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What is Digestion?

• Digestion is a catabolic process in which large
complex molecules (carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins, nucleic acids) are broken down into
simpler monomers (monosaccharides, glycerol
and fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides)
which can be absorbed by the body.

Breakdown of ingested food
Absorption of nutrients into the blood
Production of cellular energy (ATP)
Constructive and degradative cellular activities
Types of Digestion

no chemical
change in the
food is broken down
into smaller pieces,
mixed with digestive
juices secreted in the
there is a
chemical change
in the food.
hydrolysis reactions
carried out by
enzymes contained
within the digestive
Proses Pencernaan
Ingestion Propulsion
Absorption Defecation
Six Processes of Digestion
1. Ingestion – getting food into the mouth
2. Propulsion – moving foods from one region of
the digestive system to another
3. Mechanical digestion
– Mixing of food in the mouth by the tongue
– Churning of food in the stomach
– Segmentation in the small intestine

4. Chemical Digestion
– Enzymes break down food molecules into their
building blocks
– Each major food group uses different enzymes
• Carbohydrates are broken to simple sugars
• Proteins are broken to amino acids
• Fats are broken to fatty acids and alcohols
5. Absorption
– End products of digestion are absorbed in the
blood or lymph
– Food must enter mucosal cells and then into
blood or lymph capillaries
6. Defecation
– Elimination of indigestible substances as feces

Proses Pencernaan

Division of digestive
system organs
Alimentary canal
continuous coiled
hollow tube that runs
from the mouth to
the anus
Accessory organ
secrete digestive
juices by ducts
(exocrine glands) into
the alimentary canal.
Alimentary Canal Organs
Small intestine
Large intestine
Accessory Digestive Organs
Salivary glands
Gall Bladder
Mouth Oral Cavity (Ac)
• Mastication (chewing)
of food
• Mixing masticated food
with saliva
• Initiation of swallowing
by the tongue
• Allowing for the sense
of taste

Salivary Glands (Ac)
Salivary Glands:
• Saliva-producing glands
– Parotid glands – located anterior to ears
– Submandibular glands
– Sublingual glands
• Mixture of mucus and serous fluids
• Helps to form a food bolus
• Contains salivary amylase to begin starch digestion
• Dissolves chemicals so they can be tasted
Teeth (Ac)
• The role is to masticate (chew)
• Humans have two sets of teeth
– Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth
– 20 teeth are fully formed by age
• Permanent teeth
– Replace deciduous teeth
beginning between the ages of 6
to 12
– A full set is 32 teeth, but some
people do not have wisdom
• Types of teeth:
Incisors - cutting
Canines - tearing
Premolars – shearing,
Molars - grinding

Tooth Structure
• Crown – exposed part
– Outer enamel
– Dentin
– Pulp cavity
• Neck
– Region in contact with the
– Connects crown to root
• Root
– Periodontal membrane
attached to the bone
– Root canal carrying blood
vessels and nerves

Pharynx (Al)
• Serves as a passageway for
air and food
• Food is propelled to the
esophagus by two muscle
– Longitudinal inner layer
– Circular outer layer
• Food movement is by
alternating contractions of
the muscle layers
Esophagus (Al)
• Runs from pharynx to stomach through the
• Conducts food by peristalsis
(slow rhythmic squeezing)
• Passageway for food only (respiratory system
branches off after the pharynx)

Liver and Gall Bladder (Accessory Organs)
• Largest gland in the body
• Composition
– Bile salts
– Bile pigment (mostly bilirubin
from the breakdown of
– Cholesterol
– Phospholipids
– Electrolytes
• Stores bile from the liver by
way of the cystic duct
• Bile is introduced into the
duodenum in the presence of
fatty food
• Gallstones can cause blockages

Stomach (Al)
• Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity
• Food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter
• Regions of the stomach
– Cardiac region – near the heart
– Fundus
– Body
– Pylorus – funnel-shaped terminal end
• Food empties into the small intestine at the pyloric
• Rugae – internal folds of the mucosa
• External regions
– Lesser curvature
– Greater curvature

Function of Stomach
• Acts as a storage tank
for food
• Site of food breakdown
• Chemical breakdown of
protein begins
• Delivers chyme
(processed food) to the
small intestine

Pancreas (Ac)
• Produces a wide spectrum of digestive
enzymes that break down all categories of
• Enzymes are secreted into the duodenum
• Alkaline fluid introduced with enzymes
neutralizes acidic chyme
• Endocrine products of pancreas
– Insulin
– Glucagon

