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‫اﻟﻌﺬاب اﻷد‬

‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬أﻧﻮاﻋﻪ ‪ ،‬أﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺄ ﻒ‬

‫د ﺤﻣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﺴﺤﻴﻢ‬

‫م‪2009 ‐ ‬ھ‪1430‬‬
‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻠﻪ ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻮ ﹰﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺬﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺮﺩﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻋﺪﻭﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻮﻓﻮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﱮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗـﻀﻰ‬
‫ﻭﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﲔ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻨـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﺎﺑﻎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻪ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻌﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﺍ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫‪ ، ‬ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺼﺢ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﶈﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺭﺑﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺘﻔﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪:‬ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺬﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺬﺭﻭﺍ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻢ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻷﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ‬ ‫‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ‪ (1).‬ﻓﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ؛ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﳒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛـﺬ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻨﻜﺐ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﻢ؛ ﺧﺎﺏ ﻭﺧﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﳚﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﳚﺪ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﳜﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﳌﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺸﲑ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺬﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺧﱪ ﻛـﻞ‬
‫ﻧﱯ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﲡﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻫﻼﻛﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ ﻋﺎﺟﻼ ﻣﺎﺣﻘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲡﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺣﻖ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ )ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳋﺰﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺕ ﱢﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﺬﻳ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺭﳛ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ ،(2)‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺰ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺰ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ـﻮ ﹶﻥ‪،(3)‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ .(4)‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ – ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ – ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻗﻔﺘﲏ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻌﲏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻘﻘﺎ ﻟﻐﺮﺿﻪ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.90‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 16‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪033‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 21‬‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻓﻴﺎ ﲟﻘﺼﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﺠﺘﻨﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻔﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺠﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﳊﻘﻴﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺤـﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻓﻴﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺟﺎﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻙ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻮﺭﺍ ﻭﺯﺍﺩﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧـﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭﺍﻟـﻀﻌﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﺢ ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺰ‪‬ﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﻌـﻮﺙ‬
‫ﺭﲪﺔ ﻭﻫﺪﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ‬

‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺳﻌﻮﺩ‬


‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1426/2/7‬ﻫـ‬

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‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻣﻠﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﳚﺪ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺻـﺮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺪ ﻭﺟﺰﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﺼﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻗﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺭ‪‬ـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺘﱰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳛﻞ ﺑﺴﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﲝﺴﺐ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋـﺼﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻳﻌﻢ ﻭﳜﺺ ﻭﳛﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺎﺟﻞ ﻭﻳﺒﺎﻏﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳝﻬﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ – ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺩﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ –‬
‫ﻭﳛﻞ ﺑﺄﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﱪﺓ ﻟﻐﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱰﻝ ﺑﺂﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﻻ ﳍﻢ ﻭﲣﻮﻳﻔﺎ ﻟﻐﲑﻫﻢ؛ ﻟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﺟﻌـﻮﻥ‪ ...‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜـﺎﺛﺮﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺜﹸﻼﺕ – ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﺍ ﻃﺒﻌﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﻃﺒﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻻﻗﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺼﺮﺍﻁ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ (1)،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﻬﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﻏﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻈﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ؟‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻔﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﻄﺮﺳﺔ)‪ (2‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ؟‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ؟‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﴰﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﶈﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻲﺀ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻣﺼﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ؟‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺜﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳـﺴﻠﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﳍﻢ ؟!‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ؟!‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ؟‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺰﻟﺰﺍﻝ )ﺑﺎﻡ( ﰲ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻟﺰﺍﻝ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻘﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻮﻓﺎﻥ )ﺗﺴﻮﻧﺎﻣﻲ( ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺮﻳﺲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻈﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﱪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻄﺮﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻋﺠﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﱪ ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﻄﺮﺱ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .402/3‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺬاب اﻷدﻧﻰ‬

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‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺬاب اﻷدﻧﻰ‬

‫ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺪﺍﻋﻰ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟـﺬﻫﻦ‬
‫ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻛﺎﳊﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺴﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻌﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺳﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺑﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻔﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ ‪‬ﻮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺤﻴﻢ ‪ ...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﻋﺮﺻﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳜﺸﻮﻥ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻞ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﻋﻤﺮﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﰲ ﺭﺩﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺟﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺩﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺘﻘﺤﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﰲ ﺷﻬﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻊ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﻛﱪ ‪ -‬ﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻜﺮ‪‬ﺎ ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﺒﲔ ﺃﳕﺎ ﺃﺣﻠﹼﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.(1)‬‬‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ؟ ﻭﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﱰﻝ؟ ﻭﻣﱴ ﻳﱰﻝ؟ ﻭﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﻨﺠﻮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ؟‪.‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪:‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺬﺑﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﺬﻳﺒﺎ ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔـﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﱪ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻋﻔﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪):‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟـﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﻣـﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻐﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ -‬ﺃﻣﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻮﻳﻒ ﺑـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻗﺪ ﳛﺘﺮﺯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﳛﺘﺮﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺁﺟﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻵﺟـﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻮﻳﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﳌﺎ ﺑ‪‬ﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟـﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫‪‬ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ‬؛ ﻟﻴﺤﺘﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻨﺬﻳﻘﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ ‪ ‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺘـﺮﺯ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ؛ ﻟﺼﻐﺮﻩ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﺟﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻛﱪ؛ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﻭﻥ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 21‬‬


‫)‪( 2‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺬﺏ ‪ ،583/1،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ‪.176/3‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﳌﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻮﻳﻒ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻮﻳﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﲔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﺬﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ‪ (2)،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻧﻮﺡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣـﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺴﻴﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﻐﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳋﺴﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻟﺰﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻄﻤـﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﺗﻄﺎﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﻠـﻮﻗﲔ ﻛﻘﺘـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻔﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺠﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻳﺒﺎﻏﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (94‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶـﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺳ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ .(3)‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﺘ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻔﹶﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻞﹸ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﺎﺗﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧ‪‬ﺂ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (97‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻞﹸ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﺃﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺿﺤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪. (4)‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐﱪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻓﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﻞ‪:‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻄﱡﻮﻓﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ـﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﻤ‪‬ـ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﲔ )‪ (133‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺰ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬‫ﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬‫ﻀﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺـﻲ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬‫ﻚ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟﺌ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺁﺋ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ‪ .(5)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺬﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻏ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ (6)‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﺪﻭﺍ ﻭﻋﺸﻴﺎ؛ ﺇﳕـﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﺿـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﻭﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﲑ؛ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﻛﻠﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻟﻮﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟـﺴﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﻩ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﱰﻝ ‪‬ﻼﻛﻬﻢ )ﻓﻮ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺇﻫﻼﻙ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻭﳒﺎﺓ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺋﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ﻭﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ؛ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺪﻳﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﻠﻌﺖ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ‪. 158/25‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.95،94‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.98،97‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.134،133‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.46‬‬

‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻧﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻖ ﺍﳊﻤﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﱪﺯ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻱ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﱪﺍﺋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧـﱪ ﺑـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹰﺓ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬ ‫ﳏﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻓﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺳﺠ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻀ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ‪ (1)‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻜﺎﻻ ﻭﺳﻠﻔﺎ ﳌﻦ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤـﺎﳍﻢ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﲔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻜ ﹾﻔ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﺰ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ؛ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ‪  :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪ .(3)‬ﻭﳛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﻈ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﻻﱠ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﹶﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﱢﻟﺄﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻠﻲ ﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺧﲑ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ‪ (4).‬ﻭﻳﻈﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺧﻼﻕ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ؛‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺰﺩ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﳌﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﲤﺘﻌﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻞ ﺟﺰﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ـﻲ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﺽ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜﹺﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬‫‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺗ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺴﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ (5).‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ):‬ﻓﺠﻮﺯﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻋﻤﻠـﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﱪﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻃﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ؛ ﺟﺎﺯﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳍﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻫﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺰﻱ ﻭﺍﻵﻻﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨـﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﺭﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻈﻌﺔ(‪ (6) .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺯﻗﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﲔ ﻭﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ؛ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﲔ )‪ (55‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﻉ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑ‪‬ﻞ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﱰﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﻻ ﳛﺰ‪‬ﻢ ﲤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻐﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻘﻠﺒـﻬﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺲ‬
‫ﻉ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﻞ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ـ ﹾﺄﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﺑﹺـﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﺩ )‪ (196‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻠﱡﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹺﺒ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺮ‪‬ﻧ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‪ (8).‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺑﻈﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﻴﺪ؛ ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺬﺭﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﺒـﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺴﻨﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.82‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ‪.121‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.176‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.178‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.30‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪.161/4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.56،55‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.197،196‬‬

‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺴ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (15‬ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬‫‪‬ﻭﺯﹺﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻮﻑ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹲﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.(1)‬‬
‫ﻂ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﹺﺒ ﹶ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻴﻤﲔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻳﻌﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﺎﺑﻮﻥ ‪‬ـﺎ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﺰﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﲝﺘﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗـﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻓﻬـﺎﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺿﻌﻒ ﺇﳝﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻔﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺪﺑﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ، ‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﺳـﺒﺎﺑﺎ ﺷـﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻭ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﳌـﺎ ﺗﻘﺘـﻀﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪.(2)‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ – ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ – ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟـﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ؛ ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ؛ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﳏﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪):‬ﻓﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺟـﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﰎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻓﻘﻬـﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻘـﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻣﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ‪...،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺭﻓﻌـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻔﻔﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳚﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘـﻮﺑﺘﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳـﻒ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻨﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣـﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻤـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻻ ﳜﻠـﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﱂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻭﺻﺤﻰ ﺃﺣﺲ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﱂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻛﺘﺮﺗـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺮﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻜﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﲑﺍ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻋﻘﻴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻓﺸﻴﺌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺗﻌﻤـﻞ ﺍﻟـﺴﻤﻮﻡ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺬﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺬﺓ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ‪.16،15‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ‪ .9،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.41‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ‪77‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ‪.82-81‬‬

‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺑﺴﻄﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑ ﹸﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻫﻲ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ ؟‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺠ‪‬ﻞ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳚﻤـﻊ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺠﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻃﻴﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﺮ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻟﻴﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﻋﺪﺍﺋﻪ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ):‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺴﻮﺍ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺴﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻧ‪‬ـﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﻴﻪ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﲔ‪-:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﺴﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﳘﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﹼﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳍﻼﻙ ﺃﺩﱏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﺅﻩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﺅﻩ ﳊﻈﻮﻇﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺳﻌﺎﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻓﻼﺣﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﳘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻏﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﲨﻴﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳜﻄﺮ ﺑﺒﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﹼ‬ ‫ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻻ ﳝﺮ ﺑﺒﺎﻟﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻩ ﻭﻳﺆﺛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻴﻨﺴﻴﻪ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻧﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﻭﺁﻓﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳜﻄﺮ ﺑﺒﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻴﻨﺴﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﺁﻻﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳜﻄﺮ ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺇﺯﺍﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﻭﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳍﻼﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮﻳﺾ ﻣﺜﺨﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺑـﻪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﲟﺮﺿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﻄﺮ ﺑﺒﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ؛ ﻓﺄﻱ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻴﻌﻬﺎ؟(‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻴﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﺱ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﻟﱢﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬‫ﻼﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺜﹸ ﹶ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺑﹺﺎﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺ‬
‫ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ )‪ (6‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﻵ ﺃﹸﻧ ﹺﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺁ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺸﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹶﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻇﹸ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺰﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﻞﹸ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﺃﹸﻧﺜﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻐ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻜﹸ ﱢﻞ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ )‪ (7‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘﺪ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪ (3)‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ):‬ﳜﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬـﻞ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.67‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ‪.72-71‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪.8-6‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑﲔ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹸﻈﻮﺍ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻌﻈﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻨﻘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﳍﺎ؛ ﺑـﻞ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻫﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﲝﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﺟﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺬﻧﻮ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣـﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺣﻜﻤﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ( )‪ (1‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺵ‪ . (2)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﺣﻜـﻢ ﺧﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ): -‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﺟﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑ‪‬ﻴﻦ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﻙ ﻣﻌﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﺟﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻘﻮﻟـﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟﻘﹶـ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹾﻘﻨ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺻﹺﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺏ )‪ (38‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﱡﻐ‪‬ﻮ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻄﺸ‪‬ﺎ‪.(3)( ‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﺄﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﺟﻼ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﻭﻣﻴﻘﺎﺗﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻢ ﻟﺒﺚ‬
‫ﻒ‬
‫ﺚ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻟﹾـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﻟﻴﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻜﺬﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻬﻤﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﹺﺒ ﹶ‬
‫ﲔ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪ ، (4) ‬ﻭﻛﻢ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻴﺄﺱ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﺃﺟﹺﻴﺒ‪‬ﺖ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ .(5) ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪):‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﺂ ﱢﻥ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﱠـﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻻ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﻠﻜﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳚﻬﻠﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﺘﻌﺠﻼﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻋﺪﻱ ﻻ‬
‫ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻒ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﻋﻴﺪﻱ ﻧﺎﺯﻝ ﺑﻔﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺬﺍﰊ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﻘﻮﻣﻪ()‪ .(6‬ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻣﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﲟﻜﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﳛﺎﻭﺭ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺎﺩﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﻫﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺣﱴ ﻧﺰﻝ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻔﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﻄﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ؟!‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﺔ ﲢﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺜﻼﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢﻞ ﺑﻐﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻔﺸﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﺎﺿﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺣﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ‪.414‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.54‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ .219/7‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪ 38-36‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻕ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪. 14‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.89‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪،162-161/1‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،430/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ ،385/4‬ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪.376/8‬‬

