii) Bromobenzene to benzoic acid OR (a) Illustrate the following name reactions: (i) Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky reaction (ii) Wolff–Kishner reduction reaction (b) How are the following conversions carried out: (i) Ethylcyanide to ethanoic acid (ii) Butan-1-ol to butanoic acid (iii) Methylbenzene to benzoic acid Write chemical equations for the involved reactions. (iii) Cu+ ion is not known in aqueous solutions. OR (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) MnO–4 ( aq) + S 2 O2– ¾® 3 ( aq) + H 2 O(l) ¾ (ii) Cr2 O72– ( aq) + Fe 2+ ( aq) + H+ ( aq) ¾¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) La3+ (Z = 57) and Lu3+ (Z = 71) do not show any colour in solutions.Examination Papers 137 (b) The rate of a reaction increases four times when the temperature changes from 300 K to 320 K.314 J K–1 mol–1) 29. (ii) The third ionization enthalpy of manganese (Z = 25) is exceptionally high. (iii) Cr2+ is a stronger reducing agent than Fe2+. Calculate the energy of activation of reaction. . manganese exhibits the maximum paramagnetism. (R = 8.

15 g of an unknown molecular substance was dissolved in 450 g of water.02 × 1023 atoms mol–1) 20. The resulting solution freezes at – 0. Draw the structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Bakelite (ii) Nylon-6 19.0°C? (Kf for water = 1. Silver crystalises in face-centred cubic unit cells. What mass of ethylene glycol (molar mass = 62.0 g mol–1) must be added to 5. Each side of the unit cell has a length of 409 pm. What is the radius of silver atom? 20.50 kg of water to lower the freezing point of water from 0°C to – 10. What type of semiconductor is obtained when silicon is doped with arsenic? 2.86 K kg mol–1). Differentiate between molarity and molality of a solution. What is meant by ‘copolymerisation’? 13. . Silver crystallises in fcc lattice.07 × 10–8 cm and the density of the crystal is 10. Give the chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Methylamine and Dimethylamine (ii) Aniline and N-methylaniline 18. Nitrogen is relatively inert as compared to phosphorus. Define the following: (i) Peptization (ii) Reversible sols 15.5 g cm–3. (NA = 6. What are the products of hydrolysis of sucrose? 17. Write a distinguishing feature of metallic solids? 3. Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) NaOH + Cl2 ¾¾® (cold and dilute) (ii) XeF6 + H2O ¾¾® (excess) 17. What are analgesic drugs? How are they classified and when are they usually recommended for use? CBSE (All India) SET–III Questions uncommon to Set–I and Set–II 1. calculate the atomic mass of silver. What are monosaccharides? 8.34°C.86 K kg mol–1) 27. If the edge length of the unit cell is 4. Why? 6. What is the molar mass of the substance? (Kf for water = 1. 8.138 Xam idea Chemistry—XII CBSE (All India) SET–II Questions uncommon to Set–I 1.

Write the name. the state of hybridization. [Cr(H2O)2(C2O4)2]– (Atomic number: Co = 27.Examination Papers 139 22. Ni = 28. 9. This is used to detect the presence of –CHO group in an organic compound. How would you account for the following: (i) The electron gain enthalpy with negative sign is less for oxygen than that for sulphur. all monosaccharide are reducing sugars. . (ii) Phosphorus shows greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen. Differentiate between fibrous proteins and globular proteins. 4. Osmosis: The phenomenon in which solvent molecules flow through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of low concentration to a solution of higher concentration is termed as osmosis. For example. [Ni(CN)4]2–. Tollen’s reagent – A solution of AgNO3 dissolved in NH4OH is known as Tollen’s reagent. When concentration of an electrolyte approaches zero. the molar conductivity is known as limiting molar conductivity (Lom ). OH CH2 CH CH3 6. What is meant by the denaturation of a protein? 27. Explain the following terms with an example for each: (i) Antibiotics (ii) Antiseptics (iii) Analgesics Solutions CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. 8. 7. Cr = 24) 26. 2. 4–Bromo–3–methyl–pent–2–ene 5. 3. 6 consists of six carbon each. Reducing Sugars: The carbohydrates which reduces Fehling’s Reagent and Tollen’s Reagent are referred to as reducing sugar. Each monomer of nylon 6. Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state because it is the most electronegative element in the periodic table. The interactions hold the molecules together in a polar molecular solid is dipole-dipole attractions. 25. the shape and the magnetic behaviour of the following complexes: [CoCl4]2–. For example: RCHO + 2Ag (NH3)2 OH ¾¾® RCOONH4 + 2Ag¯ + H2O + 3NH3. (iii) Fluorine never acts as the central atom in polyatomic interhalogen compounds.

1 10.51V (Reduction) (ii) Sn 2 + ¾¾® Sn 4 + +2e. the path of the beam is illuminated. (ii) The concentration of the solution does not change during determination of osmotic pressure.5 mol L–1 3 1000 cm L –1 = 0. Advantage of using osmotic pressure as compared to other collegative properties: (i) The equilibrium is established very quickly. This phenomenon is called Tyndall effect. (ii) Shape Selective Catalyst: The catalysis reaction which depends upon the pore size of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and product molecules is called shape-selective catalysis.140 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Osmotic Pressure: The hydrostatic pressure exerted by the column of the solution which is just sufficient to prevent the osmosis is called osmotic pressure. results are obtained in a very short time. E° = 0. Hence.15 = 1. (iii) This is ideal method for proteins to find their molar mass since it happens at room temperature and no coagulation occurs. ZSM-5 used in petroleum industry to convert alcohols directly into gasoline by dehydrating them to give a mixture of hydrocarbons. (i) Tyndall effect: Tyndall (1869) observed that when a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution whose particle size is comparable to the wave length of light. Increasing order of reducing power: Ag < Cu < Fe < Cr < Mg < K OR (i) MnO-4 + 8H+ + Se ¾¾® Mn2+ + 4H2O. Conductivity (K) = × Cell constant Resistance ( R) Molar Conductivity ( L m ) = Conductivity ( k) ´ 1000 Molarity ( M ) OR Lm = K = K ´1000 L m ´ M = M 1000 138.95 cm 2 mol –1 ´ 1. ZSM -5 x CH3 — OH ¾ ¾¾ ¾® (CH2 ) x + xH2 O Gasoline .51 – 0.208355 cm–1 11. Zeolites are good shape-selective catalysts because of their honey comb-like structures. therefore it will favour product formation.E °L = 1.36 V Since 12. DE° = + 1.15V Multiplying equation (i) by 2 and (ii) by 5 we get: Sn2+ + 2MnO-4 + 16H+ ¾¾® 5 Sn4+ + 8H2O + 2Mn2+ E °cell = E °R . E °cell is positive.

HCl at 273 . Aniline No evolution of N2 gas Benzyl amine N2 gas is evolved CH2NH2 CH2OH (i) HONO (ii) H2O 17. + – N –– N–Cl | NH2 | NaNO 2/HCl + 2H2O 273–278 + – – N– – NCl | +b–Napthol orange dye (ii) Aniline and Benzyl amine Chemical Test Test: Add nitrous acid (NaNO2/HCl) to both the samples. If the charge is removed. (i) (ii) O || P O || P O H OH F F Xe H OH H4P2O5 F F Xe F4 (Square planar) 16. 14. they come together and are precipitated. Chemical Test C2H5NH2 Azo dye Test: Add NaNO2 + dil.Examination Papers 141 13. The colloidal particles bear similar electric charge and that is why they stay away from each other due to repulsion. The coagulation of a lyophobic sols can be done by mixing of two opposite charged sols or by addition of electrolyte.278K followed by NaOH and b-naphthol No reaction C6H5NH2 Yellow orange dye is obtained. (i) I2 + 10HNO3 ¾¾® 2HIO3 + 10NO2 + 4H2O (ii) 3HgCl2 + 2PH3 ¾¾® Hg3P2 + 6HCl 15. (i) To distinguish Ethylamine and aniline. The precipitation and settling down of the discharged particles is called coagulation or flocculation. reduction (i) CH3 CH2 Cl ¾NaCN ¾¾ ¾® CH3 CH2 CN ¾ ¾¾¾® CH3 CH2 CH2 NH2 Ethyl cyanide (A) Ni/H 2 n -Propyl amine (B) + N2 ­ +HCl .

8 pm For fcc a = 2 2 r a 3 = ( 2 2r ) 3 = 4.5°C or 7.87 × 1. Radius (r) = 127.5 = 1.75 WB = 3478. 7.54 8.54 g mol -1 NA = 6.5 g mol–1 WA = 65g. WB = ? DTf = 7.723 ´ 10 -23 cm 3 \ Atomic mass of Cu = 63.86 × \ NH2 . OH – p-Amino-azobenzene (B) (i) PVC — structure of monomer: CH2 = CH – Cl (vinylchloride) (ii) Teflon — structure of monomer: F F C C F F (Tetrafluoroethylene) 19. 87 ´ 1. 86 ´ 1000 28518. 5 ´ 65 WB = 1.00 63.723 ´ 10 -23 8.022 × 1023 mol -1 Density = 8.723 Z= Þ Z = 4. DTf = i Kf × WB 1000 ´ M B WA WB 1000 ´ 58 . Given.2 WB = 8. Kf = 1.142 Xam idea Chemistry—XII + - C6H5 NH 2 2 /HCl (ii) C 6 H5 NH2 ¾NaNO ¾¾¾¾ ® C 6 H5 N º N Cl ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® C 6 H5 N = N Benzene diazonium chloride (A) 18.95 = 6.87 We know that. Given: MB = 58. 5 ´ 58 .022 ´ 4.5 K.023 ´ 10 23 ´ 4.199 g. 20. 5 65 7.86 K kg mol–1 i = 1.95 g cm -3 Z´M d= NA ´ a3 Þ \ Z ´ 63.54 Thus copper has fcc structure.95 ´ 6.

A strip of the same metal in pure form is used a cathode. (i) NaCN is used in the leaching of argentite (Ag2S). (iii) Co2+ is easily oxidised to Co3+ in the presence of a strong ligand because in presence of strong ligand. Pt. Ag. The pure metal deposit on the filament. Anode: Cathode: M ¾¾® M n + + ne – M n + + ne – ¾¾® M (pure metal) Sb. some pine oil (collector) and stablisers are added. Zn may be refined by this process. The pure metal crystallises out of the melt and impurities pass on into the adjacent molten zone. (iii) Zone refining: This method is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state of the metal. OR (i) Froth floatation method: This method is used to remove gangue from sulphide ores. So that all M–C bonds are identical for their stability. (ii) Electro refining of metals: In this method. 22. Ti (impure) + 2I2 ¾¾® TiI4 Metal iodide decomposes on heating at 1800°C on a tungston filament. (i) Nickel does not form low spin octahedral complexes because ‘Ni’ has electronic configuration 3d8 4s2. They are put in a suitable electrolyte containing soluble salt of the same metal. The bonding involves overlap of p-electrons of the C5H5 rings with unfilled d-orbital of the metal. the impure metal is made to act as anode. The froth is light and it skimmed off. The crude metal is heated with iodine in an evacuated vessel to form volatile compound. Au. In this process a suspension of the powdered ore is made with water. A circular mobile heater is fixed at one end of a rod of the impure metal. The molten zone moves along with the heater. (ii) Iodine in the refining of titanium. . (ii) The p-complexes are known for the transition metals only because they have ‘sandwich’ structure in which the metal ion lies between two planar C5H5 rings. in which two inner d-orbitals are not available which are required to form d2sp3 hybridization. Cu. the 3d electrons pair up leaving two orbitals empty to be involved in d2sp3 hybridisation.Examination Papers 143 21. Argentite is leached with dilute aqueous solution of NaCN in the presence of air Ag2S + 4NaCN ¾¾® 2 Na [Ag (CN)2] + Na2S. 1800 °C TiI 4 ¾ ¾¾ ¾® Ti(pure) + 2I 2 (iii) Cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium: In the metallurgy of Al. A rotating paddle agitates the mixture and draws air in it. purified Al2O3 is mixed with cryolite (Na3AlF6) which lowers the melting point of the mixture and increase the conductivity.

CH 3 CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 Slow step Br OH C+ CH 3 – CH 3 Fast CH 3 C OH CH 3 SN2 reactions they are substitution nucleophilic bimolecular reactions in which rate of the reaction depends on the concentration of two reactants.g. . Product formation takes place by the formation of carbo cation as reaction intermediate. This is due to presence of carboxylic acid as well as amino groups. aspartic acid. (iii) This is due to (a) low bond dissociation enthalpy of F2 and (b) high hydration enthalpy of F . 25.. (ii) As xenon is sp3 hybridised with three lone pair of electrons.. O l Amino acids which contain two —C—O—H group and one —NH2 group are called acidic amino acid.144 Xam idea Chemistry—XII SN1 Reactions: They are substitution nucleophilic unimolecular reactions in which the rate of the reaction depends on the concentration of only one reactant. (i) 24. e. OH O K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 O Phenol p-Benzoquinone (ii) CH 3 C OH OMgCl O CH 3 CH 3MgCl CH 3 Propanone C CH 3 H 2O/H + CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 2-Methyl propan-2-ol OH (iii) CH3— CH Propene CH2 dil H2SO 4 CH 3—CH—CH 3 Propan-2-ol (i) This is because of (a) bond dissociation enthalpy of F2 is lower than Cl2 and (b) fluorine forms stronger bond with nitrogen due to comparable size. For example: OH - R — Cl ¾ ¾¾® R — OH + Cl Rate µ [R – Cl][OH– ] The product formation takes place by formation of transition state. 26. For example: 23.

303 k= log t [A] 2 .. leucine. glycine. O Amino acids which contain one —C—O—H and one —NH2 group are called neutral amino acids. 0183 .693 k= \ t1/ 2 \ \ \ 0. Amino acids which contain two —NH2 group and one —C—O—H group are called basic amino acids.g. invertase.g. etc.693 37. e. Amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplied in the diet are called essential amino acids..693 t1/2 = k 0. glycine. sodium benzoate.0183 0 .g. 303 1 t= log 0 .g. (ii) Enzymes: Enzymes are the essential biological catalysts which catalyse specific biological reactions at a very high rate under mild conditions of temperature and pH. For example.. 28. For example. (iii) Detergents: They are very similar to the salts of fatty acids found in soap but they are manufactured from materials other than animal fats. e. lysine. etc. The amino acids which are synthesized by our body are called non-essential amino acids.0183 s–1 [A] o 2.303 2. For example: Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates are common ingredients of synthetic detergents. potassium sorbate. valine.. alanine. (i) Food preservatives: Chemical substance which are used to prevent food spoilage due to microbial growth are called preservative. e. zymase etc. [A ]o 2.303 (b) (i) We know that k = log t [A ]t 0. For a hypothetical reaction R ® P – D[R] +D [P] Rate = Rate = Dt Dt (ii) Activation energy: The amount of energy which the reactants must absorb to pass over the energy barrier between reactants and products is known as the activation energy.303 log 2 2 = log 2 0. (a) (i) Rate of Reaction: It is defined as the decrease in the concentration of reactants per unit time or increase in the concentration of products per unit time.9 k = 0. lysine. 0183 14 k= = 2 ´ 2. etc. e.Examination Papers 145 O l l l l 27.

(a) (i) Cr2O72– + 3H2S + 8H+ ¾¾® 2Cr3+ + 3S + 7H2O (ii) 2Cu2+ + 4I – ¾¾® Cu2I2 + I2 .4767 = log [A] o [A] [A] o [A] [A] o 2. (ii) Molecularity: It may be defined as the number of reacting species (molecules. 0183 = log 2 . Ea = 2.146 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 2 ´ 2.3% Antilog (0.0183 t = 75.333 = 0. atoms or ions) taking part in an elementary reaction.32 kJ mol–1.303 × 0.303 60 = ´ log 0. 29. amount left out = 33.303 × 8.T1 û é300 ´ 320 ù Ea = 2. which must collide simultaneously in order to bring about a chemical reaction.314 ê ú log 4 ë 20 û Ea = 19.134 JK–1 mol–1 Ea = ? é TT ù k We know that.997 = [A] [A] 1 = = 0.15 [4800] × 0.333% [A] o 2 . 303 [A] t= Taking antilog.8 s.0183 [A] [A] o 60 ´ 0 . (b) (i) Given T1 = 300 K T2 = 320 K R = 8. (ii) 1 minute = 60 second [A] o 2.3010 0.602 = 55.4767) = OR (a) (i) The order of a reaction can be defined as the sum of the powers of the concentration terms as expressed in rate law.303 R ê 1 2 ú log 2 k1 ë T2 . 997 Hence. 0.303 t= log k [A] [A] o 2.

30.Examination Papers 147 (b) (i) The oxidising power of oxonions are in the order VO2+ < Cr2 O72– < MnO4–.+ 2OH(ii) Cr2 O7 (aq) + 6Fe 2 + (aq) + 14H+ ¾¾® 2Cr 3 + + 6Fe 3 + + 7H2 O.) CH 3—CH 2—CH 3 Acetone Propane (ii) Cannizzaro's reaction: 2HCHO + NaOH Formaldehyde Sodium formate O || OH (b) ¾¾® HCOONa (conc. which compensates for the second ionisation enthalpy of Cu. (ii) Among the divalent cations in the first series of transition elements. a more stable half filled t2g configuration. manganese exhibits the maximum paramagnetism because manganese (Mn2+) ion has maximum number of 5 unpaired electrons. (iii) Cr2+ stronger reducing agent than Fe2+ as its configuration changes from d4 to d3. (iii) Cu+ ion is not known in aqueous solutions because Cu2+ ions are more stable due to more negative DHhyd of Cu2+ than Cu+. OR (a) (i) 8Mn O-4 (aq) + 3S 2 O23 .) CrO3 or PCC (i) Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone C 2H 5 COOH KMnO4/OH – (ii) Ethyl benzene Benzoic acid Br CuCN Py.473K (iii) Bromobenzene COOH CN H2O/H + Benzoic acid + CH3OH Methanol .(aq) + H2 O ¾¾® 8MnO2 + 6SO24 . (a) (i) Clemmensen reaction O CH 3—C—CH 3 Zn–Hg/HCl (conc. this is due to increase in the oxidation state of the metal ion. (b) (i) La3+ and Lu3+ ions do not show any colour in solution because they do not contain any unpaired electrons. (ii) The third ionisation enthalpy of manganese (Z = 25) is exceptionally high because Mn2+ ion has 3d5 configuration which is highly stable since it is half-filled.

4 °C CH3 NH2 + HONO ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 OH + N2 + H2 O . 13. n-type semiconductor. 6. 2. 15. They are the simplest carbohydrates which do not undergo further hydrolysis.148 Xam idea Chemistry—XII OR (a) (i) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction (i) X 2 /red P R—CH2—COOH ¾ ¾¾¾¾ ® R—CH—COOH (ii) H 2 O Carboxylic acid (ii) ( X == Cl. (i) Peptization: The process of converting a precipitate into colloidal sol by shaking it with dispersion medium in the presence of a suitable electrolyte. for example: glucose. Ethylene glycol. KCN 2 CH3 COOH ¬¾¾¾ ¾ CH3 CN ¬¾¾¾¾ Ethanoic acid 4 (ii) CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—OH ¾KMnO ¾¾¾ ® CH3CH2CH2COOH [O] Butan-l-ol Butanoic acid CH 3 COOH – (i) KMnO4/OH (iii) (ii) H + Methyl benzene Benzoic acid CBSE (All India) SET–II 1. (i) 2NaOH + Cl 2 ¾¾® NaCl + NaOCl + H2 O (ii) XeF6 + 3H2 O ¾¾® XeO3 + 6HF 17. Due to presence of triple bond whose dissociation energy is very high. Br) | X a -Halocarboxylic acid Wolf-Kishner reduction (i) NH . (ii) Reversible sols: These are the sols in which dispersion medium can be separated from dispersed phase and reconstituted easily. (i) To distinguish CH3 NH2 and CH3– NH – CH3 Reaction with HONO CH3 NH2 gives methyl alcohol and N2 gas.NH 2 2 CH3 COCH 3 ¾ ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ ¾® CH3 CH2 CH3 (ii) KOH. D Propanone (b) (i) H+ Propane NaOH /CaO Cl /hv 2 C 2 H5 CN ¾ ¾ ¾® C 2 H5 COOH ¾ ¾¾¾¾® C 2 H6 ¾ ¾¾ ¾® C 2 H5 Cl D Ethyl cyanide H O/H + alc.

62 pm –1 20. WA = 5. (i) Bakelite Monomers: Phenol and formaldehyde Structure: OH O and Phenol (ii) Nylon–6 Monomers: Caprolactum H ½ N H2 C ½ H2 C C=O ½ CH2 H2 C ¾ CH2 Caprolactum 19. a = 409 pm We know that for fcc lattice: a r= 2 2 r= \ 409 409 = 2 ´ 1. D Tf = 10 K H—C—H Formaldehyde .414 2.828 r = 144.86 K kg mol–1. MB = 62.Examination Papers 149 Dimethyl amine forms nitroso amine which is water insoluble yellow oil. (CH3 ) 2 NH + HONO ¾¾® (CH3 ) 2 N – N = O + H2 O N-Nitroso dimethyl amine (yellow oil) (iii) Aniline and N-methyl aniline Test: Carbyl amine test: Aniline on warming with chloroform and KOH gives offensive smell of carbylamine while N-methyl aniline does not.50 kg or 5500 g Kf = 1.0 g mol . C 6 H5 NH2 + CHCl 3 + 3KOH ¾¾® C 6 H5 NC + 3KCl + 3H2 O Aniline Phenyl carbylamine 18. Atomic mass (M) = 108 g mol–1.

5 g mol–1 WB = 15 g. reducing fever. M = atomic mass = ?. Molality of a solution does not change on changing the temperature of the solution while molarity does change.02 × 1023 We know that.86 × (a) Narcotics (addictive) drugs (b) Non-narcotics (non-addictive) drugs (a) Narcotics: Narcotic drugs are recommended for cardiac pain.86 K kg mol–1 W ´ 1000 MB = Kf × B DTf ´ WA = 1. 07 ´ 10 -8 ) 3 4 M = 106. Kf = 1. + 8. 5 ´ 6 .86 K kg mol–1 × 15 g ´ 1000 = 182. NA = 6. For fcc. terminal cancer and in child birth.34)]K = 0. d = 10.34 K Þ MB = ?.07 × 10–8 cm. 3. Analgesics are classified into two categories: 10 = 1. Metallic solids have high melting and boiling points. Z = 4 a = 4.5 g cm–3. WA = 450 g M= D Tf = [273 – (273 – 0. (b) Non-narcotics: Non-narcotic drugs are effective in relieving skeletal pain. C12 H22 O11 + H2 O ¾H¾ ¾® C 6 H12 O6 + C 6 H12 O6 (Glucose) (Fructose) 19. D Tf = Kf × WB 1000 ´ M B WA WB 1000 ´ 62 5500 62 ´ 5500 ´ 10 WB = 1000 ´ 186 . Given: Z´ M NA ´ a 3 Þ M= d ´ NA ´ a 3 Z 10 . 022 ´ 10 23 ´ ( 4 . Analgesics: They are the drugs used for relieving pain. 3410000 WB = = 1833. d= \ 20. preventing heart attack.3 g mol–1 0.150 Xam idea Chemistry—XII We know that.34 K ´ 450 kg . CBSE (All India) SET–III 1.3 g \ 1860 27. post operative pains.

For example: Aspirin. (ii) Antiseptics Antiseptics are the chemicals which prevent or destroy the growth of the harmful microorganism. (i) Antibiotics The chemical substances produced from some micro-organism and are used to inhibit the growth of other microorganism or even kill them are called antibiotics. During denaturation 2° and 3° structures are destroyed but 1° structures remain intact. This is called denaturation of protein. Fibrous Proteins Globular Proteins 1. 25. penicillin. 27. 26.Examination Papers 151 22. is subjected to a change in temperature or change in pH. For example. For example: Savlon. (i) Tetrachloridocobaltate (II) ion sp3 hybridisation Tetrahedral Paramagnetic (ii) Tetracyanonickelate (II) ion dsp2 hybridisation Square plannar Diamagnetic. insulin. globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. Consist of linear thread-like molecules 1. (iii) Diaquadioxalatochromate (III) ion d2sp3 hybridisation Octahedral Paramagnetic. dettol. Soluble in water. Denaturation of Proteins When a protein in its native form. around itself which tend to lie side by side to form fibre forming almost spheroidal shape. curdling of milk. Albumin in eggs.. Keratin in hair. fibroin in silk.g. etc. 3. Due to this. making electron density high which repels the incoming electrons. (i) This is due to smaller size of oxygen the electron cloud is distributed over a small region of space. chloramphenicol. coagulation of egg white on boiling. etc. 2. . like structure. 3. the hydrogen bond are disturbed. Insoluble in water. Polypeptide chain is folded. 2. etc. (iii) Analgesics These are the substances which are used to get relief from pain. (ii) Because P—P bond is stronger than N—N bond. e. (iii) Fluorine never acts as the central atom in polyatomic inter-halogen compounds since it is the most electronegative element of the group.

075 M? 12. 6. Identify the order of reaction from the following unit for its rate constant: L mol–1s–1 3.10 M to 0. use of calculators is not allowed. (ii) Question nos. How is the overall reaction represented? 10. Give IUPAC name of the following compound: (CH3)2C=CHCOCH3 8. Draw the structure of the following compound: 4-Bromo-3-methylpent-2-ene 7. What is an ambidentate ligand? Give an example. and why? 5. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. How long will it take for the initial concentration of the reactant to fall from 0. What is the number of atoms in a unit cell of a simple cubic crystal? 2. (vi) Use log tables if necessary.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS FOREIGN–2010 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. (iii) Question nos. Which is a stronger acid in aqueous solution—HCl or HI. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.0030 mol L–1 s–1. The rate constant for a zero order reaction is 0. Define: (i) Elementary reaction in a process (ii) Rate of a reaction. and (ii) KMnO4 from K2MnO4 . Give an example of shape-selective catalyst. (v) Question nos. (ii) XeOF4 Describe the preparation of (i) Potassium dichromate from sodium chromate. 11. Write the anode and cathode reactions occurring in a commonly used mercury cell. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) BrF3 13. What happens when glucose is treated with bromine water? 9. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. (iv) Question nos. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 4. CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1.

Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number. Illustrate the following name reactions giving chemical equations: (i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction (ii) Williamson synthesis.Examination Papers 153 14.763 V. 23.2-diamine) (At. much more than expected on the basis of usual family relationship.65 pm. giving ethene. ° (Given E °Zn 2 + /Zn = – 0. The density of iron is 7. (ii) There is a close similarity in physical and chemical properties of the 4 d and 5 d series of the transition elements. The other half-cell consists of a zinc electrode in a 0. 17.874 g cm–3. Explain the following giving a reason in each case: (i) Why is an alkylamine more basic than ammonia? 18. 20. (iii) The members in the actinoid series exhibit larger number of oxidation states than the corresponding members in the lanthanoid series. Write the mechanisms of the following reactions: (i) Hydration of ethene to ethanol (ii) Dehydration of ethanol. A voltage of 1. Nos : Cr = 24.80 V) g 2 + /Ag 21. Describe the state of hybridization. (ii) Why do primary amines have higher boiling points than the tertiary amines? Complete the following reaction equations: (i) C6H5NH2 + CHCl 3 + KOH (alc) ¾ ¾® (ii) C6H5N2 Cl + H3PO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® 19. Iron has a body-centred cubic unit cell with a cell edge of 286. 16. mass of iron = 56 g mol–1) One half-cell in a voltaic cell is constructed from a silver wire dipped in silver nitrate solution of unknown concentration. 22. (en = ethane-1. .10 M solution of Zn (NO3) 2.48 V is measured for this cell. the shape and the magnetic behaviour of the following complexes: (i) [Cr(H2O)2(C2O4)2]– (ii) [Co(NH3)2(en)2]3+. How are associated colloids different from the above two types of colloids? Explain the following observations: (i) The enthalpies of atomisation of transition metals are quite high. Co = 27) OR Explain the following terms: (i) Crystal field splitting in an octahedral field (ii) Spectrochemical series. 15. EA = + 0. Answer the following: (i) Identify chiral in CH3CHOHCH2CH3 and CH3CHOHCH3. (At. Use this information to calculate the concentration of silver nitrate solution. What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids? Give one example of each type.

(a) Non-ideal solutions exhibit either positive or negative deviations from Raoult's law.53°C kg mol–1). (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) HgCl2(aq) + PH3(g) ¾ ¾® (ii) SiO2(s) + HF(g) ¾ ¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetic behaviour. Assume van't Hoff factor for NaCl is 1. What is the advantage of using osmotic pressure as compared to other colligative properties for the determination of molar masses of solutes in solution? (b) A solution prepared from 1. (ii) The stability of +3 state increases down the group in group 15 of the periodic table. or 2-bromopentane Describe how the following changes are brought about: (i) Pig iron into steel (ii) Bauxite into pure alumina (iii) Impure copper into pure copper. To which group or groups do polythene and bakelite belong? 27.50°C? The freezing point depression constant. (iii) XeF2 has a linear shape and not a bent structure. Explain the meanings of the following terms: (i) Invert sugar (ii) Peptide linkage (iii) Denaturation of proteins. . What are these deviations and how are they caused? (b) What mass of NaCl (molar mass = 58.10°C and Kb for benzene = 2.31°C. How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Name a substance that can be used as an antiseptic as well as a disinfectant. 29. which one is more easily hydrolysed and why? CH3CHCICH2CH3 or CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl 2 (iii) Which of these will react faster in SN displacement and why? 1-bromopentane 24. OR Mention three such facts/reactions about glucose which cannot be explained by its open end structure. 28.0 g of benzene has a boiling point of 80.25 g of oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) in 99. Identify the four groups into which the polymers are classified on the basis of the magnitude of intermolecular forces present in them. Determine the molar mass of this compound.87. 25. (Boiling point of pure benzene = 80.5 g mol–1) must be dissolved in 65g of water to lower the freezing point by 7. Kf for water is 1. What is meant by pyranose structure of glucose? 26.86 K kg mol–1.154 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Among the following compounds. OR (a) Define the terms osmosis and osmotic pressure.

2. How are the following conversions carried out? (i) Propene to Propan-2-ol (ii) Ethyl magnesium chloride to Propan-1-ol 19. Determine the concentration of silver ions in the cell.10 M. Silver crystallises in a fcc lattice. 14. (b) Give chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Ethanal and Propanal (ii) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone (iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid. OR (a) Explain the mechanism of nucleophilic attack on a carbonyl group of an aldehyde or a ketone. The copper ion concentration is 0. Or CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl Draw the structures of O3 and S8 molecules. The concentration of silver ions is not known. calculate the atomic mass of silver. 30. (NA = 6.422 V.80 V . E °Cu 2 + /Cu = + 0. A copper-silver cell is set up. (b) How would you bring about the following conversions? (i) Propanone to Propene (ii) Ethanol to 3-hydroxybutanal (iii) Benzaldehyde to Benzophenone. Questions uncommon to Set I State a feature to distinguish a metallic solid from an ionic solid. (a) How will you prepare the following compounds starting with benzene? (i) Benzaldehyde (ii) Acetophenone.34 V ) . CBSE (Foreign) SET–II 1. Which one of these compounds is more easily hydrolysed by KOH solution and why? CH3 CHCICH2CH3 9. (Given E ° Ag + / Ag = + 0.07 × 10–8 cm and density of silver is 10.Examination Papers 155 OR (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) AgCl(s) + NH3(aq) ¾ ¾® (ii) P4(s) + NaOH(aq) + H2O(l) ¾ ¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) H2S is less acidic than H2Te (ii) Fluorine is a stronger oxidising agent than chlorine (iii) Noble gases are the least reactive elements.5g cm–3.02 × 1023 atoms mol–1) 20. The cell potential was found to be 0. If the edge length of the unit cell is 4.

CBSE (Foreign) SET–III Questions uncommon to Set I and Set II 2. State what is observed when (i) an electrolyte NaCl.66V) 21. Give an example of coordination isomerism. 22. (iii) a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution.0010 M) and Ni2+ (0.25V. What happens when glucose reacts with nitric acid? 12. What is meant by 'reversible sols'? 4.156 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 21. E°Al 3+ /Al = -1. (Molar mass of CaF2 = 78. The F– ions fill all the tetrahedral holes in the fcc lattice of Ca2+ ions. 26. The edge of the unit cell is 5. Illustrate the following name reactions giving a chemical reaction equation for each: (i) Kolbe’s reaction of phenol (ii) Friedel-Crafts’ acetylation of anisole. A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the following half-cells. Write the structure of the monomer of each of the following polymers: (i) Polyvinyl chloride (ii) Teflon (iii) Bakelite. The well-known mineral fluorite is calcium fluoride. Identify the order of reaction for which the rate constant is expressed in units of L–1 mol s–1. Explain the following: (i) The transition elements have great tendency for complex formation. (ii) There is a gradual decrease in the atomic sizes of transition elements in a series with increasing atomic numbers. (ii) an electric current is passed through a colloidal solution. (Given E° Ni 2 + / Ni = -0. (At. (iii) Lanthanum and Lutetium do not show colouration in solutions. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents? Give one example of each. Is there any structural difference between the two? 27. No. Write three features of chemisorption which are not found in physisorptions. Draw the structure of the following molecules: (i) XeF2 (ii) HClO4 16. 19.08 g mol–1) 20. The density of the mineral is 3. Lu = 71) . 8. is added to hydrated ferric oxide sol.50 M).: La = 57. Write an equation for the reaction that occurs in the cell when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples. Al3+ (0. 3. Use this information to calculate Avogadro's number. It is known that in the unit cell of this mineral there are 4 Ca2+ ions and 8F– ions and the Ca2+ ions are arranged in a face-centred cubic lattice.46 × 10–8 cm in length.18g cm–3.

(i) Some reactions occur by a series of elementary steps and such simple steps are known as elementary reactions in a process. 2.0030 . 5. Second order 3. . t = ? [R ] – [R] We know that k= o t [R o ] .10 M or + D[P ] Dt [R] = 0. ZSM–5 4. An ambidentate ligand is one which can link through either of the two donor atoms to the central metal ion.Examination Papers 157 Solutions CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1.075 or t = = = 8.075 M k = 0.0030 mol L–1 s–1. k 0.0. Chemical reactions of mercury cell Anode: Zn( s) + 2OH– ¾ ¾® ZnO( s) + H2 O + 2e – Cathode: HgO + H2 O + 2e – ¾ ¾® Hg(l) + 2OH– The overall reaction is represented by Zn( s) + HgO( s) ¾ ¾® ZnO( s) + Hg(l) 10. -D[R ] Dt Given: [Ro] = 0. Br | CH3 — CH— CH — CH — CH3 4 2 1 |3 5 CH3 7. HI is stronger acid then HCl because dissociation energy of H–I bond is less than that of H–Cl. CN and NC. Rate = 11.[R] 010 . (ii) Rate of a reaction: The change in the concentration of reactants products of or per unit time is called rate of the reaction. Br /H O 2 HOCH2 — (CHOH) 4 — CHO ¾ ¾2 ¾¾ ® HOCH2 — (CHOH) 4 — COOH Gluconic acid 9. For example: NO–2 and O NO. 4-Methyl-pent-3-en-2-one 8.33 s. 6. When glucose is treated with bromine water it forms gluconic acid. One atom.

(i) Structure of BrF3 molecule F Br F F Bent T–shaped (ii) Structure of XeOF4 molecule. The energy separation is denoted by D o .F.T at first there is an increase in the energy of d-orbitals relative to that of the free ion just as would be the case in spherical field. The actual configuration adopted is decided by the relative values of D o and P. . then fourth electron pairs the t2g orbital. dyz. According to C. The degenerate set of d-orbitals get split into two sets: the lower energy t2g set and eg set. 2K2MnO4 + H2O + O3 ¾ ¾® 2KMnO4 + 2KOH + O2 (i) [Cr (H2O)2 (C2O4)2]– (a) Hybridization — d 2 sp 3 (b) Shape — octahedral (c) Magnetic behaviour — Paramagnetic (ii) [Co (NH3)2 (en)2]3+ (a) Hybridisation — d 2 sp 3 (b) Shape — Octahedral (c) Magnetic behaviour — diamagnetic OR (i) Crystal field splitting in an octahedral field. F F Xe F O F Square pyramidal 13. P-represents the energy required for electron pairing in a single orbital. (i) Preparation of potassium dichromate from sodium chromate (a) 2Na 2 CrO4 + H2 SO4 ¾ ¾® Na 2 Cr2 O7 + Na 2 SO4 + H2 O (b) Na 2 CrO7 + 2KCl ¾ ¾® K 2 Cr2 O7 + 2NaCl (ii) Preparation of KMnO4 from K2MnO4 2K2MnO4 + Cl2 ¾ ¾® 2KMnO4 + 2KCl OR 14. The two orbitals lying along the axis get repelled more strongly than other three (dxy.158 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 12. dxz). (a) If D o < P then fourth electron goes to e g (b) When D o > P.

Examination Papers 159

Energy

dx2 – y2, dz2

Barycentre
DO

Metal
d-orbitals
dx2 – y2, dz2

eg

dxy, dyz, dxz

Average energy
of d- orbitals in a
spherical crystal
field

t2g

dxy, dyz, dxz
Splitting of orbitals
in an octahedral
crystal field.

Five degenerate
d-orbitals in free
metal ion

(ii) Spectrochemical Series: It is a series in which ligands can be arranged in the order of
increasing field strength or in order of increasing magnitude of splitting they produce.
The order is
I - < Br - < SCN- < Cl - < S 2 - < F - < OH- < C 2 O24 - < H2 O < NCS < edta 4- < NH3
< en < CN- < CO
15.

(i) Mechanism of hydration of ethene to ethanol
Step-I: Protonation of alkene
H
H

H
C

+
O

+ H

C

H

H
H

H

C

+
C

H

H

H + H 2O

H

Step-II: Nucleophilic attack of water as carbocation
H
H

C

+
C

H

H

H + HO
2

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

Step-III: Deprotonation of alcohol
H
H
H
H

C

C

H

H

O

+

H +

HO
2

H

H
+
O

H

H

OH

C

C

H

H

+
H + H3 O

(ii) Mechanism of dehydration of ethanol to ethene.
Step-I: Formation of protonated alcohol
H
H
H

C

C

H

H

O

H

+ H+

H

H

H

C

C

+
O

H

H

Fast

H

Ethyloxonium ion

H

160 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
Step–II: Formation of carbocation
H
H H
H H
|
|
|
|
|
Slow
Å
¾¾
®
H — C— C Å — O Å — H ¾
+ H2 O
¬¾ ¾
¾ ¾ H — C— C
··
|
|
|
|
H H
H H
Setp-III. Formation of ethene
H
H
H H
|
|
|
|

¾
¾
®
H — C— C Å ¬
C

C
+ H+
¾¾
|
|
|
|
H
H
H H
ethene

16.

(i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction
OH
½

é
ê
ê
CHCl 3 (aq.) NaOH ê
¾¾¾¾¾® ê
340 K
ê
ê
ê
êë

ù
ONa
ú
½
CHCl 2ú
ú NaOH
ú ¾¾®
ú
ú
ú
úû

(ii) Williamson synthesis
C2H5ONa + ICH3 ¾
¾®
Sodium ethoxide

17.

ONa
½

CHO

OH
½
H 3O +

CHO

¾®
Salicylaldehyde
(2-Hydroxy benzaldehyde)

C2H5OCH3 + NaI
Methyl-ethyl ether

(i) Alkylamine is more basic than ammonia because in aliphatic amines, the electron releasing
alkyl group stabilize their ammonium cations by dispersing the positive charge and in parent
amine make the nitrogen unshared electrons more available for sharing with a proton.
H
H
+
+I
+
N
N
R
+ H
R
H
H

H

H
H

H
+
+ H

N

+
H

H

N

H

H

(ii) The boiling points of primary amine are higher than the tertiary amines because strong
intermolecular hydrogen bonding takes place between the molecules of primary amine.
CH3
H 3C

N d–
H d+

H d+

N d–
H d+

H d+

Examination Papers 161

18.

(i) C 6 H5 NH2 + CHCl 3 + 3KOH(alco) ¾
¾®
Aniline

(ii)

19.

C 6 H5 N2 Cl + H3 PO2
Benzene diazonium
chloride

C 6 H5 NC + 3KCl + 3H2 O
Phenyl isocyanide

+ H2 O ¾
¾® C 6 H6 + N2 + HCl + H3 PO3
Benzene

Given: Z = 2
d = 7.874 g cm–3

a = 286.65 pm
M = 56 g mol–1
d=

(a 3 ) ´ N A

7.874 =

NA =

\

NA = ?
ZM
2 ´ 56
3

(286.65) ´ 10 -30 ´ N A
2 ´ 56
7.874 ´ ( 286.65) 3 ´ 10 -30

=

112
18.5 ´ 10 -23

=

112 ´ 10 23
18.5

NA = 6.054 × 1023
20.

Electrochemical cell
Zn(s)| Zn2+ (.10 M) | | Ag+ (conc.) | Ag (s)
E ocell = E oR - E oL
= 0.80 (– 0.763)V = 1.563 V
We know that
E ocell = (E oR - E oL ) 1.48 = 1.563 –
log

0.10
+ 2

=

[Ag ]
Or

0.10
[Ag + ] 2

21.

[0.10]
0.0591
log
2
[Ag + ] 2

0.083
= 2.8087
0.02955

= antilog of 2.8087 = 643.7

[Ag+]2 =
\

[Zn 2 + ]
0.0591
log
n
[Ag + ] 2

010
.
= 1.553 × 10 -4
643.7

[Ag+] = 1.247 × 10–2 M

(i) Macro molecular colloids: Macromolecules in suitable solvents form solution. Where in size
of the macromolecules may fall within the colloidal range. The system showing such
characteristics are called macromolecular colloids. The colloids are quite stable and in many
respect they resemble true solutions. Examples of naturally occurring macro molecules are
starch, cellulose, proteins and those of manmade macromolecules are nylon, polythene,
polystyrene, synthetic rubber etc.

162 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
(ii) Multimolecular colloids: A large number of atoms or smaller molecules (diameter < 1 nm) of
a substance on dissolution aggregate together to form species having size in the colloidal
range. Such species are called multimolecular colloids. Example: A sulphur sol contains
thousands of S8 sulphur molecules, a platinum or gold sol may have particles of various sizes
having many atoms.
(iii) Associated colloides (Micelles): There are certain substances which at low concentrations
behave like normal strong electrolytes but at higher concentration behave as colloidal solutions
due to the formation of aggregated particles. Such colloids are associated colloids and
aggregated particles as micelles. Examples: soaps and detergents.
22.