Large Intestine (Al)
• Larger in diameter, but shorter
than the small intestine
• Frames the internal abdomen
• Cecum – saclike first part of
the large intestine
• Appendix
– Accumulation of lymphatic
tissue that sometimes becomes
inflamed (appendicitis)
– Hangs from the cecum
• Colon
– Ascending
– Transverse
– Descending
– S-shaped sigmoidal
• Rectum
• Anus – external body opening

Functions of Large Intestine
• Absorption of water
• Eliminates indigestible food from the body as feces
• Does not participate in digestion or absorption of
digested food
• Goblet cells produce mucus to act as a lubricant
• Site of production of Vitamin K by symbiotic bacteria
which live off the remains of food that have not been
digested or absorbed in the small intestine. These
bacteria produce over 50% of fecal matter.
Small Intestine (Al)
• The body’s major digestive organ all digestion of food
is completed in this organ
• Site of nutrient absorption into the blood
• Duodenum (25cm = 10 inches) “12 finger widths
– Attached to the stomach
– Curves around the head of the pancreas
– Where bile and pancreatic juices enter the alimentary
• Jejunum (2.5m = 8 feet) “empty”
– Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum
• Ileum (3.6m = 12 feet) “twisted”
– Extends from jejunum to large intestine

Small Intestine (Internal Structure)
• Villi are small fingerlike
structures formed by the
• Give the small intestine more
surface area for absorption
• Fold in the intestine are called
circular folds or plicae
• Deep folds of the mucosa and
• Do not disappear when filled
with food
• The submucosa has Peyer’s
patches (collections of
lymphatic tissue)

Villi Internal Structure and Function
• Absorptive cells are found on the
surface epithelium which are
simple columnar microvilliated
• Blood capillaries are below the
surface epithelium and this is
where monosaccharides, amino
acids, and nucleic acids enter into
the blood stream and are taken
to the liver for processing
• Lacteals (specialized lymphatic
capillaries) where lipids are
absorbed and eventually re-enter
the blood stream to be taken to
the liver for processing.

• Substance in food that is used by the body to
promote normal growth ,maintenance and
• Divide into 6 categories
major nutrient:carbohydrate,lipids,water and
minor nutrient:vitamin and mineral
• Process of breaking down ingested food into
small molecule
• For example:
-In mouth,salivary amylase convert starch to
maltose,maltotriose and a-dextrin
-In stomach,pepsin convert protein to peptide
-Lingual and gastric lipases convert
triglycerides into fatty acid,diglycerides and
• Salivary amylase keep continue in stomach
but then it was stop by acidic pH. So, just a
few starches are broken down
• Starches that not already broken down into
maltose,maltotriose and a-dextrins are
cleaved by pancreatic amylase
• Although pancreatic amylase acts both on
glycogen and starches but it doesn’t effect
• After amylase split starch into small
fragment,a brush-border enzyme called a-
dextrinase acts on the resulting a-
dextrins,clipping off one glucose unit at a time
• Ingested molecules of sucrose,lactose and
maltose (disaccharides)-are not acted on until
they reach small intestine
• Sucrase breaks sucrose into molecule of
glucose and fructose
• Lactase digest lactose into molecule of glucose
and galactose
• Maltase split maltose and maltotriose into
two or tree molecules of glucose,respectively
• Digestion of carbohydrate ends with
production of monosaccharides,which the
digestive system is able to absorb
• Protein are fragmented into peptide by action of
• Enzyme in pancreatic juice-
trypsin,chymotrypsin,carboxypeptidase and
elastase-continue to break down protein into
• Although all these enzyme convert whole protein
into peptide,their action differ somewhere b’coz
each split peptide bonds between different
amino acid
• Trypsin,chymotrypsin and elastase all cleave
the peptide bond between a specific amino
acid and its neighbor
• Carboxypeptidase splits off the amino acid at
the end of peptide
• Protein digestion is completed by two
peptidase in aminopeptidase and dipeptidase
• Aminopeptidase cleaves off amino acid at the
amino end of peptide
• Dipeptidase splits dipeptides into single
amino acid