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‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺧﺎﺿﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﺮﻭﺑﺎ ﺭﺍﺡ ﺿﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻢ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻢ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﺔ؛ ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺳﺌﺔ ﺣﺴﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﲡﺮ ﺃﺫﻳﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﺰﳝـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺗ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺭﳛﻬـﺎ ﻭﲤﺰﻗﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘـﺪ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﱪﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ )ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ( ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋـﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﺈﺫﺍﳘﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﳝﺎﺭﺳـﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺩﻭ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺯﻭﺍﳍﻤﺎ ﻋﱪﺓ ﻭﺁﻳﺔ؟ ﻓﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﺩﺍ ﻭﲡﱪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻐﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻭﻻ ﺗﱰﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺜﻼﺕ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻣﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻈﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ؛ ﻟﻴﺬﻭﻗﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬﹺﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘﺘ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ .(1)‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻘﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (41‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻧ‪ ‬ﹺﺮ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺰﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻭﹾﺍ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﱢﻟﺄﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬
‫ﺤ‪‬‬‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ‪ (2)‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺧﲑ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻬ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﲣﻔﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜـﻮﺍﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨـﻬﺎ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻨﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟـﺸﺄﻥ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ – ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﻇﻬﺮﻳﺎ – ﺑﻞ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻘﻖ ﳍﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑـﺬﳍﺎ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﲢﻘﻖ ﳍﻢ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺟﻌﻞ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻓﻸﻧﻪ ﺣﺼﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻛﹺﻨ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺸ ﹾﺄﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ‬‫ﺖ ﻇﹶﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬‬‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ُﻷ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻰ ‪ . (3) ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻵﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪. (4)‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﲪﺔ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻔﲑ ﳋﻄﺎﻳﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺬﻛﲑ ﳍـﻢ ﻟﻌﻠـﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺟﻌﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌﺒﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﺣﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻳﻌﺼﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﻴﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳚﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﻓﻼ ﳛﺮﻣﻬﻢ ﺧﲑﻩ ﻭﺇﺣﺴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧـﻪ ﳛـﺐ ﺍﻟﺘـﻮﺍﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛـﺐ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.42،41‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.178‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻃﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.128‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.11‬‬

‫‪13‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻬﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻮﺑﻮﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻃﺒﻴﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ؛ ﻟﻴﻄﻬﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺐ( )‪ .(1‬ﻭﺑـﲔ ﺳـﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺑﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﺭﲪﺔ ﳍـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻـﻼﺓ‬
‫ﺲ‬
‫ﺺ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﻝ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻷﻧﻔﹸـ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻘ ﹴ‬
‫ﻑ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ )‪ (155‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹲﺔ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ـﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺭ‪‬ﺍﺟﹺﻌﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪(156‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺜﱠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪ .(2)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻼﺀ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻨﹰﺎ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ .(3)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺻ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍﻛﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﹺﺈ ﹾﺫﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـﻰ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﻔﹶﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﺫﹸﻭ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪.(4)‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ؟! ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﴰﻠﺖ ﺍﻟـﺼﺎﱀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻣﺼﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ؟‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﻠـﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﳏﺮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﺘﱰﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻻ‬
‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹶﳒ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ‬
‫ﺽ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹸـﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺑ ﹸﻈﻠﹾـ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹸﻬ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪ ‬ﻬ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ )‪ (116‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﺮﻓﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻣ‪ ‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ):‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺑﻚ ‪ -‬ﻳﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ -‬ﻟﻴﻬﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺺ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻧﺒﺄﻫﺎ – ﻇﻠﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﻴﺌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻫﻼﻛـﻪ ﺇﻳـﺎﻫﻢ ‪ -‬ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ ﻭﻃﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ ‪ -‬ﻇﻠﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺎﺩﻳﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻏـﻴﻬﻢ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﺭﻛﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪.414-413‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪.157-155‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.17‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.152‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪.117-115‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪.140/12‬‬

‫‪14‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻜﺖ ﳏﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺼﻴﺖ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻠﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ؛ ﺣ ﹼﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣـﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺴﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﻪ ﻭﻧﻘﻤﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐـﱪﺍ ﻋـﻦ ﺣـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻘﺔﹸ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬ ‫ﲦﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ ،(1)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺧﱪ ﻟﻮﻁ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﻣـﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (17‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ِ‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (54‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺋ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﺓ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻭﻟﹸﻮﻃﹰﺎ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻁ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶـ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﺃﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ﻟﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (55‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (56‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹶﳒ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﻧ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪ .(2) ‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻋﻤﻬـﻢ‬ ‫ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳒﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﲟﻨﻪ ﻭﻛﺮﻣﻪ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀﻩ ﻭﺣﺰﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﻠﺤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺯﻳﻨـﺐ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺖ ﺟﺤﺶ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺃ‪‬ﻠﻚ ﻭﻓﻴﻨﺎ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥ؟‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻼ‪) :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ!!(‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻴﻊ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻫﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﻣﻬﻠﻜﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺒﻌﺜﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻳﻐﺰﻭ ﺟﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﺒﻴﺪﺍﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ؛ ﺧـﺴﻒ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻭﳍﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ؟‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﳜﺴﻒ ﺑـﺄﻭﳍﻢ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺒﻌﺜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺠﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺽ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹾﻔﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺑﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻠﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ﻗﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪.(5) ‬‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻓﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺚ ﺭﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳـﺴﻠﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﳍﻢ؟! ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ؟! ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﲞﻠﻘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﻟـﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻏﻴﺒﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻫﻴﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻧﺬﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.18-17‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪.57-54‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،1221/3‬ﺡ‪ ،3168‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،2007/4‬ﺡ ‪.2880‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪ .155/15 ، 6755‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.2210/4 ،2884‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.81‬‬

‫‪15‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪ ‬ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶـﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺰﹺﻳـﺰ‪‬ﺍ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻟﹶﺌﻼﱠ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺭﺳ‪ ‬ﹰ‬
‫‪‬ﺣﻜ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪.(1)‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪-‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋـﻦ ﻏـﲑﻩ‪:-‬‬
‫ﺏ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪ .(2) ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪  :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻪ‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪.(3) ‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺁ‪‬ﻳ ﹰﺔ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻮﺍ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻧﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪:‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ـﺎﻑ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ‪ . (4)‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻣﺤ‪‬ﻴﻂ ‪ (5).‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﺮ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘﺼ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻜﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍﻛﹸﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ ‪ .(6) ‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺑـﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬‫ﻫﻮﺩ ﺧﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬‫ﻑ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻮﻓﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ‪ ‬ﳜﺎﻑ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺼﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ‪ .(8)‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﻗﻮﻣـﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺳـﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :-‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﳜﱪﻫﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳜﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋـﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻥ‬
‫ﻀﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﺇﹺﻥ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹴﻞ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺫ‪‬ﻱ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹴﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺎﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ ﹶﻛﹺﺒ ﹴﲑ ‪.(9)‬‬‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﱠﻟ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ – ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻠﲔ – ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﳌﺎ ﹸﻛﺬﹼﺑﻮﺍ ﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺌـﺼﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺽ ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶـﺎ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـﻰ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺡ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ـﻸﻩ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺁ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬‫‪‬ﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪ .(10)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻗﹸﻠﹸـﻮﹺﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮﹾﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺯﹺﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.165‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.17‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.21‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ‪.59‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.84‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.135‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.45‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ‪.15‬‬
‫)‪ ( 9‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 10‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﻮﺡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.26‬‬

‫‪16‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ )‪ (88‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﺃﺟﹺﻴﺒ‪‬ﺖ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒﻌ‪‬ﺂ ﱢﻥ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﹾﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺗﻌﺠﻞ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺘﻪ ﺑﺄﻣﺘﻪ ﺍﺩﺧﺮ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ ﺷﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﻷﻣﺘﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻛﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺳﺄﻝ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﻻ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺩﻋﺎ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺠﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﺩﻋﻮﰐ ﺷﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﻷﻣﱵ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣـﺔ(‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﺠﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻧﱯ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱐ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺄﺕ ﺩﻋﻮﰐ ﺷﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﻷﻣﱵ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻧﺎﺋﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺷﻴﺌﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪):‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ؛ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺣﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣـﺎﻝ ﺇﺑـﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﻊ ﰲ ﻫﻼﻙ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺿﻨ‪‬ﺂ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﱠﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣﱠﻠ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶـﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ـﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺽ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪....(4)‬ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻴﻼﻥ ﳘﺎ ﺃﻓـﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻜ‪‬ﻨﻨ‪‬ـ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ )‪ (13‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﻬ‪‬ﻠ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ ‬ﺭﲪﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﻤـﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺭﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﹶﻗﹺﺒﹶﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻈـﺎﱂ ﻟﻨﻔـﺴﻪ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﺺ ﺷﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﺠﺰﻭﺍ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺭﲪﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻖ ﰲ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺳﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺣﺮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ):‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ؛ ﻓﺮﺣﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﻓﻨﺎﻟﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻇﻠﻪ ﻭﲢﺖ ﺣﺒﻠﻪ ﻭﻋﻬﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﺠﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺣﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺷﺪﺓ‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.89-88‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪ ،2323/5 ،5946‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪. 189 /199،1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪. 189 /199،1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.13-12‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺍﺕ ‪.30-29 ،‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ‪.516/17‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ‪.96-95/1‬‬

‫‪17‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﻋﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻭﻋﻴﺪ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻨﻜﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻧﺪﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﱪﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ؛ ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﳛﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱰﻝ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬‫ﺃﻧﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﺭﺳﻮﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻜﹸﻼ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﻧﺎ ﹺﺑﺬﹶﻧﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻈ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶـﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹾﻔﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺴﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻈ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬‫ﺃﹶﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺧﺰﻱ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺕ ﱢﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﻫﻮﺍﻥ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺭﳛ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (16‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ـﺎ ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ـﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺰ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺰ ﹺ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪ .(2) ‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﳊﻖ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻘﺔﹸ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻬﲔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﱪ ﻭﻃﻐﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺫ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺗ‪ ‬‬‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻶ‪‬ﺋ ﹶﻜﺔﹸ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻄﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺃﹶﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ‪‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜﹺﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬‫ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺧﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺧ ‪‬ﻮﻓﻬﻢ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺧﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺹ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ‪ (4)،‬ﻓﺈﺧﺒﺎﺭﻩ ‪ ‬ﺃﻣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺬﻳﺮﻩ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﺘﻪ ﺇﻧﺬﺍﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻬﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ‪ ، ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪): ‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﰊ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﱐ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﲏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺳـﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﰊ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻣﱵ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻣﱵ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﻕ ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﺄﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻌـﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻤﻨﻌﻨﻴﻬﺎ()‪ .(5‬ﺑﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﻳـﺴﺘﺄﺫﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺸﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ‪ ):‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺭﺟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺒـﺪ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﻪ ﺇﺑﻼﻍ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﺃﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﲪﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﲔ‬
‫ﻷﻣﺘﻪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ‪‬ﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ‪.40‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.17-16‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.93‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺩﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﺟﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪. 2216/2890،4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ‪ ،1180/3059،3‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ‪.1420/1795،3‬‬

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‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﹶﻠﺔ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻳﻘﺘﺪﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺴﻨﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﲟﺎ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳـﻌﺔ ﺭﲪـﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻈـﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺗﻪ‪،‬ﻭﻓﺮﺣﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺬﺭﻭﻥ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﺬﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻓـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺬﻧﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻷﻣﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﳍﻢ ‪. ‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺬﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ، ‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻧﺒﻮﺗﻪ ‪ ، ‬ﰒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﲑ‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻨﻴﻒ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﲢﺬﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﺇﻧﺬﺍﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﺗﺔ ﲟـﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﳎﺘﻤﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻋﺮﺿـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﱰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﺭﻓﻮﺍ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺴﺨﻂ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ؟‪.‬‬


‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻛﺒﺪ ﻭﺑﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹾﻘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹِﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪ .(1)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻼ‪ .(2)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬‫ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻼ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬‫ﺽ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﺷ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹶﻖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻼ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺃﻳﻜﻢ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻘﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻉ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳـﺮﻉ ﰲ ﻃﺎﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ(‪ (4).‬ﻓﺎﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻟﻴﻌﺒﺪﻭﻩ؛ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻼﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ؛ ﻟﻴﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﲎ ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﻳﺪﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﺘﻠـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻼﺀ؛ ﺭﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺤﻴﺼﺎ ﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻘﺘﺪﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﹶﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (2‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﱂ )‪ (1‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ِ‬
‫ﲔ‪ .(5)‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪﻗﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺫﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻼﺀ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﻮﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺑﻼﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﱪﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺪﻋﻪ ﳝﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻟـﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻴﺌﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.4‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.2‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.7‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪.5/12‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ‪.3-1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪.99/121،1‬‬

‫‪19‬‬
‫ﻭﺑ ‪‬ﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻼﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﰒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓـﺎﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ - ‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻋﻚ ‪ -‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺇﻧـﻚ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻮﻋﻚ ﻭﻋﻜﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍ؟! ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﻭﻋﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻋﻚ ﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﺃﺫﻯ ‪ -‬ﺷﻮﻛﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻮﻗﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﺇﻻ ﻛﻔﹼـﺮ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺌﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﺭﻗﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻘﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﺤﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺒﻼﺀ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﺅﻩ ﺃﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺿﻮﻋﻒ ﺣﺪ ﺍﳊﹸـ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻒ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ـﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍﺏ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻷﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ‪ (2).‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﳛ ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﲪﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻳﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﻠﻲ ﻫﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟـﺒﻼﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻠﻜﻪ؛ ﻓﻴﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺷﻐﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻠﺬﺫ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﺸﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﲰﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﱴ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ؟‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﲟﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻼﺀ ﺳﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺑـﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻣﺘﺤـﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﻀﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ؟!‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﺣﺴﻨﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ) : ‬ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻼﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﰒ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺜﻞ()‪ ، (4‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻔﻌـﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺠﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹸﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜ ﹴﲑ‪.(5)‬ﻓﺎﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺼﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋـﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺫﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺼﲑﻩ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮﻫﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺭﻓﻌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺟﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪﻭﺓ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟـﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪.2139/5324،5‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.30‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪.112/10‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.30‬‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻋﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‪ .(1)‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪): ‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻭ ﻻ ﻏﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﺳ‪‬ﻮﺀًﺍ ﻳ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻭﺻﺐ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺰﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺫﻯ ﺇﻻ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺎﻳﺎﻩ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺔ ﻳﺸﺎﻛﻬﺎ ()‪ ،(2‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪) : ‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻳﺼﺐ ﺑﻪ ()‪ .(3‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺒﺪﻩ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻋﺠﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺒﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺬﻧﺒﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﺍﰲ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ( ﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳔﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻛﺒﺪ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻻ ﺷﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻟﻴﻌﺒﺪﻭﻩ ﻓﺎﺑﺘﻼﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﻨﻈـﺮ ﺃﻳﻬـﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ‪ -‬ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ؛ ﺭﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻸﺟﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ؛ ﻟﻴﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﳋﺒﻴﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺾ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻴﻌﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻀﻪ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺒﹺﻴ ﹶ‬‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﱠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﹺﻴ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ‪ -‬ﻓﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟـﻞ ﺛﻨـﺎﺅﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷَﻧﺒ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪ ‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ )‪ (4‬ﺣ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻤ ﹲﺔ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺗ‪ ‬ﻐ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﺬ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ‪ -‬ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻨﻜﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﻋ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺣـ ‪‬ﻖ‬
‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـﻰ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ﹺﺮﻫ‪‬ـﺎ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬ ‫ﺱ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳﺆ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹸ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.123‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪.2137/5 ،5318‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪.2138 /5 ،5321‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺎﺯ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﺭ ‪ .488-478/2‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬
‫‪،‬ﺡ‪.601/4 ،2396‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.37‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.5-4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.45‬‬

‫‪21‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﺗﱰﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻘـﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺽ‬
‫ﺏ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﰊ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻞ ﺭﰊ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﲑ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬
‫ﺏ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﻞ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹴ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬
‫‪ -8‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻼﺀ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺴﺒﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹸﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜ ﹴﲑ‪.(2)‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺼ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺩﻻﻻ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.22‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.30‬‬

‫‪22‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬

‫ﺁﻳﺔ اﻟﺴﺠﺪة وﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮهﺎ‬

‫‪23‬‬
‫ﺁﻳﺔ اﻟﺴﺠﺪة وﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮهﺎ‬

‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻓﻌﺘﲏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻴﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﱪ‬
‫ﻏﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺳﺄﻭﺭﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺍﺗﻔﻘـﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺘﺠﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﱪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﺎ؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛﺒ‪‬ـ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠﻬ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ـﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ :‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ (1).‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻳﻴﺴﺮ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌـﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻳﻘﻪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﻘﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻼﺅﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺒﺘﻠـﻲ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻮﺑﻮﺍ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ (2)،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳎﺎﻫـﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘـﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺸﺔ )‪ (3‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺰﺍﻡ )‪ (4‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ )‪ ، (5‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻛﻔﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﱯ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭ ‪ -‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺋﺐ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳋﻮﻻﱐ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳـﺄﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.21‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪.2157/4‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻘﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ ‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.16‬‬ ‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻄﺶ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻄ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻮ‪‬ﻑ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮﻥ ‪‬ﻟﺰ‪‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪ ‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ .77‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﳍـﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺪ ﹶﻛ ﱠﺬ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ ‪ ،380/3‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ﻣـﺴﻠﻢ‬
‫‪.143/17‬‬
‫ﲔ )‪  (10‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.10‬‬‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﻣﹺﺒ ﹴ‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪108/21‬ـ‪ .109‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ‪ .240/1‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ‪ .110/3‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ‬
‫‪.554/6‬‬

‫‪24‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋـﺬﺍﺏ ﻟﻠﻤـﺴﺮﻑ ﰲ‬
‫)‪. (1‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻨﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﻭﻃﻬﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺯﺏ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﳜﻔﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﱪ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﲨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﻬﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺩﻗﺔ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ؛ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﲔ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺬﻳﻘﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻟﲑﺟﻌﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ـﻰ‪ ‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘـﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻰ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻨﺬﻳﻘﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻓﺘﺄﻣﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻈﲑ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‪ ):‬ﻓﻴﻔﺘﺢ ﻟﻪ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺣﺮﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﲰﻮﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﺣﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﲰﻮﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺫﺍﻗﻪ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‪.‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻮﻓﻞ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫـﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺘـﻞ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﺪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻜـﺬﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺑﻮﻋﻴﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻳﻘﻬﻤﻮﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻼﺀ ﺃﺻﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺷﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻳﺼﺎﺑﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﳜﺼﺺ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺇﺫ ﻭﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺄﻭﰱ ﳍﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻫﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪(42‬‬
‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺳ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺂ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.(7)‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـﻜ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻮ‪‬ﻻ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.554/6‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.110/21‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ .554/6‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪.463/3‬‬
‫)‪ / ( 3‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ‪.76/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.109/21‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ .554/6‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪.463/3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.109/21‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪110/21‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.43-42‬‬

‫‪25‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﺄﺧـﺬ ﻋﺒـﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﻜـﺬﺑﲔ ﺑـﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ؛ ﻟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﺟﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑـﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻓﻜﺬﺑﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﺄﺧﺬﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ؟‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻨﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟـﻀﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊـﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺃﺣـﺪ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﻴـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‪ (1).‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪:‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﲔ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺱ ‪(2)‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎﹺﺑﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺳ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪.(3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﲔ‪ (7).‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹺﻨ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪1‬ـ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﳍﻤﺪﺍﱐ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﳊـﺴﻦ ﻭﳎﺎﻫـﺪ‬
‫)‪(8‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(9‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ـ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪ .1288:‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.98،99/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.410/1‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‬
‫‪.252/1‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪.164/7‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.177‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺝ‪ 2:‬ﺹ‪. 299:‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪ .1288:‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.98/2‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪.1288:‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪.1288:‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.83‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪ .1289:‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .98/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ .410/1‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪.252/1‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪.164/7‬‬
‫)‪ ( 9‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪.1289:‬‬

‫‪26‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﺰ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺳ‪‬ـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻔﹶﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (94‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪(1).‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﺘ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ‪ ‬ﳑﺎ ﺃﻏﲎ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺳﺄﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﹺﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺳ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎﺀﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻔﹶﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊـﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﺘ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺗﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻓﺴﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻜﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴـﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻮﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﺴﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺒﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﳐﱪﺍ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﱪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﻘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﺮ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻟﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﻀﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻳـﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﳜـﺸﻌﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﺘﻬﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻟﻴﺘﻀﺮﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ؛ ﻟﻴﺨﺘﱪﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ‪ ‬ﺃﻱ ﺣﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺧﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺽ ﻭﺳﻘﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻘـﺮ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻏﲎ؛ ﻟﻴﺸﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ‪ ...‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳـﺸﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﱪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ‪) :‬ﻋﺠﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﻗـﻀﺎﺀ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺿﺮﺍﺀ ﺻﱪ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺷﻜﺮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻟﻪ(‪ (3).‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻔﻄﻦ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﺑـﺎﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺣـﱴ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﳜﺮﺝ ﻧﻘﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻢ ﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻴﻢ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻮﻩ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.94-95‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .7/9‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ‪ .233/2‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ .1526/5‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ .505/3‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ ‪.234/2‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.2295/4 ،2999‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪.234/2‬‬

‫‪27‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ‪‬‬‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ )ﺍﺧﺘﱪﻧﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻔﺾ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻈﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ؛ﻟﲑﺟﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻴﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﺑﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﳊـﺴﻨﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﳋـﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺪﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ (3) .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﳌﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ‬
‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﱠﺬ ﱠﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪.(4)‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺯﻣﻨﺎ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﺎ ﻟﻼﺑﺘﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻏﻴﻬﻢ ﺳﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪):‬ﺃﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﳜﺘﱪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳜﺘﱪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺑﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺽ ﳍﻢ ‪ -‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻴﺒﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔـﺎﻗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻫﻢ ‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻞ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺑﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻫﻢ ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﺞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻳﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﻴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻈﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺎﻗﻬﻢ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ‪.168‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺝ‪ 9:‬ﺹ‪104:‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ .1606/5‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .104/9‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ .436/3‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.593/3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ‪126 .‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .73/11‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ ‪.67/11‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟـﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳊـﺴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﺘﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ )‪(1‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؟‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪:‬ـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺫﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻓـﻴﻔﱳ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ‪ ‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧـﺴﻤﻊ ﰲ‬
‫‪(3) .‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻛﺬﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺬﺑﺘﲔ ﻓﻴﻀﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺌﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ (2).‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬
‫‪(4).‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺰﻭ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻜـﺎﺭ ﺑـﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﱯ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﰒ ﻋﻮﰲ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺰﺩﺩ ﺧﲑﺍ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻢ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﺍﻭﻳﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﻕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺐ ﻋﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺑﺦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﻘﻠﺔ ﺗﺬ ﹼﻛﺮﹺﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﻮﺀ ﺗﻨـﺒ‪‬ﻬﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬‬‫ﻋ‪‬‬
‫ﳌﻮﺍﻋﻆ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﻈﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻋﻆ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﱰﳍﺎ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺤﻂ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﺮﺓ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺯﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻇﻬـﺎﺭ ﻛﻠﻤﺘـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺎﻗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺒﺚ ﺳﺮﺍﺋﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﻛﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺑﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺧﱪ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣـﻦ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺗﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ . ‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘﻄﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‬
‫‪ ‬ﻭﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﹸﻓﺘ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪  :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻔ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨﺔﹸ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻞ ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،372‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﱳ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .74/11‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪.1916/6‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.325/4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ﺝ‪ 2:‬ﺹ‪ . 291:‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .73/11‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ ،1916 ،1915/6‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ ،325/4‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ ،404/2‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ‪ .299/8‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ‪.184/16‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺝ‪ 11:‬ﺹ‪ . 74:‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ .1915/6‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ .325/4‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪،404/2‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ‪ ،299/8‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ‪.184/16‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.352/4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ‪ .299/8‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ‪.184/16‬‬

‫‪29‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭ ﻻ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳜﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻻ ﻳﱰﺟﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻈﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻜﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﺣﲔ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺣﲔ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺮﻳـﺸﺎ ﺑـﺴﲏ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﺏ ﺇﺫ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ! ﺃﻧﺸﺪﻙ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻬﺰ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻮﺑﺮ ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﻡ ‪ -‬ﻓـﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻧﻘﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪):‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﻼﺀ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻘﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﻧﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﳊﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺳـﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻀﺮﻋﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ )‪ (5‬ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﺍﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻓﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ؛ ﻓﺎﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺏ ﻭﺟﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﺍﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﻡ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻭﻋﺼﻰ؛ ﻓﻜﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻧﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻜﱪﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(8‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﺳﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻋﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﺖ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.74/11‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.77-76‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺝ‪ 18:‬ﺹ‪ . 44:‬ﻭﻋﺰﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‪،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ‪.111/6‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ 45/18‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.111/6‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.45/18‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.611/10‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ .252،253/3‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.44/18‬‬
‫)‪( 8‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.47‬‬