(i) This is because transition metals have strong metallic bonds as they have large number of
unpaired electrons.
(ii) There is a close similarity in physical and chemical properties of the 4d and 5d series of the
transition elements much more than expected on the basis of usual family relationship. This is
because 5d and 4d series elements have virtually the same atomic and ionic radii due to
lanthanide contraction. Due to equality in size of Zr and Hf, Nb and Ta, Mo and W, etc., the
two elements of pair have the same properties.
(iii) The members in the actinoid series exhibit larger number of oxidation states than the
corresponding members in the lanthanide series due to the fact that the 5f, 6d and 7s levels are
of comparable energies.
H
|

23.

(i)

CH3 —C*— CH2 CH3
|
OH
(Chiral)

H
|

CH3 — C — CH3
|
OH
(Non -chiral)

(ii) CH3CHClCH2CH3, in more easily hydrolysed as it forms secondary carbocation which is more
stable than primary carbocation.
(iii) 1–bromopentane will react faster in SN2 displacement reaction as it is a 1° alkyl halide.
24.

(i) Pig iron into steel: Pig iron is converted into steel by heating in a converter. A blast of oxygen
diluted with carbon dioxide is blown through the converter. Oxygen reacts with impurities and
raised the temperature to 2173K carbon gets oxidised to CO which burns off at the mouth of
the converter. Oxides of silicon and Mg form slag. When the flame is stopped, slag is tapped
off and other metals like Mn, Cr, Ni, W may be added in the end.
(ii) Bauxite into pure alumina.
(a) Al 2 O3 ( s) + 2NaOH( aq) + 3H2 O(l) ¾
¾® 2Na [Al (OH) 4 ]( aq)
(b) 2Na [Al (OH) 4 ]( aq) + CO2 ( g) ¾
¾® Al 2 O3 . xH2 O( s) + 2NaHCO3 ( aq)
K
(c) Al 2 O3 . xH2 O ¾1470
¾¾
¾® Al 2 O3 ( s) + xH2 O( g)

(iii) Impure copper into pure copper
Pure copper is obtained by electro-refining process. In this method, the impure metal is made
to act as anode. A strip of the same metal in pure form is used as cathode. They are put in a
suitable electrolyte bath containing soluble salt of the same metal.

Examination Papers 163

Cu ¾
¾® Cu 2 + + 2e
Cu 2+ + 2e ¾
¾® Cu (Pure copper)

Anode:
Cathode:
25.

(i) Invert Sugar: The dextrorotatory sucrose when hydrolysed by boiling with mineral acid
produces an equal number of molecules of dextrorotatory fructose. The resulting mixture is
laevorotatory and termed as invert sugar.
C12 H22 OH

+

H2O

H+

¾¾¾
¾®

Sucrose
[a]D = 66.5°

C6H12O6

+

C6H12O6

Glucose
[a]D = 52.5°

Fructose
[a]D = – 93°
Invert sugar

O
||
(ii) Peptide linkage: The amide linkage (— C — NH —) formed between two a–amino acid
molecules with the loss of a water molecule in a polypeptide is called a peptide linkage.
(iii) Denaturation of Proteins: When a protein in its native form, it is subjected to a change,
change in temperature or change in pH, the hydrogen bond are disturbed. Due to this, globules
unfold and helix get uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. This is called
denaturation of protein. During denaturation 2° and 3° structures are destroyed but 1°
structures remain intact, e.g., coagulation of egg white on boiling, curdling of milk, etc.
OR
The following reactions cannot be explained by the open chain structure of glucose.
(i) Despite having the aldehyde group, glucose does not give 2, 4– DNP test, Schiffs test and it
does not form the hydrogensulphite addition product with NaHSO3.
(ii) The penta acetate of glucose does not react with hydroxyl amine indicating the absence of free
—CHO group.
(iii) D–Glucose on treatment of methyl alcohol in the presence of dry HCl gas gives two isomeric
nonomethyl derivatives known as a-D-glucoside and methyl b– D–glucoside. These
glucosides do not reduce fehling solution and also do not react with hydrogen cyanide
indicating the absence of free —CHO group.
26.

A ring structure called pyranose structure (a- or b-) is proposed for the glucose molecule.
Polymers are classified into four groups based on the magnitude of intermolecular forces. They are—
(i) Elastomers
(iii) Thermoplastic polymers

(ii) Fibers
(iv) Thermosetting polymers

Polythene—Polythene is a thermoplastic polymer.
Bakelite— It is a thermosetting polymer.
27.

Antiseptics: Antiseptics are the chemicals which prevent the growth of the harmful microorganism.
They do not harm the living tissues. For example dettol.
Disinfectants: These are the chemicals which completely destroy the microorganism: They are toxic
to living tissues. 1% solution of phenol is a disinfectant whereas 0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic.

28.

(a) Positive deviation from Raoult's law: When the partial vapour pressure of each component
(A and B) consequently the total vapour pressure is greater than the pressure expected on the
basis of Raoult's law then the deviation is termed as positive deviation.

164 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
Cause of positive deviation: This type of deviation is observed by solution in which the
forces of attraction between A–A molecules and between B–B molecules is greater then the
forces of attraction between A–B molecules.
g A - B < g A -A

or

g B- B

Negative deviation from Raoult's law: When the partial vapour pressure of each component
of solution is less than the vapour pressure expected on the basis of Raoult's law then the
deviation is called as negative deviation.
Causes of negative deviation: This type of deviation is shown by solutions in which the
forces of attraction between A–A and B–B molecules is less than the forces of attraction
between A and B molecules.
g A - B > g A -A or

g B- B

–1

(b) Given: MB = 58.5 g mol
WA = 65g,

WB = ?

DTf = 7.5°C or 7.5 K,
Kf = 1.86 K kg mol–1
i = 1.87
We know that,
WB 1000
´
M B WA
WB 1000
7.5 = 1.87 × 1.86 ×
´
58 . 5 65
7. 5 ´ 58 . 5 ´ 65
WB =
1. 87 ´ 1. 86 ´ 1000
28518.75
WB =
3478.2
WB = 8.199 g.
DTf = iKf ×

\

OR
(a) Osmosis: The phenomenon in which solvent molecules flow through a semipermeable
membrane from a solution of low concentration to a solution of higher concentration is termed
as osmosis.
Osmotic Pressure: The hydrostatic pressure exerted by the column of the solution which is
just sufficient to prevent the osmosis is called osmotic pressure.
Advantage of using osmotic pressure as compared to other collegative properties:
(i) The equilibrium is established very quickly. Hence, results are obtained in a very short
time.
(ii) The concentration of the solution does not change during determination of osmotic
pressure.
(iii) This is ideal method for proteins to find their molar mass since it happens at room
temperature and no coagulation occurs.

25g. CS2 (ii) H3O+ Benzene Toluene Benzaldehyde COCH3 CH3COCl Anhy. AlCl3 (ii) Benzene Acetophenone (b) (i) Ethanol and propanal Iodoform test: Ethanol will give iodoform test positive while propanal will not. WA = 99g K ´ WB MB = b ´ 1000 DTb ´ WA = MB = 152 g/mol \ 29. CHO CH3Cl. (a) 2 × 53 ´ 1× 25 ´ 1000 3162. AlCl3 (a) (i) (i) CrO2Cl2. OR (a) (i) AgCl + 2NH3 ¾ ¾® [Ag (NH3)2]+ Cl– (ii) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ¾ ¾® PH3 + 3NaH2PO2 (b) (i) This is because bond dissociation enthalpy of H–Te bond is less than H–S as the size of Te is larger than S. (ii) The stability of +3 state increases down the group in group 15 due to inert pair effect.21 °C or 0.) .5 = 0 × 21´ 99 20. (iii) Noble gases are the least reactive elements due to fully filled outermost shells and zero electron gain enthalpy.21 K WB = 1. CH3 CHO +3I 2 +4NaOH ¾ ¾® CHI 3 ¯ + HCOONa + 3H2 O + 3NaI (Yellow ppt.53°C kg mol–1 MB = ?.10 = 0.Examination Papers 165 (b) Given DTB = 80. Anhy. Kb = 2.31 – 80.79 (i) 3HgCl2 + 2PH3 ¾ ¾® Hg3P2 + 6HCl (ii) SiO2 + 6HF ¾ ¾® H2SiF6 + 2H2O (b) (i) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetic behaviour because it forms S2 molecules like O2 which contains two unpaired electrons. CH3 30. (iii) This is due to presence of two bond pairs and three lone pairs of electrons in XeF2. (ii) Fluorine is a stronger oxidising agent than chlorine due to low dissociation enthalpy of F–F bond and high hydration enthalpy of F– ions.

H 2 SO4 4 (i) CH3 — C— CH3 ¾LiAlH ¾ ¾¾ ® CH3 — CH — CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH = CH2 D Propanone Propene OH | dil NaOH (ii) C 2 H5 OH ¾PCC ¾ ¾® CH3 CHO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH— CH2 — CHO Ethanol 3-hydroxy butanal CHO COOH KMnO4/H + COCl PCl5 (iii) C O Benzene Anh.166 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone Iodoform test: Treat both the compounds with I2 and NaOH. OH + FeCl3 6 [Fe(C6H5O)6] 3– + + 3H + HCl Violet-complex OR (a) Mechanism of nucleophilic addition reactions: A nucleophile attacks the electrophilic carbon atom of the polar carbonyl group from a direction approximately perpendicular to the plane of sp2 hybridized orbitals of carbonyl carbon. of iodoform will be obtained in acetophenone. A violet colouration will be obtained in case of phenol. The intermediate captures a proton from the medium to give the neutral product. COCH3 COONa I2. The hybridization of carbon changes from sp2 to sp3 in this process and a tetrahedral intermediate is produced. NaOH CHI3 ¯ + + 3NaI + 3H 2O (iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid Neutral FeCl3 test: Add few drops of FeCl3 solution to both the samples of the compounds. A yellow ppt. AlCl3 Benzaldehyde Toluene Benzophenone . Nu Nu d+ C O d– + Nu step-1 Aldehyde or ketone (Planar) (b) l slow C lfast – O H Tetrahedral intermediate + C step-2 O H Addition product OH O | || conc.

Examination Papers 167 CBSE (Foreign) SET–II 1. M = = 10.10 M [Ag+] = ? Eocell = EoR – EoL = 0. 2.767 ´ 10 -3 -24 ´ (4 .80V. H O ¾ ¾ ¾ 2¾® CH3 CH2 CH2 OH + Mg(OH)Cl Hydrolysis 3 19. H2 SO4 ¾ ¾® Propene CH3 — CH — CH3 ½ OSO3 H Isopropyl hydrogen sulphate Boiling CH3 — CH — CH3 + H2 O ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH— CH3 + H2 SO4 ½ ½ OH OSO3 H Propan -2-ol H (ii) + d -d -d Dry ether d+ C = O + CH3 C H2 — Mg Cl ¾¾¾® [ CH3 CH2 CH2 OMgCl] Ethylmag.46V From Nernst Equation: Propan -1-ol 3 . Eo Cu 2 + /Cu = + 0. 077 ´ 10 -8 cm) ´ (6.09 g mol 20.02 ´ 10 23 mol -1 4 –1 = 107.80 – 0. 9. CH3 CHCICH2CH3 because it forms secondary carbocation which is more stable. (i) Propan-2-ol can be prepared from propene by hydration as shown below: CH3 — CH = CH2 + conc.34V = 0.5 g cm -3 ´ 67. 5 g cm d ´ a ´ NA = Z 10. (a) (i) Ozone molecule: O O (ii) Structure of S8 molecule S S S S S O 116.34V [Cu2+] = 0. Given Eo Ag+/Ag = 0.8° pm O 7.8 O O O 12 O O S S S 14. Metallic solids have high melting and boiling points. 02 ´ 10 23 mol -1 ) 4 3 cm ´ 6. chloride H Addition product Methanal H+.

422 = 0. Those colloids which can be separated back into dispersed phase and dispersion medium. [Ag+] = 7. + CH3 ¾ (CH2 ) 11 ¾ ¾ SO-3 Na Non-biodegradable detergents: Detergents having branched hydrocarbon chains are not easily degraded by micro-organisms and hence are called non-biodegradable detergents. 4. (ii) On passing direct current. 26. Biodegradable detergents: Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chains are easily degraded by micro-organism and hence called biodegradable detergents. ] 0.g.2881 [Ag+]2 = 0. 3. (i) CH2 = CHCl Vinyl chloride (ii) CF2 = CF2 Tetrafluoroethene (iii) Phenol and formaldehyde CBSE (Foreign) SET–III 1.(CHOH) 4 . Second order. colloidal particles move towards the oppositely charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated. e.0051 \ 21. 5.1× 10–2 M (i) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH) 3 get coagulated by the oppositely charged Cl– ions provided by NaCl.(CHOH) 4 . [Co(NH2)6] [Cr(CN)6] and [Cr(NH2)6] [Co(CN)6] 8.. (iii) Scattering of light by the colloidal particles takes place and the path of light becomes visible (Tyndall effect). sodium-4-(1. sodium–4–(1-dodecyl) benzene sulphonate..COOH succinic acid . [Ag + ] 2 [ 010 . e.0591 log 2 [Ag + ] 2 0.168 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Ecell = Eocell - [ Cu 2 + ] 0. 27. Glucose gets oxidised to succinic acid HNO3 HOCH2 . 7-tetramethyl octyl) benzenesulphonate. CH3 CH3 ½ ½ + CH3 ¾ ( CH ¾ CH2 ¾ ) 3 ¾ CH ¾ ¾ SO-3 Na Non-biodegradable detergents accumulate in rivers and waterways thereby causing water pollution.g. 3.46 log 010 .CHO ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ® HOOC .591 log 2 [Ag + ] 2 = 1.

Z = 4. (i) Kolbe’s reaction OH ONa NaOH 400 K 4-7atm.46 × 10–8 cm –1 M = 78. Al( s) ¾ ¾® Al 3 + ( aq) + 3e ] ´ 2 At anode: At cathode: Ni 2+ ( aq) + 2e ¾ ¾® Ni ( s)] ´ 3 2Al ( s) + 3Ni 2 + ( aq) ¾ ¾® 2Al 3 + ( aq) + Ni( s) o Ecell = E cell - COOH H+ Sodium salicylate (ii) Friedel-Crafts’ acetylation of anisole OCH3 19.Examination Papers 169 F H O 12.0591 log n [ Ni 2 + ] 3 OCH3 + CH3 4-Methoxy acetophenone (Major) . OH OH [Al 3 + ] 2 0. we get 4 ´ 78. + CO2 Sodium phenoxide COONa Ethanoyl chloride Given: Salicylic acid (2-Hydroxybenzoic acid) Major product OCH3 Anhyd.18 g cm–3. NA = 313 × 32 ´ 10 24 517 × 61 NA = 6. (i) (ii) Xe Cl O O O HClO4 (Perchloric acid) F XeF2 (Linear shape) 16.035 × 1023 mol -1 20.46 ´ 10 -8 ) -3 ´ 318 . a = 5.08 NA = (5. AlCl3 + CH3COCl COCH3 2-Methoxy acetophenone (Minor) d = 3.08 g mol NA = ? Z´M d= a3 ´ NA \ NA = Z´M a3 ´ P Substituting the given values.

41 log (10 –6 ´ 8) =1. (iii) Lanthanum and Lutetium do not show colouration in solutions because both the element exhibit +3 oxidation state in their compound thus their cations do not possess any unpaired electrons in them.41 – (– 6 + 3 ´ 0.125 ( 0.(-1. small size of cations and higher nuclear charge. 22. (i) It is caused by chemical bond formation and enthalpy of adsorption is high (80-240 kJ mol–1) (ii) It forms unimolecular layer.41 ( -5. (ii) There is a gradual decrease in the atomic sizes of transition elements in a series with increasing atomic numbers due to poor shielding effect of d-electrons.001M = 1× 10–3M.0502 = 1.46 V Three features of chemisorption Ecell = 1. n = 6.4602V Ecell = 1. (i) The transition elements have great tendency for complex formation due to presence of vacant d-orbitals of suitable energy.0591 0. [Ni2+] = 0.0591 0.41 - 21.170 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Here.097) = 1.0591 = 1.E o 3+ = .0591 0. (iii) It is highly specific in nature. the net electrostatic attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons increase. 25 V .3012 = 1.41 – (log10 –6 + log 2 3 ) 6 6 0.41 + 0.0591 10 -6 log = 1.41 + 6 6 = 1.0.3010 ) 6 6 0. 66 V) Ni /Ni Al /Al o = 1.0591 = 1.41 log 6 6 0.0591 0.41 ( – 6 log 10 + 3 log 2) =1.41V E cell (10 -3 ) 2 0. .5M o = E o 2+ E cell . [Al3+] = 0.5) 3 0.

(ii) Sulphur has greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. Define ‘electrophoresis’. Draw the structure of 3-methylbutanal. State reasons for each of the following: (i) The N–O bond in NO–2 is shorter than the N–O bond in NO–3 . ‘Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature. 5. . 4. Distinguish between ‘rate expression’ and ‘rate constant’ of a reaction. E° = 1. What are biodegradable polymers? 9. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: (CH3)3 CCH2Br 6. (ii) Question numbers 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. OR State reasons for each of the following: (i) All the P—Cl bonds in PCl5 molecule are not equivalent. (v) Question numbers 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 12. Use of calculators is not allowed. Arrange the following compounds in an increasing order of their solubility in water: C6H5NH2.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS DELHI–2011 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. (C2H5)2NH. Draw the structure of XeF2 molecule. 7. The chemistry of corrosion of iron is essentially an electrochemical phenomenon. Express the relation between conductivity and molar conductivity of a solution held in a cell? 3.05 V –1 (1 F = 96500 C mol ) 11. C2H5NH2 8. Determine the values of equilibrium constant (KC) and DG° for the following reaction: Ni(s) + 2Ag+(aq) ¾ ¾® Ni2+(aq) + 2Ag(s).’ What does this statement mean? 2. if necessary. (iv) Question numbers 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1. 10. (vi) Use log tables. (iii) Question numbers 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. (ii) SF6 is kinetically an inert substance. Explain the reactions occurring during the corrosion of iron in the atmosphere.

(ii) Actinoids exhibit greater range of oxidation states than lanthanoids. (ii) 2-Methylpropene from 2-methylpropanol? 16. Calculate the radius of the silver atom. each face atom is touching the four corner atoms.0 0. Mention two important uses of each of the following: (i) Bakelite (ii) Nylon-6 19. 15.151 60. Each side of this unit cell has a length of 400 pm. 21. 18. Explain the following giving one example for each: (i) Reimer–Tiemann reaction.0 0.00 0. This first order reaction was allowed to proceed at 40°C and the data below were collected: [N2O5] (M) Time (min) 0. (ii) Friedel–Crafts acetylation of anisole. Nitrogen pentoxide decomposes according to equation: 2N2O5(g) ¾ ¾® 4NO2(g) + O2(g).0 (a) Calculate the rate constant. Explain how the phenomenon of adsorption finds application in each of the following processes: (i) Production of vacuum (ii) Heterogeneous catalysis (iii) Froth floatation process OR Define each of the following terms: (i) Micelles (ii) Peptization (iii) Desorption .209 40. Silver crystallizes in face-centered cubic unit cell. (b) What will be the concentration of N2O5 after 100 minutes? (c) Calculate the initial rate of reaction.109 80. (Assume the atoms just touch each other on the diagonal across the face of the unit cell. Assign reasons for the following : (i) Copper (I) ion is not known in aqueous solution. What is essentially the difference between a-form of glucose and b-form of glucose? Explain. 14. That is. How would you obtain (i) Picric acid (2. 17.0 0. 6-trinitrophenol) from phenol.289 20. 4.400 0. Include units with your answer.) 20.172 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 13. Describe what you understand by primary structure and secondary structure of proteins.

Describe the following giving one example for each: (i) Detergents (ii) Food preservatives (iii) Antacids 28. which one is more reactive in SN1 substitution reaction and why? 26. C6H5CH(CH3)Br and C6H5CH(C6H5)Br.44 g) .86 K kg mol–1) OR (a) Define the terms osmosis and osmotic pressure. nos. (iii) Recovery of silver after silver ore was leached with NaCN. (Molar mass of NaCl = 58. (b) How would you convert (i) Aniline to nitrobenzene (ii) Aniline to iodobenzene? 27. Ni = 28) (i) K4[Mn(CN)6] (ii) [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 (iii) K2[Ni(CN)4] 25.+ H+ ¾ ¾® (ii) KMnO4 heated ¾¾¾ ¾® (iii) Cr2 O27.00 g of NaCl to 250.Examination Papers 173 22. Answer the following: (i) Haloalkanes easily dissolve in organic solvents. (b) Calculate the boiling point of a solution prepared by adding 15.+ H2 S + H+ ¾ ¾® 24. (Molar mass of MgBr2= 184 g) (K f for water = 1.512 kg mol–1). How does a change in temperature influence their values? (b) Calculate the freezing point of an aqueous solution containing 10. (a) Differentiate between molarity and molality for a solution.50 g of MgBr2 in 200 g of water. (a) Explain why an alkylamine is more basic than ammonia. stereochemistry and magnetic behaviour of the following: (At. why? (ii) What is known as a racemic mixture? Give an example. (Kb for water = 0. Is the osmotic pressure of a solution a colligative property? Explain. (iii) Of the two bromoderivatives. Co = 27. Complete the following chemical equations: (i) MnO–4 + C 2 O24.00 g of water. 23. Describe the principle behind each of the following processes: (i) Vapour phase refining of a metal. Mn = 25. (ii) Electrolytic refining of a metal. Write the name.

(a) Explain the following: (i) NF3 is an exothermic compound whereas NCl3 is not. (ii) Tendency to form pentahalides decreases down the group in group 15 of the periodic table. (b) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) C + H2 SO4 (conc. (b) How would you obtain ( i) But-2-enal from ethanal (ii) Butanoic acid from butanol.) ¾ ¾® (ii) P4 + NaOH + H2O (iii) Cl 2 + F2 ¾ ¾® ¾ ¾® (excess) OR (a) Account for the following: (i) The acidic strength decreases in the order HCl > H2S > PH3.174 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 29. (ii) F2 is most reactive of all the four common halogens. heat COOH ¾SoCl ¾¾2 ® (ii) heat COOH H3 O+ (iii) C6H5CONH2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾® heat 30. (a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between (i) Propanal and propanone. (iii) Benzoic acid from ethylbenzene? OR (a) Describe the following giving linked chemical equations: (i) Cannizzaro reaction (ii) Decarboxylation (b) Complete the following chemical equations: CH2 CH3 4 ¾KMnO ¾¾ ¾ ® (i) KOH. (b) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) P4 + SO2 Cl 2 ¾ ¾® (ii) XeF2 + H2 O ¾ ¾® (iii) I 2 + HNO3 ¾ ¾® (conc) . (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone.

Which stoichiometric defect in crystals increases the density of a solid? 3. identify the following: (i) Oxidation number of iron. (v) Whether there may be optical isomer also.04°C. (b) A solution prepared by dissolving 8. Draw the structure of XeF4 molecule. (ii) Hybrid orbitals and shape of the complex. (iv) Number of its geometrical isomers. determine its molar mass. OR (a) Differentiate between molarity and molality in a solution. (ii) Raoult’s law in its general form in reference to solutions. (vi) Name of the complex. For the complex [Fe(en)2 Cl2] Cl. (a) State the following: (i) Henry’s law about partial pressure of a gas in a mixture. (iii) Silica in the extraction of copper. (iii) Magnetic behaviour of the complex. What is meant by ‘shape-selective catalysis’ of reactions? 4. . Explain the following terms with one suitable example for each: (i) A sweetening agent for diabetic patients.95 mg of a gene fragment in 35. (ii) Enzymes (iii) Analgesics 28.II Questions Uncommon to Set-I 1.63°C/m.335 torr at 25°C. Kb for chloroform is 3. Explain what is meant by (i) a peptide linkage. Explain the role of each of the following in the extraction of metals from their ores: (i) CO in the extraction of nickel. Assuming the gene fragment is a non-electrolyte. (ii) Zinc in the extraction of silver. 27. What is the effect of temperature change on molarity and molality in a solution? (b) What would be the molar mass of a compound if 6. 24. The boiling point of pure chloroform is 61.21g of it dissolved in 24.0 mL of water has an osmotic pressure of 0.7°C and the boiling point elevation constant. (ii) a glycosidic linkage. Which one of these in not present in DNA? 22. 10.0 g of chloroform form a solution that has a boiling point of 68.Examination Papers 175 CBSE (Delhi) SET . 9. Name the bases present in RNA.

6’ mean? 9. (At. What type of a battery is lead storage battery? Write the anode and the cathode reactions and the overall reactions occurring in a lead storage battery. 6 what does the designation ‘6. 10. mass of lead = 207 g mol–1 and NA = 6. Express the relation among the conductivity of solution in the cell. 4. Assign reasons for each of the following: (i) Transition metals generally form coloured compounds.15 V Construct the redox equation from the standard potential of the cell and predict if the reaction is reactant favoured or product favoured. Draw the structure of BrF3 molecule. Answer the following questions : (i) Why do soaps not work in hard water ? (ii) What are the main constituents of dettol? (iii) How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? . In nylon-6.35 g cm–3 and the metal crystallizes with fcc unit cell.176 Xam idea Chemistry—XII CBSE (Delhi) SET-III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and II 2. E o = + 1.02 × 1023 mol –1) 26.51 V Sn 2+ ( aq) ¾ ¾® Sn 4+ ( aq) + 2e – . 19. 18. 8. The density of lead is 11. Two half-reactions of an electrochemical cell are given below: MnO–4 ( aq) + 8H+ (aq) + 5e – ¾ ¾® Mn 2+ ( aq) + 4H2 O(l ) . (ii) Manganese exhibits the highest oxidation state of +7 among the 3d series of transition elements. Name the sub-groups into which polymers are classified on the basis of magnitude of intermolecular forces. Estimate the radius of lead atom. Complete the following chemical equations : NaCN reduction (i) CH3CH2Cl ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® (A) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® (B) Ni / H2 (ii) C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® O || LiAlH4 (iii) R — C — NH2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ® H2 O 27. E o = + 0. 13. the cell constant and the resistance of solution in the cell.

k ´ 1000 ..e. of electron pairs in the valence shell of central Xe atom = =5 2 No. E o 2+ = . i. The reactions are given below. refractive index. Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature means some of their physical properties like electrical conductivity. CH3 O | || CH3 — C H — CH2 — C — H 7. Moisture having dissolved CO2 or O2 acts as an electrolyte.67V 2 The Fe2+ ions are further oxidised by atmospheric oxygen to Fe3+ ions. At anode: Fe ¾ ¾® Fe 2+ + 2e – . Polymers which get disintegrated by themselves in biological systems during a certain period of time by enzymatic hydrolysis or to some extent by oxidation are called biodegradable polymers.0.23V 2 2 2 1 Overall reaction: Fe + 2H+ + O2 ¾ ¾® Fe 2+ + H2 O. 2. E ° H + / O / H O = 1. etc. CH3 5. l m = C 3. which comes out in the form of hydrated ferric oxide (rust). of bond pairs = 2 No.2. where k is the conductivity and C is the molar concentration.I 1. the shape of molecule would be linear.Examination Papers 177 Solutions CBSE (Delhi) SET . In this cell pure iron acts as anode and impure iron surface acts as cathode. 2. Total no. 1 2Fe 2+ + O2 + 2H2 O ¾ ¾® Fe 2 O3 + 4H+ 2 Fe2O3 + xH2O ¾ ¾® Fe2O3 xH2O (Rust) + .. are different in different directions.44 V Fe / Fe 1 At cathode: 2H + O2 + 2e – ¾ ¾® H2 O. An example of biodegradable polymer is PHBV. According to electrochemical theory of rusting the impure iron surface behaves like small electrochemical cell in the presence of water containing dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide. | CH3 — C— CH2 — Br 1. The movement of colloidal particles under an applied electric potential is called electrophoresis.Bromo . poly-b-hydroxy butyrate-co-b hydroxyvalerate. E ° cell = 1. Increasing order of solubility of amines in water C6H5NH2 < (C2H5)2NH < C2H5NH2 8. of lone pairs = 3 Xe Therefore. 8+2 F 4. 9.dimethyl propane | F CH3 6.

05 = – 202650 J DG o = – 202. E° = 1.178 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 10. Due to these reasons. sulphur has greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. . 059 Kc = antilog 39.5932 = 3. Rate expression is an experimentally determined expression which relates the rate of reaction with the concentration of the reactants whereas rate constant is the rate of reaction when concentration of each reactant in the reaction is unity. SF6 is kinetically an inert substance. (ii) The property of catenation depends upon bond strength of the element. This is due to the fact that the axial bond pairs suffer more repulsion as compared to equatorial bond pairs. Further. OR (i) In PCl5 the two axial bonds are longer than the three equatorial bonds.059 2 log Kc = ´ 1. (i) In aqueous solution Cu+ undergoes disproportionation to form a more stable Cu2+ ion. 2 Cu+ (aq) ¾ ¾® 2 Cu2+(aq) + Cu(s) The higher stability of Cu2+ in aqueous solution may be attributed to its greater negative D hydH° than that of Cu+. 12.05 V Here.65 kJ 11.92 × 1039 o DG o = – nFE cell DG o = – 2 × 96500 × 1.05 = 39. Ni(s) + 2Ag+(aq) ¾ ¾® Ni2+ (aq) + 2Ag(s). n = 2 n o log Kc = E cell 0. It compensates the second ionization enthalpy of Cu involved in the formation of Cu2+ ions. Consider a general reaction aA + bB ¾ ¾® c C + dD The rate expression for this reaction is Rate = k [A]m [B]n Where the proportionality constant k is called rate constant. F does not have d-orbitals to accept the electrons denoted by H2O molecules. (ii) Actinoids exhibit greater range of oxidation states than lanthanoids.919 × 1039 Kc = 3.5932 0 . (ii) In SF6. 13. As S—S bond is much stronger (213 kJ mol–1) than O—O bond (138 kJ mol–1). 14. (i) Reimer–Tiemann Reaction: Treatment of phenol with chloroform in the presence of aqueous alkali at 340 K followed by hydrolysis of resulting product gives salicylaldehyde as a major product. S atom is sterically protected by six F atoms and does not allow water molecules to attack the S atom. This is because there is less energy difference between 5f and 6d orbitals belonging to actinoids than the energy difference between 4f and 5d orbitals in case of lanthanoids. (i) This is because the N—O bond in NO–2 is an average of a single bond and a double bond whereas the N—O bond in NO–3 is an average of two single bonds and a double bond.

Glucose 2-Methyl propene O | HO — 1 C — H | 2 H — C — OH | HO — 3 C — H O | 4 H — C — OH | 5 H— C — | 6 CH2 — OH b.(+).) 15. | H — 1 C — OH | 2 H — C — OH | HO — 3 C — H | 4 H — C — OH | H —5 C — | CH2 OH a . OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 O O — C — CH3 Anhyd. For example. (i) OH ½ — SO3 H ¾¾¾¾¾® HNO3 (conc.) O2 N — | NO2 | SO3 H Phenol — NO2 ¾¾¾¾® Phenol -2.Examination Papers 179 OH ½ é ê CHCl 3 + NaOH ê ¾¾¾¾¾¾® ê 340K ê ê êë Phenol ù ONa ú ½ ú NaOH — CHCl 2 ú ¾¾® ú ú úû ONa ½ — CHO H O+ 3 ¾® OH ½ — CHO Salicyaldehyde – – – – (ii) Friedel–Crafts acylation of anisole: Anisole on treatment with acylchloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 undergo electrophilic substitution in the ring at ortho and para positions.4 disulphonic acid Picric acid CH3 CH3 CH3 | | | SOCl 2 (ii) CH3 — CH — CH2 OH ¾+¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — CH — CH2 — Cl ¾ale.D-(+ ).KOH ¾¾ ¾® CH3 — C — CH2 2-Methyl propanol 16.Glucose .D. AlCl3 + CH3 — C — Cl + Ethanoyl chloride o-Methoxy acetophenone C — CH3 – – Anisole O p-Methoxy acetophenone (major product) OH ½ OH ½ H 2 SO4 (conc.

[A] = 0. In a-helix structure. electrical switches.289 mol L–1 Also.303 4.00 k= log Þ 20 2. all peptide chains are stretched out nearly to maximum extension and then laid side by side which are held together by hydrogen bonds.289 2. (ii) Nylon-6 is used for making tyre cords. the -OH group at C1 is towards left.00706 = 0. Any change in the primary structure creates a different protein.303 k= [0.00 – log 2.89 2. 19.303 k= log t [A] 2. the —OH group at C1 is toward right whereas in b-glucose.400 k= log \ 20 0. Secondary Structure: The conformation which the polypeptide chain assumes as a result of hydrogen bonding is known as secondary structure. (i) Bakelite is used for making combs. Primary Structure: The specific sequence in which the various a-amino acids present in a protein are linked to one another is called its primary structure.303 × 0.180 Xam idea Chemistry—XII In a-D Glucose. the polypeptide chain forms all the possible hydrogen bonds by twisting into a right handed screw (helix) with the —NH groups of each amino acid residue hydrogen bonded to the C==O groups of an adjacent turn of the helix.4609] Þ 20 2.303 0.400 mol L–1 For a first order reaction [A] ° 2.4 pm ´ = 400 2 = 100 2 4 \ 20. In b-pleated structure.016259 min–1 Þ k = 1. a = 400 pm For fcc. ropes and fabrics. [A]0 = 0. (a) When t = 20 min.303 k= Þ ´ 01412 .6021 – 0. 18. handles of various utensils and phonograph records. The two types of secondary structures are a-helix and b-pleated sheet structure. 20 k = 2. 17.6259 × 10–2 min–1 Þ .303 k= [log 4. Such a pair of stereo-isomers which differ in the configuration only around C1 are called anomers.414 = 141. r = a 2 2 400 = 400 2 r= Þ 2 2 2 2 2 r = 100 × 1.89] Þ 20 2.

21.626 × 10–2 min–1 Initial rate = k [A] = 1. Manufacture of ammonia using iron as a catalyst.4 [A ] 5.400 mol L–1 Also. [A] = 0. is connected to vessel which has already been exhausted as far as possible by vacuum pump.626 ´ 10 -2 0.303 0.0787 M 5. (ii) Heterogeneous Catalysis: There are many gaseous reactions of industrial importance involving solid catalyst.626 × 10–2 min–1 × 0.400 mol L–1 = 6.7060 = log Antilog (0. Now.082 (c) Initial rate. The gaseous reactants are adsorbed on the surface of the solid catalyst. The remaining traces of air inspite of low pressure are adsorbed by the charcoal almost completely. The formation . (iii) Froth Floatation Process: In froth floatation process the powdered ore is mixed with water.082 = 0.4 = log [A ] 2.626 × 10–2 min–1 2. [A]0= 0.Examination Papers 181 (b) t = [A ]0 2. The foam is separated out and is collected and in the course. k = 1. k = 1.4 [A ] 0..400 100 = log \ -2 [A ] 1.504 × 10–3 mol L–1 min–1. a stream of air is blown through the mixture from below when froth is formed at the water surface.4 [A ] 0.00 min.303 0.303 log k [A ] Here. It is then mixed with pine oil (a frother). the concentration of the reactants increases on the surface of the catalyst and hence the rate of reaction increases. the ore particles also settle down.626 ´ 10 100 ´ 1.7060) = 0.400 mol–1. i. (i) Production of Vacuum: Adsorption can be successfully applied to create conditions of high vacuum. The aggregated particles thus formed are called micelles.e. As a result. The ore particles stick to the bubbles of the air rises to surface along with the foam while the gangue particles which are wetted by water settle at the bottom.4 = 0. t = 100 min. For this a bulb of charcoal cooled in liquid air. OR (i) Micelles: There are some substances which at low concentration behave as normal strong electrolytes but at higher concentration exhibit colloidal behaviour due to formation of aggregated particles. rate of reaction when t = 0 [A] = Þ \ When. The oil particles are adsorbed on the surface of ore particles. manufacture of H2SO4 by contact process using V2O5 catalyst and use of finely divided nickel in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils are the excellent examples. t = 0.

(iii) Desorption: The process of removing an adsorbed substance from a surface on which it is adsorbed is called desorption. A strip of same metal in pure form is used as cathode. (i) MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e C2O42– 2MnO4– + 5C2O42– + 16H+ ¾ ¾® Mn2+ + 4H2O] × 2 ¾ ¾® 2CO2 + 2e ] × 5 ¾ ¾® 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O (ii) 2KMnO4 ¾heat ¾ ¾® K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 2– (iii) Cr2O7 + 14H+ + 6e ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 7H2O H2S ¾ ¾® 2H+ + S + 2e] × 3 Cr2O72– + 3H2S + 8H+ ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 3S + 7H2O .182 Xam idea Chemistry—XII of micelles takes place only above a particular temperature called Kraft temperature and above a particular concentration called critical micelle concentration (CMC). which ultimately break up into particles of colloidal dimension. [Ag(CN)2]–. 22. It is then decomposed to give pure metal. refining of nickel by Mond process. (i) Vapour phase refining of a metal: In this method. 350 K Ni + 4CO ¾330 ¾-¾ ¾® Ni(CO)4 450 – 470 K Ni(CO)4 ¾¾¾¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO (ii) Electrolytic refining of a metal: In this method. This causes development of positive or negative charge on precipitates. the precipitate absorbs one of the ions of the electrolyte on its surface. When electric current is passed the metal from the anode goes into solution as ions due to oxidation while pure metal gets deposited at the cathode due to reduction of metal ions. Surface active agents such as soap and synthetic detergents belong to this class. (ii) Peptization: The process of converting a precipitate into colloidal sol by shaking it with dispersion medium in the presence of a small amount of suitable electrolyte is called peptization. The voltage applied for electrolysis is such that impurities of more electropositive metals remains in the solution as ions while impurities of the less electropositive metals settle down under the anode as anode mud. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of same metal. the metal is converted into its volatile compound and collected elsewhere. During peptization. 2[Ag(CN)2]–(aq) + Zn(s) ¾ ¾® 2Ag(s) + [Zn(CN)4]2–(aq) 23. the impure metal is made to act as anode. Silver is then recovered from this complex by displacement method using more electropositive zinc metal. For example. – At anode: M ¾ ¾® M n + + n e At cathode: Mn+ + n e ¾ ¾® M – (iii) Recovery of silver after silver ore was leached with NaCN: During leaching Ag is oxidised to Ag+ which then combines with CN– ions to form soluble complex.

Hybridisation of metal Geometry of complex ion involved d2sp3 Octahedral Magnetic behaviour Paramagnetic d2sp3 Octahedral Diamagnetic dsp2 Square planar Diamagnetic (i) Haloalkanes dissolve in organic solvents because the new intermolecular attractions between haloalkanes and organic solvent molecules have much the same strength as ones being broken in the separate haloalkanes and solvent molecules.g. the intermediate obtained from C6H5CH (C6H5) Br is more stable than obtained from C6H5CH(CH3) Br because it is stabilised by two phenyl groups due to resonance. – N2Cl Iodo benzene (i) Detergents: Detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps. 26. (ii) An equimolar mixture of a pair of enantiomers is called racemic mixture. C6H5CH (C6H5)Br is more reactive than C6H5(CH3) Br. Name of the Complex Potassium hexacyano manganate (II) Pentaammine Chloridocobalt (III) Chloride Potassium tetra cyanonikelate (II) 25.. the alkyl group (R) pushes electrons towards nitrogen in alkyl amine and thus makes the unshared electron pair more available for sharing with the proton of the acid. + NH2 + – N2Cl HBF4 NaNO2/HCl (b) (i) – N2BF4 NO2 NaNO2 Cu. Therefore.Examination Papers 183 24. H H (a) R — N + + + H R—N —H H H Due to electron releasing nature. sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate. (iii) Of the two bromo derivatives. Detergents are mainly classified into three categories: . C6H5CH(CH3)Br and C6H5CH(C6H5)Br. butan-2-ol. For example. D 273-278 K Aniline Nitro benzene + NH2 NaNO2/HCl (ii) I +KI 273-278 K Aniline 27. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water. Therefore alkyl amine are more basic than ammonia. A racemic mixture is optically inactive due to external compensation. but actually do not contain any soap e.

44 g mol–1.86 K kg mol -1 ´ 10. we get 3 ´ 1. Sodium benzoate. 28. freezing of aqueous solution = 273. i ´ K b ´ WB ´ 1000 (b) DTb = M B ´ WA i = 2. Molarity decreases with increase in temperature as volume increases with increase in temperature. WA = 250 g Substituting these values in the above equation. Preservatives prevent rancidity and kill or inhibit the growth of microorganism.59 K Therefore. WA = 200 g Substituting these values in above equation. Osmotic Pressure: The minimum excess pressure that has to be applied on the solution to prevent the passage of solvent molecules into it through semipermeable membrane is called osmotic pressure.86 K kg mol–1. sodium metabisulphite are some common preservatives. (iii) Antacids: These are the chemical substances which neutralize the excess acid and raise the pH to an appropriate level in the stomach.15 K – 1. Kb = 0.5 g ´ 1000 g kg -1 DTf = 184 g mol -1 ´ 200 g DTf = 1. Sodium hydrogen carbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide are some common antacids.59 K = 271.56 K OR (a) Osmosis: The spontaneous movement of the solvent molecules either from the pure solvent to the solution or from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane. We get .512 K kg mol–1. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property as it depends on the number of moles of solute particles and not on their identity. Molality is independent of temperature because mass does not depend on temperature. i ´ K f ´ WB ´ 1000 (b) DTf = M B ´ WA i = 3. WB= 15g MB = 58. WB = 10.184 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (i) Anionic detergents (ii) Cationic detergents (iii) Non-ionic detergents (ii) Food Preservatives: These are the chemical substances which are added to the food materials to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth and to retain their nutritive value for long time. Kf = 1.5 g MB = 184 g mol–1. (a) Molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution whereas molality is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of the solvent.