• The most abundant lipids in diet are
triglycerides,consist of molecule of glycerol
bonded to three fatty acid molecule
• Enzyme that split triglycerides and
phospholipids are called lipase
• Three type of lipases that can participate in
lipid digestion are lingual lipase,gastric lipase
and pancreatic lipase
• Triglycerides are broken down by pancreatic
lipase into fatty acid and monoglycerides
• Large lipid globule containing triglyceride can
be digested in the small intestine,and it
undergo emulsification
• Emulsification-process in which large lipid
globule is broken down into several small lipid involve bile
• The small lipid globule formed from
emulsification provide a large surface area
that allow pancreatic juice to function more
• Pancreatic juice contain two
nucleases:ribonuclease which digest RNA and
deoxyribonuclease which digest DNA
• Result of the action of this two nuclease are
further digested by nucleosidases and
phosphatase into pentose,phosphates and
nitrogenous base
• These product are absorbed via active
Passage of digested nutrients from
gastrointestinal tract into the blood
or lymph
• The capacity of small intestine to absorb
monosaccharide is huge-an estimated 120
grams per hour
• As a result, all dietary carbohydrate that are
digested normally are absorbed, leaving only
indigestible cellulose and fiber in feces.
• Monosaccharides pass from the lumen
through the apical membrane via facilitated
diffusion or active transport.
-Fructose(found in fruit)-is transported via
facilitated diffusion
-Glucose and galactose are transported into
absorptive cells of the villi via secondary active
transport that is coupled to the active transport
of Na+
• Monosaccharide then move out of absorptive
cells through their basolateral surface via
facilitated diffusion and enter the capillaries of
the villi
• Protein is absorbed as amino acid via active
transport, mainly occur in deodenum and
• Half of the absorbed amino acid are present in
food and the other half come from the body
itself as protein in digestive juice and dead
cells that slough off the mucosal surface.
• 95-98% of the protein present in small
intestine is digested and absorbed.
• Different transporter carry different type of
amino acid
-some amino acid enter absorptive cell of the
villi via Na+ dependent secondary active
transport which is silmilar to the glucose
transporter and the other amino acid are
actively transported by themselves
• Amino acid move out of the absorptive cells
via diffusion and enter capillaries of the villus

• :both monosaccharides and amino acid are
transported in the blood to the liver by way of
hepatic portal system.
• All dietary lipid are absorbed via simple diffusion
• Because of emulsification and digestion;
triglycerides are mainly broken down into
monoglycerides and fatty acid, which can be
short-chain fatty acid or long-chain fatty acid
• Short-chain fatty acid are hydrophopic and small
in size. Thus, they can dissolve in the watery
instestinal chyme,pass through the absorptive
cells via simple diffusion
• Long-chain fatty acid are large and
hydrophobic and have difficulty being
suspended in the watery environment of the
intestinal chyme. So, bile salt help them to be
more soluble
• Bile salt surround the long-chain fatty acid and
forming tiny sphere called micelles.
• The micelles move from the interior of the
small intestinal lumen to the absorptive cell.
• At that point, long-chain fatty acid diffuse out
of the micelle into absorptive cells, leaving
micelles behind the chyme
• Electrolyte that are absorbed by the small
intestine come from gastrointestinal
secretions and some are part of ingested
foods and liquids
• Recall that electrolyte are compound that
separate into ions in water and conduct
• Sodium ion are actively transported out of
absorptive cells by basolateral sodium-
potassium pump after they have moved into
absorptive cells via diffusion and secondary
active transport.
• Negatively charge bicarbonate,chloride,iodide
and nitrate ion can passively follow Na+ or
actively transported
• Calcium ion also are absorbed actively in a
process stimulated by calcitriol
• Other electrolyte such as
iron,potassium,magnesium and phosphate
ions are absorbed via active transport
• Fat soluble vitamin A,D,E and K are included
with digested dietary lipid and absorbed via
simple diffusion
• Water-soluble vitamin such as B and C also
absorbed via simple diffusion. However B12
combine with intrinsic factor produced by the
stomach and combination is absorbed in the
ileum via an active transport mechanism
• the total volume of fluid that enter small intestine
each day about 9.3 liters-comes from ingestion of
liquid and from various gastrointestinal secretion
• The small intestine absorbs about 8.3 liters of
fluid; the remainder passes into the large
intestine, where most of the rest of it-about 0.9
• Only 0.1 liter of water is excreted in the feces
each day. Most is excreted via urinary sytem
• All water absorption in GI tract occur via osmosis
from the lumen of the intestine through
absorptive cells and into blood capillaries
• Because water can move across the intestinal
mucosa in both direction, the absorption of water
from small intestine depend on the absorption of
electrolyte and nutrient to maintain osmotic
balance with blood
• The absorbed electrolyte,monosaccharides and
amino acid establish a concentration gradient for
water that promote water absorption via osmosis
• Tindak balas kimia yang berlaku dalam sel hidup
yang membolehkan sel membesar dan membiak
dan mengekalkan struktur mereka.