‫‪30‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﱰﻭﻝ ﻫﻮ ﳎﻲﺀ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﻳﺸﻜﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻗﺮﻳـﺸﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟‬
‫ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻟﺘﺠﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻚ‪ (1) .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ – ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻟﻘﺮﻳﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻋـﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﳒﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ‬
‫ﺐ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻋﺠﻠـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻭﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺋ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑـﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻝ ﺍﳉـﺎﻣﻊ ﳍـﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻇﻠﻤـﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻔـﺴﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﺼﻌﻘﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣـﺔ؛‬
‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ؛ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻛﻔﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗـﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻔـﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻣـﻮﺍﳍﻢ‬
‫ﻉ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺼﺺ ﺍﷲ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳍﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻮ ﹴ‬
‫ﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳍﻢ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳍﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳـﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪  :‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺫﺍﺋﻘﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻏﻔﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ ):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻨـﺎﻓﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣـﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻮﰲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﻘﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﳍـﻲ‪ :‬ﻛـﻢ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺼﻴﻚ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺒﲏ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ! ﻛﻢ ﺃﻋﺎﻗﺒﻚ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻱ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .36،37/27‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ‪.248/3‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.37/27‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ‪ .248/3‬ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .37/27‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪.636/7‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.37/27‬‬
‫)‪( 5‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺝ‪ 27:‬ﺹ‪37:‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺝ‪ 4:‬ﺹ‪246:‬‬

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‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ؛ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ – ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ـ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ـ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ـ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ـ ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﺑﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﲣﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻼﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺆﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷـﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌـﻴﺶ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻫﻲ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺼﻮﻩ ﺃﻣـﺮﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ؟ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﱪ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻻﻻﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﻗﺼﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﺎ ﺣﺬﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﱰﻝ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﺣﺬﹼﺭﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻋﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﱪﺓ ﻟﻨﺎ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻧﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺘﱰﻝ ﺑﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺧﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺟﺎﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬

‫اﻷﺳﺒــﺎب‬

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‫اﻷﺳﺒﺎب‬

‫ﺾ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠﻬ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻢ‬


‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ (1)‬ﻓﺎﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻠﺨﲑ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺸﺮ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﺬﻝ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﲑ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻭﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﻌﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﲣﺬ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ؛ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺒﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿـﺮﺏ ﺣﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻃﻨﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﺒﺲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺮﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺗﱰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﲡﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﲡﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ـ‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‬

‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳـﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻵﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳊـﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﺍﻫﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻣﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺜﻮﺛـﺎ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺍ ﰲ ﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﺮﹺﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻓﹶﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‪ .(2)‬ﻭﻭﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺣﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻧﻮﺡ ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹶﳒ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﲔ ﻓﺄﳒﻴﻨﺎﻩ ‪ .(3)‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ ﻋـﻦ ﻗـﻮﻡ ﺇﺑـﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺸﺤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻥ )‪ (119‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪ ‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻔ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ .(4)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫‪‬ﻓﻜﹸ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (94‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﺑﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ‪ : ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻄﱡﻮﻓﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ـﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﻤ‪‬ـ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﲔ ‪ .(5)‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﺭﺳـﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﹶ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻉ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 41‬‬


‫)‪(2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 53‬‬
‫)‪(3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 120-119‬‬
‫)‪(4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ‪. 95-94‬‬
‫)‪(5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 133‬‬

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‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﺪﻩ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﻼﻗﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺸﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ‬ ‫ﺏ )‪ (45‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻏ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﹺﺂ ﹺﻝ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ُﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪ :‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‪.(1)‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻭﻋﺼﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (45‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺚ ﹶﻻ ﻳ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ـ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺽ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻜﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪.(2)‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺮﺅ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ )‪ (46‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻠﱡﹺﺒ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬
‫ﺾ‪.(3)‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻔﺰ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺨﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻋﻴﺪ ﺣﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹶﺎﺩ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﺪ‪‬‬‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻼ )‪ (76‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬‫ﺨﺮﹺﺟﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒﺜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺧ‪‬ﻼﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻟﻴ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﺌ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﱠﻟ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ .(4)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻮﹺﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺊ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻷُ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻢ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺯ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ )‪ (42‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜﺒ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬
‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـﻦ ‪‬ﺗﺠﹺـ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﻓﻠﹶﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ﹺ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺊ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹺﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ﹾﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻈﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻼ‪‬‬‫ﺤﻮﹺﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟﺴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻗﺒﺾ ﻧﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ؛ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻓﺮﻃﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﻔﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺃﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻧﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﻲ؛ ﻟﺘﻘﺮ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ‪‬ﻠﻜﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺒﺾ ﻧﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﳍﺎ ﻓﺮﻃﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﻔﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻳـﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﻫﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻋﺬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻧﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻫﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺮ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ‪‬ﻠﻜﺘﻬﺎ ﺣﲔ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺼﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪(1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 46-45‬‬


‫)‪(2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪. 47-45‬‬
‫)‪(3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪. 65‬‬
‫)‪(4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 72-71‬‬
‫)‪(5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪.43-41‬‬
‫)‪(6‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪.1791/ 4‬‬

‫‪35‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻭﺭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﺜﻮﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻗﹶـ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫َ ﹾﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (1‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪ (1).‬ﻳﻨﺎﺟﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔـﻲ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﻴﲏ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ ﻧﺼﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﲔ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﲪﺪﱐ ﻋﺒـﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪  :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪‬ﻤــ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪:‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻦ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﳎﺪﱐ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬ﻣ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻴﲏ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻮﺽ ﺇﱄ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬ﹺﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ﹺﲑ ﺍﳌﹶﻐـﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬
‫ﻁ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹶﻧﻌ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﻁ ﺍﳌﹸﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﺳﺄﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﲔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺎﱢﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﹶﻃ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ﹺﻲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯﹶﻟﻔﹰﺎ‬‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻃﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻷﺑﺪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺃﺭﺩﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻗ ﹺﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﺬﱠﺍ ‪‬ﻛﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪ (3)‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪):‬ﺃﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺮﺍ ﺑﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﺘﺴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﲬـﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺒﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﻧﻪ؟‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﻧﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﳝﺤﻮ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﻳﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻜ ﹺﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻗ ﹺﻢ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ‪‬ﺎﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺿﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﺄﺷﺪ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ‪ (6) .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹰﺔ ﺿ‪‬ﻨﻜﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛﺮﹺﻱ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻗﱪﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﲰﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﺪﺏ‬
‫‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ - ‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ‪ :-‬ﻫﻞ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺅﻳـﺎ؟‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻘﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺺ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻏﺪﺍﺓ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﺗﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺁﺗﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺜـﺎﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ ﱄ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﱐ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻌﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﺎ ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻀﻄﺠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗـﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.2-1‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪.297/1 ،395‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.114‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪ ،197/1 ،505‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪.462/1 ،667‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.45‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻃﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.124‬‬

‫‪36‬‬
‫ﺑﺼﺨﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻳﻬﻮﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺨﺮﺓ ﻟﺮﺃﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺜﻠﻎ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻓﻴﺘﺪﻫﺪﻩ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠـﺖ‬
‫ﳍﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ! ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻻ ﱄ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ‪ ...‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺗﻴـﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﺜﻠﻎ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﺑﺎﳊﺠﺮ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﲑﻓﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ (‪ (1).‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﻪ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋـﺰ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﺎﺋـﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻏﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ (2).‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﹶﺃﺿ‪‬ﺎﻋ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﲔ )‪ (4‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ‪‬ﺗ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺳ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﱢﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﺳﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻞ ﱢﻟ ﹾﻠﻤ‪ ‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪:‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﲨﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟـﺼﻼﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺁﺗ‪‬ـﻮﹾﺍ‬
‫ﺼﹶ‬
‫ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻗ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻛﻌ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻛﻌ‪‬ﲔ‪ ، (4)‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺇﻳﺘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﺓ ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ، (5)‬ﻭﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺼﹶ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪َ :‬ﻓﺈﹺﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻗﹶﺎﻣ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻏﺮﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳋﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﺮﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻬﺎ – ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﲔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺤﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﻌـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻮﻝ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ؛ ﺷﺪﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺯﺍﻗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺣـﺒﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻼﺋﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺤﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﲔ؛ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺟﻮﺯﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨـﻊ ﻣـﺎ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬ﺡ ‪.2585 -2583/6 ،6640‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.59‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.5-4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.43‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.11‬‬

‫‪37‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻛﲔ ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﺒﻠﹶﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺕ ﲟﻨﻊ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ ﻭﺣﺒﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻠـﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳊـﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻌﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﻤﻨﻌﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻼ ﺍﺳﺘﱰﻟﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﺑﺒﺬﻝ ﻣﺎ ﷲ ‪‬ﻗﺒ‪‬ﻠﻜﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪): ‬ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻗﻂ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻗـﻂ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺒﺲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪:‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪): ‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻛـﺎﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺍﺑـﺘﻼﻫﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟـﺴﻨﲔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﺗﻪ ﺛﻘـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ‪) :‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺒﺲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫‪(4) .‬‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ‪) :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺴﻨﻬﻢ ﺧﻠﻘﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓـﺄﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﻛﻴﺲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺕ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍ؛ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪:‬‬
‫ﲬﺲ ﺧﺼﺎﻝ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ! ﺃﻥ ﺗﱰﻝ ﺑﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﻮﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﰲ ﻗـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻗﻂ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻠﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺸﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻓﺸﺖ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻼﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻨﻌـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻻ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﺎﺋﻢ ﱂ ﳝﻄﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﺪﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺃﺋﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ ﺃﻧـﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺟﻌـﻞ ﺑﺄﺳـﻬﻢ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪. 315/1‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺝ‪ 2:‬ﺹ‪ ،136:‬ﻭﺷﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.196/3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺝ‪ 7:‬ﺹ‪.40:‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ ‪.309/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺷﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺝ‪ 7:‬ﺹ‪ . 351:‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪،583/4‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫‪ .317/5‬ﻭﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ‪ .1332/2‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ‪.94/5‬‬

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‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻹﻋﻼﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﹺﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪، (1)‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺳﻨﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺗﺒﻮﻙ ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﱄ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﺃﻧﺒﺄﺗﻚ ﺑﺮﺃﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺳﻨﺎﻣﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺃﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺳﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺳﺌﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ؟‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﰒ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﰒ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺞ ﻣﱪﻭﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺳﻨﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺩﺩ؛ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻜﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ):‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻌﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬﰎ ﺃﺫﻧـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻘـﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺿـﻴﺘﻢ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺘﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ؛ ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺫﻻ ﻻ ﻳﱰﻋﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﺟﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳒﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻔﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪:‬ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﱢﺬ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ (5)‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺣﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﺘﺜﺎﻗﻠﻮﺍ؛ ﻓﺄﻣﺴﻚ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺬﺍ‪‬ﻢ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 78‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ ، 86/2‬ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،231/5‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ‪ ،11/5‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ‬
‫‪.314/2‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ‪18/1‬ﺡ‪. 26‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪.274/3،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ .316/5‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،432/12‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﻃﺮﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪.16/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.39‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﺝ‪ 2:‬ﺹ‪.114:‬‬

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‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ ‪ :‬ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ‬

‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺷ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪.(1) ‬‬‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇﻬ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻄﻦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪  :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻄﹶـ ‪‬ﻦ ‪. (3)‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ‪ . (2) ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ‪ ‬ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﺒﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻫﻠﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﱴ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻠﻨﻮﺍ ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺷﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ! ﲬﺲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻴﺘﻢ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺃﻋﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﻮﻫﻦ‪ :‬ﱂ ﺗﻈﻬـﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻗﻂ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻠﻨﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺸﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻀﺖ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻼﻓﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻀﻮﺍ(‪ (4).‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﺔ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻗﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺒﺲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ):‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻣﱵ ﲞ ﹴﲑ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺎ ﱂ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﺧﺸﻴﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻘﺎﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪ ):‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻣﱵ ﲞﲑ ﻣﺎ ﱂ‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﺶ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻓﺸﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ؛ ﻓﻴﻮﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺑﻌﻘﺎﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻋﺰﺍﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(8‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻠﺘﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻼﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 36‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.151‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 33‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺛﻘﺔ ‪ ،269/7‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‬
‫‪.346،9231/3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪. 23/24‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ‪. 333/6‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪. 192/10‬‬