05 K Therefore. – — CH3CH2CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3OH ¾ ¾® CH3 CH2 COO + 2Ag ¯ + 4NH3 + 2H2 O Silver Mirror Propanal CH3COCH3 ¾Tollen's ¾ ¾® No silver mirror reagent (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone Iodoform test: Acetophenone being a methyl ketone on treatment with I2/NaOH undergoes Iodoform reaction to give yellow ppt. NaOH (i) CH3CHO CH3CH—CH2CHO D CH3CH—CHCHO Ethanal But-2-enal – H 2 SO4 ¾CrO ¾3¾ ¾ ¾® (ii) CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH Butan – l – ol Butanoic acid –+ CH2CH3 COOK H3O+ KMnO4–KOH (iii) COOH D Ethyl benzene Benzoic acid OR (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an a-hydrogen atom undergoes disproportionation reactions on treatment with concentrated alkali to give a mixture of carboxylic acid salt and alcohol. C 6 H5 COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® C 6 H5 COONa + CHI 3 ¯ + 2NaOH Acetophenone Iodoform (Yellow ppt. of iodoform but benzaldehyde does not. ¾ ¾NaOH ¾ ¾® HCOO Na + Sod. + 2 HCHO Formaldehyde ¾Conc.) OH (b) dil.20 K 29.512 K kg mol -1 ´ 15 g ´ 1000 g Kg -1 58. (a) (i) Propanal and propanone Tollen’s reagent test: Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Tollen’s reagent to silver mirror but propanone being a ketone does not. boiling point of aqueous solution = 373.formate CH3 .05 K = 374.15K + 1.OH Methyl alcohol (ii) Decarboxylation: Carboxylic acids lose carbon dioxide to form hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated with sodalime.Examination Papers 185 DTb = 2 ´ 0.44 g mol -1 ´ 250 g = 1. – + RCOO Na ¾NaOH ¾ ¾and¾CaO ¾® D RH + Na 2 CO3 .

Interstitial defect 3.) ¾ ¾® CO2 + 2SO2 + 2H2O (ii) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ¾ + 3NaH2PO2 ¾® PH3 Phosphine (iii) Cl 2 + 3F2 (excess) 573 K ¾ ¾¾® 2ClF3 OR (a) (i) As bond dissociation enthalpy of H—Cl bond is lower than H—S which is lower than P—H.II 1. The catalytic reaction that depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and product molecules is called shape-selective catalysis. .186 Xam idea Chemistry—XII –+ CH2CH3 (b) COOK KMnO4 (i) KOH. The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases down the group in group 15. (ii) This is due to inert pair effect.) ¾ ¾® H2O + 2NO2 + (O)] × 5 I2 + 5(O) ¾ ¾® I2O5 I2 O5 + H2 O ¾ ¾® 2HIO3 I2 + 10HNO3(conc. heat Ethyl benzene Pot. The acidic strength decreases because of decrease in polarity of E—H bond from H—Cl to P—H which is due to decrease in electonegativity of E.) ¾ ¾® 2HIO3 + 10NO2 + 4H2O CBSE (Delhi) SET . (ii) Because of low F—F bond dissociation enthalpy. fluorine forms stronger bond with nitrogen due to comparable size. benzoate COOH COCl SOCl2 (ii) COOH heat COCl Phthalic acid (iii) C6H5CONH2 Phthaloyl chloride H O+ heat 3¾® ¾¾ Benzamide C6H5COOH + NH3 Benzoic acid 30. (a) (i) This is because bond dissociation energy of F2 is lower than Cl2 Moreover. (b) (i) C + 2H2SO4 (conc. (b) (i) P4 + 10SO2Cl2 ¾ ¾® 4PCl5 + 10SO2 (ii) 2Xe F2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 2Xe + 4HF + O2 (iii) 2HNO3 (conc.

350 K K Ni + 4CO ¾330 ¾-¾ ¾ ¾® Ni(CO) 4 ¾450 ¾ -¾470¾ ¾ ® Ni + CO Impure nickel Pure nickel Nickel tetracarbonyl (ii) Zinc in the extraction of silver: Silver present in the ore is leached with dilute solution of NaCN in the presence of air or oxygen to form a soluble complex. (i) Peptide linkage: The amide linkage ( — C — NH —) formed between two a–amino acid molecules with the loss of a water molecule in a polypeptide is called a peptide linkage. (i) [Fe (en)2 Cl2]Cl x + 0 × 2 + (–1) × 2 + (–1) × 1 = 0 x =3 Oxidation number of iron = 3 (ii) d2sp3 hybridization. Uracil is not present in DNA. of bond pairs = 4 No. (i) CO in the extraction of nickel: Impure nickel is heated in a stream of carbon monoxide when volatile nickel tetracarbonyl is formed and the impurities are left behind in the solid state. cytosine (C) and uracil (U). (i) Artificial sweetening agents are chemical substances which are sweet in taste but do not add calories to our body. 10. the shape of molecule would be square planar. O || 9.Examination Papers 187 4. (ii) Glycosidic linkage: The oxide linkage between two monosaccharides in oligosaccharides or polysaccharides is called glycosidic linkage. . guanine (G). For example. cis-[Fe(en)2Cl2] (vi) Bis–(ethane-1. FeO + SiO2 ¾ ¾® FeSiO3 Flux Ferrous silicate(slag) 24. 2-diamine)–dichlorido iron (III) chloride 27. Its use is of great value to diabetic persons as it is excreted from the body through urine as such. 4Ag(s) + 8CN–(aq) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) ¾ ¾® 4 [Ag (CN)2]– + 4 OH–(aq) Soluble Complex Silver is then recovered from the complex by displacement method using complex using a more electropositive zinc metal. 22. of lone pairs = 2 F F Therefore. Octahedral (iii) Paramagnetic (iv) Two (v) Yes. Total number of electron pairs in the valence shell of central F F 8+4 Xe atom = =6 2 Xe No. 2[Ag(CN)2]– (aq) + Zn(s) ¾ [Zn(CN)4]2–(aq) ¾® 2Ag(s) + (iii) Silica in the extraction of copper: During smelting and bessemerisation the impurity ferrous sulphide oxidised to ferrous oxide which is then reacted with silica (flux) to form slag ferrous silicate. saccharin. The bases present in RNA are adenine (A). The vapour of nickel tetra carbonyl is taken to a decomposer chamber maintained at 450–470 K where it decomposes to give pure nickel metal and carbon monoxide.

335 T = (25 + 273 ) K = 298 K . Almost all the enzymes are globular proteins.335 atm ´ 35 ´ 10 -3 L 760 MB = 14193.95 × 10–3g. Molarity changes with change in temperature as volume changes with change in temperature. 28. Moles of solute Molarity = Volume of solution in litre Unit of molarity is mol L–1 or M (molar). Molality (m): It is defined as the number of moles of the solute dissolved in one kilogram (kg) of the solvent and is expressed as: Moles of solute Molality = Mass of solvent (in kg) Number of moles of solute = ´ 1000 Mass of solvent (in grams) Unit of molality is mol kg–1. There are two types of analgesics: Narcotics — Morphine. 29 g mol–1 OR Here. Enzymes are highly specific in their action on substrate. without significantly affecting consciousness. (a) Molarity (M): It is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution. heroine Non-narcotics — Aspirin. cocaine.63K kg mol–1. p = atm 760 V = 35 × 10–3 L Substituting these values in the above equation 8. WB = 6. Molality is independent of temperature.95 mg = 8. (iii) Analgesics: Analgesics are chemical compounds which are used for relieving pain. Kb = 3. (a) (i) Henry’s law: It states that the partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase (p) is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas (x) in the solution and is expressed as: P = KH x Where KH is Henry’s law constant (ii) Raoult’s law: It states that for any solution the partial pressure of each volatile component in the solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction. Analgesics relieves pain by acting on central nervous system or on peripheral pain mechanism.0821 L atm K -1 mol –1 ´ 298 K We get.0821 L atm K–1 mol–1 0.188 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Enzymes: Enzymes are catalysts of biological origin which accelerate various cellular reactions without themselves undergoing any apparent change during the course of action.21 g .95 ´ 10 -3 g ´ 0. W ´ R ´T (b) MB = B p´ V WB = 8. K ´ WB ´ 1000 (b) MB = b DTb ´ WA Here. R = 0. MB = 0. ibuprofen etc.

we get 3. In nylon-6. At anode: Pb( s) + SO24.7°C = 6. On the basis of magnitude of intermolecular forces polymers are classified into following four sub-groups: (i) Elastomers (ii) Fibers (iii) Thermoplastic polymers (iv) Thermosetting polymers . 18. 6 both the monomers hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid contain six carbon atoms each.34°C. WA = 24.0 g MB = 148. the shape of molecule would be that of slightly bent-T. When visible (white) light falls on a transition metal compounds.34 K ´ 24.51 V – 0. 13. At anode: At cathode: Cell reaction : Sn2+ (aq) MnO4– (aq) + 8H+ (aq) + 5e– ¾ ¾® 2 PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) ¾ ¾® Sn4+ (aq) + 2e–] × 5 ¾ ¾® Mn2+ (aq) + 4H2O (l)] × 2 2MnO4–(aq) + 5Sn2+ (aq) + 16 H+ (aq) ¾ ¾® 2Mn2+ (aq) + 5Sn4+(aq) + 8H2O(l) o o o = E cathode = 1. Br F F 8.21 g ´ 1000 g kg -1 MB = 6. The colour observed corresponds to complementary colour of the light absorbed.15 g mol–1 CBSE (Delhi) SET . k (conductivity) = 1 ´ G (Cell constant) R (Resistance) F 4.36 V As cell potential is positive therefore the reaction is product favoured.( aq) ¾ ¾® PbSO4(s) + 2e – At cathode: PbO2 ( s) + SO24.04°C – 61. 9. they absorb certain radiation of visible light and transmit the remaining ones.III 2. (i) This is due to d-d transition.0 g Substituting these values in the above equation.63 K kg mol -1 ´ 6. (ii) As manganese has maximum number of unpaired electrons (5) in 3d subshell in addition to 2 electrons in the 4s subshell.15 V E Cell – E anode = 1. Secondary cell. Total number of electron pairs in the valence shell of central 7 +3 Br atom = =5 2 Number of bond pairs = 3 Number of lone pairs = 2 Therefore.Examination Papers 189 DTb = 68.( aq) + 4H+ ( aq) + 2 e ¾ ¾® PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l) Cell reaction : Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4 (aq) 10.

35 ´ 6.6945 3 x = Antilog (0.. Furacin and soframycin are well-known antiseptic creams.02 ´ 10 24 cm 3 æ ö 8280 ÷÷ Þ a = çç 11.35 ´ 6. æ ö 8280 ÷÷ Let x = çç è 11. Disinfectants are chemical substances which kill microorganisms but are not safe to be applied to the living tissues. soaps get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soaps which being insoluble stick to the clothes as gummy mass. Examples are dettol and savlon.1. ulcers. d = Z´M 3 a3 = Þ a ´ NA Z´M d ´ NA . drains. In hard water.02 è ø ´ 10 -8 cm 1/ 3 26.9 pm a For fcc.949 a = 4.02 × 1023 mol –1 d = 11. Some common examples of disinfectants are phenol (³1% solution) and chlorine (0.6945) Þ x = 4. (i) Hard water contains calcium and magnesium salts.02] = [3.9180 . .35 ´ 6. etc. r= 2 2 494.2 to 0.949 × 10–8 cm \ Þ a = 494. (iii) Antiseptics are chemical substances which prevent the growth of microorganisms and may even kill them but are not harmful to human or animal tissues.9 2 r= \ pm = pm = pm 4 4 2 2 r = 174. cuts and diseased skin surfaces.9 494.35g cm -3 ´ 6.(i) For fcc unit cell.0835] = 0. These are generally used to kill microorganisms present in the toilets.4 ppm).. (ii) Chloroxylenol and a-terpineol in a suitable solvent.190 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 19.95 pm \ (i) CH3CH2Cl ¾NaCN ¾¾® CH3CH2CN ¾Reduction ¾ ¾¾® CH3CH2CH2NH2 Ni / H 2 (ii) C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® C6H6 O || 4 (iii) R — C — NH2 ¾LiAlH ¾¾ ¾ ® R—CH2—NH2 H 2O 27.02 ø 1 1 log x = [ log 8280 – log11. floors.414 494. They are generally applied on wounds.02 ´ 10 23 mol -1 1/ 3 4 ´ 207 ´ 10 a3 = 11.35 g cm–3 Substituting these values in equation (i). Z = 4 M = 207 g mol–1 NA = 6.7796] 3 3 1 log x = [2. we get 4 ´ 207 g mol -1 a3 = 11.0549 .0.35 – log 6.9 ´ 1.

(C6H5)2 NH and CH3NH2 9. (iv) Question numbers 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. (vi) Use log tables. Rearrange the following in an increasing order of their basic strengths: C6H5NH2.6021) . (v) Question numbers 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS ALL INDIA–2011 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. 2.4 × 10–3 s–1 at a certain temperature. The thermal decomposition of HCO2H is a first order reaction with a rate constant of 2. Calculate the packing efficiency of a metal crystal for a simple cubic lattice. (iii) Question numbers 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. Explain how you can determine the atomic mass of an unknown metal if you know its mass density and the dimensions of unit cell of its crystal. 12. Draw the structure of 4-chloropentan-2-one. What is meant by ‘lanthanoid contraction’? 5. C6H5N(CH3)2. 11.25 = – 0. 7. 4. (ii) Question numbers 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. if necessary. 13. How would you convert ethanol to ethene? 8. (log 0. State the following: (i) Raoult’s law in its general form in reference to solutions. What do you understand by the rate law and rate constant of a reaction? Identify the order of a reaction if the units of its rate constant are: (i) L–1 mol s–1 (ii) L mol–1 s–1. Differentiate between a mineral and an ore. What is meant by ‘shape selective catalysis’? 3. Define ‘order of a reaction’. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH2 = CHCH2Br 6. (ii) Henry’s law about partial pressure of a gas in a mixture. Calculate how long will it take for three-fourths of initial quantity of HCO2H to decompose. Use of calculators is not allowed. 10.

Of the four bases. Explain the following terms giving a suitable example in each case: (i) Ambident ligand (ii) Denticity of a ligand (iii) Crystal field splitting in an octahedral field. A solution prepared by dissolving 8. How would you account for the following: (i) H2S is more acidic than H2O. Explain what is meant by the following: (i) peptide linkage (ii) pyranose structure of glucose. . (ii) The N—O bond in NO-2 is shorter than the N—O bond in NO-3 . Assuming that the gene fragment is a non-electrolyte. (ii) Froth floatation method of concentration of a sulphide ore. Complete the following chemical equations: (i) MnO4–(aq) + S2O32–(aq) + H2O(l) ¾ ¾® 2– 2+ + (ii) Cr2O7 (aq) + Fe (aq) + H (aq) ¾ ¾® OR State reasons for the following: (i) Cu(I) ion is not stable in an aqueous solution.95 mg of a gene fragment in 35. Classify colloids where the dispersion medium is water. the metal which exhibits the greatest number of oxidation occurs in the middle of the series.335 torr at 25°C. (b) a beam of light is passed through a sol. (iii) Both O2 and F2 stabilise high oxidation states but the ability of oxygen to stablise the higher oxidation state exceeds that of fluorine.192 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 14. 17. 21. name those which are common to both DNA and RNA. 20. 19. (ii) Unlike Cr3+. (ii) In a transition series of metals. (c) an electrolyte (say NaCl) is added to ferric hydroxide sol. OR Explain what is observed when (a) an electric current is passed through a sol. Fe3+ and the subsequent other M2+ ions of the 3d series of elements. 16. State their characteristics and write an example of each of these classes. 22. 18.0 mL of water has an osmotic pressure of 0. How would you account for the following: (i) Cr2+ is reducing in nature while with the same d-orbital configuration (d4) Mn3+ is an oxidising agent. Write the main structural difference between DNA and RNA. calculate its molar mass. the 4d and the 5d series metals generally do not form stable cationic species. 15. Describe the principle controlling each of the following processes: (i) Vapour phase refining of titanium metal. Mn2+.

(ii) Ethylamine is soluble in water whereas aniline is not soluble in water. What are the following substances? Give one example of each.50 M). 1-Bromopentane. EAl = –1.10M K2Cr2O7 (aq).0 M.Examination Papers 193 23. (b) Calculate the potential for half-cell containing 0.001 M) and Ni2+ (0. Write an equation for the reaction that occurs when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential.66 V) 2+ 3+ / Ni /Al 29.33V. Draw the structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Polythene (ii) PVC (iii) Teflon 27. 2-dimethylpropane. State reasons for the following: (i) pKb value for aniline is more than that for methylamine. 2-Bromopentane (ii) 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane. (iii) Primary amines have higher boiling points than tertiary amines. (i) Food preservatives (ii) Synthetic detergents (iii) Antacids 28. How would you obtain the following: (i) Benzoquinone from phenol (ii) 2-Methylpropan-2-ol from methylmagnesium bromide (iii) Propan-2-ol from propane 25.0×10–4MH+(aq) The half cell reaction is Cr2O72–(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e– ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) and the standard electrode potential is given as E° =1.20Mcr3+ (aq) and 1. 2-Bromo-2methylbutane. 1-Bromo-2. (a) What type of a battery is lead storage battery? Write the anode and cathode reactions and the overall cell reaction occurring in the operation of a lead storage battery. o o (Given: E Ni = –0.00 A for 3 hours? (b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25° C with the following half-cells Al3+ (0. 3-Bromo-2-methylbutane (iii) 1-Bromobutane. 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane 24. (a) Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) (HPO3)3 (ii) BrF3 . 0. Hg(NO3)2 solution with a current of 2. 26. Rearrange the compounds of each of the following sets in order of reactivity towards SN2 displacement: (i) 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane.25 V. OR (a) How many moles of mercury will be produced by electrolysing 1.

What are lyophobic colloids? Give one example for them. 3. (a) Illustrate the following name reactions: (i) Cannizzaro’s reaction (ii) Clemmensen reduction (b) How would you obtain the following: (i) But-2-enal from ethanal (ii) Butanoic acid from butanol (iii) Benzoic acid from ethylbenzene OR (a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between the following: (i) Benzoic acid and ethyl benzoate (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone.194 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (b) Complete the following equations: (i) HgCl2 + PH3 ¾ ¾® (ii) SO3 + H2SO4 ¾ ¾® (iii) XeF4 + H2O ¾ ¾® OR (a) What happens when (i) chlorine gas is passed through a hot concentrated solution of NaOH? (ii) sulphur dioxide gas is passed through an aqueous solution of a Fe (III) salt? (b) Answer the following: (i) What is the basicity of H3PO3 and why? (ii) Why does fluorine not play the role of a central atom in interhalogen compounds? (iii) Why do noble gases have very low boiling points? 30. Why is it that only sulphide ores are concentrated by froth floatation process? . (b) Complete each synthesis by giving missing reagents or products in the following: COOH (i) ¾SOCl ¾¾2 ® heat COOH 2 NCONHNH 2 ¾H¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® (ii) C6H5CHO (iii) CH2 ¾ ¾ ¾® CHO CBSE (All India) SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set–I 2.

2. What is meant by ‘reverse osmosis’? 3. Describe the principle controlling each of the following processes: (i) Preparation of cast iron from pig iron. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: H CH3 H Br H H 6. How is the rate of reaction affected if the concentration of the reactant is reduced to half? What is the unit of rate constant for such a reaction? 14. (ii) Electrolytic refining of metals.Examination Papers 195 5. Describe the principle controlling each of the following processes: (i) Zone refining of metals.0 g of water to lower the freezing point of water by 7. (ii) Preparation of pure alumina (Al2O3) from bauxite ore. Define ‘activation energy’ of a reaction.87. 19.50°C? The freezing point depression constant (Kf) for water is 1. A reaction is of second order with respect to a reactant. 12. 15. Differentiate between molality and molality values for a solution. 6-Dimethylphenol. Define the following terms in relation to crystalline solids: (i) Unit cell (ii) Coordination number Give one example in each case. 22. (Molar mass of NaCl = 58. Assume van’t Hoff factor for NaCl is 1.86 C/m. What type of ores can be concentrated by magnetic separation method? 11. What is the effect of change in temperature on molarity and molality values? 14. Draw the structure of 2.5 g). What mass of NaCl must be dissolved in 65. . (ii) Metal-metal bonding is more frequent for the 4d and the 5d series of transition metals than that for the 3d series. Write the structures and names of all the stereoisomers of the following compounds: (i) [Co(en)3]Cl3 (ii) [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] (iii) [Fe(NH 3)4Cl2]Cl CBSE (All India) SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and Set-II 1. 9. Explain giving a suitable reason for each of the following: (i) Transition metals and their compounds are generally found to be good catalysts.

the shape and the magnetic behaviour of the following complex entities: (i) [Cr(NH3)4 Cl2]Cl (ii) [Co(en)3]Cl3 (iii) K2 [Ni (CN)4] 26. 3. 5. The naturally occurring chemical substances present in the earth’s crust which can be obtained by mining are called minerals. 18. (ii) The acidic strength of compounds increases in the order: PH3 < H2S < HCl (iii) SF6 is kinetically inert. Write the state of hybridization. CH3CH2OH ¾conc. (ii) The chemistry of actinoids is not as smooth as that of lanthanoids. Write such reactions and facts about glucose which cannot be explained by open chain structure. CH3 — CH— CH2 — C — CH3 H 2 SO4 7. Write the names and structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Buna-S (ii) Dacron (iii) Neoprene Solutions CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. 22. 21. 2. 3-Bromoprop-l-ene Cl O | || 6.196 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 15. Order of a reaction may be defined as the sum of the powers of the concentration terms of the reactants in the rate law expression. ¾¾ ¾¾® CH2 = CH2 + H2O Ethanol 443K Ethene 8. (C6H5)2 NH < C6H5NH2 < C6H5N(CH3)2 < CH3NH2 . while mineral from which metals can be extracted economically are called ores. The catalysis in which the pore structure of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and product molecules are comparable is called shape selective catalysis. Explain giving reasons: (i) Transition metals and their compounds generally exhibit a paramagnetic behaviour. 4. How would you account for the following: (i) NF3 is an exothermic compounds but NCl3 is not. The steady decrease in the atomic and ionic radii (having the same charge) with increase in atomic number as we move across the series from lanthanum to lutetium is known as lanthanoid contraction.

we can calculate M. Z. 4 t= 2.Examination Papers 197 9.4% 11.e.303 t= log k [A] [A ]o 3 k = 2. a = 2r and Z = 1 4 1´ pr 3 p \ Packing efficiency = 3 3 ´ 100 = ´ 100 6 ( 2r ) = 52. Packing efficiency = ´ 100 Volume of cubic unit cell 4 Z ´ pr 3 3 = ´ 100 a3 For a simple cubic lattice. the partial pressure of each volatile component in the solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction. (i) Raoult’s law: It states that for any solution. i.[A] o = . a and NA.303 = ´ 0. [A] = [A] o . (ii) Henry’s law: It states that the partial pressure of a gas in vapour phase (P) is proportional to its mole fraction (x) in the solution.4 ´ 10 s O Here. We get 1=l–n n = 0 i.t=? 4 4 Substituting these values in the equation. we get –1 = 1 – n Þ n = 2. For a first order reaction [A] o 2.4 ´ 10 -3 s -1 2. Z (No.e. We can determine the atomic mass of an unknown metal by using the formula of density of its unit cell. zero order reaction Þ –1 –1 (ii) Again comparing power of mole in L mol s and (mol L–1) 1–n s–1. Z ´ volume of one atom 10. 12.4 ´ 10 -3 t = 577... second order reaction 13. (i) Comparing power of mole in L–1 mol s–1 and (mol L–1)1–n s–1.4 × 10–3 s–1. we get [A]o 2.6021 s 2. the atomic mass of metal.303 log4 2.303 t= log -3 -1 [A] 2. An experimentally determined expression which relates the rate of reaction with the concentration of reactants is called rate law while the rate of reaction when concentration of each reactant is unity in a rate law expression is called rate constant.36% = 52. of atoms per unit cell) ´ M (atomic mass) d (density) = a 3 (cell edge) ´ NA (Avogadro number) By knowing d.7 s = 578 s .

It is then decomposed to give pure metal. 15. (ii) It is due to greater number of unpaired electrons in (n–1)d and ns orbitals at the middle of the series. O || 17. (ii) The six membered cyclic structure of glucose is called pyranose structure ( a . the metal is converted into its volatile compound and collected elsewhere. (i) 8MnO4–(aq) + 3S2O32–(aq) + H2O (l) ¾ ¾® 8MnO2(s) + 6SO42–(aq) + 2OH–(aq) + 2+ (ii) Cr2 O2– ¾® 2Cr 3+ ( aq) + 6Fe 3+ ( aq) + 7H2 O(l) 7 ( aq) + 14H ( aq) + 6Fe ( aq) ¾ OR (i) This is because Cu(I) ion is unstable in aqueous solution and undergo disproportionation. . (i) Cr2+ is reducing as its configuration changes from d4 to d3. RNA has single a-helix structure. a more stable half filled t2g configuration while Mn3+ is oxidising as Mn3+ to Mn2+results a more stable half filled d5 configuration. 2. DNA has double stranded a-helix structure. 2Cu + ( aq) ¾ ¾® Cu 2+ ( aq) + Cu( s) (ii) This is because due to lanthanoid contraction the expected increase in size does not occur. The common bases present in both DNA and RNA are adenine (A).or b -). CH2OH H H OH O H H OH HO H OH a – D – (+) – Glucopyranose 18. 2. (i) In this method. (i) Peptide linkage: The amide (— C— NH—) linkage between two a-amino acids formed with the loss of a water molecule is called a peptide linkage. Structural difference between DNA and RNA DNA RNA 1. 1. The sugar present in DNA is 2-deoxy D-(–) ribose.198 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 14. in analogy with heterocylic compound pyran. 16. The sugar present in RNA is D-(–)-ribose. guanine (G) and cytosine (C). K Ti + 2 I 2 ¾500 ¾¾ ® Ti I 4 Impure metal K Ti I 4 ¾1700 ¾¾ ® Ti + 2I 2 Pure metal (ii) This method of concentration of ore is based upon the principle that the surface of sulphide ores is preferentially wetted by oils while that a gangue is preferentially wetted by water.

. Nature: Irreversible Examples: Metal hydroxide like Fe(OH)3 and metal sulphide like As2S3.Examination Papers 199 19.. R = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 ´ 298K ´ 760 MB = = 14193.95 mg = 8. For example.335 atm ´ 35 ´ 10 -3 L 20. OR (i) On passing electric current through a sol.0821 L atm mol–1 K–1 0. WB = 8. For example NO–2 ion can coordinate either through nitrogen or through oxygen to a central metal atom/ion.33. we get 8. p = 0. 22.. Nature: Reversible Examples: Starch. 2–diamine . (ii) Scattering of light by the colloidal particles takes place and the path of light becomes visible (Tyndall effect). 2-diamine has two donor nitrogen atoms which can link to central metal atom.5 while NO–3 This is because has bond order 1. 21. bidentate ligand ethane-1. ·· ·· H2 N— CH2 — CH2 — N H2 Ethane–1.335 torr = atm 760 V = 35 mL = 35 × 10–3 L Substituting these values in the equation (i).95 × 10–3g . (iii) This is due to tendency of oxygen to form multiple bonds with metal atom.95 ´ 10 -3 g ´ 0. MB = WB ´ R ´ T p´ V . (i) Ambidentate ligand: A ligand which can coordinate to central metal atom through two different atoms is called ambidentate ligand.(i) Here. NO–2 has bond order 1. (ii) This is because two bonds share a double bond in the resonance hybrid structure of NO–2 while three bonds share a double bond in the resonance hybrid structure of NO–3 . etc. (ii) Denticity: The number of coordinating groups present in ligand is called the denticity of ligand. gum. (i) This is because bond dissociation enthalpy of H—S bond is lower than that of H—O bond. (ii) Hydrophobic Stability: Less stable as the stability is due to charge only. 3 g mol–1 0. These are of two types (i) Hydrophilic Stability: More stable as the stability is due to charge and water envelope surrounding the sol particles. colloidal particles start moving towards oppositely charged electrode where they lose their charge and get coagulated (electrophoresis). 335 T = 25°C = (25 + 273) K = 298 K . (iii) The positively charged colloidal particles of ferric hydroxide sol get coagulated by the oppositely charged Cl– ions provided by NaCl.

. (i) In aniline. do not undergo H-bonding. (ii) 1-Bromo-2-methyl butane > 3-Bromo-2-methyl butane > 2-Bromo-2-methyl butane (iii) 1-Bromobutane > 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane > 1-Bromo-2. (iii) Due to the presence of two H-atoms on N-atom. Structure CH2 = CH2 CH2 = CH–Cl F2C = CF2 . As a result. (i) Food Preservatives: These are the chemical substances which are added to the food materials to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth and to retain their nutritive value for long time. 26.e.200 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (iii) The spliting of the degenerated d-orbitals into three orbitals of lower energy.2-dimethyl butane. +I-effect of CH3 group increases electron density on the nitrogen atom. (ii) Ethylamine is soluble in water due to formation of inter-molecular hydrogen bonds with water molecules. hence its pKb value is more than that for methylamine. t2g set and two orbitals of higher energy eg. Sodium benzoate. However. primary amines undergo extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding whereas tertiary amines have no H-atoms on the nitrogen atom. hydrocarbon part. (i) Name of monomer Ethene Vinyl chloride Tetrafluoroethene 27. In contrast. Therefore. in aniline due to large hydrophobic part. set due to the presence of ligand in a octahedral crystal field is known as crystal spliting in a octahedral field. electron density on the nitrogen atom decreases. the lone pair of electrons on N-atom are delocalised over benzene ring due to resonance. aniline is a weaker base than methylamine. the extent of hydrogen bonding decreases considerably and hence aniline is insoluble in water. OH 24. Preservatives prevent rancidity and kill or inhibit the growth of microorganism. (i) 1-Bromopentane > 2-Bromopentane > 2-Bromo-2methyl butane. primary amines have higher boiling points than tertiary amines. i. 23. sodium metabisulphite are some common preservatives. O Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4 (i) Phenol O Benzoquinone (ii) O || CH3 — C— CH3 + Propanone é OMgBr ù OH ê ú | | 2O CH3 MgBr ¾¾® êCH3 — C— CH3 ú ¾H¾ ¾ ® CH3 — C— CH3 ê ú | | ê ú Methyl magnesium CH3 CH3 bromide êë úû 2-Methyl propan -2-ol H+ (iii) CH3 — CH = CH2 + H2 O ¾Markovnikov's ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — C H— CH3 | addition Propene OH Propan -2-ol 25. As a result. in – methylamine.

0591 log (4 × 10–55) 6 0.20) 2 0.3010 + 55] = 1. ) (10 -4 ) 14 0. Detergents are mainly classified into three categories: (i) Anionic detergents (ii) Cationic detergents (iii) Non-ionic detergents (iii) Antacids: These are the chemical substances which neutralize the excess acid and raise the pH to an appropriate level in the stomach.33 V – 0.( aq) + 4H+ ( aq) + 2e .33 V– [log 4 + log 1055] 6 0.548 V 6 = 0.( aq) + 14H+ ( aq) + 6 e ¾ ¾® 2Cr 3+ ( aq) + 7H2 O (l) o Ecell = E cell - [Cr 3+ ] 2 0. n = 6.Examination Papers 201 (ii) Synthetic Detergents: Detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps. sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate.2 M + –14 M [Cr2 O27 ] = 0. Sodium hydrogen carbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide are some common antacids.1 M..33 V – [2 × 0.0591 = 1.0591 = 1. E oCell = 1.782 V = 1.33 V – Ecell OR (a) Mass of mercury produced at the cathode. The cell reactions when the battery is in use are given below At anode: Pb( s) + SO24. but actually do not contain any soap e.33 V– log 6 ( 01 .0591 log + 14 n [Cr2 O2– 7 ] [H ] Here. 28. we get ( 0. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water. (a) The lead storage battery is a secondary cell. [Cr3+] = 0.g. [H ] = 1 × 10 Substituting these values in the above given expression.0591 = 1.0591 Ecell = 1.33 V – [2 log 2 + 55 log 10] 6 0.( aq) ¾ ¾ ¾® PbSO4 ( s) + 2e - (b) At cathode: PbO2 ( s) + SO24.33 V. M´I´ t m=Z×I×t= n´F .¾ ¾® PbSO4 ( s) + 2H2 O(l) Overall cell reaction: Pb( s) + PbO2 ( s) + 2H2 SO4 ( aq) ¾ ¾ ¾® 2PbSO4 ( s) + 2H2 O(l) For half cell reaction – Cr2 O27.

119 × M g m = 0.0591 = 1.41V.050 V = 1.41 V – [ 3 × log 2 + (– 67) log 10] 6 0.41 V + 0. of moles of mercury produced = (b) 0.41 V – \ 2+ ù = 0.25 V – (–1.41 V – E cell F O O 29.202 Xam idea Chemistry—XII m= M g mol -1 ´ 2A ´ 3 ´ 60 ´ 60 s 2 ´ 96500 C mol -1 = 0. éNi êë E cell = 1.0591 log n [Ni 2+ ] 3 Here.EAl 3+ /Al \ [Al3+] = 1×10–3M.41 V– log log (8 ´ 10 -6 ) 3 6 6 ( 0.41 V – [3 × 0.0591 = 1.5 M úû (10 -3 ) 2 0.5) 0.0591 = 1. (a) O P P O O HO (i) OH (ii) Br P O OH F (HPO3)3 (b) (i) 3HgCl2 + 2PH3 ¾ ¾® Hg3P2 + 6HCl (ii) SO3 + H2SO4 ¾ ¾® H2S2O7 (iii) 6XeF4 + 12H2O ¾ ¾® 4Xe + 2XeO3 + 24HF + 3O2 F . n = 6 E ocell = E oNi 2+ / Ni .119 ´ M g M g mol -1 = 0.119 × M g No.119 mol At anode: Al (s) ¾ ¾® Al 3+ ( aq) + 3e – ] ´ 2 At cathode: Ni 2+ + 2 e – ¾ ¾® Ni (s) Cell reaction: 2Al(s) + 3Ni2+(aq) ¾ ¾® 2Al3+(aq) + 3Ni(s) ]×3 Applying Nerst equation to the above cell reaction E cell = E ocell – [Al 3+ ] 2 0. o = –0.46 V = 1.0591 0.66V) = 1.3010 – 6] 6 = 1.0591 (log 23 + log 10–6) 6 0.

as the structure of H3PO4 has two P—OH bonds. 30 (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an a-hydrogen atom undergoes disproportionation reactions on treatment with concentrated alkali to give a mixture of carboxylic acid salt and alcohol.) OH (b) (i) CH3CHO dil.formate CH3 . (iii) Noble gases being mono atomic gases have no interatomic forces except weak dispersion forces. > C = O + 4(H) ¾Zn ¾– Hg ¾® > CH2 + H2 O Aldehyde or Ketone HCl (conc. + 2 HCHO Formaldehyde NaOH ¾Conc. therefore they have low boiling points.Examination Papers 203 OR (a) (i) 3Cl2 + 6NaOH (conc. ¾¾ ¾ ¾® HCOO Na + Sod. (ii) This is due to absence of d-orbitals in fluorine.) ¾ ¾® 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O (Hot) (ii) 2Fe3+ + SO2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 2Fe2+ + SO42– + 4H+ O P (b) (i) H OH OH Two.OH Methyl alcohol (ii) Clemmensen reduction: The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc-amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid. NaOH CH3CH—CH2CHO D CH3CH—CHCHO Ethanal But-2-enal CrO3 – H 2 SO4 (ii) CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH Butan – l – ol Butanoic acid –+ CH2CH3 COOK COOH H3O+ KMnO4–KOH (iii) D Ethyl benzene Benzoic acid OR (a) (i) Benzoic acid on warming with sodium hydrogen carbonate gives brisk effervescence of CO2 gas while ethyl benzoate does not respond to this test – + C6H5COOH Benzoic acid + NaHCO3 ¾ ¾® C 6 H5– CO O Na + CO2 ­ + H2 O Brisk effervescence .

Lyophobic sols are those sols in which the particles of the disperse phase have little affinity for the particles of the dispersion medium. r = k [R]2 . (ii) Coordination number: The number of nearest neighbours of any constituent particle in a packing is called its coordination number. éRù r ¢ = kê ú ë2û 2 . then Rate. generates the entire lattice. The coordination number of an atom in the bcc structure is 8. 12.. 3-Bromo-2-methylpropene OH CH3 CH3 6.(ii) .204 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone Iodoform test: Acetophenone being a methyl ketone on treatment with I2/NaOH undergoes Iodoform reaction to give yellow ppt... Consider the reaction nR ¾ ¾® Products As the reaction is of second order \ Rate..g. (i) Unit cell: A unit cell is the smallest portion of a crystal lattice which.. sols of metal and their sulphides and hydroxides.(i) If the concentration of the reactant reduced to half. C 6 H5 COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® C 6 H5 COONa + CHI 3 ¯ + 2NaOH Acetophenone Iodoform (Yellow ppt.) COOH (b) COCl SOCl2 (i) +SO2+HCl heat COOH COCl 2 NCONHNH 2 (ii) C6H5 —CHO ¾H¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® C6H5CH = NNHCONH2 + H2O (i) B2H6. 9. 5. 3. e. when repeated in different direction.H2O2/OH CH2 (iii) CHO (ii) PCC CBSE (All India) SET– II 2. of iodoform but benzaldehyde does not. This is because the sulphide ore particles are preferentially wetted by oil and gangue particles are preferentially wetted by water.

A strip of same metal in pure form is used as cathode.0 g = 8.. 4 4 The unit of rate constant is mol–1 L s–1. WA = 65. the 4d and 5d transition element has larger size than that of 3d elements. – At anode: M ¾ ¾® M n + + n e At cathode: Mn+ + n e ¾ ¾® M – (i) The catalytic activity of transition metals and their compounds is attributed to the following reasons: Because of their variable oxidation states transition metals form unstable intermediate compounds and provide a new path with lower activation for the reaction. ´ 1000 WB = 8. rate of reaction becomes th of the initial rate.5 ´ 65. When electric current is passed the metal from the anode goes into solution as ions due to oxidation while pure metal gets deposited at the cathode due to reduction of metal ions. MB= 58.87 ´ 1.0 g 7. ´ 186 . we get 7. i ´ K f ´ WB ´ 1000 DTf = 19. (ii) In general in the same group of d block elements.e. Here. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of same metal.0 g. In some cases.50 K K f = 1. (ii) Electrolytic refining of a metal: In this method. the valence electrons are less lightly held and hence can form metal-metal bond more frequently. DTf = 7. the impure metal is made to act as anode. (i) Zone refining is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state of the metal.87.5 K = WB = 1.86 K kg mol–1. r¢ = \ 14.5 ´ 58. the transition metal provides a suitable large surface area with free valencies on which reactants are adsorbed. M B ´ WA 15. we get r ¢ K [R] 2 1 = = r 4K [R] 2 4 1 1 r i. The voltage applied for electrolysis is such that impurities of more electropositive metals remains in the solution as ions while impurities of the less electropositive metals settle down under the anode as anode mud.199 g 187 .86 K kg mol -1 ´ WB ´ 1000 g kg -1 58. Thus.5 g mol–1 Substituting these values in the above equation.2 g .5 g mol -1 ´ 65. i = 1.Examination Papers 205 Dividing equation (ii) by (i).

3. (i) en en en Co en en d-Tris-(ethane1. This phenomenon is called reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis: If a pressure larger than the osmotic pressure is applied on the solution side. If either the ore or the gangue is capable of being attracted by magnetic field.206 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 22. then such separation are carried out by magnetic separation. The energy required to form the intermediate called activated complex is known as activation energy.2-diamine) cobalt (III) NH3 Cl (ii) Cl NH3 Pt Cl Pt NH3 Cl H3N cis-Diamminedichloro platinum (II) trans-Diamminedichloro platinum (II) + NH3 (iii) en Co H3N Cl H3N Fe H3N + Cl NH3 Fe Cl NH 3 cis-Tetraamminedichloro iron (III) NH3 H3N Cl trans-Tetraamminedichloro iron (III) CBSE (All India) SET– III 1.2-diamine) cobalt (III) l-Tris-(ethane1. Activation energy = Threshold energy – Average energy of the reactants 2. the solvent starts to flow from the solution into the pure solvent through the semipermeable membrane. .

—CH—CH— —CH (i) CH2— 2 and Buta-1. F does not have d-orbitals to accept the electrons denoted by H2O molecules. (ii) The acidic strength of compounds increases because of increase in polarity of E—H bond from P—H to H—Cl. Shiff’s test and it does not form the hydrogen sulphite addition product with NaHSO3. SO2 and P2O5 and carbon content reduced to about 3%. Molarity decreases with increase in temperature as volume increases with increase in temperature. 18. impurities such as C. S atom is sterically protected by six F atoms and does not allow water molecules to attack the S atom. S and P present in the pig iron are removed as CO2. (ii) The penta-acetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence of free aldehydic group. glucose does not give 2. SF6 is kinetically an inert substance. 15.Examination Papers 207 11. 21. (i) Pig iron is melt with scrap iron and coke using hot air blast. The following facts and reactions cannot be explained by open chain structure of glucose. (i) Despite having the aldehyde group. Due to this. 22. 14. Complex ion Central metal ion/atom Hybridisation of metal ion involved Geometry of the complex Magnetic behaviour [Cr (NH3)4 Cl2]Cl Cr3+ d2sp3 Octahedral Paramagnetic [Co(en)3]Cl3 Co3+ d2sp3 Octahedral Diamagnetic Ni sp3 Tetrahedral Diamagnetic [Ni (CO)4] CH 26. Molality is independent of temperature because mass does not depend on temperature. 4-DNP test. (i) This is due to presence of unpaired electrons in the (n–1) d orbitals of transition elements. 6d and 7s orbitals. (ii) The chemistry of actinoids is not as smooth as lanthanoid because they are radioactive and show greater number of oxidation states due comparable energies of 5f. fluorine forms stronger bond with nitrogen due to comparable size. 3-diene Styrene CH2 . Molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution whereas molality is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of the solvent. Due to these reasons. which is due to increase in electronegativity of E. (i) This is because bond dissociation energy of F2 is lower than Cl2 Moreover. Further. (ii) Bauxite is soluble in concentrated NaOH solution whereas impurities are not. (iii) In SF6.

3-butadiene .208 Xam idea Chemistry—XII COOH (ii) HO—CH2—CH2—OH and Ethylene glycol COOH Terephthalic acid (iii) CH2 — C — CH — CH2 | Cl 2-chloro-1.