• Dibahagikan kepada dua jenis :

1) Katabolisme : menghasilkan tenaga, seperti
pemecahan makanan dalam repirasi sel.

1) Anabolisme : memenggunakan tenaga untuk
membentuk komponen sel seperti protein dan asid
Laluan Metabolik
Metabolisma karbohidrat
• T’dpt 3 jenis kmpln utama karbohidrat iaitu :
a) Monosakarida – gula ringkas : glukosa
b) Disakarida – gula kompleks : maltosa
c) Polisakarida – gula kompleks y bsr : kanji,glikogen

• Laluan ini melibatkan pemecahan molekul-molekul karbohidrat di
dalam organ hati, kerana hati menyimpan glukos.

• Glukosa merupakan monosakarida yang paling penting dalam
metabolisme tubuh.

• Glukosa yang terkandung dalam nutrisi masuk ke dalam sistem
sirkulasi atau ke dalam darah untuk dipindah ke sel-sel tubuh yang
memerlukannya atau diubah pada hati menjadi molekul yang lain.

• Glukosa adalah sumber tenaga utama bagi sel-sel haiwan, dan
merupakan satu-satunya sumber tenaga bagi manusia.
•Lipid ialah sebatian organik yang
mengandungi karbon, hidrogen, dan
•Jenis utama lipid adlh lemak,
minyak, fosfolipid, dan steroid sprti
kolesterol,testosteron,estrogen dan
•Lemak & minyak adlh cnth lipid y
dtempatkan dlm kategori
trigliserida, y t’diri drp 1 gliserol dan
3 asid lemak.
• Protein adalah molekul-molekul y bsr &
• Monomer bgi protein adlh asid amino.
• Sel badan akn mengeluarkan asid amino daripada
darah dan menggunakannya untuk membina
protein, untuk kegunaan sendiri(enzymes,
membranes, muscle protein) dan untuk
• ATP akan t’bentuk jika glukosa dan lemak tidak
mencukupi atau jika kekurangan Asid amino.

• Asid nukleik merupakan
sejenis makromolekul
yang terdiri daripada
rantaian nukleotida.
Dalam biokimia molekul
ini mampu membawa
maklumat atau
membentuk struktur
dalam sel.
• Asid nukleik yang biasa termasuk asid deoksiribonukleik (DNA) dan asid ribonukleik
(RNA). Asid nukleik terdapat dalam semua benda hidup, kerana mereka terkandung
dalam segala sel. Asid nukleik juga terdapat di dalam virus.

• Metabolisme asid nukleik adalah proses yang mana nukleotida disintesis .
• Sintesis asid nukleik juga merupakan satu
mekanisme, anabolik umumnya melibatkan tindak balas
kimia fosfat, gula pentose, dan asas bernitrogen.
• Pemusnahan asid nukleik adalah prosedur katabolik umumnya melibatkan tindak
balas enzim.

Diet dan Pemakanan

Diet Seimbang
• Pengambilan makanan yang mengandungi
semua nutrien seperti protein,karbohidrat,
lemak, vitamin, garam mineral, dan air serta
pelawas dalam kuantiti yang diperlukan.

• kajian berkaitan dengan pengambilan makanan
untuk proses pertumbuhan ,pemulihan dan
pengawalan kesihatan.

Kumpulan Makanan
Fungsi Kesan berlebihan Kesan kekurangan
Karbohidrat Membekalkan tenaga utama
untuk keperluan badan
lebihan berat badan Marasmus(p’tumbuha
n t’bantut)
Protein membentuk dan membaiki
tisu, membentuk enzim,
antibodi, hormon, agen
lemak mningkat, paras
kalsium drh t’jejas
penghasilan antibodi
menurun & risiko
jangkitan meningkat.
Penyakit Kwasyiokor
Lemak membekalkan tenaga &
pengekalan suhu,
membekalkan asid lemak
perlu, penyerapan vitamin
larut lemak
lebihan berat badan Kekurangan berat
Garam Galian

• Dibahagikan kpd 2 kumpulan :
- Makronutrien (dp’lukan dlm Kuantiti bsr)
- Mikronutrien (dp’lukan dlm kuantiti kecil)


sumber fungsi Kesan
Kalsium susu, keju, ikan
bilis, bijirin
m’bina tlg & gigi yang kuat, mnolong pmbekuan drh,
dp’lukan untk pengecutan otot & pmindahan impuls
s, p’darahan