‫‪40‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ‬ﻷﻣﺘﻪ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﺸﻮ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤـﺰﻕ ﲨﻌﻬـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻕ ﴰﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺷﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻟﻠﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯ ﺃﺑﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺳﻪ‪):‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﺪ ﻗﺒﺤﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﻴﻞ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤـﺶ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﱐ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪):‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺣﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻓﺤـﺶ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ‪ ...‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺶ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻞ ﻓـﺎﺣﺶ ﺫﻭ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺒﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺤﺶ(‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ‪ :‬ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺶ ﻭﺍﳋﻨﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﻗـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻔﺤﺶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻒ ﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺶ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ ﰲ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﺪ ﻗﺒﺤﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪):‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟـﺐ ﺍﳊـﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﲟﻌﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪ - (5)‬ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪ (4)‬ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪  :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﹺﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻌ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺂ‪‬ﺋ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﹾﻟﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪(54‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬‫ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‪ (6)‬ﻓﲑﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﻟﹸﻮﻃﹰﺎ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﻠﹸﻮﻥ‪ (7) ‬ﻓﺎﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﻁ‪.‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺋ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﱏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﱰﻟﺖ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺤﺶ‪.774/1 ،‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺤﺶ‪. 325/6 ،‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ‪. 211/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 169‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.268‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 15‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.55،54‬‬

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‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ‪:‬ﻧﻘﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻡ ﻧﻘﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻬﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻮﻓﹸـﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪﻗﹸﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻪ‪، (2)‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹺﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻝ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ‪ ، (1)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪  :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺫ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ ،(3)‬ﻭﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺻ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ِ‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ﹶﻄﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﹶﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻬﹺﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺣ ﹼﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﺑﺄﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﳌﺎ ﻧﻘﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻬﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﻘﹾـ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻜﹸ ﹾﻔ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻧﹺﺒﻴ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻏ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﹾﻔ ﹺﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺑ‪‬ﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺑ ‪‬‬‫ﺕ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺣﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪ ...‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻈﹸ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬‫ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹸـﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻬﹺﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ‪ (4) ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻈ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺫ ﱢﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‪. (5) ‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻘﻀﺖ ﻋﻬﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻘﻀﺖ ﻋﻬﺪﻫﺎ؛ ﻓﺄﺫﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻧﻘﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪):‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ! ﲬﺲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻴﺘﻢ ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋـﻮﺫ‬
‫ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﻮﻫﻦ‪:‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺳﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻋـﺪﻭﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻗﻂ ﺇﻻ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘـﻞ‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) : ‬ﲬﺲ ﲞﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﲬﺲ ﲞﻤﺲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺳﻠﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﺪﻭﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺸﺎ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 177‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 23‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 27‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪. 161-155‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 13‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ ،346/3‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪.136/2‬‬

‫‪42‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺸﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻃﻔﻔﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻜﻴﺎﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻨﻌـﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺒﺲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺭﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺑﺘﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻘﻀﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺸﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﳌﻦ ﻭﰱ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﳌﻦ ﻧﻘﻀﻪ؟‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﰲ ﳐﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺛ‪‬ﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﳊﻔﹶﺎﻅﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﺓ‪(.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﺣﺎﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌ ‪‬ﻮﺛ‪‬ـﻖ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ‪(.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻮﻫﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺛﻴﻖ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻬـﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺮ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺘﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪(.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﺣﺎﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻲ ﺍﳌﹶﻮﺛ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻬﺪﺍ‪ ...‬ﻭﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﲟﺎ ﺭﻛﺰﻩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﻮﻟﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺑﺄﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﲟﺎ ﻧﻠﺘﺰﻣﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑـﻼﺯﻡ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺬﻭﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻔـﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ؟ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎﻗ‪‬ﻪ‪ (6)‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ـ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ـ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ؛ ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎﻗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻫﻮ ﻭﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪. 45/11‬‬


‫)‪ ( 1‬ﳐﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻬﺪ‪.‬‬
‫) ‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ‪.204/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ‪.311/3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻬﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.350‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 27‬‬

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‫ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ، ‬ﻭﻧﻘـﻀﻬﻢ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ ‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻌـﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻀﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺤﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘـﻬﻢ ﲝﻘﻴﻘﺘـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﻤﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹾﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﻟﻴﺒﻴﻨﻨﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻮﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺑﻮﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻬﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺮﺳﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﺜﻠﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻀﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺮﻛ ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻴﻨﺖ ﳍﻢ ﺻـﺤﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺪﻗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻜﺬﻳ‪‬ﺒﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳ ﹶﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺬﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﲔ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺐ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪  :‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻇﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺫﺭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻀﻬﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺮ ﹸﻛﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ‪ (1)‬ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ﹺﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻏﹶﺎ‪‬ﻓ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ):‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ ‪‬ﺍﻟﱠـﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺳﺖ ﺧﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘﻀ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎﻗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻈﻬ ‪‬ﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺛﻮﺍ ﻛـﺬﺑﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻋـﺪﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻠﻔﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺅﲤﻨﻮﺍ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣـﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺻـﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻓﺴﺪﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣـﺪﺛﻮﺍ ﻛـﺬﺑﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﺧﻠﻔﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺅﲤﻨﻮﺍ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹺﺒﻈﹸ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ـﺎﺩ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ )‪ (160‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺣﻠﱠ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 172‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺁﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ ،184-182/1‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ ،246/1‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،66/1‬ﻓﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪،117/1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ‪.370/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪. 67/1‬‬

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‫ﺱ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻃ ﹺﻞ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻟ ﹾﻠﻜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻓﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ‪ ، (1) ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌـﺎﱃ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﻠ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﺃﻛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺕ‪ . (3)‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬‬‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺑﹺﻲ ﺍﻟـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﳏﻖ ﺍﻟﱪﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻞ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺿﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﰊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﰊ ﻳﺘﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ ﻓﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﲰﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﺪﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ):‬ﺭﺃﻳـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ ﺃﺗﻴﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺟﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻣﻘﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻘﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻗـﺎﺋﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﺣﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳜـﺮﺝ؛‬
‫ﺭﻣﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﲝﺠﺮ ﰲ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮ ‪‬ﺩﻩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺨﺮﺝ ﺭﻣﻰ ﰲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲝﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﺟﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ؟‪ ...‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﺁﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ!(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻣ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ‬
‫ﺲ‪ (6)‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ) :‬ﻳﺒﻌﺚ ﺁﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﳎﻨﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﺒﻄﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳﺨﻨﻖ( )‪ ، (7‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪) :‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑ‪‬ﻌﺜﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ(‪ (8) .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ) :‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣـﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﻳﻘـﻮﻡ‬
‫)‪(9‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻭﻉ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺻﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﲣﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ‬
‫ﺏ ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ )‪ (278‬ﹶﻓﺈﹺﻥ ﱠﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻓ ﹾﺄ ﹶﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺑﺤ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ﹴ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫﺭ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹸﻨﺘ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﹺﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ . (10)‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻭﻋﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻛﻴﺪ ﻷﻛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤـﺮﺍﰊ ﻳـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﺧﺬ ﺳﻼﺣﻚ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺏ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ )‪. (11‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 161-160‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 275‬‬
‫)‪( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 276‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻭﺱ ﲟﺄﺛﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪. 59/ 4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،734/2‬ﺡ‪.1979‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 275‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ‪ ،562/6‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ‪.40/5‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪. 40/5‬‬
‫)‪ ( 9‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪. 326/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 10‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 279-278‬‬
‫)‪ ( 11‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ‪ ،550/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ‪. 39/5‬‬

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‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺢ ﺍﳋﱪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻌﻦ‬
‫ﺁﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻏﻼﻣﺎ ﺣﺠﺎﻣﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﲦﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﲦﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻦ ﺁﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﴰﺔ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﴰﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﰊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﻖ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲟﺤﻖ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﳌﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ ﺳـ ‪‬ﺪ ﺧﻠﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﰊ ﻳﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺒﻊ؛ ﻋﻮﻗﺐ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﱪﻩ ﻳﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﻛﺎﳌﺼﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻬﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﲝﺜﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﰲ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻬـﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ ﺟﺸﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻐﺮﻕ ﰲ ﻃﻤﻌﻪ؛ ﻟﻌﻨﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺫﻧﻪ ﲝﺮﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻣﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻃﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﺃﺭﻭﺍﺣﻬﻢ؛ ﺇﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﺴﺤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺅ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻓ ﹺﻖ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﹶﺄ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﺓ ﻓﺎ ﹾﻏ ِ‬
‫ﺝ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ﹴ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻨﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ﱠﻃ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ‪ ...‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﹶﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ﹺ‬
‫ﺸ ﹸﻜﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ ،(2) ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪:‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـﻜ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪ ‬ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻬﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪ .(3) ‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﳋﻄﺎﻳﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻮ‪‬ﺍﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺿﺄ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺴﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺧﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻏﺴﻞ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺧﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻄـﺸﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺪﺍﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻏﺴﻞ ﺭﺟﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺧﻄﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﻼﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌـﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ؛ ﺣﱴ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻧﻘﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ ﳛـ ﹼﻞ ﺑـﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺑﻘﱪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻌﺬﺑﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳝﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪،2223/5‬ﺡ ‪ 5617 ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪.1597 ،1218/3‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 6‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.222‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،215/1‬ﺡ ‪. 244‬‬

‫‪46‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺭﻃﺒﺔ ﻓﺸﻘﻬﺎ ﻧﺼﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺮﺯ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻗﱪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﱂ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﻫـﺬﺍ؟‪.‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﳜﻔﻒ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻴﺒﺴﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ ﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺑﻘﱪ؛ ﻓﻨﻔﺮﺕ ﺑﻐﺘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺒﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﻠـﻮﺍ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﱰﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺳﻌﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺃﰎ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻻﺕ ﲟﺤﻤﺪ ‪ ‬؛ ﻓﻜﻞ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﺭﺍﻙ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺙ ﻳﺰﻋﻢ ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻟـﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻟـﻪ ﺃﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻧﻘﺼﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﻹﻛﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﻼﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺭﺍﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﶈﺪﺛﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺑﺒﺪﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺪﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ؛ ﺃﺧﺬﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ‬
‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪،(5) ‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺫﻟﱠ ﹲﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪): ‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺩ( )‪.(6‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ):‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺪﻋـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺮﻭﻫﺎ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﷲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻫﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻬﺪﻳﺔ ﻇـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻋﻮﺍ ﺑﺪﻋﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﳑﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻤﺴﻜﺎ ﺑﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﺣﲔ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ( )‪ .(7‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ﳏﺬﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻐﺒﺘـﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ‪464/1‬ﺡ ‪، 215‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ‪ 240/1‬ﺡ ‪292‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ ، 293/1‬ﻭﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻄﲏ‪. 127/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ‪. 202/6‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪.253/13‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 152‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪ ، 959/2 ،2550‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪. 1343 /3 ، 1718‬‬
‫)‪ (7‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪. 342/4‬‬

‫‪47‬‬
‫)ﻓﻠﻴﺘﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻣﺮﺅ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺰﻟﺔ ﻳﻀﻊ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺜـﻖ ﺑﻌﻘﻠـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺳﻴﺌﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻟـﻴﺲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﻌﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﻳﺒﺘﺪﻋﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﰒ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺇﰒ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻋﻪ ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺗﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻃـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻀﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻬﺎﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﰒ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺟﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ -‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻋـﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﺇﻣﺎﺗﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﺇﰒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﰒ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﰒ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﰒ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺗﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺇﰒ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﲡﺪﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﲡﺪﺩﺕ ﺇﻣﺎﺗـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ( )‪.(1‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸـﻮﹾﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻋﻬﺎ ﺇﰒ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻻ ﺳ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﺰﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪ ،(2) ‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﳛﻤﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ -‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ):‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺯﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻭﺯﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺯﺍﺭﻫﻢ ﺷﻲﺀ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺬﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‬
‫ﺃﳝﺎ ﲢﺬﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﺟﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﺴﻮﻣﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﻣـﺴﻌﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻭﻻﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﲢﺪﺛﻮﺍ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﺗﱰﻋﻪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﺳـﻠﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠـﻴﻜﻢ ﺷـﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﻠﻘـﻪ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺤﻮﻛﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﺘﺤﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺐ(‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﺳـﻨﺎﺩ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‪) :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﳊﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﳊﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺸﺮﻫﺎ‪...‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻣـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺸﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﺎﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻗﺸﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻗﺸﺮ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌـﻮﺩ ﺃﳊـﻮﻩ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﳊﺎﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺸﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﻭﳊﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺸﺮ‪‬ﺎ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪(1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪.122 /1‬‬


‫)‪ (2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪. 25‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ 705/2‬ﺡ ‪. 1017‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ ،548/4‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،247/ 5 ،458/1‬ﻭﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ‪.38/1‬ﻭﻣﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪،526/7‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪،239/8‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،262/17‬ﻭﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ‪ ،86/1‬ﻭﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ‪ .438/8‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻊ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.193/5 .‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﳊﺎ ‪.242،241/15‬‬

‫‪48‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﻠﻌﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺁﻭﻯ ﳏﺪﺛﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻌﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺪﻝ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻌﻦ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ (2).‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻠﻌﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﻠﻌﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ ﺗﻠﻌﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺩﺍﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑـﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻌﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻠﻌﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺐ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﺬﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪.(4)‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﺭﲪـﻪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺫﻟﱠ ﹲﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ):‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻛﻠـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬
‫ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯﹶﻗﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‪ .(5)‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻉ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻴﻞ ﺣﻘﲑ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺑﺪﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﰲ ﻋﺰﻩ ﻭﺟﱪﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻔـﺴﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺫﻻﺀ()‪.(6‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻠﹶـ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻭﺯﺭﻩ ﻭﻭﺯﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀﻠﱡﻮ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ‪.(7) ‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫)‪(1‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪ ،661/2 ،1771‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪. 994/2 ،1366‬‬


‫)‪ (2‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪. 67/2‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪ . 84/4‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪.200/1‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 152‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 140‬‬
‫)‪(6‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪126/1‬‬
‫)‪ (7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪. 25‬‬

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‫ﻋﺎﺷﺮﺍ ‪:‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﺚ‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﶈﻜﻢ ؛ ﻟﻴﺘﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠﻔﹸـﻮﹾﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺬﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﹺﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻜﹸﻢ‪‬‬‫ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‪ (1).‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﻜﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﻘﺐ ﳊﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‪  :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪ ‬ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،(2)‬ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻳﺪﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺧﲑ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻡ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻌ ﱢﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻫ‪‬ـﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻟﱠﻠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪ ،(3)‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨـﺎﺯﻉ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﺈﹺﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻝ ﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ﹺﻡ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ﹺﺮ‪ ،(4)‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺳـﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪  :‬ﻓﹶـ ﹶ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹺ‬
‫ﺤ ﱢﻜﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻠ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،(5)‬ﻭﻧﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻮﻍ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺨﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺸﻘﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،(6)‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪‬ﻟﻤ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ ﹴﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺂ ﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‪.(7)‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﻜﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻜﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺮﺍﻃﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺩﱏ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺧﲑ؛ ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱰﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻘﺖ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻏﻀﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺬﺭ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻣﻐﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺃﺋﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻜﺘـﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﺨﲑﻭﺍ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ(‪ (8).‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﻴﻼ ﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻼﺡ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﻢ؛ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻀﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺑﺄﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻌﻮﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺬﻻﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.213‬‬


‫)‪(2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.41‬‬
‫)‪(3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.9‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.59‬‬
‫)‪(5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.65‬‬
‫)‪(6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.36‬‬
‫)‪(7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.49‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ .583/4‬ﻭﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﺝ‪ 2:‬ﺹ‪ ، 1332:‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪.346/2‬‬

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‫ﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺻﻼﺡ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻭﻻﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺧـﺮﺍﻫﻢ؛‬
‫ﻟﻴﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺧﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻭﺋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻـﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪) :‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻞ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﻛﺸﻔﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻗـﻮﻻ ﺃﻡ ﻓﻌـﻼ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻴﺒﺎ ﺃﻡ ﻻ()‪.(1‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲢﺮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﲔ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹲﻞ‬
‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ (3) ‬ﹶﻛﻼﱠ ﹶﻟﻴ‪‬ﻨﺒ‪‬ـ ﹶﺬﻥﱠ ﻓ‪‬ـﻲ‬‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﱢ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺓ ﻟﱡ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺓ )‪ (1‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩﻩ‪ (2) ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪ ‬ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺔ‪ .(2)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﺳﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻩ‪  :‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﺯ ‪‬ﻣﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹺﺑ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﻴ ﹴﻢ‪‬‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻗﺘﺎﺕ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪):‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳝﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺭﻃﺒﺔ ﻓﺸﻘﻬﺎ ﻧﺼﻔﲔ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻓﻐﺮﺯ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻗﱪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﱂ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ؟‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﳜﻔﻒ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻴﺒﺴﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺩﻟﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨـﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪ :‬ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﻮﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧـﺮﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺬﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ؛‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪.473/10‬‬


‫)‪(2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳍﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪. 4-1‬‬
‫)‪(3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 11‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪ ، 2250/5 5709‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪.101/1 105‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻚ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﻳ‪‬ـ ﹰﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ـﺎ‬‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣﲑ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،(1)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺴﻘﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪.(2)‬‬
‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﻨﺐ ﺑﻨﺖ‬
‫ﺟﺤﺶ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺰﻋﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺩﻡ ﻳﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﻭﻣﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﺻﺒﻌﻪ ﺍﻹ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺯﻳﻨﺐ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺖ ﺟﺤﺶ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺃ‪‬ﻠﻚ ﻭﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥ؟‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳋﺒـﺚ!!( )‪ (3‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺳﺌﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﺘﲏ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻓﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﺫ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻜﻼﻡ ﱂ ﺃﻓﻬﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻟﺖ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺸﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﺳﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥ؟ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺒﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﺭﲪﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺿﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﻐﻔﺮﺗﻪ‪(.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪) :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺬﻧﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺷﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺘﻤﻌﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ؛ ﻋﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﺤﻘﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺖ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺧﻠﺔ ﺫﻣﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﺮﺍﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗ ﹼﻞ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﻤﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺪﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺰﻋﺠﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﺼﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺿﻌﻔﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻮ‬

‫)‪(1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 16‬‬


‫)‪ (2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 41‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،1221/3‬ﺡ‪ ،3168‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،2007/4‬ﺡ ‪.2880‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ‪.583/8‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ‪.583/8‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ‪. 991/2‬‬

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‫ﻛﻤﻞ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰎ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ؛ ﻷﻳﻘﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻣﺎﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﲪﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻣﺎ؛ ﺑـﻞ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺳﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺰ ﹾﻝ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ـﺎ ﹶﻻ‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِﻹﹾﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻲ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺟ ﹼﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﱠـﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ (2).‬ﻭﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﻘﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ):‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻛﺬﺑﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﻘﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ(‪ (3).‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻣﺘـﻬﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﲢﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳜﺘﻢ ﻟﻪ ﲞﺎﲤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ): ‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﺼﺪﻕ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺭ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻴﻜﺬﺏ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺬﺍﺑﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳋﱪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳـﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻈـﻴﻢ‪:‬‬
‫)ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻘﻨﺎ ﻓﺄﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﻖ ﻟﻘﻔﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻜﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﺣـﺪ‬
‫ﺷﻘﻲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻓﻴﺸﺮﺷﺮ ﺷﺪﻗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻔﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺨﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻔﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻔﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺭﺟـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﰒ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﻠـﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ! ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ؟‪ .‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﺸﺮﺷﺮ ﺷﺪﻗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻔﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺨﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻗﻔﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻔﺎﻩ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻐﺪﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺑﺔ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ(‪ (5).‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻧﺒﻮﺗﻪ ‪ ‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﻭﺳـﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ )ﺍﻷﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ( ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.33‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.69‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪ ،52/1 ،108‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪.10/2،1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪ ،2261/5743،5‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪.2012/2607،4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻔﻀﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣـﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺭﺩ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺘﻢ ﳌﻼﺯﻣﻪ ﲞﺎﲤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﻊ ﰲ ﻗﱪﻩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﺮﺷﺮ ﺷﺪﻗﻪ ﻭﻓﻤﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﺨﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻜﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺰ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻭﻱ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻜﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺮﺍﻃﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬

‫أﺻﻨﺎف اﻟﻌﺬاب‬

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‫أﺻﻨﺎف اﻟﻌﺬاب‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻮﻋﺖ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻـﻠﲔ‪ :‬ﺗـﺮﻙ‬
‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻌﻞ ﳏﻈﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻱ ﺍﳉﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺲ ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﳏﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻃﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﻖ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ)‪. (1‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗـﺖ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎ‪‬ـﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﷲ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺟﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ ﻻ‬
‫ﲔ )‪(55‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹴﻝ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﹺﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ـﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺰ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ﴾)‪ (2‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑ‪‬ﻞ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬‫‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﻉ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﻈ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ )‪(176‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﻈ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺓ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﻻﱠ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻜ ﹾﻔ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠـﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ )‪ (177‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﹾﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻜ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﹺﺎ ِﻹﳝ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻟﹶﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ‪.(3)‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺰﺩ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹺﺇﹾﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻤﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﱢﻟﺄﹶﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﺔ‬
‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓﻜﹸﻼ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﺬﹶﻧﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪. (4)‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹾﻔﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺠﻞ ﻭﻣﺆﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻟﺰﻟﺰﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳜﺺ ﻛﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﺹ ‪. 86‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.56،55‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪. 178-176‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 40‬‬

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‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺸﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ؛ ﻋﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺬﻧﺒﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﴰﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺬﻧﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻚ ﳏﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﻫﺮ ﲟﻌﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﲔ ﻇﻬﺮﺍﱐ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﺧـﺬﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬﻢ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬‫ﺕ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ؛ ﻓﺄﺣﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻜﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (45‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻠﱡﹺﺒ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪‬ـﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪ ‬ﻌﺠﹺـﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪ (1) ‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﻨـﺐ‬ ‫ﻑ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺮﺅ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (46‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﻨﺖ ﺟﺤﺶ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ):‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺩﻡ ﻳﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﻭﻣﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ -‬ﻭﻋﻘﺪ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ – ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺃ‪‬ﻠﻚ ﻭﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺱ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﲑﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﺍﻙ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹺﺑﻈﹸ ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪ ‬ﻬ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺠﻮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ‪‬ﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ (4) ‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻧﻔﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻐﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﻐـﻀﺒﻮﺍ ﻟﻐـﻀﺒﻪ؛‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺸﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﰒ ﻳﺒﻌﺜﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺎﺗﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﺃﻭﺣﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻗﻠﺐ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﻙ ﻓﻼﻧﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺼﻚ ﻃﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﲔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻤﻌـﺮ ﱄ ﺳـﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﻗﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ‬
‫ﻚ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺁﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ‬ ‫ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱟ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﻞ‪ (6)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺎ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﳒﺎﺓ ﻧﻮﺡ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ‪  :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪ (7)‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪. 47 – 45 :‬‬


‫)‪( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،6650‬ﺝ ‪ . 2589/6‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪ ،2880‬ﺝ‪ ،42207‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺝ‪ 17:‬ﺹ‪، 138:‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ‪.192/4‬ﻭﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ ‪. 387/4‬‬
‫)‪( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.117‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺡ ‪ ،7661‬ﺝ ‪. 336/7‬‬
‫)‪( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 40‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 82‬‬

‫‪57‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺼﲑ‪‬ﺍ‪‬‬‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺧﹺﺒ ‪‬ﲑًﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹺﺑ ﹸﺬﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹺ‬‫ﺡ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﻔﹶﻰ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹴ‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ‬‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫)‪.(2‬‬
‫ﲔ‪‬‬‫ﺠ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬‫ﺠﺰﹺﻱ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻕ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﻕ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻧﻮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻵ ‪‬ﺧﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،(3)‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﺍﳌـﺎﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹺﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻗﹸ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻞ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱟ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ‬
‫ﻚ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ﹶﻗﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﻞ‪ ، (4)‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،(5) ‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺳـﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻥ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﺍﳌﺪﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺﺮ ﹺﻡ‪ (6)‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻳﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺼﺮ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﺝ ﻋﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﺭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺳﻴﻮﻝ ﻭﺃﻣﻄـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻏﺰﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬

‫ﺻﺮ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،(7) ‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬‫ﺃﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻓﺄﹸ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﺮﹺﻳ ﹴﺢ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹾﻠﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﺭﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺢ‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﹺﺒ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻩ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭﺿ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،(8)‬ﻭﻧﺼﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﳏﻤﺪﺍ ‪ ‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 17‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 13‬‬
‫)‪( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 82‬‬
‫)‪( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻮﺩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 40‬‬
‫)‪( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻃﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪. 78‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺒﺄ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 17‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 6‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 24‬‬

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‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍ ﹾﺫ ﹸﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺭﳛ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﱠﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪،(1)‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﻋﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺣﺎﻃﺖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺍﺋﺪ ﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﳐﻠﺼﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ؛ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺮ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹰﺓ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻓﻴ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﺻ‪‬ﻔﺎ‬
‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺗﺒﹺﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ .(2)‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﺢ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻐ ﹺﺮﹶﻗﻜﹸﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹺ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻣﺴﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎ ﺿﺎﺣﻜﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺭﻯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳍﻮﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺒـﺴﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻏﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺭﳛﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﺃﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﺣﻮﺍ؛ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻬﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ! ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻋﺬﺏ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪.(3)(‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ‬

‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺮﺣﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻨﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺮﺍﻃﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ):‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘـﺒﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﳍﺮﺝ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪ -‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻔﻴﺾ()‪ ،(4‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻧﻮ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺠﻞ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﺃﻣﱵ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻣﺮﺣﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪.(5‬‬
‫ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ(‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ‬ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ! ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﺌﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺕ‬
‫ﻷﺧﺮﺟﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻛﻢ(‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺯﻟﺰﻟـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺣﱴ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﺌﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﻷﺧﺮﺟﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻛﻢ(‪ (6) .‬ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪ‪ ‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺪﺙ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻬﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺣﺪﺛﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺟﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐـﲑ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 9‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 69‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪،978‬ﺝ ‪ 350،/1‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ‪،899‬ﺝ ‪. 616/2‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬ﺡ ‪ ،989‬ﺝ‪. 350 /1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ‪ ،418،410/4‬ﻭﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،105/4‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ ،491/4‬ﻭﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ‪.261/13‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.342/3‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ):‬ﻓﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ – ﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﺰﻻﺯﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺸﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻼﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﺮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ‪ -‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺯﻟﺰﻟﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪: -‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺑﻜﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﺘﺒﻜﻢ()‪ .(1‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻛﻌﺐ‪) :‬ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﺯﻟﺰﻟﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ؛ ﻓﺘﺮﻋﺪ ﻓﺮﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻤـﺮ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺩ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻒ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﻌﺎﺗﺐ ﺍ ُ‬

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺬﺑﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻋﺘﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ ﹾﻘﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﲔ‬
‫ﺖ ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻘﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﹶﻗ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﺋ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹸﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ‪ ،(3)‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌـﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (77‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹶﻔ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﳊﺠﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺳﺄﳍﺎ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ‪ -‬ﺗﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺞ ﻭﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺘﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭ‪‬ـﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻘﺮﻭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﺄﳘﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺭﻏﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻡ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ‪ :‬ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ)‪ (4‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪):‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ()‪.(5‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺣ ﹼﻞ ﺑﻘﻮﻡ ﲦﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪):‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﲦﻮﺩ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ‪ -‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ ﻣﺼﻔﺮﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ ﳏﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ‪ -‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﻢ ﻣﺴﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲢﻨﻄﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﻳﻨﺘﻈـﺮﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺑﻪ ‪ -‬ﻋﻴﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﻴـﻒ ﻳـﺄﺗﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ؟‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﺮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ؛ ﺟﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ﺻﻴﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻔﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺎﺿـﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ‪،‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪. 221/1‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ‪. 30/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 78،77‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ ، 371،351 /2‬ﻭ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ‪، 77 /14‬‬
‫)‪( 5‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪. 228/2‬‬

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‫ﲔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﺮﻋﻰ ﻻ ﺃﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﻫﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﰲ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻻ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻭﻻ ﻛﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺇﻻ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻘﻌﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻖ ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﺮﺓ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺓ ﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ -‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﺕ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺭﺟﻼﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻛﺄﺳﺮﻉ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﺖ ﺣﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻓﺄﺧﱪ‪‬ﻢ ﲟﺎ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺭﺃﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺣﻞ ﺑﻘﻮﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﺴﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ‪(.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬
‫ﺤ ﹰﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ ﹶﻓﹺﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‪،(2)‬‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ )‪ (28‬ﺇﹺﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪ ‬ﹺﱰ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ‪) :‬ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻀﺎﺩﰐ ﺑـﺎﺏ ﺑﻠـﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺻﺎﺡ ‪‬ﻢ ﺻﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻢ ﺧﺎﻣﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﺗﺒﻖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺗﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﰲ ﺟﺴﺪ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‬

‫ﺑﲔ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﻂ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺒﺴﻬﻢ ﺷـﻴﻌﺎ ﻳﻘﺘـﻞ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﹶـ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬
‫ﺾ‪ ،(4)‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﺘ‪‬ﻰ‪.(5)‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺑﺄﻣﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻓ ‪‬ﻤﻨﹺـ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﻳﺎﻫـﺎ ﳊﻜﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺮ ﲟﺴﺠﺪ ﺑﲏ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻓﺮﻛﻊ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺭﻛﻌـﺘﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ): ‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﰊ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﱐ ﺛﻨﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﲏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺭﰊ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻣﱵ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻣﱵ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﻕ ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﻧﻴﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺑﺄﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻤﻨﻌﻨﻴﻬﺎ()‪.(6‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪. 230/2‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺲ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪. 29،28‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪. 570/3‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 65‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺸﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 14‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪. 2216/2890،4‬‬

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‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬
‫‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﻬﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻬﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓـﺎﺓ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﲞﻤﺲ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﹸﺄﹾﻟﹺﺒﺴﻮﺍ ﺷﻴﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺫﻳﻖ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺘﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﲏ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺦ( ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ‪. (1) ‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻏﻨﻤﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻭﻩ ﻛﺸﻄﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻧﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟـﺬﻫﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﻗﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﺮﺟﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ ﻳﺘﻸﻷ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻜﻰ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻫـﻮ ﺑﻴـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺷﻜﺮ ﻭﺳﺮﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻡ ﻗﻂ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﺄﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱐ ﺃﻋﻮﺫ ﺑﻚ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ .(2) ‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟـﺸﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﺟﺎ( ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﲰﻌﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻴﻤﲔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ):‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﺑﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﱂ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳍﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻣﺮ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﻌﺎﺩ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺳﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺳـﺒﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺎﻝ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺣﺴﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﻋﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻋﺠﺎﺯ ﳔﻞ ﺧﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﺗﺮﻯ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﱂ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﲦﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻔﺔ؛ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺟـﺎﲦﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻟﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﺻﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ؛ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﻓﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﲝﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﲪﺘﻪ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻧﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﻂ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺑﻌـﺾ؛‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﻠﻚ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﱯ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﳍـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﲤﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﺼﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻌﻪ ﻳـﺴﺄﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﲰﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ ،226/ 7‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ‪ .283/3‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ‪.134/5‬‬


‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﻡ ‪ . 157/4‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 182‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ‪.11،‬‬

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‫ﺭﺟﺲ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲰﻌﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺭﺽ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘـﺪﻣﻮﺍ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﺄﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﲣﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﺣ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃﻟﹸﻮ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ‪  ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‪ (2)‬ﻟﻴﻜﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ـﺎ ﻛﹶـﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ‬‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﺄﹶﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺭﺟ‪‬ﺰﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ (4)‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺰﺯ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧـﻪ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺭﺟﺰ ﻋﺬﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻬﹺـ ‪‬ﺪ‬‫ﻉ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺰ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺁﺋ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪) : (6)‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳـﻞ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟﺌ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻃﺎﻋﻮﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻭﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳌﺎ ﻭﻗـﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺰ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ -‬ﻓﺰﻋﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺘﻪ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺰ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻓﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻔﺎﺩﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻡ؛ ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺰ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻃﺎﻋﻮﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﱪﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺻﺢ‬
‫)‪(8‬‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺑﺄﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﱪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﲪﺔ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺻﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪):‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﻬﺪﺍﺀ ﺃﻣﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪ ،1281/3 ،3286‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪. 1738/4 ،2218‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.243‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﻧﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ‪.97/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 59‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.305/1‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 134‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪. 41-40/9‬‬
‫)‪ ( 8‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪.41/9‬‬

‫‪63‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺼﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) :‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﻝ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ‪ :‬ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌـﻢ ﺍﻷﻣـﺔ ﻛﻠـﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺸﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ‬
‫ﺏ )‪ (45‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻏ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺑﹺﺂ ﹺﻝ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ُﺀ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ ،(3)‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻓﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﲰﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﺪﺏ ‪ ‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ‪ ): -‬ﻫﻞ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺎ؟ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻏﺪﺍﺓ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﺗﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺁﺗﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻻ ﱄ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱐ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻌﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﺎ ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻀﻄﺠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑـﺼﺨﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻳﻬﻮﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺨﺮﺓ ﻟﺮﺃﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺜﻠﻎ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺪﻫﺪﻩ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬﻩ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﳍﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﷲ! ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻻ ﱄ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ‪ (4) ...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﻗـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﺭ؟ ﺟﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﲔ‪ :‬ﳎﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻤـﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﻷﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﳌﻌﺎﺻﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺭﻭﺣـﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺘـﻪ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ ‪ ،1521/3 ،1915‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ‪.2165/5 ،5400‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺡ‪ ،1005/2 ،1379‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ ‪.2165/5 ،5399‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻏﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪.46-45‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺡ‪. 2585/6 ،6640‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﺣﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺜﻠﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺒﺖ ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﻧﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺃﺛـﺮ‬
‫ﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﺨﻄﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﺳﺨﻄﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﱪﺯﺥ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﺨﻄﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻭﻣـﺴﺘﻜﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺼﺪﻕ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻜﺬﺏ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﻢ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻮﺭﻫﻢ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻛﺜﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻗﻠﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﺒﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺬﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺰ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻮﺍﻃﻨﻬﺎ ﺣـﺴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻋـﺬﺍﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﺷﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﺎﻃﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺗﻐﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺭ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪:‬ﺍﳌﺴﺦ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺒﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ (2).‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﳋ ﹾﻠ ﹺﻖ ﻭﺍﳋﹸﻠﹸ ﹺﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﻬﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺗﻪ‪) :‬ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﳋﻠﹾﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺦ ﻗﺪ ﳛـﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﺿﺮﺑﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺦ ﺧﺎﺹ ﳛﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺦ ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺦ ﺍﳋﹸﻠﻖ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺼﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻘﺎ ﲞ‪‬ﻠﻖ ﺫﻣﻴﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺧـﻼﻕ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﳓﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﲑ ﰲ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻩ ﻛﺎﳋﱰﻳﺮ()‪.(3‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺬﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺴﺦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻗﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ؛ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻝ‬
‫ﲔ‪.(4)‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹰﺓ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﺳ‪‬ـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹺﺮ ﹺﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬ﻭﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﱠﻟﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ﹲﺔ‬‫ﺴﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (163‬ﻭﹺﺇ ﹶﺫ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸﻮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹺﺒﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﻋﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻈﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻬ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﺬﱢ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﹰﺓ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻘﹸـﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺲ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺑﺌ‪‬ﻴ ﹴ‬‫)‪ (164‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺫ ﱢﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹶﳒ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹴ‬
‫ﲔ‪.(5)‬‬ ‫ﺴﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪ (165‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹰﺓ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪. 79 - 77/1‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺟﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪. 225‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪ ،468‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺦ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 65‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪. 166-163‬‬

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‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳌﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﻫﻮﻥ‬
‫ﳍﻢ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺘﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺘﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺗﺼﺒﺤﻮﻥ ﺣـﱴ ﻳـﺼﺒ‪‬ﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﲞﺴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺬﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﺿﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻓﻠﻢ ﳚﺎﺑﻮﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﺿﻌﻮﺍ ﺳﻠﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻮﺍ ﺳﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺭﺟﻼ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﷲ! ﻗﺮﺩﺓ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﳍﺎ ﺃﺫﻧﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻔﺘﺤﻮﺍ ﻓﺪﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺩ ﺃﻧﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﺩ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺴﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻓﺘﺸﻢ ﺛﻴﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﺒﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﱂ ﻧﻨﻬﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻛﺬﺍ؟ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﺃﺳﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻧﻌﻢ!(‬
‫ﻓﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺮﺣﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺦ ﺟﺰﺍ ًﺀ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺘﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﲤﺮﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣـﺴﺦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘـﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻵﺩﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺷـﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﳛﺬﹼﺭ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ – ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﻩ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﳛﻞ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻞ ﺑﺄﺳـﻼﻓﻬﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ـ ﹶﻞ ﻣ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹰﺔ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﱠ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﹸﺌﻜﹸﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺴﺒﹺﻴ ﹺﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻞﱡ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـ‪‬ﺌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﻨ‪‬ﺎﺯﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺣﻠﹼﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ؛ ﺗﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻏﻨﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋـﺎﻣﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺬﺑﲏ‪ -‬ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ):‬ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻧﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﱵ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳊـﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻳـﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺯﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﱰﻟﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻳﺮﻭﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺴﺎﺭﺣﺔ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ ﳊﺎﺟـﺔ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻏﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﺴﺦ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﳜﺸﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻻ ﳜﺸﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﺭﺃﺱ ﲪﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﲪﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺼﲑ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺴﻲ؟ ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺢ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪):‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺰﻳﺰﺓ‪ :‬ﳛﺘﻤـﻞ ﺃﻥ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪ ،259/2‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪.69/6‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.60‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.2123/5268،5‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ‪،‬ﺡ‪ ،245/1 ،659‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.230/427،1‬‬

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‫ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳘﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪﻠﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻻ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛﺮ ﺍﳋﺴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ﻭﳝﺴﺦ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻗـﺮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻱ ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‪ ):‬ﺃﻥ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻛﻠﺐ( ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺯ؛ ﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺒﻌﺪﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳍﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺻـﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻮ ﺃﺭﻳـﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻬﻪ ﺑﺎﳊﻤﺎﺭ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩﺓ ﻟﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺜﻼ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺃﺳﻪ ﺭﺃﺱ ﲪﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﻠﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩﺓ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﳜﺸﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﲑ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻴﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺴﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﻧـﺲ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪):‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻧﺲ! ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﳝﺼﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺼﺎﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻘـﺎﻝ ﻟـﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﺮﺭﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺧﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻳﺎﻙ ﻭﺳﺒﺎﺧﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻼﺀﻫﺎ ﻭﺳﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺋﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﻀﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﺴﻒ ﻭﻗﺬﻑ ﻭﺭﺟﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻡ ﻳﺒﻴﺘﻮﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺤﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺸﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻐﲑﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻟﺖ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪):‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﲣﺬ ﺍﻟﻔﻲﺀ ﺩﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻐﻨﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻣﻐﺮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻖ ﺃﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﱏ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺃﺑﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﺎﺳﻘﻬﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﺭﺫﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﺃ ﹾﻛ ﹺﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﳐﺎﻓﺔ ﺷﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺯﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﺍﳋﻤـﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ؛ ﻓﻠﲑﺗﻘﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﳛﺎ ﲪﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻟﺰﻟﺔ ﻭﺧﺴﻔﺎ ﻭﻣﺴﺨﺎ ﻭﻗﺬﻓﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻛﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻝ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺳﻠﻜﻪ ﻓﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺧﺴﻒ ﻭﻣﺴﺦ ﻭﻗﺬﻑ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﻣﱴ ﺫﺍﻙ؟ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺯﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﻮﺭ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪.184/2‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪،‬ﺡ‪ .113/4 ،4307‬ﻭﻣﺸﻜﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.19/5433،3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪ ،2211‬ﻭ‪. 495/4 ،2212‬‬

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‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﺭﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺴﺦ‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﺴﻒ ﻭﻗﺬﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪:‬‬
‫)ﻟﻴﺒﻴﱳ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﳍﻮ؛ ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺴﺨﻮﺍ ﻗﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ(‪ (2) .‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪):‬ﻓﻈﻬﺮ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳜﺴﻒ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﳝﺴﺨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﶈﺎﺭﻡ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘـﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﺭﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﲢﺮﱘ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﺨﻮﺍ ﻗﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣﺴﺦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﲟﺎ ﺗﺄﻭﻟﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﶈﺎﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺴﻒ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺧﺴﻒ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﻭﻥ؛ ﻷﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻤـﺮ‬
‫ﺴﺨﻮﺍ ﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺯﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﻼﺀ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻣﺴﺨﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺗﻜﱪﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﺫﳍﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﳋﺴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣـﻮﺭ ﰲ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪) :‬ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻣﺴﺨﺖ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺻﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﻫﺎ؛ ﻟﺘﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﲟﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺦ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺧﱰﻳﺮﺍ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ(‬
‫ﻭﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﺜﻘﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪﻩ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ؛ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻼﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻖ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪ ،1349/4059،2‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﺼﺤﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺡ‪.392/4 ،1787‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬ﺡ ‪.135/4 ،1604‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪.130-129/3‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ . 255-254/1‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪ .485/1‬ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﲰﺎﻩ )ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﺴﻒ‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻈﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﳐـﱪﺍ‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺽ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻓﹶﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹾﻔﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺑﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎ ﺣ ﹼﻞ ﺑﻘﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ‪:‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‪.(1)‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻏﺮﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺒﺎﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺮ ﺛﻮﺑﻪ ﻛﱪﺍ ﻭﺧﻴﻼﺀ ؛ﻓﺨـﺴﻒ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ ﳚﺮ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴﻼﺀ؛ ﺧﺴﻒ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺘﺠﻠﺠﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ(‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺁﳍﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺨﻠـﺼﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩﺓ ﷲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻒ ﹺﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﹺﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺁﳍﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺀ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ‪ (3)‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻛ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﻑ ﺍﻵﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬‫ﺾ ﺍﻧ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ .(4)‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ‪ ‬ﻳﺼﻴﺢ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﱪ ‪ -‬ﺃﻻ ﺃﻳﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﹶـ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻗ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ، ‬ﻟـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ! ﺇﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻜﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪  :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﻮ ﺧـﺴﻒ ﺑﻜـﻢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀﻛﻢ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ‪  ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺾ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻜﻢ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬ ‫ﻀﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻜﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ‪  ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﹺﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ (5) .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬
‫)‪(6‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﳜﺴﻒ ﺑﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﲔ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻛﺬﺑﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺰﺅﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﺫﻟـﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻒ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬‫ﺽ ﺇﹺﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻔﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(7‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻔﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻘ ﹾ‬
‫ﺽ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 81‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪،‬ﺡ‪ ،1285/3297،3‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.1653/3 ،2088‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.68‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 65‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪. 220/7‬‬
‫)‪ ( 6‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪ . 220/7‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪.1311/4‬‬
‫)‪ ( 7‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺒﺄ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.9‬‬

‫‪69‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺽ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹺﺑ ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎ ‪‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻜﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ‬
‫ﺠﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ )‪ (46‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺗﺨ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪ (45‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻠﱡﹺﺒ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪ .(1)‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪):‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﲣﻮﻳﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻷﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﹶﺮﺅ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻳـﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻣـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﻗﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳋﺴﻒ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﻬﻢ ﻭﺷﻐﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺑﺒﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﲣ ‪‬ﻮﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﺪﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ؛ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻳﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﳍﻮ؛ ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺤﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺴﺨﻮﺍ ﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺨﺴﻔﻦ ﺑﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺧﺴﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺒﲏ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﺧﺴﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﲏ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﺼﺒﺎﺀ ﺣﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻟﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨـﺴﻔﻬﻢ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺴﻔﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻢ؛ ﺑﺸﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺒﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲣﺎﺫﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻴﻌﺘـﻬﻢ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺧﺼﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﻴﺘﻬﺎ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻭﲢﻘﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪):‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺜﲏ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻊ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳋﺴﻒ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘـﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ! ﺑﺄﰊ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺃﻣﻲ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻛﱭ ﺍﻟـﺴﺮﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜـﺮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻐﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ()‪.(4‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ - ‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﻴﺶ ﻳﻐﺰﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﺨﺴﻒ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ):‬ﻳﻐﺰﻭ ﺟﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﺒﻴﺪﺍﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ؛‬
‫ﺧﺴﻒ ﺑﺄﻭﳍﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ! ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ؟!‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﳜﺴﻒ‬
‫)‪(5‬‬
‫ﺑﺄﻭﳍﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺒﻌﺜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﺬ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ؛ ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍ ﻷﻣﺘﻪ ‪ ‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻳﺪﻉ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺣﲔ ﳝﺴﻲ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱐ‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪.47-45‬‬


‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ‪.441‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪. 560/4 ،8572‬‬
‫)‪ ( 4‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.483/4 ،8349‬‬
‫)‪ ( 5‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪ .155/15 ، 6755‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ‪.2210/4 ،2884‬‬

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‫ﺃﺳﺄﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻳﲏ ﻭﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺮ ﻋﻮﺭﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻋﺎﰐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﺣﻔﻈﲏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﳝﻴﲏ ﻭﻋﻦ ﴰﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻮﺫ ﺑﻌﻈﻤﺘﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﲢـﱵ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪(1‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﳋﺴﻒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳋﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﺎﺭﻱ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﺘﺬﺍﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻣﺎ ﺗﺬﺍﻛﺮﻭﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻭﺍ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﻭﻣﺄﺟﻮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺧﺴﻮﻑ‪ :‬ﺧﺴﻒ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧـﺴﻒ ﺑـﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(2‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﺴﻒ ﲜﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺎﺭ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﺗﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺸﺮﻫﻢ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﳐﱪﺓ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺳﻠﻒ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺍﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺆﺫﻧﺔ ﲞﺴﻮﻑ ﻣﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﻏﺖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻮ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺬﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﲔ ﻏﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨـﺎﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺣﲔ ﻣﻨﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺒﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺴﻮﻑ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺻﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪...‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ – ﺃﻋﲏ ﺍﳋﺴﻮﻑ – ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺟﺴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺘﺰ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻀﻄﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻮﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﻷﻣـﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺟﻠﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﺴﺦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻫﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪﺃﹸ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮﻥﹸ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ‪ .(3)‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲡﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﻭﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺰﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﻨـﻮﻱ‬
‫ﳝﺴﺦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﹸﻠﻖ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳋ ﹾﻠﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻫﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻨﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﻟﻴﻢ ﺳﺨﻄﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻘﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪ . 698 / 1 ،1902‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ‪ .25/2‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪،‬ﺡ‪، 961‬‬
‫‪ .241/3‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ‪،‬ﺡ ‪. 35/6 ،29278‬‬
‫)‪ ( 2‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪،‬ﺡ ‪. 2225/4 ،2910‬‬
‫)‪ ( 3‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪. 27‬‬

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‫ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻨﻌﻤﺘﻪ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻨﻪ ﻭﻛﺮﻣﻪ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪ ﻻ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻮ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﺍ ﻋﺒـﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳـﻮﻟﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻟﺰﺍﻻ ﻣﺪﻣﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺭﻳﺢ ﻋﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻀﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺴﻔﺎ ﻭﻣﺴﺨﺎ‪ ...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗـﺮﻙ ﺍﻟـﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻠـﻮﺍﻁ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ ‪...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺛﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺑﻈﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺧﱪﺍ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﻋﻴـﺪ ﻣﺘﺤـﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻳﻞ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻬﺎ!‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗـﻮﻉ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻠﺐ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﺒﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﳉﺴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻳﺒﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﻭﺧﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﺗـﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﶈﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ؟ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻃﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟـﻮﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ؟!‬

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‫ﻭﰲ ﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﺎ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﻜﺎﺗﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺍ ﳌﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﳚﺰﻱ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻩ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲣﻠﻮ ﳑﺎ ﻃﺒﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒـﺸﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻭﺓ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬


‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺑﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﺿﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻫﻴﺶ‪،‬‬
‫ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻄﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤـﺪ ﻋﻠـﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻥ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺤﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻧﺲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ‪ .‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳉﺮﺟﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺳﻌﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻃﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﻴﺪﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺑﻦ ﳘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻃﺒﻌﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟـﺮﲪﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﳛﻖ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺁﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ .‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺩ ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛـﻲ ‪،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ‪ .‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ(‪ .‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺩﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﳌﻦ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﲪـﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﻤـﺪﺍﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﳌﻦ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﰲ ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋـﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺩ ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻃﺒﻌﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺴﺘﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﻭﻳﲏ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒـﺪ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻄﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻄﲏ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻄﲏ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﳝﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﻴﺪ ﺣـﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -‬ﺷﻌﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻥ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﱵ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺅﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﲑﻱ ‪ .‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﺴﻨﲔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳐﻠـﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻤﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻭﺱ ﲟﺄﺛﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺯﻏﻠﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺮﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲨﻊ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺳﻌﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﳐﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒـﺔ ﻟﺒﻨـﺎﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺣـﺴﲔ ﺳـﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﺳـﺪ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻗﺮﻃﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳـﻒ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﲔ ‪ .‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﲪﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -‬ﻣﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊـﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺷـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ .‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻃﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪﺍﶈﺴﻦ ﺍﳊـﺴﻴﲏ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﲪﺪﻱ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑـﻦ ﺃﻳـﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻋـﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﻬﺎﱐ ‪ .‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻛـﻴﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺳﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻗﺮﻃﺒـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻥ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫ﺏ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪  :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺬ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ ﹺﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪. (1) ‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺯﻟﺰﺍﻻ ﻣﺪﻣﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺭﻳﺢ ﻋﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﺎﻟﺜـﺔ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻀﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺴﻔﺎ ﻭﻣﺴﺨﺎ‪ ...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟـﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ ‪...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺛﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺑﻈﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺧﱪﺍ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﻋﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺤﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺃﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻳﻞ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻬﺎ!‪.‬‬

‫)‪ ( 1‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.21‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪3....................................................................................‬‬
‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ‪5......................................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ؟‪11...................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻔﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﻄﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ؟‪12.......................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ؟‪14.........................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺭﲪﺔ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﻠﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﺎ ‪15.......................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ؟‪19...................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ .‬ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ‪24................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪25..................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ‪28...............................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪28...................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪30.................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺁﻳﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ ‪30..................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ‪34....................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪36.................................................................... .‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ‪37.......................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪39.......................................................................‬‬

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‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ‪40...................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ‪42......................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ‪44.............................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ‪46...............................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪47................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‪50............................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ‪51...........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻛﺜﺮﺓﺍﳋﺒﺚ‪51.......................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪52...........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪57......................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻕ ‪58...........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ‪58............................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ‪59..........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺤﺔ ‪60..........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺄﺱ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ‪61.............................................................. .‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ‪62.........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ‪64......................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺦ‪65............................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺴﻒ ‪69..........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ‪72...........................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ‪73..........................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪77 ...................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪78................................................................‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

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