Explain how molarity value of a solution can be converted into its molality. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. 1-bromopentane or 2-bromopentane. (v) Question nos. Determine the values of equilibrium constant (Kc) and DG° for the following reaction: Ni ( s) + 2Ag + ( aq) ¾ ¾® Ni 2+ ( aq) + 2Ag( s). Which will react faster in SN2 displacement. use of calculators is not allowed.86°C kg mol–1. 10.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS FOREIGN–2011 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. How would you account for the following: (i) The following order of increase in strength of acids: PH3 < H2S < HCI . Write the structure of the following compound : 3-oxopentanal.561 m solution of an unknown electrolyte depresses the freezing point of water by 2. Why is an alkylamine more basic than ammonia? 8. CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1. E° = 1. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3 — C — C — CH2 OH | | CH3 Br 6. What is meant by an ‘intrinsic semiconductor’? 2.05 V (F = 96500 C) 12. What is Van’t Hoff factor for this electrolyte? The freezing point depression constant (Kf) for water is 1. State Henry’s law about partial pressure of a gas in a mixture. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. 7. (ii) Question nos. Define the following terms giving an example of each: (i) Emulsion (ii) Hydrosol 13. Differentiate between molarity and molality of a solution. and why? 5. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. What do you understand by ‘denticity of a ligand’? 4.93°C. 3. A 0. 11. Explain how to phenomenon of adsorption finds application in the following processes: (i) Production of vacuum (ii) Heterogeneous catalysis 14. (iii) Question nos. (iv) Question nos. What is meant by a ‘broad spectrum antibiotic’? 9.

no. (ii) Red phosphorus is less reactive than white phosphorus. State the reason in each of the following cases: (i) Soaps do not work well in hard water. 19. (ii) Electrolytic refining of a metal. OR Mention three such properties of glucose which cannot be explained by its open chain structure. (i) What is the length of the side of the unit cell? (ii) How many unit cells are there in 1 cm3 of aluminium? 20. Co = 27.50 M). Name the products of hydrolysis of (i) sucrose and (ii) lactose. Write the cell reaction when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential. EAl = -1.) K (ii) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾143 ¾¾ ® (iii) Br2 + F2 ¾ ¾® (excess) 23. Radius of the atom in the metal is 125 pm. Al3+ (0. (iii) Vapour phase refining of a metal. OR Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) NF3 (ii) H2S2O8 (iii) H3PO3 . (b) Explain the following giving appropriate reasons: (i) Sulphur vapour exhibits paramagnetic behaviour. 18.210 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) The oxidising power of oxoacids of chlorine follows the order: HClO4 < HClO3 < HClO2 < HClO 15. (ii) Synthetic detergents are better than soaps.001 M) and Ni2+ (0. Complete the following chemical equations: (i) NaOH + Cl 2 ¾ ¾® (hot and conc. State the principle on which each of the following processes operates: (i) Recovery of silver after the silver ore has been leached with NaCN. o (Given : E oNi 2+ / Ni = -0. Name the following coordination compounds and draw their structures: (i) [CoCl2 (en)2]Cl (ii) [Pt(NH3)2Cl(NO2)] (At. Pt = 78) 16. Aluminium crystallises in a cubic close-packed structure.66 V) 3+ /Al 21. Explain what is meant by the following: (i) Peptide linkage (ii) Pyranose structure of glucose 17. 22. A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the following half-cells.25 V. (a) Mention the optimum conditions for the industrial manufacture of ammonia by Haber’s process.

109 80.289 20. Complete the following reaction equations: CH3 (i) + HI ¾ ¾® H (ii) + HBr ¾ ¾® H H (iii) CH3CH2CH — CH2 + HBr ¾ ¾® 25. Illustrate the following reactions giving a chemical equation in each case: (i) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis (ii) A coupling reaction (iii) Hoffmann’s bromamide reaction 26.0 hours? .209 40. How would you obtain (i) Benzoquinone from phenol? (ii) Propan-2-ol from propene? (iii) 2-Methylpropan-2-ol from methyl magnesium bromide? 27.00 0. (b) Nitrogen pentoxide decomposes according to the equation 2N2 O5 ( g) ¾ ¾® 4NO2 ( g) + O2 ( g) This first order reaction was allowed to proceed at 40°C and the data given below were collected: [N2O5](M) Time (min) 0.6 (iii) PVC 28.00 0.00 0. (iii) After how many minutes will [N2O5] be equal to 0.00 0.00510 min–1. If we begin with 0.350 M? OR (a) Define (i) Order of a reaction.400 0.151 60.10 M concentration of the reactant.00 (i) Calculate the rate constant for the reaction. Mention two important uses for each of the following polymers: (i) Bakelite (ii) Nylon 6. (ii) Elementary step in a reaction (b) A first order reaction has a rate constant value of 0. Include units with your answer.Examination Papers 211 24. how much of the reactant will remain after 3. (a) Express clearly what you understand by ‘rate expression’ and ‘rate constant’ of a reaction. (ii) Calculate the initial rate of reaction.

(ii) Mn (III) undergoes disproportionation reaction easily. (ii) With same (d4) configuration Cr (II) is reducing whereas Mn (III) is oxidising.+ H+ ¾ ¾® (ii) Cr2 O27.212 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 29. (iii) Transition metals in general act as good catalysts. Heat COOH 2 ¾SOCI ¾¾ ® (ii) Heat COOH (iii) C6H5CONH2 H O+ 3¾ ¾¾ ¾® heat .+ H2 S + H+ ¾ ¾® (b) How would you account for the following: (i) Metal-metal bonding is more extensive in the 4d and 5d series of transition elements than the 3d series. (a) Complete the following reactions in an aqueous medium: (i) MnO–4 + C 2 O24. (a) Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following: (i) Propanal and propanone (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone (b) How would you obtain (i) But-2-enal from ethanal? (ii) Butanoic acid from butanol? (iii) Benzoic acid from ethylbenzene? OR (a) Describe the following reactions giving a chemical equation in each case: (i) Cannizzaro’s reaction (ii) Decarboxylation reaction (b) Complete the following chemical equations: CH2CH3 4 ¾KMnO ¾¾ ¾ ® (i) KOH. 30. OR (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) Fe3+ + I– ¾ ¾® + (ii) CrO2¾ ¾® 4 +H (b) Explain the following: (i) Copper (I) ion is not stable in an aqueous solution. (iii) Co (II) is easily oxidised in the presence of strong ligands.

State Henry’s law about partial pressure of a gas in a mixture. and write the names of the following complexes : (i) [Cr (NH3)4 Cl2]+ (ii) [Co(en)3]3+ 18.” What does it mean? 2. Write the reactions involved in the following processes: (i) Leachiing of bauxite ore to prepare pure alumina. 3.6’ in nylon 6. (a) What does the designation ‘6. and why? 12.Examination Papers 213 CBSE (Foreign) SET–II Questions uncommon to Set-I 1. Explain the following terms giving an example of each: (i) Antacids (ii) Sweetening agents 21. 22. CBSE (Foreign) SET–III Questions uncommon to Set-I and Set-II 1. Name the following coordination compound: K3[CrF6] 4. 3. Draw the structures of isomers. How many atoms are there in one unit cell of a body centred cubic crystal? 2. “Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature. Write four distinguishing features operative between chemisorption and physisorption. 17. (ii) Refining of zirconium by van Arkel method. (iii) Recovery of gold after gold ore has been leached with NaCN solution. 12. 16. Why is CO a stronger ligand than Cl–? 8. if any. 1-bromobutane or 2-bromobutane. State what you understand by primary and secondary structures of proteins. Which will react faster in SN1 displacement. State Raoult’s law in its general form with respect to solutions. What are antiseptics? Give an example. 6 polymer mean? (b) Which polymer is obtained when free radical polymerisation of chloroprene occurs? Write the structure of the polymer thus obtained. Define the following terms: (i) Aerosol (ii) Coagulation of colloids . Complete the following chemical equations: (i) P4 + SO2Cl2 ¾ ¾® 3+ (ii) Fe + SO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® (iii) XeF6 + H2 O ¾ ¾® (excess ) 27.

2–diamine 4. What are addition polymers? How are the two types of addition polymers different from each other? Give one example of each type. 22. Silver crystallises with face-centred cubic unit cell. HCl is a stronger acid than HF. (ii) White phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorous. ·· ·· H2 N— CH2 — CH2 — N H2 Ethane–1. 2. For example.Methylpropan-2-ol from methyl magnesium bromide? 27. CH3 — CH2 — C— CH2 — C — H . Henry’s law: It states that the partial pressure of a gas in vapour phase (P) is proportional to its mole fraction (x) in the solution. 3. Denticity: The number of coordinating groups present in ligand is called the denticity of ligand. Pure substances exhibiting conductivity similar to that of silicon and germanium are called intrinsic semiconductors. How would you obtain (i) Benzoquinone from phenol? (ii) Propan-2-ol from propene? (iii) 2. 15. Complete the following chemical equations: (i) C + H2SO4 (conc. O O || || 6. as it is a primary alkyl halide. bidentate ligand ethane-1. Give the name. Explain giving a reason for each of the following situation: (i) In aqueous medium. 5. 2–Bromo –3– methyl-but –2–en–1–ol.214 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 14. Solutions CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1. Each side of this unit cell has a length of 409 pm. the stereochemistry and the magnetic behaviour of the following complexes: (i) [Co (NH3 ) 5 Cl]Cl 2 (ii) K 2 [Ni (CN) 4 ] 19. 2-diamine has two donor nitrogen atoms which can link to central metal atom. What is the radius of silver atom? Assume the atoms just touch each other on the diagonal across the face of the unit cell. 1–Bromopentane.) ¾ ¾® (ii) P4 + NaOH + H2O ¾ ¾® (iii) Cl 2 + F2 ¾ ¾® (excess) 26.

. If MB is the molar mass of solute. For example. milk.) (ii) Hydrosol: A sol in which solid is the dispersed phase and water in dispersion medium is called hydrosol.Examination Papers 215 H | 7.04 o C = 2. 1000 ´ M m= 1000 ´ d . DTf = 1.04 °C.M ´ M B 10. Hence alkyl amine is more basic than ammonia.561 mol kg–1 = 1. 8.5932 = 3.92 × 1039 o DG o = – nFE cell DG o = – 2 × 96500 × 1. oil. m = 0. E° = 1. n = 2 n o log Kc = E cell 0.93 o C 1. Ni(s) + 2Ag+(aq) ¾ ¾® Ni2+ (aq) + 2Ag(s). 11.05 V Here. 059 Kc = antilog 39.86 oC kg mol–1 × 0.05 = – 202650 J DG o = – 202.82. etc.059 2 log Kc = ´ 1. The antibiotic which is effective against a wide range of microorganisms is known as broad spectrum antibiotic.86°C kg mol–1.04oC (DTf ) Calculated = 1. Cod liver. (DTf) Observed = 2. R ® N·· + H+ l | H H | R — N+ — H | H Due to +I effect alkyl group pushes electron towards nitrogen and thus makes the lone pair of electrons more available for sharing with the proton of the acid.93 °C ( DTf ) observed Observed colligative property i= = Calculated colligative property ( DTf ) calculated i= 2.05 = 39.65 kJ 12. We get. Molarity (M) is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution whereas molality (m) is the number of moles of the solute per thousand grams of solvent.g. 9. DTf = K f ´ m Kf = 1. chlorophenicol.561 mol kg–1 Substituting these values in the above equation.5932 0 .919 × 1039 Kc = 3. d is the density of solution then molarity (M) value of a solution can be converted into its molality (m) by using the following for formula. (i) Emulsion: An emulsion is a colloidal system in which both the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium are liquids (e..

the concentration of the reactants increases on the surface of the catalyst and hence the rate of reaction increases. . As a result.N platinum (II) NH3 O2N Pt NH3 Cl Tetrahedral O || 16. For this a bulb of charcoal cooled in liquid air. (ii) Heterogeneous Catalysis: There are many gaseous reactions of industrial importance involving solid catalyst.216 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 13. The remaining traces of air inspite of low pressure are adsorbed by the charcoal almost completely. 14.(ethane–1. 15. manufacture of H2SO4 by contact process using V2O5 catalyst and use of finely divided nickel in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils are the excellent examples. (i) Dichloridobis .or b -). (ii) The six membered cyclic structure of glucose is called pyranose structure ( a . is connected to vessel which has already been exhausted as far as possible by vacuum pump. 2–diamine) cobalt (III) chloride + Cl Cl + Cl en Co en Co en Cl en Octahedral + trans-[CoCl2 (en)2 ] Octahedral + cis-[CoCl2 (en)2 ] (ii) Diamminechloridonitrito. The gaseous reactants are adsorbed on the surface of the solid catalyst. (i) Peptide linkage: The amide (— C— NH—) linkage between two a-amino acids formed with the loss of a water molecule is called a peptide linkage. Manufacture of ammonia using iron as a catalyst. (i) Production of Vacuum: Adsorption can be successfully applied to create conditions of high vacuum. (i) Larger the difference in electronegativity greater will be polarity and hence greater will be acidic character. in analogy with heterocylic compound pyran. (ii) As HClO4 is most stable and tendency to give oxygen is least while HClO is least-stable and gives oxygen most easily.

(i) Hard water contains calcium and magnesium salts.25 × 1022 Al (s) ¾ ¾® Al 3+ ( aq) + 3e – ] ´ 2 Ni 2+ + 2 e – ¾ ¾® Ni(s) 2Al(s) + 3Ni2+ (aq) ¾ ¾® ]×3 2Al3+(aq) + 3Ni (s) Applying Nerst equation to the above cell reaction E cell = E ocell – [Al 3+ ] 2 0. a = 2 2r = 2 × 1. éNi ëê 2+ ù = 0. In hard water. (i) Despite having the aldehyde group. (i) For fcc (or ccp).414 × 125 pm = 354 pm (ii) a = 354 pm = 3.Examination Papers 217 CH2OH H H OH H O H OH HO H OH a – D – (+) – Glucopyranose 17. n = 6 3+ /Al \ [Al3+] = 1×10–3M.44 ´ 10 20. 4-DNP test. = 1 cm 3 4.EAl = –0. (ii) The penta-acetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence of free aldehydic group. (ii) As synthetic detergents can be used in hard water as well as acidic solutions. At anode: At cathode: Cell reaction: -23 cm 3 = 2.54× 10–8 cm)3 = 4. E ocell = E oNi 2+ / Ni . soaps get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soaps which being insoluble stick to the clothes as gummy mass.44 cm3 Total volume Number of unit cells = Volume of one unit cell 18.0591 log n [Ni 2+ ] 3 o Here.25 V – (–1. 19. Shiff’s test and it does not form the hydrogen sulphite addition product with NaHSO3.66V) = 1.54 × 10–8 cm Volume of one unit cell = a3 = (3.436 × 10–23cm3 = 4. + H (i) C12H22O11 + H2O ¾ ¾¾ ® C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 or invertase Sucrose Glucose + H (ii) C12H22O11 + H2O ¾ ¾¾ ® or Lactase Fructose C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 Glucose Galactose Lactose OR The following facts and reactions cannot be explained by open chain structure of glucose.5 M ûú .41V. glucose does give 2.

It is then decomposed to give pure metal. Silver is then recovered from this complex by displacement method using more electropositive zinc metal. = 1.050 V E cell = 1.41 V– log log (8 ´ 10 -6 ) 6 6 ( 0. K (ii) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾143 ¾¾ ® XeF6 + O2 (iii) Br2 + 5F2 ¾ ¾¾® 2 BrF5 (excess) 23.46 V 21.41 V – – At anode: M ¾ ¾® M n + + n e At cathode: Mn+ + n e ¾ ¾® M – (iii) Vapour phase refining of a metal: In this method.0591 = 1. refining of nickel by Mond process.0591 = 1. (i) Recovery of silver after silver ore was leached with NaCN: During leaching Ag is oxidised to Ag+ which then combines with CN– ions to form soluble complex. (i) 6NaOH + 3Cl2 ¾ ¾® 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O Hot and conc.41 V + 0. A strip of same metal in pure form is used as cathode. 2[Ag(CN)2]–(aq) + Zn(s) ¾ ¾® 2Ag(s) + [Zn(CN)4]2–(aq) (ii) Electrolytic refining of a metal: In this method. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of same metal. When electric current is passed the metal from the anode goes into solution as ions due to oxidation while pure metal gets deposited at the cathode due to reduction of metal ions.0591 (log 23 + log 10–6) 6 0. [Ag(CN)2]–.0591 0. (b) (i) In vapour state sulphur partly exists as S2 molecule which has two unpaired electrons in the antibonding p* molecular orbitals like O2 and.218 Xam idea Chemistry—XII E cell = 1. the impure metal is made to act as anode.0591 = 1. .5) 3 0. Pressure: 200 bar Temperature: 723–773 K Catalyst: Finely divided iron and molybdenum as promoter. hence exhibits paramagnetic behaviour.3010 – 6] 6 = 1.41 V – [3 × 0. (a) Optimum conditions for the industrial manufacture of ammonia by Haber’s process. For example. the metal is converted into its volatile compound and collected elsewhere. 350 K Ni + 4CO ¾330 ¾-¾¾ ® Ni(CO)4 450 – 470 K Ni(CO)4 ¾¾¾¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO 22.41 V – \ (10 -3 ) 2 0. The voltage applied for electrolysis is such that impurities of more electropositive metals remains in the solution as ions while impurities of the less electropositive metals settle down under the anode as anode mud.41 V – [ 3 × log 2 + (– 67) log 10] 6 0.

O O ½½ ½½ ¾C ¾C -+ + KOH (alc.Examination Papers 219 (ii) White phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus due to its discrete tetrahedral structure and angular strain. (i) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis: This reaction is used for the preparation of aliphatic primary amines. which on hydrolysis with dilute hydrochloric acid gives a primary amine as the product. In this reaction. according to VSEPR theory. OR (i) Total no. F (ii) O O O S S P O O O O OH OH Peroxodisulphuric acid (H2S2O8) 24.) NH ¾¾¾¾¾® NK ¾C ¾C ½½ ½½ O O + R¾ X . Potassium phthalimide on treatment with alkyl halide gives N-alkyl phthalimide. of electron pairs around 1 The central N atom = (5 + 3) = 4 2 N No. of bond pairs = 3 F F No. of lone pairs = 1 Therefore. phthalimide is first of all treated with ethanolic KOH to form potassium phthalimide. Red phosphorus is less reactive due its polymeric structure. CH3 + HI H + (ii) H OH OH Orthophosphorous acid (H3PO3) CH3 (i) H HBr H I CH — CH3 Br (iii) CH3CH2CH — CH2 + HBr ¾ ¾® CH3CH2CH—CH3 | Br 25. NF3 should be pyramidal.

Aniline O Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4 (i) Phenol O Benzoquinone .+ H2 O ¾ N = N¾ p -Hydroxy -azobenzene (orange dye) + H+ - ¾ N º N Cl + H ¾ ¾ NH2 ¾¾¾¾¾® (pH 4 -5) Aniline ¾ NH2 + Cl .+ H2 O ¾ N = N¾ p -Amino azobenzene (yellow dye) (iii) Hoffman’s bromamide reaction: When a primary acid amide is heated with an aqueous or ethanolic solution of NaOH or KOH and bromine (i.e. + - OH ¾ N º N Cl + H ¾ ¾ OH ¾¾¾¾¾® (pH 9-10) Phenol ¾ OH + Cl . R ¾ CONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH ¾® R ¾ NH2 + Na 2 CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2 O Acid amide 1 ° amine CONH2 ½ NH2 ½ + Br2 + 4KOH ¾® + K 2 CO3 + 2KBr + 2H2 O Benzamide OH 26.220 Xam idea Chemistry—XII ¾ COOH ¾ COOH O ½½ ¾C H 2 O/ H + + R ¾ NH2 ¬¾¾¾¾¾ N¾ R 1 ° amine ¾C ½½ O Phthalic acid (ii) Coupling reactions: Diazonium salts react with aromatic amines in weakly acidic medium and phenols in weakly alkaline medium to form coloured compounds called azo dyes by coupling at p-position of amines or phenol.. The mechanism is basically that of electrophilic aromatic substitutions where the diazonium ion is electrophile. it gives a primary amine with one carbon atom less. NaOBr or KOBr).

phonograph records.Examination Papers 221 H+ (ii) CH3 — CH = CH2 + H2 O ¾Markovnikov's ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — C H— CH3 | addition Propene OH Propan -2-ol O || (iii) CH3 — C— CH3 + Propanone é OMgBr ù OH ê ú | | 2O CH3 MgBr ¾¾® êCH3 — C— CH3 ú ¾H¾ ¾ ® CH3 — C— CH3 ê ú | | ê ú Methyl magnesium CH3 CH3 bromide êë úû 2-methyl propan -2-ol 27. (iii) It is used in the manufacture of rain coats.016259 min–1 Þ Þ k = 1.00 – log 2. (a) An experimentally determined expression which relates the rate of reaction with the concentration of reactants is called rate law while the rate of reaction when concentration of each reactant is unity in a rate law expression is called rate constant. vinyl flooring. fountain pen barrels. zero order reaction Þ (ii) Again comparing power of mole in L mol–1s–1 and (mol L–1) 1–n s–1.89 2. (ii) It is used in making bristles for brushes.89] Þ 20 2. i. water pipes.e. we get –1 = 1 – n n = 2.00706 = 0. [A] = 0.400 k= log \ 20 0.. We get 1=l–n n = 0 i.303 k= log t [A] 2.289 2. It is used widely in making electrical goods such as switches. It is used for making carpets and fabrics in textile industry.303 0. 20 k = 2.303 × 0. second order reaction Þ –1 (b) (i) When t = 20 min.303 4. 28. (i) It is used for making combs. It is used for insulating electric wires.400 mol L–1 For a first order reaction [A] ° 2. [A]0 = 0. handles of various utensils.303 k= [0. hand bags.4609] Þ 20 2. ropes.289 mol L Also.303 k= Þ ´ 01412 .6259 × 10–2 min–1 . (i) Comparing power of mole in L–1 mol s–1 and (mol L–1)1–n s–1..6021 – 0.e.00 k= log Þ 20 2. plugs.303 k= [log 4.

9166 = 8.400 M.21 × 10–25M 23 8.303 0.303 1. OR (a) (i) Order of a reaction may be defined as the sum of the powers of the concentration terms of the reactants in the rate law expression.255 × 1023 [A] 01 . (a) (i) MnO4– 2MnO4– + 5C2O42– + 16H+ ¾ ¾® 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O (ii) Cr2O72– + 14H+ + 6e H2S ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 7H2O ¾ ¾® 2H+ + S + 2e–] × 3 Cr2O72– + 3H2S + 8H+ ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 3S + 7H2O .350 M Substituting these values in the above equation.10 × 10–3 min–1.303 = [log 40 .400 2.9166 [A] 2. we get t= 2.583 × 0.1 = Antilog 23. K = 5. ´ 10 -3 0.6259 × 10–2 min–1.5441] = 141.583 [1.626 × 10–2 min–1 × 0.1 10800 ´ 51 = = 23.0580 = 141. [A] = = 1. [A]o = 0.350 1. [A] o 2. [A] = 0.400 mol L–1 Also.222 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Initial rate. (ii) Elementary step: Each step of a complex reaction is called an elementary step.303 (iii) t = log k [A] Here.255 ´ 10 + 8H+ + 5e ¾ ¾® Mn2+ + 4H2O] × 2 C2O42– ¾ ¾® 2CO2 + 2e ] × 5 log 29.400 mol L–1 \ = 6. [A] = 0. [A] o 2.504 × 10–3 mol L–1 min–1.00 min.303 0.1 10800 min = log -3 -1 [A] 5.log 35] 0.6259 ´ 10 -2 = 141. k = 1.. rate of reaction when t = 0 When.303 (b) t= log K [A] Here. i.1 M Substituting these values in the above equation. t = 0.626 × 10–2 min–1 Initial rate = k [A] = 1.e. t = 3 × 60 × 60 min= 10800 min [A]o = 0. k = 1.0580 = 8.21 min.1 ´ 10 min . We get 2.583 × 0.6259 ´ 10 –2 log 0.6021 – 1.

it has three unpaired electron. — – CH3CH2CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3OH ¾ ¾® CH3 CH2 COO + 2Ag ¯ + 4NH3 + 2H2 O Propanal Silver Mirror CH3COCH3 ¾Tollen's ¾ ¾® No silver mirror reagent (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone Iodoform test: Acetophenone being a methyl ketone on treatment with I2/NaOH undergoes Iodoform reaction to give yellow ppt. the 4d and 5d transition element has larger size than that of 3d elements. OR 3+ – 2+ (a) (i) 2Fe + 2I ¾ ¾® 2Fe + I2 2– (ii) 2CrO4 + 2H+ ¾ ¾® Cr2 O2– 7 + H2 O (b) 30. Mn3+ undergoes disproportionation reaction. . (ii) Cr2+ is reducing as its configuration changes from d4 to d3. two unpaired electrons in 3d subshell pair up and third unpaired electron shift to higher energy subshell from where it can be easily lost and hence oxidised to Co(III).e. It compensates the second ionization enthalpy of Cu involved in the formation of Cu2+ ions. (iii) The catalytic activity of transition metals and their compounds is attributed to the following reasons: Because of their variable oxidation states transition metals form unstable intermediate compounds and provide a new path with lower activation for the reaction. i. In some cases. In some cases. of iodoform but benzaldehyde does not. That is why.. the transition metal provides a suitable large surface area with free valencies on which reactants are adsorbed. a more stable half filled t2g configuration while Mn3+ is oxidising as Mn3+ to Mn2+results a more stable half filled d5 configuration.Examination Papers 223 (b) (i) The catalytic activity of transition metals and their compounds is attributed to the following reasons: Because of their variable oxidation states transition metals form unstable intermediate compounds and provide a new path with lower activation for the reaction. (ii) Mn3+ is less stable and changes to Mn2+ which is more stable due to half filled d-orbital configuration. In the presence of strong ligands. the valence electrons are less lightly held and hence can form metal-metal bond more frequently. 2 Cu+ (aq) ¾ ¾® 2 Cu2+(aq) + Cu(s) The higher stability of Cu2+ in aqueous solution may be attributed to its greater negative D hydH° than that of Cu+. Thus. the transition metal provides a suitable large surface area with free valencies on which reactants are adsorbed. In general in the same group of d block elements. 4s. (a) (i) In aqueous solution Cu+ undergoes disproportionation to form a more stable Cu2+ ion. (i) Propanal and propanone Tollen’s reagent test: Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Tollen’s reagent to silver mirror but propanone being a ketone does not. (iii) Co (III) has electric configuration 3d.

formate (ii) Decarboxylation: Carboxylic acids lose carbon dioxide to form hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated with sodalime.. refractive index. ¾¾ ¾ ¾® HCOO Na + 2 HCHO Formaldehyde CH3 .OH Methyl alcohol Sod. NaOH (i) CH3CHO CH3CH—CH2CHO D CH3CH—CHCHO Ethanal But-2-enal CrO3 – H 2 SO4 (ii) CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH Butan – l – ol Butanoic acid –+ CH2CH3 COOK COOH H3O+ KMnO4–KOH (iii) D Ethyl benzene Benzoic acid OR (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an a-hydrogen atom undergoes disproportionation reactions on treatment with concentrated alkali to give a mixture of carboxylic acid salt and alcohol. . benzoate COOH COCl SOCl2 (ii) COOH heat COCl Phthalic acid (iii) C6H5CONH2 Phthaloyl chloride H O+ heat 3¾® ¾¾ C6H5COOH + NH3 CBSE (Foreign) SET–II 1. – – ¾NaOH ¾ ¾and¾CaO ¾® D RCOO Na RH + Na 2 CO3 –+ CH2CH3 (b) COOK KMnO4 (i) KOH. Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature means some of their physical properties like electrical conductivity. + NaOH ¾Conc.) OH (b) dil. are different in different directions. heat Ethyl benzene Pot. etc.224 Xam idea Chemistry—XII C 6 H5 COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® C 6 H5 COONa + CHI 3 ¯ + 2NaOH Acetophenone Iodoform (Yellow ppt.

Henry’s law : It states that “the partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase ( p) is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas ( x ) in the solution” and is expressed as p = KH x where. Chemisorption Physisorption It arises due to chemical bond formation. Chemical substances which prevent the growth of microorganisms or kill them but are not harmful to living tissues are called antiseptics. 12. 8. 3. Dettol. Significance of KH. It results into unimolecular layers on adsorbent It results into multimolecular layers on adsorbent surface. the lower is the solubility of the gas in the liquid. Savlon.Examination Papers 225 2. For example. 16. It is not specific in nature. surface under high pressure. etc. It is reversible. It is irreversible in nature. It arises because of van der waals’ forces. It is highly specific in nature. KH is the Henry’s law constant. 17. Higher the value of Henry’s law constant KH. (i) Geometrical isomers of [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ + Cl H3N Cl H3N Cr H3N + Cl NH3 Cr NH 3 NH 3 cis-Tetraamminedichlorido chromium (III) ion (ii) Optical isomers of [Co(en)3]3+ NH3 H3N Cl trans-Tetraamminedichlorido chromium (III) ion . Because CO has p bonds. Primary structure refers to the sequence in which various amino acids are arranged in a protein while secondary structure refers to the shape in which a long polypeptide chain can exist as a result of O || regular folding of the backbone of the polypeptide chain due to hydrogen bonding between — C— and —NH—groups of the peptide bond.

(i) Leaching of bauxite ore to prepare pure alumina: Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) ¾ ¾® 2Na[Al (OH)4] (aq) 2Na[Al(OH)4](aq) + CO2(g) ¾ ¾® Al2O3.g. e.-diamine) cobalt (III) ion laevo-Tris-(ethane-1.xH2O(s) + 2NaHCO3 (aq) 1470K Al2O3. (ii) Detergents: Detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water.226 Xam idea Chemistry—XII en en en Co Co en en en dextro-Tris-(ethane-1. Sodium hydrogen carbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide are some common antacids.2-diamine) cobalt (III) ion 18. (i) P4 + 10SO2Cl2 ¾ ¾® 4 PCl5 + 10SO2 (ii) 2Fe3+ + XeO3 + 6HFSO2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 2Fe2+ + 4H+ + SO42– (iii) XeF6 + 3H2O ¾ ¾® (excess) . Zr(s) + 2I2(g) ¾870K ¾ ¾® ZrI4 (g) (impure) 2075 K ZrI4 (g) ¾Tungsten ¾¾¾ ¾¾® Zr(s) + 2I 2 filament (Pure) (iii) Extraction of gold: – 4Au(s) + 8CN–(aq) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) ¾ ¾® 4[Au(CN)2]–(aq) + 4 O H (aq) Gold is recovered from [Au (CN2)] Complex by displacement method using a more eletropositive metal zinc. 2[Au (CN)2]– (aq) + Zn (s) ¾ ¾®2 Au (s)+[Zn (CN4+)]2– (aq) 22. (i) Antacids: These are the chemical substances which neutralize the excess acid and raise the pH to an appropriate level in the stomach..2.xH2O(s) ¾ ¾¾® Al2O3(s) + xH2O(g) (ii) Refining of zirconium by van Arkel method. but actually do not contain any soap. Detergents are mainly classified into three categories: (a) Anionic detergents (b) Cationic detergents (c) Non-ionic detergents 21. sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate.

(i) [Co(NH3)5Cll]Cl2: Pentaamminechlorido cobalt (III) chloride Co(III): [Ar] 3d6 4so —d2sp3 hybridisation leads to octahedral shape. therefore b2 = a2 + a2 = 2a2 b = 2a . 4.. Magnetic behaviour: Diamagnetic. (i) Because bond dissociation enthalpy of H—Cl is lower than H—F.Examination Papers 227 27. Magnetic behaviour: Diamagnetic.. 19. phase is either solid or liquid e.58 pm 4 22. (i) C + 2H2SO4 (conc. Potassium fluorido chromate (III). 2-bromobutane as secondary carbocation formed is more stable as compared to the primary carbocation in case of 1-bromobutane. 6 both the monomers hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid contain six carbon atoms each. (ii) Coagulation: The process of aggregating together the charged colloidal particles so as to change them into large sized particle which ultimately settle as down under the force of gravity as a precipitate is called coagulation.414 ´ 409 pm r= = 144. smoke.g.CH = CH2 ¾O¾ ¾ ¾® —[CH2 . insecticide sprays.. 2 2. we get 2 4r = 2a Þ r = a a 4 1.. (i) Aerosols: These are the colloidal systems in which dispersion medium is gas and dispsed. (ii) K2[Ni(CN)4]: Potassium tetracyano nickelate (II) Ni(II): [Ar] 3d8 4s° —dsp2 hybridisation leads to square planar shape.(i) Also.) ¾ ¾® CO2(g) + 2H2O (l) + 2SO2(g) (ii) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O ¾ ¾® PH3 + 3NaH2 PO2 b a . Red phosphorus is less reactive due its polymeric structure. (b) Neoprene is obtained by free radical polymerisation of chloroprene. 14. As the atoms just touch each other on the diagonal across the face of unit cell. 2 peroxide CH2 = C .. Raoult’s law: It states that for any solution the partial pressure of each volatile component in the solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction. (ii) White phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus due to its discrete tetrahedral structure and angular strain. 12. 15. (a) In nylon-6. b = r + 2r + r = 4r ..(ii) r From (i) and (ii).CH2 — ]n or O2 | | Cl Cl Chloroprene Neoprene CBSE (Foreign) SET–III 1.. 3.C = CH .

228 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (iii) Cl2 + 3F2 ¾573K ¾ ¾®2ClF3 (excess) OH 26.. n CH2 — CH2 ¾ ¾® —(CH2 — CH2 — )n Ethene Polyethene (ii) Copolymers: The polymers made by addition polymerisation from two different monomers are known as copolymers. polyethene. CH nCH2 CH—CH CH2 (CH2—CH2—CH—CH2—CH—CH2)n CH2 + Buta-1. e.g. O Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4 (i) Phenol O Benzoquinone H+ (ii) CH3 — CH = CH2 + H2 O ¾Markovnikov's ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 — C H— CH3 | addition Propene OH Propan -2-ol é OMgBr ù O OH ê ú || | | 2O (iii) CH3 — C— CH3 + CH3 MgBr ¾¾® êCH3 — C— CH3 ú ¾H¾ ¾ ® CH3 — C— CH3 ê ú | | ê ú Propanone Methyl magnesium CH CH bromide êë úû 3 3 2-mehtyl propan -2-ol 27. Buna-s. e.g. Polymers which are formed by the repeated addition of monomers molecules possessing double or triple bonds are called the addition polymers..3-diene Styrene Buna-S . The two types of addition polymers are: (i) Homopolymers: The addition polymers formed by the polymerisation of a single monomeric species are called homopolymers.

. (Kb for water = 0.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS DELHI–2012 Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum marks: 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. A 1. The solution has the boiling point of 100. use of calculators is not allowed.18°C. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. 6. propanone. Define the term ‘homopolymerisation’ giving an example. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH2—C—CH2Br | CH3 5. What do you understand by the ‘order of a reaction’? Identify the reaction order from each of the following units of reaction rate constant: (i) L–1 mol s–1 (ii) L mol–1 s–1. Which one of PCl4+ and PCl4– is not likely to exist and why? 4. Arrange the following in decreasing order of their basic strength in aqueous solutions: CH3NH2. (CH3)2NH. (CH3)3N and NH3 8. (iii) Question nos. (v) Question nos. What is the role of graphite in the electrometallurgy of aluminium? 3.00 molal aqueous solution of trichloroacetic acid (CCl3COOH) is heated to its boiling point. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. propanal. 7. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.512 K kg mol–1) OR Define the following terms: (i) Mole fraction (ii) Isotonic solutions (iii) Van’t Hoff factor (iv) Ideal solution 10. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. (iv) Question nos. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions: ethanal. (ii) Question nos. butanone. 9. Determine the van’t Hoff factor for trichloroacetic acid. Draw the structural formula of 2-methylpropan-2-ol molecule. What is meant by ‘doping’ in a semiconductor? 2. 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1.

what is the radius of tungsten atom? OR Iron has a body centred cubic unit cell with a cell dimension of 286. (i) Mond process for refining of Nickel.40 4 0.86 K kg mol–1) 21. (c) What is the initial rate of disappearance of Cl2 in experiment 4? .25 ? (a) Write the expression for rate law.845 u) 20. What is meant by coagulation of a colloidal solution? Describe briefly any three methods by which coagulation of lyophobic sols can be carried out. All the measurements were taken at 263 K: Experiment No. mass of Fe = 55. 15. Calculate the amount of KCl which must be added to 1 kg of water so that the freezing point is depressed by 2 K.15 0. Name the two groups into which phenomenon of catalysis can be divided. 12.15 0. Describe the principle involved in each of the following processes. If the edge of the unit cell is 316.15 2. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number.5 pm. 18. For the reaction 2NO(g) + Cl2(g) ¾ ¾® 2NOCl(g). Write any two reactions of glucose which cannot be explained by the open chain structure of glucose molecules.60 2 0.874 g cm–3.15 0.230 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 11. Draw the structure of the monomer for each of the following polymers: (i) Nylon-6 (ii) Polypropene 19.25 0. The density of iron is 7.30 0. 14. (Kf for water = 1. (b) Calculate the value of rate constant and specify its units.20 3 0. What is meant by (i) peptide linkage (ii) biocatalysts? 17. Tungsten crystallises in body centred cubic unit cell. Explain the following giving an appropriate reason in each case.30 1. (At. (ii) Structures of Xenon fluorides cannot be explained by Valence Bond approach. Give an example of each group with the chemical equation involved. 13. Initial [NO] (M) Initial [Cl2] (M) Initial rate of disappearance of Cl2 (M/min) 1 0. the following data were collected. Complete the following chemical equations: (i) Cr2O72– + H+ + I– ¾ ¾® – – + (ii) MnO4 + NO2 + H ¾ ¾® 16. (ii) Column chromatography for purification of rare elements.65 pm. (i) O2 and F2 both stabilise higher oxidation states of metals but O2 exceeds F2 in doing so.

Assume that an excess of oxidizing agent is used.001 M KCl solution at 298 K is 1500 W.146 × 10–3 S cm–1? . Write the name and magnetic behaviour of each of the above coordination entities. +4 or even +6 being typical. (At.76 V) + /Ag OR (a) Define molar conductivity of a solution and explain how molar conductivity changes with change in concentration of solution for a weak and a strong electrolyte. (a) What type of a battery is the lead storage battery? Write the anode and the cathode reactions and the overall reaction occurring in a lead storage battery when current is drawn from it. How would you account for the following? (i) Many of the transition elements are known to form interstitial compounds. E oZn 2+ / Zn = – 0. Draw the structure and name the product formed if the following alcohols are oxidized. yet it is ortho-. widely used in watches. one NH3 molecule and two bidentate ethylene diamine (en) molecules.80 V. (b) The resistance of a conductivity cell containing 0. Give the formula of each of the following coordination entities: (i) Co3+ ion is bound to one Cl–. Although chlorine is an electron withdrawing group. para-directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. (b) In the button cell. Ni = 28) 24. nos. Write chemical equations for the following conversions: (i) Nitrobenzene to benzoic acid (ii) Benzyl chloride to 2-phenylethanamine (iii) Aniline to benzyl alcohol 27. What is the cell constant if the conductivity of 0. (i) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH (ii) 2-butenol (iii) 2-methyl-1-propanol 26. Co = 27. What are the following substances? Give one example of each one of them: (i) Tranquillisers (ii) Food preservatives (iii) Synthetic detergents 28. (iii) Lanthanoids form primarily +3 ions. (ii) Ni2+ ion is bound to two water molecules and two oxalate ions. o (Given: EAg = + 0. while the actinoids usually have higher oxidation states in their compounds.001 M KCl solution at 298 K is 0. the following reaction takes place Zn(s) + Ag2O(s) + H2O(l) ¾ ¾® Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) + 2OH–(aq) Determine Eo and DGo for the reaction. Explain why it is so? 25. (ii) The metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition metals are virtually the same as those of the corresponding group members of the second (4d) series.Examination Papers 231 22. 23.

232 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 29. Write a point of distinction between a metallic solid and an ionic solid other than metallic lustre.) (ii) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾ ¾® (b) Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) H3PO2 (ii) H2S2O7 (iii) XeOF4 30. (a) Illustrate the following name reactions giving suitable example in each case: (i) Clemmensen reduction (ii) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction (b) How are the following conversions carried out? (i) Ethylcyanide to ethanoic acid (ii) Butan-1-ol to butanoic acid (iii) Benzoic acid to m-bromobenzoic acid OR (a) Illustrate the following reactions giving a suitable example for each: (i) Cross aldol condensation (ii) Decarboxylation (b) Give simple tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds (i) Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one (ii) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone (iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid CBSE (Delhi) SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set–I 1. 11. Describe a conspicuous change observed when (i) a solution of NaCl is added to a sol of hydrated ferric oxide. (ii) a beam of light is passed through a solution of NaCl and then through a sol. (a) Complete the following chemical reaction equations: (i) P4 + SO2Cl2 ¾ ¾® (ii) XeF6 + H2O ¾ ¾® (b) Predict the shape and the asked angle (90° or more or less) in each of the following cases: ( i) SO32– and the angle O—S—O (ii) ClF3 and the angle F—Cl—F (iii) XeF2 and the angle F—Xe—F OR (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) NaOH + Cl2 ¾ ¾® (hot and conc. .