Magnesium Bijirin,syrn
Menjana enzim yang diperlukan untuk mengeluarkan
tenaga dalam tubuh. Diperlukan oleh tubuh dalam
pembentukan bahan genetik dan pertumbuhan

Otot lemah

kalium Susu, daging,
sayuran hijau
Pemindahan impuls saraf, pengecutan otot Ganguan dlm
sstm saraf
Fosforus Susu, daging,
bijirin, telur
M’bntk tulang & gigi yang kuat, menggiatkan enzim-
enzim yang diperlukan tubuh untuk menukarkan
makanan kepada tenaga.

Tulang rapuh,
kerosakan gigi.
Natrium Garam, daging,
telur, susu
Mngekalkan keseimbangan air dlm bdn, mngekalkan
tknn osmosis cecair dlm bdn.

Kekejangan otot


sumber Fungsi Kesan kekurangan
Iodin Udang, kerang,
makanan laut
M’bntk hormon
Goiter, kretinisme pd

Besi Hati, bayam, kacang,
telur kuning
M’bntk hemoglobin Anemia

Florin Air minuman, teh,
Mengukuhkan enamel
pd gigi
Karies gigi
• Kumpulan sebatian organik yang diperlukan dalam kuantiti yang kecil
untuk memelihara dan mengekalkan kesihatan.

• Dikelaskan kepada 2 kumpulan :

a) Larut lemak:
- tidak dapat dikumuh melalui air kencing tetapi disimpan dalam
- vitamin A, D, E dan K.

a) Larut air:
- tidak dapat disimpan dalam badan dan sebarang kuantiti
berlebihan akan larut dalam air dan dikumuhkan keluar melalui air
- Vitamin B kompleks dan vitamin C.

jenis sumber fungsi Kesan kekurangan
Vitamin C buah-buahan. memelihara tisu p’hubung, kshtn
kulit & pemulihan luka yang cepat,
mngkatkan ketahanan t’hdp
skurvi ( gusi
b’darah, kulit
lebam, sendi
Vitamin D Keju, mentega dan telur. m’bantu pnyerapan kalsium &
fosforus, m’bina tulang dan gigi
yang kuat
penyakit riket,
karies gigi
Vitamin E sayuran hijau,minyak
kelapa sawit.
memelihara kshtn sstm otot, saraf
& sstm p’edaran darah, bhn
p’oksidaan bgi asid lmk tepu
kemorosotan otot
& saraf
Vitamin K hati,bayam dan kubis. m’bantu dalam pembekuan darah b’darah secara
Vitamin A susu, tomato, lobak
Membina pigmen pada retina
mata untuk penglihatan jelas pada
waktu malam & memastikan
p’tumbuhan sel epitelium kulit
yang sihat.
rabun malam,
kulit tidak yang
• Merupakan 70% drp berat bdn manusia.
• Peranan :
a) Sbg pelarut
b) Medium tndk bls kimia dlm bdn.
c) Medium pengangkutan bhn mknn t’cerna, oksigen,
bhn p’kumuhan.
d) Pengawalaturan suhu bdn : Bila kekurangan air, suhu
tubuh akan menjadi panas dan naik. Khdiran air akan
m’bntu m’stabilkan suhu bdn.
e) Sbg pelincir : mngurangkan geseran tulang pd sendi.
f) P’kumuhan : urea,asid urik & grm mineral b’lebihan
dsingkirkn melalui air kencing dan peluh.

Tenaga Penting dalam Tubuh
1. Tenaga Kinetik:
Tenaga yang dibekalkan oleh sebatian
ikatan bertenaga tinggi seperti ATP, ADP,
2. Tenaga berpotensi:
Tenaga yang tidak aktif disimpan di
dalam badan dalam bentuk glikogen dan
yang terdapat dalam makanan.
Pengukuran Tenaga
1. Kalori: Jumlah tenaga haba yang
diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu satu gram
air sebanyak satu darjah celsius.
2. Kilokalori (Kcal)
Jumlah haba yang diperlukan untuk
meningkatkan suhu 1 kg. air sebanyak
sebanyak 1 darjah celsius.
3. Unit metrik yang digunakan ialah kilojoule(KJ)
1 Kilokalori (Kcal) = 4.184 KJ)

Pengukuran Nilai Tenaga dalam Makanan
• Dengan menggunakan alat kalorimeter
• Jumlah tenaga yang dihasilkan oleh setiap
sampel protein, lemak dan karbohidrat
1 g. Karbohidrat = 4 kcal
1 g. Lemak = 9 kcal
1 g. Protein = 4 kcal
1 g. Alkohol = 7 kcal
Contoh Pengiraan 1
• Berapakah nilai tenaga yang dalam satu gelas susu
beratnya 244g ? Jika dalam susu 100g susu
4.9g CHO; 3.5g protein; 3.7g lemak; 0.6 mineral
dan 1.2g vitamin
CHO = 244/100 x 4.9g x 4kcal = 47.8 kcal
Protein = 244/100 x 3.5g x 4kcal = 34.2 kcal
Lemak = 244/100 x 3.7g x 9kcal = 81.3 kcal
Jumlah nilai tenaga = 163.3 kcal
Contoh pengiraan 2
Diet mengandungi 2200 kcal dan mengandungi
210g CHO, dan 120g lemak, kira:
• Berapakah jumlah g protein dalam sajian?
• Kira peratus setiap nutrien [CHO, protein dan
lemak] dalam sajian?

a. Jumlah g protein
• CHO membekal = 210 x 4 kcal = 840 kcal
• Lemak membekal = 120 x 9 kcal = 1080 kcal
• Protein = 2200 – (1080 + 840) = 280 kcal
Jumlah g protein = 280/4 = 70 g

b. Peratus CHO, Protein dan Lemak
Peratus CHO = 840/2200 x 100 = 38.2%
Peratus Lemak = 1080/2200 x 100 = 49.1%
Peratus Protein = 280/2200 x 100 = 12.7%

1. Potato crisps mengandungi 6.3 g protein, 35.9g lemak
dan 49.3 karbohidrat pada tiap-tiap 100 g.
Kira nilai tenaga yang terdapat dalam 200 g potato

2. Berapakah jumlah nilai tenaga dalam satu keping
daging beratnya 90g jika dalam 100g daging
mengandungi 15.3g protein, 18.8g lemak, 0.1g
karbohidrat , 0.2g mineral 0.2 vitamins dan 65.5g air ?

3. Diet Pak Ali membekal 2600 kcal sehari. Diet tersebut
mengandungi 250g karbohidrat, 70g protein. Kira?
a. Berapakah jumlah g lemak dalam diet Pak Ali
pada hari tersebut?

b. Kira peratus setiap nutrien (karbohidrat,
protein dan lemak) yang terdapat dalam diet
Pak Ali ?

Input Tenaga
Tenaga/kilokalori yang terdapat dalam makanan
Output Tenaga
Tenaga yang diperlukan @ digunakan
oleh tubuh untuk beberapa perkara:
• Kadar Metabolisme Asas [Basal Energy
• Aktiviti Fizikal
• Pertumbuhan
• Tindakan Spesifik Dinamik Makanan

Bilakah Kadar Metabolisme Asas diukur?
1. Selepas 12 – 18 jam mengambil
makanan terakhir.
2. Seseorang dalam keadaan rehat.
3. Dalam bilik yang sesuai, suhu selesa.
4. Kebiasaan diukur selepas bangun
tidur waktu pagi.
Pengukuran Penggunaan tenaga
• Jumlah tenaga yang dijana @ digunakan
oleh tubuh dapat diukur secara langsung @
tidak langsung.

Kilorimetri Langsung
• Individu diletakkan di dalam kilokalorimeter
/bilik khas
• Kaedah sangat mahal. Cuma beberapa unit
terdapat di seluruh dunia
• Di Malaysia hanya satu, terdapat di
Universiti Hospital.

Kilorimetri Tak Langsung
• Kaedah yang lebih mudah
• Diukur dengan menentukan penggunaan oksigen dan
pengeluaran karbon dioksida pada masa tertentu
dengan menggunakan alat respirasi
• Dapat digunakan semasa individu berbaring rehat @
menjalankan berbagai aktiviti
• Pada setiap liter oksigen yang digunakan akan
memerlukan 4.825 kilokalori tenaga.