4-DNP derivative. 30. (iii) Most of the transition metal ions exhibit characteristic colours in aqueous solutions. (ii) Cyclohexanone forms cyanohydrin in good yield but 2. However.Examination Papers 233 13.512 K kg mol–1) 22. State a reason for each of the following situations: (i) Co2+ is easily oxidized to Co3+ in the presence of a strong ligand.¾ ¾¾ ® + (iii) 2. (ii) CO is a stronger complexing reagent than NH3. 6-trimethylcyclohexanone does not.2-benzene-di-carboxylic acid. Describe the following: (i) The role of cryolite in electrometallurgy of aluminium. A solution of glycerol (C3H8O3) in water was prepared by dissolving some glycerol in 500 g of water. thymine and uracil. On vigorous oxidation it gives 1. (iii) The molecular shape of Ni(CO)4 is not the same as that of [Ni(CN)4]2–. Of the two bases. 23. NO2 H 3O . H 2 SO4 (ii) H3C—Cº C—H ¾Hg ¾¾ ¾¾® CH3 CrO2 Cl 2 ¾1. (b) An organic compound with molecular formula C9H10O forms 2. OR (a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between (i) Phenol and Benzoic acid (ii) Benzophenone and Acetophenone (b) Write the structures of the main products of following reactions: 3 + C6H5COCl ¾AnhydrousAlCl ¾¾¾¾ ¾ ® (i) CS2 2+ . (a) Give a possible explanation for each one of the following: (i) There are two —NH2 groups in semicarbazide. only one such group is involved in the formation of semicarbazones.42 °C while pure water boils at 100 °C. Identify the compound. 18. (ii) The role of carbon monoxide in the refining of crude nickel. (ii) The actinoids exhibit a larger number of oxidation states than the corresponding members in the lanthanoid series. What mass of glycerol was dissolved to make the solution? (Kb for water = 0. reduces Tollen’s reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro’s reaction. This solution has a boiling point of 100. 4. How would you account for the following? (i) With the same d-orbital configuration (d4) Cr2+ is a reducing agent while Mn3+ is an oxidizing agent. which one is present in DNA? 20. Write the main structural difference between DNA and RNA.

What is the molar mass of this material? (Kf for water = 1. (ii) There occurs much more frequent metal-metal bonding in compounds of heavy transition metals (i. (iii) The bond angles (O—N—O) are not of the same value in NO2– and NO2+. (ii) The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases down group 15. . (iii) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetism. 3rd series).34 °C.86 K kg mol–1) 22. (ii) All the bonds in PCl5 molecule are not equivalent. (iii) Mn2+ is much more resistant than Fe2+ towards oxidation.e. OR (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) XeF4 + SbF5 ¾ ¾® (ii) Cl2 + F2(excess) ¾ ¾® (b) Explain each of the following: (i) Nitrogen is much less reactive than phosphorus. 23. (i) The enthalpies of atomization of transition elements are quite high.234 Xam idea Chemistry—XII CBSE (Delhi) SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and II 5. Write the name. Draw the structure of hex-1-en-3-ol compound. nos. Ni = 28.0 g of an unknown molecular material was dissolved in 450 g of water. Explain the following observations giving an appropriate reason for each. the structure and the magnetic behaviour of each one of the following complexes: (i) [Pt(NH3)Cl(NO2)] (ii) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl (iii) Ni(CO)4 (At. 15. Pt = 78) 27. 20. Explain the following terms giving one example of each type: (i) Antacids (ii) Disinfectants (iii) Enzymes 30.. Co = 27. (a) Draw the molecular structures of following compounds: (i) XeF6 (ii) H2S2O8 (b) Explain the following observations: (i) The molecules NH3 and NF3 have dipole moments which are of opposite directions. The resulting solution was found to freeze at – 0.

For a general reaction: aA + bB ¾ ¾® Products . Graphite is used as electrodes in the electrometallurgy of aluminium. The solutions of the same osmotic pressure at a given temperature are called isotonic solutions. —CH2 ¾Polymerization n CH2— ¾ ¾ ¾¾® — ( CH2—CH2 — ) n Ethene Polyethene (Homopolymer) 9. Homopolymerisation is a polymerisation reaction in which monomers of one kind are allowed to polymerise and form a homopolymer.18 K = i × 0. 3-Bromo-2-methylpropene CH3 | 5.Examination Papers 235 Solutions CBSE (Delhi) SET–I 1.18 i= = 0. A solution which obeys Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration is called an ideal solution. (CH3)2NH > CH3NH2 > (CH3)3N > NH3 8. The process of addition of an appropriate amount of suitable impurity to an intrinsic semiconductor to enhance its conductivity is called doping.512 OR Mole fraction of a component in a solution may be defined as the ratio of moles of that component to the total number of moles of all the components present in the solution.35 0. DTb = 100. Butanone < Propanone < Propanal < Ethanal 7. Kb = 0.18°C or 0. 10.512 K kg mol–1. The sum of powers of the concentration of the reactants in the rate law expression is called order of reaction.18 K. van’t Hoff’s factor (i) may be defined as the ratio of normal molecular mass to observed molecular mass or the ratio of observed colligative property to normal colligative property. C(s) + 2O2–(melt) ¾ ¾® CO2(g) + 4e– 3. CH3 — C— CH3 | OH 6. 4. m = 1 mol kg–1 DTb = i Kb m (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 0. as phosphorus has 10 electrons which can’t be accommodated in sp3 hybrid orbitals.512 K kg mol–1 × 1 mol kg–1 0. 2.18°C – 100°C = 0. The electrode reactions are: Cathode: Al3+ (melt) + 3e– ¾ ¾® Al(l) 2– Anode: C(s) + O (melt) ¾ ¾® CO(g) + 2e–. PCl4–.

the catalysis is said to be homogeneous catalysis. the combination of dinitrogen and dihydrogen to form ammonia in the presence of finally divided iron as a catalyst. NO as catalyst. Three methods by which coagulation of lyophobic sols can be carried out are: (i) Electrophoresis: During electrophoresis the colloidal particles move towards oppositely charged electrodes. It is then decomposed to give pure nickel. (i) It is due to the ability of oxygen to form multiple bonds with metals. For example. (ii) Boiling: On boiling a sol. This causes neutralisation leading to their coagulation. k = (mol L–1)1–n s–1 L–1 mol s–1 = (mol L–1)1–n s–1 \ –1=–1+n (ii) –1 –1 Þ n = 0 or 1 = 1 – n Þ n = 0 \ Reaction order = 0 –1 1–n –1 L mol s = (mol L ) s 1=–1+n Þ n = 2 or – 1 = 1 – n Þ n = 2 \ Reaction order = 2 11. the adsorbed layer is disturbed due to increased collision with the molecules of dispersion medium. the catalysis is said to be heterogeneous. (i) Cr2O72– + 14H+ + 6e– 2I– ¾ ¾® ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 7H2O I2 + 2e–]×3 Cr2O72– + 6I– + 14H+ ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 3I2 + 7H2O . nickel is converted into its volatile complex. order of reaction = m + n (i) General unit of rate constant. get discharged and coagulated. g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ¾NO( ¾¾ ® 2SO3(g) (ii) Heterogeneous catalysis: When the reactants are in a different phase than the catalyst. 13. For example. (ii) This is because the energy required for the promotion of electrons in xenon is very high. 15. s) N2(g) + 3H2(g) ¾Fe( ¾ ¾ ® 2NH3(g) 12. This reduces the charge on the particles which ultimately settle down in the form of a precipitate. Ni(CO)4 ¾450– ¾¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO Impure nickel Tetracarbonyl nickel (volatile) Pure nickel (ii) Column chromatography is based on the principle that different components of a mixture are differently adsorbed on an adsorbent. In purification of rare earth elements ion-exchange is used as an adsorbent. 14. The two groups into which phenomenon of catalysis can be divided are: (i) Homogeneous catalysis: When the reactants and the catalyst are in the same phase. (iii) Addition of Electrolytes: When excess of an electrolyte is added to a colloidal solution. teracarbonyl nickel and gets collected elsewhere.236 Xam idea Chemistry—XII If rate = k[A]m [B]n. 350 K 470 K Ni + 4CO ¾330– ¾¾ ¾® Ni(CO)4. SO2 is oxidized to SO3 in the presence of nitric oxide. The process of settling of colloidal particles through induced aggregation by the addition of some suitable electrolyte is known as coagulation. the colloids interact with ions carrying charge opposite to that present on themselves. (i) In Mond process.

874 g cm–3 r= \ For bcc unit cell. we get 2 ´ 55. For example. (ii) D—(+)—glucose when heated with methly alcohol in the presence of dry HCl gas forms a mixture containing methyl a-D-glucoside and methyl b-D-glucoside. z = 2 Substituting the values in the expression. activation energy for acid hydrolysis of sucrose is 6.5 pm For bcc unit cell. The enzymes are thus termed as biocatalysts.845 g mol –1 ( 286. + C6H12O6 + CH3—OH ¾H¾® (C6H11O5)OCH3 + H2O D-glucose 18. (ii) A number of reactions that occur in the bodies of animals and plants to maintain the life process are catalysed by enzymes. 65 ´ 10 -10 cm) 3 ´ 7. M = 55. NA = NA = z´ M a3 ´ d . r= 3 a 4 3 × 316. 17. d = 7. Almost all the enzymes are globular proteins. (i) Peptide linkage is an amide (—CONH2) linkage formed between —COOH group of one a-amino acid and —NH2 group of other a-amino acid by the loss of a water molecule in a peptide.Examination Papers 237 MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e– NO2– + H2O (ii) ¾ ¾® Mn2+ + 4H2O]×2 ¾ ¾® NO3– + 2H+ + 2e–]×5 2MnO4– + 5NO2– + 6H+ ¾ ¾® 2Mn2+ + 5NO3– + 3H2O 16. (i) The pentaacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence of free —CHO group. Methyl alcohol Methyl-a-and b-D-glucosides H H2C N C—O CH2 H2C CH2 —CH2 (ii) CH3—CH— (i) H C 2 Propene Caprolactum 19.5 pm = 137.022 × 1023 mol–1 .04 pm 4 OR –10 a = 286. An enzyme catalyses a biochemical reaction by providing alternate lower activation path thereby increasing the rate of the biochemical reaction.65 pm = 286.22 kJ mol–1 while the activation energy is only 2. a = 316.65 × 10 cm.15 kJ mol–1 when hydrolyzed in the presence of enzyme sucrose.874 g cm –3 NA = 6.845 g mol–1.

15 mol L–1) \ (c) k = 177. chlorine tends to stabilize the carbocation and the effect is more pronounced at ortho and para-positions .30) (0. 23. are some interstitial compounds (ii) This is due to filling of 4f orbitals which have poor shielding effect. Chlorine withdraws electrons through negative inductive effect and releases electron through resonance. )n 4 = 2m or 22 = 2 m Dividing equation (ii) by (i). etc. Mn4N.5 g mol–1 Substituting these values in the expression. WA = 1 kg = 1000 g.15)n .778 mol L–1 min–1 22. 60 k ( 015 . Through resonance effect. 60 k ( 0. Fe3H.60 mol L–1 min–1 = k(0.15)m (0. TiC. chlorine destabilizes the intermediate carbocation formed during the electrophilic substitution. 20 k ( 0. NO is m and order w. 6d and 7s subshells in actinoids.r. Through negative inductive effect. )n = 0.r.77 mol–2 L2 min–1 × (0. DTf ´ M B ´ WA WB = i ´ K f ´1000 WB = 2 K ´ 74. Suppose order w.86 K kg mol–1.05 g 2 ´ 1. Rate = k[NO]2 [Cl2] (b) 0.t.15) m ( 0. C and N in the interstitial sites in their crystal lattices.25 mol L–1) = 2. (i) [Co(NH3)Cl(en)2]2+ : Amminechloridobis (ethane-1.60 = k(0.77 mol–2 L2 min–1 Rate = 177.15) m ( 0.30) n = 0.15) n or m=2 2 = 2n or n=1 (a) Rate law expression is.15) Dividing equation (iii) by (i). ) m ( 015 . DTf = 2K. i = 2..30) 2. 2-diamine)-cobalt(III) ion Magnetic behaviour : Diamagnetic (ii) [Ni(H2O)2(OX)2]2– : Diaquadioxalatonickelate (II) ion Magnetic behaviour : Paramagnetic 24.. Kf = 1.238 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 20.(i) m n . we get 1.t.5 g mol –1 ´ 1000 g = 40... (i) Interstitial compounds are well known for many of the transition elements because the transition elements are capable of entrapping small sized atoms such as H.30) m ( 015 . we get 0. These trapped atoms get bonded to the atoms of transition elements. MB = 74.(ii) m n .(iii) 1.15 mol L–1)2 (0.15) (0. (iii) This is due to very small energy gaps between 5f.86 K kg mol –1 ´ 1000 g kg –1 21.40 = k(0. Cl2 is n. we get 2... 40 k ( 0.20 = k(0. Then the rate will be Rate = k[NO]m[Cl2]n Substituting the values of experiment 1 to 3 in the rate expression.25 mol L–1)2 (0.

(i) CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—OH ¾ ¾(O) ¾¾® CH3—CH2—CH2—COOH CrO3 – H 2 SO4 Butan-1-ol Butanoic acid ¾ ¾(O) ¾¾® CH3—CH— —CH—CHO (ii) CH3—CH— —CH—CH2—OH PCC But-2-enol CH3 | (iii) CH3—CH—CH2—OH But-2-enal CH3 | ¾ ¾(O) ¾¾® CH3—CH—COOH CrO3 – H 2 SO4 2-Methylpropan-1-ol 26. NO2 2-Methylpropanoic acid NH2 – N2Cl NaNO2/HCl Sn/HCl (i) + CN COOH H2O/H CuCN/KCN + 273-278 K Nitrobenzene Benzoic acid CH2Cl CH2CN KCN(alc) (ii) CH2—CH2—NH2 Na(Hg)/C2H5OH Benzyl chloride + NH2 Aniline – N2Cl NaNO2/HCl 273-278 K (iii) 2-Phenylethanamine CN CuCN/KCN COOH + H2O/H CH2OH LiAlH4 Benzyl alcohol . The resonance effect tends to oppose the inductive effect for the attack at ortho and para positions and hence makes the deactivation less for ortho and para attack.Examination Papers 239 Cl Cl H + E E Inductive effect destabilizes the intermediate carbocation Cl Cl H + + E Cl (Attack at ortho-position) E Cl (Attack at para-position) + + E E H Resonance effect stabilizes the intermediate carbocation The negative inductive effect is stronger than resonance effect and causes net electron withdrawal and thus causes net deactivation. 25.. Thus the electrophilic substitution takes place at ortho and para positions.

iproniazid. These relieve anxiety. stress. The most-common preservatives used are sugar.76 V) E ocell = 1. which have all the properties of soaps but actually do not contain any soap. luminal. chlordiazopoxide. irritability or excitement by inducing a sense of well-being. sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate l Cationic detergents.g. equanil. polyethylene glycol stearate (a) Lead storage battery is a secondary battery.g. These can be used in both soft water and hard water as they produce foam even in hard water. e. salts of ascorbic acid and propanoic acid. sodium benzoate.. (iii) Synthetic detergents are cleansing agents..08 kJ mol–1 n=2 . + NH2 – N2Cl CH3 CHCl3/ H3PO2/H2O NaNO2/HCl 273-278 K anhyd. e. (ii) Food preservatives are the chemical substances which are added to food materials to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth and to retain their nutritive value for long periods. The reactions occurring in lead storage battery when current is drawn from it are: Anode: Pb(s) + SO42–(aq) ¾ ¾® PbSO4(s) + 2e– 2– Cathode: PbO2(s) + SO4 (aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e– ¾ ¾® PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) Overall reaction: Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) ¾ ¾® 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) (b) Anode: Zn ¾ ¾® Zn2+ + 2e– Cathode: Ag2O + H2O + 2e– ¾ ¾® 2Ag + 2OH– Zn + Ag2O + H2O ¾ ¾® Zn2+ + 2Ag + 2OH–.. and mild or even severe mental diseases. AlCl3 Aniline Cl2/hn CH2OH CH2—Cl NaOH(aq) Benzyl alchol 27.g.240 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Alternatively. 28.g.. Cell reaction: E ocell = E ocathode – E oanode = o EAg + /Ag – E oZn 2+ / Zn = 0. These are mainly classified into three categories: l Anionic detergents. etc. e. Preservatives prevent the rancidity of food and inhibit growth or kill the microorganisms. Benzyl alchol (i) Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress. cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide l Non-ionic detergents. vegetable oil.80 V – (– 0. fatigue. e.56 V DGo = – nF E ocell \ DGo = – 2 × 96500 C mol–1 × 1.56 V = – 301080 J mol–1 DGo = – 301.

k ´ 1000 Lm = k ´ V = c where k is the conductivity and V is the volume of solution containing one mole of the electrolyte and c is the molar concentration. Strong electrolyte (KCl) L m increases a little as shown in figure by a straight line. SO32– should be pyramidal. The angle O—S—O is greater than 90°. concentration. Therefore according to VSEPR theory.4 increase in molar conductivity. Therefore.. (a) (i) P4 + 10SO2Cl2 ¾ ¾® 4PCl5 + 10SO2 (ii) XeF6 + 3H2O ¾ ¾® XeO3 + 6HF (b) (i) There are three bond pairs and one lone pair of electrons around S atoms in SO32–. especially at c1/2/(mol/L)1/2 infinite dilution (i. number of ions as well as mobility of ions increases on dilution which results in a very large 0 0.146 × 10–3 S cm–1 Substituting the values in the expression. Molar conductivity increases with decrease 400 in concentration or increase in dilution as the Weak electrolyte (CH3COOH) number of ions as well as the mobility of ions increases with increase in dilution. For strong electrolytes.2 0.e. Therefore according to VSEPR theory. (b) R = 1500 W. Cell constant = k × R Cell constant = 0.146 × 10–3 S cm–1 × 1500 W = 0. O– F F ClF3 .Examination Papers 241 OR Lm/(S cm2 mol–1) (a) Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of the volume V of the solution containing one mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes with area of cross section A and distance of unit length. For weak electrolytes. k = 0. the number of ions does not increase appreciably on dilution and 200 only mobility of ions increases due to decrease in interionic attractions. S O O– 2– SO3 F Cl (ii) There are three bond pairs and two lone pairs of electrons around Cl atom in ClF3. c ® 0) as shown by curve in figure.219 cm–1 29. The angle F—Cl—F is less than 90°. ClF3 should be bent T-shaped.

The angle F—Xe—F is greater than 90°. Xe OR (a) (i) 6NaOH F + 3Cl2 ¾ ¾® 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O XeF2 (hot and conc) (b) (ii) (i) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾ ¾® XeF6 + O2 (ii) O O (iii) O O F P S OH H OH H3PO2 30. Br) X a-Halocarboxylic acid (b) H3O+ D (i) CH3CH2CN Ethyl cyanide CH3CH2COOH +NH3 D CH3CH2CONH2 Br2/KOH CH3COOH K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 CH3CH2OH HNO2 CH3CH2NH2 Ethanoic acid . Therefore according to VSEPR theory. XeF2 should be linear. (a) O O H F S Xe O F HO H2S2O7 F XeOF4 (i) The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc-amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid. a R—CH2—COOH Carboxylic acid (i) X2/red P (ii) H3O+ R—CH—COOH (X = Cl. The reaction is known as Clemmensen reduction C—O Zn–Hg HCl CH3COCH3 + 4(H) Acetone CH2 + H2O Zn–Hg HCl CH3CH2CH3 + H2O Propane (ii) Carboxylic acids having an a-hydrogen are halogenated at the a-position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give a-halocarboxylic acids.242 Xam idea Chemistry—XII F (iii) There are two bond pairs and three lone pairs of electrons around Xe atoms in XeF2. This reaction is called Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky reaction.H 2 SO4 (ii) CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—OH ¾CrO ¾ 3¾ ¾¾® CH3—CH2—CH2—COOH (Jones reagent ) Butan-1-ol Butanoic acid COOH COOH Br2/FeBr3 Br (iii) Benzoic acid m-Bromobenzoic acid .

(i) The positively charged colloidal particles of Fe(OH)3 get coagulated by negatively charged Cl– ions provided by electrolyte sodium chloride. 13. Metallic solids conduct electricity in solid state while ionic solids are insulators in solid state. This reaction is called decarboxylation. Ni(CO)4 which on further heating at higher temperature decomposes to give pure nickel. – + R — CO O Na ¾NaOH ¾ ¾and ¾CaO ¾® R — H + Na 2 CO3 D Sodium carboxylate (b) Hydrocarbon (i) Pentan-2-one when treated with NaOI (I2/NaOH) gives yellow precipitate of iodoform but pentan-3-one does not give this test. C6H6CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3OH– ¾ ¾® C6H5COO– + 2Ag¯ + 4NH3 + 2H2O Benzaldehyde Tollen’s reagent Silver mirror (iii) Benzoic acid produces brisk effervescence with sodium bicarbonate solution while phenol does not. CH3—CH2—CH2—COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® CH3CH2CH2COONa + CHI3 ¯ + 2NaOH Pentan-2-one Sodium hypoiodite Iodoform (Yellow ppt. (ii) When nickel is heated with carbon monoxide it forms a volatile compound tetracarbonyl nickel. (i) The role of electrolyte is two-fold: l It covers the melting point of the mixture to about 1250 K. 350 K 470 K Ni + 4CO ¾330 ¾–¾¾ ® Ni(CO)4. 11. O O O – C—H + C—CH3 OH 293 K Benzaldehyde CH—CH—C— Benzalacetophenone (Major product) (ii) Sodium salt of carboxylic acids on heating with soda lime lose carbon dioxide and form hydrocarbons. Ni(CO)4 ¾450 ¾–¾¾ ® Ni + 4CO Impure nickel Pure nickel .Examination Papers 243 OR (a) (i) When aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and/or ketones.) (ii) Benzaldehyde being an aldehyde gives silver mirror with Tollen’s reagent but acetophenone being a ketone does not give this test. C6H5COOH + NaHCO3 ¾ ¾® C6H5COONa + CO2­ + H2O Benzoic acid Sodium bicarbonate CBSE (Delhi) SET–II 1. (ii) The path of light is not visible when light is passed through NaCl solution but visible when light is passed through a sol due to scattering of light by colloidal particles. it is called cross aldol condensation. l It increases the electrical conductivity of the mixture.

20. DNA has double stranded a-helix structure. (iii) Ni in [Ni(CO)4] is sp3 hybridized.000–40. This explain why CO is a stronger complexing reagent than NH3. 42 K ´ 92 g mol –1 ´ 500 g 0. we get K b ´1000 WB = 22. it is tetrahedral. 2. RNA molecules are much smaller and their molecular may vary from 20. The sugar present in DNA is 2-deoxy-D-(–)-ribose. MB = 92 g mol–1 Substituting these values in the expression. The sugar present in RNA is D-(–)-ribose. Thymine is present in DNA. DTb = 100. 3. This splitting energy overcomes the ionization enthalpy. DTb ´ M B ´ WA WB = . (ii) This is due to very small energy gaps between 5f. .42°C or 0. Hence. 0. RNA contains cytosine and uracil as pyrimidine bases. the change from Mn3+ to Mn2+ results in the extra stable half-filled (d5) configuration and hence Mn3+ is an oxidizing agent.000 u.244 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 18. Hence. it has square planar geometry. 1. CN CN hybridization (i) Cr2+ is a reducing agent as its configuration changes from d4 to d3.42 K. Structural difference DNA RNA 1.00°C = 0.42°C – 100. In [Ni(CN)4]2–.52 K kg mol–1. 6d and 7s subshells in actinoids.512 K kg mol –1 ´ 1000 g kg –1 = 37. DNA molecules are very large and their molecular mass may vary from 6 × 106 – 16 × 106 u. (iii) In aqueous solutions. (ii) CO is capable of accepting an appreciable amount of electron density from a filled metal d-orbital into vacant antibonding p*-orbital of its own.73 g (i) Because strong ligand causes spin pairing giving rise to diamagnetic octahedral complex which are very stable and have very large crystal field stabilization energy. DNA contains cytosine pyrimidine bases. WA = 500 g Kb = 0. RNA has single stranded a-helix structure.This type of p interaction increases the value of crystal field stabilization energy. 4. the later having a half-filled t2g level. the transition metal ions which have partially filled d-orbitals undergo d-d transition by absorbing light from visible region and radiate complementary colour. 2. the Ni2+ is dsp2 hybridized. 4. and thymine as 3. 4s 3d 4p Tetrahedral geometry Ni in [Ni(CO)4] CO sp3 CO CO CO hybridization Square planar geometry Ni in [Ni(CN)4]2– CN CN sp2 23. On the other hand.

. electron density on this —NH2 group decreases and hence it does not act as a nucleophile. (ii) Due to presence of three methyl groups.Examination Papers 245 30. 4-DNP 2. 4-DNP derivative CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3OH COO– + 2Ag¯ + 2H2O + 4NH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 Tollen’s reagent 2 CHO – OH CH2CH3 CHO CH2CH3 NO2 Silver mirror COO– + CH2CH3 KMnO4/KOH CH2OH CH2CH3 COO– H 3O + COOH – COO 2-Ethyl benzaldehyde COOH 1. Consequently. On the other hand. CHO CH2CH3 (b) The compound is 2-ethyl benzaldehyde The reactions involved in the question are: NO2 CHO + N2NHN NO2 NO2 CH—NHN CH2CH3 CH2CH3 2-Ethylbenzaldehyde 2. the nucleophilic attack by CN– ion does not occur due to steric hindrance in 2. 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid OR (a) (i) Phenol gives a violet colouration with neutral FeCl3 solution while benzoic acid gives buff coloured precipitate of ferric benzoate. 6C6H5OH + FeCl3 ¾ ¾® [Fe(OC6H5)6]3– + 3H+ + 3HCl Violet complex 3C6H5COOH + FeCl3 ¾ ¾® (C6H5COO)3Fe + 3HCl Benzoic acid Buff coloured ppt. the lone pair of electrons on the other —NH2 group is not involved in resonance and hence is available for nucleophilic attack on the C—O group of aldehydes and ketones. (a) (i) O O O + H2N — — C — NH — NH2 H2N — C — NH — NH2 + H2N — C — — NH — NH2 Semicarbazide Although semicarbazide has two —NH2 group but one which is directly attached to C—O is involved in the resonance as shown above. 6-trimethyl cylcohexanone. 4. As there is no such steric hindrance in cyclohexanone so nucleophilic attack by the CN– ion occurs readily and hence cyclohexanone cyanohydrin is obtained in good yield.

resulting in higher enthalpies of atomization. half filled) is more stable than Fe2+ (d4).34 °C or 0. 0 g ´ 1000 g kg –1 = 182. Pt2+ = 5d8 5d ×× 6s 6p ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from the NH3.246 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Acetophenone being a methyl ketone when treated with NaOI(I2/NaOH) gives yellow precipitate of iodoform while benzophenone does not give this test. we get DTf ´ WA MB = 22.86 K kg mol–1 Substituting these values in the expression.34 K ´ 450 g (i) Because of large number of unpaired electrons in their atoms. the valence electrons are less tightly held and form metal–metal bond more frequently. WA = 450 g.) O C (b) (i) CHO O C6H5 (ii) CH3—C—CH3 Bezophenone Acetone (iii) NO2 p-Nitro benzaldehyde CBSE (Delhi) SET–III 5. half filled) while Fe3+ (d5. CH3—CH2—CH2—CH—CH— —CH2 | OH 20.34 K WB = 15. That is why Mn2+ is more resistance than Fe2+ towards oxidation. Magnetic behaviour : Diamagnetic .34 °C) = 0. C6H5COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® C6H5COONa + CHI3 + 2NaOH Acetophenone Sodium benzoate Iodoform (Yellow ppt.0 g.86 K kg mol –1 ´ 15. the 4d and 5d transition elements are larger in size than than those of 3d elements. (i) [Pt(NH3)2ClNO2]: Diamminechloridonitrito-N-platinum (II). DTf = 0°C – (– 0. the transition metals have strong interatomic interactions and hence stronger bonding between atoms. 1. (ii) In the same group of d-block elements.35 g mol–1 0. Kf = 1. 23. Hence. (iii) Mn3+(d4) is less stable than Mn2+ (d5. Cl– and NO2 dsp2 hybrid Structure = Square planar. K f ´ WB ´ 1000 MB = .

000 g mol–1. The three equatorial P—Cl bonds are equivalent. P 202 pm This is due to the fact that the axial bond pairs suffer greater Cl Cl repulsion as compared to equatorial bond pairs. Cl (iii) In vapour state sulphur partly exists as S2 molecule which has two unpaired electrons in the antibonding p* orbitals like O2 and hence it exhibits paramagnetism. a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide.000 to 1. Magnetic behaviour : Diamagnetic (iii) Ni(CO)4 : Tetracrabonyl nickel(o). phenol (1%). (i) Antacids: Chemical substances which remove excess acid in the stomach and raise the pH to appropriate level. (a) (i) (ii) F F F Xe F O S S O O F F Distorted octahedral XeF6 (b) O OH O O HO Peroxodisulphuric acid (H2S2O8) 240 pm (i) This is because in NH3 nitrogen is more electronegative than hydrogen while in NF3. etc. (iii) Enzymes: Enzymes are globular proteins with high molecular mass ranging from 15.g. 30. e.. Magnetic behaviour : Diamagnetic 27.2 to 0. chlorine in concentration of 0. e. Cl (ii) In gaseous and liquid phases PCl5 has a trigonal bipyramidal Cl structure. (ii) Disinfectants: These are the chemical substances which kill microorganisms or stop their growth but are harmful to human tissues. ranitidine. etc.g. nitrogen is less electronegative than fluorine. sodium hydrogencarbonate. Ni = 3d8 4s2 3d 4s 4p ×× ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from ligand CO sp3 hybrid Structure = Tetrahedral. ..4 pm in aqueous solution.000. while the two axial bonds are longer then equitorial bonds. which form colloidal solution in water. SO2. Co3+ = 3d6 3d ×× ×× 4s 4p ×× ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from ligands NH3 and Cl– d2sp3 hybrid Structure = Octahedral.Examination Papers 247 (ii) [CO(NH3)4Cl2]Cl: Tetraamminedichloridocobalt (III) chloride. therefore enzymes are termed as biochemical catalysts. A number of reactions that occur in the body of animals and plants to maintain the life processes are catalyzed by enzymes.

4 kJ mol–1) is much stronger than P—P single bond (213 k J mol–1). As lone pair-bond pair repulsion is greater than bond pair-bond repulsion. thus O—N—O bond angle in NO2– is less than NO2+. (iii) In NO2–.248 Xam idea Chemistry—XII OR (i) XeF4 + SbF5 ¾ ¾® [XeF3] [SbF6]– K (ii) Cl2 + 3F2(excess) ¾573 ¾¾ ® 2ClF3 (b) (i) As N N triple bond (941. therefore nitrogen is much less reactive than phosphorus. (ii) Due to inert pair effect stability of +5 oxidation decreases down the group 15. (a) + zzz . nitrogen has a lone pair of electrons.

Differentiate between disinfectants and antiseptics. How is molar conductivity of a solution related to its conductivity? OR The molar conductivity of a 1. (ii) Question numbers 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. What happens when bromine attacks CH2—CH—CH2—C CH? 6. Calculate the conductivity of this solution. How is its rate affected if the concentration of the reactant is (i) doubled (ii) reduced to half? 11. 3. Write the structure of the product obtained when glucose is oxidised with nitric acid. Express the relation among cell constant.5 M solution of an electrolyte is found to be 138. 10. Define ‘peptization’. CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. Explain the following facts giving appropriate reason in each case: (i) NF3 is an exothermic compound whereas NCl3 is not. Which methods are usually employed for purifying the following metals (i) Nickel (ii) Germanium Mention the principle behind each of them. SbH3 or BiH3.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS ALL INDIA–2012 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. Which is a stronger reducing agent. 9. (iv) Question numbers 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. (v) Question numbers 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. Write the IUPAC name of the following: O || — CH — C— H CH3—CH2—CH— 7. resistance of the solution in the cell and conductivity of the solution. How may the conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor be increased? 2. A reaction is of second order with respect to a reactant. How is copper extracted from a low grade ore of it? 4. (ii) All the bonds in SF4 are not equivalent. Use of calculators is not allowed. 8. 12. if necessary. and why? 5. .9 S cm2 mol–1. (iii) Question numbers 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. (vi) Use log tables.

34 V). Suppose in a case [N2]= 0. Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and the product after the mixture has been heated to 1500 K.80 mol L–1 and [O2] = 0. N2(g) + O2(g) l 2NO(g) contributes to air pollution whenever a fuel is burnt in air at a high temperature. +2 and +4 ions are also obtained. If the radius of copper atom is 127.65 pm. Explain the following behaviours: (i) Alcohols are more soluble in water than the hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses. conductivity and molar conductivity.250 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 13.02 × 1023 mol–1) OR Iron has a body centred cubic unit cell with a cell dimension of 286. 16. The density of iron is 7. Copper is the only metal in the first series of transition elements showing this behaviour. Name the following coordination entities and draw the structures of their stereoisomers: (i) [Co(en)2 Cl2]+ (en = ethan-1. The electrical resistance of a column of 0. 24. Explain the mechanism of acid catalysed hydration of an alkene to form corresponding alcohol. 21. 19. 22. calculate the density of copper metal.20 mol L–1 before any reaction occurs. occasionally in solutions or in solid compounds. Ln (III) compounds are predominant.87 g cm–3. (Atomic mass of Cu = 63. 15.0 × 10–5. What are food preservatives? Name two such substances. (At.55 u and Avogadro’s number NA = 6.8 pm. (iii) The metallic radii of the third (5d) series of transition metals are nearly the same as those of the corresponding members of the second series.55 × 103 ohm.0 u) 20. Describe the following. (ii) The E oM 2+ / M for copper is positive (0. 2-diamine) (ii) [Cr(C2O4)3]3– . Complete the following reaction equations: (i) C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® (ii) C6H5NH2 + Br2(aq) ¾ ¾® 18. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number. Calculate its resistivity. However.05 M NaOH solution of diameter 1 cm and length 50 cm is 5. Copper crystallises with face centred cubic unit cell. Complete the following chemical reaction equations: – + (i) Cr2 O2– ¾® 7 +I + H ¾ (ii) MnO–4 + NO–2 + H+ ¾ ¾® 14. How would you account for the following: (i) Among lanthanoids. Explain the following terms giving a suitable example for each: (i) Aerosol (ii) Emulsion (iii) Micelle 23. The reaction. mass of Fe = 56. equilibrium constant K for it is 1. (ii) Ortho-nitrophenol is more acidic than ortho-methoxyphenol. At 1500 K. giving the relevant chemical equation in each case: (i) Carbylamine reaction (ii) Hoffmann’s bromamide reaction 17.

(ii) ICl is more reactive than I2. 4-dicarboxlylic acid. This solution has a boiling point of 100. Give one example of each.42°C. What mass of glycerol was dissolved to make this solution? (Kb for water = 0.Examination Papers 251 (iii) [Co(NH3)3 Cl3] (Atomic numbers: Cr = 24. (a) Write a suitable chemical equation to complete each of the following transformations: (i) Butan-1-ol to butanoic acid (ii) 4-Methylacetophenone to benzene-1. Co = 27) 25. 28. (ii) Boiling point elevation constant for a solvent.512 K kg mol–1) 29. What is essentially the difference between a-glucose and b-glucose? What is meant by pyranose structure of glucose? 27. (iii) The halogens are coloured. (a) Define the following terms: (i) Mole fraction (ii) Ideal solution (b) 15. (ii) Oxygen is a gas but sulphur a solid. The resulting solution freezes at – 0. . What is the molar mass of the material? (Kf for water = 1. (ii) Which one of the following compounds is more easily hydrolysed by KOH and why? CH3CHClCH2CH3 or CH3CH2CH2Cl (iii) Which one undergoes SN2 substitution reaction faster and why? Cl I or 26. Answer the following questions: (i) What is meant by chirality of a compound? Give an example.86 K kg mol–1) OR (a) Explain the following: (i) Henry’s law about dissolution of a gas in a liquid.34°C. OR (a) Complete the following chemical equations: (i) Cu + HNO3 (dilute) ¾ ¾® (ii) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾ ¾® (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Phosphorus has a greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen. 30. (a) Draw the molecular structures of the following compounds (i) N2O5 (ii) XeOF4 (b) Explain the following observations: ( i) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen. (b) A solution of glycerol (C3H8O3) in water was prepared by dissolving some glycerol in 500 g of water. fluorine (F2) is a stronger oxidising agent than Cl2.0 g of an unknown molecular material is dissolved in 450 g of water. (iii) Despite lower value of its electron gain enthalpy with negative sign. Differentiate between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers.

2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. EAl = – 1. Write the IUPAC name of Ph—CH—CH—CHO. 27.4-DNP derivative. Acetone. . (ii) Despite having greater polarity. Explain the following terms giving a suitable example for each: (i) Elastomers (ii) Condensation polymers (iii) Addition polymers 30.4-Dinitrobenzoic acid. (ii) There is a general increase in density from titanium (Z = 22) to copper (Z = 29). Identify the compound. Why do soaps not work in hard water? 20.54) E Ni 2+ 3+ / Ni /Al 23. 17. (iii) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen in the same group. On vigorous oxidation it gives 1.50 M) Write an equation for the reaction that occurs when the cell generates an electric current and determine the cell potential. reduces Tollen’s reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro’s reaction. 3. 4-Methoxybenzoic acid (acid strength) (iii) CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH. (a) Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) H3PO2 (ii) ClF3 (b) Explain the following observations: (i) Nitrogen is much less reactive than phosphorus. hydrogen fluoride boils at a lower temperature than water. Methyl tert-butyl ketone (reactivity towards HCN) (ii) Benzoic acid. CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH. o o = – 0. A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the following half cells: Al/Al3+ (0.001 M) and Ni/Ni2+ (0. What is meant by ‘shape selective catalysis’? 3. Explain the cleaning action of soap.66 V. Explain the following observations: (i) Many of the transition elements are known to form interstitial compounds.25 V. OR (a) Give chemical tests to distinguish between (i) Propanol and propanone (ii) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone (b) Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated: (i) Acetaldehyde. Which stoichiometric defect increases the density of a solid? 2. What is the role of collectors in Froth Floatation process? 6.252 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (b) An organic compound with molecular formula C9H10O forms 2. (iii) The members of the actinoid series exhibit a larger number of oxidation states than the corresponding members of the lanthanoid series. (CH3)2CHCOOH (acid strength) CBSE (All India) SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set–I 1. (log 8 × 10–6 = – 0.

What is the basicity of H3PO2 acid and why? 5. (iii) Helium forms no real chemical compound. 22. Give one example of each group.Examination Papers 253 OR (a) Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) N2O5 (ii) HClO 4 (b) Explain the following observations: (i) H2S is more acidic than H2O. Explain the role of each of the following: (i) NaCN in the extraction of silver. Cr2+ is a reducing agent while Mn3+ is an oxidising agent. (ii) Fluorine does not exhibit any positive oxidation state. Define the following as related to proteins: (i) Peptide linkage (ii) Primary structure (iii) Denaturation . CBSE (All India) SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set–I and II 1. 18. (iii) There is hardly any increase in atomic size with increasing atomic numbers in a series of transition metals. Name the following coordination entities and describe their structures: (i) [Fe(CN)6]4– (ii) [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ 2– (iii) [Ni(CN)4] (Atomic Numbers Fe = 26. Write three distinct features of chemisorptions which are not found in physisorptions. Write a reaction which shows that all the carbon atoms in glucose are linked in a straight chain. Ni = 28) 26. What are n-type semiconductors? 4. 8. Differentiate between disinfectants and antiseptics. (ii) SiO2 in the extraction of copper. What is the cause of a feeling of depression in human beings? Name a drug which can be useful in treating this depression. 11. Cr = 24. 23. (ii) Actinoids exhibit a much larger number of oxidation states than the lanthanoids. 24. Write the IUPAC name of the following: H CH3 H H H Br 7. Explain each of the following observations: (i) With the same d-orbital configuration (d4).

.95 cm 2 mol –1 ´ 1.254 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Solutions CBSE (All India) SET–I 1. In this method nickel is heated in a stream of carbon monoxide forming a volatile complex. BiH3. It is leached out using acid or bacteria. 1 9. Copper is extracted by hydrometallurgy from low grade copper ores. 2. [R ] 1 1 2 éR ù . Rate = k[2R]2 = 4k[R]2 = 4 times 2 (ii) If [R] is reduced to 11. 3. as BiH3 has lower bond dissociation enthalpy than SbH3. Pent-2-enal 7.208355 cm–1 10. Rate = k[R]2 (i) If [R] is doubled. CHO | (CHOH)4 | CH2—OH COOH | (CHOH)4 | COOH HNO3 (O) Glucose Saccharic acid 8. The solution containing Cu2+ ion is treated with scrap iron or H2. Disinfectants are applied to non-living objects whereas antiseptics are applied to living tissues. 6. 5. nickel tetracarbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Conductivity (k) = × Cell constant Resistance ( R) Conductivity ( k) ´ 1000 Molar Conductivity ( L m ) = Molarity ( M ) OR k ´1000 L m ´ M = Lm = M 1000 k= 138.5 mol L–1 1000 cm 3 L–1 = 0. The reddish brown colour of bromine is discharged. The conductivity is increased by adding an appropriate amount of impurity which is electron rich or election deficient as compared to intrinsic semiconductor. The process of converting a precipitate into colloidal sol by shaking it with dispersion medium in the presence of small amount of electrolyte is called peptisation . Rate = k ê ú = k [R ] = th 2 4 4 ë2û (i) Nickel is purified by vapour phase refining. Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s) ¾ ¾® Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s) OR Cu2+ (aq) + H2(g) ¾ ¾® Cu(s) + 2H+(aq) 4. which on further heating decomposes to give pure nickel.

The two equatorial S–F bonds are equivalent.Examination Papers 255 350K Ni + 4CO ¾330– ¾ ¾¾ ® Ni(CO)4. the electron density in the O—H bond decreases in ortho-nitrophenol and hence the release of H+ ion becomes easy. due to +R . (i) Cr2O72– + 14H+ + 6e– ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 7H2O 2I– ¾ ¾® Cr2O72– + 6I– + 14H+ ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 3I2 + 7H2O MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e– ¾ ¾® Mn2+ + 4H2O]×2 NO2– + H2O ¾ ¾® NO3– + 2H+ + 2e–]×5 (ii) 2MnO4– + 5NO2– + 6H+ 14. H + + H2O —C—C H + —C—C—O—H (iii) Deprotonation to form an alcohol. This is because the axial bond pairs suffer more repulsion as compared to equatorial bond pairs. H2O + H H H C—C + + H—O —H + + H2O —C—C (ii) Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation. 12. (i) This is due to lower bond dissociation enthalpy of fluorine than chlorine and small and strong bond formed by fluorine with nitrogen. H H + —C—C—O—H + H2O 15. (ii) SF4 has trigonal bipyramidal structure in which one of the equatorial positions is occupied by a lone pair of electrons. 13. (ii) Due to —R and —I effect of —NO2 group. I2 + 2e–]×3 C—C + H2O H ¾ ¾® 2Mn2+ + 5NO3– + 3H2O + C—C H OH The mechanism of the reaction involves the following three steps: (i) Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic attack of H3O+. while the two axial S–F bonds are longer than equatorial bonds. H OH + —C—C— + H3O (i) This is due to their ability to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. + + H3O . This method is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in molten state than in the solid state of the metal. 470K Ni(CO)4 ¾450 ¾ –¾ ¾® Ni + 4CO (ii) Germanium is purified by zone refining. On the other hand.