Kadar Metabolisme Asas [KMA]
Basal Metabolisme Rate[BMR]
• Kadar Metabolisme Asas
- Jumlah tenaga yang diperlukan oleh
tubuh untuk menjalankan proses-proses
penting dalam tubuh.
- Kadar tubuh menggunakan tenaga untuk
kekalkan fungsi penting untuk hidup.
• Kadar Metabolisme Rehat (KMR)
- Penggunaan tenaga pada keadaan yang
sama kecuali selepas makan atau berlatih
Kaedah mengira keperluan tenaga untuk
KMA (Basal Metabolisme Rate)
1. Menggunakan anggaran 1
= 60 m/jam X 24jam/hari
= 1440 kilokalori/hari

2. Alat Respiratori Bebedict-Roth (Penggunaan O2)
Ali mengambil 1.08 liter O2 dalam masa 6 minit. Kira
berapa jumlah keperluan tenaga KMA dalam sehari ?
[Piawai 1 liter O2 = 4.825 kcal]

6 minit Ali mengambil 1.08 liter oksigen
1 jam (60 minit) = 1.08 x 60/6
= 10.8 liter Oksigen
Sehari (24 jam) = 10.8 liter x 24 jam
= 259.2 liter Oksigen
KMA = 259.2 x 4.825
= 1251 kcal.
3. Berasaskan Berat badan, Umur &
• Lelaki
< 50 tahun = 1.0 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam
> 50 tahun = 0.9 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam
• Wanita
< 50 tahun = 0.9 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam
> 50 tahun = 0.8 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam

Kira berapakah jumlah tenaga untuk KMA dalam
sehari bagi mereka yang berikut?

a. En. Adam berumur 45 tahun mempunyai berat
badan 65 kg
Keperluan tenaga KMA = 1 x 65 x 24 jam
= 1560 kcal
b. Cik Fatimah berumur 26 tahun mempunyai berat
badan 46 kg.
Keperluan tenaga KMA = 0.9 x 46 x 24 jam
= 993.6 kcal

• Kira berapakah jumlah tenaga untuk KMA dalam sehari bagi
mereka berikut?

1. En. Ramlee berumur 45 tahun mempunyai berat badan
65 kg ?
2. Cik Fatimah berumur 25 tahun mempunyai berat badan
46 kg.
3. Pak Adam berumur 66 tahun mempunyai berat badan
63 kg
4. Mak Timah berumur 70 tahun mempunyai berat badan
81 kg.

• Wanita
Berat dalam Kg x 0.95 kcal x 24 jam
• Lelaki
Berat dalam Kg x 1.0 kcal x 24 jam

• Aminah berumur 13 tahun dan berat badan 50 kg.
50kg x 0.95 kcal x 24 jam = 1140 Kcal

• Ramlee, berat badan 58 kg dan berumur 25 tahun
58kg x 1.0 kcal x 24 jam = 1392 Kcal

4. Kaedah Pengiraan WHO.
Gunakan Berat badan (dalam kg)
• Kira berapakah jumlah tenaga untuk KMA dalam sehari bagi
mereka mengikut kiraan WHO?

1. En. Yunus berumur 48 tahun mempunyai berat badan
73 kg ?
2. Cik Rohani berumur 28 tahun mempunyai berat badan
53 kg.
3. Hamidah berumur 35 tahun mempunyai berat badan
62 kg
4. Halim berumur 70 tahun mempunyai berat badan
74 kg.

Formula FAO/WHO untuk ukur REE
[Resting Energy Expenditure]
3 - 9 22.7w) + 495
10 - 17 17.5w + 651
18 - 29 15.3w + 679
30 - 60 11.6w + 879
> 60 13.5w + 487
Formula FAO/WHO untuk ukur REE bagi
3-9 22.5w + 499
10-17 12.2w + 746
18-29 14.7w + 496
30-60 8.7w + 829
> 60 10.5w + 596
1. Aminah mempunyai berat badan 50 kg. , berumur 18
tahun . Kirakan keperluan tenaga Aminah dalam sehari
dengan menggunakan Formula REE ?
= 14.7 w + 496
= ( 14.7 x 50 ) + 496
= 735 + 496
= 1231 kcal/hari
2. Hamid mempunyai berat badan 78kg dan berumur 33
tahun. Kirakan keperluan tenaga dengan Formula

Faktor-Faktor yang mempengaruhi
Kadar Metabolisme Asas seseorang
1. Komposisi tubuh
- Kandungan tisu seseorang.
- Tisu tanpa lemak (otot) : tinggi KMA
- Tisu berlemak sedikit tenaga
- Lelaki perlu KMA tinggi kerana mempunyai
lebih tisu tanpa lemak.

2. Keadaan Tubuh: Jalankan aktiviti Fizikal
- 2 lelaki sama umur, tinggi & berat badan
- Jalankan tugas fizikal yang berbeza. Seorang buruh dan
seorang akauntan
- Buruh perlu banyak KMA berbanding akauntan kerana buruh
mempunyai otot-otot terbentuk berbanding akauntan
3. Jantina:
- Lelaki lebih tenaga KMA berbanding wanita
- Lelaki muda dewasa mempunyai 14% lemak daripada berat badan
- Wanita muda dewasa mempunyai 23%- 32% lemak daripada berat
4. Tidur: Kurang tenaga KMA
5. Malnutrisi: Tenaga KMA rendah

6. Tekanan mental: lebih tenaga bagi orang. yang mengalami masalah
7. Suhu Tubuh
- Kalau suhu tubuh tinggi KMA tinggi
- Setiap 1 darjah tambahan suhu boleh tingkatkan 13 kcal KMA badan
8. Suhu persekitaran
- suhu panas kita perlu KMA yang rendah
- suhu sejuk kadar KMA tinggi bagi panaskan badan
9. Kehamilan
- Tenaga KMA tinggi untuk menghamil bayi
300- 330 kcal lebih daripada wanita biasa
- Ibu menyusu KMA tinggi bagi proses mengeluarkan susu
500- 550 kcal lebih daripada wanita biasa
10. Umur: Umur meningkat keperluan KMA menurun
11. Merokok: lebih 10 peratus daripada orang tidak merokok

Norzalina 25 tahun, tinggi 1.63 m dan berat badan
65 kg. Berikut adalah jumlah kalori yang dimakan iaitu
karbohidrat 190g; protein 120g dan lemak 93g mengikut 24-
jam dietary recallnya.
a. Dengan menggunakan data di atas kirakan:
(i) jumlah kalori dan tunjukkan peratus
karbohidrat, protein dan lemak ?
(ii) Peratus pengambilan makanan
b. Beri penjelasan tentang diet yang diamalkan oleh
Norzalina mengikut perkiraan WHO menggunakan
(i) berat badan dan (ii) norma REE

(i) Jumlah pengambilan kalori:

a. karbohidrat = 190 X 4 kcal = 760 kcal
b. protein = 120 X 4 kcal = 480kcal
c. lemak = 93 X 9 kcal = 837 kcal
Jumlah = 2077kcal

(ii) Peratus pengambilan makanan

a. karbohidrat = 760/2077 X 100 = 36.6 %
b. protein = 480/2077 X 100 = 23.1 %
c. lemak = 837 /2077 X 100 = 40.3%

• i. Berat badan dengan perkiraan WHO
= 0.95 kcal X kg (berat badan) X 24 jam
= 0.95 kcal X 65 kg X 24 jam
= 1482 kcal

ii. Berat badan berdasarkan Norm
= (14.7W) + 496
= (14.7 X 65 ) + 496
= 955.5 + 496
= 1451.5 kcal

• Berdasarkan penjadualan Pemakanan
Norzalina telah mengambil lebihan
• Mengikut kiraan berat badan mengikut
Formula WHO
= 595 kcal [2077 – 1482]

• Mengikut keperluan norm
= 525.9 kcal [2077 – 1551.1 ]

Menu 3000-4000kcal
Menu 4000-5000kcal
Menu 5000-6000kcal
Body Energy Balance
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
 Energy intake = total energy output
(heat + work + energy storage)
 Energy intake is liberated during food
 Energy output
 Heat is usually about 60%
 Storage energy is in the form of fat or
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
• ULCERS – erosion of the surface of the
alimentary canal generally associated with
some kind of irritant
condition in which the
large intestine is emptied
with difficulty.
• Too much water is
• and the solid waste
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
• DIARRHEA – a gastrointestinal
disturbance characterized by
decreased water absorption and
increased peristaltic activity of the
large intestine.
• This results in increased, multiple,
watery feces.
• This condition may result in severe
dehydration, especially in infants
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
• APPENDICITIS – an inflammation of the
appendix due to infection
• Common treatment is removal of the
appendix via surgery
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
• GALLSTONES – an accumulation of
hardened cholesterol and/or calcium
deposits in the gallbladder
• Can either be “passed” (OUCH!!) or
surgically removed
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
• ANOREXIA NERVOSA - a psychological
condition where an individual thinks they
appear overweight and refuses to eat.
• Weighs 85% or less than what is
developmentally expected for age and height
• Young girls do not begin to menstruate at the
appropriate age.
Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
• HEART BURN – ACID from the stomach
backs up into the esophagus.
Sekian, Terima Kasih