65 × 10–10cm = 2.614 ´ 10 cm) ´ 6.55 g mol–1. –1 = 8. Preservatives prevent the rancidity of food and inhibit the growth of or kill the microorganisms. (i) C6H5N2Cl Aniline + H3PO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® C6H6 + N2 + H3PO3 + HCl Benzene diazonium chloride Benzene NH2 NH2 Br + 3Br2(aq) (ii) Br + 3HBr Br Aniline 2. For fcc. Two such substances are sodium benzoate and salts of ascorbic acid. a = 2 2r a = 2 2 × 127. RCONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH ¾ ¾® R—NH2 + Na2 CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O Acid amide C6H5CONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH ¾ ¾® C6H5NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O Benzamide 17.95 g cm–3 . thereby making the release of H+ ion difficult. we get a ´ NA 4 ´ 63. NA = 6.65 pm = 286 .55 g mol –1 d= –8 3 23 (3.4.256 Xam idea Chemistry—XII effect of the —OCH3 group. d = 7.614 × 10–8 cm. D R—NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH (alc. z = 2. The amine so obtained contains one carbon less than that present in the amide. Secondary and tertiary amines do not show this reaction.6-Tribromoaniline 18. M = 63. a primary amine is obtained.) ¾¾® C6H5NC + 3KCl + 3H2O Aniline Phenyl isocyanide (ii) Hoffmann’s bromamide reaction: When a primary acid amide is heated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of NaOH. a = 3.4 × 10–10 cm \ Here. (i) Carbylamine reaction: Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines when heated with chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide form carbylamines or isocyanides which are foul smelling substances.02 × 1023 mol –1 Substituting the values in the expression.8 pm = 361.) ¾¾ ® RNC + 3KCl + 3H2O D C6H5NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH (alc.8 Substituting the values in the expression. M = 56 g mol . 16.02 ´ 10 mol OR –1 –3 Here. Food preservatives are the chemical substances which are added to food materials to prevent their spoilage and to retain their nutritive value for long periods. z´ M d= 3 . 19. the electron density in the O—H bond in ortho-methoxyphenol increases.4 pm = 361.87 g cm a = 286. z = 4.

e. in mol L–1 –x –1 Equilibrium conc.785 cm2.01148 s cm–1 r 87. e. 2x = 2 × 6. 6 s cm2 mol–1 N2 + O2 ¾ ¾® 2NO 0.648 × 10–4 mol L–1 Thus at equilibrium [N2] = 0.2 – x 2x \ 1 × 10–5 = ( 2x ) 2 ( 0.87 g cm –3 = 6. A = pr 2 = 3. therefore 0..785cm 2 = = 87.8 – x » 0.2 – x » 0.55 ´ 10 3 ohm ´ 0.34 V) value for copper is that the sum of enthalpies for sublimation and ionisation is not balanced by hydration enthalpy. milk.8 .2 0 21 Initial conc.8 and 0.g.g. 23. (ii) The main reason for positive E°(0.135 ohm cm Resistivity = r = Molar Conductivity = L m = k ´ 1000 0.8–x 2 KC = [NO] [N2 ][O2 ] +2x 0.8 0.14 × ç cm ÷ = 0. we get 2 ´ 56 g mol –1 ( 286. . fog.Examination Papers 257 NA = NA = z´ M a3 ´ d .2 . smoke. (ii) An emulsion is a colloidal system in which both the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium are liquids. in mol L –x 0. (iii) There are some substances such as soap which at low concentration behave as normal electrolytes.042 × 1023 mol–1 2 æ1 ö 20.65 ´ 10 -10 cm) 3 ´ 7.01148 s cm –1 ´ 1000 cm 3 L–1 = M 0.324 × 10–4 = 12. l = 50 cm è2 ø R ´ A 5.x ) ( 0. The aggregated particles thus formed are known as micelles or associated colloids.135 ohm cm l 50 cm 1 1 Conductivity = k = = = 0.265 × 10–3 mol L–1 22. in mol L–1 Change in conc.8 mol L–1. etc. but at higher concentration exhibit colloidal behaviour due to the formation of aggregates.2.2 mol L–1 and [NO] = 1. (i) Lanthanoid metals show +2 and +4 oxidation states to attain extra stable f 0 and f 7 configurations.x ) As x << 0. [O2] = 0.2 \ 1 × 10–5 = 4x 2 016 . etc. cod liver oil.324 × 10–4 mol L–1.. (i) A colloidal system in which dispersion medium is gas and dispersed phase is either solid or liquid is called aerosol. Þ 4x2 = 16 × 10–7 x = 6.05 mol L–1 = 229.

2-diamine) cobalt (III) ion + Cl + Cl Cl Cl en en Co Cl Co en Co en Cl trans + en en cis Optical isomers Geometrical isomers (ii) [Cr(C2O4)3]3– : Trioxalato chromium (III) ion 3– 3– OX OX OX Cr Cr OX OX OX mirror dextro laevo (iii) [CO(NH3)3Cl3] : Triammine trichloride cobalt (III) NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 Cl NH 3 Co Cl Co NH 3 Cl cis-or-fac-isomer 25. Therefore sec. (i) [CO(en)2Cl2]+ : Dichloride bis (ethane-1. + (ii) Due to +I effect of alkyl groups the 2° carbonium ion CH3—CH—CH2—CH3 derived from + sec. butyl chloride is more stable than the 1° carbonium ion CH3—CH2—CH2 derived from n-propyl chloride. . butyl chloride gets hydrolyzed more easily than n-propyl chloride under SN1 conditions. Cl Cl Cl NH 3 trans-or mer-isomer (i) Chiral molecules (or compounds) are those molecules which are non-superimposible on their mirror images and this property is known as chirality. 24. Butan-2-ol is an example of chiral molecule.258 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (iii) This is due to lanthanoid contraction which arises due to filling of 4 f-orbitals which have poor shielding effect.

34 K . 28. urea-formaldehyde resins.0g. (i) Raoult’s law is obeyed. etc. For a solution of two components A and B. (i) These polymers are cross linked or heavily branched molecules. The cyclic structure of glucose is more correctly represented by Haworth structure as given below. (ii) On heating undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and become infusible. and during the formation of which no change in enthalpy and volume takes place is called an ideal solution. nA Mole fraction of A..86 K kg mol L–1 D Tf = 0°C – (– 0. Thermoplastics Thermosetting plastics (i) These polymers are linear or slightly branched chain molecules. PA = PA° xA and PB = PB° xB (ii) DHmix = 0 (iii) DVmix = 0 (b) WB = 15. 6 CH2OH 5 O H 6 CH2OH O H H 4 HO 5 H 1 OH 3 H O OH H 4 OH HO 2 1 OH 3 H H 2 Pyran H OH H a-D-(+) Glucopyranose OH b-D-(+) Glucopyranose 27.34°C or 0. i. The six membered cyclic structure of glucose is called pyranose structural (a-or b-). etc. (iii) Some common examples are bakelite. Thus for an ideal solution.34°C) = 0. (a) (i) Mole fraction of a particular component in a solution may be defined as the ratio of number of moles of that component to the sum of the moles of all the components present in the solution. WA = 450g.Examination Papers 259 I (iii) As Iodine is a better leaving group due to its larger size.e. terylene. PVC. D Kf = 1. xA = nA + nB Mole fraction of B. polystyrene. (ii) Soften on heating and harden on cooling and can be remoulded. (iii) Some common examples are polyethene. a-Glucose and b-Glucose differ only in the configuration of hydroxy group at C1 and are called anomers and the C1 carbon is called anomeric carbon. in analogy with pyrane. 26. xB = nB nA + nB (ii) A solution which obeys Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration and temperature. it will be released at a faster rate in the presence of incoming nucleophile.

0 g ´ 1000 g kg –1 = 182. sulphur.42K Substituting the values in the expression. (ii) This is because the bond dissociation enthalpy of I–Cl bond is lower than that of I–I bond.42 K ´ 500 g = 37. (b) WA = 500g.73 g 0.42°C – 100 °C = 0. On the other hand. MB = 92g mol–1. due to which it is a gas at room temperature. K f ´ WB ´ 1000 MB = WA ´ DTf MB = 1. (iii) It is due to l low enthalpy of dissociation of F–F bond – l high hydration enthalpy of F .42°C or 0. OR (a) (i) 3Cu + 8HNO3 (dilute) ¾ ¾® 3Cu (NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O (ii) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾ ¾® XeF6 + O2 (b) (i) It is because P–P single bond is stronger than N–N single bond. ( a) (i) O 92 g mol -1 ´ 0. due to its larger size prefers to form S–S single bond and exist as octaatomic S8 molecule having puckered ring (b) . M ´ DTb ´ WA WB = B K b ´ 1000 WB = 29.260 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Substituting the values in the expression. Kb = 0.512 K kg mol –1 ´ 1000 O O N O N O O O O O N N O (N2O5) O F (ii) F Xe F F XeOF4 (i) It is because S–S single bond is stronger than O–O single bond. oxygen is capable of forming pp–pp bond and exist as diatomic O2 molecule.512 K kg mol–1 DTb = 100. (ii) Because of its small size. The intermolecular forces in oxygen are weak van der Waals force.35 g mol 450 g ´ 0.86 K kg mol –1 ´ 15. (ii) The boiling point elevation constant may be defined as the elevation in boiling point when one mole of a non-volatile solute is dissolved in one thousand grams of solvent.34 K –1 OR (a) (i) Henry’s law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas.

H2SO4 – K2SO4 –+ COOK CH3 COOH 4-Methyl acetophenone Benzene-1. CrO3 . Hence sulphur is a solid at room temperature. This is due to absorption of radiation in visible region which results in the excitation of outer electrons to higher energy level while the remaining light is transmitted. structure.OH ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® CH3CH2CH2COOH Butan-ol Butanoic acid –+ COCH3 (ii) COOK COOH KMnO4/KOH D dil.Examination Papers 261 30.4-DNP derivative OR (a) (i) Propanone on treatment with I2/NaOH (NaOI) undergoes iodoform reaction to give yellow ppt of iodoform but propanol does not. The colour of the halogen is the colour of transmitted light.2dicarboxylic acid NO2 H2NNH NO2 COOH (O) NO2 CH—NNH NO2 CH2CH3 + H2O 2.H2 SO4 (a) (i) CH3CH2CH2CH2. + CH3COCH3 + 3NaOI ¾ ¾® CH3COONa + CHI3¯ + 2NaOH Propanone Iodoform (ii) Benzaldehyde being an aldehyde reduces Tollens’ reagent to give silver mirror test but acetophenone being a ketone does not give this test. – – Heat C6H5CHO + 2[Ag (NH3)2]+ + 3OH ¾ ¾¾® C6H5COO + 2H2O + 2Ag¯ + 4NH3 Benzaldehyde Tollen’s reagent Silver mirror . Because of larger size the force of attraction holding the S8 molecules together are much stronger.4dicarboxylic acid (b) The compound is 2-ethyl benzaldehyde and the reactions involved in the question are given below: – CH2OH COO CH2CH3 CH2CH3 + – OH COO CHO CH2CH3 Ag + Silver mirror – 2-Ethyl benzoate COOH +– CH2CH3 [Ag(NH3)2] OH Tollens’ reagent 2-ethyl benzaldehyde Benzene-1. (iii) All halogens are coloured.

Therefore soaps do not work in hard water.41 V – (10 -3 ) 2 0. [Al 3+ ] 2 0. Since the polar groups can interact with water. 6. Thus soap helps in emulsification and washing away of oils and fats. At anode: At Cathode: Cell reaction: E oCell Al ¾ ¾® Al3+ + 3e– ]×2 Ni2+ + 2e– ¾ ¾® Ni]×3 2+ 2Al + 3Ni ¾ ¾® 2Al3+ + 3Ni o o o = E Cathode – E anode = E oNi 2+ / Ni – EAl 3+ /Al = – 0. 3-Phenyl prop-2-enol 17. In hard water. (a) Grease in cloth (b) Stearate ions arranging around the grease droplet (c) Grease droplet surrounded by stearate ions (micelle formed) Hard water contains calcium and magnesium salts.41 V 3+ [Al ] = 1×10–3M. [Ni2+] = 0. Collectors enhance non-wettability of the mineral particles.059 log 6 ( 0.059 log E cell = E ocell – n [Ni 2+ ] 3 E cell = 1.41 V – = 1.5 M.262 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (b) (i) Methyl tert-butyl ketone < Acetone < Acetaldehyde (ii) 4-Methoxy benzoic acid < Benzoic acid < 3. n = 6 Substituting the values in the Nernst equation. The cleansing action of soap such as sodium stearate is due to the fact that soap molecules form micelle around the oil droplet in such a way that hydrophobic part of the stearate ions is in the oil droplet and hydrophilic part projects out of the grease droplet like the bristles. Interstitial defect 2.4-Dinitrobenzoic acid (iii) (CH3)2CHCOOH < CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH < CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH CBSE (All India) SET–II 1. 20. The catalytic reaction that depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and product molecule is known as shape-selective catalysis.059 log 8 × 10–6 6 . the oil droplet surrounded by stearate ions is now pulled in water and removed from the dirty surface.25V – (– 1.66 V) = 1. 3.5) 3 0. soap gets precipitated as calcium and magnesium soap which being insoluble stick to the clothes as gummy mass.

0053 V = 1. for example.4153 V 23.g. 6. buna-S. e. of electron pairs around central atom Cl = 5 No. K. (ii) The decrease in metallic radius coupled with increase in atomic mass results in a general increase in density from titanium to copper in the first series of transition elements. A few ‘cross links’ are introduced between the chains. buna-N. (ii) Condenstaion Polymers: The condensation polymers are formed by the repeated condensation reaction between different bifunctional or trifunctional monomer units usually with elimination of small molecules such as water. F Cl F ClF3 F .C and N in the interstitial sites in their crystal lattices. terylene are some examples. The monomers used are unsaturated compounds. 6d and 7s subshells in actinoids. etc. (i) Elastomers: These are the polymers having the weakest intermolecular forces of attraction between the polymer chains. The weak forces permit the polymer to be stretched. neoprene. alkenes.41 V – 0. e.059 (– 0.54) 6 E cell = 1.. Elastomers thus possess an elastic character. TiC. of bond pairs = 3 No of lone pairs = 2 The shape would be slightly bent T. These trapped atoms get bonded to the atoms of transition elements.g.41 V + 0. (iii) Addition polymers: Addition polymers are formed by repeated addition of same or different monomer molecules. alkadienes and their derivatives. Nylon 6. etc. Polyethene O (a) (i) P OH H H H3PO2 (ii) No.. 27. which help the polymer to retract to its original position after the force is released as in vulcanised rubber. (iii) This is due to very small energy gaps between 5f. etc. Polythene is an example of addition polymer. Nylon 6. (i) Interstitial compounds are well known for many of the transition elements because the transition elements are capable of entrapping small sized atoms such as H. alcohol hydrogen chloride. 1000– 2000 atm n CH2— —CH2 ¾350–570 ¾¾¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® –(CH2 — CH2 )– n traces of O2 Ethene 30.Examination Papers 263 = 1. Fe3H and Mn4N.

OH)4 ¾ ¾® CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 D | n-Hexane CH2OH . CBSE (All India) SET–III 1. in aqueous solution. (iii) This is because S–S single bond is stronger than O–O single bond. Silicon or germanium doped with group 15 elements like P or As are called n type of semiconductors. Hence H2S is more acidic than H2O. OR H O O (a) (i) O N O O O O N O N (N2O5) (b) O O (ii) N O Cl O O O Perchloric acid (HClO4) (i) Due to smaller size of O as compared to S. glucose gives n-hexane. CHO | HI (CH. On prolonged heating with HI. H3PO2 is monobasic as it contains only one ionisable H-atom which is present as OH group. O P OH H H H3PO2 CH3 5. (ii) This is because in H2O hydrogen bond formed is three dimensional whereas in H–F it is linear. (iii) This is because the valence shell orbital of He is completely filled (1s2) and it has high ionisation enthalpy and more positive electron gain enthalpy. 4. S–H bond can break more easily form H+ ion than O–H bond. H2C—C—CH2—Br 3-Bromo-2-methyl propone 7.264 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (b) (i) Nitrogen is much less reactive than phosphorus because of the high bond enthalpy of NºN bond. As a result. the bond dissociation enthalpy of O–H bond is higher than that of S–H bond. (ii) This is because fluorine is the most electronegative element and it does not have d orbitals.

Tranquilizers such as improniazid and phenelyzine are useful in treating this depression. On the other hand. the change from Mn2+ to Mn3+ results in the extra stable half-filled. z Antiseptics are generally applied to living tissues such as wounds. Difference between antiseptics and disinfectants: Antiseptics z Antiseptics are chemical substances which prevent the growth of microorganisms and may even kill them but are not harmful to living tissues. instrument. drainage system.2 to 0. Human beings suffer from depression when they have low levels of noradrenaline. cuts. (iii) This is because with increase in atomic number in a series . z Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floor. For example. 23. Low levels of noradrenaline lower the signal-sending activity and make human beings suffer from depression. . the later having a half-filled trg level. Three distinct features of chemisorptions which are not found in physisorptions: (i) Enthalpy of adsorption: Enthalpy of adsorption is high (80-240 kJ mol–1) as it involves chemical bond formation. (i) In the extraction of silver. z Chlorine in the concentration of 0. hydrogen is adsorbed by transition metals by virtue of hydride formation.Examination Papers 265 8. ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. 22. d5 configuration.4 ppm in aqueous solution and SO in very low 2 concentration are disinfectants. (ii) This is due to small energy gap between 5f. (iii) Irreversibility: Chemisorption is usually irreversible in nature as it involves compound formation. (ii) High specificity: Chemisorption is highly specific and it will only occur if there is some possibility of chemical bonding between adsorbent and adsorbate. Sulphide ore of copper contains iron as impurity which is removed as iron silicate (slag). 4Ag + 8NaCN + O2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 4Na[Ag(CN)2] + 4NaOH Soluble complex (ii) SiO2 acts as a flux in the extraction of copper. Disinfectants z Disinfectants are chemical substances which kill microorganisms or stop their growth but are harmful to human tissues. furacine. FeO + SiO2 ¾ ¾® FeSiO3 Flux Slag 18. z Dettol. Dilute NaCN solution forms a soluble complex with Ag while the impurities remain unaffected which are then filtered off. 6d and 7s subshells in actinoids. etc. 11. (i) Cr2+ is reducing agent as its configuration changes from d4 to d3. the metal is leached with dilute solution of NaCN. Noradrenaline is a neurotransmiter that plays a role in mood changes. the increased nuclear charge is partly cancelled by the increased shielding effect of electrons in the d-orbitals of penultimate shell. Therefore Mn3+ is an oxidising agent. soframicine are antiseptics. It is very slow at low temperatures on account of high activation energy.

During denaturation 2° and 3° structures are destroyed but 1° structures remain intact. (i) A peptide linkage is an amide linkage —( CONH— ) formed between —COOH group of one a-amino acid and —NH2 group of the other a-amino acid by the loss of a water molecule. (i) [Fe(CN)6]4– = Hexacyanoferrate(II) ion.g. Cr3+(3d3) 3d ×× ×× 4s 4p ×× ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from NH3 molecule or Cl– ion d 2sp3 hybrid d2sp3 hybridisation in [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ leads to octahedral structure.. globules unfold and helix gets uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. (iii) Denaturation of Proteins: When a protein in its native form is subjected to a change in temperature or a change in pH. curdling of milk. Due to this. Fe2+(3d6) 3d ×× ×× 4s 4p ×× ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from the CN– ion d 2sp3 hybrid d2sp3-hybridisation in [Fe(CN)6]4– leads to octahedral structure. (ii) Primary structure of proteins: The sequence in which various amino acids are arranged in a protein is called its primary structure. the hydrogen bonds are disturbed. 26.266 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 24. This is called denaturation of protein. Ni2+(II) (3d8) 3d ×× 4s 4p ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from CN– ion dsp2 hybrid dsp2 hybridisation in [Ni(CN)4]2– leads to square planar structure. (ii) [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ = Tetraamminedichloridochromium (III) ion. coagulation of egg white on boiling. . Any change in the sequence of amino acids creates different protein which alters biological functions. (iii) [Ni(CN)4]2– = Tetracyanonickelate(II)ion. e. etc.

Define the following terms: (i) Order of a reaction (ii) Activation energy of a reaction . 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.00 u) 10. 4. 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. (iii) Question nos. OR –1 The density of water of a lake is 1. What is meant by the term ‘forbidden zone’ in reference to band theory of solids? 2. 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. Write the reaction involved in the extraction of silver after the silver ore has been leached with NaCN. CBSE (Foreign) SET–I 1. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: H3C—CH— —CH—CH—CH2—CH3 | OH 6. Write the full form of DNA and RNA.CBSE EXAMINATION PAPERS FOREIGN–2012 Time allowed : 3 hours] [Maximum marks : 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory. use of calculators is not allowed. (a) Define any two of the following terms: (i) van’t Hoff factor (ii) Mole fraction (iii) Ebullioscopic constant (b) State Raoult’s law. 4-methylpent-3-en-2-one. What is meant by ‘narrow spectrum antibiotics’? 9.25 g (mL) and one kg of this water contains 92 g of Na+ ions. (v) Question nos. Why is the adsorption phenomenon always exothermic? 3. Draw the molecular structure of the compound. 8. (vi) Use log tables if necessary. what is the molarity of Na+ ions in the water of the lake? (Atomic mass of Na = 23. Although the H-bonding in hydrogen fluoride is much stronger than that in water. 7. Why? 5. (ii) Question nos. (iv) Question nos. yet water has a much higher boiling point than hydrogen fluoride.

Find the saturated vapour pressure of a 5% aqueous solution of urea (carbamide) at the same temperature.268 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 11.10 0. Name one chief ore each of copper and aluminium. 12. (ii) SF6 is kinetically inert.10 1.0 × 10–3 3 0. (Atomic mass of Fe = 55.5 × 10–3 2 0.40 6.845 u) OR Silver crystallises in face centred cubic (fcc) unit cell. though polar. What are ambident nucleophiles? Explain giving an example.65 pm. Draw the molecular structures of the following species: (i) H3PO3 (ii) BrF3 14. (ii) Grignard’s reagents should be prepared under anhydrous conditions.20 3. Consider the reaction: 2A + B ¾ ¾® C + D Following results were obtained in experiments designed to study the rate of reaction: Experiment No.20 0. 15. what is the length of each side of the unit cell? 20. Describe the following giving the chemical equation in each case: (i) Carbylamine reaction (ii) Hofmann’s bromamide reaction 17. 19. Complete the following reaction equations: (i) C6H5N2Cl + H3PO2 + H2O ¾ ¾® (ii) C6H5NH2 + Br2(aq) ¾ ¾® 18.0 × 10–3 . (ii) The use of the sweetner aspartame is limited to cold foods and drinks. Name the method used for concentration of these two ores. If the radius of silver atom is 145 pm.165 kPa (23. State a reason for each of the following statements: (i) Soaps do not work in hard water. Explain as to why (i) Alkyl halides. Iron has a body centred cubic (bcc) unit cell with a cell dimension of 286.20 0. The density of iron is 7. are immiscible with water.874 g cm–3. At 25°C the saturated vapour pressure of water is 3. 16. 13.75 mm Hg). Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number.05 g mol–1) 21. Initial concentration (mol L–1) Initial rate of formation [A] [B] 1 0. (Molar mass of urea = 60. Explain the following: (i) The chemical reactivity of nitrogen is much less than that of phosphorus.

Complete the following chemical equations: (i) NH4Cl(aq) + NaNO2(aq) ¾ ¾® (ii) P4 + NaOH + H2O ¾ ¾® K (iii) + F2(g) ¾673 Xe( g) ¾¾ ® 1 Bar (Xenon in excess) 24. Define the following terms giving one suitable example for each: (i) Electrophoresis (ii) Micelles (iii) Peptization 23. Explain the following: (i) The p-complexes are known for transition elements only. State the products of the following reactions: (i) CH3—CH2—CH2—O—CH3 + HBr ¾ ¾® OC2H5 (ii) + HBr ¾ ¾® HI (iii) (CH3)3C—OC2H5 ¾¾ ® 26. 25. B + C ¾ ¾® E (slow) A+E ¾ ¾® F (fast) A+F ¾ ¾® D (fast) 22.10M) | Cu What should be its cell potential? (E ocell = 0. (b) A voltaic cell is set up at 25°C with the half-cells Ag+ (0. A+B ¾ ¾® C + E (slow) A+E ¾ ¾® D (fast) II. (b) Calculate the value of rate constant for the reaction. What is glycogen? How is it different from starch? How is starch structurally different from cellulose? 27. (iii) [Fe(CN)6]4– and [Fe(H2O)6]2+ are of different colours in dilute solutions.46 V. (a) What type of a battery is the lead storage battery? Write the anode and the cathode reactions and the overall reaction occurring in a lead storage battery sending out an electric current. (ii) Nickel(II) does not form low spin octahedral complexes.001 M) | Ag and Cu2+ (0. log 105 = 5) .Examination Papers 269 (a) Write the rate law for the reaction. Write the structure of the monomer of each of the following polymers: (i) Nylon-6 (ii) Teflon (iii) Neoprene 28. (c) Which of the following possible reaction mechanism is consistent with the rate law found in (a)? I.

270 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
OR
(a) Define the term molar conductivity and explain how molar conductivity changes with solution
concentration for weak and strong electrolytes.
(b) A strip of nickel metal is placed in a 1-molar solution of Ni(NO3)2 and a strip of silver metal is
placed in a 1-molar solution of AgNO3. An electrochemical cell is created when the two
solutions are connected by a salt bridge and the two strips are connected by wires to a
voltmeter.
(i) Write the balanced equation for the overall reaction occurring in the cell and calculate the
cell potential
(ii) Calculate the cell potential, E, at 25°C for the cell if the initial concentration of Ni(NO3)2
is 0.100 molar and the initial concentration of AgNO3 is 1.00 molar.
o
[E oNi 2+ / Ni = – 0.25 V; EAg
= 0.80 V, log 10–1 = – 1]?
2+
/Ag
29. (a) Complete the balance the following chemical equations:
(i) Cr2O72– + I – + H+ ¾
¾®

2–
+
(ii) MnO4 + SO3 + H ¾
¾®
(b) Explain the following observations:
( i) Transition elements and their compounds are known to act as catalysts.
(ii) The higher oxidation states are usually exhibited by the members in the middle of a series
of transition elements.
(iii) The metal-metal bonding is more frequently found with the second and third series of
transition elements.
OR
(a) Calculate the number of unpaired electrons in the following gaseous state ions:
Mn2+, Cr3+, V3+ and Fe2+
Which one of these is the most stable in aqueous solutions?
(At. nos. V = 23, Cr = 24, Mn = 25, Fe = 26)
(b) Explain the following observations:
(i) The transition metal ions are usually coloured in aqueous solutions.
(ii) Cu(I) is not stable in an aqueous solution.
(iii) The highest oxidation state of a transition metal is exhibited in its oxide or fluoride.
30. (a) Describe the mechanism of the addition of Grignard reagent to the carbonyl group of a
compound to form an adduct which on hydrolysis yields an alcohol.
(b) Draw the structures of the following compounds:
(i) 3-Methylbutanal
(ii) Hexane-1,6-diotic acid
(iii) p-Nitropropiophenone
OR
(a) Illustrate the following reactions giving a suitable chemical equation for each:
(i) Cannizzaro reaction
(ii) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction

Examination Papers 271

(b) How would you bring about the following conversions? Write the complete equation in each
case.
(i) Ethanol to 3-hydroxybutanal
(ii) Benzoic acid to m-nitrobenzyl alcohol
(iii) Benzaldehyde to benzophenone

CBSE (Foreign) SET–II
Questions Uncommon to Set–I
1. How would you distinguish between a metallic solid and an ionic solid other than by metallic lustre?
2. What is meant by ‘shape selective catalysis’?
4. Which is more acidic and why, H2O or H2S?
5. Of the two alcohols; (a) CH2=CH—CH2OH and (b) CH2=CH—CH2—CH2OH, which one will react
more easily with conc. HCl in the presence of ZnCl2?
8. Of the two bases named below, which one is present in RNA and which one is present in DNA?
Thymine, Uracil
13. Draw the molecular structures of the following species:
(i) H2S2O8
(ii) XeF2
18. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents? Give one example of each.
22. Differentiate among a homogeneous solution, a suspension and a colloidal solution, giving a suitable
example of each.
23. Complete the following chemical equations:
(i) HgCl2 + PH3 ¾
¾®
(ii) NaOH + Cl2 ¾
¾®
(hot & conc.)
K
(iii) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾143
¾¾
®

24. Name the following complexes and draw the structures of one possible isomer of each:
(i) [Cr(C2O4)3]3–
(ii) [Pt(NH3)2Cl2]
(iii) [Co(en)2Cl2]+
26. Explain the meaning of the following terms:
(i) Invert sugar
(ii) Polypeptides
(iii) Enzymes

272 Xam idea Chemistry—XII

CBSE (Foreign) SET–III
Questions Uncommon to Set–I and II
1. Define paramagnetism with an example.
3. What is the role of a depressant in Froth Floatation process for the concentration of a sulphide ore?
4. Which is a stronger acid in aqueous solution, HF or HCl, and why?
5. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound:
CH3—O—CH2—CH—CH3
|
CH3
6. Draw the molecular structure of 4-Hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one.
12. State a reason for each of the following statements:
(i) Fluorine never exhibits any positive oxidation state.
(ii) Helium does not form any real chemical compound.
14. Explain why
(i) the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is lower than that of cyclohexyl chloride.
(ii) haloalkanes are only slightly soluble in water but dissolve easily in organic solvents.
20. Calculate the freezing point depression expected for 0.0711 m aqueous solution of sodium sulphate. If
the solution actually freezes at – 0.320 °C, what is the actual value of van’t Hoff factor at this
temperature? (Kf for water = 1.86 K kg mol–1)
22. Present a classification of colloids where dispersion medium is water. State the characteristics and one
example of each of these classes.
23. Complete the following chemical equations:
(i) Sn + 2PCl5 ¾heating
¾¾®
3+
(ii) Fe + SO2 + H2O ¾
¾®
(iii) XeF2(s) + H2O(l) ¾
¾®
26. Write three such behaviours of glucose which cannot be explained by an open chain structure of
glucose molecule. What alternative structure has been proposed for the glucose molecule?

Examination Papers 273

Solutions
SET–I
1. The energy gap between valance band and conduction is known as forbidden zone.
2. As the adsorption progresses, the residual forces at the surface decreases resulting in the decrease of
surface energy which appears as heat.
3. 2[Ag(CN) 2 ]( aq) + Zn( s) ¾
¾® [Zn(CN) 4 ] 2- ( aq) + 2Ag( s)]
4. This is because hydrogen bonding is multidimensional in water whereas in HF it is linear.
5. Hex-4-en-3-ol

6.

CH3
O
|
|
— CH — C— CH3
CH3 —C —

7. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA: Ribonucleic acid
8. Antibiotics which are mainly effective against gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are known as
narrow spectrum antibiotics, e.g., ampicillin G.
9. (a) Van’t Hoff factor:
(i) May be defined as the ratio of normal molecular mass to observed molecular mass or the
ratio of observed colligative property to calculated colligative property.
(ii) Mole fraction may be defined as the ratio of number of moles of one component to the
sum of moles all the components present in a solution.
(iii) Ebuthoscopic constant may be defined as the elevation in boiling point when one mole of
a non-volatile solute is added to 1000 grams of solvent.
(b) It states that for a solution of volatile liquids the partial vapour pressure of each component in
the solution is directly proportional to its mole faction.

Number of moles of solute, Na+ ions =

OR
92g

= 4 mol
23g mol -1
1000 g
800 mL
Mass of solution
Volume of solution =
= 0.8 L
=
= 800 mL =
1
Density of solution 1. 25 g mL
1000 mL L-1
Number of moles Na + ions 4 mol
=
Volume of solution in liter 0.8 L
= 5 mol L–1 or 5 m.

Molarity =

10.

(i) The sum of the powers of the concentration of the reactants in the rate law expression is called
the order of the reaction. For a general reaction
aA + bB ¾
¾® products

274 Xam idea Chemistry—XII
Let rate = K[ A ] m [ B ] n
Order of the reaction = m + n
(ii) The minimum extra energy absorbed by the reactant molecular so that their energy becomes
equal threshold energy is called activation energy.
Activation energy = Threshold energy – Energy possessed by reactant molecular
11.
Metal

Chief ore

Method of concentration

Copper

Copper pyrite (CuFeS2)

Froth floatation

Aluminium

Bauxite [AlOx (OH)3–2x]

Leaching

where 0 < x < 1

12.

(i) As N N triple bond (941.4 kJmol–1) is much stronger than p–p single bond (213 kJmol–1),
therefore nitrogen is much less reactive than phosphorus.
(ii) This is because in SF6, sulphur is sterically protected by six fluorine atoms.

13.

(i) H3PO3

(ii) BrF3—Slightly bent T
F

O
Br

P

F

H OH OH

F
14. Nucleophiles which can attack through the different nucleophilic centres present in it are called
ambident nucleophiles. For example, cyanide group is resonance hybrid of the following two
contributing structures:
C

N

C

N

It can attack through carbon to form cyanide and through N to form isocyanide.
15.

(i) This is due to inability of alkyl halides to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water
molecules.
(ii) This is because Grignard reagent forms alkanes by reacting with moisture.
RMgX + H2 O ¾
¾® RH + Mg(OH)X

16.

(i) Carbylamine reaction: Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines when heated with chloroform and
ethanolic potassium hydroxide form carbylamines or isocyanides which are foul smelling
substances. Secondary and tertiary amines do not show this reaction.
D
R—NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH (alc.) ¾¾
® RNC + 3KCl + 3H2O
D
C6H5NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH (alc.) ¾¾
® C6H5NC + 3KCl + 3H2O
Aniline

Phenyl
isocyanide

(ii) Hoffmann’s bromamide reaction: When a primary acid amide is heated with bromine in an
aqueous or ethanolic solution of NaOH, a primary amine is obtained. The amine so obtained
contains one carbon less than that present in the amide.

Examination Papers 275

RCONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH ¾
¾® R—NH2 + Na2 CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O
Acid amide

C6H5CONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH ¾
¾® C6H5NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O
Benzamide

17.

(i) C6H5N2Cl

Aniline

+ H3PO2 + H2O ¾
¾® C6H6 + N2 + H3PO3 + HCl

Benzene
diazonium chloride

Benzene

NH2

NH2
Br

+ 3Br2(aq)

(ii)

Br

+ 3HBr

Br
Aniline

18.

2,4,6-Tribromoaniline

(i) In hard water soaps get precipitated as calcium and magnesium soap which being insoluble in
water stick to the clothes as gummy mass.
(ii) This is because aspartame is unstable at cooking temperature.

19. Here, z = 2, M = 56 g mol–1, d = 7.87 g cm–3
a = 286.65 pm = 286 .65 × 10–10 cm = 2.8
Substituting the values in the expression,
z´ M
NA = 3
, we get
a ´d
NA =

2 ´ 56 g mol –1
( 286.65 ´ 10 -10 cm) 3 ´ 7.87 g cm –3

For bcc unit cell,

= 6.042 × 1023 mol–1
OR
a = 2 2r

\

a = 2 2 × 145 pm
= 2 × 1.414 × 145 pm

a = 410.06 pm.
20. WB = 5 g, WA = 95 g, M B = 60.05 g mol–1,
MA = 18 g mol–1 P°A = 3.165 kPa
Substituting the values in the expression;
PAo - P
PAo

=

WB ´ M A
, we get
M B ´ WA
-1

5 g ´ 18 g mol
3.165 k Pa - P
=
= 0.015
3.165 k Pa
60.05 g mol -1 ´ 95g
P = 3.165 k Pa – 0.015 × 3.165 k Pa
P = 3.118 k Pa

0 ´ 10 -3 k( 0. The aggregated particles thus formed are known as micelles or associated colloids. we get 6.2) m ( 0.276 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 21. e.0 × 10 -1 min -1 mol L –1 m = K( 0. (i) This is because the transition metals have empty d-orbitals into which the electron pairs can be denoted by ligands containing and electrons. e.2) ( 0. )n 2 = 2m2n = 2m. (ii) As only one inner d-orbital is available in nickel for bonding in the presence of strong ligand.5 ´ 10 -3 = k( 0. (iii) The process of converting a procipitate into colloidal solution by shaking it with dispersion medium in the presence of small amount of electrolyte is called peptization. (i) NH4 Cl( aq) + NaNO2 ( aq) ¾ ¾® N2 ( g) + 2H2 O(l) + NaCl( aq) (ii) P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2 O ¾ ¾® PH3 + 3NaH2 PO2 (iii) Xe( g) + F2 ( g) ¾673K ¾¾® XeF2 ( s) 1bar (Xenon in excess) 24. CN. Þ m=0 1 Rate = K[ A ]° [ B ] or Rate = K[B] \ (b) K = 2m = 20 or Rate [B ] 1× 5 ´ 10 -3 mol L–1 min -1 01 . (a) Let Rate = k[A]m [B]n 1.g.g. . ) m ( 01 .2) n k( 01 . (ii) There are some substances such as soap which at low concentration behave as normal electrolytes.. but at higher concentration exhibit colloidal behaviour due to the formation of aggregates.0 ´ 10 -3 k( 0.2) m ( 0.. CO. (i) The movement of colloidal particles towards oppositely charged electrodes in an electric field is called electrophoresis.0 ´ 10 -3 mol L –3 6. )n 3.4) … (ii) n …(iii) Dividing equation (iii) by (ii). C6H6.2) ( 0. C2H4 etc.5 × 10–2 min–1 (c) The reaction mechanism (II) is consistent with the rate law found in (a). we get 3.2) m ( 0.2) m –1 min … (i) n = K( 0. mol L-1 = 1..4) n = 3.0 ´ 10 -3 1. ) m ( 01 .5 × 10–3 mol L–1 min–1 = K( 01 \ . 2 2m = 1 K= 22.2) n 2 = 2n Þ n = 1 Dividing equation (ii) by (i). 23.

S. Glycogen is a polymer of a .D . Both glycogen and amylopectin are branched chain polymer of a . the transmitted colours are different in dilute solutions. Starch is also a polymer of a . As the ligands CN and H2O possess different crystal field splitting energy (DO). The carbohydrates are stored in animal body as glycogen. [Cu2+] = 0. The reactions occurring in lead storage battery when current is drawn from it are: Anode: Pb(s) + SO42–(aq) ¾ ¾® PbSO4(s) + 2e– Cathode: PbO2(s) + SO42–(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e– ¾ ¾® PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) Overall reaction: Pb(s) + PbO) 2+(s 2H2SO4(aq) ¾ ¾® 2PbSO 4(s) + 2H 2O(l) (b) At Anode: Cu ¾ ¾® Cu2+ + 2e– + At Cathode: Ag + e ¾ ¾® Ag] ´ 2 Cell reaction: Cu + 2Ag+ ¾ ¾® Cu2+ + 2Ag o = 0.No.46 V. Fe is in +2 oxide state with d6 configuration.D -glucose. (i) CH3—CH2—CH2—O—CH2—CH3—H—Br ¾ ¾® CH3—CH2—Br—CH3—CH2—CH2—OH OC2H5 OH (ii) + HBr C2H5Br + (iii) (CH3 ) 3 C — OC 2 H5 + HI ¾ ¾® (CH3 ) 3 C — I + C 2 H5 — OH 26. Polymer (i) Nylon-6 Monomer Caprolactum Structure of Monomer H H2C N C—O H2C CH2 H2C CH2 Caprolactum 28. 25.D -glucose whereas cellulose is a polymer b–D–glucose. Strarch is the main storage polysaccharide of plants.glucose but glycogen is more highly branched than amylopectin. Hence. they absorb different components of visible light for d-d transition.1M : n = 2 E cell . Amylose is linear chain polymer of a . 27. [Ag+] = 1 × 10–3 M. (ii) Teflon Tetrafluoro ethene (iii) Neoprene Chloroprene CF2 — CF2 CH2 — C — CH — CH2 | Cl (a) Lead storage battery is a secondary battery.D –glucose. Starch is a polymer of a .D -glucose and consist of two components amylose and amylopectin.Examination Papers 277 (iii) In both the complexes.

(b) (i) At Anode: Ni ¾ ¾® Ni 2++ 2 e– At Cathode: Ag + + e . k ´ 1000 200 Lm = k ´ V = c Strong electrolyte (KCl) where k is the conductivity and V is the volume of solution containing one mole of the electrolyte and c is the molar concentration.¾ ¾® Ag] ´ 2 Cell reaction: Ni + 2Ag + ¾ ¾® Ni2++ 2Ag o = E°cathode – E°anode E cell o o = EAg = 0. concentration.46 V – (0.0 M . Therefore.2 0.05 V E cell (ii) Ecell = E ocell – [ Ni 2+ ] 0. For weak electrolytes.46V – 0..0295 log 105) = 0. E cell = 1.25 V) .) 0. number of ions as well as mobility of ions increases on dilution which results in a very large increase in molar conductivity. the number of ions does not increase appreciably on dilution and only mobility of ions increases due to decrease in interionic attractions. 0 0.3125 V OR Lm/(S cm2 mol–1) (a) Molar conductivity of a solution at a given 400 concentration is the conductance of the volume V of the solution containing one Weak electrolyte (CH3COOH) mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes with area of cross section A and distance of unit length. n = 2.E Ni + 2+ /Ag / Ni o = 1.059 log . L m increases a little as shown in figure by a straight line.1 M. especially at infinite dilution (i. c ® 0) as shown by curve in figure.46 V – ( 01 .059 log -3 2 2 (10 ) = 0.e. For strong electrolytes.059 log n [ Ag + ] 2 o Here.80 V – (– 0.05 V.4 Molar conductivity increases with decrease c1/2/(mol/L)1/2 in concentration or increase in dilution as the number of ions as well as the mobility of ions increases with increase in dilution. [Ag+] = 1. [Ni2+] = 0. we get n [Ag + ] 2 E cell = 0.278 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Substituting the values in the equation: o – E cell = E cell [Cu 2+ ] 0.0295 × 5 = 0.

+ 14H+ + 6e . Magnetic behaviour : Diamagnetic .0795 V 29.Examination Papers 279 o = 1.0295 log 10–1 = 1. (ii) This is due to presence of maximum number of unpaired electrons in a transition metal which is present in the middle of a series. the 4d and 5d transition elements are larger in size than than those of 3d elements.01) 0.05V – 0. (iii) In the same group of d-block elements.¾ ¾® Mn 2+ + 4H2 O] ´ 2 SO23.+ 14H+ ¾ ¾® 2Cr 3+ + 3I 2 + 7H2 O (ii) MnO-4 + 8H+ + 5e . the valence electrons are less tightly held and form metal–metal bond more frequently.¾ ¾® 2Cr 3+ + 7H2 O 2I– ¾ ¾® I2 + 2e–] × 3 Cr2 O27.059 log 2 (1) 2 Ecell = 1. Ni = 3d8 4s2 3d 4s 4p ×× ×× ×× ×× × × = Electron pair from ligand CO sp3 hybrid Structure = Tetrahedral. Hence. (b) (i) Ni(CO)4 : Tetracrabonyl nickel(o). OR (a) Ion Electronic Configuration Number of Unpaired electrons Mn2+ [Ar] 3d54s0 5 Cr3+ [Ar] 3d34s0 3 2 0 3d 4s 2 3d64s0 4 3+ V [Ar] Fe2+ [Ar] Mn2+ ion is most stable in aqueous solution.+ 6H+ ¾ ¾® 2Mn 2+ + 5SO24. the transition metals provide a suitable large surface area with free valencies on which reactants are adsorbed.05 + 0.0295 V Ecell = 1.05V – E cell \ ( 0. (a) (i) Cr2 O27.+ 6I .+ H2 O + ¾ ¾® SO24 + 2H + 2 e ] × 5 2MnO-4 + 5SO23.+ 3H2 O (b) (i) The catalytic activity of transition metals and their compounds is attributed to the following reasons: Due to their tendency to show variable oxidation states transition metals form instable intermediate compounds and provide a new path for the reaction with lower activation energy. In Some cases.

– CH3 OH + HCO O K + 2HCHO ¾conc. Br) X a-Halocarboxylic acid . In this reaction. 6–dioic acid HOOC—CH2—CH2—CH2—CH2—COOH CO—CH2—CH3 (iii) P–Nitropropiophenone NO2 OR (a) (i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an–a hydrogen atom. Due to his Cu+(aq) undergo disproportionation as follows: 2Cu + ( aq) ¾ ¾® Cu 2+ ( aq) + Cu( s) (iii) This is due to high electronegativity oxygen and fluorine. – + C—O—Mg—X H 2O C—O + Mg(OH)X R R (b) Name of compound (i) S–Methyl butanal Structure CH3—CH—CH2—CHO CH3 (ii) Hexane–1.280 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Cu2+ (aq) is much more stable than Cu(aq). This is because high negative enthalpy of hydration of Cu2+(aq) easily compensates the high second ionisation enthalpy of copper. 30. undergo disproportionation reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali.KOH ¾ ¾¾® Methyl alcohol Potassium formate (ii) Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction: Carbosylic acids having an a-hydrogen are halogenated at the a-position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give a-halocarboxylic acids. R—CH2—COOH (i) X2/Red P (ii) H2O R—CH—COOH (X = Cl. (a) Mechanism: (i) Nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagent to carbonyl group to form an adduct. one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohol while another is oxidised to salt of carboxylic acid. d + C d – d – d + – + O + R—Mg—X C—OMg—X R (ii) Hydrolysis of the adduct to alcohol.

The catalytic reaction which depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and the size of the reaction and product molecules is called shape selective catalysis.Hydroxybutanol COOH COOH HNO3 (conc. 2. Metallic solid conducts electricity in solid state but ionic solid conducts electricity only in solution or in molten state. D CONH2 NO2 +NH3 D Benzoic acid NO2 LiAlH4 CH2OH CH2—NH2 HNO2 NO2 p-Nitro benzyl alcohol NO2 O CHO COOH K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 (iii) COCl SOCl2 (O) + C AlCl3 (anhyd. (i) Thymine is present in DNA. (i) H2S2O8 (Peroxodisulphuric acid) (ii) XeF2 O O F S S Xe O O OH O O HO F . H2S. (ii) Uracil is present in RNA. due to low bond dissociation enthalpy of H–S bond.) . 13.) Benzaldehyde Benzoic acid Benzophenone SET–II 1. 5. 4.Examination Papers 281 CH3 | (b) (i) CH3 CHO ¾dil ¾NaOH ¾¾® CH3 — CH — CH2 — CHO Ethanol (ii) 3 . CH2 = CH .CH2 OH 8.) H2SO4(conc.

(i) [Cr(C2O4)3]3–: Trioxialato chromate (III) ion OX OX OX Cr Cr OX dextro OX OX laevo mirror Optical isomers of [Cr(Ox) 3]3– (ii) [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] . Particle Size Colloidal solution Suspension Less than 1nm Between 1 nm to 1000 nm more than 1000 nm 2.282 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 22.) XeF4 + O2F2 ¾143K ¾¾® XeF6 + O2 24. Settling of particles Do not settle Settle only on configuration Settle under gravity 4. Example Glucose dissolved Smoke. Gold sol in water Sand in water 3HgCl 2 + 2PH3 ¾ ¾® Hg 3 P2 + 6HCl 6NaOH + 3Cl2 ¾ ¾® 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O (Hot and conc. Property Homogeneous solution 1. Separation by 23. Appearance Transparent Translucent opaque 5. Diamine dichlorido platinum (II) NH3 Cl Pt Cl cis NH3 Cl Pt NH3 H3N Geometrical isomers of [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] trans Cl . l ordinary filtration Not possible Not possible Possible l ultra filtration Not possible Possible Possible 3. milk.

(i) Sucrose is dextrorotatory. . ions or molecules contain unpaired electron contain unpaired electrons. Enzymes are specific in nature and efficiency in their action. 5. (i) This is because fluorine is most electronegative element and does not have d-orbitals in its valence shell. Paramagnetism is shown by those substances whose atoms. (ii) If more than find-amino acids are joined together by peptide bend (CONH) the polyamide thus formed is called polypeptide.. it gives a mixture of D-(+)-glucose and D-(–)-fructose which is laeorotatory called invert sugar. Depressant is used to prevent the formation of froth from one of the two sulphide ores. Thus exhibited is called paramagnetism. They are required in small quantity and highly active optimum temperature range (298–310 K) and pH values 5–7. Since the bond dissociation enthalpy of the H–Cl bond is lower than H–F bond therefore H–Cl is stronger acid than H– F in aqueous solution. 4. 1-methoxy-2-methyl propane. 14. Since chlorobenzene has lower magnitude of negative charge on Cl atom and shorter C—Cl bond than cyclohexyl chloride due to resonance therefore chlorobenzene has lower dipole moment than cyclohexyl chloride. (i) Dipole moment is a product of charge and distance.Examination Papers 283 (iii) [CO(en)2Cl2]+ : Diechloridobis (ethane-1. The substances which are weakly attracted by external magnetic field are called paramagnetic substances and the property. 6. O2. (ii) Due to vary high ionisation enthalpy helium does not form any real chemical compound. Cr3+. 2-diamine) cobalt(III) ion + Cl + Cl Cl en en Co Co en Cl dextro cis + Cl Co en trans Cl en en mirror laevo Geometrical isomers Optical isomers 26. 3. Almost all the enzymes are globular proteins.g. on hydrolysis in the presence of hydrochloric acid or enzyme invertase. Cu2+ Fe3+. (iii) Enzymes are biocatalyst. e. etc. SET–III 1. OH O CH3—C—CH2—C—CH3 CH3 12.

metal hydroxide sol.320 K m = 0. These glucosides do not reduce fehling solution and also do not react with hydrogen cyanide indicating the absence of free —CHO group.320°C) = 0. starch. gum.320K Substituting these values in the expression.0711 mol kg–1.Tf = 0°C – (– 0. DTf = Tf0 .284 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) This is because the new intermolecular attractions between haloalkenes and organic solvent molecules have almost the same strength ones being broken in the separate haloalkan and solvent molecules.g. irreversible and less stable. reversible and quite stable.0711 mol kg–1 0. (i) Sn + 2PCl5 ¾heating ¾¾® SnCl4 + 2PCl3 + (ii) 2Fe3+ + SO2 + 2H2O ¾ ¾® 2Fe2+ + SO24 + 4H (iii) 2XeF2(s) + 2H2O(e) ¾ ¾® 2Xe + 4HF + O2 26. Kf = 1. Hydrophobic colloids are solvent (water repelling.42 i= 0. we get 0. glucose does not give 2.g. metal sulphides sol.or b-) is proposed for the glucose molecule.132 22. e. DTf = 0. gelatin etc. A ring structure called pyranose structure (a. 4– DNP test. K kg mol–1 × 0. . (i) Despite having the aldehyde group. When the dispersion medium is water colloids are classified as hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. (iii) D–Glucose on treatment of methyl alcohol in the presence of dry HCl gas gives two isomeric nonomethyl derivatives known as a-D-glucoside and methyl b– D–glucoside. 20.. (ii) The penta acetate of glucose does not react with hydroxyl amine indicating the absence of free —CHO group. DTf = iK f m.86 K Kg mol–1. The following reactions cannot be explained by the open chain structure of glucose.320 K = i´186 . Schiffs test and it does not form the hydrogensulphite addition product with NaHSO3. Hydrophilic colloids are solvent (water) attracting. 23. e.320 = 2.320°C = 0 or 0. etc..

7.20 M solution of KCl at 298 K is 0. 18 g of glucose. C6H12O6 (Molar Mass = 180 g mol–1) is dissolved in 1 kg of water in a sauce pan. (iii) Question numbers 9 to 18 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each. | Cl 5. The conductivity of 0. (iv) Question numbers 19 to 27 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each. Use of calculators is not allowed. (v) Question numbers 28 to 30 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each. Write the structure of 3–methyl butanal. What are three types of RNA molecules which perform different functions? 9. 11. (vi) Use log tables. What happens when CH3—Br is treated with KCN? 6.15 K) 10. (CH3)3N. Calculate its molar conductivity. if necessary. What is the covalency of nitrogen in N2O5? 4. Write the IUPAC name of CH3—CH—CH2—CH—CH2 . (ii) Question numbers 1 to 8 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each. At what temperature will this solution boil? (Kb for water = 0. 1. How many atoms constitute one unit cell of a face-centered cubic crystal? 2. boiling point of pure water = 373. 3. (CH3)2NH 8. Arrange the following in increasing order of their basic strength in aqueous solution: CH3. Name the method used for the refining of nickel metal. Write the dispersed phase and dispersion medium of the following colloidal systems: (i) Smoke (ii) Milk OR What are lyophilic and lyophobic colloids? Which of these sols can be easily coagulated on the addition of small amounts of electrolytes? .52 K kg mol–1.025 S cm–1.NH2.CBSE Examination Papers Delhi–2013 SET–I Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum marks: 70 General Instructions: (i) All questions are compulsory.

(iii) Transition metals and their compounds act as catalyst. assuming that it is completely dissociated. (ii) H3PO3 is heated? 15. Give two reasons for the same. (a) Which solution is used for the leaching of silver metal in the presence of air in the metallurgy of silver? (b) Out of C and CO. . 21. nos. Determine the osmotic pressure of a solution prepared by dissolving 2. Pt (s) o (Given E cell = + 0. (R = 0. Explain the mechanism of the following reaction: + · · H 2CH3—CH2—OH ¾ ¾¾ ® CH3CH2 — O —CH2—CH3 + H2O 413 K · · 18. 4. Mn2+ (At. Mn = 25) 16.44 V) 22. Sc = 21. Molar mass of K2SO4 = 174 g mol–1). V = 23. (a) Which metal in the first transition series (3d series) exhibits +1 oxidation state most frequently and why? (b) Which of the following cations are coloured in aqueous solutions and why? Sc3+. which is a better reducing agent at the lower temperature range in the blast furnace to extract iron from the oxide ore? 14. Calculate the emf of the following cell at 298 K: Fe (s) | Fe2+ (0. What happens when (i) PCl5 is heated? Write the reactions involved.082 L atm K–1 mol–1.286 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 12.001 M) || H+ (1M) | H2 (g) (1 bar). Chlorobenzene is extremely less reactive towards a nucleophilic substitution reaction. (ii) Zr (Z = 40) and Hf (Z = 72) have almost identical radii. Ti = 22. V3+. 6 – trinitrophenol? 19. Write the differences between physisorption and chemisorption with respect to the following: (i) Specificity ( ii) Temperature dependence (iii) Reversibility and (iv) Enthalpy change 13.5 × 10–2 g of K2SO4 in 2 L of water at 25oC. (a) What type of semiconductor is obtained when silicon is doped with boron? (b) What type of magnetism is shown in the following alignment of magnetic moments? (c) What type of point defect is produced when AgCl is doped with CdCl2? 20. How would you account for the following? (i) Transition metals exhibit variable oxidation states. Ti4+. How will you convert: (i) Propene to Propan–2–ol? (ii) Phenol to 2. 17.

After reading the above passage. This decision was welcomed by the parents and the students. 6 26. After watching a programme on TV about the adverse effects of junk food and soft drinks on the health of school children. (a) A reaction is second order in A and first order in B. Morphine. (en = ethylenediamine) 24. show that time required for 99% completion is twice the time required for the completion of 90% of reaction. (ii) How is the rate affected on increasing the concentration of A three times? (iii) How is the rate affected when the concentrations of both A and B are doubled? (b) A first order reaction takes 40 minutes for 30% decomposition. (Given log 1. 27. etc. Sodium benzoate (b) Why is bithional added to soap? (c) Which class of drugs is used in sleeping pills? 28. (i) Write the differential rate equation. discussed the issue with the school principal. (b) Rate constant ‘k’ of a reaction varies with temperature ‘T’ according to the equation: . Write the names and structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Buna–S (ii) Neoprene (iii) Nylon–6.428 = 0. Principal immediately instructed the canteen contractor to replace the fast food with the fibre and vitamins rich food like sprouts. Calculate t1/2 for this reaction. Give the structures of A. salad. B and C in the following reactions: + CuCN H O H NH 3 (i) C 6 H5 N+2 Cl – ¾ ¾ ¾¾® A ¾ ¾2¾ ¾¾® B ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® C D Sn + HCl + NaNO2 + HCl H O H (ii) C 6 H5 NO2 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® A ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® B ¾ ¾2¾ ¾¾® C 273 K D 25.1548) OR (a) For a first order reaction. Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds: (i) [Cr(NH3)3Cl3] (ii) K3[Fe (CN)6] (iii) [CoBr2(en)2]+. fruits. (a) Which one of the following is a food preservative? Equanil. answer the following questions: (a) What values are expressed by Sonali and the Principal of the school? (b) Give two examples of water-soluble vitamins. a student of Class XII.Examination Papers 287 OR Complete the following chemical equations: (i) Cr2 O72 – + 6Fe 2 + + 14H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® (ii) 2CrO24 – + 2H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® (iii) 2MnO–4 + 5C 2 O24 – + 16H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® 23. Sonali.

Give two reasons.314 JK–1 mol–1) 29. (b) Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) BrF3 (ii) (HPO3)3 (iii) XeF4 OR (a) Account for the following: (i) Helium is used in diving apparatus. (ii) Fluorine does not exhibit positive oxidation state. Calculate ‘Ea’ for the reaction. carboxylic acid is a stronger acid than phenol. (iii) Oxygen shows catenation behaviour less than sulphur. (b) How will you bring about the following conversions? (i) Propanone to propane (ii) Benzoyl chloride to benzaldehyde (iii) Ethanal to but-2-enal OR (a) Complete the following reactions: conc. a straight line with a T slope of – 4250 K is obtained. KOH (i) 2H—C—H ¾ ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® || O Br2 P (ii) CH3COOH ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CHO (iii) HNO3/H2SO4 273–283 K (b) Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Ethanal and Propanal (ii) Benzoic acid and Phenol . . 303 R è T ø 1 Where Ea is the activation energy. (R = 8. (a) Give reasons for the following: (i) Bond enthalpy of F2 is lower than that of Cl2. (ii) PH3 has lower boiling point than NH3. (b) Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) XeF2 (ii) H2S2O8 30. (a) Although phenoxide ion has more number of resonating structures than carboxylate ion. When a graph is plotted for log k vs.288 Xam idea Chemistry—XII log k = log A – Ea æ 1 ö ç ÷ 2 .

Write the IUPAC name of CH3CH—CH — C —CH3. What is the composition of ‘Copper matte’? 5. Bartlett for carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6? 7. ZnS. 17. 4. What is a glycosidic linkage? 6.and m. What is the difference between oil/water (O/W) type and water/oil (W/O) type emulsions? Give an example of each type. Which compound in the following pair undergoes faster S N 1 reaction? Cl Cl and .CH (Cl)CH3. Al2O3. (ii) Phenol to 2.Examination Papers 289 SET–II (Questions Uncommon to Set–I) 1. What type of substances would make better permanent magnets.isomers? (b) Why is (±) – Butan-2-ol is optically inactive? 23. Write the structure of 4–chloropentan–2–one. (a) Which of the following ores can be concentrated by froth floatation method and why? Fe2O3. (a) Why does p-dichlorobenzene have a higher m. (b) What is the role of silica in the metallurgy of copper? 18. How will you convert the following? (i) Propan–2–ol to propanone. Write the names and structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Polystyrene (ii) Dacron (ii) Teflon 27.p. 9. 6–tribromophenol 11. ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic? 3. What inspired N. What happens when ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH? 8. Write the IUPAC name of (CH3)2CH. Write the types of isomerism exhibited by the following complexes: (i) [Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4 (ii) [Co(en)3]3+ (ii) [Co(NH3)6] [Cr(CN)6] SET–III (Questions Uncommon to Set-I and II) 1. than its o. What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by AgCl? CH3 | 2. 7. What type of bonding helps in stabilising the a-helix structure of proteins? 6. | Br 4.

(b) What is the role of cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium? 17. How will you convert: (i) Propene to Propan-1-ol? (ii) Ethanal to Propan-2-o1? 23. (ii) Chloroform is stored in closed dark brown bottles. 18.290 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 8. KOH 2 3 (ii) CH3 COOH ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ® A ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ® B ¾ ¾ ¾ 3¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® C 27. (a) Give an example of zone refining of metals. Give the structures of products A. Account for the following: (i) The C—Cl bond length in chlorobenzene is shorter than that in CH3—Cl. Write the structure of p-Methylbenzaldehyde molecule. B and C in the following reactions: LiAlH HNO KCN 4 2 (i) CH3 CH2 Br ¾ ¾ ¾¾® A ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® B ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ® C 0 °C NH D NaOH + Br CHCl + alc. 9. 14. What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids? Give one example of each. Write the names and structures of the monomers of the following polymers: (i) Bakelite (ii) Nylon-6 (iii) Polythene zzz .

(CH3 ) 3 N < CH3 NH2 < (CH3 ) 2 NH 8.20 mol L. Lyophobic sols can be easily coagulated.15 K at 1.15 + 0. 4-Chloropent-1-ene. -1 3 –1 10.52 K kg mol–1 × 0. Since water boils at 373.052 K. the boiling point of solution will be 373.013 bar pressure. CH3 ¾ CH¾ CH2 ¾ C HO ½ CH3 7.1 c 0. Moles of glucose = 18 g / 180 g mol -1 = 0.Examination Papers 291 Solutions SET–I 1. CH3 Br + KCN ¾ ¾ Ethanenitrile 4 3 2 1 6. (8 corner atoms) ´ 1 1 + (6 face centre atoms) ´ = 1 + 3 = 4 8 2 2. Type of Colloid Dispersed Phase Dispersion Medium (i) Smoke Solid Gas (ii) Milk Liquid Liquid OR Lyophilic sols are solvents attracting sols whereas lyophobic sols are solvent repelling sols.1 mol kg–1 For water. molality of glucose solution = 0. There are three types of RNAs: (i) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (ii) Messenger RNA (mRNA) (iii) Transfer RNA (tRNA) 9.202 K. 4 4. .052 = 373.1 11. change in boiling point will be DTb = K b ´ m = 0.1 mol Mass of solvent = 1 kg Hence. 3.025 S cm ´ 1000 cm L = 125 S cm 2 mol . L m = k ´ 1000 = 0. ¾® CH3 C ºº N 5. Mond Process.1 mol kg–1 = 0.

It is irreversible. Enthalpy of adsorption is low (20–40 kJ mol -1) in this case. Hence. Physisorption It is not specific in nature. High temperature is favourable for adsorption. it shows +1 oxidation state. (i) Due to cleave. (b) CO. Heat PCl5 ¾¾¾ ¾® PCl 3 + Cl 2 . H ½· ·· (i) CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ O H + HÅ ¾® CH3CH2 ¾ O · ¾ H ·· (ii) CH3—CH2—O Å + CH3—CH2—O H H CH3—CH2—O—CH2—CH3 + H2O H H + (iii) CH3—CH2—O—CH2—CH3 18. 14. It decreases with increase of temperature. (i) When PCl5 is heated. the less stable axial bonds break to form PCl 3 . repulsion between nucleophile and electron-rich arenes. It is reversible in nature. (b) Mn 2 + and V 3 + are coloured in aqueous solutions because they have unpaired electrons. 16. unstable phenyl cation. (ii) Orthophosphorous acid on heating disproportionates to give orthophosphoric acid and phosphine. (i) Specificity (ii) Temperature dependence (iii) Reversibility (iv) Enthalpy change Chemisorption It is highly specific in nature. Heat 4H3 PO3 ¾¾¾ ¾® Orthophosphorous acid PH3 Phosphine + 3H3 PO4 Orthophosphoric acid 15. (a) Cu has the electronic configuration 3d 10 4s 1 . CH3CH2—O—CH2—CH3 + H H (i) Propan-2-ol can be prepared from propene by hydration as shown below: H O/ H+ — CH2 ¾ ¾2¾ ¾¾® CH3 — CH — CH3 CH3 — CH — Propene ½ OH . Enthalpy of adsorption is high (80-240 kJ mol -1) in this case. It can easily lose 4s 1 electron to give the stable 3d 10 configuration. It increases with the increase of temperature. 13. (ii) Due to (iii) Due to (iv) Due to resonance C—Cl bond acquires a partial double bond character which is difficult to sp2 hybridisation of C of C—Cl bond. Low temperature is favourable for adsorption.292 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 12. (a) Dilute solution of NaCN. 17.

025 g ´ 0.44 + 0. T = 25°C = 298 K Molar mass of K 2 SO4 = 174 g mol -1 Since K 2 SO4 dissociates completely as K 2 SO4 ¾® 2K + + SO24 - Total number of moles of particle after dissociation 3 = =3 Number of moles of particles before dissociation 1 Applying van’t Hoff equation. (iii) This is because of their ability to adopt multiple oxidation states and to form complexes. (b) Ferromagnetism. Cell reaction: 3 ´ 0 .6-Trinitrophenol 19. (i) Transition elements show variable oxidation states because electrons in ns and ( n .4 disulphonic acid 2. 20.4. i ´ WB ´ R ´ T p= MB ´ V i= = 21.44 - [Fe 2 + ] 0.3) = 0.Examination Papers 293 OH OH SO3H H2SO4 (conc.) O2N SO3H NO2 NO2 Phenol-2.52856V 2 22.) (ii) OH Phenol HNO3 (conc.3 log 2 (1) 2 0.0591 log 2 [H+ ] 2 0. (a) p-type semiconductor.0591 ´ ( .0591 10 .0821 L atm K -1 mol -1 ´ 298 K 174 g mol -1 ´ 2 L = 5.0886 = 0. (ii) This is due to filling of 4f orbitals which have poor shielding effect (lanthanoid contraction).27 × 10–3 atm Fe(s) + 2H + (aq) ¾ ¾ ¾® Fe 2 + (aq) + H 2 (g) Nernst equation: o E cell = E cell - \ E cell = 0.025 g Volume of solution = 2 L. K 2 SO4 dissolved = 0.44 - OR (i) Cr2O 27 – + 6Fe 2 + + 14H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O (ii) 2Cr2 O24 – + 2H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® Cr2 O27 – + H2 O (iii) 2MnO–4 + 5C2 O24 – + 16H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O . = 0. (c) Impurity defect/cation vacancy defect.1) d-orbitals are available for bond formation as they have nearly same energy.

(b) Vitamin B complex. (c) Tranquilizers.. B = C6H5COOH. (a) Values shown by Sonali: concern for the society.. (b) For a first order reaction [R ]0 2. commanding and serious about the welfare of students.303 k= ´ 0. 6 Hexamethylene diamine. Values shown by principal: caring. B = C6H5N2+Cl-. (i) A = C6H5CN.294 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 23. socially active and helpful to others.428 40 7 40 2.30 7 2. Rate of reaction will become 8 times. (b) Bithional acts as an antiseptic agent and reduces the odour produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter on the skin. Rate of reaction will become 9 times.e. CH2—CH—CH—CH2 Styrene C6H5CH—CH2 Cl ½ — CH2 CH2 — — C — CH — (ii) Neoprene Chloroprene (iii) Nylon-6. 27. (a) (i) Rate = dt (ii) When concentration of A is tripled Rate = k [3A]2[B] = 9k [A]2[B] i. d[ R ] = k[ A ] 2 [ B ] 28. (i) Polymers Buna-S Monomer names Monomer structures 1. C = C6H5CONH2 (ii) A = C6H5NH2. S. (a) Sodium benzoate. NH2—(CH2)6—NH2 Adipic acid COOH—(CH2)4—COOH 26. Vitamin C. (ii) When concentration of both A and B is doubled Rate = k [2A]2[2B] = 8k [A]2[B] i.2-diammine)cobalt(III) ion 24.303 k= log = log 1. (i) Triamminetrichloridochromium(III) (ii) Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) (iii) Dibromidobis-(ethane-1. 3-Butadiene.1548 40 .303 k= log t [R ] [R ]0 100 10 when t = 40 minutes.303 10 2. No. = = [R ] 100 . C = C6H5OH 25.e.

4250 × 2. (i) BrF3 (ii) (HPO3)3 F O O O P OH P HO Br F O O P O OH F Slightly bent “T” (iii) XeF4 F F Xe F F Square planar . That is why the boiling point of PH3 is lower than NH3 . OR [R ]0 2. The F—F bond dissociation enthalpy is. PH3 molecules are not associated through hydrogen bonding in liquid state. (ii) Unlike NH3 . smaller than that of Cl—Cl and even smaller than that of Br—Br.314 = 81375 J mol–1 = 81. 303 100 log t 99% 1 = log 100 = 2 = k \ 2. 303 log k [R ] 2. This is because F atom is very small and hence the three lone pairs of electrons on each F atom repel the bond pair holding the F-atoms in F2 molecule.375 kJ mol–1 29.Examination Papers 295 k = 8.693 = k 8.4250 K 2. 303 ´ R (a) As t = Ea = . Hence.91 ´ 10 -3 t1/2 = 77. (a) (b) (i) Bond dissociation enthalpy decreases as the bond distance increases from F2 to I2 because of the corresponding increase in the size of the atom as we move from F to I.78 min.91 ´ 10 t1/2 = 3 min .303 × 8.1 0. the bond dissociation enthalpy increases in the order: I 2 < F2 < Br2 < Cl 2 . however. 303 100 t 90% log 10 log k 10 Hence t 99% = 2t 90% Ea (b) Slope = = .693 0.

(i) Propanone to Propane O || Clemmensen reduction CH3—C—CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3CH2CH3 Zn(Hg) + HCl Or NH 2 — NH 2 + KOH + glycol Propanone Propane (ii) Benzoyl chloride to benzaldehyde COCl H2/Pd-BaSO4 CHO boiling xylene Benzaldehyde Benzoyl chloride (iii) Ethanal to but-2-enal Dil. KOH O H3C—OH + H—C Br | (ii) CH3COOH ¾ ¾ ¾¾® C H2 —COOH Br2 P O OK But . (ii) Negative charge is dispersing on two electronegative oxygens in carboxylate ion whereas it is on one oxygen atom in phenoxide ion.H 2O OR (a) (i) 2H—C—H conc. (a) (b) (i) Resonating structures of carboxylate ion are more stable than phenoxide ion. NaOH ( Aldol condensation ) 4 3 2 1 2CH3 CHO ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 ¾ CHOH ¾ CH2 ¾ CHO Ethanal 3 . (ii) This is because fluorine is the most electronegative element.296 Xam idea Chemistry—XII OR (a) (i) Helium is used as a diluent for oxygen in modern diving apparatus because of its very low solubility in blood. (b) (i) Refer to Q.Hydroxybutanal + H O / Heat ¾ 3¾ ¾¾® CH3 ¾ CH — — CH ¾ CHO .2 . 12(ii) of CBSE (All India) Paper 2013. (iii) Because O—O single bond is weaker than S—S single bond. (ii) H2S2O8 O O S S O O O O OH OH Peroxodisulphuric acid (H2S2O8) 30.enal .

SET–II (Questions Uncommon to Set–I) 1. Frenkel defect.4. a rapid reaction occurred and a red solid with the formula. The a-helix structure of proteins is stabilised by intramolecular H-bonding between C—O of one amino acid residue and the N—H of the fourth amino acid residue in the chain. 2. CH3—CH—CH2—C—CH3 | Cl 9. OH O | || K 2 Cr2 O7 + H 2 SO4 (i) CH3—CH—CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3—C—CH3 Propan-2-ol OH Propanone OH OH H2SO4 (conc. Xe + [ PtF6 ] – was obtained. Xe + PtF6 278 K ¾ ¾ ¾¾® Xe + [PtF6 ] - Hydrolysis 7. Bartlett thought that PtF6 should also oxidise Xe to Xe + . whereas benzoic acid does not.) SO3H HNO3 (conc. 4. O+2 PtF6O2 ( g) + PtF6 ( g) ¾ ¾ ¾® O+2 [PtF6 ] Here. This inspired Bartlett to carry out the reaction between Xe and PtF6 . Since the first ionisation enthalpy of Xe (1170 kJ mol -1 ) is fairly close to that of O2 molecule (1175 kJ mol -1 ). 4-Bromo-4-methylpent-2-ene. O2 gets oxidised to O+2 by PtF6 . CH3 CH2 Cl + KOH ( aq) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® D Ethyl chloride CH3 CH2 — OH + KCl + H2 O Ethyl alcohol O || 8.6-trinitrophenol (Picric acid) . whereas phenol does not Phenol decolourises Br2 water giving white precipitate. Neil Bartlett observed that PtF6 reacts with O2 to yield an ionic solid. while propanal does not. 6.4 disulphonic acid NO2 2.Examination Papers 297 CHO (iii) CHO HNO3/H2SO4 273–283 K NO2 (b) (i) Ethanal (CH3CHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO): Ethanal responds to iodoform test and gives a yellow precipitate on addition of NaOH and I2. When Xe and PtF6 were mixed. (ii) Phenol and benzoic acid: Benzoic acid reacts with NaHCO3 giving CO2 gas with effervescence.) O2N NO2 (ii) Phenol SO3H Phenol-2.

. butter.. water is the dispersed phase and oil is the dispersion medium. 6. The linkage between two monosaccharide units through oxygen atom is called glycosidic linkage. 23. (b) Silica acts as a flux to remove iron oxide (FeO) as slag in the metallurgy of copper. milk. 17. This is because the sulphide ore particles are preferentially wetted by oil and gangue particles are preferentially wetted by water. 7. Therefore. e. cod liver oil. Polymer Monomers and their structures (i) Polystyrene CH—CH2 Styrene (Vinyl benzene) (ii) Dacron OHCH2—CH2OH HOOC COOH Ethyl glycol Terephthalic acid F F (ii) Teflon C C F F Tetrafluoroethene 27.298 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 11. (i) Oil in water (o/w) type emulsions: In such emulsions oil is the dispersed phase and water is the dispersion medium. (a) ZnS.g. (a) It is due to symmetry of p-dichlorobenzene which fits in crystal lattice better than the o. Cl . (i) [Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4 — Ionisation isomerism (ii) [Co(en)3]3+ — Optical isomerism (ii) [Co(NH3)6] [Cr(CN)6] — Coordination isomerism SET–III (Questions Uncommon to Set-I and II) 1. (ii) Water in oil (w/o) type emulsion: In such emulsions. 2-Chloro-3-methylbutane. Ferromagnetic. 3. Cu2S and FeS. FeO + SiO2 ¾¾ ¾® FeSiO3 Slag Flux 18. e. cancelling each other and becoming optically inactive.g. vanishing cream. (b) (±)-Butan-2-ol exist in two eventiomeric forms which rotate the plane of polarised light in opposite directions in equal amounts. 5.and misomers.

(i) Bakelite: Phenol (ii) Nylon-6: HCHO Formaldehyde H N O Caprolactum (iii) Polythene: CH2—CH2 Ethene zzz . Phosgene (i) Propene to Propan-1-ol Peroxide KOH ( aq ) CH3CH—CH2 + HBr ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3CH2CH2Br ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3CH2CH2OH D Propene Propan-1-ol (ii) Ethanal to Propan-2-o1 CH3 — C—O CH3 CH3MgI H C OMgI + H .Examination Papers 299 8. C = CH3NC 27. sulphur sol. (ii) Because chloroform is slowly oxidised by air in the presence of light to an extremely poisonous gas phosgene. proteins./Acts as an electrolyte. Light 2CHCl3 + O2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾® 2COCl2 + 2HCl Chloroform 18. Macromolecular colloids are generally lyophilic in nature. polyethene. e. (Any one) 17.. gold sol. colloidal particles are aggregates of large atoms or molecules each having size in the colloidal range. (i) Refer to Q. (b) Cryolite lowers the melting point of the mixture. Macromolecular colloids: These are the solution containing macromolecules in the colloidal range. H3C CHO 9. OH . B = CH3CH2CH2NH2.g. (a) Zone refining is used for production of semiconductors and other metals of very high purity like germanium. gallium and indium.g. 14. B = CH3NH2./Acts as solvent for alumina. silicon.23(iii) of CBSE Examination Paper (All India) 2013. etc. starch. C = CH3CH2CH2OH (ii) A = CH3CONH2. boron. Multimolecular colloids are generally lyophobic in nature. H2O CH3 CH3 H Ethanal 23. Multimolecular colloids: In this type of colloids. e. H C OH CH3 Propan-2-ol (i) A = CH3CH2CN..

Account for the following: (i) Schottky defects lower the density of related solids. Atomic radius of the metal is 125 pm. 4. (ii) Conductivity of silicon increases on doping it with phosphorus. 7. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3 | CH3— C — CH — CH3 | | CH3 Cl 5. 10. which has a higher enthalpy of adsorption? 2. What is the length of the side of the unit cell of the metal? 11. r = k[ A ]1 / 2 [ B ] 2 . Delhi–2013. Is –(CH2—CH )– n a homopolymer or a copolymer? | Cl 9. Write the structure of n-methylethanamine. What is the order of this reaction? . The standard electrode potential (E°) for Daniell cell is + 1. Name two poisonous gases which can be prepared from chlorine gas. CH3—CH2—CH3 6. (a) For a reaction A + B ® P. Name the method used for refining of copper metal.1 V. 1. 12. What are the products of hydrolysis of sucrose? 8.CBSE Examination Papers All India–2013 SET–I Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum marks: 70 General Instructions: Same as CBSE Examination Paper. 3. Rearrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their boiling points: CH3—CHO. Of physisorption or chemisorption. Aluminium crystallises in an fcc structure. Calculate the DG° for the reaction Zn( s) + Cu 2 + ( aq) ¾ ¾ ¾® Zn 2 + ( aq) + Cu( s) (1 F = 96500 C mol–1). CH3—CH2—OH. the rate law is given by.

R3P—O exists but R3N—O does not. 19. (a) Name the method used for removing gangue from sulphide ores. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) XeOF4 (ii) H3PO3 15.5 × 10–14 s–1. Define thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. 22. write the electronic configuration of d4 in terms of t2g and eg in an octahedral field when (i) D0 > P (ii) D0 < P . How are interhalogen compounds formed? What general compositions can be assigned to them? 16. 443 K 17. [R = 8. Find the half life of the reaction.314 JK–1 mol–1.6021] 20. 13. Give reasons for the following: (i) Where R is an alkyl group. (ii) PbCl4 is more covalent than PbCl2 (iii) At room temperature. (Atomic no. What are the characteristics of the following colloids? Give one example of each: (i) Multimolecular colloids (ii) Lyophobic sols (iii) Emulsions 21. OR What is a biodegradable polymer? Give an example of a biodegradable aliphatic polyester. Write the equations involved in the following reactions: (i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction (ii) Williamson’s ether synthesis 18. log 4 = 0.Examination Papers 301 (b) A first order reaction is found to have a rate constant k = 5. (b) How is wrought iron different from steel? 14. The rate of a reaction becomes four times when the temperature changes from 293 K to 313 K. (ii) the hybridisation type. (iii) the shape of the complex. write (i) the IUPAC name. Calculate the energy of activation (Ea) of the reaction assuming that it does not change with temperature. of Ni = 28) OR What is meant by crystal field splitting energy? On the basis of crystal field theory. N2 is much less reactive. Explain the mechanism of the following reaction: + H CH3—CH2—OH ¾ ¾¾ ® CH2—CH2 + H2O. Give one example of each. For the complex [NiCl4]2–.

Find the molar mass of the solute. Anuradha supported her financially to get the medicines.302 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 23. The doctor prescribed an iron rich diet and multivitamins supplement to her. out of soaps and synthetic detergents. a domestic helper of Mrs. Shanti. After reading the above passage. Mrs.12 kg mol–1) OR (a) Define the following terms: (i) Ideal solution (ii) Azeotrope (iii) Osmotic pressure (b) A solution of glucose (C6H12O6) in water is labelled as 10% by weight. which will you use for cleaning clothes? (iii) Which of the following is an antiseptic? 0. Anuradha immediately took her to the nearby hospital where she was diagnosed to be severely ‘anaemic’. Calculate the emf of the following cell at 25oC: Ag( s) Ag + (10 –3 M) | | Cu 2 + (10 –1 M) | Cu ( s) o Given E cell = + 0. answer the following questions: (i) What values are displayed by Mrs. Anuradha. (ii) (±) 2–Butanol is optically inactive. (iii) C–X bond length in halobenzene is smaller than C–X bond length in CH3–X. 24. 1% phenol. 26. (a) State Raoult’s law for a solution containing volatile components. How does Raoult’s law become a special case of Henry’s law? (b) 1. Give reasons for the following: (i) Ethyl iodide undergoes SN2 reaction faster than ethyl bromide. What would be the molality of the solution? (Molar mass of glucose = 180 g mol–1) . + HCl(aq) (i) What class of drug is Ranitidine? (ii) If water contains dissolved Ca2+ ions. (iii) Give an example of a water soluble vitamin. Anuradha? (ii) Name the vitamin whose deficiency causes ‘pernicious anaemia’.46 V and log 10n = n. KOH ¾ ¾ ¾® (ii) C6H5N+2 Cl – H O ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾2¾ ¾ ¾® Room temperature NH2 (iii) 25. Mrs. Complete the following reactions: (i) CH3CH2NH2 + CHCl3 + alc. After a month. (Kf for benzene = 5. fainted while mopping the floor.40 K.00 g of a non-electrolyte solute dissolved in 50 g of benzene lowered the freezing point of benzene by 0. Shanti was diagnosed to be normal.2% phenol. 28. 27.

(iii) Although ‘F’ is more electronegative than ‘O’. HCl || O Pd – BaSO4 (ii) CH3—C—Cl + H2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® ? || O COOH Br2/FeBr3 (iii) ? (b) Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger? (i) F—CH2—COOH or Cl—CH2—COOH OH (ii) or CH3COOH . 30. the highest Mn fluoride is MnF4. whereas the highest oxide is Mn2O7. (b) What is lanthanoid contraction? Name an important alloy which contains some of the lanthanoid metals. (a) How will you convert the following: (i) Propanone to Propan-2-ol (ii) Ethanal to 2-hydroxy propanoic acid (iii) Toluene to benzoic acid (b) Give simple chemical test to distinguish between: (i) Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one (ii) Ethanal and Propanal OR (a) Write the products of the following reactions: Zn – Hg (i) CH3—C—CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ¾® ? conc. (b) Complete the following equations: (i) 2CrO24 – + 2H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® heat (ii) KMnO4 ¾ ¾ ¾® OR (a) Why do transition elements show variable oxidation states? (i) Name the element showing maximum number of oxidation states among the first series of transition metals from Sc (Z = 21) to Zn (Z = 30).Examination Papers 303 29. (ii) Name the element which shows only +3 oxidation state. (a) Give reasons for the following: (i) Mn3+ is a good oxidising agent (ii) E o 2+ M /M values are not regular for first row transition metals (3d series).

9. Give reasons for the following: (i) Oxygen is a gas but sulphur is a solid. Define the following terms giving an example of each: (i) Associated colloids (ii) Lyophilic sol (iii) Adsorption 22. What is the formula of the compound? 14. 2. (iii) BiH3 is the strongest reducing agent amongst all the hydrides of Group 15 elements. (ii) O3 acts as a powerful oxidising agent. 8. Outline the principles of refining of metals by the following methods: (i) Zone refining (ii) Vapour phase refining 19. Write the structure of 2-aminotoluene. Ethanol is soluble in water. Which aerosol depletes ozone layer? 4. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3—CH—CH2 —CH—CH3 | | Br Cl 7. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) XeF6 (ii) H2S2O7 18. Atoms of Q are at the corners of the cube and P at the body-centre.304 Xam idea Chemistry—XII SET–II (Questions Uncommon to Set–I) 1. Why? 5. . (a) Why does presence of excess of lithium makes LiCl crystals pink? (b) A solid with cubic crystal is made of two elements P and Q. Write the main products of the following reactions: H PO + H O (i) C6H5N+2 Cl– ¾ ¾3¾ 2¾ ¾2¾ ¾® ? NH2 (ii) Br2(aq) ? Br2 + NaOH (iii) CH3—C—NH2 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® ? || O 27. Give one example of a condensation polymer. Write the name of linkage joining two amino acids.

Define the following terms with an example in each case: (i) Macromolecular sol (ii) Peptisation (iii) Emulsion 21. it does not form pentahalide. What are the products of hydrolysis of lactose? 6. What is especially observed when a beam of light is passed through a colloidal solution? 2. (ii) Electron gain enthalpy with negative sign of fluorine is less than that of chlorine. Name the principal ore of aluminium. 12. (a) What change occurs when AgCl is doped with CdCl2? (b) What type of semiconductor is produced when silicon is doped with boron? 18. Give reasons for the following: (i) Though nitrogen exhibits +5 oxidation state. Write the main products of the following reactions: HNO 0°C 2 (i) CH3 CH2 NH2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ®? O (ii) S—Cl + H—N—C2H5 O (iii) N—H H ? H O CH3—C—Cl Base ? zzz . Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: Cl CH3 Cl 5.Examination Papers 305 SET–III (Questions Uncommon to Set–I and II) 1. What is the basicity of H3PO3 and why? 3. 27. Write the structure of prop-2-en-1-amine. Explain the significance of leaching in the extraction of aluminium. 19. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) N2 O5 (ii) XeF2 13. Is (CH2—CH)n a homopolymer or a copolymer? 8. (iii) The two oxygen-oxygen bond lengths in ozone molecule are identical.

nFE o 9. (i) XeOF4 F (ii) H3PO3 O O F P Xe F H F OH OH . Electrolytic refining. (a) Froth floatation. 2. (a) Order of reaction = + 2 = 2 2 (b) Radioactive decay follows first order kinetics.26 ´ 1013 s. 3. 2-Chloro-3.14 13. 0. Sucrose on hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose. 8.2 ´ 1.1 = – 212. n= 2. D r G o = .3-dimethylbutane or 3-Chloro-2. CH3—NH—CH2CH3. For an fcc unit cell.3 kJ mol–1 1 5 12. 1 = . (i) In Schottky defect as the number of ions are missing from their normal lattice sites. The poisonous gases which can be prepared from chlorine gas are phosgene gas (COCl2)/mustard gas (ClCH 2 CH 2 SCH 2 CH 2 Cl)/chloropicrin or tear gas (CCl3NO2)/sulphur monochloride (S2Cl2) . a 10. (cell) In the given equation.5 ´ 10 . k 5 . 693 0. 7. (ii) This is due to availability of additional unpaired electrons on doping with phosphorous.212300 J mol . Due to this the density decreases. 4. 11. (b) Wrought iron is the purest form of iron whereas steel is an alloy of iron. F = 96500 C mol - 1 o and E cell = 1.1 V ´ 96500 C mol - Therefore. 14. Homopolymer.1 V D r G o = . 6.2-dimethylbutane. CH3CH2CH3 < CH3CHO < CH3CH2OH. Chemisorption. 5.306 Xam idea Chemistry—XII Solutions SET–I 1.5 pm. r = 2 2 a = 2 2r = 2 ´ 1.693 t1/ 2 = = s = 1. 414 ´ 125 = 353. the mass decreases whereas the volume remains the same.

Thermosetting polymers: These polymers on heating undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and again become infusible. polythene.Examination Papers 307 15. XX¢3. ethene is removed as it is formed. urea-formaldehyde resins. H H H ½ ½ ½+ H — C —C — O — H ·· ½ ½ H H Slow ¾¾¾® ¬¾¾¾ H H ½ ½ ·· H — C — C + + H2 O ·· ½ ½ H H Step 3: Formation of ethane by elimination of a proton H H ½ ½ H H ¾¾¾® —C H — C — C + ¬¾¾¾ C— H H ½ ½ Ethene H H + H+ The acid used in step 1 is released in step 3. etc. To drive the equilibrium to the right. Example. the rate determining step of the reaction. (i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction: OH ONa ONa CHCl2 CHCl3 (aq. Example. polystyrene.) NaOH NaOH OH CHO H 3O + CHO 340 K Salicylaldehyde (2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde) Phenol (ii) Williamson synthesis: + R¾ X Alkyl halide + Na ¾ O ¾ R¢ ¾¾® R ¾ O ¾ R¢ + NaX Sodium alkoxide Ether 18. bakelite. These cannot be reused. etc. . The mechanism of dehydration of ethanol involves the following steps: Step 1: Formation of protonated alcohol: H H H H H ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ·· Fast + ¾¾¾® H — C —C — O — H + H H — C — C — O+ — H ¬¾¾¾ · · ·· ½ ½ ½ ½ H H H H Ethanol Ethyl oxonium ion Step 2: Formation of carbocation: It is the slowest step and hence. 16. XX¢5 and XX¢7 where X is halogen of larger size and X¢ of smaller size and X is more electropositive than X¢. Thermoplastic polymers: These polymers are capable of repeatedly softening on heating and hardening on cooling. They can be assigned general composition as XX¢. 17. Interhalogen compounds are prepared by direct combustion or by the action of halogen on lower interhalogen compounds.

314 log 4 = Ea = 20. éT2 – T1 ù ú ê ë T1 ´ T2 û log é313 – 293 ù ê 293 ´ 313 ú û ë E a é 20 ù 19. N cannot expand its covalency beyond four but in R3N—O.pp overlap resulting into the triple bond (N ºº N). (iii) N2 is less reactive at room temperature because of strong pp . 22.303R ´ 8. cod liver oil. Example. (i) Tetrachloridonickelate(II) ion. rate at 313 K will be 4R. On the other hand. consequently high bond dissociation enthalpy. (iii) Emulsion is a colloidal solution in which both the dispersed phase and dispersion medium are liquids. As2S3 sol.dp multiple bonds. milk. P due to the presence of d-orbitals forms pp .863 kJ mol–1 (i) Multimolecular colloids are aggregates of atoms or molecules each having size less than 1 nm held together by van der Waals forces. and hence it is more covalent. (i) N due to the absence of d-orbitals. PHBV (Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate-co-bhydroxyvalerate).2177 J mol–1 or 52. Fe(OH)3 sol.1471 êë 91709 úû 0 . Example. sols of metal and their sulphides and hydroxides. If rate at 293 K is R. 21. Example.1471 ´ 91709 20 = 52863. Therefore. gold sol. 6021 ´ 19. the compound R3N—O does not exist. Thus. (ii) sp3 hybridisation. thus polarising power of Pb4+ is greater than Pb2+. OR The difference of energy between two sets of degenerate orbitals as a result of crystal field splitting is known as crystal field splitting energy.308 Xam idea Chemistry—XII OR Polymers which disintegrate by themselves over a period of time due to environmental degradation by microorganisms are called biodegradable polymers. cannot form pp . k2 Ea = k1 2 .303R log Ea 4R = R 2 . (ii) Because Pb is in +4 oxidation state in PbCl4 and has high charge/size ratio than Pb2+. Example. (ii) Lyophobic sols are those sols in which the particles of the disperse phase have little affinity for the particles of the dispersion medium. (iii) Tetrahedral. sulphur sol. 19. N has a covalency of 5. So. (i) t 24g e g0 (ii) t 23g e1g . P forms R3P—O in which the covalency of P is 5.dp multiple bonds and hence can expand its covalency beyond 4. etc.

ion.46 – 0. i. making the mixture optically inactive.46 – 0.. (iii) In CH3–X the carbon atom is sp2 hybridised while in halobenzene the carbon atom is sp3 hybridised. hence.46 – 0. 0591 [ Cu 2 + ] log 2 [Ag + ] 2 o Given: E cell = 0. Thus.02955 ´ 5 = 0. The sp2 hybridised carbon is more electronegative due to greater s-character and holds the electron pair of C–X bond more tightly than sp3 hybridised carbon with less s-character.02955 log [ 0 . 26. (ii) Synthetic detergents (iii) 0.46 V Ecell = 0.Examination Papers 309 23.46 – 0. Or o Ecell = E cell – = 0. 24.2% phenol.02955 log 105 = 0. (ii) (±) 2-Butanol is a racemic mixture.46 – 0.1] [10 –6 ] = 0.314 V.ion is a better leaving group than Br .e. The rotation by one enantiomer will be cancelled by the rotation due to the other isomer. The correct cell formula is given below: Cu2+(10–1 M) | Cu(s) | | Ag+ (10–3 M) | Ag(s) According to Nernst equation o Ecell = E cell – 0. (i) CH3CH2NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH(alc. NH3Cl + HCl(aq) (i) Antacid/antihistamine. The given cell notation in the question is incorrect.1] .1] log 2 [10 –3 ] 2 = 0. CH3 I reacts faster than CH3 Br in SN2 reaction with OH– ion. (i) Since I . 059 [Ag + ] 2 log 2 [ Cu 2 + ] 0. there are two enantiomers in equal proportions.) ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3CH2NC + 3KCl + 3H2O (ii) C6H5N+2 Cl – H O ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾2¾ ¾ ¾® C6H5OH + N2 + HCl Room temperature – NH2 (iii) 25.46 – 0. C–X bond length in CH3–X is bigger than C–X in halobenzene. 0591 [10 –3 ] 2 log 2 [ 0 .148 = 0. 0591 [ 0 .

generosity. 00 g ´ 1000 g kg -1 = 256 g mol -1 0. p A µ x A . 27.46 + 0.310 Xam idea Chemistry—XII = 0.10) ´ 180 29.. it becomes a special case of Henry's law in which KH = p Ao . (i) Helpfulness. p µx only the proportionality constant KH differs from p Ao . 28.1] = 0. (ii) Azeotrope: A liquid mixture which distills at constant temperature without undergoing any change in composition. 40 K ´ 50 g OR (a) (i) Ideal solution: The solution which follows Raoult’s law at all concentrations and temperatures.6075 V. (iii) Vitamin C. or p A = p Ao x A According to Henry’s law.e. (a) For a solution of volatile liquids.02955 log [10 –6 ] [ 0 . p = KHx On comparing it with Raoult’s law it can be seen that partial pressure of the volalite component or gas is directly proportional to its mole fraction in solution. (ii) The E° (M 2 + / M) values are not regular which can be explained from the irregular variation of ionisation enthalpies ( Di H1 + Di H 2 ) and also the sublimation enthalpies which are relatively much less for manganese and vanadium. Thus.0295 ´ 5 = 0.12 K kg mol -1 ´ 1. caring. i.e. kindness attitude towards poor. .wt%) ´ Molecular weight of solute (100 . (iii) Osmotic pressure: The minimum excess pressure that has to be applied on the solution side when the solution and solvent are separated by a semipermeable membrane to stop osmosis. (b) 10% w/w solution of glucose means 10 grams of glucose is present in 100 g of solution. (ii) Vitamin B12. (b) Substituting the values of various terms involved in equation M B = MB = K f ´ WB ´ 1000 DTf ´ WA . the partial pressure of a gas in vapour phase (p) is directly proportional to mole fraction (x) of the gas in the solution.617 m (100 ..46 – 0. (iii) Due to multiple bond formation ability of oxygen with Mn in Mn2O7. Raoult’s law states that the partial vapour pressure of each component of the solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction present in solution. 1000 ´ 10 1000 ´ wt% = m= = 0. (a) (i) Mn 3 + (3d4) is a good electron acceptor as the resulting species is more stable (3d5). we get 5. 90 g of water. i.

because CH3COO– is a more stable conjugate base. (ii) Ethanal and propanal: Ethanal responds to iodoform test and gives yellow coloured precipitate with I2 and NaOH. (a) (i) CH3 — C— CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Propanone Propan . HCl || O Pd – BaSO4 (ii) CH3—C—Cl + H2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾® CH3—CHO + HCl || O COOH (iii) (b) COOH Br2/FeBr3 Br + HBr (i) F—CH2—COOH > Cl—CH2—COOH. OH (ii) CH3COOH > . Misch metal. (i) Manganese (ii) Scandium.1) d-orbitals are available for bond formation as they have nearly same energy. while propanal does not.Examination Papers 311 (b) (i) 2CrO24 – + 2H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® Cr2O72 – + H2O Heat (ii) 2KMnO4 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 OR (a) Transition elements show variable oxidation states because electrons in ns and ( n .ol CN | HCN (ii) CH3 — C— O ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 — C — OH | | H H COOH | H O/ H ¾ ¾2¾ ¾¾® CH3 — CH — OH + 2 . O OH || | LiAlH 4 or NaBH 4 ¾¾¾ ¾® CH3 — CH — CH3 30.2 . while pentan-3-one does not.hydroxy propanoic acid Ethanal CH3 COOH + H /KMnO4 (iii) Toluene (b) Benzoic acid (i) Pentan-2-one and pentan-3-one: Pentan-2-one responds to iodoform test and gives yellow coloured precipitate with I2 and NaOH. . (b) The steady decrease in the atomic and ionic radii (having the same charge) with increase in atomic number as we move across the series from lanthanum to lutetium is known as lanthanoid contraction. OR (a) Zn – Hg (i) CH3—C—CH3 ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ¾® CH3—CH2—CH3 + H2O conc. because of higher –ve I effect of F.

Therefore. poisonous gases on charcoal. Hence. NH2 2. e.6/Dacron/Glyptal. It is then decomposed to give pure metal.312 Xam idea Chemistry—XII SET–II CH3 1. (i) XeF6 F F (ii) H2S2O7 O O S S F Xe F F O OH F O O OH 18. the formula of the compound = PQ. Such colloids are known as associated colloids or micelles. (iii) Adsorption: The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than in the bulk of a solid or liquid is termed adsorption. water vapours on silica gel. metal is converted into its volatile compound and collected elsewhere. LiCl crystals become pink. 19.. sols of gum. 22. (a) Excess of lithium leads to metal excess defect. gelatin. (ii) Lyophilic sol: Lyophilic sols are those sols in which the particles of dispersed phase have great affinity for the dispersion medium. 7.g. 4.g. Lithium atoms lose electrons to form Li+ ions. 2-Bromo-4-chloropentane. they are soluble in water. (b) Number of P atoms per unit cell = 1 (at the body centre) ´ 1 = 1 1 Number of Q atoms per unit cell = 8 (at the corners) ´ = 1 8 Hence.. (ii) Vapour phase refining: In this. These electrons diffuse into the crystal and form F-centres. e. 9. (i) Associated colloids: There are certain substances which at low concentrations behave as normal strong electrolytes. CCl2F2/Freon. starch.. (i) Zone refining: Zone refining is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state of metal. Nylon-6. H PO + H O (i) C6H5N+2 Cl– ¾ ¾3¾ 2¾ ¾2¾ ¾® C6H6 + N2 + H3PO3 + HCl . e. 8. etc.g. but at higher concentrations exhibit colloidal behaviour due to the formation of aggregates. Alcohols can form H-bonds with water and break the H-bonds already existing between water molecules. 5. soaps and detergents. 14. Peptide linkage.

TiO2 etc. cellulose. Glucose and galactose. Homopolymer. 18. 5. 8. (i) Macromolecular sol: Macromolecules in suitable solvents form solutions in which the size of the macromolecules may be in colloidal range. (b) p-type semiconductor. e. (iii) This is because Bi—H bond is the weakest among the hydrides of group 15. 19. Due to small size and high electronegativity oxygen exists as diatomic (O2 ) molecules. Whereas. (ii) Due to the ease with which it liberates atoms of nascent oxygen. (i) N2 O5 (ii) XeF2 F O N O O O Xe N O F Linear 13. sulphur because of its bigger size and lower electronegativity. it acts as a powerful oxidising agent. has a much greater tendency for catenation than oxygen and lower tendency for pp .g.Examination Papers 313 NH2 NH2 Br2(aq) (ii) Br Br Br Br + 4NaOH (iii) CH3—C—NH2 ¾ ¾ 2¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3—NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O || O 27. 6.. nylon. 2.4-Dichloro-2-methylbenzene. 5-Dichlorotoluene/1. from the bauxite ore and thus alumina is obtained. H2C—HC—CH2 | NH2 12. Fe 2 O3 . SET–III 1. therefore. (i) Oxygen forms pp . 2. .pp multiple bonds.pp multiple bonds.starch. its basicity is two. Bauxite (Al2O3. Tyndall effect/Illumination of the path of light. Leaching is significant as it helps in removing the impurities like SiO2 . As two P—OH bonds are present in the molecule. (a) A cationic vacancy is generated.2H2O). 3. etc.

(ii) Lower value of bond dissociation enthalpy of F2 is due to the strong repulsion between the non-bonding electrons of F atoms in the small sized F2 molecule.g.. 27. (i) Nitrogen does not have d-orbitals in its valence shell to expand its covalence beyond four. milk is an emulsion of fat in water. That is why it does not form pentahalide. HNO 0°C 2 (i) CH3 CH2 NH2 ¾ ¾ ¾¾ ® CH3 CH2 OH (ii) O O S—Cl + H—N—C2H5 S—N—C2H5 + HCl O O H H O (iii) N—H H O CH3—C—Cl Base N—C—CH3 H zzz . Example. (iii) Because of resonance.314 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Peptisation: The process of conversion of a freshly prepared precipitate into a colloidal solution by shaking it with dispersion medium in the presence of a suitable electrolyte is called peptisation. e. (iii) Emulsion: These are the colloidal systems in which both the dispersion medium and the dispersion phase are liquid. freshly prepared precipitate of Fe(OH)3 is peptised by FeCl3. 21.

Delhi–2013. .NH . Write the structure of 3-hydroxybutanal. 14. Which group of solids is electrical conductors. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH3— CH — CH—CH3 | | CH3 Cl 5. 4. How much time will it take to reduce the initial 1 concentration of the reactant to th of its initial value? 10 12. Give one example of each type of sol.6-trinitrophenol 6. 2.(CH2 ) 6 . Write the names of monomers of the polymer —[ NH . phenol.C. 7. as well as malleables and ductiles? 2. (i) Why is an increase in temperature observed on mixing chloroform and acetone? (ii) Why does sodium chloride solution freeze at a lower temperature than water? 11.CBSE Examination Papers Foreign–2013 SET–I Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 70 General Instructions: Same as CBSE Examination Paper. Why is methylamine more basic than aniline? 8. Name the method used for refining of germanium metal.C]-n || || O O 9. Calculate the solubility of methane in benzene at 298 K under 760 mm Hg. 10.(CH2 ) 4 . Measurement of which colligative property is preferred for determination of molar mass of biomolecules? 3. How can you separate alumina (Al2O3) from silica present in bauxite ore? Write the chemical equations for the reactions involved. Write two differences between lyophobic and lyophilic sols. (a) What happens when a freshly precipitated Fe(OH)3 is shaken with water containing a small quantity of FeCl3? (b) Why is a finely divided substance more effective as an adsorbent? 13.4.27 ×105 mm Hg. Arrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their acid strengths: 4-nitrophenol. 1. The rate constant for a first order reaction is 60 s–1. Henry’s law constant (kH) for the solution of methane in benzene at 298 K is 4.

what is the nature of the cubic unit cell? 20. AsH3. (iii) O3 is a powerful oxidising agent.316 Xam idea Chemistry—XII OR (a) What are the constituents of ‘copper matte’? (b) What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process? 15. 16. If its density is 2. OR Complete the following equations: (i) PC13 + H2O ¾ ¾ ¾® heat (iii) NaN3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® (ii) XeF2 + PF5 ¾ ¾ ¾® . Nylon-6. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) N2O5 (ii) H3PO2 (iii) XeF6 22. An element with molar mass 27 g mol–1 forms a cubic unit cell with edge length 4. Arrange the following in the order of property indicated for each set: (a) HF. the variation in the concentration ln [R] vs.7 g cm–3. Neoprene 19. Account for the following: (i) White phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus. HBr. (ii) SnCl4 is more covalent than SnCl2. Polythene (b) PVC. Write the reactions involved when D-glucose is treated with the following reagents: (a) HCN (b) Br2-water 17.05 × 10–8 cm. Buna-S. (a) What type of bonding helps in stabilising the a-helix structure of proteins? (b) What is the structural difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide? 18. time t plot is given as In [R] t(s) For this reaction (i) what is the order of the reaction? (ii) what is the slope of the curve? (iii) what is the unit of rate constant ‘k’? 21. Arrange the following polymers in increasing order of their intermolecular forces: (a) Nylon-6. SbH3. PH3. HCl. Hl — increasing acid strength. BiH3 — increasing reducing power. For a chemical reaction R ® P.6. (b) NH3.

5 × 10–4 S cm–1? OR Calculate emf and DG º for the following cell at 298 K: Mg(s) | Mg2+(10–3 M) | | Cu2+(10–4 M) | Cu(s) Given E o Mg 2+ Mg = – 2.34 V . answer the following questions: (i) Write the values shown by Mr. Amit requests Naresh to stop this practice and takes him to a Yoga centre. Amit. (b) The resistance of a conductivity cell containing 10–3 M KCl solution at 25ºC is 1500 W. C2H5 H C2H5 Y Y CH3 C2H5 H X (B) Y H Y Y CH3 (A) + (B) CH3 (A) This can result in giving compound (A) or (B) or both.36 V and E o (1 F = 96500 C mol–1) Cu 2+ Cu = + 0. Mr. After reading the above passage. Consider the three types of replacement of group X by group Y as shown here. Naresh is now a happy and relaxed man.Examination Papers 317 23. his friend. (a) Explain the mechanism of the following reaction: + H 2CH3CH2OH ¾ ¾¾ ® CH3CH2—O—CH2CH3 + H2O 413 K (b) Name the reagent used in the oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid. Mention one application of Kohlrausch’s law. 26. Mr. With regular Yoga sessions. (a) Write the IUPAC name of the complex [CoBr2(en)2]+. Mr. (b) What type of isomerism is shown by the complex [Co(NH3 ) 5 SO4 ]Br? (c) Why is CO a stronger ligand than NH3 in complexes? 24. (ii) Which class of drugs is used in sleeping pills? (iii) Why is it not advisable to take sleeping pills without consultation with the doctor? 28. Amit. What is the process called if (i) (A) is the only compound obtained? (ii) (B) is the only compound obtained? (iii) (A) and (B) are formed in equal proportions? 25. Mr. He is stressed due to his hectic schedule. comes to know that he has started taking sleeping pills without consulting the doctor. What is the cell constant if conductivity of 10–3 M KCl solution at 25°C is 1. (a) State Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions. How will you convert the following: (i) Aniline to chlorobenzene (ii) Ethanoic acid to methanamine (iii) Benzene diazonium chloride to phenol 27. Naresh works in a multi-national company.

(v) Cr2+ is a very good reducing agent. Ethylamine is soluble in water whereas aniline is almost insoluble. Assign reasons for the following: (i) In the series Sc (Z = 21) to Zn (Z = 30). OR Describe the preparation of KMnO4 from pyrolusite ore (MnO2). Write the structure of 4-methyl pent-3-en-2-one. How does the acidified permanganate solution react with the following: (i) Fe2+ ions (ii) Oxalic acid (C2 O4 H2 ) Write the ionic equations for the reactions involved. KOH (iii) 2H— C— H ¾ ¾ ¾¾¾ ¾®? || O O H2NCONHNH2 (iv) – + COO Na (v) NaOH. (ii) (CH3)3C—CHO does not undergo aldol condensation. (iii) Transition metals show variable oxidation states. Why is glass considered a supercooled liquid? 2. Why? 4. . the enthalpy of atomisation of Zn is the lowest. (b) Give a simple chemical test to distinguish between (i) Acetophenone and Benzophenone (ii) Benzaldehyde and Ethanal OR Write the structures of products of the following reactions: O (i) C—Cl + H2 Pd/BaSO4 ? HCN (ii) CH3— C— H ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾®? || O Conc. (iii) Carboxylic acids are higher boiling liquids than alcohols. 30. CaO D ? SET–II Questions Uncommon to Set-I 1.34 V).318 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 29. (a) Give reasons for the following: (i) Ethanal is more reactive than acetone towards nucleophilic addition reaction. (ii) Zr and Hf have almost identical radii. (iv) The Eº M 2+ / M value for copper is positive (+ 0.

What is the two-dimensional coordination number of a molecule in a square close-packed layer? 2. (a) Write the formulae for the following coordination compounds: (i) Tetraammineaquachloridocobalt (III) chloride (ii) Potassiumtetracyanonickelate (II) (b) Write the hybridisation of the complex [NiCl4]2–. Write the names of monomers of the following polymer: ]n —C— —OCH ] 2—CH2—O—C— O O 9. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: Cl NO2 NO2 3. What is special about the following terms: (i) Kraft Temperature (ii) Sorption 22. On what principle is chromatography based? 8.Examination Papers 319 6. Write the names of monomers of the following polymer: —[ C— (CH2 ) 5 — N]-n || | O H 4. (Atomic number of Ni = 28) 27. Why are diazonium salts of aromatic amines more stable than those of aliphatic amines? . Write the reactions involved when D-glucose is treated with the following reagents: (i) HI (ii) H2N—OH 16. How are the following conversions carried out: (i) Aniline to fluorobenzene (ii) Benzene diazonium chloride to benzene (iii) Methyl chloride to ethylamine SET–III Questions Uncommon to Set-I and II 1. Write the IUPAC name of the following compound: CH2 — CH — CH2 — CH — CH2 — Cl | CH3 7. Draw the structures of the following molecules: (i) PCl5 (ii) H4P2O7 (iii) ClF3 25. What type of deviation is shown by a mixture of ethanol and acetone? What type of azeotrope is formed by mixing ethanol and acetone? 14.

(a) What type of isomerism is shown by each of the following complexes: (i) [Pt(NH3 ) 2 Cl 2 ] (ii) [Co(NH3 ) 5 (NO2 )]Cl 2 (b) Give an example of the role of coordination compounds in biological systems. 16. Write the dispersed phase and dispersion medium of the following colloids: (i) Cheese (ii) Fog 21. 23. Write the structural difference between DNA and RNA. Draw the structures of the following: (i) Solid PCl5 (iii) XeO3 (ii) H2S2O8 26. which one will have a higher boiling point and why? 14. 9.1 molal solutions of glucose and of potassium chloride. Write the structural formula of 2-phenyl ethanoic acid? 8. Name the method used for the refining of Titanium metal.320 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 7. How are the following conversions carried out: (i) Aniline to iodobenzene (ii) Ethyl nitrile to ethyl amide (iii) Benzene diazonium chloride to benzonitrile zzz . Out of two 0.

H3 C ¾ C H ¾ CH2 ¾ C ¾ H 7. Metallic solids. Examples: sols of gold. Fe(OH) 3 . This gives rise to an increase in temperature. 9. as [ R ] = t = log k [R ] 10 [R ]0 2. 27 ´ 10 mm Hg Mole fraction of methane in benzene. [R ]0 [R ]0 2. rather they hate dispersion medium. 13. Hexamethylenediamine [H2 N — (CH2 ) 6 — NH2 ] and adipic acid [HOOC — (CH2 ) 4 — COOH] .2 s \ [R ]0 k 60 60 10 10. phenol < 4-nitrophenol < 2.78 ´ 10 -3 5 kH 4. the chloroform and acetone molecules. 303 2. As 2 O3 etc. greater is the adsorption. they start forming hydrogen bonds which are stronger bonds resulting in the release of energy.78 × 10–3.27 ´ 105 mm Hg p = 760 mm Hg According to Henry’s law. silver. (i) Lyophobic sols: Particles of dispersed phase have no affinity for dispersion medium. 2-Chloro-3-methylbutane. k H = 4. 8. 2 (i) The bonds between chloroform molecules and molecules of acetone are dipole–dipole interactions but on mixing. 4. They are not easily prepared and need stabilizing agents for their preservation. 5. Zone refining method. Fe(OH)3 + FeCl3 ¾ ¾ ¾® [Fe(OH)3Fe]3+ + 3Cl– (b) Powdered substances have greater surface area as compared to their crystalline forms. They are also called extrinsic colloids. Methylamine is more basic than aniline due to resonance in aniline and lower stability of aniline ions. Osmotic pressure.838 ´ 10 . 3. As a result.6-trinitrophenol OH O ½ ½½ 6. Here.Examination Papers 321 Solutions 1. .303 11. 12. 303 t = log = ´ log 10 = ´ 1 = 3. 2. (ii) When a non-volatile solute is dissolved in a solvent. the vapour pressure decreases. They are irreversible. 303 2.4. x CH 4 = 1. p = k H x CH 4 p 760 mm Hg \ x CH 4 = = = 1. Greater the surface area. the solvent freezes at a lower temperature. (a) It is converted into colloidal state.

gelatin. 15. etc. Al 2 O3 ( s) + 2NaOH( aq) + 3H2 O ¾ ¾ ¾® 2Na[Al(OH) 4 ]( aq) The aluminate in solution is neutralised by passing CO2 gas and hydrated Al2O3 is precipitated. (b) In froth floatation process. Al2O3 is leached out as sodium aluminate (and SiO2 too as sodium silicate) leaving impurities behind. starch. the role of the depressant is to prevent certain type of particles from forming the froth with the air bubbles. . They are self-stabilized because of strong attractive forces operating between the suspended particles and the dispersion medium. xH2 O + 2NaHCO3 ( aq) The sodium silicate remains in the solution and hydrated alumina is filtered. They are reversible in nature. (a) HCN CHO | (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH D-Glucose (b) Br2-water CHO | (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH D-Glucose CN CH OH | HCN ¾ ¾ ¾¾® (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH Glucose cyanohydrin COOH | Br water ¾ ¾ 2¾ ¾¾® (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH Gluconic acid 17. (a) Hydrogen bonds (intermolecular) between the C—O of one amino acid residue and N—H of the fourth amino acid residue in the chain give stability to the structure.322 Xam idea Chemistry—XII (ii) Lyophilic sols: Particles of dispersed phase have great affinity for the dispersion medium. (a) HF < HCl < HBr < HI. (b) A nucleoside is formed of pyrimidine or purine base connected to C-1 of sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) by a b-linkage. At this stage. (b) NH3 < PH3 < AsH3 < SbH3 < BiH3. the solution is seeded with freshly prepared samples of hydrated Al2O3 which induces the precipitation. Leaching of aluminium from bauxite: Finely powdered bauxite ore is digested with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide at 473–523 K and 35–36 bar pressure. 2Na [Al(OH) 4 ]( aq) + CO2 ( g) ¾ ¾ ¾® Al 2 O3 . dried and heated to get back pure Al2O3. xH2 O( s) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® Al 2 O3 ( s) + xH2 O( g) OR (a) Cu2S and FeS. Examples: gums. 1470 K Al 2 O3 . 14. 16. albumin. They are also known as intrinsic colloids.

(i) N2O5 (ii) H3PO2 O N O F O O O (iii) XeF6 F N O P H OH H F Xe F F F . (b) Neoprene < PVC < Nylon-6. 20. a pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base. d = Z ´ M a3 ´ NA or Z = d ´ a3 ´ NA M . For this reaction (i) First order (ii) – k (rate constant) (iii) time–1 (s–1) 21.99 = 4 Thus.7 g cm -3 ´ ( 4. O – O —P—O––H 2C 5' – O O 4' H H 3' OH Base H1' 2' H OH 18. we get Z = 2.Examination Papers 323 HO––H 2C 5' O 4' H1' H 3' H Base 2' H OH OH A nucleotide contains all the three basic components of nucleic acids.. (a) Buna-S < Polythene < Nylon 6.05 ´ 10 -8 cm) 3 ´ 6. 19. i.(i) Here. there are 4 atoms of the element present per unit cell. M = 27 g mol -1 a = 4.022 ´ 10 23 mol -1 Substituting these values in expression (i)...6.05 ´ 10 -8 cm d = 2.e.7 g cm -3 NA = 6. the cubic unit cell must be face-centred. Density.022 ´ 10 23 mol -1 27 g mol -1 Z = 3. a phosphoric acid group. Hence.

(a) Dibromobis (ethane-1. (i) Retention (ii) Inversion (iii) Racemisation ·· Å 25. 24. inturn. it acts as a powerful oxidising agent. (ii) The oxidation states of central atom Sn in SnCl4 and SnCl2 are +4 and +2 respectively. (i) This is due to polymeric structure of red phosphorus or angular strain in P4 molecule of white phosphorus where the angle is only 60°.324 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 22. 2-diamine) cobalt (b) Ionisation isomerism. (a) CH3 ¾ CH2 ¾ O H + H ·· CH3—CH2—O + H ½· ¾® CH3 — CH2 ¾ O ·¾ H Å CH3—CH2—O H CH3—CH2—O—CH2—CH3 + H2O H H H + CH3—CH2—O—CH2—CH3 CH3—CH2—O—CH2—CH3 + H H (b) Tollens’ reagent. (iii) Due to the ease with which it liberates atoms of nascent oxygen. (c) Because in case of CO back bonding takes place in which the central metal uses its filled d orbital with empty anti-bonding p* molecular orbital of CO. O3 ¾¾ ¾® O2 + O (nascent oxygen) OR (i) PCl3 + 3H2O ¾ ¾ ¾® H3PO3 + 3HCl (ii) XeF2 + PF5 ¾ ¾ ¾® [XeF] + [PF6 ] heat (iii) 2NaN3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® 2Na + 3N2 23. 26. increase the covalent character of bond formed between the central atom and the other atoms. +4 state of Sn has higher polarising power which. (i) Aniline to chlorobenzene + NH2 – Cu2Cl2/HCl NaNO2/HCl 273-278 K Aniline Cl N2Cl Diazonium salt Chlorobenzene .

28.[ lo + Lom( HCl) . (ii) Tranquilizers. Applications of Kohlrausch’s Law: Calculation of molar conductivities of weak electrolyte at infinite dilution: For example.are the limiting molar conductivities of cations and anions. respectively. molar conductivity of acetic acid (weak acid) at infinite dilution can be obtained from the knowledge of molar conductivities at infinite dilution of strong electrolytes like HCl.5 ´ 10 -4 S cm -1 . CH3COONa and NaCl as illustrated below.Lom(NaCl) 1 × Cell constant Resistance ( R) k = 1. helpful. In general. if an electrolyte on dissociation gives n + cations and n – anions then its limiting molar conductivity is given by Lom = n + lo+ + n – lo– Here. a doctor should always be consulted before taking the medicine.5 ´ 10 -4 ´ 1500 = 0. Therefore. (iii) Most of the drugs taken in doses higher than recommended may cause harmful effects and act as poison. Lom ( CH 3 COOH) = lo CH 3 COO- = [ lo CH 3 COO- i.225 cm -1 Na + + lo Cl – ] .5 ´ 10 -4 = ´ Cell constant 1500 \ Cell constant = 1. R = 1500 ohm 1 1. Phenol (i) Caring nature. Lom(CH 3 COOH) (b) Conductivity (k) = = Lom(CH + lo H+ + lo 3 COONa) Na + ] + [ lo H+ + l Cl – ] .e..Examination Papers 325 (ii) Ethanoic acid to methanamine NH D Br / KOH (Hoffmann bromamide reaction) 3 CH3 COOH ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 CONH2 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 2¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3 NH2 Ethanoic acid Ethanamide Methanamine (iii) Benzene diazonium chloride to phenol + – N2Cl OH boil + H2O + HCl + N2 Diazonium chloride 27. (a) Kohlrausch’s Law: It states that the limiting molar conductivity of an electrolyte can be represented as the sum of the individual contributions of the anion and cation of the electrolyte. lo+ and lo.

3 log 2 10 .326 Xam idea Chemistry—XII OR Cell reaction: Mg + Cu 2 + ¾ ¾ ¾® Mg 2 + + Cu.1) d-orbitals are available for bond formation as they have nearly same energy. 2Mn2+ + 5S2O82– + 8H2O ¾ ¾ ¾® 2MnO4– + 10SO42– + 16H+ Peroxodisulphate Permanganate . (i) In the formation of metallic bonds. no electrons from 3d-orbitals are involved in case of zinc. KMnO4 is prepared by oxidation of manganese (II) ion salt by peroxodisulphate. MnO2.67 V o DG ° = – nFE cell DG ° = – 2 × 96500 × 2. while in all other metals of the 3d series.34 .70 – 0. OR It is prepared by fusion of pyrolusite. This produces the dark green potassium manganate.36) - 0.02655 = 2. the enthalpy of atomisation of zinc is the lowest in the series.4 = 2. (ii) This is due to filling of 4f orbitals which have poor shielding effect (lanthanoid contraction). (iii) Transition elements show variable oxidation states because electrons in ns and ( n .23 × 102 kJ mol–1 29. K2MnO4 which disproportionates in a neutral or acidic solution to give purple permanganate. That is why. 2MnO2 + 4KOH + O2 ¾ ¾ ¾® K2MnO4 + 2H2O 3MnO42– + 4H+ ¾ ¾ ¾® 2MnO4– + MnO2 + 2H2O Commercially. electrons from the d-orbitals are always involved in the formation of metallic bonds. n = 2 o Nernst equation: E cell = E cell - \ [Mg 2 + ] 0. (v) Cr2+ is a stronger reducing agent because after the loss of one electron Cr2+ becomes Cr3+ which has more stable t 23g (half-filled) configuration in a medium like water.71 = – 5.0591 log 2 [Cu 2 + ] E cell = 0.23 × 105 J mol–1 = – 5.0591 10 . it is prepared by alkaline oxidative fusion of MnO2 followed by the electrolytic oxidation of manganate (VI). Fused with KOH MnO2 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® oxidised with air or KNO3 MnO24 – Electrolytic oxidation ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ ¾® in alkaline solution MnO24 – Manganate ion MnO–4 Permanganate In the laboratory.( . (iv) This is because the sum of enthalpies of sublimation and ionisation is not balanced by hydration enthalpy.2. with KOH in the presence of an oxidising agent like KNO3.

KOH (iii) 2H— C— H ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3 OH + || Methanol O HCOOK Potassium methanoate . which is not present in (CH3)3C—CHO. – + CH3CHO + 3I2 + 3NaOH ¾ ¾ ¾® HCOO Na + CHI3 ¯ + 3NaI + 3H2O Iodoform (Yellow ppt. (b) (i) Acetophenone and benzophenone: Acetophenone responds to iodoform test and gives a yellow precipitate on addition of NaOH and I2. The hydrogen bonds do not break completely even in the vapour phase. but benzophenone does not. hydrogen at carbon adjacent to carbonyl carbon) should be available. COCH3 COONa I2 /NaOH + 3NaOI + CHI3 ¯ + 2NaOH Heat Yellow ppt. at least one a-hydrogen (i. (Iodoform) Sodium Benzoate (ii) Benzaldehyde and Ethanal Ethanal reacts with NaOI (I2/NaOH) to form yellow precipitate of iodoform while benzaldehyde does not give this test.Examination Papers 327 (i) MnO-4 + 8H+ + 5Fe 2 + ¾¾ ¾® Mn 2 + + 4H2 O + 5Fe 3 + – (ii) 2MnO-4 + 16H + COO +5 ½ COO– ¾¾ ¾® 2Mn 2 + + 8H2 O + 10CO2 30. (ii) This is because for aldol condensation to take place. the presence of two relatively large substituents in ketones hinders the approach of nucleophile to carbonyl carbon than in aldehydes having only one such substituent. (a) (i) This is due to steric and electronic reasons. Sterically.e.) OR O (i) C—Cl + H2 Pd/BaSO4 HCN (ii) CH3— C— H ¾ ¾ ¾¾® || O CHO OH ½ CH3 — C — CN ½ H Acetaldehyde cyanohydrin Conc.. (iii) This is due to more extensive association of carboxylic acid molecules through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Electronically two alkyl groups reduce the positivity of the carbonyl carbon more effectively in ketones than in aldehydes.

7. C H3 ¾ C ¾ C H — ½½ ½ O CH3 6. 2. Positive deviation. (ii) Sorption is the process in which adsorption and absorption take place simultaneously. Glass is an amorphous solid and has a tendency to flow. e. . D CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—CH2—CH3 n-Hexane NH 2 OH (i) Kraft temperature is the minimum temperature above which the formation of micelles takes place. — C H¾ C H3 4. 8. dyeing of cotton fibres by azo dyes.328 Xam idea Chemistry—XII O NNHCONH2 H2NCONHNH2 (iv) – + COO Na (v) + H2O NaOH. Ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid 9. 5-Chloro-4-methyl pent-1-ene. CHO | (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CHO | (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH CH — N — OH | ¾¾¾¾ ¾® (CHOH) 4 | CH2 OH HI. (a) (ii) 16. Due to hydrogen bonding ability of ethylamine. though very slowly. Is is based on the principle that different components of a mixture are differently adsorbed on an adsorbent.. 14. CaO D + Na2CO3 SET–II (Questions Uncommon to Set–I) 1. Minimum boiling azeotropes.g.

Examination Papers 329 22. KCN LiAlH 4 CH3—Cl ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾¾® CH3—CN ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾® CH3CH2NH2 SET–III 1. The sugar present in DNA is 2-deoxy D-(–) ribose. 2. 27.1 M KCl solution will have higher boiling point as KCl dissociates in the solution.4-dinitrobenzene. 0. The diazonium salts of aromatic amines are more stable than those of aliphatic amines due to dispersal of the positive charge on the benzene ring. Vapour phase refining. 4. (i) Aniline to fluorobenzene + – N2Cl NH2 F HBF4 D NaNO2/HCl 0–5°C + BF3 + NaCl + N2 (ii) Benzene diazonium chloride to benzene + N2Cl – + H3PO2 + H2O + N2 + H3PO3 + HCl Benzene diazonium chloride Benzene (iii) Methyl chloride to ethylamine alc. OH 7. 1-chloro 2. 9. (a) (i) [Co(NH3 ) 4 (H2 O)Cl]Cl 2 (ii) K 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ] (b) sp3 hybridisation. The sugar present in RNA is D-(–)-ribose. 1. 4. DNA has double stranded a-helix structure. O 8. 3. RNA has single a-helix structure. Caprolactam. (i) PCl5 Cl Cl (ii) H4P2O7 O O P P P Cl Cl (iii) ClF3 Cl O HO Cl F OH OH F OH F 25. . Structural difference between DNA and RNA: DNA RNA 1. 2. 2. 14.

the antipernicious anaemia factor. Dispersed phase (i) Cheese (ii) Fog Dispersion medium Liquid Solid Liquid Gas 21. Xe O O O O O HO O O (i) Aniline to iodobenzene + – N2Cl NH2 NaNO2/HCl 273-278 K I +KI Aniline Iodobenzene (ii) Ethyl nitrile to ethyl amide CH3—CN H2O/H + CH3—COOH NH3. is a complex of cobalt.330 Xam idea Chemistry—XII 16. (a) (i) Geometrical isomerism (ii) Linkage isomerism. (i) Solid PCl5 In solid state PCl5 exist as [PCl4]+ [PCl6]– in which the cation. D CH3CONH2 (iii) Benzene diazonium chloride to benzonitrile + – N2Cl CN KCN. CuCN zzz . – + Cl Cl Cl Cl P P Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl (ii) H2S2O8 (iii) XeO3 O O S S OH 26. 23. [PCl4]+ is tetrahedral and the anion. [PCl6]– is octahedral. (b) Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine).