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EC 135

Training Manual
Intro
Intro 1
July 2002 For training and information only
EC 135 -- Training Manual
EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND GmbH
Helicopter Training Center
P.O. Box 1353
D--86603 Donauwrth
Phone: (0049) 906 71--4481
Fax: (0049) 90671--4499
EC 135
Training Manual
Intro
Intro 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Foreword
Welcome to the EUROCOPTEREC135 Training Course. This course
was designed to instruct pilots and maintenance personnel on the
EC 135 helicopter.
The training manual is comprised of 9 modules and takes into
consideration, to a certain extent, ATA 104 specifications. It correlates
to the sequence of the factory training you will receive.
Annotation to the Training Manual
This training manual is not a subject for revision service. It is the
manufacturers practice to improve continously its products and
therefore the right is reserved to make without notice alterations in
design or manufacture which may deemed necessary.
All rights reserved.
Reproduction or translation in whole or in part of the contents of this
publication without permission of EUROCOPTER is not authorized.
1. edition December 2000
1. revision June 2002
2. revision July 2002
Modules
00 General Information
01 Lifting System
02 Fuselage
03 Tail Unit
04 Flight Control
05 Landing Gear
06 Power Plant
07 Standard Equipment (not applicable for this
manual)
08 Optional Equipment (not applicable for this
manual)
09 Electrical System
10 Inspections
EC 135
Training Manual
Intro
Intro 3
July 2002 For training and information only
Abbreviations
A
A Ampere
a/c, acft Aircraft
AC Alternating current
AEO All Engines Operative
Ah Ampere hours
AR Auto
ARIS Anti resonance rotor isolation system
ATA Air Line Transport Association
B
B.A. Bleed air
BAT Battery
BIT Built in test
B.L. Buttock line
C
CAD Caution and advisory display
CAS Calibrated airspeed
Cat. Category
CCW Counter clock wise
CDS Cockpit Display System
CG Center of gravity
CPDS Central panel display system
CSAS Control stability augmention system
CT Continuous test
CTR Center
CW Clockwise
D
DC Direct current
DCU Data control unit
DG Directional Gyro
DISCH Discharge
E
EEC Electronic engine control (P&W)
EECU Electronic engine control unit (TM)
EFIS Electronic flight instrument system
e.g. For example
EGT Exchaust gas temperature
EHA Electronic hydraulic actuator
EC 135
Training Manual
Intro
Intro 4
July 2002 For training and information only
EMER Emergency
ENG Engine
EPU External power unit
EXT External; extinguisher
F
FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FCDM Flight control display module
FCDS Flight control display system
Fh Flight hours
FLIR Forward looking infra red
FLI First limit indication
FLI Flight manual
FMM Fuel metering module
FMS Flight manual supplement
FMU Fuel metering unit
FRP Fibre reinforced plastic
F.S. Fuselage station
ft Foot (feet)
G
GA Go around
GAL; gal Gallon
GEN Generator
GRP Glassfibre reinforced plastic
GS, gs Ground Speed
GSE Ground service equipment
H
h; hr Hours of time
hPa Hectopascal
HTG Heating
HTR sw Heater switch
HUMS Health and Usage Monitoring System
HV Height velocity
HY, HYD, HYDR Hydraulic
I
IAC--AR Interstate Aviation Commitee
--Aviation Register
IAS Indicated airspeed
IC Intercommunication
ICP Instrument control panel
ICS Intercommunication system
i.e. That is (id est)
IFR Instrument flight rules
IFCO In Flight Change Over
EC 135
Training Manual
Intro
Intro 5
July 2002 For training and information only
IGE In ground effect
IMC Instrumental meteorolocical conditions
Imp. Imperial
in. Inch
IND Indicator
INV Inverter
ISA International Standard Atmosphere
J
JAR Joint Airworthiness Requirements
K
KCAS Knots calibrated airspeed
kg Kilogram
KIAS Knots indicated airspeed
km Kilometer
kt Knot
KTAS Knots true airspeed
kW Kilowatt
L
L, l, LTR, ltr Liter
lb Pound
LBA Luftfahrt Bundesamt
LDG Landing
LDP Landing decicion point
LEP List of effective pages
LH Left hand
LOAP List of applicable publications
LRM Line replaceable module
LRU Line replaceable unit
LVDT Linear voltage differential transducer
M
m Meter
MAN Manual mode of operation
max Maximum
MC, mc Maximum continuous
MCP Maximum continuous power
MEL Minimum equipment list
MFD Multi function display
MGT Measured gas temperature
MHS Mechano--hydraulic servo actuator
MIL Military standard, military specification
min. Minimum
MISC Miscellaneous
MM Mast moment
EC 135
Training Manual
Intro
Intro 6
July 2002 For training and information only
mm Millimeter
MMC Metal matrix compose
MMEL Master minimum equipment list
MOD Modification
MSL Mean sea level
MTBF Mean time between failure
MTOW Maximum take-off weight
N
NACA
N
1
, n
1
, Ng, ng Gas generator speed
N
2
, n
2
, Np, np Power turbine speed
NAV Navigation (radio)
ND Navigation display
NMS Navigation management system
No., no. Number
NORM Normal mode of operation
NR, N
RO
Rotor speed
NVG Night vision goggles
O
OAT Outside air temperature
OEI One engine inoperative
OGE Out of ground effect
OPT Optional equipment
OVHT Overheat
P
PA Pascal
PA Pressure altitude
PAX Passanger
pb Push button
PEC Position error correction
PFD Primary flight display
PLA Power lever angle
P/N Part number
POR Point of regulation
R
RA Radio altimeter
RAI Registro Aeronautico Italiano
R/C Rate of climb
RCU Reconfiguration control unit
R/D Rate of decent
RD Reference datum
Rev. Revision
EC 135
Training Manual
Intro
Intro 7
July 2002 For training and information only
RH Right hand
RPM, rpm Revolutions per minute
S
s, sec. Seconds of time
SAR Search and rescue
SAS Stability augmention system
SB Service bulletin
SEL Selector
SEMA Smart electro-mecanical actuator
SGL Single
SHED Shedding
SHP Shaft horse power
SL Sea level
SMD Smart multifunction display
S/N Serial number
SOV Shut-off valve
SPAS Stick position augmention system
SPIFR Single pilot IFR
sq Square
SRU Shop repalcement unit
STA. Station
STBY Stand-by
std Standard
SW, sw Switch
SYS System
V
V
H
Maximum horizontal speed
VHF Very high frequency
VMC Visual meteorolocical conditions
VMO, V
MO
Maximum operating speed
VNE, V
NE
Never exceed speed
VOR VHF omnidirectional radio ranging
VRM Video and radar module
V
TOSS
Take-of safety speed
V
Y
Best rate-of -climb speed
W
W.L. Waterline
WXR Weather radar
X
XMSN Transmission
XPDR/XTR Transponder
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
General Description
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
The Development of the EC 135 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Description of the EC 135 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Concept 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation of the EC 135 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Planes 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cockpit Arrangement 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Panel with CPDS 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Panel with CDS 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Triple Rotor RPM Indication 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque Indicator 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual TOT Indicator 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual nN
1
Indicator T1 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual N
1
Indicator P1 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Temperature and Pressure Indicator 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cockpit Display System (CDS) 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CDS Operation 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CDS Caution Display 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CDS Advisory Display 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Select Switch / Scroll Button 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque Indication 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Power Indication 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside Air Indication 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mast Moment Indication 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Quantity Indication 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Central Panel Display System (CPDS) 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Function of the CPDS 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPDS Modes 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAUTION / FUEL -- Page 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First Limit Page (FLI) P1/T1 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First Limit Page (FLI) P2/T2 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page for Electrical and Engine Parameters (ELEC/VEH) 70 . .
FLIGHT REPORT Page 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTEM STATUS Page 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAUTION/BACKUP Page 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAUTION/FUEL FAIL Page 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPDS Switch Over Functions 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal Mode 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivative Mode with one VEMD Line off 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivative Mode with CAD off 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivative Mode with CAD and one VEMD Lane off 90 . . . . . . .
Derivative Mode with both VEMD Lines off 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Menu 94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight Report 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overlimit 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Data 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Function Times 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Loading 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/C CONFIG Page 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPDS Software Versions Overview 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H/C Serial Number Changes Overview 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warning Unit 110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch Unit 116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overhead Console 118 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitot--Static System 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
Handling of the EC 135 124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lifting 124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jacking of the EC 135 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shoring 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weighing 128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leveling 130 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing and Pushing 132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking and Mooring 134 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
The Development of the EC 135
History
The first EUROCOPTER (ex. MBB, ex. BLKOW) helicopter with
glass fiber rotor blades was the single blade helicopter BO 102, a
captive trainer, operating for the first time in 1957. In 1961 the single
seater BO103 followed, the only helicopter to fly with one rotor blade.
In 1962/63, a new hingeless rotor system was created, and
successfully tried on an Alouette II, in Marignane, France.
From 1960 to 64 the high speed helicopter BO 46 was designed with
the Derschmitt rotor system.
In 1964 these helicopters were followed by the multi purpose 2 1/2 ton
twin engine helicopter BO 105.
TosubstitutetheBO105 after 20 years in duty, the BO108 was created
and flown on Okt. 15th, 1988 for the first time. Consultations with
potential customers -- operators of EUROCOPTER products and of
competing types -- showed that cabin volume should be increased and
visibility improved and that greater emphasis would have to be put on
mission flexibility (the cabin floor, for instance should be flat and
unobstructed to allow easy conversion from passengers to cargo
roles). In late 1992, the design was modified to provide
accommodation for max. six passengers, instead of the BO 108s
three, and two crew. The Aerospatiale developed Fenestron Anti
Torque systemwas adapted, and the EC135 as it is today took shape.
In the middle of 1996, the certification by the German (LBA) and the
American Airworthiness Authorities (FAA) was completed.
Engine Versions
The following engine versions are possible:
-- EC 135 P1
equipped with Pratt & Whitney PW 206 B engines.
-- EC 135 P2
equipped with Pratt & Whitney PW 206 B2 engines.
-- EC135 T1
equipped with Turbomeca ARRIUS 2B1, 2B1A, 2B1A_1
-- EC135 T2
equipped with Turbomeca ARRIUS 2B2 engines.
Both engine types are in the 450 KW class. The maximum take-off
weight for both standard versions is 2720 kg (upgrade to 2835 kg
MTOW is possible), with external load 2900 kg.
Cockpit Versions
Two major cockpit versions are possible:
-- CPDS (Central Panel Display System with multifunction
screens) together with analog flight instruments. As an
option, the CPDS can be combined with FCDS (Flight
Control Display System).
-- CDS (Cockpit Display System) with analog flight
instruments or EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrumentation
System)
u NOTE CDS Standard cockpit has been replaced by CPDS
cockpit.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
EC 135 Variants
EC135 P1
Pratt&Whitney Engine
206 B
EC135 T1
TURBOMECA Engine
ARRIUS 2B1, 2B1A, 2B1A_1
CDS CPDS CPDS+FCDS CDS CPDS CPDS+FCDS
EC135 T2
TURBOMECA Engine
ARRIUS 2B2
CPDS CPDS+FCDS
EC135 P2
Pratt&Whitney Engine
206 B2
CPDS+FCDS CPDS
Analog
Instruments
EFIS Analog
Instruments
EFIS
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
General Description of the EC 135
General
The EC 135 is a light multi purpose twin engine helicopter in the 2.5t
class. There are five seats in the basic version, they can be extended
up to eight seats.
Engines
The EC135 T is powered by two engines Turbomeca ARRIUS 2B, the
EC135 P is powered by two engines Pratt & Whittney PW206 B. They
are equipped with a digital engine control system.
Transmission
The main transmission is a two-stage flat gearbox (produced by
Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen ZF), which is mounted by an
anti-resonance rotor isolation system (ARIS) on the transmission
deck.
Main Rotor
The helicopter is equipped with a four-bladed hingeless and
bearingless main rotor (BMR). The inboard flexbeam enables
movement of the blades in all axes. Blade pitch angles are controlled
through integrated glass/carbon fibre control cuffs.
The main rotor control linkage system is of conventional design. The
hydraulic system for the main rotor controls is designed as a duplex
system with tandem piston (both systems are active). In case of a
failure of one system, the remaining system has sufficient power to
ensure safe flight operation and a safe landing.
Tail Rotor System
The helicopter is equipped with a Fenestron tailrotor system. There
are 10 blades rotating in a housing integrated in the tail boom.
The Fenestron is controlled via a Flexball type cable, routed fromthe
pedals to the input control rod of the Fenestron.
Tail Boom
The tail boomcan be separated fromthe fuselage, and consists of tail
boom cone, the horizontal tail plane with end-plates, vertical fin with
integrated tail rotor, tail rotor gearbox and fairing.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
Dimensions
10.20m
12.16m
10.20m
5.87m
3.51m
2.65m
3.20m
3.35m
2.00m 1.56m
5
0.66m
3
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuselage
The primary structure consists mainly of sheet metal design. Cabin
frame, bottomshell, doors, engine cowling, nose access panel and the
entire tail boom are made of composite material.
The cabin is accessible through six doors: two hinged doors for the
front occupants, two sliding doors for the rear passengers, and two aft
clamshell doors for the rear compartment.
Fuel System
The fuel system comprises of two fuel tanks, a fuel supply system, a
refueling and grounding equipment and a monitoring system. The
main tank and the separated supply tank with overflowtothe maintank
are installed under the cabin floor.
Electrical System
The fully redundant electrical 28 V DC system is supplied by two
generators and the battery.
Landing Gear
The EC 135 has two cross tubes and two skids. The crosstubes are
constructed to be bent to absorb forces during touch down of the
helicopter.
Dimensions
Figure 2 and 3 shows the principal dimensions of the EC 135.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Cabin Dimensions
4.11 m
2.32 m
0.97 m 1.79 m 1.22 m
1.50 m
1.05 m 0.74 m
0
.
8
9
m
1
.
2
3
m
1
.
1
5
m
1
.
2
6
m
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
Maintenance Concept
General
Maintenance covers all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance
activities. It also applies to the on condition maintenance. It is based
on condition monitoring by visual checks/inspections and diagnostic
features such as chip detectors, filter bypass indicators, boroscope
access, failure code indications, built-in tests, warning lights etc.
Maintenance Levels
EC 135 maintenance is split into three maintenance levels:
-- Organizational Level (O)
-- Intermediate Level (I)
-- Depot Level (D)
Organizational Level
The organizational level covers tasks of the daily servicing,
maintenance checks, inspections for condition, exchange of
components (LRUs) and quick, simple repairs as specified in the
aircraft maintenance manual (AMM).
The work generally takes place at the operators site. After a on the job
training these checks can be carried out by pilots, mechanics and
operators.
Intermediate Level
The intermediate level covers repairs on/off helicopter, extended
periodical inspections as specified in the aircraft maintenance manual.
To fulfill these tasks, maintenance facility, qualified personel, test
equipment and special tools are required.
u NOTE The maintenance manual covers all tasks of
organizational level and intermediate level.
Depot Level (D)
Depot level covers major repair or overhaul at the manufacturer or at
authorized service stations under industrial premises.
More extensive tools/test equipment and specialized personnel are
necessary.
u NOTE Documentation and spares for depot level tasks
will be delivered to authorized customers only.
u NOTE Information about inspections and intervals are to
be found in chapter 10 of this training manual.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
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July 2002 For training and information only
Maintenance Concept
Maintenance
Scheduled
Unscheduled
On Condition
Organizational
Level (O)
Intermediate
Level (I)
Depot Level (D)
Daily servicing, maintenance checks
inspections for condition, exchange of LRUs. acc. to AMM -- Can be carried
out by a mechanic or by the pilot (i.e. main transmission servicing).
Repair on/off the helicopter extended
periodical inspections acc. to AMM -- maintenance facility, qualified personnel,
test equipment and special tools are required (i.e. main transmission change).
Major repair or overhaul at the manufacturer or at authorized service stations
acc. to special documentation. Tools/test equipment and specialized personnel
are neccessary (i.e. main transmission overhaul).
Manufacturer/authorized customers only
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Documentation of the EC 135
General
The documentation of the EC 135 consists of two main groups:
-- EC 135 helicopter documentation written by
EUROCOPTER
-- Other manufacturers documentations
Layout
The whole documentation library is prepared in general compliance
with Air Transport Association Specification 100 and ATA 2100. The
customized documentation is available for certain H/C serial numbers
or a group of H/C serial numbers. A part of the documentation library
is delivered on CD ROM.
Revision Reissue
Changes in the helicopter equipment, maintenance practices,
procedures etc. update and replace the manual content. To ensure
that the EC135 manuals continue to showthe latest information, twice
a year the CDROMis replaced by a reissue. The preceding issue then
becomes obsolete and must be discarded.
ATA Numbering
The numbering systemprovides a procedure for dividing material into
chapter section subject and page. The number is composed of three
elements, which have two numbers each. The chapter and section
element are established by ATA 2100. Subject and unit element
numbers are assigned by ECD.
Page Number Blocks
Page number blocks are used for the different sections of the
maintenance manual to logically place the activities in sequence as
follows: Procedures have either a brief subtopic or a combination of
subtopics i.e. Removal/Installation, Inspection/Test. If subtopics are
brief, then they are combined in one topic under Maintenance
Practices. If the subtopics become lengthy so that a combination
would require numerous pages, the topics are broken out into page
number blocks.
-- Pageblock 1--99 System Description
-- Pageblock 101--199 Troubleshooting
-- Pageblock 201--299 Maintenance Procedures
-- Pageblock 301--399 Servicing
-- Pageblock 401--499 Removal/Installation
-- Pageblock 501--599 Adjustment/Test
-- Pageblock 601--699 Inspection
-- Pageblock 701--799 Cleaning/Painting
-- Pageblock 801--899 Repair
-- Pageblock 901--999 Storage
u NOTE Element 1, element 2 and the pageblocks are set
by the ATA 2100 schematic. The following
elements can be defined by the aircraft
manufacturer as required.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
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July 2002 For training and information only
ATA Numbering
28 -- 10 -- 00
Chapter Section Subject/Unit
1. Element 2. Element 3. Element
EC 135
Training Manual
General
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July 2002 For training and information only
Mechanics Documentation
The mechanic has available (CD or hardcopy):
-- Systems Description Section (SDS)
-- Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM)
-- Master Servicing Manual (MSM)
-- Wiring Diagram Manual (WDM)
-- Illustrated Parts Catalog inclusive Tools Catalog (IPC)
Pilots Documentation
The pilot has four documents available (hardcopy):
-- The Flight Manual (FLM) according Helicopter Association
International, HAI
-- Log Book
-- Pilots Checklist (PCL)
-- Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL)
u NOTE The Flight Manual, the Pilots Checklist and the
Log Book are hardcopies and must always be
present in the helicopter.
Operators Technical Control Documentation
The following documents are kept by the operators technical control:
-- Historical Record
-- LOAP (List of applicable publications, hardcopy)
-- Service Bulletins / Alert Bulletins, (hardcopy)
-- Service Informations / Alert Service Informations,
(hardcopy)
Other Manufacturers Documentation
The other manufacturers (engines, Avionics and optional equipment)
deliver their own documentation:
-- Engine Maintenance Manual
-- Engine Illustrated Parts Catalog
-- Engine Service Bulletins / Service Letters
-- Avionics Manuals
-- Special optional equipment (e.g. external hoist system)
u NOTE The valid manuals incl. the revision status are
published in the LOAP (list of applicable
publications).
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
FLM
T1, CDS/CPDS
T2 CPDS
P1, CDS/CPDS
P2 CPDS
Log Book
MMEL
SDS
WDM
IPC + Tools
AMM
Historical
Record
SB/ASB
SI/ASI
LOAP
ECD Helicopter Documentation EC 135
Mechanic
Pilot
Operator
CD--ROM
PCL
T1, CDS/CPDS
T2 CPDS
P1, CDS/CPDS
P2 CPDS
MSM
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Reference Planes
General
The frame coordinates of the EC 135 are defined in accorance with
LN 65619 (Luftfahrtnorm). All dimensions are given in the metric
system (mm).
The reference planes are used to determine locations on and within
the helicopter.
Definitions
Locations on and within the helicopter can be determined in relation
to fuselage stations, buttock lines and waterlines, measured in
millimeters (mm) from known reference points. Fuselage stations,
buttock lines, and waterlines are planes perpendicular to each other.
Reference plane is the plane at the longitudinal centerline of the
helicopter perpendicular to the cabin floor.
Fuselage Stations
Fuselage stations (FS) are vertical planes perpendicular to, and
measured along, the longitudinal axis of the helicopter.
Station 0 is an imaginary vertical plane forward of the nose of the
helicopter, from which all horizontal distances are measured for
balance purposes (see also reference datum).
Buttock Lines (+/-- Y Coordinates, Lateral)
Buttock lines (BL) are vertical planes perpendicular to, and measured
to the left and right along the lateral axis of the helicopter.
Buttock line (0) is the plane at the longitudinal centerline of the
helicopter.
Waterline (+ Z Coordinates, Vertical)
Waterlines (WL) are horizontal planes perpendicular to, andmeasured
along, the vertical axis of the helicopter.
Waterplane (0) is a plane 1505 mm below the cabin floor at fuselage
station 2160 mm.
Reference Datum (+ X Coordinates Longitudinal)
The reference datum (RD) is an imaginary vertical plane foreward of
the helicopter nose. The station is located is located 4000 mm in front
of the leveling point (center of double frame #4).
u NOTE The standard helicopter is well clear to the
reference planes in order to avoid negative
coordinates (X; Z) after exterior optional equipment
is mounted.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Reference Planes
X 1099.32
Z 1505
X 4000
X 2160
Y+
Y--
Z
X
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Cockpit Arrangement
General
The EC 135 is provided with several units for monitoring, warning and
control purposes. These units are installed to certain control panels.
Control Panels
The control panels installed in the EC 135 are subdivided into:
-- Overhead Panel
-- Instrument Panel
-- Slanted Console
-- Center Console
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
ND PFD NAV SOURCE EXT
DH
CRS
TST
BARO
POS
STD ND PFD NAV SOURCE EXT
DH
CRS
TST
BARO
POS
STD
Overhead Panel
Cockpit Arrangement (CPDS; FCDS)
Instrument Panel
Slant Console
Center Console
Center Post
Cyclic Stick
Collective Pitch
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
Instrument Panel with CPDS
General
The instrument panel contains most of the displays and instruments
and some of the control units installed in the helicopter. The
configuration of the instrument panel varies according to operators
needs and the associated equipment.
System Components
The instrument panel consists of:
-- Center Console
-- RH section
-- LH section
Center Console
The center console of the instrument panel contains the CDS (Cockpit
Display System) in earlier versions or the CPDS(Central Panel Display
System) with analog back up instruments and the warning unit to
display system/engine conditions. A chronograph is also included. A
number of switches for engine and electrical system operation are
located on the center console, too.
RH Section
The RH section of the instrument panel contains the
instruments/displays for flight control and navigation. A number of
switches may be provided for controlling the radio/navigation system.
A nozzle is provided for regulating fresh air supply.
LH Section
The LHsection of the instrument panel is specified for the copilot. The
configuration of the LH section varies according to helicopter
equipment.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Instrument Panel (CPDS, Analog Flight Instruments)
c
Switch Unit
Antiglare Device
Warning Unit
VEMD
LHSECTION
CENTERSECTION RH SECTION
CAD
Nozzle
Altitude Indicator
Vertical Speed
Indicator
Airspeed Indicator
Analog Clock
D-- HUMS
Triple Speed Indication
N
2
/N
RO
Artificial Horizon
HSI
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
ND
PFD NAV
SOURCE EXT
DH
CRS
T
S
T
BARO
POS
S
T
D
Instrument Panel (CPDS, FCDS)
Switch Unit
Antiglare Device Warning Unit
LHSECTION
CENTERSECTION RH SECTION
CPDS
Navigation Display
Nozzle
Analog Instruments
Primary Flight Display
ND
PFD NAV
SOURCE EXT
DH
CRS
T
S
T
BARO
POS
S
T
D
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 24
July 2002 For training and information only
Instrument Panel with CDS
General
All the instruments and indications to monitor the helicopter systems
are installed in the center section of the instrument panel.
Configuration
-- The following instruments, indicators and switches are
installed in the center section of the instrument panel:
-- Warning unit
-- Triple rotor RPM indicator (incl. N
2
indication for eng. 1/2)
-- Torque indicator
-- Dual TOT indicator
-- Dual nN
1
indicator (T1 engine only)
-- Dual N
1
indicator (P1 engine only)
-- Chronograph
-- Switch unit
-- Oil temperature and pressure indicator for engines and
main transmission (Different limit markers with the different
engines)
-- Cockpit Display System (CDS)
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 25
July 2002 For training and information only
Instrument Panel (CDS, P1, EFIS Cockpit)
SCROLL
DISPLAY
SELECT
SYSTEM II
MM
XFER LOW FREE LOW
BAT AMPS
GEN AMPS
DC VOLTS
LMT
SYSTEM I
PAGE
CAUTION
PAGE
VOLT
AMP
F
U
E
L
HOOK LOAD
Vne GROSS MASS
CDS
FAIL
BRIGHTNESS WEIGHT
(Vne)
2
OPT
1
P
F
M
T
CABLE
LENGTH
RAD ALT
LB KG LB KG
AUX SPLY 2
LB KG LB KG
MAIN SPLY 1
OAT
TQ
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
MASTER
CAUTION
c
Switch Unit
Antiglare Device
Warning Unit
Analog Instruments:
System/Engine
LHSECTION
CENTERSECTION RH SECTION
CDS
Switches
Nozzle
Altitude Indicator
Vertical Speed
Indicator
Airspeed Indicator
EFIS
PITCH
DAMPER
Oil Temperature/Pressure Indicators
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 26
July 2002 For training and information only
Triple Rotor RPM Indication
General
The triple rotor RPM indicator is part of the speed sensing system. It
is a 3--pointer instrument and indicates the RPM of the following:
-- Rotor RPM [ % ]
-- Power turbine speed engine 1 [ % ]
-- Power turbine speed engine 2 [ % ]
Operation
The system comprises of inductive pickups at the engines and at the
main transmission, each generating a voltage peak whenever the
appropriate interruptor passes.
Rotor RPM
The rotor RPM is indicated by the small pointer labelled R. The
indication range is 0 to 120 %.
Power Turbine Speed
The power turbine speed of engine 1 and engine 2 is indicated by
2 pointers, labelled 1 and 2. The indication range is 0 to 120 %.
Torque Indicator
General
The torque indicator indicates the torque, measured at each engine
output shaft. It is a 2--pointer instrument. The pointers are labelled 1
and 2.
The indication range is 0 to 140 %.
Dual TOT Indicator
General
The TOT indicator indicates the turbine outlet temperature at each
engine. It is a 2--pointer instrument. The pointers are labelled 1 and
2.
The indication range is 0 to 100 C x 10.
u NOTE The limit values might be different according to the
engine version installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 27
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Monitoring Instruments TM
Triple Rotor RPM Indicator
TOT Indicator
Torque Indicator
N
1
Indicator
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 28
July 2002 For training and information only
Dual nN1 Indicator T1
General
The Dual n N
1
indicator is part of the speed sensing system. It is a
2--pointer instrument and indicates the RPM of the following:
-- n gas producer RPM between the max. allowed (computed
by the FADEC) RPM and the present RPM for engine 1
and engine 2.
It is a 2--pointer instrument. The pointers are labelled 1 and 2. The
indication range is from -- 8 % to + 4 %.
Dual N1 Indicator P1
General
The Dual N
1
indicator is part of the speed sensing system. It is a
2--pointer instrument and indicates the RPM of the following:
-- Gas producer RPM for engine 1 and engine 2
It is a 2--pointer instrument. The pointers are labelled 1 and 2. The
indication range is from 0 % to + 120 %.
u NOTE The limit values might be different according to the
engine version installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 29
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Monitoring Instruments P1
N
1
Indicator
Torque Indicator
TOT Indicator
Triple Rotor RPM Indicator
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 30
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Temperature and Pressure Indicator
General
The oil temperature and pressure indicator is an instrument cluster
indicating oil temperature and oil pressure for each engine and for the
main transmission on six individual indicators.
-- The temperature indicators are calibrated in C
-- The pressure indicators are calibrated in bar
According to the engine type installed (TMor PW) the indicators have
different scaling and different limit markers.
The indicator illumination is adjusted with the aid of instrument
illumination potentiometer INSTR in the overhead panel.
More detailed description is given in the associated chapters.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 31
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Temperature-- and Pressure Indicator
Turbomeca
Pratt&Whitney
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 32
July 2002 For training and information only
Cockpit Display System (CDS)
Introduction
The Cockpit Display System (CDS) provides indication of aircraft
status information such as caution and advisory messages to the crew
accomplished by operating data and indication of special operation
modes. It consists of a self contained unit installed inthe center section
of the instrument panel.
Various switches facilitate operation of the device and allow control of
the indications. The brightness is automatically controlled with the aid
of a sensor.
An indication light flashes as soon as the CDS discovers an internal
malfunction.
The CDS is capable of identifying the type of engine installed
according to the wiring of the connectors.
The casing of the CDS is cooled by the cabin ventilation systemor the
air-conditioning system, if installed.
Associated Controls and Indicators
In order to provide proper function and handling, the following controls
and indicators beside the CDS are available:
-- MASTER CAUTION indication light
The MASTER CAUTION indication light is installed in the center part
of the instrument panel RH of the warning unit.
-- Switch CDS/AUDIO RESET
The switch CDS/AUDIORES is installed in the grip of the cyclic control
stick and enables the pilot and copilot (if dual pilot controls are
installed) to acknowledge the CAUTION indications.
-- Test Switch TEST/CDS
The test switch TEST/CDSis installed inthe overheadpanel. It triggers
the testing of the CDS indications.
-- CDS OVTP indication light
The CDS OVTP indication light is installed in the center part of the
instrument panel below the CDS on the left side. The light comes on
if the internal temperature is higher than 63 C.
Power Supply
In order to guarantee continuous operation even in the event of failure
of one of the essential busbars, the CDS is supplied by both
ESSENTIAL busbars via the circuit breakers located in the overhead
panel.
-- CDS/SYS 1
-- CDS/SYS 2
Data Storage
An CDS integrated memory has two functions which are as follows:
-- Storage of all of the CAUTION indications having occurred
within the penultimate minute
-- Storage of the failures reported to the CDS by the engine
control units along with their respective failure codes.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 33
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS -- General Arrangement
Master
Caution
ESSENTIAL I
CB CDS/SYS1 CB CDS/SYS2
Aircraft Data
Engine Data
ESSENTIAL II
CDS
AUDIO
RES
CDS
OVTP
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 34
July 2002 For training and information only
Configuration
The CDS provides the crew with information while at the same time
indicating the present state of various systems of the helicopter.
The CDS performs the following tasks:
-- CAUTION indication
-- Advisory indication
-- Indication of engine parameter (engine cycle counter),
FADEC--MEM--codes and malfunction indications
-- Indication of helicopters power supply voltage and current
-- Outside air temperature indication
-- Mast moment bargraph with limit warning light*
-- Fuel system indication
-- Calculation and indication of V
ne
velocity **
-- Radar altimeter indication
-- Indication of length of rescue winch cable*
-- Indication of load attached to external cargo hook*
-- Engine operating hours counter
* Only available when the resp. systems are installed in the helicopter.
** The key V
ne
is installed in early CDS versions only. Current versions
are provided with a key FUNCTION.
The CDS is divided into several panels to enhance overall view. Each
of these panels serve assigned functions.
The basic brightness of the indications is controlled through the keys
BRIGHTNESS.
Colors of Indications
-- Amber
The upper display whichis theprimary display is split into four sections.
In the upper part CAUTIONS are displayed separately for SYST I/II
and MISC. The color of the cautions is amber.
-- Green
The lower part of the upper display shows the ADVISORIES The color
of the advisories is green.
-- White
The color in the lower display which is the secondary display in general
is white.
Exceptions are made with the mast moment indication which is green
-- yellow -- red and fuel lowindications in the fuel display which are red.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 35
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS -- Displays and Controls
Caution Display
SYST I, MISC, SYST II
Advisory Display
Page Light
Mast Moment Indication
VOLT/AMP Key
Scroll Buttons
Display Select Switch
CDS FAIL Indication
BRIGHTNESS Keys
WEIGHT Key
Opt 1/2 Display
FUEL SYSTEM Display
OAT Indication
Electrical System Display
TORQUE Display
Engine Parameter Display
Default Values:
N
1
for TM, TOT for P&W
CAUTION PAGE Button
Brightness Sensor
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 36
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS Operation
Power Supply and Self Test
The CDS is activated by setting the battery master switch BAT MSTR
in ON position. This causes the CDS self test to be carried out. The
CDS checks also the presence of the following engine cautions for
SYS I and SYS II:
ENG FAIL ENG FAIL
ENG OIL P ENG OIL P
FUEL PRESS FUEL PRESS
HYD PRESS HYD PRESS
XMSN OIL P XMSN OIL P
GEN DISCON GEN DISCON
If the cautions have been successfully detected INP PASSED comes
on on the advisory display below the message CDS PASSED and
engine configuration (early CDS versions only). If a caution is missing,
INP FAIL appears in the center column of the caution display, followed
by the missing caution to the left/right.
The pilot has to acknowledge the messages by pushing the
CDS/AUDIO RES button on the stick grip. Subsequent to the
acknowledgement the CDSstarts normal operation. If the self test was
not successful CDS FAIL will appear on the display.
The indication light CDS FAIL comes on only when the CDS self test
is faulty.
Mast Moment Failure
If there is a failure of the mast moment system detected, the caution
MMFAILEDcomes up in the MISCfield (depends on the part number).
Continuity Test
Continuity tests of the connecting cables between some sensors and
the CDS are made during CDS power -- ON self test. A failure is
indicated by displaying the respective detector name with an
additional ...CT on the caution panel. If a ...CT -- caution is indicated,
the monitoring circuit of the corresponding system must be assumed
to be unable to activate the real system caution in case of system
failure.
CDS Test Switch
The CDS test switch, located on the test switch panel of the overhead
console provides test function of the display screens and lamps of the
CDS. Activation of the test switch causes the screens and lamps of the
CDS and the indication CDS OVTP to illuminate.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 37
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS Self Test
ENG FAIL
ENG OIL P
FUEL PRESS
HYD PRESS
XMSN OIL P
GEN DISCON
ENG FAIL
ENG OIL P
FUEL PRESS
HYD PRESS
XMSN OIL P
GEN DISCON
CDS PASSED
(Engine config.)*
INP PASSED
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
CDS PASSED
(Engine config.)
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
INP FAIL
CDS FAIL
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
HYD PRESS
All Parameters Available, Self Test Passed Signal HYD PRESS Missing
Self Test Not Passed.
* Early CDS versions only
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 38
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS Caution Display
General
The cautions are displayed in the CAUTION display, separately for
system 1, system 2 and miscellaneous.
New cautions emerging on the screen are accompanied by flashing
lines above and below the caution. Cautions, displayed before, are
extinguished from the display but stored in the background.
Each new caution indication causes the MASTER CAUTION light to
come on (The master caution light is located right beside the warning
panel).
The cautions must be acknowledged by pressing the CDS/AUDIO
RES button which is located on the cyclic stick.
After pressing the CDS/AUDIO RES button the master caution light
goes off and the CDS changes to the prioritized display mode. That
means, that all active cautions are displayed in sequence of priority.
If there are more acknowledged cautions than can be displayed on the
screen simultaneously, the PAGE light illuminates and the additional
cautions can be called up from the second page by pressing the
CAUTION PAGE button. If the CAUTION PAGE button has not been
pressed for 10 seconds, the top priority cautions are displayed.
u NOTE The following two listings show all possible
cautions/advisories at the time this manual has
been printed.
The caution configuration in the individual
helicopter depends on the helicopter serial
number, CDS configuration and optional
equipment installed.
The cautions will be explained in the respective
chapters.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 39
July 2002 For training and information only
Priority of Cautions
SYS I/II MISC
1 ENG FAIL CDS PWR
2 ENG OIL P XMSN CHIP
3 ENG CHIP TRGB CHIP
4 FADEC FAIL XMSN OIL T
5 FUEL PRESS ROTOR BRAKE
6 FUEL FILT AUTOPILOT
7 ENG O FILT
8 ENG IDLE DOORS
9 TRAINING TRIM
10 TRAIN IDLE GYRO
11 AUTOPILOT ACTUATION
12 ENG MANUAL F PUMP AFT
13 TWIST GRIP F PUMP FWD
14 F VALVE F QTY FAIL
15 F VALVE CL F QTY DEGR
16 FADEC MINR (only PW) HTG OVTEMP
17 DEGRADE (only TM) EPU DOOR
18 REDUND (only TM) BAT DISCON
19 PRIME PUMP EXT POWER
20 HYD PRESS SHED EMER
21 XMSN OIL P DG
22 OVSP HOR BAT
23 GEN OVHT AP REDUCED
24 GEN DISCON ADC
25 INVERTER FLOATS ARM
26 FIRE EXT DECOUPLE
27 FIRE E TST AVAD FAIL
28 BUSTIE OPN P/R SAS
29 STARTER YAW SAS
30 ENG CHIP CT XMSN CHP CT
31 ENG OF CT
32 F FILT CT XMSN OT CT
33 INP FAIL TRGB CHP CT
34 INP PASSED MM FAIL
35 PITCH DAMP
36 CDS TEMP
37 ALT ALERT
38 MSG
39 AUX VALVE
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 40
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS Advisory Display
General
The section below the caution display contains the advisory display
which keeps the pilot informed about operatingconditions of additional
equipment which is not essential for the flight.
Matrix of Advisory Combination
Basic Opt.
Equipm.
DPIFR 1
Opt.
Equipm.
DPIFR 2
2.
Priority*
BLEED AIR
Bleed air heating active
X X X
LDG LIGHT
Standard and/or
optional landing light on
X X X
P/S--HTR--P
Heating of the pitot pilot
side is active
X X
P/S--HTR--CP
Heating of the pitot
copiltot side is active
X
LDG L RETR
Search and landing
light retracts at rest
X
LDG L EXTD
Search and landing
light extended
X
HOOK UNLD
Load is < 5 kg
X X
AIR COND
Air condition system
active
X X
AUX XFER
Aux. fuel valve is in-
open position
X X
CA CUT ARM
Cable cut circuit test is
passed
X
IR
Infra red light is active
X X
IFCO
The IR filter is active
X X X
* 2. priority means: If all advisories are ON, the advisories of the
2. priority will not be displayed.
Display Select Switch / Scroll Button
General
The display select switch has six selectable positions which provide
information and date about several engine parameters, failure codes,
operation parameters etc.
The informations can be displayed by selecting a certain switch
position and pressing the scroll buttons to scroll in the menu.
Selectable Parameters
The following table describes the possible parameters in dependency
on the chosen display select switch position.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 41
July 2002 For training and information only
Display Select and Scroll Switch
SCROLL
DISPLAY
SELECT
2
OPT
1
P
F
M
T
Display Select Switch
Scroll Buttons
1
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 42
July 2002 For training and information only
Posi--
tion
Parameter Description
P
PARAMS
(Normal flight position)
Real timeFADECparameters canbesequentially selectedby means of thescroll buttons. They aredis-
playedontheengineparameter display. Thedisplay default uponpower is N1(TM) andTOT(PW)
Thepossibleparameters arelistedbelow.
N1 Gas generator turbine RPM [%]
N2 Power turbine RPM [%]
TQT Torque trim values of both engines [%] (TM only)
QMAT Torque trim values of both engines [%] (P&W only)
EGT Exhaust gas temperature [C] (TM only)
TOT Turbine outlet Temperature [C] (P&W only)
T1 Air temperature measured at the compressor air inlet and provided to the engine control unit. [C]
CLP Collective pitch resp. Linear--Voltage--Differential--Transducer--Position (LVDT) [%]
P0 Air pressure measured in both FADEC boxes [hPa]
N2T Power turbine reference speed trim value [%]
N1C N
1
Cycle counter
N2C N
2
Cycle counter
MEM CODES Numerical Failure Codes
F
FAIL MSG
The Fail Message provides abbreviated messages for active failure codes. They are displayed on the
advisory display. When viewing the FADECfailure messages and no fail code exists, a blank is displayed
continuously. The indication scrolls automatically for 3 seconds each when more than one exists. All of
the malfunction codes are stored. They are deleted with the next engine start when the N
1
RPMexceeds
20 %.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 43
July 2002 For training and information only
Posi--
tion
Parameter Description
M MEM CODE
Stored failure codes can be selected by means of the scroll buttons and are displayed on the engine
parameter display by means of numerical failure codes. These codes correspond to the abbreviated
messages under FAIL MSG and are described in the respective maintenance manual. Mast moment
exceedance MMEXC is displayed in the advisory display.
T OTh
The Operating Time counter provides automatic timer function to continuously keep and indicate the
engine operating time. The time is displayed on the engine parameter display.
The counter starts when the resp. ENG FAIL CAUTION disappears and the collective lever position is
above 10%.
It stops when the collective lever position is below 10% and ENG FAIL CAUTION is active.
OPT1
Enables the operator to select between VNE and RAD ALT indication on the upper option line by
means of the scroll buttons.
VNE* The V
NE
depends on gross mass, pressure altitude and OAT. The present V
NE
is calculated and per-
manently updated by the CDS. By pushing the WEIGHT button the pilot can choose between the
symbols > or <.
> means that the gross mass is equal or greater than 2300 kg (standard presetting).
< means that the gross mass is lower than 2300 kg.
RAD ALT * A four digit display indicates the radar altitude from 0 to 2500 ft and a RAD ALT light will come on if
the radar altimeter is active.
OPT2
Enables the operator to select between HOOK LOAD and CABLE LENGTH indication on the lower
option line by means of the scroll buttons.
HOOK
LOAD *
A four digit display indicates the loading of the external cargo hook. In addition the illuminated HOOK
LOAD sign comes on.
CABLE
LENGTH *
The display indicates the length of the lowered cable. If the rescue hoist is active the illuminated
CABLE LENGTH sign comes on and the moving mode of the hoist (lowering or retracting) is
indicated.
*Only when the respective system is installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 44
July 2002 For training and information only
Torque Indication
The torque is permanently displayed on the torque display in %.
Electrical Power Indication
The aircrafts electrical voltages and currents can be shown on the
electrical system display. The VOLT/AMP button enables the crew to
select between DC VOLTS, GEN AMPS or BAT AMPS. The default
setting is DC VOLTS.
Outside Air Indication
Outside air temperature is permanently displayed in C. The value is
also internally used for V
NE
calculation.
Mast Moment Indication
The EC135 is equipped with a hingeless and bearingless rotor system
and therefore high bending moments occur at the rotormast,
particularly during close ground operation. The bending of the
rotorshaft is monitored by a mast moment measuring system.
The mast moment indication consists of a bargraph and a limit light.
The bargraph is a three-color indication, indicating the mast moment
linear from 0 to 100% in green, yellow and finally red.
The LIMIT light remains on until a cold start of the CDS occurs.
If the input signal from the mast moment measuring system is out of
specified values, the caution MM FAIL will be displayed.
Fuel Quantity Indication
The CDSdisplays the fuel masses and fuel systemstatus of the supply
tank 1, supply tank 2, main tank and (if installed) auxiliary tank. Each
of the tank displays contain a bargraph display and a numeric text
display.
The supply 1 and supply 2 displays contain a LOW indication which
illuminates when the resp. tanks content is below a specified value.
The FREE advisory indication comes on when the free volume of the
main tank is greater than the current volume of the auxiliary tank.
The XFERadvisory indication comes on when fuel is being transferred
into the main tank (transfer valve OPEN).
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 45
July 2002 For training and information only
Outside Air Temperature, Mast Moment and Fuel System Indication
Outside Air
Temperature Display
Mast Moment Display
incl.
Limit Light
Fuel Display incl.
Low Level Warning
incl.
FREE and XFER
Advisory
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 46
July 2002 For training and information only
Central Panel Display System (CPDS)
General
The Central Panel Display System is an electronic indicating system
and presents various parameters of the onboard systems on three
screens.
CAD (Caution and Advisory Display)
The CAD displays cautions, advisory messages and fuel system
indications. If the VEMD fails, the CAD can take over and display
selected parameters from it.
The display instrument of the CAD consists of a color screen,
integrated in the left-hand side of the center section of the instrument
panel.
VEMD (Vehicle and Engine Monitoring Display)
The VEMD displays engine and dynamic system parameters. In
addition, it can present data relating to onboard systems (e.g. aircraft
electrical system, autopilot) and to optional equipment (e.g. cargo
hook).
If the CAD fails, the VEMD displays selected CAUTIONs. The duplex
configuration of the VEMD provides redundancy so that two
processing modules are each individually capable of taking over all
tasks.
Both the VEMDscreens are installed in the in the right-hand side of the
center section of the instrument panel.
Test Switch
The test switch triggers the CPDS to display the test page with the
complete color spectrum and the software version.
Circuit Breakers
The CADand the VEMDare supplied with voltage, each via two circuit
breakers, from the ESSENTIAL busbars 1 and 2. The circuit breakers
are arranged in the overhead panel.
CDS/AUDIO RES Switch
The CDS/AUDIO RES switch is used by the pilot and copilot to
acknowledge displayed cautions. It has the same function as the
SELECT key on the CAD.
The switch is installed in the grip of the pilots cyclic stick and, if dual
controls are installed, one is also installed in the copilots cyclic stick
grip.
Voltage Adjusting Element
An adjusting element for each voltage indication of the VEMD is
integrated in the sensor units, mounted to frame 1 in the forward part
of the helicopter. Hereby the voltage drop in the VEMD indication can
be corrected.
Maintenance Connector
Two maintenance connectors are mounted to the rear part of the
slanted console.
CPDS OVHT Caution
The CPDSoverheat caution is triggered by a temperature switch in the
instrument panel between 51 and 55 C.
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CPDS -- Locations
ENGI
ENGII
O
F
F
M
A
X
CDS
AUDIO
RES
CAD
Maintenance
Connectors
Switch
CDS AUDIO RES
Stick Grip
Circuit Breakers
Test Switch
VEMD
Voltage Adjusting Element
integrated into Sensor Units
at Frame 1
EC 135
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Color Code Ranges and their Meaning
The range of colors used for displays on the screens of the CPDS
covers five different colors in addition to black and white. Each
individual color has a specific significance.
Black Background, Text on colored background
White Scales, Display arrows (pointers), numbers, etc.
Yellow Limits, Defect symbols
Red Limits, Defect symbols
Amber Cautions
Green Advisories
Cyan Tech. Units, Selections, Demarcations etc.
Blue Fuel quantity level
CAD Operation
The CAD is operated by the following keys in the front panel:
Key Function
OFF Switches CAD on/off
SCROLL Selects different screen pages (e.g. second page with
cautions)
SELECT Acknowledges new cautions
BRT + Increases brightness of screen
BRT -- Decreases brightness of screen
VEMD Operation
The VEMDis operated by the following keys located on the front panel
of the display monitor:
Key Function
OFF 1 Switches upper screen and processing module 1 on/
off
OFF 2 Switches lower screen and processing module 2 on/off
SCROLL Cycles to next page, depending on operating mode
and status
RESET Initiates return to normal screen display or to
previously displayed page (depending on the
operating mode)
SELECT Selects a particular data field
+ / -- Input of values to data field
ENTER Acknowledges selection of a data field or a data entry
to a data field
BRT + Increases brightness of screen by continuous
adjustment
BRT -- Decreases brightness of screen by continuous
adjustment
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CPDS
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
CAD VEMD
EC 135
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General
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Function of the CPDS
Overall System
The CAD and VEMD are each powered by two independent power
supplies and their respective circuits are each protected by two circuit
breakers. As both are connected to ESSENTIAL busbars 1 and 2, their
operational integrity is ensured if one of the busbars should fail.
Status of the CPDS
With the CPDS GROUNDand FLIGHT status are distinguished on the
bases of the following parameters:
GROUND Status:
-- n
1
RPM engine 1 and engine 2 < 50 %
-- XMSN oil pressure < 1bar
FLIGHT Status:
-- n
1
RPM engine 1 or engine 2 > 50 %
-- XMSN oil pressure > 1bar
-- Angle of collective lever CLP
> 28.5% (Turbomeca) or > 17% (Pratt&Whitney).
Switch-on Sequence (Power up)
The CPDS is activated as soon as the aircraft electrical system is
energized on the ground. An internal self-test and an external self-test
are run to establish the functional integrity of the CPDS:
While the internal self-test is running, the message TEST IN
PROGRESS will be displayed on the CAD/VEMD and the soft-- and
hardware is checked.
After the internal self test is passed, the external self test is performed.
While the presence of the followingparameters is verified themessage
EXTERNAL SELF TEST IN PROGRESS will be displayed on the
CAD/VEMD.
SYS I MISC SYS II
ENG CHIP XMSN CHIP ENG CHIP
ENG FUEL FILT TRGB CHIP ENG FUEL FILT
FUEL OIL FILT XMSN OIL TEMP FUEL OIL FILT
XMSN OIL FILT
During the external test, the wiring of certain sensors is checked with
a continuity test (CT). If a failure occurs, the respective sensor is
displayed on the CAD as a caution with CT as a supplement.
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Training Manual
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Functional Schematic CPDS
VEMDSYS II
CADSYS II
VEMD
P1 P1
ESS BUS I
VEMDSYS I
CADSYS I
ESS BUS II
AUDIO
GONG
Master
Caution
TEMP
Air Cond.
ARINC 429
WARNING
UNIT
TEST CDS/
WARN UNIT
CDS/
AUDIO RES
CPDS OVHT
MAINT.
CONN
ARINC 429
FADEC
2 1
FCDM
Sensors
APM
HUMS
Pelican
Rack
CAD
VOLTAGE
ADJUSTMENT
VOLTAGE
ADJUSTMENT
EC 135
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After the external self-test the functional integrity of the peripheral
assemblies is tested. After the test has run, the following cautions will
be displayed on the CAD:
SYS I MISC SYS II
ENG FAIL+ F PUMP AFT** ENG FAIL+
ENG OIL P+ F PUMP FWD** ENG OIL P+
FADEC FAIL* EPU DOOR FADEC FAIL*
FUEL PRESS+ BAT DISCON FUEL PRESS
HYD PRESS+ EXT POWER HYD PRESS
XMSN OIL P+ XMSN OIL P
GEN DISCON+ GEN DISCON
INVERTER*** INVERTER***
PITOT HTR PITOT HTR
* only when the FADEC is switched off
** only when the fuel pumps are off or running dry
*** only if the respective system is installed
+ only these cautions trigger the INP FAIL, if they are not active during
the test.
If an error occurs during the test, INP FAIL will appear at the bottom
edge of column MISCand ayellowbar above andbelowtherespective
caution will flash. The corresponding caution will appear on the CAD.
After 8 seconds, the ACK NEEDED prompt is displayed on the upper
VEMD screen.
In case of a malfunction the respective caution will flash with a yellow
bow, above and below. This message has to be acknowledged by the
CDS/Audio Reset or the select button.
Test Pattern
If the switch TEST CDS/WARN UNIT or TEST CDS/WU is set to
position CDS, a test pattern appears with Cyclic Redundant Code
(CRC), part number and configuration file number.
Cyclic Redundant Code
Check sum for the configuration file deviations (manufacturer only).
Part Number
Last two digits of the part number identify the software version.
Example:
B19030GB05 corresponds to software version V2001A
Configuration File
All software versions are delivered with a basic configuration file.
Necessary changes (e.g. after installation of optional equipment)
might require the upload of a customized configuration file delivered
by EUROCOPTER.
Example:
Software version V2001A,
Basic configuration file L316M30S0001
Customized configuration files L316M30SXXXX
u NOTE The CPDS description shows the latest standards.
Major changes with part numbers and serial
numbers are shown in an overview page at the end
of the CPDS description.
EC 135
Training Manual
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Test Pattern (Example Software Version V2001A)
(1)
(8)
(1)
(7)
(8) (1) (8) (1)
(1)
(4) (3) (5)
(2) (6)
(1) (8)
(8)
B19030GB05
(8)
4E2F60A6
(8)
(1) (1)
L316M30S0001
(8)
Cyclic Redundant Code
Part Number
Configuration File Number
1 white
2 yellow
3 cyan
4 green
5 magenta
6 red
7 blue
8 black
EC 135
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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
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CPDS--Architcture for N1(nN1), TOT, TQ
ENGINE 1 ENGINE 2
N
1
Sensor
N
1
Sensor
FADEC 1 FADEC 2
CAD
VEMD
Module 1
VEMD
Module 2
CROSSTALK
Analog
Signals
N
1
Analog N
1
Analog
N
1
/TOT/TQ
Digital
RS 422
N
1
/TOT/TQ
Digital
RS 422
N
1
Duplex
TQ
nN
1
(only TM)
TOT (only PW)
Analog
Signals
TQ
nN
1
(only TM)
TOT (only PW)
TOT Matching
Resistor (only TM)
TOT Matching
Resistor (only TM)
(Upper
Screen)
(Lower
Screen)
EC 135
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CPDS Modes
General
The following modes are available:
Flight Mode
-- CAU/Fuel (Caution and Fuel Page)
-- FLI (First Limit Indicator)
-- ELEC/VEH (Engine and Electrical Parameters)
-- Flight Report
-- System Status
-- Caution Fuel Fail
-- CAU Backup
Ground Mode (Engines Shut Down)
In addition
-- Maintenance Menu
-- Configuration (AC Config Page)
CAUTION / FUEL -- Page
The CAUTION / FUEL page is displayed automatically on the CAD.
The fuel quantity parameters are displayed only on the CAD and are
no longer available if the CAD fails. The units of measurement on this
page can be changed in the configuration mode (A/C CONFIGpage).
The cautions inform the crew of defects in onboard systems. They
appear in yellow characters in the three columns of the upper half of
the CAD. The columns are divided as follows:
-- Left column: messages relating to eng. 1 and system 1
-- Center column: messages relating to non-redundant
systems
-- Right column: messages relating to eng. 2 and system 2
Cautions are listed in the order of their appearance (i.e. oldest caution
at the top). If there is not enough room on the page to display all the
cautions, e.g., 1 of 2 will appear at the top of the center column to
indicate the presence of a second page with cautions. This page can
be accessed with the SCROLL key, but there will be an automatic
return to page 1 after 15 seconds.
When a new caution appears, all the acknowledged cautions on
display will disappear, and a yellowbar will flash above and belowthe
new caution. At the same time, the MASTER CAUTION caption next
to the warning unit will illuminate.
The crew have to acknowledge the caution(s) by operating the
CDS/AUDIORES switch on the cyclic stick or the SELECT key on the
CAD. If the CAD has failed, the SELECT key on the VEMD must be
pressed. This leads to all cautions being displayed normally in the
order of their appearance. Also, the MASTER CAUTION caption will
extinguish and is free for the next error message (caution).
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CAD -- CAUTION/FUEL Page
CAUTION/ADVISORY Half Page
Fuel Indication
1OF2
0 32
EC 135
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CPDS Cautions
The following CPDS cautions can be displayed on the CAD or VEMD.
No. SYS I/II MISC
1. FLI DEGR P DAMPER
2. FLI FAIL NMS
3. ENG FAIL XMSN CHIP
4. ENG OIL P TRGB CHIP
5. ENG CHIP XMSN OIL T
6. FADEC FAIL ROTOR BRK
7. FUEL PRESS TRGB CHP CT
8. FUEL FILT XMSN CHP CT
9. ENG O FILT DOORS
10. ENG IDLE F PUMP AFT
11. TRAINING F PUMP FWD
12. TRAIN IDLE F QTY FAIL
13. ENG MANUAL F QTY DEGR
14. TWIST GRIP ACTUATOR
15. FUEL VALVE EPU DOOR
16. FADEC MINR (only PW) BAT DISCON
17. DEGRADE (only TM) EXT POWER
18. REDUND (only TM) SHED EMER
19. PRIME PUMP DG
20. HYD PRESS GYRO
21. XMSN OIL P AUTOPILOT
22. OVSP DECOUPLE
23. GEN OVHT TRIM
24. GEN DISCON ACTUATION
25. INVERTER P/R SAS
26. FIRE EXT YAW SAS
27. FIRE E TST HTG OVTEMP
28. BUSTIE OPN T1 MISCMP (TM only)
29. STARTER P0 MISCMP (TM only)
30. ENG CHP CT P PITOT
31. ENG OF CT CAU DEGR
32. F FILT CT CAD FAN
33. PITOT HTR VEMD FAN
34. F VALVE CL CPDS OVHT
35. ENG EXCEED
(only T2, P2)
HOR BAT
36. CA CUT ARM
37. AUX VALVE
38. RNAV
39. OWS FAIL
40. MSG
41. CAT A (P2 only)
42. FUEL
43. XMSN OIL T CT
EC 135
Training Manual
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u NOTE Cautions with the letters CT at the end indicate
negative continuity test of the respective caution
circuit only.
u NOTE If the CAD and one VEMD screen fail only a
degraded Caution list is available on the remaining
screen (see respective FLM).
Advisories
The advisories appear in green characters below the cautions in the
MISC column and provide the crew with information about the
operational status and optional equipment.
In certain cases, instead of being displayed on the first page, the
advisories may be displayed on the pages following pages. If a new
caution appears, the advisories will disappear until the caution has
been acknowledged. The green advisories appear initially in the lower
part of the display fields and then form a column, one after another,
under the cautions.
The following advisories are possible (depending on optional
equipment):
BLEED AIR Bleed air supply has been activated
AIR COND Air conditioning system is active
HOOK UNLD No load on load hook
S/L LIGHT Search and landing light is active
S/L LT EXT Search and landing light is fully
retracted
IFCO IFCO filter is active
IR ON The IR--screen of the SX 16 is active
SAND FILT Sand filter is active
AUX XFER Auxiliary tank fuel valve open
TRAIN ARM Training mode is active (T2, P2 only)
EC 135
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First Limit Page (FLI) P1/T1
The FLI page is displayed on the upper VEMD screen. It contains the
following data:
-- FLI zone for TOT, N
1
(nN
1
with T1), TRQ
-- Mast moment indication
-- Message zone
Mast Moment Indicator
The mast moment indicator indicates the bending moment of the main
rotor. When entering the yellowrange (50%MM) a yellowline appears
under the letters MM. When entering the red range (66%MM) the line
reverts to red, the LIMIT symbol and the warning GONG come on.
The time of exceedance and the maximum value (last flight and
accumulation) can be displayed in the maintenance mode.
u NOTE A logbook entry and maintenance action is
required if the red region has been entered.
Periodical maintenance action is required if a
helicopter is operated without or with a defective
mast moment system.
Message Zone
The message zone displays messages concerning failures and
detected overlimits that are either not visible on the current display
page or require action by the crew e.g. to switch off a screen.
The following list shows the messages in the order of their priority:
-- LANE 1 FAILED PRESS OFF1
-- LANE 2 FAILED PRESS OFF2
-- CAD FAILED PRESS OFF
-- CAUTION DETECTED
-- VEH PARAM OVER LIMIT
-- GEN PARAM OVER LIMIT (normal during engine starting)
-- BAT PARAM OVER LIMIT
-- DC VOLT PARAM OVER LIMIT
-- CROSST TALK FAILED PRESS OFF2
-- VEMD BRIGHTNESS CONTROL FAILED
-- CAD BRIGHTNESS CONTROL FAILED
EC 135
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First Limit Page P1/T1 (Example TM 2B1)
FLI DEGR
FLI FAIL
FLI DEGR
may appear as
CAUTION on both sides
Solid white rectangle
marks the parameter represented
by the pointer
ENG FAIL
FADEC FAIL
ENG MANU
IDLE
TRAIN
TRAIN IDLE
may appear as CAUTION on both sides
Mast Moment Indication
Message Zone
LIMIT Warning
LIMIT Counter
T
ENG
FAIL
EC 135
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FLI ZONE P1/T1
The engine 1 and 2 parameters are generated by the two FADEC
systems and are displayed on the screen as numerical values with the
corresponding measurement units.
In addition, the parameter that is nearest to its limit is displayed as an
analog pointer on a scale (i.e. First Limit Indication) and the numerical
value of the parameter indicated by the pointer is marked by a white
rectangle.
If a parameter fails, it is displayed in yellow characters without its
associated numeric value.
Limit Light/Counter
AEO above MCP
Five seconds before the 5 min power (AEO) time limit is reached the
red box, the limit light and the counter appear and the box flashes.
When the time limit is expired, the red box is fixed.
OEI above MCP
When entering the 2.5 min power (OEI) the counter appears
immedeately. The limit light and the red box come on 5 sec before the
timelimit is reached. The box flashes andbecomes fixedwhen thetime
limit is expired.
When the pilot leaves the limited range the limit box and the audio tone
stay for another 5 sec.
EC 135
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FLI -- Marking Symbology on Analog Display P1/T1 (Example TM 2B1)
Max. TOT starting (appears only during starting)
TOT starting transient (appears only during starting)
TM max 5 sec, PW max. 2 sec.
AEO Max. Takeoff Power
OEI Max. Continuous Power
OEI 2.5 min Power
OEI Transient, max. 20 sec
AEO Take-off Power Range, max. 5 min
T Training Mode activated
T
EC 135
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First Limit Page (FLI) P2/T2
The FLI page is displayed on the upper VEMD screen. It contains the
following data:
-- FLI zone for TOT, N
1
(nN
1
with T2), TRQ
-- Mast moment indication
-- Message zone
Mast Moment Indicator
The mast moment indicator indicates the bending moment of the main
rotor. When entering the yellowrange (50%MM) a yellowline appears
under the letters MM. When entering the red range (66%MM) the line
reverts to red, the LIMIT symbol and the warning GONG come on.
The time of exceedance and the maximum value (last flight and
accumulation) can be displayed in the maintenance mode.
u NOTE A logbook entry and maintenance action is
required if the red region has been entered.
Periodical maintenance action is required if a
helicopter is operated without or with a defective
mast moment system.
Message Zone
The message zone displays messages concerning failures and
detected overlimits that are either not visible on the current display
page or require action by the crew e.g. to switch off a screen.
The following list shows the messages in the order of their priority:
-- LANE 1 FAILED PRESS OFF1
-- LANE 2 FAILED PRESS OFF2
-- CAD FAILED PRESS OFF
-- CAUTION DETECTED
-- VEH PARAM OVER LIMIT
-- GEN PARAM OVER LIMIT (normal during engine starting)
-- BAT PARAM OVER LIMIT
-- DC VOLT PARAM OVER LIMIT
-- CROSST TALK FAILED PRESS OFF2
-- VEMD BRIGHTNESS CONTROL FAILED
-- CAD BRIGHTNESS CONTROL FAILED
EC 135
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First Limit Page T2 (P2 highly similar)
FLI DEGR
FLI FAIL
FLI DEGR
may appear as
CAUTION on both sides
Solid white rectangle
marks the parameter represented
by the pointer
ENG FAIL
FADEC FAIL
ENG MANU
IDLE
TRAIN
TRAIN IDLE
may appear as CAUTION on both sides
Mast Moment Indication
Message Zone
LIMIT Warning
LIMIT Counter
ENG
FAIL
T
EC 135
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FLI ZONE P2/T2
The engine 1 and 2 parameters are generated by the two FADEC
systems and are displayed on the screen as numerical values with the
corresponding measurement units.
In addition, the parameter that is nearest to its limit is displayed as an
analog pointer on a scale (i.e. First Limit Indication) and the numerical
value of the parameter indicated by the pointer is marked by a white
rectangle.
If a parameter fails, it is displayed in yellow characters without its
associated numeric value.
AEO Power Bands
When entering the solid yellowrange the max. continuous power band
is left and the H/C is operating in the 5 take-off power band.
OEI Power Bands
If a OEI situation is detected the 30 power topping function is the
default setting. Thus the 30 power bandis available(small redtriangle
in the FLI pointing at the 30 power limit; indication OEI HI on the right
side in the FLI, respective digital value(s) red blinking underlined when
band is entered).
If desired the pilot can select the 2 power topping function (selector
switch on the collective). The small red triangle appears at the 2 power
limit and the indication OEI LO is shown in the FLI (respective digital
value(s) yellow steady underlined when band is entered).
Countdown Timer
AEO above MCP
5 countdown timer
Five seconds before the time limit is reached the red flashing box, the
limit symbol and the counter appear. When the time limit is expired, the
red box is fixed.
OEI above MCP
2.5 countdown timer (P2 only)
Always becomes active if the power is above OEI MCP and within the
2 power band without entering the 30 power band. In this case the
2 power band is extended for 30 (derated 30 power).
2.5 countdown timer (T2 only)
The 2.5 countdown timer is always active if the power is above the
MCP.
2 countdown timer (P2 only)
Becomes active if the power is above OEI MCPand within the 2 power
band and there has been an uninterrupted usage of the 30 power
band for more than 5 seconds during continued operation above OEI
MCP.
30 countdown timer
Becomes active if the power is above OEI MCP and within the 30
power band.
Only one counter is presented to the pilot at a given time, providing the
remaining time within the power band he is using.
Internally the times in the 2 and 30 power band are accumulated.
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FLI -- Marking Symbology on Analog Display (Example T2, P2 highly similar)
OEI LO
Topping Symbol indicates the selected OEI
2.0 min. or 30 sec. power limitation
OEI HI
OEI LO appears, when operating in the OEI 2.0 min. power band
OEI HI appears, when operating in the OEI 30 sec. power band
Max. TOT starting (appears only during starting)
TOT starting transient (appears only during starting)
TM max. 5 sec, PW max. 2 sec.
AEO Take-off Power Range, max. 5 min
AEO Max Takeoff Power
OEI Max. Continuous Power
OEI 2.0 min Power
OEI Transient, max. 30 sec
Training mode activated
T
T
EC 135
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ENG EXCEED Caution
EC135 T2
The ENG EXCEED caution appears on ground under the following
conditions:
Exceedance of a single time excursion in a OEI power band (2 or 30).
Significant exceedance of the 30 power band with reaching and
maintaining the following values for more than 5 seconds: 136% Tq,
4.8%nN
1
(only possible in case of topping function failure) or 1024 C
TOT.
If due to the cumulated total time in on or both OEI power bands any
engine parameter does not allow a minimum of 3 pulls with full single
excursion time, i.e. if the remaining total time is less than 90s and 360s
for the 30 and 2 OEI power band respectively.
EC135 P2
The ENG EXCEED caution appears in flight under the following
conditions:
Significant exceedance of the 30 power band with reaching and
maintaining the following values for more than 5 seconds: 133% Tq,
104.3% N
1
or 990 C TOT (only possible in case of topping function
failure).
Exceedance of a single time excursion in a OEI power band (2 or 30).
In the latest FADECsoftware version the caution disappears when the
respective power band is left.
The total allowed time in a OEI power band is expired.
The ENG EXCEED caution appears on ground under the following
conditions:
If due to the cumulated total time in one or both OEI power bands any
engine parameter does not allow a minimum of 3 pulls with full single
excursion time i.e. if the remaining total time is less than 90s and 360s
for the 30 and 2 OEI power band respectively.
u NOTE The ENG EXCEED caution is stored in the FADEC
and appears at the next engine start up.
Warnings
LIMIT symbol with box and audio warning GONG
Two different limit conditions for the activation of the LIMIT light with
box and the audio GONG are possible:
-- A LIMIT symbol with box activation due to OEI/AEO
time limit exceedance.
As soon as only 5 s of the allowed time in either power band (5, 2 or
30) are left, a LIMIT symbol with a blinking red box appears. This
provides the pilot with a precaution that the allowed time within the
power band is about to expire. If the allowed single time excursion is
consumed (counter reaches 0), the box stops blinking, turns into
steady state. The audio GONG is triggered.
-- A LIMIT symbol with box and activation due to limiting
value exceedance.
Exceedance of one of the engine or H/C limiting parameters (30
Power, 5 take-off power, mastmoment) triggers the LIMIT symbol with
the box in the steady state together with the audio signal at once.
u NOTE Whenever red limit has been reached or an
exceedance is evident, a logbook entry and
maintenance action is required. Depending on time
and maximum value the lifetime of the major
components can be reduced or totally expired.
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Digital Data Display
A value within the
normal operating
range.
A solid white rectangle associated with a parameter indicates the parameter shown by the needle.
If operation in a yellow range is detected, a countdown timer is automatically switched on and the
digital data is yellow underlined.
If operation in the red range is detected, the red underlining of the digits flashes.
If a parameter is invalid,
the numerical value disap-
pears and a yellow failure
symbol appears.
EC 135
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Page for Electrical and Engine Parameters
(ELEC/VEH)
The page for the parameters of the engines and of the electrical
system are displayed automatically on the lower VEMD screen. The
units for the various parameters on this page can be selected in the
configuration mode.
The following parameters ca be displayed:
-- Outside air temperature OAT
-- Load on cargo hook/cable length external hoist (options)
-- Voltage and current
-- Oil pressure and oil temperature of the engines and of the
main transmission
The voltage and current indication automatically shows the voltage of
the generators. This setting can be changed to generator current or
battery current (i.e. BAT display) by operation of the SELECT and +
and -- keys. If a value is invalid, XXX is displayed in yellowcharacters.
The oil pressure and temperature indication consists of a vertical bar
with upper and lower limits for each parameter and a numeric display
with associated unit of measurement.
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Engine and Electrical System Parameter
kg
HOOK
Generator Field:
DC [V], GEN [AMPS], BAT [AMPS]
Outside Air Temperature
External Load: [kg, lb]
Bar Graph Markings
for Pressure and Temperature
[bar. psi. C]
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ELEC/VEH -- Bar Graph Display
Normal operation range Warning range, the numeric
value is yellow underlined
Maximum range, the numeric
value is red underlined
(blinking) and the yellow and
red markings grow
If there is an unvalid para-
meter, a yellow symbol
appears
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FLIGHT REPORT Page
TheELEC/VEHpagewill automatically switch tothe FLIGHTREPORT
page only if the engine N
1
RPMdrops below50 %and the oil pressure
in the main transmission is less than 1 bar.
The page contains the following data:
-- Flight number and flight duration
-- Gas generator turbine cycles
-- Power turbine cycles
-- Impeller cycles (Pratt&Whitney only)
The page is automatically cleared upon initiation of the next start
phase.
Returning from this page to the nominal page is possible only by
operating the RESET key.
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FLIGHT REPORT Page
Total Number of Cycles N
1
Total Number of Cycles N
2
Engine 1 Engine 2
Number of Impeller Cycles (PW)
Total Number of Impeller Cycles (PW)
Refers to Mast Moment
Number of Cycles N
1
Number of Cycles N
2
Duration of the last flight
OVER LIMIT DETECTED
FAILURE DETECTED
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SYSTEM STATUS Page
The SYSTEM STATUS page is displayed on the lower VEMD screen
and is called up by way of the SCROLL key. FADEC data from the
respective engines are displayed.
The units for the various parameters on this page can be selected in
the configuration mode.
The MSG and FAIL lines display messages and error codes. These
lines can be accessed individually with the SELECT key. When a line
is selected, the + or -- key can be pressed to continuously cycle the
current messages and error codes for FADEC 1 and FADEC 2
simultaneously in their respetitive order.
The values of the parameters of FADEC1 and FADEC 2 are displayed
below the MSG and FAIL lines and are continuously updated.
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SYSTEM STATUS Page (TM)
EGT
TRQtrim
Engine Inlet Air Temperature
Collective Pitch Position
N
2
Ref. Speed Trim Value
Power Turbine RPM
Torque Trim
Exhaust Gas Temperature
FADEC Ambient Air Pressure
--
+ or --
--
SCROLL
XXXXXX MSG XXXXXX
XXXXXX FAIL XXXXXX
--
SELECT
--
+ or --
--
SCROLL
--
SELECT
activates system
failure function
back to the previous page
MSG Indication: IDLE.....
FADEC Failure Codes
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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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SYSTEM STATUS Page (PW)
FADEC Ambient Air Pressure
Collective Pitch Position
Torque Gain Trim
Power Turbine RPM
N
2
Ref. Speed Trim Value
Engine Inlet Air Temperature
TOT Trim
N
1
Derivated
Torque Match
MSG Indication: IDLE.....
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CAUTION/BACKUP Page
The CAUTION/BACKUP page is displayed on the CAD only if the
VEMDfails completely or has beendeactivated. Thefollowing dataare
displayed:
-- Cautions (degraded indication only)
-- Advisories
-- Numeric readout of fuel contents in main and supply tanks.
-- Engine 1 and 2 torque displays on analog scale with
numeric limiting values.
If a torque channel fails, the associated pointer and numerical readout
are faded out; the scale and TRQ parameter turn yellow.
As this page represents an emergency operating mode, no other
pages or data can be presented.
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CAUTION/BACKUP Page
CAUTION/ADVISORY Half Page
BACKUP Page
Supply Tank 1
Supply Tank 2
Main Tank
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CAUTION/FUEL FAIL Page
The CAUTION/FUEL FAIL page is displayed automatically on the
lower VEMD screen if the CAD has failed.
At the same time the nN
1
information in the FLI (Turbo Meca Versions
only) is lost and the FLI DEGRcaution is triggered in the FLI and in the
caution couple page in the system I and system II column.
As the fuel information is only available in the CADthe caution couple
page shows an empty yellow box where normally the fuel quantity is
displayed. Furthermore only a degraded caution list is available,
indicated by CAU DEGR in the miscellaneous field.
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CAUTION/FUEL Fail Page (Example TM)
FLI DEGR FLI DEGR CAU DEGR
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CPDS Switch Over Functions
General
Depending upon how many screens of the CPDS are available, the
pages on the CAD and VEMD can be switched manually and
automatically.
Three operating modes of the CPDS are possible:
-- Nominal mode (3 screens available)
-- Derivative modes (2 screens available)
-- Backup mode (1 screen available)
Normal Mode
In the normal mode all three screens are operative. All pages are
available in a variety of combinations, except the CAUTION/COUPLE
page.
The pages can be selected manually via the SCROLL key.
If the RESET key on the VEMD is pressed, the standard pages will
reappear on the screen.
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CPDS -- Normal Mode
CAUTION
FUEL
FLI
SYSTEM
STATUS
CAUTION
FUEL
FLI
CAUTION
FUEL
FLI
ELEC
VEH
FLIGHT
REPORT
CAUTION
FUEL
FLI
ELEC
VEH
SCROLL
Normal mode in the phases shut--down, start, relight, flight
Exception: when shifting from flight to shut--down phase
RESET
automatically
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Derivative Mode with one VEMD Line off
The VEMD consists of a housing with two integral screens and two
processing modules (lanes) which are each plugged into one of the
screens within the housing. Although they are logically linked, they can
also operate independently of each other. Therefore, if a screen or a
processing module fails, the part of the VEMD that is still functioning
will still be able to present the most important data.
If one of the VEMD screens fails in flight, the FLI page will continue to
be displayed on the intact VEMD screen, the CAD will display the
CAUTION/FUEL page (degraded caution indication), and the
ELEC/VEH page will be available when the SCROLL key is actuated.
On the ground, the page SYSTEM STATUS can also be selected.
The FLI or CAUTION/FUEL pages will automatically switch to the
FLIGHT REPORT page only if the engine RPMdrops below50 %and
the oil pressure in the main transmission is less than 1 bar.
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Derivative Mode with one VEMD Lane off
CAUTION
FUEL
FLI
CAUTION
FUEL
ELEC
FLIGHT
REPORT
FLI
--flight phase --shut--down phase --ground phase
ELEC
VEH
FLI
VEH
CAUTION
FUEL
FLI
ELEC
VEH
FLI
ELEC
VEH
SYSTEM
STATUS
SCROLL RESET SCROLL
SCROLL
SCROLL
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Derivative Mode with CAD off
The CAUTION/FUEL FAIL page will appear automatically on the lower
VEMD screen.
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Derivative Mode with CAD off
CAU
XXX
FLI
SCROLL
ELEC
VEH
FLI
SYSTEM
STATUS
FLI
RESET
SCROLL
FLIGHT
REPORT
FLI
automatically
basic
page
ground phase
EC 135
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Derivative Mode with CAD and one VEMD Lane off
If one of the VEMDscreens fails in flight, the FLI pagewill bepresented
on the intact VEMD screen.
With the SCROLL button the CAUTION/FUEL fail page and the
ELEC/VEH page can be selected.
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Derivative Mode with CAD and one VEMD Line off
FLI
SCROLL
CAU
XXX
SCROLL
ELEC
VEH
SCROLL
FLIGHT
REPORT
RESET
basic page
shut--down phase
automatically
flight phase
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Derivative Mode with both VEMD Lines off
If only the CAD is still operating, the CAUTION/BACK--UP page is
displayed.
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Derivative Mode with both VEMD Lines off
CAU
BACKUP
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Maintenance Menu
The maintenance menu is displayed on the VEMD(upper screen). The
sub menues provide access to flight and failure dates. The following
sub menues are possible:
-- Flight Report
-- Failure (in preparation)
-- Over Limit
-- Funct. Times
-- Trans Data
-- Data Loading
The maintenance mode can only be entered when the engines are
detected in the shut-down state. The VEMD screens must be
switched off, the CAD must be switched on.
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Maintenance Menu
SCROLL
RESET
simultaneous press the
four keys and hold until
RELEASE KEY appears
OFF1
OFF2
SELECT
to scroll through
the fields
Entry to Maintenance Menu:
The operation must follow
within two seconds
OFF1
OFF2
press both keys
to switch off
ENTER RESET
enters the
submenus
DATALOADING
MAINTENANCE MENU
FLIGHT REPORT
FAILURE
OVERLIMIT
TRANS.DATA
EXIT
FUNCT. TIMES
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Flight Report
Flight Report History Page
The Flight Report History page shows CPDS flight numbers from 1 to
999 (starts from0 again) and indicates duration of the respective flight.
Duration counting starts if:
-- N
1
RPM engine 1 or engine 2 > 50%
-- XMSN oil pressure is > 1 bar
-- Angle of collective lever CLP > 28.5 (TM) or 17% (PW ).
The Flight Report History can only be entered when the ground state
is detected. The page stores the last 32 flights with failures. They are
selectable with the + / -- button.
u NOTE No. 1 flight is always the latest flight.
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Flight Report History Page
CPDS FLIGHT NO.:
FLIGHT REPORT HISTORY
MM OVERLIMIT DETECTED
FAILURE DETECTED
EXIT PRESS RESET
01 h 25 mn DURATION:
234
PG
1
12
32
+
-
In Preparation
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Overlimit
The Overlimit page shows the last 8 flight numbers (0--999) . By
selecting one flight number two counters (Mast Moment higher than
66% and Mast Moment higher than 78%) together with the maximum
value are displayed for the respective flight. In addition the cumulated
time for both ranges is shown in two lines below.
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Overlimit Menu Page
OVERLIMIT MENU
SELECT NUMBER AND ENTER
FLIGHT
NUMBER.
215
MM OVERLIMIT FLT NO. 215
LIMIT TIME MAX
MM > 66% ACC. TIME:
MM > 78%
0 mn 15 s
0 mn 12 s
68.9 %
31 mn 12 s
MM > 78% ACC. TIME: 02 mn 12 s
EXIT PRESS RESET
214
213
212
211
210
209
208
MM > 66%
79.9 %
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Transfer Data
Transfer Data is used to copy data from one VEMD lane to the other
in case one of the processor modules has been changed or a
configuration difference between the processor lanes has been
indicated.
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Transfer Data Page
TRANSFER DATA
TRANS. DATA : 1(L) 2(R)
YES
TRANS. DATA : 2(R) 1(L)
NO /
EXIT PRESS RESET
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Function Times
The function times page shows the current flights and function times
for the VEMD modules 1 and 2 and the function times for the CAD.
EC 135
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Function Times Page
FUNCTIONAL TIMES
MODULE 1 FLIGHT TIMES: XXXXXX h
EXIT PRESS RESET
MODULE 1 FUNCT. TIMES: XXXXXX h
MODULE 2 FLIGHT TIMES: XXXXXX h
MODULE 2 FUNCT. TIMES: XXXXXX h
CAD FUNCT. TIMES XXXXXX h
EC 135
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Data Loading
With Data Loading a customized configuration file can be uploaded
(e.g. modified caution list).
u NOTE With the Avionique Novelle Configuration Tool
(software, board for PC, connecting cable to
maintenance connectors) the customer can upload
modified configuration files prepared by
EUROCOPTER. The actual software version
remains unchanged, only the basic configuration
file will be overwritten.
EC 135
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Data Loading Page
DATA LOADING
EC 135
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A/C CONFIG Page
The A/CCONFIGpage is displayed on the VEMD(upper screen). The
selected setting option in an equipment data field is modified by the +
and -- keys. Thenext datafield tobe modifiedcan thenbe selectedwith
the SELECT key. The modified configuration is stored by selecting the
data field VALID with the SELECT key and then pressing the ENTER
key. The system then skips back to the standard MENU page.
However, if the data field ABORT is selected and the ENTER key is
pressed, the options in the data fields remain unchanged and the
standard MENU page is displayed again.
The following parameters can be set on the A/C CONFIG page:
-- AUXILIARY FUEL TANK (N/I),
Signifies whether or not an auxiliary fuel tank is installed.
-- BATTERY TEMP.PROBE (N/I),
Signifies whether or not a temperature sensor is installed
for battery.
-- SECOND BATTERIE (N/I),
Signifies whether or not a second battery is installed.
-- EXTERNAL LOAD (N/I); HOOK, CABLE
Signifies whether or not a cargo hook or an external hoist is
installed.
-- FUEL FLOW WITH SENSOR (N/I),
Signifies whether or not a fuel flowmeter is installed.
-- FUEL UNIT (LITER), (kg), (lb), (US GALLON), (IMP GAL.)
Signifies which unit of measurement is used to indicate the
tank contents.
-- UNIT SYSTEM (SI), (IMPERIAL)
Determines which system of measurement units is used.
The CONFIG mode can only be entered when the engine is detected
in the shut-down state and the VEMD screens must be switched off,
the CAD must be switched on.
Parameter SI IMPERIAL
Altitude m ft
Temp. (TOT, EOT) C C
Rpm/Torque (N1,
TRQ)
% %
Temperature (OAT) C F
Fuel weight Kg lb
Fuel quantity l, US gallon, IMP.
gallon
l, US gallon, IMP.
gallon
Weights (general) Kg lb
Hour h h
Minute mn mn
Second s s
Electrical power W W
Flow rate Kg/h, l/h, US gal./h,
IMP gal./h
lb/h, l/h, US gal./h,
IMP gal./h
Pressure (EOP) bar psi
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A/C CONFIG Page
Entry to CONFIG--Mode:
The operation must follow
within two seconds
OFF1
OFF2
SELECT
ENTER
+
simultaneously press the
four keys and hold until
RELEASE KEY appears
OFF1
OFF2
SELECT
--
SELECT
ENTER
press both keys
to switch off
to scroll through
the fields
installed not installed valid/abort
and
EC 135
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CPDS Software Versions Overview
The major features of the different CPDS software versions and some
changes depending on h/c serial number are shown in the following
listings:
Software Versions
The software version can be identified with the last two digits in thepart
number (e.g. part number ...02 corresponds software version V1999).
V1999 (Part Number ....02)
Basic Version for EC135 T1 (TM 2B1 engines) and P1 (PW 206B
engines).
Mast moment indication > 50% yellow range, > 78% red range.
Supply tank volumes reverts from blue into yellow if no transfer is
provided or if the supply tanks volumes are below a certain value.
V2000A (Part Number: ...03)
Modified mast moment indication:
> 50%MMyelllowunderlined, > 66%MMred underlined and flashing,
GONG, LIMIT in a red box)
Certified for TM engine upgrade 2B1A.
Modified FLI: P1/T1 Transient torque layout change (red dot from12.5
to 14)
V2000B (Part Number: ...04)
Generator current limitation change: Gen. Amps underlined yellow
when reaching 180 A (before 200 A).
Certified for TM engine upgrade 2B1A_1 (TU45 installed).
V2001A (Part Number: ...05)
Integration of PW 206B2 engine.
Mast moment over limit recording.
CPDS configuration change possible via ARINC 485 bus included.
V2001B (Part Number: ...06)
Mastmoment exceedance can be deleted.
Certification of the TRAINING MODE (single engine) for EC135 P1
(PW 206B engines) and EC135 T1 (TM 2B1 engines).
Caution FUEL is integrated.
V2002 (Part Number: ...07)
Certification for Training Mode (dual engine) EC 135 T2 (TM 2B2
engines) and EC 135 P2 (PW 206B2 engines); integration of the
modified fuel system.
u NOTE For the certification status of the software version
and the respective features refer to Flight Manual.
EC 135
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H/C Serial Number Changes Overview
Up to SN 120
CPDS over temperature indication separate light (temperature sensor
adjusted to 63 C.
Voltage adjustment unit installed under lh/rh cover of the instrument
panel.
SN 121 and up
CPDS over temperature indication integrated in the CAD caution list
(temperature sensor adjusted between 51 and 55 C.
Voltage adjustment unit installed in the sensor units under the cabin
floor.
SN 169 and up
Only CPDS cockpit is available.
SN 218 and up
Maintenance connector installed in front of the center console
(possible retrofit back to SN 169).
SN 250 and up
Modified fuel system (increased volume, modified vent lines and
indication system).
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Warning Unit
General
The warning unit centrally monitors several systems and provides
visual and audio indications of arising malfunctions.
The unit contains the indication and evaluation units for each
monitored system as well as a power supply unit. One switch per
engine facilitates closure of the fuel valve.
Power Supply
The warning unit is supplied by the ESSENTIAL BUSBAR 1 and 2 via
the overhead panel installed circuit breakers:
-- WARN SYS I
-- WARN SYS II
Test
To test the function of the indicator lights and also the audio warnings,
a test switch TEST/WARN UNIT is installed in the overhead panel.
Warning Indications
The warning unit accomodates eight warning indications. They appear
red when illuminated and black when inactive. Each warningindication
simultaneously initiates a gong.
All warning indications may be dimmed with the potentiometer
INSTRDIMBRTafter engaging theassociated switchon theoverhead
panel.
The significance of the warning indications is outlined in the respective
system chapters. The following are displayed:
-- LOW FUEL 1
-- LOW FUEL 2
-- AP. A. TRIMM (Autopilot)
-- ROTOR RPM
-- BAT TEMP
-- BAT DISCH (Battery discharged)
-- XMSN OIL P
-- CARGO SMOKE
EC 135
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Warning Unit
FIRE WARNING Eng. 1
EMER OFF SW 1
Press to release
EMER OFF SW released
shut off valve is closed
white rim is visible
EMER OFF SW pressed
shut off valve is open
white rim is not visible
EMER OFF SW 1
Illuminates together with
instrument lights
ACTIVE
Illuminates white, if the EMER
OFF SWITCH has been released
Safety Guard
Side-view EMER OFF SWITCH
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AP. A. TRIMM
The warning AP. A. TRIMM indicates a failure of the autopilot system.
It is illuminated for 10 seconds. The signal is triggered by the autopilot
computers.
Rotor RPM
The ROTOR--RPM warning monitors a total of three limit values. It
reacts in various ways depending on which limit value is exeeded or
dropped below.
-- ROTOR RPM < 95%
A steady red indication of ROTOR RPM and a pulsed tone
is generated. (The pulsed tone can be switched off with
AUDIO RES.)
-- Rotor RPM 106%
The red indication ROTOR RPM flashes and a gong can be
heard. (The gong can be switched off with AUDIO RES.)
-- ROTOR RPM 112%
The red indication ROTOR RPM flashes and a continuous
tone is generated. (The tone cannot be switched off)
BAT TEMP
The red indication BAT TEMP comes on when there is a battery
overtemperature detected (above 70 C).
BAT DISCH
The red indication BAT DISCH comes on, when the battery is
discharded more than 2 ampers.
u NOTE BAT DISCH appears if the voltage of the EPU is
below the voltage of the battery and the battery is
discharded via the ESSENTIAL BUSSES only.
XMSN OIL P
The red indication XMSNOIL P comes on when the oil pressure in the
main gearbox is below 0,5 bar.
CARGO SMOKE
The red indication CARGO SMOKE appears, when there is a signal
from the smoke detector in the rear cargo compartment (optional).
FIRE--Warning with EMER OFF--Switch
The unit consists of the fire warning logic circuit, FIRE indication with
switch EMEROFF SW1 and ACTIVE-indication resp. FIRE indication
with switch EMEROFF SW2 and ACTIVE-indication. The fire warning
logic circuit displays individual fire warnings for engine 1 and engine
2 and if necessary activates the fire extinguisher system. Operation of
the switch EMER OFF SW 1 cuts the fuel supply to engine 1 and the
ACTIVE indication illuminates. Switch EMER OFF SW 2 cuts the fuel
supply to engine 2.
N1 RPM Monitoring
The N1 RPM is monitored for both engines separately. If the speed
drops below 50 % signals are sent to the CPDS/CDS and
-- the ENG FAIL caution is triggered
-- the bleed air is switched off
-- the fire extinguisher system is activated, if a fire warning is
evident.
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Warning Unit -- Adjustment
J1 J2
N
1
50%
RTR 106 %
RTR 95 %
RTR 112 %
Top View
EC 135
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LOW FUEL Warning
A LOWFUEL warning is triggered by a sensor in the respective supply
chambers of the fuel tank. The warning informs the pilot that there is
still a minimum of 16 kg fuel in the respective tank chamber available.
Audio Warnings
There are four kinds of audio warnings. They havedifferent priority and
some of them can be suppressed by the switch CDS AUDIO RES
(located at the cyclic stick). But they recommence indicating with each
new malfunction indication. The following exist in order of priority:
-- Continuous tone
The continuous tone has a frequency of approx. 2400 Hz
and cannot be suppressed. This tone is only activated by
the signal ROTOR RPM !112 %.
-- Pulsed tone
The pulsed tone has a frequency of approx. 600 Hz and is
generated with a 5 Hz rhythm. Can be suppressed. The
pulsed tone is activated when ROTOR RPM < 97% (P2/T2)
or 95% (P1/T1).
-- Gong
The gong is generated every three seconds and can be
suppressed. The gong is activated as soon as any warning
light illuminates. In the case of ROTOR RPM only if the
value of 106 % is exceeded.
-- Warning bell
Can be suppressed and is activated by fire warning.
u NOTE When there is a rotor RPM warning simultaneously
with a fire warning, the warning unit produces the
acoustic warning signal for rotor RPM only.
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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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Switch Unit
General
A number of switches are arranged in the switch unit. They are
provided for:
-- Engine control (upper row)
-- DC power control (lower row)
Engine Control Switches
For starting the engines two switches for each engine are provided:
-- FADEC--switch (positions OFF--ON)
To power the respective engine electronic system.
-- ENGINE START SWITCH (positions OFF--IDLE--FLIGHT)
For automatic engine start and FADEC controlled
governing in ground idle or flight idle RPM.
To prevent inadvertant engineshut down, the enginestart switches are
protected by a manually operated safety guard (to be closed after
engine start).
DC Power Control Switches
In the lower row of the switch unit the DC power control switches are
installed. These are:
-- Two switches (GEN I, GEN II) for generator control with the
positions NORM--OFF--RESET
-- One switch BAT MSTR to control the power supply from
the battery and from an external power source with the
positions ON--OFF--RESET.
u NOTE The switch BAT MSTR must be in Position ON,
even when the helicopter is supplied by an EPU.
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Switch Unit
Start Switch ENG 1
FADEC
Control Switch
ENG 1
Training Selector Switch
with Safety Guard
Control Switch
Generator 1
Control Switch
Battery/Ext.
Power
Safety Guard
FADEC
Control Switch
ENG 2
Start Switch ENG 2
Safety Guard
Control Switch
Generator 1
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Overhead Console
General
The overhead console which is part of the electrical power system is
installed in the center of the cabin roof. Busbars and circuit breakers
supplying the electrical consumers are installed in the overhead
console. Several systems are activated and/or controlled by switches
in the overhead console.
Components
The overhead console consists of four component brackets and the
front panel containing the components and the busbars on the rear.
The front panel consists of three parts with a background lightning and
the labelling of the installed circuit breakers, switches and rheostats.
-- Bus system 1
-- Bus system 2
-- Switch unit of the overhead panel
Bus Bars
The following bus bars distribute the current to the individual
consumers:
-- ESSENTIAL busbar 1 (PP10E)
-- ESSENTIAL busbar 2 (PP20 E)
-- SHEDDING busbar 1 (PP10S)
-- SHEDDING busbar 2 (PP20S)
Additionally max. two bus bars/inverters can be installed for AC
voltage (required for P&R SAS, weather radar, mechanical gyros...):
-- AC busbar 1
-- AC busbar 2
Consumers with low energy demand and vital consumers for
emergency conditions are connected to the two ESSENTIAL busbars.
Further DC power consumers are connected to the SHEDDING bus
bars (not supplied when only the battery is available or in case of
double generator failure).
The overhead console is supplied with current by the PRIMARY
busbars 1 and 2 or by the BATTERY busbar.
The BATTERY busbar supplies the ESSENTIAL busbars 1 and 2.
Further lines are lead from the electrical master box 1 and 2 to supply
the SHEDDING busbars 1 and 2.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 119
July 2002 For training and information only
Overhead Console (Example)
AC BUS I
SHEDDING BUS I
ESSENTIAL BUS I
AC BUS II
SHEDDING BUS II
ESSENTIAL BUS II
Switch SHEDDING BUS
Switch BUS TIE I
Switch BUS TIE II
Switch AC BUS
SEL
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 120
July 2002 For training and information only
Switch SHED BUS
The Switch SHED BUS is a two position switch with the positions
NORM--EMER. The NORM position is protected by a safety guard,
which has to be opened before switching in the EMER position.
-- NORM
Both SHEDDING busbars are powered (the relays SBC1
and SBC2 are closed) when the electrical systems are
supplied by a minimum of one generator or by an EPU.
-- EMER
This position is used in order to supply both SHEDDING
busbars from the battery in case of double generator fail
(the relays SBC1 and SBC2 are closed).
Switch BUS TIE I / II
The switches BUS TIE I and BUS TIE II are three position toggle
switches with the positions NORM--OFF--RESET. The switches are
protected by a safety guard, which positions the switch in the NORM
position. The following functions are provided:
-- NORM
Upon switching on the BAT MSTR, both bus tie contactors
as well as the battery contactor close in order to connect
the primary busbars and the battery busbar to each other.
-- OFF
The associated bus tie contactor opens/remains open in
order to separate the two primary busbars.
-- In order to reset fault messages and activated protective
functions after a bus tie contactor had opened
automatically by a system fault, the switch must be set to
RESET before the contactor can be closed again by
selecting the NORM position.
Switch AC Bus Select (if two inverters are installed)
The switch AC BUS SELECT is a three position toggle switch with the
positions NORM--INV 1--INV 2.
In position NORM each inverter supplies its own bus bar. In case of
inverter failure, the remaining inverter can be switched on in order to
supply both bus bars.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 121
July 2002 For training and information only
Overhead Console -- Switches and Controls (Example)
NORM
EMER
O
F
F
M
A
X
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 122
July 2002 For training and information only
Pitot--Static System
General
The pitot-static systempicks up the dynamic and static pressure of the
ambient air of the helicopter. A number of drain ports are provided to
remove water from the lines. Electrical heating elements prevent the
pitot and static pressure pickups from ice accumulation.
Components
The system consists of:
-- Pitot tube
-- 2 Static ports
-- Ambient pressure sensor
-- Static selector valve (only pilots side)
-- Hose lines
-- Flight instruments
Locations
The pitot tube is located on the forward RH/LH side of the fuselage.
The static ports are located one on each side of the fuselage belowthe
equipment deck. The static selector valve is located on the right-hand
side of the center part of the instrument panel.
The components are connected with hose lines.
The pilots pitot-static-operated instruments are located on the
right-hand side of the instrument panel.
Function
The static ports supply static pressure to the vertical speed indicator,
altimeter and airspeed indicator. Ram-air pressure from the pitot tube
and static pressure is supplied only to the airspeed indicator.
With the static selector valve it is possible to select the pressure supply
from ambient pressure to cabin pressure in case of polluted external
static ports.
Pitot/Static Heating (Optional)
With the switch PITOT HEAT in the overhead panel the electrical
heating for the pitot tube and the static ports can be switched on.
There are two different versions for the indication in the cockpit:
-- Version 1: A green advisory comes on in the CDS/CPDS if
the heating is switched on.
-- Version 2: A yellow caution appears in the respective field
of the CDS/CPDS if the the heating is switched off.
For the dual pitot/static systemtwo heating systems with two switches
are installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 123
July 2002 For training and information only
Pitot and Static Pressure System
Pitot Tube Pilot
Altimeter
Air Speed Indicator
Static Selector Valve
Drain Port
Static Port Pilot
Pitot Tube Pilot
Pitot Tube Copilot Static Ports
Static Port Pilot
Ambient Pressure Port
Vertical Speed Indicator
Static Port Copilot
Static Port Copilot Pitot Tube Copilot
System for
Copilot is optional
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 124
July 2002 For training and information only
Handling of the EC 135
Lifting
General
The helicopter can be lifted with main rotor blades installed or
removed. As a result the helicopter has different center of gravity
positions. For lifting a hoisting device is necessary.
Procedure
-- The hub cap must be removed.
-- Carefully insert hoisting device with the stamp into the hub
cap support on the rotor mast and attach with bolt.
-- Secure the bolt with the safety pin.
-- Carefully lift helicopter while observing balance.
-- Avoid jerky movements under all circumstances.
u NOTE On early helicopter serial numbers the borehole in
the support might be rotated to 45 and the tool can
only be installed after the rotor blades have been
removed.
u NOTE Older hoisting device models might be limited to
2000 kg.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 125
July 2002 For training and information only
Hoisting Device
Bolt
Hub Cap Support
Side View
Safety Pin
Borehole for Bolt
Hoisting Device
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 126
July 2002 For training and information only
Jacking of the EC 135
General
The helicopter can be jacked with four jacking brackets and four jacks.
Special Tools
The following special tools are necessary:
-- Four jacking brackets
-- Four jacks
Procedure
-- The helicopter must be placed on a even and solid surface.
In any case, the helicopter has to be grounded.
-- The four jacking brackets must be attached to the fuselage
landing gear fittings.
-- The four jacks must be placed below the jacking brackets
and the helicopter must be lifted evenly. Then the jacks
must be locked and secured.
u NOTE The jacks must be actuated evenly. Otherwise the
helicopter may tilt and be damaged!
Shoring
General
The helicopter can be shored at the tail boom.
Tools
-- Tail boom support
Procedure
-- Place the helicopter on a appropriate surface and on a
ground with a ground cable. In any case the helicopter has
to be grounded.
-- Release the height adjustment lock of the tail boom support
and retract the strut as required.
-- Position the tail boom support behind the horizontal
stabilizer and extend the strut until it touches the underside
of the tail boom. Lock the strut using the height adjustment.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 127
July 2002 For training and information only
Jacking and Shoring
Jacking Bracket
Jack
Tail Boom Support
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 128
July 2002 For training and information only
Weighing
General
After completion of the leveling and dimensional check the helicopter
must be weighed.
Tools
The following tools are necessary for weighing:
-- Two jacking brackets
-- One weighing bracket
-- Three jacks
-- Weighing device
-- Spirit level
-- Clinometer
Procedure
-- The helicopter must be placed on a even and solid surface
in a closed draft-free hangar.
-- Remove ground handling wheels from helicopter.
-- Establish empty weight condition of helicopter in
accordance with Flight Manual (FLM).
-- If installed optional equipment according to Equipment List
(EL) is weighed with the helicopter, ensure that the
equipment status is recorded at the time of weighing.
-- Ensure that prescribed filling quantities for lubricants and
hydraulic fluid are observed. Defuel helicopter using its own
fuel pumps. After defueling appr. 9.45 l (2.5 gal U.S.) equiv.
7.6 kg (16.7 lb) of non-consumable residual fuel remains in
the fuel tanks.
-- Determine individual weights of weighing bracket and of 2
jacking brackets.
-- Attach 2 jacking brackets to the aft landing gear fittings.
Attach weighing bracket in the center of the front cross
tube. Position one jack each with installed force measuring
device below the jacking brackets and below the weighing
bracket.
-- Jack helicopter.
-- Apply spirit level or clinometer on cabin floor and level
helicopter in horizontal position.
u NOTE If weighing is performed with electronic force
measuring devices, more exact measuring results
are obtained by means of several weighing
procedures.
Between the weighing procedures the force
measuring devices are to be interchanged in the
counterclockwise direction. The final result of the
weighing procedure is the mean value measured at
the respective weighing point.
-- Read measuring values on the force measuring devices
and record the weighing result in the weighing report (Form
204). Calculate net values and moments.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 129
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 130
July 2002 For training and information only
Leveling
General
The helicopter is leveled and dimensions are checked in accordance
with specified procedure. This is to verify all design dimensions. The
leveling data sheet must be kept in the historical record for future
reference. This procedure must be repeated after major modifications
or repairs after hard landings.
Procedure
The following activities must be performed:
-- Ground the helicopter.
-- Remove external equipment if installed.
-- Defuel the helicopter.
-- The helicopter must be placed on a even and solid surface
in a closed draft-free hangar.
-- Level the helicopter.
-- Check the horizontal and vertical measering points.
-- Check the angles.
-- Record all measuring results in the leveling record.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 131
July 2002 For training and information only
Measuring Points
X 1766 Y 0 Z --
X 5656 Y 0 Z --
X -- Y 0 Z 2800
X 3940 Y -- Z 2350
X 3940 Y -- Z 2350
X 5400 Y -- Z 2350
X 5400 Y -- Z 2350
X 2160 Y -- Z 1400
X 2160 Y -- Z 1400
X -- Y 1200 Z 2632
X -- Y -1200 Z 2632
1
2
11
10
4
6
7
5
3
9
8
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 132
July 2002 For training and information only
Towing and Pushing
General
The EC 135 can be moved on ground by towing or pushing by
manpower.
Tools
-- Two transportation wheels
-- Towing bar
Procedure
-- Install the two transportation wheels on the skid tubes and
lift the helicopter.
-- Push the towing bar on LH and RH side on the skid tubes
and lock it by use of the fixing bolt.
u NOTE For towing the helicopter at least one guide and
one person stabilizing the rear structure must be
available.
Pushing
For pushing the helicopter there are the following pushing points in the
fuselage area:
-- Fenestron fairing, foreward and integrated control handles.
-- LH and RH side shell below the engine deck
-- LH and RH cabin structure
-- Landing gear cross tube.
For pushing, the towing bar is not necessary.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 133
July 2002 For training and information only
Transportation Wheel and Towing BAR
Fixing Bolt
Skid Tube
Towing Bar
Hydraulic
Jack Lever
Hydraulic Jack
Bolt
Transportation Wheel
Pushing
Points
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 134
July 2002 For training and information only
Parking and Mooring
General
To protect the helicopter from environmental influence, it has to be
covered and tied down depending on weather conditions. With the
helicopter parked outdoors, it is recommended to moore the helicopter
to the ground and secure the rotor blades by tie-downs.
Short-Time Covers
All short-time covers are stowed in a storage sack, which should be
carried on the helicopter during flights.
The following short-time covers are available:
-- Short-time cover Fenestron
-- Short-time covers engine outlet
-- Short-time covers, NACA inlet
-- Short-time covers, pitot tube
-- Short-time cover, front windows
-- Short-time cover, NACA inlet roof
-- Short-time covers, engine inlet
-- Short-time cover, NACA inlet cowling
Procedure
-- All the electrical equipment has to be switched off.
-- The helicopter must be grounded at the ground connection
with the ground cable.
-- Then all doors, windows and access doors must be closed.
u NOTE The engine outlets may be hot!
u NOTE Attach the short-time covers with the notice
REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT so that the notice flag is
clearly visible outside.
-- The main rotor is tied down with a lashbag to the tail boom.
-- The main rotor has to be turned in direction of rotation until
one of the blades is aligned with the tail boom.
-- The lashbag must be fitted over the end of the blade and
secured to the tail boom by wrapping the attached belt and
sack one full turn around the tail boom.
u NOTE Turn the main rotor only in direction of rotation.
EC 135
Training Manual
General
00 -- 135
July 2002 For training and information only
Covers
Pitot Tube
Front Windows
Engine Inlet
NACA Inlet
Fenestron
Main Rotor
Engine Outlet
Transport Sack
NACA Inlet
Ground Connection
Direction of main rotor
rotation
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Lifting System
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
General Description of the Lifting System 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Rotor Drive 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driveshafts 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Transmission 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LH and RH Drives 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Rotor Output Drive 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Gearbox 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lubrication System 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XMSN Oil Temperature Indication 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XMSN Oil Pressure Indication 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XMSN High Oil Temperature Caution 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XMSN Oil Chip Caution 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XMSN Low Oil Pressure Caution/Warning 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Distribution System 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fan Drive 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Cooling System 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Rotor Hub Shaft 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mast Moment Measuring System 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotor Brake System 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotor Brake Indication System 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Transmission Mounts 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ARIS Anti Resonance Isolation System 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillation Damper 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Rotor System 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Rotor Blade 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotor Blade Adjustments 68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
General Description of the Lifting System
General
The lifting system of the EC 135 is located in the transmission
compartment on top of the cabin roof, within the center-of-gravity area.
Its main components are:
-- Main rotor drive
-- Rotor brake system
-- Main rotor system
-- Monitoring system
Main Rotor Drive
The main rotor drive systemtransmits power from both engines to the
main-- and tail rotor as well as to two cooling fans and two hydraulic
pumps.
It consists of:
-- 2 driveshafts
-- Main transmission
-- Main transmission mounts
Rotor Brake System
The rotor brake system permits stopping of the main-- and tail rotor,
after the engines have been shut down.
It mainly consists of:
-- A cockpit mounted brake lever
-- Flexball cable
-- Brake cylinder
-- Brake caliper
-- Brake disk
Main Rotor System
The main rotor system generates the lift and thrust of the helicopter.
In conjunction with the tail rotor system, it provides directional control
of the helicopter in flight. Driving forces and control inputs are
transferred to the rotating main rotor through the systemcomponents.
Monitoring System
For the important parameters (e.g. rotor RPM, oil pressure and oil
temperature) several sensors areinstalled. Thesignals aretransferred
to the cockpit in order to trigger warnings and supply the indicating
instruments.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Lifting System -- General Arrangement
RH Driveshaft
LH Driveshaft
Tail Rotor Drive
Rotor Brake
Main Transmission Mounts
Main Transmission
Main Rotor System
Swash Plate
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Drive
General
The main rotor drive transmits power fromboth the engines to the main
and tail rotors and the auxiliary units. Additionally it is a structural
component of the helicopter and also transmits all static and dynamic
loads between the main rotor system and the fuselage.
Components Main Rotor Drive
The main rotor drive consists of the following:
-- 2 driveshafts
-- Main transmission
-- Main transmission mounts
-- Main rotor drive monitoring system
-- Rotor brake system
Driveshafts
General
Two driveshafts connect the engines to the freewheeling units of the
main transmission. They transmit the power of the engines to the main
transmission. In addition, they correct for any variations in length or
misalignment between the engine outputs and the main transmission
inputs. For this purpose two flexible couplings are attached to each
end.
Two different versions (type Bendix or Kaflex) are available.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Drive Shaft
Flexible Coupling
Shaft Tube
Flange
Flange
Flexible Coupling
Side View
Type Kaflex Type Bendix
Flexible Coupling
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission
General
The main transmission transfers the power from both engines to the
main rotor system, tail rotor and the auxiliary units. All mounting points,
attachment fittings and oil lines are integral with the transmission
casing. Two freewheel units incorporated in the input drives allow
power to be transmitted only from the engines to the main
transmission.
Components
The main transmission is of modular design. It mainly consists of:
-- LH and RH input drives
-- Tail rotor drive
-- Main gearbox
-- Lubrication and cooling system
-- LH and RH accessory drives
Leading Particulars
Weight approx. 143.5 kg
Gear reduction Main rotor 14.923
Tail rotor 1.183
Speed Drive 5898 RPM
Main rotor 395 RPM
Tail rotor output 4986 RPM
Oil quantity approx. 8.0 l
Oil type O--156; MIL--L--23699C
Material Aluminium alloy
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission -- Modules
LH Fan Gearbox
Main Gearbox
LH Input Drive
RH Input Drive
Tail Rotor Drive
RH Fan Gearbox
LH Hydraulic Pump Drive
RH Hydraulic Pump Drive
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
LH and RH Drives
Assembly
The drive consists of:
-- Freewheel shaft
-- Freewheel unit
-- Cover shaft with seal
-- Ball bearing and roller bearing
-- Drive pinion
Function
The driveshaft connecting the engine to the main transmission is
attached to the triangular flange of the free wheel shaft. The bevel gear
of the drive pinion meshes with the bevel gear of the intermediate
shaft. The correct gear mesh (gear backlash and gear tooth pattern)
is ensured by placing a shimof the appropriate thickness between the
ball bearing and transmission casing. The shaft seal in the cover seals
off the rotating freewheel shaft at its outboards end.
Freewheel Unit
The engines drive the input drive shafts in clockwise direction. In this
direction, the freewheel clutches are interlocking thedriving anddriven
parts.
The freewheel clutches are effective in the following situations:
-- Starting the engines: Only one turbine drives initially and
the freewheel clutch to the other drive is overrun. It will lock
if both engines are running at the same RPM.
-- One engine becomes inoperative: Its freeweel clutch is
overrun and prevents the engine from being driven by the
main transmission.
-- Both engines become inoperative: Both freewheel clutches
are overrun and the main rotor can turn without any
additional friction from the engine (autorotation).
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 11
July 2002 For training and information only
Freewheel Assembly
Bearing
Bearing
Seal
Freewheel Unit
Housing
Drive Pinion
Engine Shaft,
Driving Part
Gearbox Drive Pinion,
Driven Part
Clutch Free
Clutch under Load
Engine Shaft Stopped
Gearbox Drive Pinion,
decoupled from Engine Shaft
Sense of
Rotation
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Output Drive
General
The tail rotor output drive consists of:
-- Connecting pad
-- Cover with shaft seal
-- Pinion
-- Ball bearing
Assembly
The connecting pad provides the attachment point for the rotor brake
disc adapter and the tail rotor driveshaft. The pinion bevel gear
meshes with bevel gear of the pinion shaft. The correct gear mesh
(gear backlash and gear tooth pattern) is ensured by placing a shim
of theappropriatethickness betweenthe ball bearing onthe pinionand
transmission casing.The shaft seal in the cover seals off the rotating
connecting pad at its outboard end.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 13
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Output Drive
O--Ring
Shaft Seal
Cover
Spacer
Connecting Flange
O--Ring
Screw
Pinion
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 14
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Gearbox
Power Flow
The engines drive both input drives of the maintransmission. Theinput
drive bevel gears mesh with the bevel gears of both intermediate
shafts.
An input shaft connects each intermediate shaft to its respective oil
pump through a spline connection. The spur gears of the intermediate
shafts drive the collector shaft, in which the main rotor hub--shaft is
splined to the inside.
Through its integral spur gear, the collector shaft drives the pinion
shaft. The bevel gear of the pinion shaft meshes with the bevel gear
of the tail rotor output drive.
The large spur gear on each intermediate shaft drives an idler gear.
The idler gears in turn mesh with the spur gears of driveshafts and
drive both fan gearboxes. The hydraulic pump drives, which are
splined to these driveshafts, rotate at the same speed.
The bevel gears of driveshafts mesh with the output pinion gears. The
flange-mounted fans are positively splined to the output pinion gears
and rotate at the same speed.
Gearbox
The following assemblies are installed in the gearbox for the purpose
of transmitting power and reducing speed:
-- Two intermediate shafts each with an integral bevel gear, a
spur gear for driving the collector shaft, a larger spur gear
located below the bevel gear for driving the intermediate
spur gear, and a spline for driving the oil pump.
-- A collector shaft with an integral spur gear which drives the
pinion shaft of the tail rotor.
-- A pinion shaft with integral spur gear and bevel gear for
driving the tail rotor output drive.
The main rotor shaft is splined to the inside of the collector shaft and
is held in position by a mast nut. Mounted on the upper casing of the
gearbox is a support tube which surrounds part of the main rotor shaft.
The support tube provides the sliding surface for the up and down
motion of the swash plate.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Gearbox -- Geartrain and RPM (at 100%)
Cooling Fan 2 Drive
12666 RPM
Hydraulic Pump 2 Drive
5146 RPM Intermediate Shaft 1 and Oil Pump 1 Drive
1696 RPM
Intermediate Shaft 2
1696 RPM
Cooling Fan 1 Drive
12666 RPM
Hydraulic Pump 1 Drive
5146 RPM
RH Input Drive
5898 RPM
Tail Rotor Output Drive
4986 RPM
LH Input Drive
5898 RPM
Collector Shaft and
Main Rotor Hub Shaft
395 RPM
Oil Pump
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Gearbox, Lateral Cut, View in Flight Direction
Intermediate Shaft
Main Rotor Hub Shaft
Sliding Sleeve
Oil Pump Oil Pump
Intermediate Shaft
Collector Shaft
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Gearbox, Longitudinal Cut
Tail Rotor
Output Drive
Cover
Lower Ball Bearing
Lower Roller Bearing
Upper Roller Bearing
Inner Seal Ring
Upper Bearing Outer Race
Spacer Tube
Sliding Sleeve
Hub Shaft Nut
Hub Shaft Nut
Locking Device
Collector Shaft
Seal
Upper Bearing Inner Race
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Lubrication System
General
The main transmission is provided with a wet sump oil system for
lubrication and cooling. Because of redundancy, the lubrication
system comprises two oil pumps located in the lower casing of the
gearbox. The main components of the system are:
-- Filler neck
-- Oil filter
-- Spray tubes
-- LH and RH oil pumps
-- Oil sight glass
Oil is added to the system via the filler neck. The oil level is indicated
by the oil sight glass. Oil is drained off through a valve which houses
the magnetic plug.
Oil Pumps
The main transmission is provided with a redundant lubrication system
comprising two oil pumps located in the lower casing of the gearbox.
These pumps are driven by the intermediate shafts through
interconnected driveshafts. The oil pumps draw oil from the oil sump
and convey it through a central oil passage. If either pump should fail,
the remaining pump is able to convey enough oil to meet system
demands. Failure of an oil pump is detected by a low-pressure switch
and is visually indicated in the cockpit. In the central oil passage, an
oil temperature transmitter measures the oil temperature and an oil
temperature switch monitors the max. permissible oil temperature.
The associated indicators are located in the cockpit.
Oil Filter
An oil filter located in the central oil passage separates the
contaminants from the oil. The housing of the oil filter is fitted with a
bypass valve (np 3.5 bar) and a mechanical filter contamination
indicator (np 2.1 bar). If the filter becomes clogged, the oil will be
rerouted through the bypass valve thereby maintaining the proper
supply of oil to the system.
An oil pressure transducer measures the oil pressure in the central oil
passage. Visual indication of the pressure is provided in the cockpit.
The oil is conveyed to both oil coolers and fromthere to the lubricating
points through theintegral oil passages inthe casing. Installed at these
lubricating points and accessible from the outside are spray tubes
which provide for optimum lubrication of the components.
Oil Cooler
The oil coolers are mounted to the RH and LH side of the main
transmission. They are split into two sections. The smaller section of
each cooler, which is connected directly to the main transmission,
serves for cooling the main transmission oil (50% each side).
For this, ambient air is drawn by the cooling fans and forced through
the oil coolers via air ducts. Fromthere the air is directed overboard via
outlet ducts (See also chapter Power Plant, Oil Cooling System).
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission -- Oil System
Temperature Transducer
Temperature Switch
(Triggering at approx. 115 C)
XMSN OIL T CDS/CPDS Caution
Oil Filter with By-pass Valve
Oil Pressure Transducer
Oil Cooler Bearings
Supply
Scavenge
Magnetic Chip Detector and
Drain Valve
XMSN CHIP
CDS/CPDS Caution
Oil Tank
Oil Pumps with By-Pass Valve
(opens at approx. 8 bar)
Pressure Switch
XMSN OIL P
CDS/CPDS Caution
Check Valves
Pressure Switch
XMSN OIL P
CDS/CPDS Cau-
tion
XMSN OIL P
Warning Unit
Pop Out Indicator
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
XMSN Oil Temperature Indication
General
The oil temperature of the main gearbox is measured by a transducer
mounted to the gearbox at the oil filter housing. The temperature is
indicated in the cockpit on the oil temperature and pressure unit or on
the VEMD in C.
XMSN Oil Pressure Indication
General
The oil pressure is measured by a transducer mounted to the gearbox
in the central oil passage. The pressure is indicated in the cockpit on
the oil temperature and pressure unit in bar.
Minimum 0.5 bar
Continuous operation 0.5 to 7.8 bar
XMSN High Oil Temperature Caution
General
The oil temperature caution caption is triggered by an oil temperature
switch installed at the main transmission oil filter housing. The switch
closes thecircuit tothe CDS/CPDSat atemperature of approx. 115C.
The indication at the MISC CAUTION display will be:
-- XMSN OIL T
XMSN Oil Chip Caution
General
For the detection of magnetic chips in the oil system, a chip detector
is fitted in the common suction line of both oil pumps. It is installed by
a bayonet connection in the XMSNoil drain plug (a check valve closes
when the chip detector is removed).
Accumulation of particles bridge a contact gap of the detector magnet
and close the circuit to the CDS/CPDS.
The indication at the MISC CAUTION display will be:
-- XMSN CHIP
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission -- Monitoring
FWD
Speed Pickup for Rotor RPM
Indication and Warning
Main Transmission
Chip Detector
Oil Temperature Switch
Oil Pressure Transducer
Oil Temperature Transducer
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
XMSN Low Oil Pressure Caution/Warning
General
To warn the pilot in case of low oil pressure in each of the XMSN
lubrication systems two pressure switches are installed downstream
of the oil pumps. The switches are installed at the lower front side of
the main transmission.
Low Oil Pressure Caution
Each oil pressure switch closes when the pressure at the associated
pump outlet is below 0.5 bar.
The associated indication are as follows:
-- XMSN OIL P Caution SYS I or II on CDS/CPDS
Low Oil Pressure Warning
In case of low oil pressure in both XMSN lubrication systems (both
pump outlet pressure switches sense a pressure below 0.5 bar) a low
pressure warning will be sent additionally to the CDS/CPDS caution
captions.
The associated indications are as follows:
-- XMSN OIL P Caution SYS I and II on CDS/CPDS
-- XMSN OIL P Warning on the warning unit
-- Gong in the headset with 3 seconds intervals
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission -- Oil Pressure Switches
Oil Pressure Switch
SYS I
Oil Pressure Switch
SYS II
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 24
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Distribution System
General
The distribution system delivers oil to all bearings and gears in the
main gearbox as well as to the accessory drives and the freewheel
clutches. The system mainly consists of bores in the gearbox housing
and spray nozzles, screwed into the gearbox housing. After lubricating
the gears and bearings, the oil flows into the oil sump in the lower
housing by gravity.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 25
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission -- Components
of Lubrication System
Oil Filter
Filler Neck
Spray Tubes
Spray Tubes
Spray Tubes
FWD
LH Oil Pump
RH Oil Pump Sight Glass
Oil Cooler
Contamination Indicator
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 26
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission Oil Service
The following oil type is approved for the main transmission:
-- MIL--L--23699
The oil quantity is approx. 8.0 liter.
Oil Level Sight Glass
The main transmission oil level can be checked by a sight glass,
located at the RH rear side of the main transmission.
The MAX and MIN marks indicate an oil level of approx. 9, resp. 7
liters.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 27
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission -- Oil Service
MIN
MAX
Oil Level
Sight Glass
Cap
O--Ring
Filler Neck
Adaptor for Oil Drain Hose
Chip Detector
Electric Plug
FWD
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 28
July 2002 For training and information only
Fan Drive
General
A fan drive gearbox consists of:
-- Gearbox housing
-- Idler gear with ball bearing
-- Driveshaft with bevel gear and bearings
-- Output pinion gear with ball bearings
-- Cover with shaft seal
Configuration and Function
The intermediate shaft of the main gearbox drives the idler gear and
the driveshaft of the fan gearbox. The driveshaft is splined to the
hydraulic pump. A cover fitted with shaft seals off the driveshaft at its
upper end where the hydraulic pump is connected. The bevel gear of
the driveshaft drives the output pinion gear of the fan, which is running
in an oil bath.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 29
July 2002 For training and information only
Fan Gearbox
Flange for Hydraulic Pump
Idler Wheel
Driving Wheel
Flange for Fan Housing
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 30
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Cooling System
General
Both engines as well as the main transmission of the helicopter are
equipped with internal, independent oil circuits. These ensure
permanent lubrication and cooling of highly stressed components
under all operating conditions. To keep the oil temperature within
limits, a oil cooling system is installed in the helicopter.
Independant cooling circuits are availble for the:
-- LH Engine
-- RH Engine
-- Main Transmission
Components
The oil cooling system consists of the following:
-- 2 cooling fans
-- 2 inlet airducts
-- 2 outlet airducts
-- 2 dual section oil coolers (engine / main transmission)
-- 2 thermal controlled bypass valves in the engine circuits
-- several hoses and connectors
Cooling Fans
The cooling fans are mounted on the front side of the main
transmission RH and LH. They are driven by the main transmission
geartrain (12665 RPM at 100%).
Oil Cooler
The oil coolers are mounted to the RH and LH side of the main
transmission. They are split into two sections. The smaller section of
each cooler, which is connected to the main transmission by bushings
directly, serves for cooling the main transmission oil (50% each side).
The larger section of each cooler is connected to the associated
engine by oil hoses. This section serves for cooling the engine oil.
Cooling Air Flow
Ambient air which enters the air intakes is drawn by the cooling fans
and forced through the oil coolers via the inlet air ducts. Fromthere the
air is directed overboard by the outlet ducts.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 31
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Cooling System -- General Arrangement
Fan Drive
Cooling
Fan
Inlet Duct
Outlet Duct
Oil Cooler
To/from
Engine
To/from
Main Transmission
FWD
Inspection Door
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 32
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Hub Shaft
General
The main rotor hub shaft transmits the drivingmoment tothe mainrotor
blades which are connected to the hub. In doing so, it also performs
the function of a rotor head.
The main rotor hub shaft assembly consists of the following
components:
-- Rotor hub shaft with integral flanges
-- Hub cap support
-- Rotor hub cap
Configuration
The main rotor hub shaft, which is hollow and is formed with two hub
flanges at its upper end, is a one-piece forging made of steel alloy. The
hub flanges provide for the attachment and securement of the main
rotor blades.
Formed 180 apart on the shaft are connectors which provide a
mounting for the rotating scissor clamps. On the lower end of the shaft
are the seating surfaces for the mast bearings and the mast spline
which meshes with the main transmission.
The upper hub flange is marked with the numbers 1 thru 4 at the blade
attachment areas, with the numbers ascending in the clockwise
direction. This identification is important for relating the blade
attachment areas to their respective blades.
Bonding Jumper
Four bonding jumpers are screwed onto the hub cap support with one
end and to bonding studs at the rotor blades. This allows static
discharge of the rotorblades.
Hub Cap Support
The hub cap support, which is manufactured from aluminum alloy, is
attached by screws to the upper hub flange of the main rotor hub shaft,
and seals off the open end of the hub shaft.
The helicopter can be lifted by a hoisting device attached to the hub
cap support.
Rotor Hub Cap
For aerodynamic reasons a rotor hub cap is installed. It is a composite
construction which can be delivered in two different types. There are
two different hub cap supports possible:
-- standard rotor hub cap
-- quick-removable rotor hub cap for blade folding system
(optional)
Attachment to their respective hub cap supports is by screws in the
case of the standard hub cap and by bayonet connections and safety
screws in the case of the quick-removable hub cap.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 33
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Hub Shaft
Standard Rotor Hub Cap
Standard Hub Cap Support
Bonding Jumper
Rotor Hub Shaft
Spline
Thread for Shaft Mounting Nut
Upper Flange
Lower Flange
Connectors for Levers.
Two off, 180 apart
Teflon Covered Bushings
Upper Hub Shaft
Bearing Seating
Cap
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 34
July 2002 For training and information only
Mast Moment Measuring System
General
The mast moment indication system is used to measure and indicate
any bending moments, which occur on the rotor mast.
The system mainly consists of:
-- Strain gauge bridge
-- Sensor amplifier
-- Induction transmitter (stator and rotor)
-- Signal processing unit
-- Indication in the CDS/CPDS
Function
The signal processing unit (SPU) produces a certain frequency which
is supplied to the strain gauge bridges, bonded into the rotor mast, via
thestator androtor of the inductiontransmitter andthe sensor amplifier
unit (SAU). Due to shaft bending, the resistance of the strain gauge
bridge changes thus modulating the frequency. The modulated signal
is transmitted back via the induction transmitter. The signal processing
unit generates a voltage signal proportional to the bending moment.
This voltage signal is sent to the CDS/CPDS for mast moment
indication.
u NOTE The signal processing unit can be installed under
the gearbox deck or above the avionics rack in the
rear of the H/C.
Mast Moment Indication CPDS
The mast moment indication in the VEMD consists of a white marking
with different ranges. The following ranges are allocated to single
colors:
Normal range up to 50% no color
Caution range 50% to 66% yellow
Maximum > 66% red
u NOTE 50% equal 9500 Nm bending moment.
Mast Moment Indication CDS
TheCDSmountedmast moment indicator consists of agreen, ayellow
and a red bar and an additional red limit light.
Normal range up to 50% green
Caution range 50% to 78% yellow
Maximum 78% to 100% red
Whenthemast moment exceeds 63.15%andis below77.80%, thered
limit light flashes at approx. 3 flashes/second. When the mast moment
is reduced to less than 63.15%, the limit light extinguishes.
When the mast moment exceeds 77.80%, the limit light is turned on
continuously. It remains on until a CDS cold start occurs. The actual
cumulated counter value is stored in 200 ms periods in the CDS
memory and can be displayed in the advisory display by turning the
rotary knob to the M position. (Example: 0017 = 17 x 200ms = 3.5s)
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 35
July 2002 For training and information only
Mast Moment Measuring System
PP 20E
Circuit Breaker
MAST MM
Signal Amplifier Unit Signal Processing Unit
Strain Gauge Bridge
Coupling Rotor--Stator
Cumulated Counter
Value
Green, Yellow, Red
Bars and Limit Light
MMEX XXXX
Mast Moment
Indication VEMD
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 36
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 37
July 2002 For training and information only
Mast Moment Measuring System
Strain Gauge Bridge
(bonded into the mast)
Stator
Rotor
Sensor Amplifier Unit
Lower Gearbox Cover
Signal Processing Unit
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 38
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotor Brake System
General
The hydro-mechanical rotor brake system enables the main and tail
rotors to be brought to a standstill, and locks them against further
rotation for a limited period of time. With the brake lever applied and
locked, the hydraulic pressure in the rotor brake system will be
maintained for a longer period of time before slowly dissipating. An
electrical switch lights up a caption in the cockpit indicating systemthat
the rotor brake has been engaged.
u NOTE The rotor brake may only be operated under the
following conditions:
-- the engines have been shut down,
-- the rotor speed is down to 50 % of its nominal
speed
-- OAT > --30 _C
System Components
The rotor brake system mainly consists of:
-- Brake lever (located in the cockpit)
-- Bowdenflex cable
-- Damper (force limiter spring)
-- Brake cylinder with fluid reservoir
-- Brake caliper
-- Brake disk
-- Micro switch for CDS/CPDS caution ROTOR BRK
Function
The rotor brake is actuated by a brake lever. Before it can be operated,
the brake lever must be released fromits detent by actuating a locking
pawl which allows the brake lever to be pulled downward until it
engages. The maximumforce is limited by the damper spring after the
brakelever has reached themechanical endstop. Torelease thebrake
lever, the locking pawl on the brake lever must be pressed.
u NOTE The fluid reservoir must be filled with brake fluid
DOT--4 only.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 39
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotor Brake System
Micro Switch
Brake Disk
Tail Rotor Drive
Shaft
Brake Caliper
Damper
Brake Cylinder
Reservoir for Brake
Fluid
Brake Lever
Hydraulic Hose
Brake Support
Lever
Bowdenflex Cable
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 40
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotor Brake Indication System
General
The rotor brake indicating system indicates an engaged rotor brake.
For this a microswitch is installed at the brake caliper mounting
slideway. The slideway itself is installed in the rotor brake support in
a way that it can move laterally against a spring by approx. 1 mm.
If the rotor brake is engaged and the brake disk starts turning, the
brake caliper will move together with the slideway against the spring
and depress the microswitch.
The indication at the CDS/CPDS MISC caution display will be:
-- ROTOR BRK
u NOTE With an engaged rotor brake and a stillstanding
rotor, the indication may be on because of
manufacturing tolerances and has to be checked.
It has to come on in the moment the rotor starts
turning and the brake is engaged.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 41
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotor Brake Indication System
Rotor Brake
Support
Micro Switch
ROTOR BRK
Micro Switch
Break Support
Slide
Slide Bolt
Top View
Brake Caliper
SYSTEM I SYSTEM II MISC
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 42
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Transmission Mounts
General
The main transmission is attached to the airframe by four ARIS (Anti
Resonance Isolation System) Dampers, one side load strut (Y--Strut)
and two torque struts.
The components of the main transmission mounting serve to transmit
the main rotor forces and moments into the helicopter airframe.
Gearbox Struts
One (titanium) side load strut (Y--strut) carries all forces in lateral (Y)
direction. The side load strut is attached to the airframe via a combined
torque/Y--load bracket on the LH side of the transmission deck.
On the inner side, the strut is attached to the main transmission by
means of a bracket and screws.
Two aluminum or titanium torque struts carry the main rotor reaction
torque and all forces created by the main rotor system in longitudinal
(X) direction.
The torque struts are attached to the airframe and to the main
transmission by bolts via spherical bearings.
In case of a torque strut failure the emergency stop keeps the gear box
in the position in order to prevent a total failure of the ARIS mounts.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 43
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Gearbox -- Attachment
Torque Strut
(X Axis)
Side Load Strut
(Y--Axis)
Vibration Isolator ARIS
(Z Axis)
Emergency Stop
Emergency Stop
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 44
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 45
July 2002 For training and information only
Gearbox Struts
Main Gear Box
Torque Strut
Bracket on the Transmission Deck
Gearbox Cover
Side Load Strut
Bushing
Bushing
Bushing
Bolt
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 46
July 2002 For training and information only
ARIS Anti Resonance Isolation System
Principle
In order to isolate a vibration between the rotor systemand the aircraft
fuselage the principle of the spring/mass damper is used.
The spring rate, the force transmitting unit and the mass weight have
to be defined in such a way the main rotor frequency induces the anti
resonance oscillation in the spring/mass system. Thus the H/C rotor
system and the damping mass vibrate with the same frequency, only
with 180 phase shifted. Therefore the forces generated by the rotor
systemin downward direction are compensated by the forces created
by the damping mass in upward direction and vice versa.
This system is only effective in the vertical axis (z--direction) and
towards the adjusted frequency.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 47
July 2002 For training and information only
Principle of Passive Anti--Resonance Vibration Isolation
No forces Equal forces
acting in
opposite
directions
No forces
No forces
Equal forces
acting in
opposite
directions
Fuselage vibrations
Fuselage forces
Rotor induced forces
Vibration of transmission caused by
rotational forces on the rotor system
Oszillations of the mass damper
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 48
July 2002 For training and information only
General
The systemconsists of 4 uniaxial hydro-mechanical vibrationisolaters.
They carry all weight and lifting forces transmitted by the main
transmission. They are attached to the airframe by 4 bolts each and
to the main transmission by a special spherical bearing and one bolt
each. For fail safe purposes an emergency stop is mounted around
each damper.
The purpose of the system is to reduce the loads and vibrations
generated by the main rotor to the helicopter fuselage.
Function
The vibrations generated by the main rotor cause periodic movements
of the main transmission relative to the fuselage which in turn causes
axial movement of the primary bellows.
In response to the travel of the primary bellows, the secondary bellows
produces a longer stroke as determined by the ratio of their respective
cross-section areas. The resultant inertia forces (force generator)
cause the pressure of the glycol solution in the vibration isolator to
fluctuate. The spring and pressure forces on the isolator attachment
point on the fuselage overlap each other. At the anti-resonance
frequency, this results in the forces transmitted to the fuselage being
cancelled and consequently the vibrations being reduced.
The primary bellows are provided with an adapter at the bottom end
for connecting them to the fuselage, while at the top end they are
formed with a forked lug for connecting themto the main transmission.
The forked lug is fitted with bushings. Above the bellows section, the
primary bellows are formed with an integral ring above which is an
annular groove which accomodates a split emergency stop ring.
At the upper end of the secondary bellows is a mass jacket to which
is attached a pendulumrod whichacts as a guidefor themass andalso
accomodates the additional weights.
A pre-loaded compression spring together with the secondary bellows
produce an operating pressure within the self-contained unit of
approx. 6 to 7 bar, thereby ensuring the functional integrity of the
vibration isolator for all operating conditions.
The emergency stop which is formed in the shape of a cylindrical pot
and fits over the corrugated portion of the primary bellows is attached
to the transmission deck of the fuselage by screws.
If the primary bellows of the vibration isolator should fail, the
transmission will be supported either by the fixed stop ring or the
detachable emergency stop rings on the emergency stop.
u NOTE Earlier versions are equipped with a combination
of 6 aluminium / steel weights used for fine tuning.
In newer versions the pendulum rods are empty
and the mass jacket weight is higher. These
versions dont require an adjustment.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 49
July 2002 For training and information only
ARIS -- Vibration Isolators
Primary
Bellows
Compression
Spring
Secondary
Bellows
Mass Jacket
Water/Glycol
Solution
Filling and Bleed Port
(Manufacturer only)
Pendulum with Tuning
Mass (6 off)
Bearing Cage
with Bearings
Vibration Isolator
Emergency Stop
Ring (Splitted)
Emergency
Stop
Locking Screw
Vertical Movement of
Mass/Spring Unit
Pendulum
Protrusion
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 50
July 2002 For training and information only
Clearance
When ready installed the clearance between stop ring and emergency
stop must bea certainmeasure. For measuring this clearence, afeeler
gauge is used at four places 90 apart and the mean value has to be
calculated.
The clearance is adjusted with shims to the nominal value 1.0
--0.3
mm
during installation.
u NOTE The clearance will change with the temperature
and therefore cant be used for failure detection.
Adjustment
A main rotor speed of 100% NR means that the main rotor rotates at
6.6 revers per second. This results in a 4/rev vibration frequency of
26.3 Hz. The natural vibration frequency of the ARIS is adjusted to this
figure.
Failure Detection
At +20 C the pendulum rod will prodrude for approx. 8--9 mm. The
protrusion varies with the ambient temperature, but generally it can be
stated, that as long as the pendulum rod protrudes the ARIS is still
serviceable.
In case of pressure drop (e.g. crack in one of the bellows) the internal
spring and the inner bellows expand and the pendulum rod will
disappear.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 51
July 2002 For training and information only
ARIS -- Measurement of Clearance
Vibration Isolator
Stop Ring
Emergency Stop
Measuring Points
Nominal Clearance
1.0 -- 0.3 mm
Main Transmission Deck
Shim
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 52
July 2002 For training and information only
Oscillation Damper
General
The aircraft is equipped with a mass/spring damper to reduce lateral
vibrations (y direction). It is mounted to the fuselage and compensates
for lateral vibration from the main rotor system.
Location and Assembly
The y--damper is mounted to the stringer below the LH floor panel.
The damper assembly consists of two weights, which are adjustable
for mass, bolted to the springs. The location of the weights on the
springs is also adjustable. On each weight it is possible to attach up
to 6 additional weights (adjusting sheets) for tuning. The springs, with
the weights attached, are mounted to a common support.
Function
The damper is energized by lateral oscillations of the fuselage. The
natural frequency of the damper can be adjusted by adjusting the
mass of the weights or moving the weights on the springs. If the
damper frequency is tuned to the same frequency as the fuselage
oscillations, it will vibrate in exact opposition to the fuselage vibrations.
This induced vibration of the damper will react in direct opposition to
the fuselage vibrations and cause a reduction in fuselage lateral
vibrations.
The y--damper is adjusted, to give the lowest level of vibrations, at
101.5% NR instead of 100% NR. This is in order to achieve the best
compromise of vibration levels when the rotor speed increases to
104% NR at high density altitudes.
A main rotor speed of 101.5% NR means that the main rotor rotates
at 6.7 revers per second. This results in a 4/rev vibration frequency of
26.7 Hz. The natural vibration frequency of the y damper is adjusted
to this figure.
u NOTE If the H/C flies permanently in higher altitudes, the
efficiency of the damper can be adjusted by
removing a certain amount of tuning sheets
(according service engineering information).
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 53
July 2002 For training and information only
Y--Damper
z
x y
Mass M 21
Mass M 22
Tuning Sheets
Mass M 12
Mass M 11
Support
Spring
Spring
Tuning Sheets
Y--Damper 1
Y--Damper 2
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 54
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor System
General
The main rotor system consists of a bearingless, hingeless 4--blade
main rotor, main rotor shaft with integral hub, control elements, and the
rotor-related indicators. By using modern composite materials, this
rotor system provides the flapping, lead-lag and blade pitch change
functions without the installation of complicated ball and elastomeric
bearings. This type of construction is beneficial in terms of
maintenance, cost and weight.
System Components
The components of the main rotor system are:
-- Four main rotor blades
-- Main rotor hub-shaft
-- Swash plate
-- Four rotating control rods
-- Driving unit
Main Rotor Blades
The four main rotor blades generate the lift and propulsion required for
flight. Each blade is attached to the hub-shaft by two identical bolts.
Main Rotor Hub--Shaft
The main rotor hub-shaft transmits the driving torque from main
transmission to the main rotor blades. It also takes up rotor forces and
moments and passes them on to the main transmission.
Swash Plate
The swashplate is the connecting link between the rotating rotor and
the stationary components of the control system. It is mounted to a
sliding sleeve, free to slide on a main gearbox mounted support tube.
Rotating Control Rods
The four rotating control rods transmit the control inputs from the
swashplate to the main rotor blades. For flight control adjustment
(track and balance), the control rods are length-adjustable.
Driving Unit
Two scissors assemblies provide for synchronous rotation of the
swashplate bearing ring with the rotor mast.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 55
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor System
Main Rotor Blade
Swash Plate
Main Rotor Hub-Shaft
Rotating Control Rod
Scissors Assembly
(Driving Unit)
Hub-Cap Support
Hub-Cap
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 56
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Blade
General
The main rotor blade is manufactured from fiber composite materials.
A blade root having low bending and torsional stiffness (Flex Beam)
performs the functions of both the flap and lag hinges and the blade
pitch bearings.
A pitch control cuff is integrated in the blade skin to provide a rigid
connection with the airfoil section of the blade. The pitch angle of the
main rotor blade is changed through a pitch horn on the pitch control
cuff. During this feathering motion, the pitch control cuff is kept
centered about the blade root by a bearing support and a spherical
bearing.
Two elastomeric lead-lag dampers provide sufficient in--plane
damping of the main rotor blade to prevent ground and air resonance.
The surface of the main rotor blade is provided with a protective coat
of PURlacquer to protect the composite materials fromsolar radiation
and environmental and weather influences.
Color Marking
Each of the four main rotor blades is identified with a different color.
The upper hub flange of the main rotor hub-shaft is coded with the
numbers 1 thru 4 on the blade attachment areas. In order to avoid
having to readjust the control settings and the blade track when
removing or installing the same main rotor blades, the main rotor
blades are reinstalled so that their respective colors are paired
correctly with number codes on the hub flange.
Blade number 1 (yellow colour code) is the reference blade. The
settings (pitch link length and trim tab position) must not be changed
during maintenance in order to store the basic rotor adjustment
(min./max. pitch angle). All blades can be replaced individually due to
themanufacturer basic settings. The numbers and colour codes for the
blades 2, 3 and 4 are mainly used as a reference for the track and
balance equipment.
u NOTE If the basic adjustment is changed the relationship
between the rotor thrust and the collective pitch
lever position will be out of tolerance. Depending
on the amount of deviation the autorotation RPM
and the general H/C performance will be
influenced.
Color to Number Code Realationship
-- Yellow = number 1
-- Green = number 2
-- Blue = number 3
-- Red = number 4
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 57
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Blade
Metallic Erosion
Protection
PU--Erosion
Protection
Control Cuff
Damper Connection
with Pitch Horn
Transition Area Pitch
Control Cuff to Airfoil
Airfoil Section
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 58
July 2002 For training and information only
Blade Root
The blade root has the following functional areas:
-- Blade fitting area (1)
Serves to attach the main rotor blade to the rotor hub of the main rotor
shaft and is fitted for this purpose with two Teflon--coated bushings.
-- Soft flapping section (2)
This area enables the main rotor blade to flap up and down.
-- Soft torsion section (3)
Enables the main rotor blade to twist about its feathering axis to
change the blade pitch angle.
-- Soft lead-lag section (4)
Enables in-plane motion of the main rotor blade.
Pitch Control Cuff
The pitch control cuff is provided with a transition area where it is
integrated with the aerodynamic portion of the blade, and with a
damper connection at its open end. The pitch control cuff, which
permits neither torsional nor lead-lag movements, surrounds theblade
root and is rigidly connected to the adjacent airfoil section.
Torsional stiffness is required so that the control inputs can be
transmitted through the pitch control cuff to the airfoil section of the
blade.
The in--plane rigidity of the pitch control cuff is obtained through the
unidirectional orientation of its carbon fibers in the trailing and leading
edge of the control cuff. Lead--lag rigidity is necessary to enable
lead-lag movements of the main rotor blade to be transmitted directly
to the lead-lag dampers without significant losses.
To prevent denting of the pitch control cuff -- especially on the less
curved upper and lower surfaces -- it incorporates a sandwichstructure
and a hard foam filler core.
Two drain holes are provided on the underside of the pitch contol cuff
at the outboard end adjacent to the blade airfoil section. These serve
to vent the pitch control cuff and to allow water which has condensed
in or penetrated the pitch control cuff to drain off.
The integration (transition area) of the pitch control cuff into the blade
body provides a positive and force transmitting connection which
transmits the control inputs to the aerodynamic portion of the blade.
Part of the forces and moments generated by the main rotor blade are
transmitted through this connection to the pitch control cuff.
A positive twist of +16 built into the blade in the region where the pitch
control cuff joins the airfoil section provides the airfoil section with a
corresponding preset pitch angle and brings the flexbeam into an
unloaded (untwisted) mid position.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 59
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Blade -- Control Cuff
1
2
3
4
1 Blade Fitting Area
2 Soft Flapping Section
3 Soft Torsion Section
4 Soft Lead--lag Section
Filler Core Inplane Stiffener
Flexbeam
Sandwich Construction
Inplane Stiffener
Control Cuff
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 60
July 2002 For training and information only
Blade Fitting Area
A composite damper connection is integrated in the fiber structure of
the pitch control cuff. In the areas where it connects to the lead-lag
dampers, it is constructed with extreme stiffness to withstand
compression loads. This is necessary because the lead-lad dampers
have to be axially preloaded during installation.
The damper connection is twisted 15 relative to the blade fitting plane
in the direction of the pitch horn.
Formed on the damper connection is a pitch horn which connects to
the rotating control rod.
The pitch control cuff is supported at the blade fitting end by the
damper installation consisting of the elastomeric lead-lag dampers
and the bearing support which provides pivotal and tilting movements.
When control inputs are made, the pitch control cuff rotates about this
pivot point. Simultaneously, the flexbeam twists to feather the main
rotor blade about its longitudinal axis and provide the required pitch
angle.
The pitch control cuff provides the following functions:
-- Transmits control inputs to the aerodynamic portion of the
blade to change the blade pitch angle.
-- Transmits in-plane movements of the main rotor blade to
the lead-lag dampers.
-- Provides the blade root with an aerodynamic fairing.
u NOTE The blade bolt bushings are tilted 2.5 against the
rotor blade longitudinal axis in order to cone up
the blade. Thus the forces in the blade fitting are
reduced when the rotor is turning.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 61
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Blade -- Blade Fitting Area and Pitch Control
Upper Lead-Lag Damper
Bearing Support
Spherical Bearing
Blade Bolt (2 off)
Special Nut
Safety Pin (2 off)
Pitch Control Cuff Seal
Lower Lead-Lag Damper
Pitch Horn
Control Cuff
Blade Root
Sleeve
Expansion Bolt
with Rubber Cap
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 62
July 2002 For training and information only
Airfoil Sectional Cut
Blade Core
The hard-foam blade core provides the supporting structure for the
blade contour and stabilizes the blade skin.
Blade Spar
The blade spar consists of glassfiber rovings. They run fromthe blade
tip to the blade root, around the bushings in the blade fitting area, and
back to the tip. They absorb the tension and bending forces.
Lead Rod
The lead rod in the blade leading edge determines the required
position of the blade center of gravity in the chordwise direction.
Blade Skin
The blade skin, which is made up of GRP plies, surrounds the spar,
lead rod and blade core. It ensures that the aerodynamic portion of the
blade is provided with the necessary torsional stiffness. The skin plies
on the upper and lower surfaces of the blade converge at the blade
trailing edge where they are squeezed together to complete a torsion
box.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 63
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Blade -- Airfoil Section
Airfoil Section
Control Cuff with
Flex Beam Section
Erosion Protection
Lead Rod
Spar
Blade Core
Blade Skin
Trailing Edge
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 64
July 2002 For training and information only
Airfoil Section
The airfoil section generates main rotor blade lifting force. It has a
rectangular blade geometry with a parabolic swept-back tip and a
negative 2 twist per meter. The blade airfoil consists of:
-- An homogenous section comprising the DM--H4 airfoil up to
R = 4500mm.
-- A transition area between airfoil DM--H4 and airfoil DM--H3
between R = 4500 and R = 4800mm.
-- The blade tip comprising the DM--H3 airfoil between
R = 4800 and R = 5100mm.
Erosion Protection
Aerosion protection is bonded on the entire length of the blade leading
edge. Between the blade tip and approx. the middle of the
homogenous airfoil section, the erosion protection is composed of
nickel alloy or aluminum alloy on old-type blades. The surface of the
aluminumalloy erosion protection is hardened. In the area adjacent to
the Erosion protection, where there is less risk of erosion, an erosion
protective tape (one or two parts) made of polyurethane (PU) is
integrated in the blade skin. A PU erosion protective filmis bonded on
the paint coat covering the butt joint between both parts of the erosion
protection and the forward edge of the pitch control cuff.
Balance Chamber
A balance chamber is incorporated in the main rotor blade near the
blade tip. Preliminary settings made in the balance chamber by the
manufacturer ensure that the blades can be replaced individually.
These presettings must not be changed by the customer.
Lightning Protector
In the event of lightning striking the blade tip, the electrical charge is
discharged from the main rotor blade to the main rotor shaft through
the erosion protection, a conductive strap in the blade skin, and a
bonding jumper, respectively.
Static Discharger
A static discharger is riveted to the blade trailing edge in the blade tip
area. It consists of an adapter, a threaded fitting, and the discharger
rod. The static discharger enables the discharge of static electricity
fromthe helicopter. A carbon-fiber strap is embedded in the blade skin
to electrically connect the static discharger to the bonding jumper
connecting point. The carbon-fiber strap runs along the erosion
protection fromthe static discharger to the pitch control cuff. A flexible
bonding jumper electrically connects the main rotor blade to the main
rotor hub-shaft.
Trim Tabs
Two metal trim tabs and one FRP tab are bonded and, in addition,
riveted to the trailing edge near the blade tip. The trimtabs enable the
track of the main rotor blades to be adjusted so that they all fly in the
same tip path plane. Both trim tabs may be bent to make track
adjustments.
Dynamic Balancing Washers
The balance washers for dynamic balancing are attached to the pitch
control cuff under a cover.
Blade Tip Mass and Tuning Mass
The blade tip mass increases the rotor inertio and stabilises the rotor
RPM (e. g. autorotation). The tuning mass changes the resonance
frequency of the rotor blade in order to stay clear of other main
frequencies in the rotor system.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 65
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Rotor Blade
Balance Chamber
Static Discharger
Trim Tabs
Balance Washers for
Dynamic Balance
(below cap)
Between the conductive strap in the blade
upperside and the nickel erosion protection,
there is a defined gap of approx. 2 mm.
This area seves as an indicator for a lightning
strike (burnt area).
Tuning Mass
Blade Tip Mass
Stabilizer (Fixed Setting)
R=0 Center of Rotation
R=2560 mm
R=4733 mm
178.5 mm
713 mm
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 66
July 2002 For training and information only
Lead Lag Dampers and Bearing Support
The lead-lag dampers are attached to the damper connection on the
pitch control cuff by screws installed through the bottom aluminum
plates. The top steel plates of the dampers are connected by nuts to
the ends of the bearing support, thereby connecting the lead-lag
dampers to each other through the bearing support. Both lead-lag
dampers are preloaded upon their connection to the bearing support.
This prevents tension loading of the elastomer material during control
inputs and blade flapping movements. Tension loads would greatly
reduce the service life of the lead-lag dampers.
The lead-lag dampers are installed at a tilt in relation to the rotor plane
due to the canted damper connection (see View V). This layout
enables a kinematic coupling to be obtained between the lead-lag
motion and the pitch angle of the main rotor blade. This pitch-lag
coupling effects a large part of blade lead-lag damping during flight.
The bearing support is mounted in blade fitting through a spherical
bearing which allows it to pivot and tilt. The bearing support together
with the lead-lag dampers support theopen endof thepitch control cuff
and center it around the blade root.
Operating principle of the lead lag damper and bearing support
assembly explained on the basis of its response to blade lag
movement:
-- The damper connection of the pitch control cuff makes a
lead movement in relation to the blade fitting,
-- the bottom aluminum plate is deflected forward, while the
top steel plate is restrained by the bearing support,
-- the layers of elastomers sandwiched between the steel
disks become deformed, absorb energy and, in doing so,
dampen the lead motion of the main rotor blade.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 67
July 2002 For training and information only
Pitch Control Cuff and Blade Root
V
A
A
Section A -- A
View V rotated 90, without Control Cuff Seal
1 Lead--Lag Damper
2 Control Cuff Seal
3 Blade Fitting Area
4 Expansion Bolt with Cap
5 Sperical Bearing
6 Bearing Support
7 Bottom Aluminum Plate
8 Elastomer Layer
9 Steel Disc
10 Top Steel Plate
11 Damper Connection on Pitch Control Cuff
12 Flexbeam
13 Balance Washers
14 Bolt for Bonding Jumper
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
12 13
10
14
14
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 68
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotor Blade Adjustments
Manufacturer Adjustments
In the EC 135 main rotor all four blades can be replaced individually.
On a rotor test stand the deviation of the dynamic behaviour from the
master blade is detected and corrected. In order to stay within the
manufacturer limits the following parameters have to be adjusted.
Longitudinal Moment (Static Spanwise Balancing)
The longitudinal moment can be adjusted by changing weights in the
center of the balance chamber which is exactly in the center of gravity
line in the longitudinal axis. To determine the individual setting a
special weighing equipment is necessary.
u NOTE Any change of the longitudinal moment (e. g.
application of paint in different radius stations of
the rotor blade) will influence the blade behaviour
significantly and abnormal vibrations can occur.
Lateral Moment (Chordwise Balancing)
The lateral moment determines the lift and therefore the track level of
the rotor blade under different pitch angles. With the adjustment of the
lateral moment the characteristic of the master blade can be
transferred to all production blades.
By shifting mass behind the longitudinal center of gravity line the
increase of the lateral moment creates more lift with ahigher track level
and vice versa. When leaving the production line the balance chamber
normally is equipped with 12 weights (6 in front, 6 behind the center
of gravity line). To harmonise production tolerances brass or several
combinations of brass and tungsten weights can be used.
After the measurements on the rotor test stand weights can be shifted
forward and backward in order to achieve the master blade track level.
The plastic spacers between the metallic weights allow a lateral
transfer of weight without influence on the longitudinal moment.
Pretrack Value
For the first rotor or blade adjustment the rotating pitch links normally
are set to a basic length. As a fine tuning towards the master blade the
basic length can be altered according the measurements on the rotor
test stand. The pretrack value is a dimension in +/--[mm] for thechange
of the basic pitch link length and is stamped on the respective control
cuff and the rotor blade log card. Thus the necessary flight time for the
track and balance adjustment can be reduced.
u NOTE Every time one or more rotor blades are replaced
the pretrack value has to be adjusted at first, even
for blade number 1 (yellow reference blade). For
any further track adjustment the pitch link length
or the trim tab setting of blade number 1 must not
be changed.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 69
July 2002 For training and information only
Plastic Spacer
Balance Chamber
Metallic Weight
for Lateral Moment
Metallic Weight
for Longitudinal
Moment
Compression Spring
Blade Tip
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 70
July 2002 For training and information only
Customer Adjustments
Track and Dynamical Balancing
Track adjustment of the main rotor blades is performed on the
helicopter by following means:
-- Adjusting the length of the rotating control rod.
-- Bending the trim taps.
Dynamic balancing of the main rotor is performed on the helicopter by
adding or removing balance washers to or from the pitch control cuff.
Track Level Adjustment
The track level has to be measured in hover and in forward flight. The
bladenumber 1has tobe takenas referenceblade andall other blades
have to be brought into the deviation tolerance given in the
maintenance manual.
The track level in hover flight is adjusted by changing the length of the
rotating pitch links (longer pitch link makes the blade fly higher andvice
versa).
Further deviations to the blade number 1 in forward flight can be
corrected by changing the trim tab setting (bending the trim tab up
makes the blade fly higher and vice versa).
Main Rotor Balancing
Dynamic balancing of the main rotor is performed by adding or
removing washers to or fromthe pitch control cuff. In order to eliminate
an in plane imbalance weights can be found on one or two blades.
u NOTE Normally the track adjustment has to be done prior
to the balancing because a track change will again
create an imbalance due to the moving center of
gravity of the rotor blade when flying higher or
lower. Modern track and balance computers are
able to combine both adjustments and to reduce
vertical vibrations by a certain track spread. This
track spread and all other adjustments have to
stay within the manufacturer limits given in the
maintenance manual.
EC 135
Training Manual
Lifting System
01 -- 71
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotor Blade Adjustments
Stabilizer (fixed setting)
Trim Tabs
Balance Washers
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuselage
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
General Description 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cabin Structure 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Fuselage Structure 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doors 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Covers 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
General Description
General
The fuselage serves as platform for the helicopter systems, crew,
passengers and payload. The exterior shape of the fuselage is
dictated by the major functions during operation and typical usage of
light helicopters.
Components
The components of the fuselage are:
-- Cabin structure
-- Main fuselage structure
-- Rear structure
-- Doors and service covers
-- Windows
Modular Concept
The modular concept simplifies the assembly of the helicopter and
permits the replacement of individual modules without the necessity
of disassembling the entire fuselage.
Materials
The following materials are used:
-- Aluminium
-- Titanium
-- Composit Materials (glass fiber and carbon fiber composite)
-- Acrylic glas
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuselage
Cabin Structure
Main Fuselage Structure
Rear Structure
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
Cabin Structure
General
The cabin structure comprises the forward section above the cabin
floor. It is designed to function as a frame. It consists of:
-- Cabin framework
-- Cabin ceiling
-- Control post
Cabin Framework
The cabin framework is a one-piece structural component. It is
constructed as a hollow profile made of composite material (mainly
carbon-fiber). The framework provides the structural support for
mounting the windshields, the nose windows, the pilot/copilot doors
and the sliding doors to the passenger compartment. The upper fork
end of the windshield center post houses the overhead panel.
Threaded inserts in the area of the windowframe profiles are provided
for installation of the front and nose windows.
Cabin Roof
The cabin roof covers the cabinframework. It also functions as afairing
for the main rotor control rod system.
The cabin roof is made of carbon fiber composite material (partly
sandwich). The roof is riveted to the cabin framework. To allowaccess
to the control rods and an upper guidance unit, a handhole is provided
in the upper right side of the cabin roof dome.
u NOTE The cabin roof is a non load carrying structure.
NO STEP!
Control Post
The control post is installed between the cabin floor and the cabin roof.
It only houses the vertical control rods for main rotor control. The
control post is made of aluminum alloy. It is displaced slightly to the
starbord side of the helicopter to allow the pilot to have an
unobstructed view to the rear left.
u NOTE The control post is a non load carrying structure. It
houses the control rods only.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
Cabin Structure
FWD
FWD
Carbon Fibre
Center Post
Glass Fiber Plies in the
Lower Section
Handhole
Carbon Fiber
Cabin Roof
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Fuselage Structure
General
The main fuselage structure is the part of the fuselage that carries all
the loads transmitted by the main transmission from the main rotor
system and all the loads caused by the engines, landing gear and tail
unit.
Components
The main fuselage structure consists of the following:
-- Body structure
-- Floor structure
The body and floor structure are ridgidly attached to each other.
Body Structure
The predominantly aluminum-alloy body structure is composed of
individual assemblies which are:
-- Side panels (2 off)
-- Transmission deck
-- Engine deck
-- Rear structure attachment cone
-- Equipment deck
The body structural components are rigidly attached to each other.
Side Panels
The side panels, which provide the framework on the sides of the body
structure, consist of frames 4 thru 7 and stringers. The outer skin,
which is aluminum alloy, is riveted to the frames and stringers.
Integrated in the side panels are maintenance steps. The left-hand
side panel also incorporates a housing for accomodating the fuel filler
neck.
The outer skin of each side panel is provided with cutouts for the aft
window panes and the cooling vents.
Attached to the outside of both side panels is a center door rail for
guiding the respective sliding door.
Transmission Deck
The transmission deck, which takes up the load of the lifting system,
consists of frames 4 thru 5 and longitudinal beams. It is attached by
rivets to the side panels. On the transmission deck six mounts for main
transmission installation are provided. The transmission deck skin is
aluminum alloy.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Main Fuselage Structure
5 6 7
4a 4 8 5a
Equipment Deck
FWD
Transmission Deck
4 8 Frame 4 to Frame 8
Rear Structure
Attachment Cone
RH Side Panel
LH Side Panel
Engine Deck
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Deck
The engine deck , which supports the engines, consists of frames 6
and 7 and longitudinal beams. It is riveted to thetransmission deck and
to the side panels.The engine deck is equipped with mounts to which
the engine is attached through its mounting struts.
Integral with the upper surface of the engine deck is the rear structure
attachment cone.
As the engine deck is part of the firewall-system, the skin is made from
titanium sheet material.
Rear Structure Attachment Cone
The rear structure attachment cone is rigidly connected to the
transmission deck. The rear structure is connected to the main
fuselage structure through connecting frame 8 which is riveted to the
rear structure attachment cone. The rear structure attachment cone is
stiffened by frame 5a.
Equipment Deck
The equipment deck provides a mounting base for items of equipment
such as the engine fire extinguishing systemcomponents, battery, etc.
It is an aluminumhoneycomb structure which is supported by a carbon
fiber ring frame and is riveted to the engine deck through shear
brackets.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 11
July 2002 For training and information only
Airframe Structure
Rear Structure Attachment Cone
Engine Deck
Transmission Deck
Transmission Mounts
RH Side Panel
Floor Structure
Equipment Deck
Frame 8
Frame 7
LH Side Panel
Frame 6
Frame 5
Frame 4a
Frame 4
Frame 3
Landing Gear Fitting
Frame 2
Frame 1
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Cabin Floor
The cabin floor supports the seats and parts of the interior furnishings
of the helicopter. It is an aluminumhoneycomb sandwich construction
and comprises the following sections:
-- Foreward floor
-- Aft floor
-- Left and right cable channel cover
Located in the forward floor are cutouts through which the flight control
elements and wiring harnesses are routed. The forward floor provides
the points of attachment for the pilot seats, controls and consoles. The
bottom end of the control post is also bolted to the forward floor.
Integrated into the removable aft floor are tracks running in a
longitudinal direction. These enable the helicopter to be configured
with passenger seats or items of special operational equipment.
The removable side channel covers cover the area of the floor
between the forward and aft floors and the cabin side shell.
Subfloor Structure
The subfloor structure, which is a aluminum-alloy construction,
supports the cabin floor and the landing gear. It is made up of frames
1 thru 6 and two longitudinal beams. The structure is riveted to the side
panels through the frame and the lower shell.
Disposed between the longitudinal beams behind frame 1 and in front
of frame 2 is a transverse bridge.
A forward and an aft landing gear fitting are riveted to each of the two
longitudinal beams.
The fuel tanks are located between frames 3 and 5 and behind frame
5, respectively.
Lower Shell
The lower shell, which is a one-piece composite structure, encloses
the subfloor structure and supports the fuel tanks. It is riveted to the
subfloor structure.
A maintenance hole is provided in the lower shell between frames 1
and 2 and between 2 and 3, respectively.
Running laterally below each frame 2 and 5 is a tunnel which is
occupied by a landing gear crosstube.
In the area behind frame 3 and in front of and behind frame 5, the lower
shell is stiffened to provide a firm mounting base for the fuel pumps.
A lower door rail for guiding the respective sliding door is integrated in
the upper edge of each side of the lower shell between frames 2
and 4.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 13
July 2002 For training and information only
Floor Structure
Cabin Floor
Subfloor Structure
Lower Shell
FWD
1
2
3
4
5
6
4a
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 14
July 2002 For training and information only
Doors
General
The helicopter fuselage is fitted with six entrance doors to provide
access to the cockpit, passenger cabin and cargo compartment.
Cockpit Doors
The cockpit doors (pilot doors) are hinged doors located left and right
at the foreward part of the cabin frame. In the standard version they
can not be jettisoned.
The cockpit doors are a carbon-fiber composite construction with a
seal fitted to their circumference. They are installed to the cabin
framework via two hinges with integral bearings and two clevis fittings.
The upper one is attached by rivets and the lower one by screws.
The rear edge of the pilot door is fitted with locking devices at the top
and at the bottom. They are operated through the exterior or interior
door handle and the interconnecting lever and tubes. The claws of the
locking devices engage with the mating fittings on the cabin
framework. The pilot door can be locked with an integral door lock. A
gas spring holds the unlatched pilot door wide open.
In a second version the gas spring is removed and the door can be
locked in the full open position in the vicinity of the pitot tubes.
Cockpit Door Windows
The pilot door windows are made of 3--mm--thick acrylic glass. They
are positioned on a layer of adhesive sealant in the door structure and
secured to the latter by countersunk screws and dimpled washers.
The pilot door windows incorporate smaller sliding windows which are
moved on rails by means of a handgrip bonded to the pane. Thesliding
windows are held by friction in the selected open position on the rails.
A mechanical detent locks them in the closed position so that they
cannot be opened from the outside.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
Pilot Door
Locking Device
Locking Device Top
Hinges
Door Handle
Gas
Spring
Handle for Locking Device
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Sliding Doors
The sliding door is a carbon-fiber composite construction. It is fitted
with a door seal around its entire circumference except for the edge
adjacent to the pilot door. Fitted to the forward top and bottomcorners
of the sliding door are the upper arm and lower guide which are
provided with a runner and a roller, respectively. The sliding door is
moved onits upper armandlower guidealong anupper rail in thecabin
framework and a lower rail in the lower shell. Another arm with an
integral runner is fitted on the rear edge of the sliding door. By means
of this arm, the sliding door also runs on a rail located aft in the side
panel.
The sliding door is opened and closed via the exterior door handle or
interior door handle, and the associated locking mechanism. Latching
of the sliding door is provided by an inner tube which matches with a
fitting in the cabin framework above the sliding door, and by a lock
which matches aft with a corresponding fitting in the side panel.
For flight with open sliding door the locking mechanism for the open
position has to be installed and the speed limits have to be obeyed.
Sliding Door Windows
The sliding door windows are made of 3--mm--thick acrylic glass. They
are fitted in the sliding doors with a peripheral clamping seal which
enables them to be removed quickly to provide a mean of escape in
the event of an emergency.
Emergency Exit
The clamping seal of the sliding door window is formed with four slits.
Of these, the two lateral inner and outer slits are each fitted with a filler
(PVC cord with matching profile) which expands the circumference of
the clamping seal so that the window is held firmly in the door frame.
The filler in the inner or outer lateral slit can be pulled out of the
clamping seal by means of an emergency handle on the inside and
outside of the the sliding door. To prevent of an inadvertant pulling, the
emergency handles are protected by pushbutton-fixed covers. After
the filler has been removed, the window pane can be pressed out of
the sliding door.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Sliding Door
Upper Arm
with Runner
Lower Guide
with Roller
Aft Arm with
Runner
Guard Cover
Emergency
Loop Strap
Clamping Seal
Filler
Sliding Door Pane
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Rear Doors
Therear door structureis acarbon fiber/glass fiber hybridconstruction.
The edges of the rear doors are fitted with a door seal. Attached by
screws to each rear door are two fittings through which the rear doors
are connected to the main fuselage structure. Attached by screws to
the inside of each rear door is a fitting to which is installed a gas spring
for holding open the unlatched rear doors. Two locking mechanisms
are installed on the edge of the right--hand door which, when the doors
are closed, clasp the mating sleeves on the edge of the left--hand door.
Both rear doors are latched together fromthe outside and then locked
with a key.
Rear Door Windows
The rear door panes are made of 2 mm thick acrylic glass. They are
bonded to the rear door structure and are secured by screws.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
Rear Doors
Door Fitting
Locking Mechanism
Gas Spring
Rear Door
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
Service Covers
General
Installed on the fuselage are a number of service covers which can be
removed to get access to components inside the helicopter.
Handhole Cover
The handhole cover, which is constructed of GRP, has a seal bonded
to its inside edges. It is attached by screws to the cabin roof cowling
and when removed provides access to the upper main rotor control
linkage.
Nose Cover
The nose cover, which is of fiberglass honeycomb panel construction,
has a seal bonded to its inside edges. Installed in the nose cover is a
fixed position landing light. The nose cover is attached to the cabin
framework by stud fasteners. Removal of the nose cover provides
access to the landing light, instrument connections, components of the
cabin heating and ventilation system, and the windscreen wiper motor.
Foreward Access Cover
The forward access cover is a fiberglass honeycomb panel
construction which is attached to the lower shell by stud fasteners.
When the stud fasteners are opened, the nose cover hangs from the
lower shell by means of four cables with snap hooks on their ends
which clip onto brackets on the forward access cover and the lower
shell. Removal of the forward access cover provides access to flight
control components and to the blower of the cabin heating and
ventilation system.
Middle Cover
The middle cover is of aluminum sheet metal construction. It is
attached to the lower shell by means of stud fasteners. Removal of the
middle cover provides access to flight control components and to the
engine emergency control connections.
For helicopters equipped with a cargo hook the middle cover is fitted
with a hood. A cover is attached to the hood to provide access to
components of the cargo hook.
Tank Covers
The forward main tank cover and the aft main tank cover are
constructed of aluminum sheet metal. They are provided with a
protective plastic edging. Each cover has a round opening in which the
boot of the associated fuel drain valve is inserted. The covers are
attached by screws to the lower shell. Removal of the covers provides
access to the equipment plates of the fuel system.
The supply tank cover is constructed of aluminum sheet metal. It has
two round holes in which the boots of the fuel drain valves are inserted.
The cover is attached by screws to the floor shell. Removal of thecover
provides access to the two equipment plates of the fuel system.
Rear Structure Covers
The RHand LHtail boomcovers are of composite construction. They
are attached by screws to the tail boom. Removal of the covers
provides access to the antenna connections, wiringharnesses andthe
flux valve.
The lower and aft vertical fin covers are of composite construction.
They are attached by screws to the Fenestron structure. Removal of
the covers provides access to the inside of the Fenestron structure for
inspection purposes.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Service Covers
Handhole Cover
Nose Cover
FWD Access Cover
Middle Cover
(Standard)
Middle Cover (alternative
with Cago Hook)
Tank Covers
Vertical Fin Covers
Tail Boom Cover LH
Tail Boom Cover RH
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
Windows
Windshields
The windshields are made of 5 mm thick acrylic glass. Optional
windshields with a hard, scratch--resistant surface coating are also
provided. The windshields are positioned ona formedsealing stripand
a layer of adhesive sealant in the cabin framework and secured to the
latter by countersunk screws, dimpled washers and sealing washers.
The bottom edge of the windshields is not attached by screws to the
cabin framework, but is held against it by a metal retaining strip . A
metal strip is installed between the windshild, which is attached by
screws to the center post of the cabin framework. It is installed flush
with the adjacent windshields to provide a flat, continuous surface for
the windshield wiper. The joint between the windshields and the cabin
framework is not rigid but designed to give the windshields a limited
degree of movement relative to the cabin framework. In consequence:
-- Varying degrees of heat expansion in the cabin framework
and the windshields are compensated for and
-- Stresses imposed on the windshields due to deformation of
the cabin framework are prevented.
For this purpose, the diameter of the washer holes is greater than the
shank diameter of the mating countersunk screws.
Nose Windows
The nose windows are made of 2--mm--thick acrylic glass and
reinforced with 1 mm thick Orlon around the edges. They are
positioned on a formed sealing strip and a layer of adhesive sealant
in the cabin framework and secured to the latter by countersunk
screws and dimpled washers. The upper edge of the nose windows is
not attached by screws tothe nosespar, but is heldagainst it by ametal
retaining strip which itself is attached by screws to the nose spar.
Side Windows
The side windows are made of 2 mm thick acrylic glass. They are
positioned on a layer of adhesive sealant in the side panels and
secured to the latter by round-head screws and washers.
Cleaning of the Windows
u NOTE Use only approved cleaning agents. Unapproved
cleaning agents may contain harmful solvents that
could cause crazing.
EC 135
Training Manual
Fuselage
02 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
Windshield, Nose and Side Windows
LH Side Window
LH Nose Window
Metal Strip
Metal Strip
LH Windshield
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Unit
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
Principle of the Fenestron 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Stabilizer with End Plates 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Boom 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Rotor Drive 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical Fin with Fenestron 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Rotor 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Rotor Gearbox 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Rotor -- Inspection 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
Principle of the Fenestron
General
The counterclockwise sense of rotation of the main rotor results in a
clockwise torque acting on the main gear box and the fuselage.
Thus in hover or in flight with low forward speed the H/C nose tends
to turn to the right. To counteract this movement the tail rotor thrust has
to keep the H/C nose straight by creating a force on the tailboom to
the right with the airflow from right to left.
With higher foward speeds flying straight and level, the power demand
for the tail rotor decreases significantly due to the aerodynamic shape
of the vertical fin and the angle between endplates and the flight
direction (leading egde pointing to the right).
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Principle of the Fenestron
Sense of Rotation Main Rotor
Direction of Air Flow
Thrust of Tail Rotor
FWD
Torque Main Rotor
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Unit
General
The rear structure is the aft section of the fuselage. It stabilizes the
helicopter in flight by means of the vertical fin with the integrated
Fenestron tail rotor and provides the lever arm on which the thrust of
the tail rotor counteracts the torque of the main rotor system. The rear
structure is mainly constructed of composite materials.
Components
The rear structure of the EC 135 consists of the following assemblies:
-- Tail boom
-- Horizontal stabilizer with end plates
-- Vertical fin with Fenestron structure
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
Rear Structure
Fin Tip
Vertical Fin
Fenestron Structure
Stator
Tail Bumper
End Plate
Horizontal Stabilizer
Fairing
Tail Boom
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Horizontal Stabilizer with End Plates
General
The horizontal stabilizer dampens pitching motions of the helicopter
around the lateral axis during forward flight. The horizontal stabilizer
has an asymmetric profile which is curved on the underside and is
equipped with a spoiler on both sides. The pitch angle is a permanent
factory setting. The horizontal stabilizer aerodynamically stabilizes the
pitch attitude of the helicopter in cruise flight and dampens pitch
motion.
When viewed in the direction of flight, the end plates are permanently
offset to the right, thereby enabling them to reduce aerodynamically
the thrust power required of the tail rotor system in cruise flight.
Design
The horizontal stabilizer passes through the tail boom. Above and
belowthe cutout on each side of the tail boomis an attachment bracket
through which a single bolt is installed to secure the horizontal
stabilizer to both sides of the tail boom.
The horizontal stabilizer is a shell-type structure made of carbon
fiber-reinforced plastics.
Attached by 6 screws to each outboard end of the horizontal stabilizer
is an end plate which is a honeycomb sandwich construction.
Fitted to the outboard sides of the end plates are the navigation lights.
For easy removal/installation the two parts of the spoiler are bolted on
the R/S side while riveted only on the L/H side.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Horizontal Stabilizer and End Plates
End Plate
Horizontal Stabilizer
Bolt
Nut
Spoiler
(Riveted)
Spoiler
(Bolted)
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Boom
General
The tail boom connects the rear structure to the main fuselage
structure. It supports the vertical fin, tail rotor systems and the
horizontal stabilizer. Running along the top of the tail boomare the tail
rotor drive shaft, hydraulic lines and the tail rotor flex ball control.
Design
The tail boomis a sandwich structure consisting of a Nomex core with
carbon fiber-reinforced facings in which is embedded copper foil to
ensure electrical conductivity.
The conically-shaped tail boom is built up of two half sections joined
together by bonding and additionally secured by rivets. The
aluminum-alloy connecting frame is riveted to the inside of the tail
boom. To prevent corrosion, the mating surfaces are isolated from
each other by layers of sealing compound. The tail boom is bolted to
the connecting frame 8 of the main fuselage structure through its
connecting frame.
Fittings
In the areas where the fittings are installed, the half sections are locally
reinforced. The aft end of the tail boom is provided with two cutouts
with integral fittings for attaching the horizontal stabilizer. Bolted at
intervals along the top of the tail boom are five bearing supports for
supporting the tail rotor drive shaft. The first three brackets are
supported by vertical struts in the structure in order to stabilize the
entire system.
Access to the interior of the tail boom is provided by maintenance
covers. Routed inside the tail boom are cable ducts for the electrical
cables.
When communication/navigation systems such as the VHF, VOR,
ADF, and radar altimeter (optional equipment) are installed, the tail
boom is fitted with antenna connections to which the respective
antennas are installed.
Fairing
A detachable fairing made of fiber-reinforced plastic provides a
covering for the tail rotor drive shaft, hydraulic lines, and the ball
bearing control. The fairing is fitted by spring-loaded fasteners to the
tail boom.
On the connecting frame, a bulkhead plate is attached.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 11
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Boom
Fairing (Carbon Fiber)
Support Fitting
Maintenance Cover
Cable Duct
Bulkhead
Plate
Bearing Support
(Aluminium)
Connecting Frame
(Aluminium)
Fitting for Horizontal
Stabilizer
Tail Boom (Nomex Sandwich)
Connecting Flange
Long
Drive Shaft
Tail Boom
Foreward
Short Drive
Shaft
Antenna Attachment
Hydraulic Hoses
FWD
FWD U--Profile
Vertical Strut
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Drive
General
The tail rotor drive transmits the power from the main rotor
transmission to the tailrotor through a system of shafts, flexible
couplings and the tail rotor gearbox.
Components
The tail rotor drive train consists of the following parts:
-- 3 shafts with flexible couplings
-- Tail rotor gearbox
Drive Shafts
The tail rotor drive shaft assembly consists of:
-- Foreward drive shaft with two couplings
-- Center drive shaft with 6 bearings
-- Aft drive shaft with two couplings
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 13
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Drive Shaft
Foreward Drive Shaft
Center Drive Shaft
Flexible Coupling
Gearbox Input
Shaft
Aft Driveshaft
Bolted Flange
Bolted Flange
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 14
July 2002 For training and information only
Foreward-- and Aft Drive Shaft
The foreward and aft drive shafts are built up as follows:
-- Tube
-- Adapers
-- Flexible Couplings
The tubes consist of carbon fiber. The three-armed adapters consist
of titanium and are riveted and bonded to the ends of the tubes.
The foreward drive shaft is connected via the flexible couplings and
flanged couplings to the tail rotor output drive of the main transmission
and to the center drive shaft.
The aft drive shaft is connected via flexible couplings directly to the
center drive shaft and to the tail gearbox input flange.
Flexible Coupling
The flexible couplings consist of packs of steel discs which are held
together by assembled flanged sleeves and washers. The flexible
couplings correct for misalignment and variations in length.
Center Drive Shaft
The center drive shaft is built up as follows:
-- Tube
-- Two removeable flanges
-- 6 roller bearings with rubber sleeves
The tube consists of steel. The bolted and the removable flanges
consist of titanium.
The removable flanges are connected to the tube by spring bushings
which are secured by bolts, nuts and special washers.
The center drive shaft is supported by 6 sealed roller bearings, which
are mounted on top of the tail boom by bearing supports. The inner
races of the bearings are embedded in rubber sleeves, which help to
dampen vibrations, and account for misalignment.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
Drive Shafts -- Tail Rotor
Rubber Sleeve
Ball Bearing
Flange
Center Drive
Shaft
Flexible Coupling
Aft Drive
Shaft
Flange
Foreward
Drive Shaft
Flexible
Coupling
Spring Bushing
Bolt
Special Washer
Rivets
Adapter
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Vertical Fin with Fenestron
General
The vertical fin together with the integral Fenestron structure form a
unit. The upper region of the vertical fin has an aerodynamic function,
while the Fenestron structure below it encloses the tail rotor system.
The yaw control of the helicopter is made possible by the Fenestron.
Design
The vertical fin is constructed of Nomex honeycomb with carbon
fiber-reinforced facings. Embedded in the outer facing plies is acopper
foil which ensures electrical conductivity. The vertical fin is built up of
two half sections joined together by bonding and additionally secured
with rivets. It is riveted to the tail boom via a connecting flange.
A fin tip fairing, which incorporates the anti-collision light, is screwed
to the open upper end of the vertical fin.
Screwed to the underside of the Fenestron airframe is a tail bumper
which increases the yaw stability and protects the tail boom against
impacts, e.g. ground contact during flare. A static discharger is fitted
at the fin tip fairing as well as at the tail bumber.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Vertical Fin with Fenestron
Fin Tip Fairing
Vertical Fin
Support Fitting
Tail Bumper
Guide Vane
Stator Hub
Half Fairing
Static Discharger
Static Discharger
Gearbox Cover
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor
General
The tail rotor is a shrouded fan--in--fin rotor (Fenestron concept) which
is installed in a duct in the Fenestron structure. It is installed on the RH
side of the helicopter.
It performs the following functions:
-- Counteracts main rotor torque
-- Controls the helicopter around the yaw axis
The tail rotor generates the thrust required to counteract main rotor
torque. This is achieved by changing the pitch angle of the tail rotor
blades. The direction of rotation of the tail rotor is counterclockwise
when viewed head-on from the right-hand side of the helicopter.
The tail rotor is equipped with ten unevenly-spaced rotor blades. This
arrangement produces overlapping of the acoustic vibrations, thereby
providing a lower tail rotor noise level.
A stator is installed in the duct of Fenestron structure. The stator
consists of the stator hub and inclined vanes. The vanes straighten the
airflow generated by the tail rotor, thereby improving its efficiency and
keeping the noise level low through the inclined installation. Attached
to the stator hub is the tail rotor gearbox. The tail rotor and the tail rotor
gearbox are connected to each other through the splined hub flange
and the output gear wheel.
Leading Particulars
Weight incl. blades 8.2 kg (18 lb)
Nominal speed 3584 RPM
Power required max 110--120 kW
Rotation counterclockwise
(viewed head-on from starboard
of helicopter)
Weight of one blade approx. 0.29 kg (0.64 lb)
Quantity 10 off
Material Aluminum alloy
Profile nonlinear airfoil, spanwise twist
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
Principle of Tail Rotor
Sense of Rotation
Tail Rotor
FWD
Yaw Control
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
Components
The tail rotor consists of the following:
-- 10 tail rotor blades
-- Hub body
-- 10 inner bearings
-- 10 outer bearings
-- Pitch change spider
-- Center flange
-- Fairing
Tail Rotor Blades
The tail rotor blades are constructed of aluminum alloy and consist of
the blade air foil and the blade root. The tail rotor blade air foil is formed
with a built-in spanwise twist. It has a nonlinear profile which
progressively changes fromthe blade neck to the root twist. The blade
root is hollow. It has two bearing surfaces and, a bore for receiving two
bushings and the blade bolt, and a pitch horn. The tail rotor blades are
supported in the hub body by the mating sliding bearings. This
arrangement enables the tail rotor blades to feather and change their
pitch angles. Bolted to the pitch horn is a ball segment which connects
the tail rotor blade to the pitch change spider. The hollow blade root
serves to accomodate the tension-torsion bar to which the rotor blade
is attached by bushings and a blade bolt.
Fairing
A fairing protects the components within the hub body and is fitted with
fasteners and plate nuts. At the center of the fairing is a bore which is
used to detach the fairing. The bore is sealed by a plug.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor
Fairing
Control Rod
Guide
Output Gear Wheel
Center Flange
Pitch Change Spider
Tail Rotor Blade
Thrust Nut
Locking Washer
Outer Bearing
Inner Bearing
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
Thrust Nut
The thrust nut is screwed to output gear wheel of the tail rotor gearbox
and securs the tail rotor. It is prevented from rotating by the locking
washer. The thrust nut transmits the tail rotor thrust to the Fenestron
structure through the tail rotor gearbox and the stator.
Pitch Change Spider
The pitch change spider is attached to the pitch horn of the tail rotor
blades through ball joints. It is the central pitch changing components
for all of the tail rotor blades.
Center Flange
The center flange is bolted to pitch change spider and is connected to
the control rod and guide of the tail rotor gearbox. Interposed between
the guide in the tail rotor gear box and the center flange is an setting
shim by means of which the pitch of the tail rotor blades can be set.
Control inputs move the control rod and the guide, which in turn move
the pitch change spider axially through the interconnected center
flange. Simultaneously, the pitch angle of all the blades is changed by
the same amount via the pitch horns mounted on the pitch change
spider.
Chinese Weights
The Chinese Weights or propeller moment weights dynamically
reduce the control forces.
u NOTE There are different chinese weights mounted to the
left and to the right.
Hub Body with Bearings
The hub body houses the tail rotor components. In the hub body, the
tail rotor blades are each supported in an outer and an inner bearing.
On the hub body rear side 6 threads for bolts and balance washers are
installed.
u NOTE For balancing work the bolts have to be numbered
from 1 to 6 beginning at the speed reference mark
in counter--clockwise direction.
Splined Hub Flange
The splined hub flange is connected to the hub body by screws and,
through its internal spline, is splined to the pinion of the output gear
wheel. It connects the tail rotor to the tail rotor gear box.
Tension--torsion Bar
The tension-torsion bar consists of a stack of steel laminates which are
held together bay a shrink sleeve. The tension-torsion bars retain the
tail rotor blades within the hub body and connect them to the hub
flange. The tension-torsion bar absorb centrifugal forces. The low
torsional stiffnes of its steel laminates enables pitch angle variation on
all the tail rotor blades.
Attach Ring
The attach ring together with the tension-torsion bars and the hub
flange are attached to the hub body by bolts and associated nuts.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Control
1 Hub Body
2 Splined Flange
3 Attach Ring
4 Pitch Change Spider
5 Bushing
6 Tension--torsion Bar
7 Bushing with Chinese Weight
8 Inner Bearing Ring
9 Outer Bearing Ring
10 Ball Joint
11 Tail Rotor Blade
12 Plate
1
1
11
11
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
9
9
8
4 6
3
10
View from side of the tail rotor fairing
7
10
Bolt/Washer for Balancing
Thread for Bolt/Washer
(6 Positions)
12
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 24
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Gearbox
General
The tail rotor gearbox is a single-stage, spiral-toothed bevel gear. It
does the following:
-- Drives the tail rotor
-- Reduces the speed from the drive shafts
-- Diverts the direction of power flow through 90 by means of
two bevel gears
-- Transmits tail rotor forces and moments through the stator
to the fuselage
The tail rotor gearbox houses the components which control the tail
rotor. These components transmit the control inputs from nonrotating
to the rotating parts of the tail rotor.
Components
The tail rotor gearbox consists of the following:
-- Gearbox housing
-- Input casing
-- Output casing
-- Input drive flange
-- Input pinion gear
-- Output gear wheel
-- Control unit (comprising casing, control rod, guide)
Design / Function
The gearbox housing is made of aluminum alloy. Installed in the
housing are the input pinion gear and output gear wheel which are
attached by the flanges of their supporting bearing outer races to the
gearbox housing. The gearbox housing is provided with an input
casing and an output drive casing which are both fitted with a shaft
seal.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 25
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Gearbox
Input Drive Flange
Lip Seal
Input Casing
Input Pinion Gear
Gearbox Housing
Control Unit
Output Gear Wheel
Output Casing
Shim
Guide
Drain Plug
Electrical Chip Detector
Sight Glass
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 26
July 2002 For training and information only
Input Drive Flange
The input drive flange which transmits torque to the input pinion gear,
is formed with a three-arm flange and a splined shaft which meshes
with the internal spline of the input pinion gear.
Input Pinion Gear
The input pinion gear, which drives the output gear wheel, consists of
a spiral bevel gear, a double ball bearing, and a special nut secured
by a locking ring.
Output Gear Wheel
The output gear wheel, which drives the tail rotor, consists of a spiral
pinion gear, a double ball bearing, and a special nut secured by a
locking ring. The tail rotor is splined to the pinion of the output gear
wheel through the splined hub flange.
Control Unit
The casing, control rod and guide together comprise the control unit
which is installed inside the output gear wheel. Control inputs cause
the Fenestron actuator tomove thecontol unit in anaxial direction. The
control unit transfers control movements to the tail rotor.
The control unit casing comprises the casing itself and an integrated
control rod which is connected to the input lever of the tail rotor control
linkage so that the casing cannot rotate.
Installed inside the casing is a control rod and a double ball bearing
which is held in the housing by a special nut and secured by a nut
retainer.
The components inside the casing provide for the transition from
nonrotating to rotating movement of the tail rotor controls.
The axial movement of the control unit casing is transferred through
the double ball bearing to the pivoted control rod and guide. The
control rod and guide are connected to the tail rotor blades through the
center flange and the pitch change spider of the tail rotor, causingthem
to rotate at the same speed as the tail rotor.
Ansetting shimis interposedbetween theguide andthe central flange.
The thickness of the setting shimdetermines the position of the central
flange and, when adjusted, affects the pitch of the tail rotor blades.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 27
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Gearbox
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
1 Input Drive Flange
2 Input Casing
3 Input Pinion Gear
4 Output Gear Wheel
5 Guide
6 Control Rod
7 Casing of Control Rod
8 Output Casing
9 Gearbox Housing
10Double Ball Bearing
11 Nut
12Nut Retainer
13Setting Shims
14Pitch Change Spider
5 6 10 12 11 13 14 7
Control Unit
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 28
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil System
Installed in the lower region of the gearbox housing is a valve
incorporating a magnetic plug which is fitted with an electrical chip
detector. The magnetic plug is retained within the valve by a bayonet
coupling. When the magnetic plug is removed, the valve closes
automatically to prevent oil from flowing out.
The oil in the tail rotor gearbox is drained by means of a hose with an
adapter which fits into the valve. An oil level sight glass, which has
minimum and maximum markings, enables visual inspection of the oil
level.
The oil filler neck of the gearbox housing is fitted with a strainer and a
cap.
The gear wheels and bearings of the tail rotor gearbox are provided
with splash lubrication.
The tail rotor gearbox is cooled by the circulating oil and via the
gearbox housing.
Balancing Installation
For balancing the tail rotor a velocimeter and a magnetic speed pickup
are installed at the tail rotor gearbox. The wiring leads to a receptacle
in the circuit breaker panel 1 which is situated in a recess in the LH
cargo compartment side cover.
u NOTE A dummy velocimeter pickup or a operating pickup
can be installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 29
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Gearbox
DC
RECEPT
TR&BAL
INFLT
3MJA
19VVA
10 5
Strainer
Cap
Adapter for
Oil Hose
Magnetic Plug
Electrical Plug
Oil Level Sight Glass
MIN and MAX Markings
Input Casing
Input Drive Flange
Gearbox Housing
Housing for
Speed Sensor
Velocimeter
Magnetic Pickup
Revolution Marker
Velocimeter
Receptacle for
Track&Balance
Circuit Breaker Panel 1
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 30
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor -- Inspection
Clearance Check of the Tail Rotor Blades
The clearance at any position of the tail rotor blades and the Fenestron
structure must not be less than 3.5 mm.
Procedure
The clearance of all rotor blades is measured with a gauge at
position 1 (lowest part of the Fenestron duct). The blade with the
minimum clearence is rotated with 45 steps and the clearance is
measured at each position.
Correcture
Check whether paint was applied too thickly in the affected area of the
Fenestron structure when the paint coat was previously renewed or
touched up. If this is found to be the case, reduce the thickness of the
paint coat by the excessive amount. However, the paint must not be
removed to the point where the light blue primer coat is exposed.
If this does not apply, disassemble the tail rotor and inspect screws
and laminated tension-torsion bars for wear. Replace worn parts and
reassemble the tail rotor. After the tail rotor has been reassembled,
measure again the clearance between blade tips and the Fenestron
structure.
EC 135
Training Manual
Tail Unit
03 -- 31
July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor -- Clearance Check
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
Tail Rotor Blade
Fenestron Structure
Allowable Clearance 3.5 mm
1 8 positions at which clearance is measured
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Flight Control
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
Principle of Flight Control 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight Control of the EC 135 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collective Control 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cyclic Control 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Lever Assembly 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Swash Plate 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotating Control Rod 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driving Unit 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track&Balance Installation 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trim System 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Rotor Control 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic System 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Supply Systems 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Actuators 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description of the Follow Up Principle 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Description MHA/EHA 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Override 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electro-- Hydraulic Actuator EHA 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indication and Testing System 68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fenestron Actuator 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three Axis Stability Augmentation System SAS 72 . . . . . . . . . .
Yaw Stability Augmentation System 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitch & Roll Stability Augmentation System 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitch Damper (DPIFR) 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
Principle of Flight Control
General
The attitude and airspeed of the EC 135 is controlled by adjusting the
angle of incidence of the main and tail rotor blades.
Flight Control
Three types of controls are necessary to fly the helicopter:
-- Collective control of the main rotor
-- Cyclic control of the main rotor
-- Tail rotor control
The pilot gives control signals by:
-- Collective pitch lever (left hand)
-- Cyclic control stick (right hand)
-- Tail rotor pedals (feet)
Collective Control
Changing the angle of incidence equally on all four main rotor blades
increases or decreases the main rotor thrust. This is called collective
control.
Cyclic Control
The cyclic control adjusts theangle of incidence of two oppositeblades
periodically and inverse. By means of this results a horizontal force.
The helicopter will tilt and move in the direction of the horizontal force.
Cyclic control consists of lateral control (left and right movement) and
longitudinal control (forward and backward movement).
Tail Rotor Control
The tail rotor control is in principle the same as the collective control
of the main rotor system. Adjusting the angle of incidence of the ten
tail rotor blades collectively varies the thrust, reacting against the main
rotor torque. The helicopter stands still in hover, if these forces are
equal. If not, the helicopter will turn around its yaw axis.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Flight Control
Cyclic Control
Main Rotor
Collective Control
Main Rotor
Yaw Control
Tail Rotor
FWD
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
Flight Control of the EC 135
Components
The flight control of the EC 135 comprises the following systems:
-- Main rotor control
-- Tail rotor control
Main Rotor Control
The main rotor control consists of two systems:
-- Collective control
-- Cyclic control
Components
The most important components of the main rotor control are:
-- Collective lever
-- Cyclic stick grip
-- Trim system
-- Control linkage, non boosted section
-- One mechano-hydraulic actuators (MHA)
-- Two electro-hydraulic actuators
-- Mixing lever gear unit
-- Control rods, boosted section
Tail Rotor Control
The main components of the tail rotor control are the following:
-- Pedal assembly
-- Ball bearing control cable
-- Electro-mechanical actuator (SEMA)
-- Fenestron actuator
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
Flight Control
Ball Bearing Cable
Yaw Actuator
Tail Rotor Actuator
Upper Guidance Unit
MHA for Collective
Control
Control Rod Linkage
Pedal Assembly
Collective Lever
Cyclic Control Stick
Trim Actuator Longitudinal
Trim Actuator Lateral
Lower Guidance Unit
EHA for SAS
(Pitch Axis)
EHA for SAS (Roll Axis)
Collective Shaft
Cyclic Shaft
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Collective Control
Signal Input
The collective signals are given by pulling the collective pitch lever
upward or pushing downward. Pulling creates climb, pushing descent.
Collective Pitch Lever
The collective pitch lever is located on the left side of the pilot seat. The
second lever is located on the left side of the copilot seat. Both
collective pitch levers are mechanically linked via a torsion tube.
Friction Brake
To prevent undesired movement of the collective lever during flight, a
friction brake acts on the torsion tube. The desired friction against the
movement of the pitch lever can be set by the adjusting screw.
Collective Pitch Stop
The collective pitch stop is an elastic stop which limits the angle of
attack of the main rotor blades in fast, high density altitude flights.
During an emergency condition i.e. autorotation landing it may be
necessary to exceed this elastic stop. This will increase the collective
control force because of a spring force to overcome.
u NOTE Final adjustment of the collective pitch stop is
determined during maintenance check flight. The
actual mechanical stop is compared to the rotor
thrust given by the measured torque under the
respective outside air conditions (PA, OAT). If there
is a difference to the calculated volume in the
diagram, the mechanical stop can be adjusted by
changing the number of shims under the flange.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Collective Shaft
Friction Brake
Connection to
LVDT (Engine Con-
trol)
Seat for Collective Pitch Lever
Pitch Stop
Contact Lever
Spring
Striker Plate
Shim
Bearing
Cabin Floor
Bearing
Lever for Collective Control Rod
Seat for Collective
Pitch Lever (Copilot)
Collective Shaft
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
Control Transmission
The signals are transmitted via a torsion tube, located underneath the
cockpit floor, several control rods and bell cranks to the input control
lever of the dual hydraulic boost unit. Here the signals are force
amplified. The amplified signals are transmitted via a control rod to the
collective control fork, which is part of the mixing lever assembly.
The collective control fork lowers or lifts the sliding sleeve, which
creates the intendet simultaneous variation of the angle of incidence
on all four rotor blades.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 11
July 2002 For training and information only
Collective Control
Control Rod
Control Rod
Upper Guidance Unit
Collective Pitch Lever
Main Rotor Actuator
Collective Shaft
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Cyclic Control
Signal Input
The cyclic control signals are given by moving the cyclic stick left or
right (lateral control) and by pushing or pulling it (longitudinal control).
Cyclic Stick
The cyclic sticks are located in front of the pilots and copilots seat.
Both sticks are linked via a torsion tube and a linkage mechanism
underneath the cabin floor.
Control Transmission
Longitudinal control inputs are transmitted via the cyclic shaft to a
horizontal control rod which leads to the lower guidance unit beneath
the control post.
Lateral control inputs are transmitted via a linkage which is connected
above the cyclic shaft to the control stick, to a bell crank and to a
horizontal control rod which leads to the lower guidance unit beneath
the control post.
The lower guidance unit transfers longitudinal and lateral control
inputs as thrust motions to one vertical control rod each.
The left and the right bell crank of the upper guidance unit transmit the
thrust motions to one horizontal control rod each.
One horizontal control rod displaces the input lever of the longitudinal
control piston (LH) and the other one displaces the input lever of the
lateral control piston (RH) at the main rotor actuator.
Boosted inputs are transmitted behind the pistons to the longitudinal
control lever or to the lateral control lever of the mixing lever gear unit.
The longitudinal control lever tilts about the axis of the corresponding
bearing bushing and displaces the control ring of the swashplate
forward to the right via a cyclic control link when pushing the stick
forward or backward to the left when pulling the cyclic stick aft.
The lateral control lever tilts the swashplate forward to the left when
pushing the cyclic stick to the left and backward to the right when
pushing the stick to the right.
Vibration Decoupling Unit
The linkage for decoupling the vibrations is located between the upper
guidance unit and the mouning plate of the main rotor actuator. This
unit supresses control inputs induced by vibrations fromthe main gear
box relatively to the fuselage. If there is a displacement between the
main gearbox and the upper guidance unit, the decoupling rod causes
a tilting of the guidance unit for compensation.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 13
July 2002 For training and information only
Cyclic Control
Cyclic Stick
Cyclic Shaft
Vertical Control Rod
(Lateral Control)
Vertical Control Rod
(Longitudinal Control)
Upper Guidance Unit
Main Rotor Actuator
Horizontal Control Rod
Pitch Axis
Vibration Decoupling Unit
Lower Guidance Unit
Bearing Support
EHA for SAS
(Pitch Axis)
EHA for SAS (Roll Axis)
Horizontal Control Rod
Roll Axis
Long. Control Rod
Long. Trim
Control Rod
Lateral Control
Rod
Lateral Trim Control Rod
Cyclic Shaft
FWD
Cabin Floor
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 14
July 2002 For training and information only
Mixing Lever Assembly
General
The purpose of the mixing lever assembly is to transmit the three
amplified main rotor control signals (collective, longitudinal and lateral)
to the swashplate.
Main Components
The main components of the mixing lever assembly are:
-- Collective control fork
-- Two cyclic control levers
Collective Control Fork
The collective fork is supported by the hinged support mounted on top
of the main transmission. At the forked end it is connectedto thesliding
sleeve.
Cyclic Control Levers
The two cyclic control levers are mounted one on each side of the
collective control fork. As seen in flight direction, the lateral control
lever is mounted to the RH side and the longitudinal control lever is
mounted to the LH side of the collective fork.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
Mixing Lever Assembly
Short Control Rod Lateral
Cyclic Lever Lateral
Shim Plate
Collective Fork
Cyclic Lever Longitudinal
Swash Plate
Short Control
Rod
Longitudinal
Main Gear Box
Connecting Rod
Lateral
Connecting Rod
Collective
Connecting Rod
Longitudinal
Hinged Support
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Transmission of Control Signals
Collective:
For increasing the vertical lift of the helicopter the swash plate has to
be raised evenly by the collective fork and the sliding sleeve (point 1
to point 1).
Thus the pivot points of the lateral and longitudinal levers have to be
raised as well in order to avoid a cyclic input to the swash plate (point
2 to point 2 and point 3 to point 3).
Longitudinal input (example forward flight):
The longitudinal lever raises point 3 to point 3 and thereby tilts the
swash plate. Thus the rotating pitch links, which are mounted at the
loading edge of the rotor blades, provide the maximum input approx.
90 prior the tail position of the blades. Due to the gyroscopic effect,
inertial blade mass and rotor characteristics the blades deliver the
highest lift at the tail position. the lowest lift is evident at the nose
position. The rotor plane tilts forward which causes the helicopter to fly
forward.
For a rearward flight the swash plate has to be tilted in the opposite
direction (lowering of point 3) and the rotor plane will tilt to the rear
according the principle described above.
Lateral input:
The lateral input for left and right follow the same principle as the
longitudinal control. Point 2 has to be raised or lowered and the
helicopter will turn left or right.
u NOTE Transmission of cyclic signals is totally
independant of collective control inputs. Collective
control signals are transferred to both, the sliding
sleeve and the two short control rods.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Transmission of Cyclic and Collective Signals
Cyclic Control Signal Collective Control Signal
Swash Plate
Sliding Sleeve
Collective Fork
Longitudinal Lever
Lateral Lever
Short Control Rod
Input: Increase Thrust
Input: Forward Flight
Axis a
1
2
3
3
3
Axis a
3
2
1
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Swash Plate
General
The swash plate transfers the rotor blade pitch change control
movements from the stationary cyclic or collective control input to the
rotating blades.
Sliding Sleeve
The collective control inputs movethe slidingsleeve upor down. Inside
the sleeve two teflon liners are attached, which permit easy sliding
movement on the gearbox mounted support tube. Two bearing bolts
at the top of the sliding sleeve retain the cardan ring. Two ball bearings
at the lower side connect to the collective control fork of the mixing
lever unit.
Cardan Ring
The cardan ring contains four bearings, two for pivoting the sliding
sleeve and two for pivoting the control ring. This arrangement
constitutes a gimbal mounting which enables the interconnected
control ring to tilt in all directions about the vertical axis.
Control Ring
The stationary control ring transmits the cyclic inputs via the swash
plate bearing to the rotating bearing ring. It is connected to the mixing
lever assembly by two control rods.
Also at the control ring provision is made for installation of a speed
pickup for track and balance purposes.
Swash Plate Bearing
The swash plate bearing is a douplex ball bearing which connects the
nonrotating control ring to the rotating bearing ring.
u NOTE The swash plate bearing is the only rotating part of
the helicopter that is lubricated by grease.
Bearing Ring
The bearing ring is rotated synchronously with the rotor through the
two scissors assemblies. The four forked lugs provide theattachement
points for the rotating control rods. The connecting bolts from the two
levers integral with the bearing ring provide the attachment points for
the scissors assemblies.
Located within the bearing ring is a soft-iron pin which provides the
impulses for a magnetic pick-up for track and balance purposes.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
Swash Plate Assembly
Teflon Bushing
Speed Pickup Mount
Connecting Bolt for
Scissors Assembly
Outer Ring
Inner Ring
Split Cover
Control Fork Bearing
Cardan Ring
Duplex Ball Bearing
Control Ring, Nonrotating
Bearing Ring, Rotating
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotating Control Rod
General
The purpose of the rotating control rods is to transmit the flight control
signals to the main rotor blades. Four rotating control rods are installed
between the rotating part of the swash plate and the pitch horns at the
rotor blades.
Components
Each rotating control rod consists of:
-- Two bearing rod ends
-- Two counter nuts
-- Two keyed washers
-- Rod body
Configuration
The bearing rod ends are screwed into the rod body by a coarse thread
(MJ10x1.25) on one side and a fine thread (MJ10x1.00) on the other
side. The rod ends are secured in the rod body by a keyed washer and
a counter nut on each side. The counter nuts are additionally
lockwired. To prevent corrosion inside the rod body of, the upper end
is sealed by a sealing compound.
u NOTE The coarse thread must be located on the top. If
not, the adjustment for the blade track by rotating
the rod body is not as described in the
maintenance manual.
u NOTE The metric threads of some high loaded bolted
connections might be designed according the MJ
standard. Due to modifications in the thread root
area an improved stability is achieved. In addition
the self locking behaviour has been improved due
the selected relationship of thread diameter and
pitch.
For combinations or exchangeability of MJ and
standard ISO M threads the remarks in the IPC
have strictly to be followed. For identification the
letters MJ are imprinted on bolts/nuts.
Y WARNING The threads of the rod ends are marked by red
paint. These red areas must not be visible after
adjustment/installation.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Rotating Control Rod
Sperical
Bearing with
Coarse Thread
Spherical
Bearing with
Fine Thread
Counter Nut
Keyed Washer
Rod Body
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
Driving Unit
General
The driving unit connects the swash plate to the rotor mast. Its purpose
is to drive the rotating part of the swash plate. Thedriving unit connects
the bearing ring of the swash plate with the scissors clamp at the main
rotor mast.
Attachment
The driving unit is connected to the main rotor mast by two integrated
lugs. Each of the two scissors assemblies are connected to the swash
plate by means of a spherical bearing and a swash plate installed bolt.
u NOTE The lettering OUTER SIDE on the lever faces
outboard.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
Driving Unit
Scissors Assembly
Spherical Bearing
Rotor Hub Shaft
Lettering
OUTER SIDE
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 24
July 2002 For training and information only
Track&Balance Installation
General
For balancing the main rotor two velocimeter and a magnetic speed
pickup are installed. The wiring leads to a receptacle in the circuit
breaker panel 1 which is situated in a recess in the LH cargo
compartment side cover.
Lateral Velocimeter
The lateral velocimeter is installed on the main transmission, the
vertical velocimeter is located in the nose of the helicopter in the area
belowthe copilots seat under the forward floor, next to the cyclic shaft.
Magnetic Pickup
The magnetic pickup is installed at the control ring of the swash plate.
An iron interrupter pin is mounted in the rotating bearing ring of the
swash plate.
u NOTE Dummy velocimeter pickups or operating pickups
can be installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 25
July 2002 For training and information only
Track&Balance Installation
Magnetic Pickup
Cable Assy
Velocimeter M/R LAT
Bearing Ring
Interrupter Pin
Main Transmission
DC
RECEPT
TR&BAL
INFLT
3MJA
19VVA
10 5
Receptacle for
Track&Balance
Circuit Breaker Panel 1
Velocimeter
Cyclic Shaft
Forward Floor
Receptacle for
DC Power Supply
T&B--Equipment
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 26
July 2002 For training and information only
Trim System
General
As the EC 135 is equipped with hydraulic boost units for main rotor
control, which amplify the control signals, no real control forces are
necessary at the control stick.
For better handlingof thehelicopter anartificial control force, givingthe
pilot a reference for stick displacement is desireable. For that reason
trim actuators with artificial force feel springs are installed in the
non--boosted section of the cyclic controls.
During flight the pilot does not only move the stick for a short time, e.g.
flying a turn, but also for along time , e.g. during cruise. Holding the
cyclic stick against the artificial control force would fatique the pilot.
Therefore the artificial control force can be trimmed to zero in each
stick position by electric motors and clutches in the trim actuators.
Trim Actuator
The longitudinal trim actuator is installed beneath the cabin floor
centered directly behind frame 1 and in front of the cyclic shaft. The
identical lateral trim actuator is installed beneath the cabin floor
centered behind the cyclic shaft and in front of frame 2.
In the housing of an actuator there is mounted a DC motor, an
electro-mechanical clutch, a eddy current brake, a position sensor and
a spring for artificial force feel.
Trim Linkage
The longitudinal trim rod connects the output lever of the longitudinal
trim actuator with the torsion tube of the cyclic shaft for longitudinal
control.
It is installed beneath the cabin floor off-center right in front of the
torsion tube.
Control Board
The control board for the trim system is installed beneath the cabin
floor right behind the cross beam attached to the cabin floor. On the
control board there are mounted two relays for control of the DC
motors.
4--Way Trim Switches
The 4--way trimswitches are installed on top of both cyclic control stick
grips, respectively.
The desired trimposition of the cyclic control is adjusted by the 4--way
trim switches.
Push Buttons
The push buttons ATT TRIM REL to release the trim position are
installed on top of both cyclic stick grips, respectively.
Dual Controls
If dual controls are installed, the 4--way trimswitch priority is set to trim
aft / right, regardless whether the trimsignal is triggered by the pilot or
the copilot.
Circuit Breaker
The circuit breakers TRIMACT and ATT TRIMREL are mounted in the
overhead console.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 27
July 2002 For training and information only
Trim System -- Locations
CDS
AUDIO
RES
4--Way Trim Switch
ATT TRIM
Push Button
ATT TRIM REL
Circuit Breaker
ATT TRIM ACT
Circuit Breaker
ATT TRIM REL
Trim Actuator
Lateral
Trim Actuator
Longitudinal
Trim System
Control Board
Cabin Floor
Cross Beam
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 28
July 2002 For training and information only
Function
The function of the longitudinal and lateral trim actuator is identical.
By operating the 4--way trim switch at the cyclic stick, the DC motor in
the trim actuator drives the primary reducer (irreversible wormgear)
and transmits the movement to the closed electrical clutch. With the
clutch the primary reducer is connected to the secondary reducer and
the motor movement is transmitted to the output shaft. Via the output
lever and a control rod, the stick is moved into a newforce free neutral
position.
The running direction of a trimmotor is changed by a polarity reversal.
The on--board circuitry with the relais and the two DC motors enables
four running directions: Forward, aft, left, right.
When operating the 4--way trim switch only one of the four contacts
can be closed. When releasing the switch, all four contacts are again
opened.
During a cyclic control input the trim actuator output lever moves
together with the cyclic controls. With the trimactuator deenergized no
movement of the reduction geartrain is possible. By the relative
movement between the two plates, the spring becomes twisted, thus
creating an artificial control force.
Depressing the ATT TRIM RELEASE push button at the cyclic stick
energizes the electric clutch in the trimactuator. The clutch opens and
separates the secondary reducer fromthe primary reducer. This allows
the secondary reducer to turn and the spring to move in the force free
position. To smooth this movement a damping device mounted with
the secondary reducer gives a torque resistance proportional to
speed.
After releasing the ATT TRIMRELEASE push button, a newforce free
stick position is maintained.
u NOTE In case of accidental jamming of any internal trim
actuator parts, a higher control force has to be
applied to break a shear pin in the affected trim
actuator output shaft. This allows free movement
in the respective direction without an artificial
control force. In that case the trim system in the
associated direction is disabled, too.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 29
July 2002 For training and information only
Trim System; Trim Actuator
Longitudinal Trim Rod
Cabin Floor
Lateral
Trim Rod
Frame 1
Longitudinal
Trim Actuator
Lateral Trim
Actuator
Cyclic Shaft
Side View
Top View
FWD
Spring
Movable Gear
Gear with
Shear Pin
Position Sensor
Electrically
Activated Coupling
Centrifugal
Friction Brake
DC Motor
Output Lever
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 30
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 31
July 2002 For training and information only
Trim System -- Functional Diagram
PP10S PP10E
M M
Push Button ATT TRIM REL
(Pilot)
4--Way Trim Switch ATT TRIM
(Pilot)
Control Board
Longitudinal Actuator Lateral Actuator
Push Button ATT TRIM REL
(Copilot)
4--Way Trim Switch
ATT TRIM (Copilot)
Forward
Rear
Right
Left
L R V H
Push Button
ATT TRIM REL
4--Way Trim Switch
ATT TRIM
Left
Forward
Right
Rear
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Control
General
The tail rotor control changes the angle of incidence of the tail rotor
blades collectively. The tail rotor control is used for the yaw control.
Control inputs are made by the pilot via the pedal assembly. The pedal
inputs are superimposed by inputs fromthe Yaw Stability Augmention
System (YAW--SAS) via an electro-mechanical actuator. The inputs
are boosted hydraulically and transmitted to the control spider which
changes the blade angles.
Components
The tail rotor controls consist of the following assemblies:
-- Pedal assembly
-- Ball bearing control cable
-- Yaw--SAS actuator
-- Fenestron actuator (booster)
Pedal Assembly
The pedal assembly consists of:
-- 2 pedals
-- 2 pedal control rods
-- Bellcrank lever
The pedal assemblys of the pilot and copilot are linked by a connection
rod.
Yaw Actuator
The yaw actuator is an actuator with an integral position feedback
(Smart electro-mechanical actuator, SEMA). It converts the stabilizing
signal produced by the fibre optic gyro (FOG) into a corresponding
mechanical input to the tail rotor control linkage.
The series-connected yawactuator operates between the ball bearing
control and the hydraulic Fenestron actuator. In consequence,
stabilizing inputs from the yaw stability augmentation system and the
control inputs from the pilot are superimposed on each other.
Following a stabilizing input, the yawactuator automatically recenters
within its maximum stabilizing stroke range to ensure full stabilizing
input authority. The authority in the yaw actuator control is 8%.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Control
Pedal Assembly
Fenestron Actuator
Ball Bearing Control Cable
Yaw Actuator
Coupling for Connection
Rod to the Copilots Pedal
Assembly
Control Rod
Bell Crank Lever
Hydraulic
Pressure Tube
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 34
July 2002 For training and information only
Ball Bearing Control Cable
The ball bearing control cable (FLEXBALL) consists of a double--row
arrangement of steel balls leading through captive ball cages. The
steel balls roll between two outer races and a center core. A flexball
casing encloses the races. Due to this construction the center core is
able to transmit identical tensile and compression forces.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Ball Bearing Control Cable (Flexball)
Casing
Outer Race
Center Core
Steel Ball
Ball Cage
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Function of the Tail Rotor Control
The angle of incidence of the tail rotor blades can be varied within a
range of --16.8 thru +34.2.
If e.g. a control input yawto the left is made by actuating the left pedal
of the pedal assembly, this input is transmitted as a tension motion via
control rods and the guidance unit to the ball bearing control.
The ball bearing control actuates a control rod in the Fenestron and
thus the input of the yaw actuator. The yaw actuator superimposes
additional control inputs of the yawstability augmentation system. The
part of the control rod located behind the yawcontrol actuator pulls the
input lever.
The Fenestron actuator increases the force at the input lever and
axially shifts therotating control spider viaits pistonrod tothe right. The
levers of the control spider convert the axial motion into a positive twist
of the rotor blades.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Tail Rotor Actuator
Return Pipe
Pressure Pipe
Input Lever
Control Rod
Bleed Valve
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 38
July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic System
General
The hydraulic systemis used to boost the manual control inputs of the
pilot. At the same time the reset forces of the rotor blades are blocked.
Components
The hydraulic system consists of the following components:
-- Two identical pressure systems
-- Main rotor actuator
-- Fenestron actuator
-- Indicating and testing system
Leading Particulars
Operating Pressure 103 bar
Return Pressure 1.40 -- 1.75 bar
Hydraulic Fluid acc. MIL--H 5606 (F)
Fluid Capacity 1.0 l (SYS1), 1.2 l (SYS 2)
Reservoir Capacity 0.8 l
u NOTE To prevent a contamination and blockage, it is
recommended that hydraulic fluid stored in cans
should not be used when it is older than 3 years.
Location
The components of the hydraulic power system are installed on the
front of the main transmission and in the cockpit. Two pressure supply
systems are installed on top of the fan gearboxes. The fan gearboxes
are attached to the left-hand and right-hand forward side of the main
transmission. The main rotor actuator is installed in the center of the
forward side of the main transmission. The Fenestron actuator is
installedinsidethe stator hub of the Fenestron. Hydraulic lines connect
the pressure supply systems to the main rotor actuator and the
Fenestron actuator. The components of the indicating and testing
system are part of the pressure supply systems. The related switches
and displays are installed in the overhead panel and in the instrument
panel.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Pressure Supply System
Lateral Control Rod
Output Lever
Mixing Lever Unit
Input Lever
Actuator
FWD
Main Transmission
Pressure Supply
System 1
Pressure Supply System 2
Collective Control Rod
Longitudinal Control Rod
Refill Port System 2
Refill Port
System 1
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Redundancy Provision
The hydraulic power system is a dual system. It has two identical
pressure supply systems, system 1 and system 2, that operate
independently. Under normal operating conditions both pressure
supply systems simultaneously generate the entire pressure for
boosting the main rotor controls. System 2 in addition also boosts the
tail rotor controls. If one of the pressure supply systems fails, the
remaining system continues to supply the main rotor actuator. This
causes the operating force of the mechano-hydraulically operated
main rotor actuator to decrease to half.
Only the failure of system 2 causes the tail rotor control to operate
without pressure. Failure of system 1 has no effect on the Fenestron
actuator.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Power System
System 1
System 2
CDS/CPDS
System 1 System 2
Main Rotor Actuator
Relais Relais
Test
Switch
Pump Pump
Reser-
voir
Reser-
voir
Valve
Block
Valve
Block
Fenestron
Actuator
HYD PRESS HYD PRESS
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Pressure Supply Systems
General
The pressure supply systems 1 and 2 are two identical systems. They
independently supply the hydraulic actuators with operating pressure.
Components
Each pressure supply system consists of:
-- Hydraulic pump
-- Reservoir
-- Valve block
-- Hydraulic lines
u NOTE To prevent the hydraulic systems from
contamination an external ground cart must not be
connected. System tests can be carried out by
operating the hydraulic pumps with a special tool.
To refill the systems a container with a hand--pump
and a fine filter is available.
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Training Manual
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July 2002 For training and information only
Pressure Supply System
Sight Glass
Reservoir
Return Line Port
Level Indicator
Maintenance Port
Bleed Valve
Supply Line Port
Leak Oil Port
Pump
Valve Block
Filter
Pressure Switch
Solenoid Valve
MIN Marker
MAX Marker
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Pump
The hydraulic pump is an integral part of the pressure system. All
connections (i.e. pressure line, suction line case drain) are made by
channels and bores in the valve block.
The pump is conventional piston type wherein a cylinder barrel
containing nine pistons is driven by the accessory drive of the main
transmission.
The pistons are constrained by the rotating part of the backplate and
ball--and--socket--joints shoes which are hydrostatically balanced. As
the barrel rotates, the pistons intaking and discharding fluid through a
stationary valve surface (control plate) on the port cap. The length of
the piston stroke, and thereby the displaced volume is determined by
the angle of the nonrotating part of the backplate. This angle is
controlled by a spring acting against system pressure on the cam of
the nonrotating part.
u NOTE The longer the stroke of the pistons, the larger the
volume of fluid delivered.
Leading Particulars
Speed 5145 RPM
Preloaded pressure in the reservoir 1.40--1.75 bar
Reservoir Capacity 0.8 l
Low pressure relief valve Opens at 6.5 bar
High pressure relief valve Opens at 122 bar
Pressure switch (increasing pressure) Opens at 82.7 bar
Pressure switch (decreasing pressure) Closes at 69 +/-- 3.4 bar
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Splined Shaft
Inlet Port
(from Reservoir)
Outlet Port
(to Valve Block)
Piston or
Plunger
Adjustment Screw
(Factory Set)
Control
Piston
Spring
Backplate
(Fixed Part)
Backplate
(Rotating Part)
Case Drain
Piston or
Plunger
Fluid Flow
Decrease
Fluid Flow
Increase
Backplate,
(Fixed Part)
Backplate
(Rotating Part)
Inlet Port
(from Reservoir)
Outlet Port
(to Valve Block)
Pump Shaft
Barrel
Hydraulic Pump
Seal Drain
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Reservoir
The reservoir stores the hydraulic fluid. The necessary preload
pressure is generated by the double actuated piston in the reservoir.
The operating pressure applies a force on the smaller piston. As a
result the larger piston pressurizes the reservoir. With the ratio
between the both piston areas (1:60) and an operatingpressure of 103
bar, a return pressure of 1.40 -- 1.75 bar is created in the reservoir to
prepressurize the pump suction side.
A pressure relief valve avoids a damage of the reservoir caused by
overpressure. It opens at a pressure of 6.5 bar and relieves out
hydraulic fluid to the leak oil port.
Both the reservoirs with the valve blocks attached to their forward side,
are installed on the hydraulic pumps. A support bracket also attaches
them to the main transmission.
The sight glass on the top of the reservoir serves as an indicator for the
amount of air in the system.
A fluid level indicator is installed on the rear side of the reservoir.
u NOTE The sight glass must be half full of hydraulic fluid
minimum. Otherwise the system has to be bled. A
save flight operation is assured as long as fluid is
visible in the sight glass.
Valve Block
The valve block contains all the valves and control lines to control and
test the hydraulic system.
Directly after the hydraulic pump there is a non return valve to prevent
a reversal of the fluid direction.
The filter prevents the system from contamination.
The high pressure relief valve prevents overloading of the system. The
valve opens at a pressure of 122 bar and excessive pressure is
released to the return side.
A solenoid valve, the shut off valve and the pressure switch are part
of the indication andtest system. Energizing thesolenoid valvecauses
the shut off valve to close. The resulting decrease in pressure causes
the pressure switch to close and to send a signal to the cockpit for low
pressure caution indication.
Maintenance
For maintenance purpose the following ports are available:
-- Bleed valve/sightglass for detection and bleeding of
trapped air (in system 2 a second bleed valve is mounted
at the fenestron actuator).
-- Maintenance port for pressure monitoring (high pressure
side).
-- Maintenance port for draining and refilling the system (low
pressure side).
u NOTE Due to internal piping the refill port is mounted at
the actuator carrier plate in front of the main gear
box opposite of the respective system.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Valve Block -- Non Pressurized
Bleed Valve
Level Indicator
MIN MAX
Low Pressure Piston
Vent
Reservoir
Low Pressure Relief Valve
Port to Drain System
Seal Drain
Pump
Non Return Valve
Pressure Monitoring
(Maintenance)
Filter
Solenoid Valve
Pressure Switch
High Pressure Relief Valve
Shut-Off Valve
Pressure Out
Return In
Sight Glass
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Valve Block -- Normal Operation
The hydraulic pump delivers a constant pressure of 103 bar via thenon
return valve and the filter to following locations:
Location 1: Small piston chamber (left section) of the reservoir piston
unit
Result: The force at the piston rod due to the high pressure in the small
chamber creates the low pressure in the large piston chamber (right
section) with a relationship of 60:1.
Location 2: Right side of the shut off valve
Result: The force generated by the high pressure piston (right side)
and the spring force override the force created by the low pressure
piston and keep the shut off valve in the opened position.
Location 3: center section of the shut off valve
Result: As the shut off valve is being kept in the open position the high
pressure outlet is pressurized. The pressure switch is open and
therefore the caution HYD PRESS in the CDS/CPDS is suppressed.
In this situation the respective main rotor actuator system is supplied
with high pressure. The returning fluid from the actuators is recycled
by the hydraulic pump or led to the reservoir, depending on the flow
demand.
Location 4: Solenoid Valve inlet
Result: In this situation none
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Valve Block -- Normal Operation
High Pressure
Low Pressure
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Valve Block -- Test
Test Function activated:
For the single systemtest on ground one systemhas to be shut off with
the spring loaded test switch in the overhead panel. During the test the
solenoid valve is activated and opens the high pressure inlet for the left
side of the shut off valve.
Result: the piston of the shut off valve travels to the right end stop
because the force created by the larger piston surface and the high
pressure is greater than the force created by the spring and thesmaller
piston surface with high pressure applied.
The Pressure outlet is blocked and the pressure switch closes
(Caution HYD PRESS in the CDS/CPDS for the respective system
comes on).
The pressure outlet line and the main rotor actuator of the deactivated
system are connected to the return pressure as long as the test
situation is evident.
Test function deactivated:
The test switch is released to the norm position, the solenoid valve
closes the high pressure inlet for the left shut off valve piston and the
shut off valve reverts to the open position again. The fluid of the left
piston chamber is pushed into the low pressure line which is opened
simultaneously.
Result: The pressure switch opens again (caution HYD PRESS goes
off) and the main rotor actuators are supplied with high pressure again.
u NOTE Both hydraulic systems can be tested with this
procedure. Only when testing system 1 (system 2
is inactive) there is no pressure supply to the
fenestron actuator.
Y WARNING Never activate the hydraulic test switch in
flight.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Valve Block -- Test
High Pressure
Low Pressure
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Actuators
General
Due to the high reset forces which react on thecontrols whenchanging
the blade pitch, hydraulic actuators transmit boosted control inputs to
the rotor system.
The main rotor actuator consists of three adjacent hydraulic actuators.
It is installed at the front part of the main rotor gearbox by means of an
attachment and supply plate.
Assembly
The hydraulic actuator mainly consists of:
-- Servo valve
-- Boost cylinder
Description of the Follow Up Principle
Fluid Flow
System pressure is supplied from the pump via the valve block to the
control spool. Depending on the control spool position the left or right
side of the piston is pressurized. The boost piston moves in the
corresponding direction. The low pressure fluid from the not
pressurized chamber is led back to the return line into the reservoir.
With the control spool in the neutral position, no boost piston
movement is possible, because the pressure line as well as bothreturn
lines are closed. The boost piston is hydraulically blocked.
Control Input
The input control rod is moved to the right. At the moment of the input,
the boost piston cannot move, because it is still hydraulically blocked.
Therefor, when the control input rod moves to the right, the control
lever turns around the pivot point at the boost piston. The control spool
in the control valve is pulled to the left by means of the connecting rod
and the lever. This opens the right port of the servo valve, directing
hydraulic pressure into the right chamber of the boost cylinder. In the
same moment the return line of the left chamber opens and the fluid
moves back to the reservoir.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Actuator -- Basic System Function
Boost Cylinder
Boost Piston
Output to
Swash Plate
Pivot Point
Control Lever
Input Control Rod
Pump
Reservoir
Connecting Rod
Control Spool
Lever
Pressure Line
Return Line
Starting Input
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Reaction of the Boost Actuator
The hydraulic pressure in the right chamber of the boost cylinder
causes the piston to move to the left. Low pressure fluid from the left
boost cylinder chamber is ported to the servo valve and to the reservoir
via the return line.
With the boost piston moving to the left and a constant movement at
the input control rod to the right, the middle point of the control lever
becomes to the pivot point where the control lever turns around. The
control spool remains pulled to the left end stop by the connecting rod
as long as the input continues.
Input Stop
When there is an input stop, the upper bearing of the control lever
becomes the pivot point. As the control spool is still in the open
position, the boost piston moves until the control spool is pushed back
in the closed position by the connecting rod and the lever.
With the control spool in the neutral postion no further hydraulic flow
is possible and the boost piston becomes hydraulically blocked again.
This short time delay is not feelable in the controls.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Hydraulic Actuator -- Basic System Function
Pivot Point
Movement here
Input Stop
Pivot Point
Movement here until the control
spool is in neutral position and
blocks hydraulically the boost piston
Movement
Boost Cylinder
Boost Piston
Output to
Swash Plate
Pivot Point
Control Lever
Connecting Rod
Input Control Rod
Lever
Pressure Line
Return Line
Continued Input
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
System Description MHA/EHA
Assembly
The mechano-hydraulic actuator MHA (collective axis) consists of two
independent systems which are mounted as a unit. Both systems have
one common piston rod and are located opposite each other. System
1 with the respective mounting and supply plate is located on the top
at the power piston output, system 2 with the respective supply plate
is located below.
For the longitudinal and lateral axis an electro-hydraulic actuator
(EHA) is integrated in the MHA in order to superimpose the control
inputs from the pilot with signals coming from the Pitch&Roll SAS.
Function
The control linkages for collective, longitudinal and lateral control are
connected to the input levers of the main rotor actuator. The piston
rods of the main rotor actuator are connected to the mixing lever gear
unit by means of control links.
Without hydraulic pressure the systemis switched off by the combined
shut-off valve and bypass valve unit. Two springs with different spring
rates keep the valves in the desired position.
With the operating pressure increasing via the pressure port and the
back pressure protection check valve the inlet chamber of the shut--off
valve is pressurized. Via the hollow piston shaft and the restrictor the
control chamber increases more slowly and causes at first the bypass
valve to close with the compression of the weak spring. After the
bypass contacts the conical seating the strong spring will be
compressed and the two piston sections move relative to each other
and open the shut-off valve. Thus the pressure is led through to the
control spool. In this situation the boost piston is hydraulically blocked
and counteracts all forces coming back from the rotor.
A control input made at the input lever moves the control spool out of
the neutral position and the operating pressure is directed to the
respective boost piston chamber. The boost piston moves as long the
input continues and the control spool remains in theopen position. The
opposite piston chamber is opened to the return line in order to allow
the piston travel.
When the input stops the boost piston pulls the control spool back into
the neutral position via the connection rod and the boost piston
movement stops (follow up principle).
The boost piston is hydraulically blocked in the new position.
The mechanical end stop for the boost piston travel is in the piston
chamber and will be reached, if the control input is continued.
In case of operating pressure drop (normal run down; systemswitched
off for test purpose; broken hydraulic line; control line with operating
pressure released to the return pressure) as a consequence the
pressureinthecontrol chamber drops andthe strongspring closes first
the shut--off valve, then the weak spring opens the by pass valve. The
system is depressurized and the boost piston chambers are
connected.
If the second system is still operative the boost piston in the
deactivated does not restrict the control movement.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
MHA -- Non Pressurized
Input Rod
Connecting Rod
Control Lever
Input Lever
Valve Sleeve
Control Spool
Test Button
Shut-Off/Bypass Valve
Strong Spring
Weak Spring
Pressure Port P2
with check Valve
Return Port R2
Pressure Port P1
with Check Valve
Return Port R1
Boost Piston
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
MHA -- Pressurized, no Movement
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
MHA -- Pressurized with Movement
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July 2002 For training and information only
Mechanical Override
Purpose
In order to assure the function of the hydraulic system in case one
control spool jams, a mechanical override is installed to each system.
Because the control spools of the two systems are mechanically linked
to each other, a jammed control spool in one system would cause
blocking of the corresponding control spool within the other system.
Assembly
The control spool is moving in a valve sleeve, which is kept in position
by two springs. A test button is installed to the springs housing.
Function
In case of a jammed control spool, every control input will shift the
control spool and the valve sleeve together against the spring forces.
The first displacement of the valve sleeve causes the opening of the
control line to return pressure, thus first the shut-off valve closes and
then the bypass valve opens. A bypass around the boost piston
chambers of the respective system is established.
u NOTE In case of a jammed control spool an increased
control force in the affected axis will be observed.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
MHA -- Mechanical Override of System 1
Control Spool Blocked
Normal Situation
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
System Test
A test button, installed to each spring housing allows checking the
valve sleeve for free movement. Pressing the test button will first close
the gap between button and sleeve then, increase of applied force will
cause the displacement of the valve sleeve. The test button returns to
its normal position because of the spring forces and after the return
pressure has been built up.
u NOTE If, after closing the gap, no further movement is
possible against the spring force, the valve sleeve
may be blocked in the housing or the control spool
may be jammed in the valve sleeve
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Training Manual
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Valve Sleeve Test
Normal Position Closed Gap Position Displaced Valve Sleeve Position
Test Button
Gap
Control Spool
Valve Sleeve
Spring
compressed
Springs for
Mechanical
Override
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
Electro-- Hydraulic Actuator EHA
General
In addition to the mechanical inputs by thepilot thegyro basedStability
Augmentation System SAS superimposes the control output to the
main rotor lateral and longitudinal axis in system 1.
Function
The basic functions concerning boost piston and control spool are
similar to the mechano-hydraulic actuator as described for the
collective axis.
In order to allow the control cylinder inputs to the control spool and
thereby to the control output the mechanical linkage is modified. As
long as the SAS is inactive the control cylinder is centered by two
springs and the control spool moves only after an input coming from
the pilot.
When the supply line from P1 to the electro valve is pressurized the
control pressure builts up via the solenoid valve and closes the by pass
valve.
Thus the operating pressure can be directed into one of the control
piston chambers by the piston unit in the electro valve. The position of
the piston unit is controlled by the SAS computer via electromagnetic
signals to the servo valve coils. The position sensor signal is used as
a feedback signal for the control loop in the SAS computer.
With both control piston chambers connected no differential pressure
build up and no influence from the SAS is possible.
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Training Manual
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EHA -- Normal Operation with SAS Input
SAS Control Piston
Shut-Off/Bypass Valve
Solenoid Valve
Servo Valve
Control Pressure
Chamber
Position Sensor
To SAS Computer
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Training Manual
Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
EHA -- SAS Decoupled
The complete SAS (P&R and YAW SAS) can be switched off by the
pilot manually. In this case the solenoid valve is activated directly by
a switch in the cockpit.
The control pressure will be relieved to the return line and the spring
force will open the by pass valve. Then the control piston will be
centered from present position. The restrictor in the by pass valve
causes a delay in order to avoid a control input. Therafter the control
spool and the boost piston move only after a mechanical input via the
flight controls.
u NOTE In case of hydraulic system 1 failure the P&R SAS
will be inoperative.
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Flight Control
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July 2002 For training and information only
EHA -- SAS Decoupled
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Indication and Testing System
General
Each systemhas a pressure switch to monitor the operating pressure.
Power is supplied through the busbar PP10E resp. PP20E and the
related circuit breakers.
With system pressure above approx. 83 bar, the pressure switch is
open and the related relay is not energized. There is no CAUTION
indication.
System pressure of less than approx. 69 bar closes the pressure
switch and energizes the related relay. The CAUTION indication HYD
PRESS is displayed on display segment SYSTEM I or SYSTEM II on
CDS/CPDS. The range of hysteresis between 69 and 83 bar is by
means of the different friction in the pressure switches.
Components
The components of the indicating and testing system are:
-- Pressure switch for System 1 / 2
-- Solenoid valve for System 1 / 2
-- Shut-off valve for System 1 / 2
-- Circuit breaker HYD--P SYS 1 / 2
-- Relay for System 1 / 2
-- Display system CDS/CPDS
-- Test switch (spring loaded)
Test Procedure
As both hydraulic systems operate simultaneously one system has to
be switched off to test the other. Testing System 2 (test switch in
position SYS 2) system 1 is switched off (and vice versa) via the
solenoid valve. The pressure in System 1 drops and the pressure
switch activates the CDS/CPDS caution HYD PRESS in system 1.
With small control inputs on ground the pilot can test the response of
the respective system.
u NOTE Testing System 1 the pedal forces will increase
because System 2 and therefor the fenestron
actuator is switched off.
Y WARNING The test has to be performed on ground only.
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Hydraulic System -- Indication and Testing System
Relay (SYS II)
Relay (SYS I)
Circuit Breaker
HYD P SYS I
Circuit Breaker
HYD P SYS II
Test Switch
HYD SYS I/II
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Training Manual
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Fenestron Actuator
General
The Fenestron actuator is used for boosting the inputs for the tail rotor
control. It is bolted to the tail rotor gearbox. It transmits pedal inputs to
the control spider for changing the angle of incidence of the tail rotor
blades. Integrated in the Fenestron actuator are the stops for the
maximum and minimum control range. The actuator is supplied with
pressure by the pressure system 2.
Function
Without hydraulic pressure the two springs with different spring rate
keep the bypass valve (weak spring) in the opened and the shut--off
valve (strong spring) in the closed position.
Thus the power piston can travel freely and the pilot is able to give
inputs to the tail rotor rotor by means of the mechanical linkage only.
When operating pressure fills the shut--off valve inlet chamber and the
control chamber through the hollow piston rod, the valve unit starts to
travel to the left. First the by pass closes (weak spring), second the
shut-off valve opens and gives the pressure free to the control spool
inlet.
The input lever is connected with the piston rod of the power piston via
the control lever. Pulling the input lever displaces the control spool to
the right and the operating pressure enters the left power piston
chamber which causes again a movement to the right as long as the
input lever continues to travel (and vice versa).
The control spool closes as soon as the required position of the power
piston has been reached (input lever stops the movement) due to the
feedback of the control lever.
The movement of the power piston is stopped and the power piston is
kept in its position until a new control input is made.
If the pressure drops in system 2, the shut-off valve closes and the
by--pass valve opens. Both piston chambers of the boost cylinders are
connected and the mechanical control can displace the power piston.
The control spool normally travels in thevalve sleevewhich is centered
by two springs. If the control spool is blocked the valve sleeve can be
shifted against the spring pressure. Thus the control line is directly
connected to the return line. If the pressure drops in the control line,
the bypass valve switches the system off via the shut-off valve unit as
described above. The pilot will feel slightly higher control forces in the
affected axis because one of the springs at the valve sleeve has to be
compressed.
The function of the test button corresponds the System Test of the
mechanical override in the MHA/EHA schematic.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 71
July 2002 For training and information only
Fenestron Actuator
Control Line
Valve Sleeve
Control Spool
Input Lever
Control Lever
Power Piston
Bypass Valve
Shut-Off Valve
Strainer
Return Port
Pressure Port
Test Button
Output Lever
Weak Spring
Strong Spring
Control Chamber
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 72
July 2002 For training and information only
Three Axis Stability Augmentation System SAS
General
The helicopter can be equipped with an optional 3-axis stability
augmentation system (SAS).
The 3-axis stability augmentation system comprises the following
independent subsystems:
-- Yaw stability augmentation system (standard equipment)
-- Pitch and roll stability augmentation system (option)
Yaw Stability Augmentation System
General
Theyawstability augmentationsystemapplies limited authority control
inputs to the tail rotor control linkage.
The yaw SAS operates independently of the other flight control
systems and provides the following functions:
-- Enhancement of the dynamic yaw stability
-- Damping of gust effects on the yaw axis
The system is designed for feet-on operation, thereby requiring the
pilot to provide helicopter yawcontrol by operating the pedals. In turn,
the pilot experiences improved handling qualities while at the same
time retaining full control input authority.
System Components
The yaw stability augmentation system consists of the following
components:
-- Fiber optical gyro FOG
-- Yaw actuator
-- Circuit breaker YAW SAS
-- Cut-off switch SAS DCPL
-- Re-engagement switch SAS CONT
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 73
July 2002 For training and information only
3 Axis SAS (CDS Version) -- Locations
Pitch EHA
P&R SAS Computer
Yaw Gyro
Yaw SEMA
Roll EHA
Trim Actuator
Cyclic Stick
Overhead Panel
Trim Actuator
CDS
Pitch Gyro
Roll Gyro
Pitch Gyro (DPIFR)
Pitch SEMA (DPIFR)
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 74
July 2002 For training and information only
Fiber Optical Gyro FOG
The fiber optical gyro (FOG) is installed on the engine deck within the
structure of the tail boomattachment cone between frame 7 and frame
8. It can be accessed when the avionic plate is lowered.
The fiber optical gyro controls helicopter acceleration around the
vertical axis. A variation in the yaw rate within a specific frequency
bandwidth causes the FOG to transmit an electrical stabilizing signal
to the yaw actuator. The FOG is equipped with an electronic validity
control loop to monitor the operational readiness of the system.
Yaw Actuator
The yaw actuator is installed in the Fenestron structure. It is an
actuator with an integral position feedback (SMART
electro-mechanical actuator SEMA). It converts the stabilizing signal
produced by the FOGinto a corresponding mechanical input to the tail
rotor control linkage.
The series-connected yawactuator operates between the ball bearing
control and the hydraulic Fenestron actuator. In consequence,
stabilizing inputs from the yaw stability augmentation system and the
control inputs from the pilot are superimposed on each other.
Following a stabilizing input, the yawactuator automatically recenters
within its maximum stabilizing stroke range to ensure full stabilizing
input authority.
Circuit Breaker YAW SAS
The circuit breaker YAW SAS is located in the top right-hand section
of the overhead panel.
Switch SAS DCPL
The cut-off switch SAS DCPL is located on the extreme left on the
upper end of the cyclic stick grip.
In the case of blockage of the yaw actuator, the system can be
disengaged through the cut-off switch SAS DCPL. The cut-off switch
interrupts the engage signal to the FOG.
Switch SAS CONT
The re-engagement switch SAS CONT is located in the top left--hand
corner of the cyclic stick grip and is used to reactivate the systemafter
the cut-off switch has been operated (reactivation is also possible by
depressing circuit breaker YAW SAS) . The re-engagement switch
reconnects the engage signal to the FOG.
CDS/CPDS Display
The Caution YAW SAS appears in the MISC field if the Yaw SAS is
decoupled
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 75
July 2002 For training and information only
Functional Schematic -- Yaw SAS
FOG
SAS
PP20E
P&R
Y RST
SEMA
YAW SAS
DCPL
Fenestron Actuator
CDS/CPDS Display
Blade Pitch Change
Re-engagement
Switch
Cut-Off Switch
Yaw Rate
Pilot Yaw Control Inputs Pilot + Yaw Actuator Control Inputs
Flexball Cable
Cut-Off
Switch
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 76
July 2002 For training and information only
Pitch & Roll Stability Augmentation System
General
The pitch and roll stability augmentation system, which is also an
independent system, is used for stabilizing the attitude of the
helicopter about the longitudinal and lateral axes. It applies limited
authority stabilizing inputs to the main rotor controls.
System Components
The pitch and roll stability augmentation system consists of the
following components:
-- Pitch and roll SAS computer
-- Electro-hydraulic actuators (EHA) (2 off)
-- Circuit breaker P/R SAS for 28 V DC
-- Circuit breaker ROLL SAS and PITCH SAS
for 26 V AC / 400 Hz
-- Cut-off switch SAS DCPL
-- Re-engagement switch SAS CONT
-- 2 Attitude gyros
Pitch and Roll SAS Computer
The pitch and roll SAS computer is located in the left--hand side
channel in the floor structure and uses the input signals from the
attitude gyros to compute the stabilizing input signals for the
electro-hydraulic actuators (EHA). An integral electronic validity
control loop within the SAS computer monitors operational readiness
of the system. Position signals fromboth trimactuators are used by the
SAS computer to determine whether the pilot is overriding an SAS
control input. This prevents the SAS from working against pilot stick
inputs.
A position sensor (LVDT) in the electro--hydraulic actuators (EHA)
supply the SAS computer with actuator position feedback signals.
Electro-Hydraulic Actuators
The electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA) is integrated into the housing of
the mechano-hydraulic actuator in the main rotor actuator.
The electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA) in the pitch and the roll axes
converts the electrical stabilizing signals to mechanical inputs. When
the electro-servo valve is excited, a hydraulic control cylinder operates
to move the control spool of the mechanical-hydraulic actuator MHA,
thereby adding stabilizing inputs to the MHA of the respective axis. As
a result, the stabilizing inputs from the pitch and roll stability
augmentation system are superimposed on the pilot stick inputs.
Following a stabilizing input, the EHA automatically recenters within
its maximum stabilizing stroke range to ensure full stabilizing input
authority.
Circuit Breaker P/R SAS (DC System)
The circuit breaker P/R SAS is located in the upper LH section of the
overhead panel. The busbar PP10E supplies the P&RSAS system28
V DC through the circuit breaker P/R SAS.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 77
July 2002 For training and information only
Functional Schematic -- Pitch and Roll SAS
SAS
PP10E
P&R
Y RST
CDS/CAD
P/R SAS
VG / HOR
26VAC I
DCPL
VG / HOR
26VAC II
Lateral Trim
Actuator
Long. Trim
Actuator
Roll Attitude
Pitch Attitude
Pilot Control Inputs
MHA for Pitch Axis
MHA for Roll Axis
Blade Pitch
Blade Pitch
SAS
Computer
EHA
EHA
EHA + Pilot
Control Inputs
Re-engagement
Switch
Cut--Off
Switch
Fast Erect
Cut--Off
Switch
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 78
July 2002 For training and information only
Circuit Breaker Roll SAS and Pitch SAS (AC System)
The SAS computer is also supplied with 26 V AC/ 400 Hz frombusbar
26 V AC BUS I and II through the circuit breaker ROLL SAS and
PITCH SAS .The circuit breaker ROLL SAS is located in the upper LH
section, the circuit breaker PITCH SAS in the upper RHsection of the
overhead panel.
The system is operative when its power supply is on. It becomes
inoperative when the power is removed by pulling one of the three
circuit breakers.
Cut-Off Switch SAS DCPL
The cut--off switch SAS DCPL is located on the extreme left on the
upper end of the cyclic stick grip.
If the electro-hydraulic actuators should become jammed, the system
can be disengaged by actuating cut-off switch SAS DCPL.
The cut-off switch removes the engage signal to the SAS computer.
Re-engagement Switch SAS CONT
The re-engagement switch SAS CONT is located in the top left--hand
corner of the cyclic stick grip and used to reactivate the system after
the cut-off switch has been actuated (reactivation is also possible by
pulling and depressing the circuit breaker P/R SAS). The
re-engagement switch reconnects the engage signal to the SAS
computer.
Attitude Gyros
Depending on the equipment of the helicopter, there is one artificial
horizon installed in the instrument panel and one vertical gyro installed
in the subfloor assy. As an equipment variant there are two gyros
installed in the subfloor assy.
The attitude gyros detect changes in the pitch and roll attitude of the
helicopter. These changes are appliedto theSAScomputer in theform
of electrical signals. The roll signal comes fromthe vertical gyro 1, the
pitch signal comes fromthe vertical gyro 2 or fromthe artificial horizon.
CDS/CPDS Display
The annunciation P/R SAS is displayed on the CDS/CPDS when the
power supply is interruptedor afault occurs in theEHS, SAScomputer,
or attitude gyro.
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Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 79
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 80
July 2002 For training and information only
Pitch Damper (DPIFR)
General
For Dual Pilot IFR certification an additional pitch damper has to be
installed in order to compensate excessive pitch changes (e.g. EHA
runaway).
System Components
The pitch damper system comprises the following:
-- Pitch Gyro
-- Pitch SEMA
-- Switch P&R / Y / P DAMPER RST
-- Circuit Breaker PITCH DAMPER
-- Indication P DAMPER
Pitch Gyro
The pitch rate gyro (FOG, Fibre Optic Gyro) is installed in the LH side
channel near to the SAS computer and measures angular changes of
the helicopter in its pitch axis.
The pitch rate gyro provides digital signals for control of the pitch
SEMA.
The power supply for the systemis provided via the P DAMPERcircuit
breaker located in the overhead panel.
Pitch SEMA
The pitch SEMA is integrated in the horizontal control rod which leads
fromthe upper guidance unit to the main rotor actuator for longitudinal
control.
The SEMA is installed in series with the pilots longitudinal control. It
sends limited control signals directly to the actuator without the cyclic
stick being moved.
The actuator and a servo control loop are contained in the pitch SEMA
casing.
The electronics of the servo control loop includes a monitoring system
which detects and corrects internal defects in the servo control loop
itself and control signal errors.
In the SAS mode, the pitch SEMA only works as a rate damper and is
active when the pitch EHA is out of order and has not centered in the
middle during NORM operation.
Switch P&R / Y / P Damper RST
The switch P&R/ Y / P DAMPERis located on the left on the upper end
of the cyclic stick grip. The 3--way switch is used to engage the
individual functions.
Circuit Breaker
The circuit breaker PITCHDAMPERis installed in the overhead panel
and supplied via the ESS. BUS II.
Indication PITCH DAMPER
A failure of the pitch damper is indicated with the caution P DAMPER
in the MISC field of the CDS/CPDS. Additionally, the indication light
PITCH DAMPER on the left side of the Warning Unit comes up.
EC 135
Training Manual
Flight Control
04 -- 81
July 2002 For training and information only
Pitch Damper -- Indication and Switch
P&R // Y // P DAMPER RST
Pitch Damper
Yaw
SAS
2--Axis P&R SAS
PITCH D
P/R SAS
YAW SAS
CDS/CPDS
3--Way Switch: Movement to engage the respective system.
SAS DCPL
Warning Indication PITCH DAMPER
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Landing Gear
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
Landing Gear 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement of Ground Clearance 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
Landing Gear
General
The landing gear carries the the weight of the helicopter on the ground
and absorbs landing impact loads. It is attached through four fittings
to the lower part of the floor structure.
To prevent the fuselage from beeing over--stressed during touch
down, the bearing rings on the cross tubes are swivelling in their
brackets, so that all forces are absorbed by bending the cross tubes.
The landing gear consists of two aluminum cross tubes and two
aluminum skids which are clamped together by aluminum skid shoes.
In its basic configuration, the landing gear is equipped with parallel
skids for landings on prepared surfaces. A skid track of 2.3 mprovides
the helicopter with good stability when standing on the ground.
The landing gear can be fitted with optional equipments like
Emergency Flotation System, Multi--Purpose Carrier or High Landing
Gear to meet changing operational requirements.
To meet changing ground conditions, the landing gear can be fitted
with the optional supplementary landing provisions.
Components
The landing gear consists of:
-- Two crosstubes
-- Two skids
-- Four skid shoes
-- Four bonding jumpers
-- Two entrance steps
Crosstubes
The two crosstubes of the landing gear cushion landing impact loads
on the fuselage by bending.
The crosstubes are mounted laterally approx. 2 m (6.6 ft) apart. The
landing gear is attached by the crosstubes to four landing gear fittings
which are integral with the floor structure of the fuselage.
Both crosstubes are hollow aluminum tubes of circular cross section.
They are connected to the landing gear fittings through four bearing
rings which are each held by two fitted bolts in the landing gear fittings.
Each bearing ring is retained by a set screw ring clamped on the
crosstube.
For the purpose of jacking the helicopter, a jacking bracket can be
positioned below each of the 4 landing gear fittings.
The helicopter can be weighed by installing a weighing bracket
centrally on the forward crosstube.
Touch Down Limitations
The two aluminum cross tubes can absorb all forces, resulting from
touch down speeds up to approx. 1m/s (depending on helicopter mass
and ground harness).
Higher touch down speeds will result in plastic deformations of the
cross tubes. Touch down speeds between 1 m/s and 2.5 m/s will not
damage the fuselage.
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Landing Gear
Entrance Step
Skid
Crosstube
Skid Shoe
Protection Plate
Bonding Jumper
Bushing
Bearing Ring
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
Skids
Both skids, which are aluminum tubes of circular cross section, are
curved upward at their forward ends.
On the underside of each skid, one small aft and two bigger forward
skid protective plates are attached by screws. The skid protective
plates are exposed to a high degree of wear because they are in direct
contact with the ground.
Skid Shoes
The four skid shoes connect the skids to the crosstubes to form a
spatial frame. They make for a stiff connection, thereby giving the
landing gear stability.
Each skid shoe is connected to the crosstube by a single bolt. The
saddle-shaped end of the skid shoe retains the skid through two split
clamps which are each tightened by two screws.
Bonding Jumpers
Bonding jumpers are installed between the crosstubes and skids and
the crosstubes and the floor structure to electrically connect the
isolated attaching hardware. The bonding jumpers enable static
electricity to be discharged from the surface of the helicopter to the
ground.
Entrance Steps
The two entrance steps which are crosstube--mounted above the
skids, are provided to give boarding assistance to crew members and
passengers. The aft end of each entrance step is raised somewhat to
facilitate access to the lower maintenance step.
The V--profiles of the entrance step are of fiber composite construction
and the upper part is made of aluminium. They are each attached to
their respective crosstube by two fittings.
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Measurement of Ground Clearance
General
If deformation of cross tubes is evident or suspected, the ground
clearance of helicopter must be measured.
-- The ground clearance at the forward cross tube must not
be less than 460 mm.
-- The ground clearance at the aft cross tube must not be
less than 360 mm
Procedure
The measurement must be carried out froma point in the middle of the
fuselage located directly in front or behind the cross tubes. If the
minimum value is not reached, the respective cross tube must be
changed.
u NOTE The measurement must be taken with a non loaded
landing gear. For this purpose the helicopter must
be jacked.
EC 135
Training Manual
Landing Gear
05 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Measurement of Ground Clearance
Min. 460 mm
Min. 360 mm
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Plant
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
General Description of Power Plant 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel System 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Storage System 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Distribution System 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fueling System 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply and Monitoring of the Fuel Pumps 16 . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Supply Lines and Shut--Off Valves 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Quantity Indication System 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Quantity Indication CDS 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel System Monitoring CDS 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Quantity Indication CPDS 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel System Monitoring CPDS 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Level Warning CDS/CPDS 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Low Pressure Caution 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Filter Contamination Caution 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit Monitoring 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Turbomeca ARRIUS 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Description 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reduction Gearbox Module 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Producer / Power Turbine 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Subsytem 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Fuel Subsystem 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque Indication 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Temperature Indication 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pratt & Whitney 206 B (2) Engine 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reduction Gearbox Module 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Producer / Power Turbine 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Subsystem 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Fuel Subsystem 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque Indication (similar to TM, not described)
Temperature Indication 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Control T2/P2 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic Power Control T2/P2 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Ignition 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Unit (Overhead Panel) 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Control Panel -- Automatic Engine Starting 80 . . . . . . . .
Power Sharing of the Power Turbines N2 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Droop Compensation 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Topping Function 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAT A Mode 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Training Mode (Dual Engine) 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overspeed Protection 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring and Error Diagnostic 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Emergency Control 94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major Differences between P2/T2 and P1/T1 Versions 98 . . . . .
Oil Cooling System 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Mounts 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firewalls 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Warning System 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Extinguishing System (example single bottle system) 118
Engine Drain Lines 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
General Description of Power Plant
General
The power plant system of the EC 135 comprises all systems and
subsystems necessary for proper engine operation and control.
The EC 135 is equipped with two identical engines (Version: P1, P2,
T1, T2). They provide the driving power for the main and tail rotor and
for all secondary units.
The power plant system comprises the following components:
-- Engines
-- Engine indication
-- Fuel system
-- Power management
-- Engine starting
-- Ignition
-- Oil cooling system
-- Engine mounts
-- Firewalls
-- Fire protection
-- Engine drain lines
Engines
In the EC 135 the following engine variants are possible:
-- T1 Turbomeca ARRIUS 2B, 2B1, 2B1A, 2B1A_1
T2 Turbomeca ARRIUS 2B2
-- P1 Pratt&Whitney 206B,
P2 Pratt&Whittney 206B2
u NOTE The following desciptions refer to the versions T2
and P2, major deviations from the earlier
versionsT1/P1 are described in an overview page
at the end of the chapter.
Training manuals for these engines are published by Turbomeca or
Pratt&Whitney.
Engine Indication
The engine indicating systemprovides the pilot with information on the
performance parameters required during flight. The indicating system
also provides information on engine malfunctions.
Fuel System
The aircraft fuel system provides fuel storage and supply to both
engines.
Power Management
Power management and speed control of the engines is accomplished
by a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) per engine. This is
achieved with one single channel Electronic Engine Controller (EEC
of version P&W), resp. single channel Electronic Engine Control Unit
(EECU of version TM). All control functions are monitored and
implemented when requested either by the electronic or by pilots
inputs. In the event of electronic failure or for training purposes control
is maintained by reverting to a manual back-up mode.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Plant -- General Arrangement
Oil Cooling System
Airframe Fuel System
Firewalls
Engine (T) Engine (P&W)
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel System
Fuel Storage System
General
The fuel storage system comprises two bladder tank cells mounted in
series in the lower shell of the fuselage. Access to the parts installed
in the fuel cells (i.e. pumps, QTY--sensors, drain valves) is provided by
four removable equipment plates through the helicopter floor shell.
The impact-resistant bladder tanks are made of reinforced
rubberiezed nylon fabric.
Main Tank
The main tank cell is located in the center bottom shell of the fuselage
between frame 3 and 5.
Threaded bolts, vulcanized into the topside of the tank, provide points
for attaching the tank to the underside of the cabin floor. Velcro strips,
bonded to the topside of thetank andto theunderside of the cabinfloor
provide for additional stability.
Two fexible hoses are routed from the fuel pumps to the rear of the
tank. They are connected to the split supply tank. The hoses
connected to the two sections of the supply tank are routed through
the overflow channels located in the upper rear area.
Split Supply Tank Cell
The split supply tank is located in the bottom shell between frames 5
and 8. To meet the certification requirements of total engineseparation
the tank consists of two sections separated by a fuselage mounted
fence. The fence has about the same height as two overflowchannels
which connect the supply tank to the main tank. The tank is
constructed to accomodate the fence.
Two overflow channels, vulcanized into the front side of the tank cell,
connect the supply tank to the main tank.
Flanges in the L/H and R/H side walls provide for engine supply lines
connection. One flange in the R/Hsidewall allows the connection of an
auxiliary fuel tank (option). One flange on the R/Hrear top provides for
connection to the vent system.
Expansion Tank
The expansion tank (approx. 14.5 l, polyethylene material)
accommodates an inreasing fuel volume in case of a warm up and is
fixed with a belt in an aluminium box to the R/H side of the cabin. Two
venting hoses are routed in vicinity of frame 5 upwards and along the
underside of the engine deck to the L/H side of the cabin, where they
are connected to the port vent outlets in the bottom shell.
Venting System
The refueling venting hoses of the main tank and the supply tank are
fixed to the LH inner topside of the fuel cells and routed into the filler
neck. In both hoses an air no fuel valve is integrated.
On the RHupper side the supply tank and the main tank areconnected
to expansion tank by an additional vent line embedded into the cabin
floor.
From H/C SN 250 and up this vent line is separated between the two
expansion tank inlets. In addition a short vent line between the main
tank and supply tank is installed.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel System -- System Components
Ground Connection
Vent Hoses
Feed Line Engine 1
Cabin Floor Embedded Vent Line
Shut--off Valve Engine 1
Front Equipment Plate
Venting Hose
Flexible Fuel Hose
Air No Fuel Valve 1
Rear Equipment Plate
Hook--and--Pile Tape
Expansion Tank
Inlet for Aux. Fuel Tank (Option)
Shut-off Valve Engine 2
Filler Neck
Equipment Plate System 1
Equipment Plate System 2
Overflow Channnels
Split Wall
Feed Line Engine 2
Air No Fuel Valve 2 (not visible)
Vent Line (SN 250 and up)
Vent Line separated
(SN 250 and up)
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Distribution System
General
The fuel distribution subsystem transfers fuel from the main tank into
the split supply tank and from there via shut off valves to the engines.
Components
The fuel distribution subsystem comprises the following components:
-- Two main tank mounted transfer pumps
-- Transfer lines
-- Two supply tank mounted prime pumps
-- Engine feed lines with shut-off valves
Transfer Pumps
The transfer pumps deliver fuel from the main tank to the split supply
tank via transfer lines. The capacity of the transfer pumps is such that
each of themdelivers morefuel tothe supply tank thanthe engines can
consume. The surplus fuel returns to the main tank via the overflow
tubes. This guarantees that the supply tank is always filled, as long as
there is fuel in the main tank. The pumps are powered with 28 V DC
and have a dry operating time of approx. 20 minutes.
Transfer Lines
Two flexible hoses are routed fromthe transfer pump outlet ports to the
rear of the main tank. There they are connected to each other and to
the split supply tank. The connecting hoses to the two sections of the
supply tank are routed through two overflowchannels in the upper rear
area.
Prime Pumps
The prime pumps deliver fuel to the engines via the feed lines during
engine start. The pump in the left tank chamber supplies the left engine
and the pump in the right tank chamber supplies the right engine. With
both engines running, the engine driven pumps draw in the fuel
through the prime pumps. Thus the prime pumps can then be switched
off.
The prime pumps are identical to the main tank mounted transfer
pumps, but there is no check valve installed in the pump outlet.
u NOTE The prime pumps are only to be switched on for
engine start and some emergency procedures acc.
to flight manual.
Foam Core
An airframe mounted foam core is integrated in the RH supply tank
shape and therefore the fuel quantity is reduced by 4 kg in order to
avoid a simultaneous flame out of both engines when the fuel tanks
become empty.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Transfer System
FWD
Check Valve
Transfer Line
Overflow Channel
Shut--Off Valve
Adapter for Aux. Fuel Tank
to Engine 1
FWD
Transfer Pump
Aft Transfer Pump
Check Valve
to Engine 2
Filler Neck
Prime Pump 2
Prime Pump 1
Chamber Divider
Foam Core
Main Tank 452 kg
LH Supply Tank 48 kg
RH supply Tank 44 kg
Rear View
Total Fuel 544 kg
up to SN 250 SN 250 and up
474.5 kg
49.0 kg
44.5 kg
568.0 kg
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
Equipment Plates
The four equipment plates in the fuel tanks are identical and
accomodate the fuel supply components. The components are:
-- Fuel pump
-- Fuel sensor
-- Low fuel sensor (supply tank only)
-- Drain valve
The equipment plates are interconnected respectively with a ground
cable to the fuselage.
Check Valve
The fuel pumps of the main tank are each equipped with a check valve
attached to the pump outlet port. The check valve prevents fuel from
flowing back to the main tank if a transfer pump should fail.
Fuel Sensors
The four capacitive fuel sensors, unequal in size, are attached to the
equipment plates in an upright position.
u NOTE Due to crash safety the fuel sensors must not
contact the ceiling of the fuel cell. To increase the
accuracy of the fuel indication when the system is
completely filled, from SN250 and up, all four fuel
sensors are longer. Therefore a cut out is
integrated in the cabin floor above each sensor.
Low Fuel Sensor
The fuel sensors in the supply tank are eqipped with low fuel sensors
(NTC--thermistors) used for the LOW FUEL indication.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 11
July 2002 For training and information only
Equipment Plates
Drain Valve with Rubber Collar
Engine Supply Hose
Fuel Sensor
Prime Pump
Transfer Pump
Check Valve
Equipment Plate
Main Tank
LH Equipment Plate
Low Level Sensor
Transfer Hose
Foam Core
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Pumps
The four fuel pumps are identical. They are powered by a 28 V DC
motor, supplied by the electrical system. The DC motor of a pump is
mounted in a separate compartment. It can be removed from the
equipment plate without defueling the tank.
Two transfer pumps are attached to the equipment plates of the main
tanks in an upright position.
One fuel pump (prime pump) is mounted inside each of the two supply
tank sections. This configuration makes provision for individual
defueling of the sections.
The fuel pumps of the main tank are each equipped with a check valve
attached to the pump outlet port.
The delivery rate of the earlier pump version is 6.6 l/min (manufacturer
Globe Motors) and for newer versions 12.5 l/min (manufacturer
Testfuchs) with a pressure of approx. 1 bar.
Drain Valve
Two drain valves are located inside the main tank and two inside the
supply tank. They are attached to the equipment plates, which are
installed at the lowest point in the tank. Access to the valves is given
from the underside of the fuselage through access doors.
The drain valves are opened by depressing the valve body. An
integrated valve spring automatically closes the drain valve after the
valve body is released.
u NOTE Drain each tank into a container and check for
presents of water, until only fuel emerges.
Y WARNING If the helicopter is parked on a slope water
might be left in the tanks even after the tanks
have been drained.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 13
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Pump and Drain Valve
Pump Housing
Motor Pump
Cartridge
Locking Plug
Valve Lever
Open Position
Closed Position
Drain Valve
Drain Tool
Fuel Fuel
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 14
July 2002 For training and information only
Fueling System
General
The filler neck of the helicopter is used to fill the main tank. The ground
connection provides static discharge after landing and during fueling
the helicopter.
Filler Neck
The filler neck is located between frame 4 and 5 at the lower left end
of the side panel. The access door can be locked by a key. The filler
neck is constructed for gravity fuelling with a max. rate of flow of 100
liters per minute.
Air No Fuel Valve
The air in the tank, displaced by fueling is bled through two venting
ports on thetopside of the tank as well as throughventing hoses routed
to the filler neck coming from the rear section of the tanks.
If the fuel reaches the level of the venting valves the opening is closed
via the ball mechanismand the fuel tanks can be filled up to maximum.
The fuel coming from the front port of the main tank or the rear port of
the supply tank causes the valves to open and drains back to the
main/supply tank.
Ground Connection
The ground plate is located on the outside of the LH rear side panel
of the fuselage. The ground bushing extends outside and is located to
the right of the access to the filler neck. The ground bushing is
connected to the fuselage by a flexible ground strap.
Y WARNING Connect the ground cable before fueling the
helicopter.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
Fueling System with Ground Connection
Filler Cap
Filler Neck
Ground Socket
Ground Plate
Ground Strap
Main Tank
Ground Connector
Air No Fuel Valve
Ball Mechanism
Cross-Sectional View of Air No Fuel Valve
to the Filler Neck (ANV 1) or to
Rear Port of the Supply Tank (ANV2)
from Front Port of the Main Tank
(ANV1) or from Filler Neck (ANV 2)
FWD
Outlet to Main Tank (ANV1)
or Supply Tank (ANV 2)
Air No Fuel Valve 1 (ANV1) installed in Main Tank
Air No Fuel Valve 2 (ANV2) installed in Supply Tank 1
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Supply and Monitoring of the Fuel Pumps
General
The switches and circuit breakers for the fuel pumps are located in the
overhead panel.
Switches and Circuit Breakers Main Tank
The following switches/circuit breakers for the main tank are installed:
-- Switch FUEL PUMP XFER--F
-- Switch FUEL PUMP XFER--A
-- Circuit Breaker XFER--F--Pump
-- Circuit Breaker XFER--A--Pump
Switches and Circuit Breakers Supply Tank
The following switches/circuit breakers for the supply tank are
installed:
-- Switch FUEL PUMP PRIME I
-- Switch FUEL PUMP PRIME II
-- Circuit breaker PRIME--P ENG I
-- Circuit breaker PRIME--P ENG II
Precision Resistors
The precision resistors (shunts) for the current measurement of the
transfer pumps are located on the backside of the overhead panel in
a mounting unit.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Pumps -- Switches and Circuit Breakers
Circuit Breaker XFER--A--PUMP
Circuit Breaker PRIME--P ENG II
Switch FUEL PUMP XFER--A
Switch FUEL PUMP XFER--F
Switch FUEL PUMP PRIME II
Switch FUEL PUMP PRIME I
Circuit Breaker XFER--F--PUMP
Circuit Breaker PRIME--P ENG I
ENGI
ENGII
O
F
F
M
A
X
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Supply Transfer Pumps
The transfer pumps are supplied via the following busbars:
-- FWD transfer pump with Essential busbar 1
-- Aft transfer pump with Shedding busbar 2
Power Supply Prime Pumps
The prime pumps are supplied via the following busbars:
-- Transfer pump engine 1 with Essential busbar 1
-- Transfer pump engine 2 with essential busbar 2
Monitoring
The electrical circuits of the transfer pumps are monitored. In case of
a defective pump, a dry running pump, or a switched off pump caution
indication is displayed at the CDS/CPDS MISC field.
The indications are:
-- F--PUMP AFT
-- F--PUMP FWD
The pumps are monitored via a shunt. When the power consumption
is higher than 5 Amps (blocked pump), or longer than 3 min lower than
2 Amps (dry running pump), the caution will be triggered.
Indication
As long as the prime pumps are switched on, in the CDS/CPDS
Caution panel SYS I and/or SYS I the following indication will be
displayed:
-- PRIME PUMP
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Pumps -- Power Supply and Monitoring
M M
OFF
ON
M
PP 10E PP 20E
M
OFF
ON
PP 20S
0,1
OFF
ON
PP 10E
0,1
PRIME PUMP
F--PUMPAFT
OFF
ON
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1 Warning Panel CDS/CPDS
2 Main Tank
3 Busbar PP 20S
4 Circuit Breaker XFER--A PUMP
5 Switch FUEL PUMPS XFER--A
6 Precision Resistor
7 Busbar PP 20E
8 Circuit Breaker PRIME--P ENG II
9 Switch FUEL PUMP PRIME--II
10 Split Supply Tank
11 Electrical Pump Motor
12 Switch FUEL PUMP PRIME--I
13 Circuit Breaker PRIME--P ENG I
14 Busbar PP 10E
15 Circuit Breaker F XFER PUMP
16 Switch FUEL PUMP XFER--F
17 Precision Resistor (Shunt)
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Supply Lines and Shut--Off Valves
General
The fuel is supplied to the engines by two hoses, both equipped with
shut off valves.
Components
The fuel supply system consists of the following:
-- Engine feed lines
-- Shut--off valves
-- Switch EMER OFF SW I
-- Switch EMER OFF SW II
-- Circuit breaker FUEL --V ENG I
-- Circuit breaker FUEL--V ENG II
Engine Feed Lines
The flexible fuel hoses are connected to the ports on both sides of the
split supply tank. From the ports they are routed through the rear
bottom shell, along the LH and RH side panel of the fuselage and up
to the engine deck. All hoses are of size DN 08 and made of spiral
fabric-- reinforced teflon tubing. All fuel hoses routed through the
fuselage are protected with fuel resistant hoses (DN 32). Additional
venting minimizes fuel vapor collecting in the hose system.The fuel
hoses located above the engine deck are adapted to fit the specific
installation requirements of engine. They are made of metal.
Shut-Off Valves
The fuel shut--off valves are used to perform emergency shutdown of
the engines and also for normal maintenance activities. The valves are
operated by a 28 VDC electrical motor.
The shut-off valves are installed in sealed housings in the L/Hand R/H
side shell. The housings are vented to the ambient.
Power Supply
The shut--off valves are supplied by the following busbars:
-- Shut-off valve engine 1 with Essential busbar 1
-- Shut-off valve engine 2 with Essential busbar 2
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Shut-Off Valves
Switch EMER OFF SW I
Switch EMER OFF SW II
Circuit Breaker
FUEL--V ENG I Circuit Breaker
FUEL--V ENG II
Warning Unit
Overhead Console
Electrical Connector
Cover
Hou-
sing
Lower Fuel Hose
Upper Fuel Hose
Clamping Nut
Frame 6
Fuel Shut--off Valve
Upper Port
Lower Port
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation
The shut--off valves are controlled by the EMER OFF SWITCH I resp.
EMEROFF SWITCHII, located in the Warning Unit. The switches are
guarded push--to release switches (FIRE -- Buttons).
-- When the switches are released, the valves close.
-- When the switches are depressed, the valves are open.
Monitoring
The positions of the shut--off valves are monitored anddisplayed at the
CDS/CPDSSYSI/SYSII and at the warningunit adjacent to theEMER
OFF SWITCHES.
When the valves are open (normal position):
-- No indication
If an EMER OFF SWITCH is released, the following indications will
appear:
-- ACTIVE (Warning Unit) will be ON continously.
-- FUEL VALVE on the CDS SYSI/II is displayed as long as
the valve is transient.
-- F VALVE CL on the CDS/CPDS SYSI/II is displayed when
the valve is closed.
u NOTE When no FIRE Warning is evident, only the
shut--off valve will close when operating the EMER
OFF SWITCH.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Shut--Off Valves -- Function
FIRE
I
EMER
OFFSW
ACTIVE
1
I
P
P
1
0
E
FIRE
II
EMER
OFFSW
ACTIVE
II
2
1
1
P
P
2
0
E
PCB
M
PCB
M
MS 1 MS 2 MS 2 MS 1
P R P R
SYS I MISC SYS II
1
2
12
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1 Warning Panel SYSTEM II CDS/CPDS
2 Valve Actuator
3 Limit Switch MS 1 (totally closed)
4 Switch EMER OFF SW 2
5 Circuit Breaker FUEL--V ENG II
6 Fuel Shut--Off Valve Position Indication
7 Busbar PP 20E
8 Warning Unit
9 Busbar PP 10E
10 Circuit Breaker FUEL--V ENG I
11 Switch EMER OFF SW 1
12 Limit Switch MS 2 (totally open)
13 Waning Panel SYSTEM I CDS/CPDS
1 Fire Warning Logic within Warning Unit
2
Instrument Lighting
3
FUEL VALVE
F VALVE CL
Fully Closed Closing Opera-
tion
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 24
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Quantity Indication System
General
The fuel quantity indicating systemprovides the pilot with informations
about the fuel quantity and system malfunctions. The relevant data is
gathered with the aid of sensors, digitally processed and displayed on
the CDS/CPDS.
The fuel quantity indication system mainly consists of:
-- Four fuel transmitters
-- Indication on the field FUEL of the CDS/CPDS
Fuel Quantity Transmitter
Each fuel quantity transmitter consists of two concentric tubes,
installed on the equipment plates in the fuel tank . The inner and outer
tube form the plates of a capacitor.
As the fuel level changes, the amount of fuel between the two
capacitor tubes changes. This changes the value of the dielectricum,
thereby varying the capacity of the fuel quantity transmitter. An
oscillator circuit, consisting of a precision resistor and the transmitter,
changes its frequency proportional to the fuel mass in the tank. The
output frequency varying between 8 kHz with a full tank and 13 kHz
with an empty tank is digitally processed and displayed in the
CDS/CAD.
The measurement accuracy amounts to 6% with maximum fuel
content and 4% with decreasing fuel content. Inaccuracies resulting
from pitch-- attitudes of the helicopter are taken into account (attitude
compensation).
Inaccuracies resulting from different fuel types and temperatures
(density) are within the 6% resp. 4%.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 25
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Quantity Indication
Processing
Unit
Processing
Unit
Electronics
Processing
Unit
Electronics
Processing
Unit
Split Supply Tank
Main Tank
Fuel Sensor
Fuel Sensor
CDS
CPDS
Fuel Sensor
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 26
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Quantity Indication CDS
General
The fuel quantity indication (FUEL display) is located in the CDS. It is
subdivided in the following sections:
Numeric indications (white) for MAIN, SPLY 1, SPLY 2 and AUX (main
tank, supply tank 1 supply tank 2 and optional auxiliary tank).
Bar indication (white) for MAIN, SPLY 1, SPLY 2 and AUX.
LOW warning indication (red) for SPLY 1 and SPLY 2. The LOW
warning indication for SPLY 1 and 2 is triggered by the CDS software,
when the respective supply tank chamber indication is less than 28 kg.
FREE condition indication (white) for main tank. The FREE indication
comes on when the free volume in the main tank and both supply tanks
is greater than the current fuel volume of the auxiliary tank (if installed).
XFER (white) if an auxiliary tank is installed. The XFER indication
comes on when the auxiliary fuel tank valve is open.
Unit indication (kg/lb).
u NOTE Through configuration the amount of fuel can be
displayed in kg or lb.
The numeric indications display as maximum values:
-- 448 kg for the main tank (nominal max. quantity 452 kg*)
-- 48 kg for SPLY 1
-- 44 kg for SPLY 2
* 4 kg can not be displayed, because for crash safety the fuel sensors
must not contact the fuel cell ceiling.
Fuel System Monitoring CDS
The caution FUEL QTY FAIL comes on if one supply tank sensor or
both main tank sensors fail. The respective graph will reset to 0.
The caution FUEL QTY DEGR comes on if one of the main tank
sensors fails.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 27
July 2002 For training and information only
CDS Fuel Indication
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
FUEL PRESS
FUEL FILT
F FILT CT
F QTY FAIL
FQTY DEGR
FUEL PRESS
FUEL FILT
F FILT CT
Bargraph Indica-
tion
Numeric Indication
Unit Kg/LB
LOW Indication Light
FREE Indication Light
Main Tank
XFER Indication
Light Aux. Tank
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 28
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Quantity Indication CPDS
The display indicates the fuel quantity in the main tank and in both
supply tanks. In addition to the symbolic display of the fuel contents in
the tanks, a numerical display of the tank contents is provided in the
selected unit of measurement.
Fuel Flow Indication and Endurance Calculation
If a flow sensors is installed in each engine supply line, the actual fuel
consumption and the calculated endurance is displayed in the CAD.
Fuel System Monitoring CPDS
The caution FUEL QTY FAIL comes on if one supply tank sensor or
both main tank sensors fail. The respective graph will reset to 0.
The caution FUEL QTY DEGR comes on if one of the main tank
sensors fails.
CPDS software version V2002 and higher:
The caution FUEL comes on after 15 sec if the indicationof supply tank
1 is below 40 kg or the indication of supply tank 2 is below 35 kg.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 29
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel System Display CPDS
CAUTION/ADVISORY Half Page
Possible Fuel Indications
Numeric Indication
Bargraph Indication
FUEL PRESS
FUEL FILT
F FILT CT
F QTY FAIL
FQTY DEGR
FUEL
FUEL PRESS
FUEL FILT
F FILT CT
Possible CAUTION Indications
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 30
July 2002 For training and information only
Low Level Warning CDS/CPDS
General
The lowlevel warning is an additional fuel level control towarn thepilot.
The warning function can be checked with a test function.
A visual and audio warning informs the pilot that:
-- There are approx. 28 kg (SYS I) and 24 kg (SYS II) of fuel
remaining in the supply tank chambers.
From SN 250 and up the position of the sensors has been
changed. Therefore approx. 32 kg (SYS I) and 28 kg (SYS
II) of fuel remaining in the supply tank chambers.
u NOTE All configurations guarantee a minimum of 8
minutes remaining flight time.
Components
The low level warning mainly consists of:
-- One low level sensor in each supply tank chamber.
-- Red LOW caption at the warning unit for FUEL (SYS I and
SYS II)
-- Circuit breaker FUEL--L--SYS I / SYSII
-- Circuit test function
Function
The sensors are fixed at a defined height to the fuel level transmitters.
They are supplied by 28 VDC. As long as the sensors are cooled by
the fuel, their resistance is high resulting in a low current flow in the
circuit. If the resistors become free (level low), they will be heated up
by the current thus changing their resistance. As the resistors are
ntc--thermistors, the resistance becomes low by the increasing
temperature, so the current in the circuit increases and hence activate
the LOW warning at the warning panel.
At the same time an audio warning is given through the head--phones:
A gong every 3 seconds.
Power Supply
The low level warning is supplied with 28 V DC by the following
busbars:
-- Essential Busbar PP 10E
-- Essential Busbar PP 20E
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 31
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Supply -- Low Level Warning
PP 10E
TEST TEST
PP 20E
Electronics
Processing
Unit
Electronics
Processing
Unit
Circuit Breaker
FUEL--L SYS I
Busbar PP 10E
Warning Unit
Low Level Indication
LOW FUEL SYSTEM 1
LOW LEVEL Indication
SYSTEM 2
Warning Indication
SYSTEM 2
Circuit Breaker
FUEL--L SYS II
Busbar PP 20E
Supply Tank
Warning Indication
SYSTEM 1 (internally
triggered in the CDS)
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
F QTY FAIL
F QTY DEGR
Low Fuel
Sensor
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 32
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Low Pressure Caution
General
The fuel low pressure caution indicates low pressure between the
engine driven low-- and high pressure pumps.
Fuel Pressure Switch TM
The fuel pressure switch is attached to the fuel control unit. The
pressure is tapped between the fuel filter outlet and the high pressure
pump inlet.
Whenever the fuel pressure drops below 1.3 bar, the pressure switch
closes and activates the caution FUEL PRESS in the CDS/CPDS.
Fuel Pressure Switch P&W
If installed, thefuel pressureswitch is attached tothe fuel management
module. The pressure is tapped between the lowpressure pumpoutlet
and the fuel filter inlet.
Whenever the fuel pressure drops below 0.6 bar, the pressure switch
closes and activates the caution FUEL PRESS in the CDS/CPDS.
Fuel Filter Contamination Caution
General
The fuel filter contamination caution detects clogged filter elements.
The indication is given at the CDS/CPDS.
The differential pressure switch is attached to the fuel management
module (P&W), resp. to the fuel control unit (TM). Differential pressure
is tapped between the fuel filter inlet and outlet (valid for both engine
types). When the filter element becomes dirty, the pressure difference
increases. The switch closes reaching the pressure switch setting and
the caution FUEL FILT comes on the CDS/CPDS.
Circuit Monitoring
General
The electrical circuit of the fuel filter is automatically tested. If there is
an interruption the caution F FLT CT will be displayed on the
CDS/CPDS.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 33
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Supply -- Monitoring
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
TM P&W
FUEL PRESS
FUEL FILT
F FLT CT
FUEL PRESS
FUEL FILT
F FLT CT
CDS/CPDS
Fuel Pressure Switch
Filter Differential
Pressure Switch
CDS/CPDS Test Function for
F FLT CT Caution
Interface Helicopter -- Engine
1
2
2
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 34
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Turbomeca ARRIUS
General Description
Purpose
The EC 135 T utilizes two ARRIUS turboshaft engines to supply
energy (torque, bleed air, electrical power) to the helicopter systems.
General
The ARRIUS is a lightweight, free turbine, turboshaft engine
incorporating a single stage centrifugal compressor driven by a single
stage compressor turbine and a single stage power turbine that drives
the reduction gearbox and aircraft powertrain.
Metered fuel from the Fuel Control Unit is sprayed into a reverse flow
annular combustion chamber through twelve fuel nozzles (10 main
plus 2 start nozzles) mounted around the gas generator case.
A high voltage ignition unit and dual spark igniters are used to start
combustion.
A single channel, Full Authority Digital Engine Control Unit (FADEC)
system with a mechanical backup FMM ensures accurate control of
the engine output speed and fast response to changes in power
demand. An electrically operated stepper motor locatedwithin theFuel
Control Unit works in conjunction with the FADEC and changes fuel
flow as required.
Configuration
The engine is of modular design. Mainly it consists of:
-- The reduction gearbox module
-- Gas generator and power turbine module
-- Engine Subsystems
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 35
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Turbomeca ARRIUS
REDUCTION GEARBOX
GAS GENERATOR AND POWER TURBINE
Accessory Geartrain
Compressor Turbine (N
1
)
Compressor (N
1
)
Power Turbine (N
2
)
Reduction Gear Train
Output Shaft
Air Intake
Combustion Chamber
Exhaust
Oil Tank
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 36
July 2002 For training and information only
Reduction Gearbox Module
Purpose
The reduction gearbox module reduces the power turbine speed (N
2
)
to a suitable speed for the main transmission input. A second geartrain
reduces thegas producer turbine speed(N
1
) toa suitablespeed toturn
all engine accessories.
Configuration
The reduction gearbox consists of a front and rear light alloy casing.
The lower part of the reduction gearbox forms the engine oil tank. A
wall, located around the reduction gearbox rear casing, sperates the
reduction gearbox module from the gas producer/power turbine
module. The output shaft is inclined upward to suit the main
transmission installation.
Operation
The reduction gearbox has a two stage helical and bevel gear type
reductiongeartrain whichchanges power turbine speedto output shaft
speed. The engine output shaft assembly is attached to the second
stage reduction gear by internal splines.
The accessory drive geartrain provides the appropriate speed
reduction to turn all engine accessories, which are:
-- Starter/Generator
-- Low pressure and high pressure fuel pump
-- Oil pump
-- Permanent magnet alternator
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 37
July 2002 For training and information only
Reduction Gearbox
Second Stage Gear (Drive Shaft)
5898 RPM
First Stage Gear
10616 RPM
N
2
Input Gear
44038 RPM
N
1
Input Gear
54117 RPM
Intermediate Gear with Breather
23984 RPM
Starter/Generator Gear
12334 RPM
Fuel Pump Gear + N
1
Phonic Wheel
11992 RPM
Oil Pump and Alternator Gear
12334 RPM
Idler Gear
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 38
July 2002 For training and information only
Gas Producer / Power Turbine
General
This module provides the mechanical energy required to drive the
accessory drive and the reduction geartrain.
Configuration
The gas producer/power turbine module mainly consists of a single
stage centrifugal compressor driven by a single stage compressor
turbine and a single stage free spool power turbine.
Function
Air enters the engine through a radial inlet plenum chamber, formed
by the compressor inlet case where it is directed rearward to the
centrifugal impeller. The accelerated air from the impeller passes
through diffusor tubes which turn the air 90 and converts velocity into
static pressure. This high pressure air surrounds the combustion
chamber liner.
The combustion liner has perforations which allow the pressurized air
to enter. The airflowchanges direction 180 and is mixed with fuel from
two starter nozzles and 10 main nozzles. The fuel/air mixture is ignited
and the resultant expanding gases are directed to the turbines.
The expanding gases fromthe combustion chamber pass through the
compressor turbine stator vanes to the single stage compressor
turbine causing the turbine to rotate which drives the compressor. The
still expanding gases continue rearward to the power turbine stator
and turbine. The exhaust gas from the power turbine is directed
through an annular exhaust plenum to the atmosphere.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
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July 2002 For training and information only
Engine ARRIUS -- Operation
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 40
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Subsytem
General
The oil system ensures lubrication and cooling of the engine. All the
components are installed on the engine exept the cooling unit.
Lubrication Requirements
Lubrication is required for the following components:
-- Reduction gear train and accessory drive train (gears and
bearings)
-- Centrifugal compressor front bearing
-- Compressor turbine rear bearings
-- Power turbine front bearing
Configuration
The oil system consists of:
-- Integral oil tank
-- Pressure system
-- Scavenge system
-- Breather system
-- Indication
Oil Tank
The oil tank is integral with the engine. It is formed by the lower sump
of the reduction gearbox. On the R/Hand L/Hfront side of the gearbox
housing filler necks are provided (depending on the engine installation
the not used filler neck is plugged, the other oneis equippedwith afiller
cap). The R/H and L/H side of the oil tank is provided with an oil level
sight glass (depending on the engine installation, one of the sight
glasses will be visible). On the lowest point of the oiltank a drain plug
is installed.
Pressure System
The pressure pump draws oil from the tank and delivers it under
pressure to the system. A pressure relief valve limits maximum
pressure by returning oil to the pump inlet.
The oil is then delivered, through the filter and a calibrated orifice, to
the engine sections which require lubrication.
The oil is sprayed by jets onto the parts to be lubricated. It alsosupplies
a squeeze film for the gas generator front bearing and the power
turbine bearing.
Scavenge System
After lubrication, the oil falls by gravity to the bottomof the sumps. The
oil is then immediately drawn away by the scavenge pumps and
returned to the tank through the cooling unit.
Strainers protect the scavenge pump against any particles which may
be held in the lubrication oil.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 41
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil System ARRIUS
SUPPLY
SCAVENGE
BREATHING
AIR VENT
Filter Bypass Valve
Oilfilter
Pressure and Temperature Transmitter
Low Oil Pressure Switch
Electrical Magnetic Plug
Pressure Pump with
Relief Valve
Scavenge Pump (Two Stages)
Aircraft Mounted Air
Cooler with Temperature
Bypass Valve
Electrical Magnetic Plug
Oil Tank with
Sight Glass
CAUTION ENG OIL P
CAUTION ENG CHP
CAUTION ENG CHP
Strainer
Strainer
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 42
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Fuel Subsystem
General
The ARRIUS turboshaft engine is equipped with a single channel Full
Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) system. This integrated
powerplant control system incorporates all control units for complete
automatic and manual control of the engine.
The engine fuel subsystem delivers metered fuel to the engine. It is
automatically controlled by the engine control subsystem. The engine
control subsystemprovides the capability to override the Full Authority
Digital Engine Control (FADEC) function to provide for manual
operation of the fuel subsystem.
Components
The fuel and -- control subsystem mainly consists of the following
components:
-- Fuel pump unit
-- Fuel filter
-- Fuel Metering Unit (FMU)
-- Valve assembly
-- Injection system
-- Electronic Engine Control Unit (FADEC)
-- Indicating
Several sensors and electrical harnesses as well as cockpit discretes
complete the control system.
Fuel Pump Unit
Fuel is delivered to the fuel pump unit by the aircraft fuel distribution
subsystem.
The fuel pump unit supplies fuel under determined conditions of
pressure and flow. It is mounted on the front face of the reduction
gearbox and driven by the N
1
geartrain. The unit consists of a low
pressure centrifugal pump, and a high pressure gear type pump. A
pressure relief valve in the HP pump outlet opens in case of excessive
pressure and reliefs fuel to the inlet inlet port of the HP--pump.
Fuel Filter
The filter retains any particles that may be in the fuel in order to protect
the metering unit components. It is mounted on the front face of the
reduction gearbox. In the system, the filter is between the lowpressure
pump outlet and the high pressure pump inlet. In case of filter clogging
a bypass valve opens and unfiltered fuel is supplied to the FMU. The
filter is differential pressure monitored by an impending bypass switch
for cockpit indication as well as by a mechanical blockage indicator at
the filter housing. In case of a defect low pressure pump, a low
pressure switch will close for cockpit indication.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 43
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Fuel System --General Arrangement ARRIUS
Low Pressure
Pump
Fuel Filter with By-pass Valve
Pre-blockage Pressure Switch
and Blockage Indicator
Low Pressure
Switch
High Pressure
Engine Fuel Pump
with By-pass Valve
Fuel Metering Unit Injection System
CAUTION FUEL FILT
CAUTION
FUEL PRESS
Fuel Tank with Prime Pump
Return Fuel
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 44
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Metering Unit
The fuel metering unit is installed on the front face of the reduction
gearbox. It is an hydromechanical unit which governs the fuel flow
through the entire operational envelope of the engine. It uses EECU
signals or twist grip position as input parameters.
The FMUoperates in two basic modes: the automatic mode, wherethe
required fuel flow is commanded by the EECU, and the manual mode
where the fuel flowis determined by the twist grip position. Pressurized
fuel fromthe fuel pump is routed to the Fuel Metering Valve and to the
bypass valve which keeps a constant pressure differential across the
metering valve.
-- Manual mode
In manual mode the metering valve is controlled by a input
lever, actuated by the collective lever mounted twist grip.
-- Automatic mode
In automatic mode the metering valve is controlled by a
stepper motor which is commanded by the EECU.
The FMU provides the following features:
-- Enables engine start and shutdown
-- Controls fuel flow as a function of power demand
-- Fail fixed with no power change during transition from
EECU mode to manual mode
-- Full power selection range available in manual mode as
well as in EECU mode
-- Limits the rate of acceleration/deceleration to prevent
engine surge/flame out during manual control mode
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 45
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Metering Unit -- Basic Function ARRIUS (Simplified)
Stop--Valve
Fuel Outlet
Metering Valve
Fuel Inlet
Fuel Return
(to HP Pump Inlet) Stepper
Motor
Metering Valve
Positon Feedback
to EECU
Manual Input
from Twist Grip
Metering Valve
Control Lever
Microswitch
(Neutral Position)
Constant
nP Valve
Manual Control
Actuator
LP and HP
Pumps
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 46
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Valve Assembly
The fuel valve assembly distributes metered fuel from the FCU to the
injection system. It is located on a support at the upper part of the
combustion chamber casing.
The valve assembly comprises the following valves:
-- Start electro-valve
The valve distributes fuel to the start injectors.
-- Stop electro-valve
The valve controls fuel flow to the injection system in
general.
-- No preference injector valve
The valve closes fuel supply to the 9 main injectors during
a rapid fuel flow decrease.
Injection System
The injection systemsprays fuel into the combustion chamber in order
to give stable and efficient combustion.
The injection system consists of 9 main injectors mounted around the
combustion chamber by two half-manifolds and 1 preference injector.
For enginestart two start injectors areadditionally mountedat 1oclock
and 9 oclock position around the combustion chamber.
For engine starting only the start injectors deliver fuel to the
combustion chamber. At 50%N
1
, the start electro valve closes the fuel
flow to the start injectors and opens the vent line to the outside
amosphere. Meanwhile the main injector valve is open and the main
injectors together with the preference injectors deliver fuel to the
combustion chamber.
If during normal operation the fuel flow is reduced significantly, the
main injector valve closes but the preference injector still delivers fuel
to the combustion chamber, in order to avoid an engine flame out.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 47
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Valve Assembly and Injectors ARRIUS
Left Half
Manifold
Right Half
Manifold
Preference
Injector
Fireproof Cover
Fuel Valve Assembly
Start Electro Valve
Stop
Electro Valve
Fuel Inlet
Main Injectors
Inlet from FMU
Stop Electro-Valve
Pressurizing Valve
Start Electro-Valve
Start Injectors
Manual Purge
Atmosphere
Preference
Injector
Main Injectors
Main Injector Valve
Injection System
Injectors
Start Injector
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 48
July 2002 For training and information only
Torque Indication
The torque measuring system measures the torque of the engine
output shaft. An electromagnetic sensor with a confirmation box picks
up the signal.
This signal is processed by the FADEC and sent to the analog
instrument and tothe CDSor tothe CPDSin thecockpit. Theindication
is in % TQ.
The torque measuring system consists of two concentric shafts each
having a toothed wheel located at one end (phonic wheel) and a pulse
pickup probe. The inner shaft (engine output shaft) is used to transmit
engine torque and the outer acts as an unloaded reference shaft. The
torsional deflection (twist) of the output shaft results in an angular
displacement of the teeth between the loaded shaft and the reference
shaft.
The rotation of the phonic wheel formed by the teeth of each shaft, in
front of the sensor produces a pulsed voltage in the sensor.
This voltage is sent to the FADEC which measures the displacement
between the pulses and determines the engine torque for internal use
and cockpit indication.
To compensate for material and manufacturing tolerances (no two
shafts will twist in the same manner) a torque conformation box is
installed on the engine. This box sends a trim value, which is
determined on the test bench, to the FADEC. Since this value is
specific to a unique torque shaft, the trimmodulecannot betransferred
to an other engine.
The pick--up is mounted in front of the reduction gear box near the
output shaft.
The torque measuring system is supplied with power respective from
the busbars PP10E / PP20 via the circuit breakers TRQ ENGI/II or
CAD/VEMD ENG I/II. The sensors are supplied with power via the
respective FADEC and circuit breakers.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 49
July 2002 For training and information only
Torque Indication ARRIUS
Pick--Up
Reference
Shaft
Output Shaft
Phonic
Wheel
Torque Indication
FADEC
Confirmation
Box
CPDS (VEMD)
CDS Analog Instrument
CPDS (CAD)
Analog Torque Signal
Digital Torque Signal
Caution Backup Page
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 50
July 2002 For training and information only
Gas Temperature Indication
This system provides an indication of the gas temperature at the gas
generator turbine outlet. The gas temperature is an operating
parameter, particulary during engine starting for fuel flow control.
The four identically temperature sensors are located around the rear
part of the combustion chamber casing. Each sensor houses two
thermo elements.
The four parallel--connected thermo elements supply their contact
potential to the indication system. A confirmation box allows a
corrected temperature indication for a giventurbine entry temperature.
The gas temperature indication is supplied with power respective from
the busbars PP10E / PP20E via the circuit breakers TOT ENG I/II or
VEMD ENG I/II.
CPDS Indication
The confirmed value appears in the FLI (Eng 1 via VEMD line 1 and
Eng 2 via VEMD lane 2). With one lane off the respective TOT
indication in the FLI is lost. The non-confirmed TOT value is displayed
in the SYSTEM STATUS page.
CDS Indication
The confirmed value is shown in the analog indicator. The digital value
can be selected in the parameter field of the CDS.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 51
July 2002 For training and information only
Gas Temperature Indication ARRIUS
4 Double Sensors
(Alumel/Chromel)
at Position T4/5
Confirmation Box
FADEC
CDS Cockpit
CPDS Cockpit
T4
T5
T4/5
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 52
July 2002 For training and information only
Pratt & Whitney 206 B(2) Engine
General
The PW206B(2) is a lightweight, free turbine, turboshaft engine
incorporating a single stage centrifugal compressor driven by a single
stage compressor turbine and a single stage power turbine that drives
the reduction gearbox and aircraft power train.
Metered fuel from the Fuel Management Modul (FMM) is sprayed into
a reverse flow annular combustion chamber through twelve individual
fuel nozzles mounted around the gas generator case.
A high voltage ignition unit and dual spark igniters are used to start
combustion.
A single channel, Full Authority Digital Engine Control Unit (FADEC)
system with a mechanical backup FMM ensures accurate control of
the engine output speed and fast response to changes in power
demand. An electrical torque motor located within the FMM works in
conjunctionwith theElectronic EngineControl (EEC) and changes fuel
flow as required.
Configuration
The engine is of modular design. Mainly it consists of:
-- The reduction gearbox module
-- Gas generator and power turbine module
-- Engine subsystems
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 53
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine P&W 206(B)
REDUCTION GEARBOX TURBOMACHINERY
Accessory Geartrain
Compressor
Compressor Turbine (N
1
)
Output Shaft
Power Turbine (N
2
)
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 54
July 2002 For training and information only
Reduction Gearbox Module
General
The reduction gearbox module reduces the power turbine speed (N
2
)
to a suitable speed for themain transmissioninput. Asecond gear train
reduces thegas producer turbine speed(N
1
) toa suitablespeed toturn
all engine accessories.
Configuration
The reduction gearbox consists of three machined aluminum casings
which are the front and rear housings and the output shaft cover. Front
and rear housing are bolted together with the compressor inlet case.
The rear face of the housing and the front face of the compressor inlet
case form an integral oil tank. The output shaft cover supports the
output shaft front bearings. It is bolted to the front housing.
The output shaft is inclined at 26 upward to suit the main transmission
installation.
Operation
The reduction gearbox has a two stage bevel gear type reduction gear
train which changes power turbine speed to output shaft speed. The
engine output shaft assembly is attached to the second stage
reduction gear by internal splines.
The accessory drive geartrain provides the appropriate speed
reduction to turn all engine accessories, which are:
-- Starter/generator
-- Permanent magnet alternator (PMA)
-- Fuel management module
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 55
July 2002 For training and information only
Reduction Gearbox P&W
Starter/Generator Drive
12,590 RPM
N
2
Input Shaft
39,130 RPM
Second Stage Gear
5,928 RPM
First Stage Gear
Oil Pump Drive
4,200 RPM
Fuel Pump Drive
6,680 RPM
Permanent Magnetic Alternator
24,667 RPM
N1 Input Shaft
58,000 RPM
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 56
July 2002 For training and information only
Gas Producer / Power Turbine
General
The turbomachinery module provides rotational drive to the reduction
gearbox module.
Configuration
The turbomachinery module mainly consists of a single stage
centrifugal compressor driven by a single stage compressor turbine
and a single stage free spool power turbine.
Function
Air enters the engine through a radial inlet plenum chamber, formed
by the compressor inlet case where it is directed rearward to the
centrifugal impeller. The accelerated air from the impeller passes
through diffusor tubes which turn the air 90 and converts velocity into
static pressure. This high pressure air surrounds the combustion
chamber liner.
The combustion liner has perforations which allow the pressurized air
to enter. The airflowchanges direction 180 and is mixed with fuel from
12 fuel nozzles. The fuel/air mixture is ignited and the resultant
expanding gases are directed to the turbines.
The expanding gases fromthe combustion chamber pass through the
compressor turbine stator vanes to the single stage compressor
turbine causing the turbine to rotate which drives the compressor. The
still expanding gases continue rearward to the power turbine stator
and turbine. The exhaust gas from the power turbine is directed
through an annular exhaust plenum to the atmosphere.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 57
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine P&W -- Operation
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 58
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Subsystem
Purpose
The engine oil systemis a dry sump system. It supplies a flowof filtered
oil to the engine in order to cool, lubricate, and clean the various
components.
Configuration
The oil system consists of:
-- Integral oil tank
-- Pressure system
-- Scavenge system
-- Secondary air system
-- Indicating system
Oil Tank
The oil tank is integrated into the engine and is formed by the annular
cavity created between the air inlet case and and the reduction
gearbox rear case. A drain plug located at the bottom of the inlet case
permits drainage of the cavity. Oil level indication is provided by a sight
glass.
Pressure System
Oil is drawn from the tank, through a protective screen, to the inlet of
a gear type pressure pump. A cold start valve, located at the pressure
pump outlet provides a safeguard against excessive pressure build up
due to high oil viscosity at lowtemperatures (pressure above 13.5 bar
(200 psi) is released to the gearbox).
A P3 operated shut off valve prevents oil supply to the lubrication
points upon engine start up and shut down (below 40% N
1
). This
ensures that the most remote bearing cavities (No. 4 and No. 5) do not
flood during motoring or rundown periods.
The main oil filter (not cleanable) traps particles picked up by the oil as
it lubricates the engine components. The filter is equipped with a
bypass valve as a safeguard against filter blockage. An impending
bypass switch gives indication to the cockpit before the bypass valve
opens.
A pressure regulating valve (not field adjustable) is used to set the oil
system pressure to a predetermined value for a specified speed and
oil temperature.
After passing a fuel heater, the pressurized oil is distributed to the
lubrication points in the gearbox and to the bearings No. 4 and No. 5.
Scavenge System
The scavenge system returns the oil to the gearbox. Approx. 80% of
the used oil flows into the sump by gravity. Bearing No. 4 is scavenged
by blowdown from lab seal bleed air. Bearing No. 5 is scavenged by
a combination of a scavenge pump and blowdown. At high RPMs an
oil pump bypass valve opens allowing surplus oil to bypass the
scavenge pump to the sump.
One scavenge pump stage draws the oil fromthe sumpvia aprotective
screen and a magnetic chip detector. The oil then flows through an
airframe-mounted oil cooler before it is returned to the oil tank.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 59
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil System P&W
Pressurized Oil
Scavange Oil
Oil Filter
Shut--off Valve
Oil Pumps
Oil Pump Bypass
Magnetic Plug
Oil Tank
Strainer
Strainer
Air Vent Pressure Regulation
Valve
Oil Filter Blockage
Indicator
Oil Cooler
Fuel Heater
Oil Press. Indication
Oil Temp. Indication
CAUTION ENG OIL P
CAUTION ENG CHIP
CAUTION ENG O FILT
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 60
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Fuel Subsystem
General
The engine fuel subsystem delivers metered fuel to the engine. It is
automatically controlled by the engine control subsystem. The engine
control subsystemprovides the capability to override the Full Authority
Digital Engine Control (FADEC) function to provide for manual
operation of the fuel subsystem.
Components
The Fuel and -- control subsystem mainly consists of the following
components:
-- Fuel Management Module (FMM)
-- Fuel manifold and nozzles
-- Fuel flow divider
-- Electronic Engine Control (EEC)
Fuel Management Module
The FMM is installed on the accessory gearbox of the engine. It is an
electro-mechanical unit which governs the fuel flowthrough the entire
operational envelope of the engine. It uses EEC signals, twist grip
position and ambient pressure as input parameters. The FMM has an
integral fuel pump which delivers high pressure fuel to the metering
portion of the unit.
Modes of Operation
The FMM operates in two basic modes:
-- the automatic mode, where the required fuel flow is
commanded by the EEC.
-- and the manual mode where the fuel flow is determined by
the twist grip position.
Pressurized fuel from the fuel pump is routed to the Fuel Metering
Valve and to the bypass valve which keeps a contant pressure
differential of 3.4 bar (50 psi) across the metering valve.
In manual mode the metering valve is controlled by a mechanical N
1
governor. The N
1
governor setting is influenced by a input lever,
actuated by the twist grip.
In automatic mode the metering valve is controlled by a torque motor
which is commanded by the EEC.
The FMM provides the following features:
-- Enables engine start and shutdown
-- Controls fuel flow as a function of power demand
-- Fail fixed with limited power change during transition from
EEC mode to manual mode
-- Full power selection range available in manual mode as
well as in EEC mode
-- Limits the rate of acceleration to prevent engine surge
during manual control mode
-- Operates in speed govening modes
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 61
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Fuel System P&W
Fuel Tank with Prime Pump
Regenerative Fuel Pump
Impending Bypass Switch
By--pass Valve
Low Pressure Filter
Jet Pump
Gear Pump
Drive from Engine Gearbox
Main Air Blast Fuel Nozzles
Hybrid Fuel Nozzles
Fuel Drain
Fuel Flow Divider
Fuel Metering Unit with Fuel Metering Valve
CAUTION FUEL FILT
CAUTION FUEL PRESS (if installed)
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
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July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Pump
Fuel is delivered to the fuel pump by the aircraft fuel distribution
subsystem. The engine driven lowpressure fuel pump takes fuel from
the supply tank, increases the pressure and pumps the fuel through
the fuel filter.
The filter is differential-pressure monitored for cockpit indication by an
impendingbypass switch. Abypass valve will open if the filter becomes
clogged.
An engine oil heated fuel heater is installed in the line between the
pump outlet and the filter inlet. At fuel temperatures below 43C a
temperature controlled bypass valve is closed and the fuel has to flow
through the heater (At fuel temperatures above 57C the valve is fully
open and the heater is by-passed.
In case of a defect lowpressure pump a low pressure switch will close
for cockpit indication.
From the fuel filter, fuel is routed to the second stage of the fuel pump
(high pressure stage) and delivered to the fuel metering module for
flow control.
Fuel Flow Divider
The flow divider distributes the metered fuel flow from the FMM to the
primary and secondary side of the fuel manifold. During engine
start-up, the flow divider routes fuel flow to the primary nozzles only.
As the engine accelerates, fuel pressureincreases andthe flowdivider
routes fuel to the secondary nozzles too.
The fuel flow divider also prevents of fuel accumulation in the
combustion chamber after engine shut-down. For this, residual fuel is
kept in an accumulator. At the next start as the fuel pressureincreases,
the accumulator piston forces the fuel towards the manifold.
Fuel Manifold
The fuel manifold distributes primary (start) and secondary (main) fuel
to the engine combustion chamber. The fuel manifold is located on the
engine gas generator case and consists of one inlet fuel nozzle, six
secondary fuel nozzles and five primary (hybrid) fuel nozzles. The fuel
nozzles are equally spaced around the combustion chamber for even
fuel flow.
Primary fuel flow from the primary nozzles remains constant during
start-up and engine operation.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
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July 2002 For training and information only
Fuel Metering Module, Fuel Manifold
Fuel Filter
Torque Motor
Low Fuel Pressure Switch
Fuel Filter Impending Bypass Switch
1 Air Blast Nozzle
2 Hybrid Nozzle
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Primary Fuel Manifold
Fuel Flow Driver
Rear View of Engine
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
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July 2002 For training and information only
Temperature Indication
Exhaust Gas Thermocouple (T6)
The exhaust gas temperature measuring system consists of twi
identical harnesses with four thermocouple elements in parallel
connected to an engine mounted terminal assembly. From the two
junction boxes the signals are lead to the inlet temperature sensor box
where they are paralleled and integrated with the signal from the T1
sensor. The T6 systemprovides an output signal which is proportional
to the arithmetic average of the of the exhaust temperatures to which
the eight thermocouples are exposed.
Inlet Temperature Sensor (T1)
The T1 sensor incorporates a platinium resistance temperature
element together with a cold junction for the T6 thermocouples. The
active portion of the sensor is located near the inlet to the compressor
inlet scroll, therby giving a signal proportional to engine air inlet
temperature (T1). The signals provided by the T1 and T6 system are
lead to the FADEC where the measured gas temperature (MGT) is
computed.
CPDS Indication
The digital TOT value is displayed on the FLI (Eng 1 via VEMD lane
1, Eng 2 via VEMD lane 2) In case of one lane off, the respective
analog back-up value is displayed via the CAD.
CDS Indication
The value is shown in the analog indicator. The digital value can be
selected in the parameter field of the CDS.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
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July 2002 For training and information only
Temperature Sensors P&W
2 Sensors (Alumel/Chromel Cold Junctions) and
1 Temperature Element (Platinum) at Position T1
Terminal Box
Trim Box
FADEC
CDS Cockpit
8 Sensors
(Alumel/Chromel)
at Position T6
T6
T1
Analog Signal
Digital Signal
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 66
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Control T2/P2
General
The helicopter is equipped with an electronic engine control system
FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control), that facilitates
automatic control of both engines for all RPM and power ranges. The
engine power parameters of the EC 135 are optimized with the aid of
the electronic engine controls, i.e. engine power is adjusted to
optimally fit flight profile and/or maneuver while simultaneously
keeping fuel consumption to a minimum.
In case of failure of the FADEC the pilot has the possibility of manual
engine control.
System Components
The engine control system consists of:
-- Electronic power control FADEC
-- Emergency engine control
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 67
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Control System ARRIUS
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 68
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 69
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Control System P&W
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 70
July 2002 For training and information only
Electronic Power Control T2/P2
General
Electronic power control ensure automatic operation of all engine--
related hydro--mechanical and electrical components. A FADEC box
(Turbomeca call it EECU, Pratt&Whitney call it EEC) per engineserves
as central processor. The digital control unit is mounted in the
helicopter and connected to the engines by wiring harnesses.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 71
July 2002 For training and information only
Functional Schematic -- Engine Control
Starting
--Ignition/Starter
--Fuel injection
--Acceleration
--Idling speed control
(N
2
/N
RO
)
Flight
--Rotor Speed Governing N
2
/N
RO
--Acceleretion/Deceleration via
N
1
/Fluel Flow Regulation
--Overspeed Protection
--Training Mode
--CAT A Mode
--Topping Selection
Digital Engine Control System
TM (EECU) P&W (EEC)
Ground Operation
--Idling speed control
--N
2
/N
RO
--Flight (Flat Pitch) Speed
Control N
2
/N
RO
CDS/CPDS
Manual Emergency
Engine Control
(Twist Grip)
Indicator N
RO
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 72
July 2002 For training and information only
FADEC--Box
The digital control unit controls the fuel supply and monitors the whole
engine functions with sensors. The packages provide for ambient
condition sensing, signal conditioning and excitation for external
sensors, analog and frequency to digital conversion, and serial data
transmission and reception.
Location FADEC--Boxes
The FADEC--Boxes are mounted with angle brackets and vibration
dampers below the engine deck in the middle section of the fuselage
between frame 5 and frame 6. They are positioned respectively to the
left and to the right in front of the engines.
There is a connection flange respectively for the control lines fromthe
helicopter to the engines.
Function
The digital control units FADEC for engine 1 and engine 2 provide the
following functions:
-- Automatic start-up of engines.
-- Fuel supply depending on N
1
gas generator RPM during
starting of engines as well as in ground idle and flight RPM
range (IDLE/FLIGHT).
-- Automatic engine control in all RPM and power ranges.
-- Monitoring of engine and power parameters.
-- Limitation of the fuel flow after topping parameters have
been reached.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 73
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Control -- Digital Control Unit FADEC
FWD
Plugs
FADEC (TM)
Engine Deck
Connector
Plate
Wiring Harness to Engine
Identification Plate
Port for Connection
with the Helicopter
Port for Connection
with the Engine
Mounting for
Ground Strap
P0--Sensor
Input
Bracket
FADEC (P&W)
Port for Connection
with the Engine
Port for Connection
with the Helicopter
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 74
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Supply FADEC
Power supply to the FADECs is made by the helicopters 28 V
DC--system and by engine mounted alternators.
During engine starting (up to 35--40 % N
1
) or if there is a failure of an
alternator the helicopter DC--system supplies the FADEC.
During normal operation the alternator (AC) supplies the FADEC, a
failure of the helicopter DC--system has no influence to the function.
On ground with the engines not running power supply is made fromthe
ESSENTIAL busbars 1/2 (PP 10Eand PP20E) via the circuit breakers
FADEC1/2 and the switches FADEC1/2 located on the engine control
panel.
u NOTE As long as the alternater delivers AC power the
FADEC remains operative even when the FADEC
switch in the engine control panel is in the off
position. In this case the FADEC is disconnected
from the H/C DC system only.
The caution REDUND comes on in the CDS/CPDS
(TM only).
Location
Engine TM:
The alternator is mounted to the front of pump--filter support block. A
permanent magnet rotor with eight poles is mounted on the oil pump
drife shaft.
Engine P&W:
The alternator is an integral part of the reduction gearbox having its
rotor mounted directly onto the accessory drive gearshaft and the
stator mounted into the reduction gearbox.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 75
July 2002 For training and information only
Alternator
Electrical Connector
Rotor with Internal Magnet
8 Poles
Oil Pump Drive Shaft
Alternator Body
Alternator Body
Electrical Connector
Engine TM Engine P&W
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 76
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Ignition
General
During engine start-up, the electronic engine control system
automatically activates the engine ignition systemthrough the engine
starting system.
On activating the engine ignition system the ignition circuit between
the resp. busbar and the ignition unit is closed by the energized start
relay.
The high voltage ignition unit supplies pulsating high voltage to
generate high-energy sparks through quick discharge across the
related ignition plugs.
After attaining self-sustaining speed of 50 % N
1
the start relay
disconnects the ignition circuit. From this point on, combustion of the
fuel / air mixture continues without the aid of outside ignition.
Components and Locations
The high voltage ignition unit is attached to mounting rails on the
underside of the engine-mounted firewall.
The two igniter plugs are installed on the outer rear section of the
combustion chamber casing. They are connected to the high voltage
ignition units through two flexible igniter cables.
The circuit breakers IGNENGI / II are mounted in the overhead panel.
u NOTE All functions of the ignition system are controlled
by the electronic control system FADEC. There is
no manual control possible.
Leading Particulars
Engine EC 135 TM EC 135 P&W
Supply Voltage 18--32 V DC 18--30 V DC
Input Voltage 28 V DC 28 V DC
Output Voltage 3 kV pulsating 2.5--3 kV pulsating
Spark trigger off 5--8 % Ground Idle 5--8 % Ground Idle
Spark discharge approx. 240
discharges per
minute
approx. 210
discharges per
minute
Energy generated 0.5 J per spark 1.25 J per spark
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 77
July 2002 For training and information only
Ignition System -- Location
Ignition Unit
Ignitor Plug (TM)
Circuit Breaker IGN ENG I
Circuit Breaker IGN ENG II
TM
P&W
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 78
July 2002 For training and information only
Control Unit (Overhead Panel)
General
In order to control the engine over the complete operating range, the
FADECmodulates the fuel flowfor each particular operating condition.
On the engine Mode selector panel, there are several operating
conditions selectable.
-- Switch NORM/MAN ENGI / ENG II
With the engine control switch in position NORMthe automatic power
management is engaged. Switching into position MANthe engine can
be controlled manually with the twist grip.
-- Switch VENT/OFF/STARTMAN ENG I/II:
The starter/generator could be activated in the switch position START
MANfor a manually starting of the engines. (Function inactive and not
certified).
If the switch VENT/START MANENGI/II is set fromOFF to VENT, the
starter/generator will be powered through the electrical master box
which controls the required operating voltage to the starter/generator.
The starter/generator will begin to run up the gas generator assembly
to approx. 20%N
1
, while the starting relay remains de--energized and
the engine ignition system is deactivated. The fuel flow remains
shut--off.
-- Potentiometer N
2
Adjust (Engine TM)
After installation of a new engine or a FADEC the N
2
speed has to be
adjusted by the potentiometer N
2
ADJUST. The potentiometer is
installed in the control panel ENGINEMODE SELECTin the overhead
panel.
-- Dip switch N
2
Adjust (Engine P&W)
The dip switche N
2
ADJUST is installed in the control panel ENGINE
MODE SELECT in the overhead panel.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 79
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Mode Selector
Switch NORM/MAN ENG I / ENG II
Switch START MAN/OFF/VENT ENG I / ENG II
Dip Switch/Potentiometer
N
2
ADJUST
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 80
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Control Panel -- Automatic Engine Starting
General
The FADEC controls the complete starting procedure including the
increase of RPMs, fuel flow and thereby the increase of the TOT. The
pilot has only to monitor the engine indicating system in order to abort
the start in case of malfunction.
The engine 1 starting cycle is described in the following. The engine
2 is started in the same way.
Automatic Engine Starting
With the switch FADECin ONposition the electronic control is supplied
with power. After the internal self test is passed the caution FADEC
FAIL on the CDS/CPDS disappears.
With the ENGINE CONTROL SWITCH I in position IDLE the starter,
the engine ignition systemand the automatic regulation of the fuel flow
is activated and the caution STARTER appears on the CDS/CPDS in
systemI. At 50 %N
1
the selfsustaining RPMis reached and the starter
is switched automatically to the generator mode.
At the same time the cautions STARTER, ENG FAIL and GEN
DISCON disappear and the caution ENG IDLE comes on.
The N
1
RPM continues the acceleration until the N
2
/N
RO
reaches
approx. 70 %. This value will be regulated by the FADECand is called
GROUND IDLE.
After a successful start of engine 2 both ENGINE CONTROL
SWITCHES have to be set into the FLIGHT position. Thereby the N
1
of both engines accelerate until the N
2
/N
RO
reaches approx. 98 %and
the cautions ENG IDLE disappear.
When the collective is raised and the helicopter takes off the N
2
/N
RO
will increase automatically to 100% (Pitch Compensation).
Quick Start Procedure
The pilot may preselect both engines the same time with the ENGINE
CONTROL SWITCHES in FLIGHT position. The first engine
accelerates until the N
2
/N
RO
reaches 98 %. When passing 50 % N
1
,
the second engine will be activated automatically. Starting both
engines the same time is not possible.
Manual Start
The manual start is not certified and deactivated.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 81
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Starting
STARTER
GEN DISCON
TRAIN SEL
OFF
FADEC
ON FLIGHT ON
I
D
L
E
OFF
ENG
OFF
FADEC
ENG
OFF
I
D
L
E
FLIGHT
A
R
M
O
F
F
ENG CONTROL
ENG FAIL
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 82
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Sharing of the Power Turbines N
2
The switch position FLIGHT provides power turbine speed at the
nominal governing speed for normal flight (100 % N
2
). With density
altitude between from 4000 ft to 9000 ft the N
2
speed is automatically
increased between 100% and 104%. The electronic control governs
and optimizes the performance of the engines and adjusts the
performance characteristic of both engines to each other. If there is a
speed or torque difference between the two engines, the pilot is able
to adjust the torque with the switch ENG TRIM. The adjustment is
controlled by the engine indications. With a constant main rotor speed,
there are two different trim operations possible:
-- Increase power engine 1 (L+) and decrease power
engine 2 (R--)
-- Increase power engine 2 (R+) and decrease power
engine 1 (L--)
The operation of the beep switch ENG TRIM is processed in the
FADEC and routed to the N
2
control unit of the engine. If the speed of
one of the engines is increased a little, at the same time the speed of
the other is decreased by the same value.
Droop Compensation
When there are control inputs from the collective lever (pitch) or from
the tail rotor control (yaw) there is an additional load to the engines.
The result is a decrease of the speed of the power turbine N
2
respective the main rotor speed (N
RO
). To maintain the N
2
speed
independent from the engine load, the required change of load is
adjusted automatically by the N
2
control unit of the engine. This setting
is realized by the FADEC, which takes input signals form the linear
transducers.
Linear Transducer
The linear transducer is a position sensor which transforms a
mechanical deflection into a electrical signal. Both the linear
transducers are located side by side to the right below the front cabin
floor. They areconnected tothe collectiveshaft. Eachmovement of the
shaft is transfered to the inner guiding cylinder in form of a lift. The
operation of the tail rotor control moves a linkage to the outer guiding
cylinder and causes a lift.
Crosstalk Capability
Due to the extended crosstalk capability between the FADEC boxes
the following features are available:
Detection of:
-- Manual Mode
-- OEI Situation
-- Training Mode activation
-- Automatic Bleed Air Shut Off during OEI Situation
Automatic torque matching.
u NOTE If an OEI situation is detected, the remaining
engine accellerates slightly to stabilize the rotor
RPM according the AEO curve in the diagram
below. In the earlier versions T1/P1 the droop
compensation of the stopped or idling engine is
lost and the rotor RPM is regulated according the
OEI curve.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 83
July 2002 For training and information only
Torque Trim -- Beep Switch ENG TRIM
Beep Switch
ENG TRIM
Linkage
Collective
Lever
Collective Shaft
Switch Unit
View from Side
View from Top
Linear Transducer
Pedals Linear Transducer
Speed Control Loop
Pedals
Front Cabin Floor
R
o
t
o
r
r
p
m
[
%
]
Density Altitude Z! [ft]
Variable Rotor Speed Automatically Controlled
(Simplyfied Diagramm)
only P1/T1
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 84
July 2002 For training and information only
Topping Function
The nominal limiting torque value of the 30 rating is set to 128%
torque. If the rotor speed drops below95%, the torque limiting function
allows the torque to increase with decreasing rotor speed. The slope
is 1% increase in torque per 1% decrease in rotor speed until N
RO
reaches 90%. This leads to almost constant power between 95%and
90% N
RO
. If the rotor speed drops below 90%, the torque remains at
a constant value of 133%. This leaves a margin to the maximum
certified engine torque value (T2: 136% TQ, P2: 135% TQ) and a 3%
margin to the max. attainable torque limitation of the helicopter main
gear box (136% TQ).
Note that the minimumcontinuous rotor speed power ONis defined to
97% RPM. Hence, with the torque increase starting at 95% RPM the
value of 128%torque can be only exceeded if the pilot operates in the
transient rotor speed range below 97% RPM.
CAT A Mode
To improve CAT A capabilities a function is implemented which allows
to set the reference value for the rotor speed manually to approx.
103.3%. The rate of change in rotor speed is 1% in N
RO
per
second.The use of this function is restricted to CAT A take-off and
landing procedures and velocities below55 KIAS to avoid influence on
the helicopter noise certification. The CAT A RPMmode is operational
in normal, training and OEI mode.
The CAT A RPM mode is activated by a double layer switch installed
on the instrument panel. The CAT A switch is illuminated by a light. If
activated additionally ON is illuminated. Successful activation of the
FADECCATAfunction canbe verifiedby monitoringthe RPMincrease
and the absence of failure messages on the CAD.
For a FADECinternal failure of CATA function, the caution DEGRADE
(T2) or FADEC MINR (P2) will appear on the CAD. Additionally a
CAT_A_FLT (T2) message will appear on the System Status page of
the CPDS.
If the cross talk capability is not available, CAT A RPM mode is not
available. If the cross-talk fails after the CAT A mode has already been
activated, the engines also exit CAT A mode and return to RPMmode.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 85
July 2002 For training and information only
Torque Limiter Concept
Topping
Select Switch
Collective Grip
CAT A Switch
CAT A Switch
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 86
July 2002 For training and information only
Training Mode (Dual Engine)
A training mode is implemented to perform realistic OEI training. This
training mode is based on a twin engine training concept featuring a
so called TRAININGand a TRAININGIDLE engine. The training mode
is designated in a way that the engine acceleration/deceleration and
N
RO
governing mirror a real OEI situation.
The combined power of both engines in training mode will not exceed
the maximum power of the 30/2 rating as long as the pilot operates
within a normal N
RO
range. The load will be equally distributed
between both engines.
The training function is pre-selectable. If only the training pre-selection
is activated, the engines stay in normal AEOmode. Training mode can
only be entered if training has been pre-selected and confirmed by
setting the main engine switch of one engine to position IDLE.
Training pre-selection is achieved by putting the training selector
switch to ARM. Pre-selection of training is indicated by an advisory
TRAIN ARM on the CAD.
The TRAINING IDLE engine is chosen by switching the respective
engine main selector to IDLE.
If the FADEC has successfully entered training mode, the cautions
TRAIN IDLE and TRAINING are indicated on the CAD to indicate the
status of the TRAININGIDLE and the TRAININGengine, respectively.
u NOTE All ENG EXCCED cautions triggered during the
training mode situation will be deleted
automatically when the training mode is left.
Indication Variants
Engine TM: On the FLI, TRAINwill be indicated instead of TRAINING.
Engine P&W: On the FLI, TRAIN will be indicated instead of
TRAINING and IDLE instead of TRAINING IDLE (FLI constraints).
Additionally a yellow inverted triangle appears next to the countdown
timer. Cockpit indication logic for the 30/2 OEI indication in twin
engine training mirrors the indication of the real 30/2 OEI rating. Note
that while the FLI simulates OEI, the real engine parameters are
avilable as digital values on both sides of the FLI gauge.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 87
July 2002 For training and information only
FLI Indication in Training (Example)
TRAIN TRAIN IDLE
T
IDLE
OEI LO
P2 Indication
53.3
730 720
100.1 100.1
50.0
1 57
TRAIN ARM
TRAIN SEL
OFF
FADEC
ON FLIGHT ON
I
D
L
E
OFF
ENG
OFF
FADEC
ENG
OFF
I
D
L
E
FLIGHT
A
R
M
O
F
F
ENG CONTROL
TRAINING TRAIN IDLE
Training Select Switch
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 88
July 2002 For training and information only
Training Torque Limitation
Engine TM: If the engine is operated in training and N
RO
is within the
normal range necessary for training, the torque topping is set at a
constant value of 128%. However, in case of excessive rotor speed
drop which could e.g. occur if the pilot would pull too much collective
pitch, torque is increased. Thethreshold for the start of torqueincrease
is 90%N
RO
. The increase in torque is 1.5%per 1%decrease in N
2
and
thus guarantees constant power.
Engine P&W: If the engine is operated in training and N
RO
is within the
normal range necessary for training, the torque topping is set at a
constant value of 128%. If the rotor speed drops below 92%, training
is aborted:
-- training indications disappear (TRAIN IDLE becomes IDLE
as long as the ENG CONTROL switch is in idle position)
-- FLI reverts to real AEO mode
-- switches have to be set back to normal position
Training idle engine in flight mode and train selector switch in OFF
position.
u NOTE When the training mode is left due to RPM drop, for
safety reason the training idle engine does not
decellerate to a real idle speed although the
selector switch of the respective engine is in idle
position.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 89
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 90
July 2002 For training and information only
Overspeed Protection
Engine ARRIUS
The threshold for the activation of the over-speed fuel shut-off is
114%!1%N
2
. If the free turbine speed exceeds this value, the EECU
commands the shut-off valve to close which causes an engine shut
down.
Once the over-speed fuel shut-off device has been activated and one
of the engines has been shut down, activation of the over-speed fuel
shut-off device of the second engine is inhibited to avoid twin engine
shut down during flight. The over-speed event is stored in the FADEC.
Two three position switches (TEST--OFF--REARM) are installed in the
overhead panel of the H/Cto trigger the test of theover-speed fuel shut
off device and rearm the system after the test.
Static Test
At power-up, the EECUperforms a static test of parts of the overspeed
protection chain. If a failure is detected by the EECU, a caution OVSP
appears on the CPDS. Putting the cockpit switch for the the overspeed
protection into its REARMposition has no effect on this signal and the
caution OVSP will remain. As long as this failure does only effect the
over-speed protection system, engine start will remain possible.
Dynamic Test
This test is initiated by pushing the cockpit switch for the overspeed
fuel shut-off device into its TEST position. The test is performed on
ground after the CPDS and EECU auto-tests have been successfully
completed. The EECU only accepts the test if N
2
is lower than 25%.
This avoids unintended engine shut down.
If the switch is pushed into TEST position, it simulates an N
2
> 114%
andtherforetriggers anover-speed detection. If thetest is successfully
completed and the system works properly, the caution OVSP is
indicated on the CPDS. The pilot can then rearm the system and
extinguish the caution by pushing the three position switch into the
REARM position.
If, however, afailure is detected duringthe test, the signal for theOVSP
caution remains regardless of the position of the three position switch.
Nevertheless, engine start is possible as long as the failure within the
overspeed protection system does not affect other systems and
prohibits normal engine operation.
The correct function of the O/S inhibition is tested by first triggering the
O/S test for one engine and then triggering the O/S test for the other
engine without rearming the system of the first engine. If the O/S
inhibition of the first engine is operational, there will be no O/S
indication for the second engine.
An OVSP caution is indicated on the CPDS if an actual over-speed
event has been detected, if a failure of the system has been detected
during normal operation or test or if the over-speed fuel shut-off has
been successfully tested.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 91
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Pratt&Whitney
The PW206B2 control system features an independant over-speed
limiting system to avoid overspeed of the engine output shaft. The
system is part of the inertial EEC and available as long as the EEC is
powered, i.e. in auto and in manual mode. The over-speed limiting
system uses the data provided by the engines standard speed
sensors. After detecting an over-speed event (N
2
> 112.9%) the
systemreduces engine fuel flowto a minimumin a controlled manner.
As soon as the reset RPM is reached, the fuel flow returns to a
standard fuel flow control.
The test of the overspeed protection is started using a single three
position switch (OvspTestEng1--OFF--OvspTestEng2) which is
installed in the overhead panel. As the pilot can monitor the correct
function on his indicators for N
2
, no additional cockpit indication is
installed.
The usage of the over-speed test function is inhibited by the control
system if N
2
> 81.4%. The test procedure instructs the pilot to set the
engine to IDLE and then to activate the over-speed test function. This
lowers the threshold of the over-speed protection to a value of 72%N
2
.
As the nominal value for ground idleis 74%N
2
, thepilot is able tocheck
the correct function of the over-speed protection by observing an drop
or oscillation of N
2
on his cockpit indicators.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 92
July 2002 For training and information only
Monitoring and Error Diagnostic
With the FADEC all essential parameters of the engines and the
performance are monitored and optimized (N
1
--speed, torque, outlet
temperature, total number of turbine cycles). Deviations of signals and
parameters within the engines and the status of both the FADECs are
announced with Mem--Codes through thedata bus. The recordeddata
are stored in the FADEC and can be displayed on the CAD.
After the flight it is possible to practice a troubleshooting with the help
of these informations.
Cockpit Indications Engine TM
There are three cockpit indications to inform the pilot that the FADEC
is in a faulty condition. The indications are provided to the CDS/CPDS
via the data bus. The indications are:
-- REDUND
Indicates a minor fault (loss of a protection or a secondary
function with no effect on engine operation. Also with a loss
of one power supply). A fault code is stored by the FADEC
and provided to the aircraft indicating system for
troubleshooting purposes.
-- DEGRADE
Degraded operation (reduced engine performance but the
main functions are ensured from recovery laws). Full rotor
RPM governing is maintained during this mode of
operation. A fault code is stored by the FADEC and
provided to the aircraft indicating system.
-- FADEC FAIL
Indicates a total failure of the control system (freeze of
stepper motor). In the FCU the same fuel flow than before
the failure will be maintained.
The pilot , now has the option of leaving the fuel flow fixed,
or using the twist grip to modulate fuel flow.
Cockpit Indications Engine P&W
There are two cockpit indications that the FADEC is in a faulty
condition:
-- FADEC MINR
Indicates a change or a loss of a number of governing
functions. The FADEC is operating with a system fault (non
critical fault) which may result in degraded engine
operation. Full rotor governing is maintained during this
mode of operation. A fault code is stored and provided to
aircraft indicating system.
-- FADEC FAIL
Indicates that the control system is not operating (critical
fault). In this case, the system reverts to the manual mode.
The torque motor in the Fuel Metering Unit is inhibited, the
N
1
governer takes over control and maintains the same fuel
flow as that in the time before the malfunction. The pilot,
then has the option of leaving the fuel flow fixed, or using
the twist grip to modulate fuel flow.
u NOTE With the indication FADEC FAIL the automatic
acceleration and deceleration during power
changes of the respective engine is inoperative.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 93
July 2002 For training and information only
FADEC Malfunction Indications (Engine TM)
Manual Mode
Mode Datum
FADEC Inputs
Metering Valve Position
FADEC Self Test Results
Failure
Mode
FADEC Inputs
N
1
Trim
Control Mode
N
2
Demand
Control of FAIL Ind.
RS 422 Data Bus
Detection,
Isolation,
Writing and Transmission
of a Fault Report
and Recording
Control of
Stepper Motor
Freeze
REDUND
DEGRADE
FADEC FAIL
REDUND REDUND
DEGRADE
FADEC FAIL
REDUND
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 94
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Emergency Control
General
In case of failure of the electronic engine control the engineemergency
control provides manual control of the fuel metering valve. The
emergency control is designed to facilitate individual power control of
each engine by the pilot.
A twist grip to control each engine is installed on the collective lever.
Engine shut-down can only be performed by the pilot. The electrical
shut-off valve located in the engine is not automatically controlled by
the digital control unit.
Components
The engine emergency control mainly consists of:
-- Twist grip for engine 1 and 2
-- Two red push-buttons STOP MIN FUEL
-- Gear box at the collective lever
-- Flex ball control cables
-- Connection flex ball cables for dual flight control
-- Connecting mechanism
Twist Grip
There are two twist grips installed on the upper section of the collective
control lever. The upper twist grip controls engine 1, the lower one
controls engine 2. Both twist grips are coupled with torsion tubes,
routed downwards inside the collective lever. To control the power
manually the twist grips can be rotated independently fromthe neutral
detent N to the MAX and MIN positions. The twist angle of the
version TM is +/--45, of the version P&W is +/--55.
Push Button STOP MIN FUEL
To prevent of an inadvertant engine shut down during manual
operation the twist grips are equipped with a red STOP button (Pilots
side only). When pressed, it releases a travel stop at the MIN
position, enabling the pilot to rotate the twist grip further in order to
close a shut off valve in the FMM. This cuts the fuel supply to the
respective engine.
Gear Box
The gear box is bolted to the lower end of the collective control lever.
It converts the circular motion of the torsion tubes inside the collective
control lever into a longitudinal movement for controlling the ball
bearing controls. The gearbox also gives the NEUTRAL position of the
twist grips. The force necessary to turn the twist grips out of the neutral
position can be adjusted at the gear box.
Flex Ball Control Cables
To transmit the twist grip movement to the engine input levers, flex ball
control cables are installed. They are routed from the gear box
(collective lever) towards the R/H side panel. In the vicinity of frame 4
they are routed upwards to the main transmission deck and to engine
1 and engine 2. There they are connected to the emergency control
input levers of the N
1
fuel control unit.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 95
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Emergency Control
Twist Grip ENG 1
Gear Box
at the Lower End
of Collective Lever
Twist Grip ENG 2
Push--Button STOP MIN FUEL
Push--Button
STOP MIN FUEL
Stop Ring for Neutral Position
Outer Torsion Shaft
Inner Torsion Shaft
Stop Ring for
Neutral Position
Connections to Flexball Cables
Collective Stick
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 96
July 2002 For training and information only
Connection Flex Ball Cables
The gearboxes at the collective levers are interconnected by flex ball
control cables. It is possible to control both engines by both the twist
grips.
Connecting Mechanism Flexball to Engine
The ball bearing control ends facing the engine are furnished with a
connecting mechanism, comprising of the following:
-- Bracket angle (different for TM and P&W)
-- Bracket hinge
-- Boot with guiding sleeves
-- Ball joint
Function
The function of emergency control for engine 1 is shown:
To manually control power of engine 1 the operating mode selector
switch NORM/MAN ENG I must be switched from the NORM position
to the MAN position. Thereby the actual position of the fuel metering
cable is frozen. The indication on the CDS/CPDS appears:
-- ENG MANUAL
From this moment on the pilot takes charge of the power control by
hand directly with the metering valve (TM) or a mechanical backup N1
governor (PW). Twisting the grip out of the NORM position in the
direction MIN or MAX a warning indication is displayed on the
CDS/CPDS:
-- TWIST GRIP
If the engine is still operating in the NORM MODE the rotor RPM will
be governed by engine 2 and a change of the power setting at engine
1 will result in a torque split only as long as engine 2 is able to
compensate the changes in power demand.
u NOTE With both engines in MANUAL mode there is no
automatic power sharing (N
2
--power turbine) and
no automatic droop compensation possible. The
N
1
--/N
2
speed and therby the rotor RPM must be
regulated by manual control.
D TM: If there is unintentional movement of the twist grip with
the operating mode selector switch in position NORM the
caution TWIST GRIP comes up. In this case the electronic
control detects the unintended use of the twist grip (Mixed
Mode) and compensates the pilots inputs over the entire
range of the stepper motor. After turning back the twist grip
to the neutral position the engine runs again in the
automatic mode. There is no reset necessary.
D PW: Any movement of the twist grip out of the neutral
position results in an immediate switch over to the manual
mode.
The indication TWIST GRIP and MANUAL MODE on
CDS/CPDS comes up.
For a reset back to the automatic mode the pilot has to turn
the twist grip slowly back to the neutral position.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 97
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Emergency Control
Engine TM
FWD
Flexball Cable
Feedthrough Pocket
Bracket Angle
RH Engine
Bracket Angle
LH Engine
Boot with
Guiding Sleeves
Bracket Hinge
Ball Joint
Engine P&W
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 98
July 2002 For training and information only
Major Differences between P2/T2 and P1/T1 Versions
1. For EC135 T1 and P1 the following features are not available:
-- Extended cross talk capability
-- Dual engine training mode
-- CAT--A mode
-- Topping threshold selection
-- 30 and 2 OEI power (only 2.5 OEI and transient torque
(20 sec)
Limiting values depend on engine version:
P1: PW206B
T1: Arrius 2B1; 2B1A; 2B1A_1
2. PW Engine 206B (P1) only:
After the manual mode has been entered by turning the twist grip
during normal flight condition out of the neutral position, the pilot has
to turn back into the neutral position and to perform a reset at the
engine mode selector switch in the overhead panel to return to the
norm mode.
3. If the training mode is installed in P1 or T1 (2B1 engine only)
versions only a single engine mode is available:
The training engine will be topped at a lower level (AEO Power) and
the idle engine decouples completely (no power sharing) but idles with
a high idle speed (92% instead of 70% N
2
). Thus the rotor RPM can
be recovered earlier in case of training engine failure.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 99
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 100
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Cooling System
General
Both engines as well as the main transmission of the helicopter are
equipped with internal, independent oil circuits. These ensure
permanent lubrication and cooling of highly stressed components
under all operating conditions. To keep the oil temperature within
limits, a oil cooling system is installed in the helicopter.
Independant cooling circuits are availble for the:
-- LH engine
-- RH engine
-- Main transmission
Components
The oil cooling system consists of the following:
-- 2 cooling fans
-- 2 inlet airducts
-- 2 outlet airducts
-- 2 dual section oil coolers (engine / main transmission)
-- 2 thermal controlled bypass valves in the engine circuits
-- several hoses and connectors
Cooling Fans
The cooling fans are mounted on the front side of the main
transmission RH and LH. They are driven by the main transmission
geartrain. (12665 RPM at 100%)
Oil Cooler
The oil coolers are mounted to the RH and LH side of the main
transmission. They are split into two sections. The smaller section of
each cooler, which is connected to the main transmission by bushings
directly, serves for cooling the main transmission oil (50% each side).
The larger section of each cooler is connected to the associated
engine by oil hoses. This section serves for cooling the engine oil.
For optimizing cold-start characteristics a thermal controlled bypass
valve is installed in each engine oil cooling circuit.
At temperatures below approx. 85 C the bypass valve is open and
allows the oil to bypass the oil cooler.
Cooling Air Flow
Ambient air which enters the air intakes is drawn by the cooling fans
and forced through the oil coolers via the inlet air ducts. Fromthere the
air is directed overboard by the outlet ducts.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 101
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Cooling System -- Functional Scheme
Oil Cooler with Fan
Engine 1 with
Sensors (TM)
Temperature Bypass
Valve System
Temperature Bypass
Valve System
Oil Temperature Indication
Oil Pressure Indication
(CDS, TM)
Main Transmission
Front Firewalls
Engine 2 with
Sensors (P&W)
Oil Cooler with Fan
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
Oil Temperature Indication
Oil Pressure Indication
(CDS, P&W)
ENG OIL P
ENG CHIP
ENG O FILT
ENG OIL P
ENG CHIP
ENG O FILT
VEMD Indication
CDS/CPDS
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 102
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 103
July 2002 For training and information only
Oil Cooling System -- General Arrangement
Hose Arrangement
to Engine TM
Thermal Bypass Valve
Firewall
Inlet Duct
Outlet Duct
Oil Cooler
To/From
Engine
To/From Main
Transmission
FWD
Inspection Door
Hose Arrangement
to Engine P&W
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 104
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Mounts
General
The Engine mounts attach each engine to the helicopter structure.
Each engine has an inboard and outboard forward mount that
attaches the engine reduction gearbox to the fuselage fittings and a
rear mount strut that attaches the turbine section to a fuselage fitting.
They are designed to retain the engines in the event of a crash landing
downward with a load factor of 20 g and forward with a load factor of
16 g.
The engines are installed on the engine deck behind the main
transmission. They are tilted at a V--angle of approximately 9 to the
longitudinal axis of the helicopter and of 2 to the horizontal axis.
Inboard Mounts
On the inboard side the engines are mounted by bearing blocks via
spherical bearings. On each side the spherical bearing are attached
to a mounting bracket on the tail boom mounting cone.
Outboard Mounts
On the outboard side the engines are attached to V--shaped lateral
struts, bolted to the engine compartment floor. A spherical bearing is
installed on the upper side of the V--strut.
u NOTE The inboard and outboard mounting points form an
axis, around which the engine can tilt.
Rear Mount Strut
The rear mount is the third engine attachment point. The strut is
adjustable on the lower end for engine alignment (Engine output shaft
must be aligned to the main transmission input shaft).
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 105
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Mounts TM
Outer Mounting
Block
Airframe Bracket
FWD
FWD
Inboard Mount
Spherical
Bearing
Rear Mount Strut
Spherical
Bearing
Rear Fitting on Engine
V--Strut
Spherical
Bearing
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 106
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Alignment
To ensure that the engines are properly aligned with the main
transmission input flange, an engine alignment check is required,
whenever:
-- Replacement of an engine.
-- Replacement or adjustment of the rear mounting strut.
Engine alignment is performed with the alignment fixture. The
alignment fixture is installed between the engine stub shaft flange and
the transmission input flange, substituting the transmission shaft.
u NOTE An alignment of the engine is not necessary if the
same engine is installed and the lengh of the rear
strut remains unchanged.
Installation of the Alignment Device
For Turbomeca engine an adapter has to be set on output flange of the
engine stub shaft.
The mandrel of the alignment device must be shifted back, after that
the device must be attached to the output flange of the engine stub
shaft. Now the centering disk is screwed to the flange of freewheel
shaft. The connecting flange of freewheel shaft must be rotated until
the marking line on the centering disk is in horizontal position. The
mandrel must be extended until the tip of it almost contacts the
centering disk. If the tip exactly points to the marking line, the engine
is correctly aligned to the main gearbox.
If a deviation in downward or upwarddirection is evident, thealignment
must be corrected by adjusting the Z--strut.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 107
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Alignment TM
Centering Disk
Marking Line
Adapter for TM
Mandrel
Alignment Device
Knurled Screw to Lock the Mandrel
ENGINE
MAIN TRANSMISSION
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 108
July 2002 For training and information only
Firewalls
General
To prevent fire from spreading, in the event that one of the engines
starts burning, the firewalls constitute a complete fire resistant cell
around each engine. The firewalls are made of titaniumbecause of its
high melting point by low weight.
Configuration
The firewalls are divided into several subassemblies:
-- Airframe fixed firewalls
-- Engine fixed firewalls
To provide minimum effort during maintenance, certain parts of the
firewalls are installed by camlock fasteners. All edges facing to the
engine cowlings are provided with fire resistant seals.
Airframe Fixed Firewalls
The airframe fixed firewalls are divided into several subassemblies:
-- Foreward firewall assembly
-- Aft firewall assembly
-- Exhaust ejectors
Foreward Firewall Assembly
The fwd firewall assembly separates the engine compartment fromthe
transmission compartment. It is designed with several holes, through
which the drive shaft, the engine oil lines as well as the engine
emergency control cables are routed. It houses also the generator
cooling air inlet.
The inner sheets of the forward firewalls isolate the engine air intake
zone and separate the engine compartments from each other.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 109
July 2002 For training and information only
FWD Firewall Assembly
Emergency Control Cable Bellows
Fixed Sheet Frame 5
LH Outer Sheet
Bellow
Inner Sheet
Air Inlet Sheet
Cover Plate
Air Wall
Drive Shaft Fairing
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 110
July 2002 For training and information only
Aft Firewall Assembly
The aft firewall assembly separates the engine compartments fromthe
equipment deck. It is designed with several holes, through which the
exhaust gas ducts and the tail rotor drive is routed.
Exhaust Ejectors
The exhaust gases from each engine are routed rearward and
overboard through exhaust ejector tubes.
Air from the engine compartments is drawn by the exhaust gases
entering the ejector tubes. This serves for engine compartment
ventilation and engine hot section cooling. Additional the engine noise
is muffled by this.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 111
July 2002 For training and information only
Aft Firewall Assembly
Lower Firewall Sheet
Upper Firewall Sheet
Stiffening Angle
Center Stiffening Sheet Assy
FWD
Ejector
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 112
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Fixed Firewalls
The engine fixed firewalls forma fire and debris protection seal for the
air inlet plenum.
The firewalls are made of titanium sheet material. They are bolted to
the engine. An access door is provided for engine compressor
inspection.
u NOTE The general arrangement of the engine fixed
firewalls is identical with the P and T versions, but
the parts are of different design.
u NOTE After reinstallation of the fire walls, check all bolts
and camlock fasteners are fixed and tightened.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 113
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Fixed Firewalls
Side Firewall
Sheet
Upper Firewall
Sheet
Access
Door
Lower Firewall
Sheet
Engine Firewall
Sheet
FWD
Engine Firewall Sheets
Engine TM
Engine
P&W
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 114
July 2002 For training and information only
Fire Warning System
General
Eachengineis equippedwith its own independant fire warningsystem.
The systems consist of 2 thermal switches per engine, installed in the
designated fire zones, and visual and audio warning devices in the
cockpit. Systemfunction canbe checkedfor continuity by test switches
in the overhead panel.
Components
The fire warning system consists of the following:
-- 2 fire detectors per engine
-- 2 fire warning lights (combined with the EMER OFF SW I/II)
-- Test switches FIRE E/W 1, FIRE E/W 2
-- Circuit breaker FIRE--D ENG I, FIRE--D ENG 2
Locations
The fire detectors are located beneath the starter--generator and
beneath the combustion chamber casing.
Trigger Temperatures
TM P&W
Reduction Gearbox 210C 204C
Power Turbine 271C 260C
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 115
July 2002 For training and information only
Fire Detectors -- Locations
Fire Detector
FWD FWD
Engine TM
Engine P&W
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 116
July 2002 For training and information only
Function
The following describes the functioning of the no.1 engine fire warning
system. The no. 2 engine fire warning system functions in the same
way.
The test switch FIRE E/W 1 is set to OFF and circuit breaker FIRE--D
ENG I is depressed.
The no.1 engine electrical fire warning logic circuitry located in the
warning unit is supplied with 28 VDC power from the
ESSENTIAL--Busbar PP 10E.
If overheating is detected on the engine, the respective fire detector
completes the circuit to ground via test switch (OFF--Position) and the
fire warning logic circuitry. The warning caption
-- FIRE I
on the pushbutton indicator EMER OFF SW 1 in the warning unit
illuminates.
At the same time, the circuit to the AUDIOcontrol unit is completed and
an alarm bell sounds in the pilots headsets.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 117
July 2002 For training and information only
Fire Warning System
Engine 2 Engine 1
Test Switch FIRE E/W 1/2
Indicator FIRE II
TEST
1 FIRE E/W 2
E
X
T
EXT / WARN WARN
UNIT
OFF CDS SYS 1
HYD
SYS 2
N
O
R
M
Indicator FIRE I
Fire Detector
Fire Detector
Firewarning Bell
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 118
July 2002 For training and information only
Fire Extinguishing System (example single bottle system)
General
The fire extinguishing system is a semi automatic system with one
extinguisher bottle for both engine compartments, installed on the
equipment deck behind the R/H engine. A pressure gauge can be
monitored through an opening in the cowling for preflight check
routine.
The extinguishant used is HALON 1301 and Nitrogen as propellant.
Two outlet tubes (one per engine) are routed to the engine
compartments. Two explosive cartridges in the outlet ports allow to
discharge the extinguishant either to the L/H-- or to the R/H engine
compartment.
Components
The fire extinguishing system mainly consists of:
-- One extinguishing agent container with two explosive
cartridges and two outlets, pressure gauge and pressure
relief valve.
-- Tubing with nozzles to the engine compartments
-- Indication on the CDS/CPDS caution field FIRE EXT,
FIRE E TST
-- Test circuits for ENG 1 / ENG 2
-- EMER OFF switches for ENG 1 / ENG 2
-- N
1
RPM control circuits for fr ENG 1 / ENG 2
Function
In order to extinguish a fire, pilots will have to open the switch guard
of the resp. EMERGENCY OFF SWITCHand to release the lighthead
FIRE. Consequently the fuel shut off valve will be activated closing the
fuel supply to the affected engine. The indication ACTIVE below the
EMER OFF switch comes on showing that the circuit has been
activated.
u NOTE When the lighthead FIRE is released, the resp.
system will become armed but not active till
the N
1
RPM of the engine will drop below 50 %.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 119
July 2002 For training and information only
Fire Extinguisher System -- Locations
Circuit Breaker
FIRE--D ENG I
Circuit Breaker
FIRE--D ENG II
Test Switch FIRE E/W 2
Distribution Pipes
FWD
Storage Bottle
Test Switch FIRE E/W 1
Pressure Gauge
Cartridge
Storage Bottle
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 120
July 2002 For training and information only
Two conditions are necessary to activate the fire extinguishingsystem:
-- Fire warning caption FIRE on (signal from fire detector)
-- N
1
of the respective engine < 50 %
When the two conditions are fulfilled a switch controlled by the N
1
RPM
control unit will be closed, causing activation of the fire extinguishing
bottle by means of a explosive cartridge separately for L/Hor R/Hside.
The extinguishing agent will be released to the respective engine
compartment via tubes and nozzles.
As a result FIRE EXT caution will illuminate on CDS/CPDS caution
display SYS I/II to inform the crew that the fire extinguisher was used
and the bottle is empty.
If one of the conditions is not fulfilled only the fuel shut--off valve closes
when the switch FIRE is released.
System Test
Two switches installed in the overhead panel allow to test the fire
warning system as well as the fire extinguisher system for
serviceability. The switches are 3--position toggle switches.
The following positions and functions are availble:
-- OFF:
No test function, fire warning and extinguisher system is
armed
-- EXT:
Fire extinguisher system will be tested. CDS/CPDS caution
FIRE EXT will come on together with MASTER CAUTION
-- EXT/WARN
CDS/CPDS caution FIRE E TST comes on, FIRE EXT
remains on. Additionally the fire warning circuit will be
tested. Respective FIRE caption will come on together with
the audio warning BELL.
The switches are spring loaded between the positions EXT and
EXT/WARN. They must be switched back to the OFF position
manually.
u NOTE The weight of the bottle must be checked every 12
month.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 121
July 2002 For training and information only
Fire Extinguishing System
FIRE EXT
M M
FIRE E TST
N1 < 50%
Engine 2 Engine 1
Test Switch FIRE E/W 1/2
SYSTEM I MISC SYSTEM II
EMER OFF Switch SYS 2
TEST
1 FIRE E/W 2
E
X
T
EXT / WARN WARN
UNIT
OFF CDS SYS 1
HYD
SYS 2
N
O
R
M
FIRE E TST
FIRE EXT
EMER OFF Switch SYS 1
N1 < 50%
Fire Detector
Fire Detector
Fuel Shut--Off Valve
Fuel Shut--Off Valve
N
1
Sensor N
1
Sensor
Hose Hose
Fire Extinguisher System with Cartridges
Firewarning Bell
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 122
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Drain Lines
General
The engine drain lines ensure the necessary draining and disposal of
minor fuel and lubricant leakage from the respective engine.
Additionally the amount of sampled liquids in the drain bottles is for
leakage detection of the system.
Components
The engine drain lines comprises the following components:
-- Drain line -- fuel pump seal
-- Drain line -- combusting chamber
-- Drain line -- output shaft sealing (TM)
-- Drain line -- starter/generator output drive (P&W)
-- Drain line -- fuel starting injectors
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 123
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Drain Lines (Engine TM)
FWD
Drain Bottle
Fuel Pump Drain Line
Drain Line
Fuel Starting Injectors
Drain Line
Output Shaft Sealing
Drain Line
Combusting
Chamber
Drain Line
Output Shaft
Sealing
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 124
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 125
July 2002 For training and information only
Engine Drain Lines (Engine P&W)
Fuel Pump Seal Drain Line
A
A
Starter/Generator
Output Drive Drain Line
Drain Bottle
Combustion
Chamber
Drain Tube
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 126
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuselage Drain Lines
The fuselage drain lines are made of transparent hoses leading from
the engine deck in the rear right and left side shell downward. The
outlets of the hoses are located respective in the left and right rear
lower shell.
EC 135
Training Manual
Power Plant
06 -- 127
July 2002 For training and information only
Fuselage Drain Lines
FWD
EC 135
Pilots Manual
Standard Equipment
P07 -- 1 06/99 Helicopter Training Center
Tableof Contents
StandardEquipment Chapter P07
NotApplicablefor pilots
trainingmanual 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
QUIT
RETURN
EC 135
Pilots Manual
Standard Equipment
P07 -- 2 06/99 Helicopter Training Center
STANDARDEQUIPMENT
NOT APPLICABLE FORPILOTS
TRAININGMANUAL
QUIT
RETURN
EC 135
Pilots Manual
Optional Equipment
P08 -- 1 06/99 Helicopter Training Center
Tableof Contents
Optional Equipment Chapter P08
Informations aboutoptionals tobe
takenfromspecial documents andaddedhere 2 . . . . . . . . . .
QUIT
RETURN
EC 135
Pilots Manual
Optional Equipment
P08 -- 2 06/99 Helicopter Training Center
OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT
INFORMATIONS ABOUT OPTIONALS TOBE TAKEN
FROMSPECIAL DOCUMENTS ANDADDEDHERE
QUIT
RETURN
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical System
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
Electrical Power Supply 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC Power Generation 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starter/Generator 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Master Box 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery System 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switches GEN I, GEN II, BAT MSTR 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CDS/CPDS Indication 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warning Unit Indication 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Power Receptacle 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC Power Distribution 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overhead Panel 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit Breaker Console 1 and 2 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Function -- Complete System 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation with Battery (Emergency Operation) 38 . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic Engine Starting 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation with One Generator 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation with Generators Connected in Parallel 44 . . . . . . . . .
Operation with Separated Generators 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation with External Power Unit 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connection of Shedding Busbar 1 and 2 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fault Reactions 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AC Power System 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical Power Supply
General
The electrical power supply systems generate and distribute power for
operation and control of the helicopter systems. The EC135 electrical
systems operate on 28 V DC, when supplied by the battery, they
operate on 24 V.
An AC system is installed additionally.
Components
The electrical power supply consists of:
-- Power generation
-- External power receptacle
-- Power distribution
-- AC power system
Power Generation
The power generation consists of two generators, a battery and the
corresponding master boxes.
External Power Receptacle
It is possible to supply the electrical power system with DC power by
an external power unit. The voltage of the EPU operates between 24
and 28 V DC. The voltage of the EPU must be higher than the voltage
of the battery (U
EPU
> U
BATT
).
Power Distribution
The power distribution consists of the following components:
-- Two master boxes
-- Battery master box
-- Two circuit breaker panels
-- Overhead panel
-- DC receptacle
-- Terminal junctions
Several busbars are installed in the master boxes, the overhead panel
and both circuit breaker panels, to which all electrical consumers of the
helicopter are connected by means of circuit breakers.
AC Power System
The AC power system generates two different AC voltages (26 V AC,
115 V AC) out of 28 V DC. The AC voltages are distributed to the
consumers (navigation instruments) via modules and busbars.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical Power Supply -- Locations
Generator 1
FADEC 1
Overhead Panel
Electrical Master Box 1
Inverter II
Instrument
Console
Battery
Battery
Master Box
EPU Receptacle
High Load Bus 2
High Load Bus 1
Generator 2
FADEC 2
El. Master Box 2
2 3 4 4a 5 6 7 8 1 Frame
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
DC Power Generation
General
The DC power generation supplies direct current by means of two DC
generators and a battery.
Components
The power generation consists of:
-- Starter/generator, engine 1/2, with temperature switch and
electrical master box 1/2
-- Battery with temperature switch, battery master box and
fuse
-- Switches (GEN I, GEN II, BAT MSTR)
-- Central Panel Display System (CPDS)
-- Warning unit
-- Bonding system
Generator System 1/2
The generator system 1/2 consists of the following components:
-- Starter/generator 1/2
-- Electric master box 1/2
-- PRIMARY busbar 1/2
-- SHEDDING busbar 1/2
-- Fuses
-- Relays
Battery System
The battery system comprises the following components:
-- Battery with temperature sensor
-- Battery master box
-- Battery busbar
-- Fuses
-- ESSENTIAL BUS relay
-- Battery relay
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
DC Power Generation
PP10E PP20E PP10S
SBC1
GC1
SC1
HLC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
HPC2
GPUC
PP20S PP10H
Battery
Electrical
Master Box 1
Electrical
Master Box 2
PRIMARY
Busbar 1
Receptecal
for EPU
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
Generator
1
Generator
2
HPC1
F
BTC2
F
Abbreviations:
BATC Battery Contactor
BTC Bus Tie Contactor
EBC Essential Bus Contactor
GC Generator Contactor
HLC High Load Bus Contactor
HPC High Power Contactor
SBC Shedding Bus Contactor
SC Starter Contactor
GPUC Ground Power Unit Contactor
F High Powert Consumer
SHED. Bus
HIGH L. Bus
ESS. BUS
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 8
July 2002 For training and information only
General Description of the DC Power Supply
The battery is connected via the relays BATC, BTC1 and BTC2 to the
PRIMARY busbar.
The SHEDDING busbars are connected via two relays SBC1 and
SBC2 to the PRIMARY busbar.
Both the generators G1 and G2 are connected via two relays GC1 and
GC2 parallel to the PRIMARY busbar.
The EPU supplies the PRIMARY busbar via the relay GPUC and the
two relays BTC1 and BTC2.
When the EPUis connected to the helicopters electrical system(BAT
MASTERSWin position ON), both the relays BATC, GC1and GC2are
opened. By means of this automatically function the generators are
insulated fromthe EPU. The relays SBC1 and SBC2 are automatically
closed in the following configuration:
-- Power supply with an EPU
-- Power supply with an active generator
For the pilot there are three switches on the switch unit of the
instrument console:
The switch BAT/MSTR in position ON closes the relay BATC and the
relays EBC1 and EBC2. Aditionally the relays BTC1 and BTC2 are
closed, if the switch BUS TIE is in position NORM.
The push button position RES engages the relay BATC after a failure
again, if the coupling conditions are not fullfilled.
The two switches GEN I and GENII with their positions ON/OFF/RES
closes the two relays GC1 and GC2. The push button position RES is
used for engaging again a disconnected generator after a failure.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 9
July 2002 For training and information only
Leading Particulars DC Power Supply
Engine EC 135 T EC 135 P
Generator weight 7.60 kg 9.5 kg
Nominal data 30 V DC, 160 A 30 V DC, 200 A
Speed range 8,400--12,100 RPM 7,050--12,000 RPM
Max. speed (5 min) 14,000 RPM 14,000 RPM
Temperature switch 205 !5.5 C 205 !5.5 C
Number of Batterys 1
Voltage 24 V
Capacity 17Ah, 25 Ah, 26 Ah, 40 Ah
Assembly 20 cells series connected
Temperature switch 70 !3 C
Leading Particulars DC Power Distribution
Voltage range 26 -- 30 V
Point of regulation POR 28 V DC "0.1 V
Fuses
--in the masterboxes Blowout fuses 50 A, 80, 100A
(150A)
--in the overhead panel Circuit breakers, different values
Total weight of the master
boxes
17 kg
Leading Particulars AC Power Supply
Number of systems 1 or 2 optional
Input voltage 24--28 V DC
Output voltage and power 26 V AC, 400 Hz, 150 VA
115 V AC, 400 Hz, 350 VA
Max. current 15 A DC input
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 10
July 2002 For training and information only
Starter/Generator
General
The DC power generation subsystem is designed to supply electrical
energy from several sources. Depending on the operation mode all
three master boxes determine the source from which the energy can
be taken and which busbars are supplied. For this the three master
boxes are connected to each other.
Starter/Generator
The starter/generator can be used in two modes:
-- Starter mode
-- Generator mode
Starter Mode
In the starter mode the starter/generator is used to start the engines.
The starter input is supplied with current by means of an external
power unit or the installed battery. The starter drives the engine gas
generator assembly by means of the drive shaft.
Generator Mode
In the generator mode the starter/generator supplies the electrical
system and loads the battery.
The generator mode is only available when the engine is running, as
the armature is driven by n
1
geartrain of the engine.
In the generator mode a magnetic field is built up in the armature via
the exication input. If the armature is driven, voltage is induced. The
brushes collect the induced voltage fromthe collector coil and transmit
this voltage to the connectors of the generator. A compensating coil is
connected in series to the armature to compensate for arcing. A fan
cools the generator during operation.
In the generator mode the generator supplies the PRIMARY busbar in
the associated master box with current.
The engines are equipped with the following starter/generators:
-- Engine T 160 A (200 A optional)
-- Engine P 200 A (160 A optional)
Temperature Switch
The temperature switch monitors the temperature of the
starter/generator cooling air and opens contact when the temperature
is higher than approx. 205 C.
The caution GEN OVHT is displayed on the CAD.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 11
July 2002 For training and information only
Starter/Generator
Compensation
Winding
Starter Winding
Exiting Winding
D (Balance)
E-- (Ground)
(Starter Input) C+
Generator
Output B+
(Excitation Input) A+
Temperature Switch
Engine T
Fan
Commutator
Brush Holder
Exciting Winding
Armature
Drive Shaft
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 12
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical Master Box
Electrical Master Box System 1
The electrical master box controls the function of the DCsystem1 and
regulates the voltage of the system to 28 "0.1 V.
The current suppliedby starter/generator 1 is distributed dependingon
the operating mode to the other busbars via the PRIMARY busbar.
Systems with a high current flow such as starter/generator 1 are
directly connected to the PRIMARY busbar 1. The connections to
systems and busbars are protected by fuses and controlled by several
contactors.
A control circuit disconnects the primary busbar 1 from the remaining
system if a short-circuit occurs. The installed generator control unit
controls and monitors the operation of starter/generator 1 and
switches it off if a failure occurs.
The electrical master box is electrically connected to the battery
master box and the electrical master box 2. The BUS TIE function
connects the PRIMARY busbar 1 to the PRIMARY busbar 2 and the
BATTERY busbar.
Operating conditions of the system 1 are indicated by the electrical
master box 1 on the CAD.
Test Function
A built-in test function may be activated by a switch located at the
master box housing (after removing the inner lining) and indicates
possible failures in the electrical master box 1 by means of indicator
lights.
Location
The electrical master box 1 is installed behind the LH interior paneling
near frame 5.
Electrical Masterbox System 2
The construction and function of the electrical master box 2 is similar
to that of the electrical master box 1. The function of the electrical
master box 2, however, may be extended by inserting an additional
printed circuit board and a connector. This boardcontrols andmonitors
the operation of an external power unit which is connected to the
external power receptacle.
Location
The electrical master box 2 is installed behind the RHinterior paneling
near frame 5.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 13
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical Master Boxes
Power Supply Cable
Bonding
Jumper
Boards
Plug
Connector for EPU
(Masterbox 2 only)
Connectors for High
Power Consumers
Frame 5
FWD
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 14
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 15
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical Master Boxes 1 / 2
D Bus Tie
F2 Ess. Bus
B Generator
F1 Shed. Bus
A Starter
E High Load Bus
F High Power
(Box1 Ext. Hoist,
Box 2 A/C)
H EPU Connector
Electrical Master Box 1
Fuse
Board
Electrical Master Box 2
Z300
Z200
Z100
Z300
Z200
Z100
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 16
July 2002 For training and information only
Built-In Test
The built-in test enables during maintenance on ground to check the
functions of the master box. The following conditions are necessary:
-- The master box must be supplied by the EPU
-- The generators are standing still
-- The generator switch is in position NORM
-- The switch BAT MST is in position ON
-- The start relay is open
-- The switch SHED BUS is in position NORM
-- If high power consumers (e.g. external hoist, air
conditioning syst.) are installed the systems have to be
switched on
Test Procedure
The TESTpush button must be pressed for the duration of the test run.
Minimum for 10 seconds. During the built-in test running the red LED
r is illuminated. If the test was successful, the green LED o is
illuminated for a short time. If there is a failure detected in the
masterbox, a red LEDof the corresponding failure and the red LEDf
comes on.
Failure Indications
The following failures can be indicated by the corresponding letters
and numbers:
F not used
E not used
D not used
C Fuses of internal supply of Z 500 and Z 600
B Distributing fuses (Essential bus, Shedding bus, High Load
bus, high power consumers)
A not used
9 Bus tie relay
8 not used
7 Shedding bus relay
6 High load bus relay
5 High power relay
4 GEN relay
3 Test and supply board Z 300
2 Logic and guard board Z 200
1 Generator control board Z 100
f Test failed (red)
o Test successful (green)
r Test is running (red)
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 17
July 2002 For training and information only
Electrical Master Box -- Built--In Test Indication
TEST
28V 0V
POR
Red LED: Test is running
Green LED: Test O.K.
Receptacle for
Voltage Measuring
Test Switch
+
F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 o f r
Potentiometer for
Generator Output
Voltage
Red LED: Test failed
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 18
July 2002 For training and information only
Battery System
General
The battery supplies current for several functions:
-- Starting the engines
-- Supplying the vital electrical systems, if both generators fail
-- On ground when the engines are not running
Components
The battery system comprises the following components:
-- Battery with temperature switch
-- Battery master box
-- Blowout fuses
-- Battery bus
-- Essential bus relay EBC1/2 and battery relay BATC
Battery
The battery consists of 20 nickel-cadmium cells installed in a housing
which is ventilated/vented by two openings. A temperature switch is
installed in the housing which closes contact at a temperature of
70 !3 C and thus activates the indication BAT TEMP in the warning
unit. The battery is electrically connected to the DC power system via
a power connector. The temperature switch has an individual
connector which is connected to the warning unit.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 19
July 2002 For training and information only
Battery
NC Cell
Ventilation
Connector for Temperature Switch
Power Connector
Housing
Cover
Mounting Bolt
Fixing Nut with Pin
Mounting Frame
Battery Housing
Equipment Deck
Temperature
Switch
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 20
July 2002 For training and information only
Battery Master Box
The battery master box controls the operation of the battery.
The battery is charged, if at least one of the generators supplies
current. If the battery is used for power supply, the battery busbar
delivers current to the system.
With connections from the battery busbar to both the ESSENTIAL
busbars 1 and 2 the supply is done in case of failure of both the
generators. The connections are fused by blowout fuses.
By occuring failures the battery and the battery busbar are isolated
automatically from the PRIMARY busbar.
During operation the actual current or voltage provided by the
generators or the battery is displayed by the VEMD. If the battery
operates as the power source, it will be discharded. The warning
display BAT DISCH illuminates at the warning unit.
u NOTE During long time opteration on ground with EPU it
is recommended to disconnect the battery in order
to avoid any discharging via the ESSENTIAL BUS
or the power consumption in the battery master
box. As the battery relay is open, the battery can
not be charged by the EPU or vice versa. (EPU
voltage < battery voltage)
The battery master box is installed in the lower part of the aft fuselage
section below the battery.
Blowout Fuse
A fuse (325A) located in the battery bonding line melts when the
current flow is excessive and thus prevents the system from being
damaged.
The fuse is mounted next to the battery master box to the fuselage.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 21
July 2002 For training and information only
Battery Master Box
Blowout Fuse
325 A
Plug
Support
Power Supply
Lines
Bonding
Jumper
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 22
July 2002 For training and information only
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 23
July 2002 For training and information only
Battery Master Box
TB1 Battery Connector
TB4 Essential Bus 2
TB2 Bus Tie 2
TB3 Bus Tie 1
TB5 Essential Bus 1
Built-In Test Unit
Relay
Bat. Bus
EB2 50 A
EB1 50 A
Fuse
Z200
Z100
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 24
July 2002 For training and information only
Built-in Test
The built-in test enables during maintenance on ground to check the
functions of the master box. The following conditions are necessary:
-- The battery master box must be supplied by the battery
-- The generators are standing still
-- The switch BAT MST is on position ON
-- The start relay is open
Test Procedure
The TESTpush button must be pressed for the duration of the test run.
Minimum for 10 seconds. During the built-in test running the red LED
r is illuminated. If the test was successful, the green LED o is
illuminated. If there is a failure detected in the battery master box, a red
LED of the corresponding failure comes on.
Failure Indications
The following failures can be indicated by the corresponding letters
and numbers:
1 Stabilizing board Z 100
2 Power supply board Z 200
3 Internal supply fuses Z 500
4 Bonding fuse
5 Essential distribution fuses
6 BAT Relay circuit
7 not used
f Test failed (red)
o Test successful (green)
r Test running (red)
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 25
July 2002 For training and information only
Battery Master Box -- Built-In Test Indication
DIST 1 DIST 2 DIST 3 DIST 4 DIST 5 DIR BAT
TEST
LED Indication
Battery Master Box
Test Switch
Circuit Breakers (Optional)
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 f o r
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 26
July 2002 For training and information only
Switches GEN I, GEN II, BAT MSTR
General
The switches GENI and GENII are three position toggle switches with
the positions:
NORM--OFF--RESET.
The position RESET is spring loaded to the position OFF.
The switch BAT MSTR is a three position toggle switch with the
positions:
ON--OFF--RESET.
The position RESET is spring loaded to the position OFF.
Location
The switches GEN I, GEN II and BAT MSTR are mounted to the
switching unit in the middle part of the instrument console.
Function
The position NORM of the switch GEN I/II activates the generator by
the corresponding master box reaching the n
1
speed of 50 %.
In position OFF, the generator is disconnected from the power supply
system.
The position ON of the switch BAT MSTR connects the battery or the
EPU via the battery master box to the power supply system.
The position OFF disconnects the battery/EPUfromthe power supply
system.
If a generator or the battery should be engaged after a failure, the
respective switch must be set to the position RESET. This provides a
reset of failure indications and of the protective functions.
Subsequently the switch can be set to the position NORM.
CDS/CPDS Indication
The voltage and the current of the generators and the battery are
indicated on the CDS/CPDS. If there is a generator isolated from the
helicopters power supply (with the electrical system is active), the
caution GENDISCONwill be displayed in the SYSI / SYS II field of the
CDS/CPDS.
In case of overtemperature the caution GEN OVHT will be displayed
in the SYSI / SYSII field of the CDS/CPDS.
Warning Unit Indication
The warning indications BAT TEMP and BAT DISCHare integrated in
the warning unit display.In case of battery overtemperature (> 70 C)
the indication BAT TEMP comes up at the warning unit.
If the battery operates as the power source, it will be discharged. At a
current of more than approx. 2 A the warning BAT DISCH comes up
at the warning unit display.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 27
July 2002 For training and information only
Power Supply -- Switches and Indications
TRAIN SEL
FADEC
ON
FLIGHT
ON
I
D
L
E
OFF
ENG
OFF
FADEC
ENG
A
R
M
O
F
F
ENG CONTROL
O
F
F
O
F
F
O
F
F
NORM ON NORM
RESET RESET RESET
GEN I BAT MSTR GEN II
DC POWER CONTROL
Voltage and Current Indication
Warning Unit
Switch Unit
Temperature Warning of Battery
Temp > 70 C
FLIGHT
I
D
L
E
OFF
OFF
CDS
Switches for DC
Power Supply
Discharge Warning of Battery
I > 2 Ampere
CPDS
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 28
July 2002 For training and information only
External Power Receptacle
General
An external power receptacle is installed in the helicopter to connect
an external power unit (EPU). It is protected by a cover. The external
power unit should supply at least 24 V DC. The external power
receptacle is designed to a (short-time) current flow of up to 700 A.
The external power receptacle is installed on the RH side of the
helicopter beyond the lower maintenance step.
Components
The external power receptacle consists of:
-- Power connector
-- Intercom socket
-- Circuit breaker EXT PWR
-- Switch EPU DOOR
-- CDS/CPDS Indication
Power Connector
A mechanical safety-device prevents the socket from being inserted
incorrectly. The negative pin of the power connector is connected to
the bonding point E1 (connection to the bonding system) via a
conductor rail. The two large pins are used for the negative and
positive poles. The shorter pin (positive, +1) is used for engaging the
battery master box. The current flows over the two large pins, until the
contacts are closed savely.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 29
July 2002 For training and information only
External Power Receptacle
Switch
Circuit Breaker
Receptacle
Ground
Connection
--
Switch EPU DOOR
Receptacle
Circuit Breaker
Intercom Socket
+1 +
E1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 30
July 2002 For training and information only
Intercom Socket
An intercom may be connected to the aircraft intercommunication
system. It enables the maintenance personnel to communicate with
persons in the cockpit even during excessive noise levels (e.g. when
the engines are running).
Circuit Breaker
By means of the circuit breaker the control line for the external power
receptacle is activated. When the circuit breaker is pressed, the
electrical master box 2 disconnects the battery and both
starter/generators fromthe PRIMARYbusbars. Onthe CDS/CPDSthe
cautions BAT DISCON(MISC), GENDISCON(SYSI/II) are displayed.
CDS/CPDS Display
The display EXT PWR indicates that an external power unit is
connected and activated. The display is controlled by the electrical
master box 2. The display EPU DOOR indicates that the cover at the
external power receptacle is open. It is activated by the EPU DOOR
switch. Both displays are integrated in the CDS/CPDS and are
indicated in the MISC area.
Function of the Ext. Power Receptacle
The connection of an external power unit to the helicopters power
supply system is controlled by the electrical master box 2. The
following modes are available:
-- Power supply on ground
-- Starting the engines
u NOTE Charging the battery with the EPU is not possible.
Power Supply on Ground
If power supply on ground is ensured by an external power unit, both
starters/generators and the battery are disconnected (generator relay
1/2 and battery relay are open) from the PRIMARY busbars. They
cannot be connected to these busbars together with the external
power unit.
Starting the Engines
If starting of the engines is effectedby means of anexternal power unit,
both starter/generators serve as starter for the engines, however, they
are disconnected from the helicopters power supply system as soon
as the engines are running and the starter/generators operate as
generators, i. e. supply current. For starting the external power unit
should supply currents of 500 -- 600 A at a nearly constant voltage
level.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 31
July 2002 For training and information only
External Power Receptacle -- Function
EXT
PWR
EPU DOOR
Electrical Master
Box 2
EPU Power
Connector
Switch Position: Door Open
+1 +
CDS/CPDS
GEN DISCON
GEN DISCON EXT PWR
EPU DOOR
BAT DISCON
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 32
July 2002 For training and information only
DC Power Distribution
General
The DCpower distribution systemroutes the direct current supplied by
the battery, generators or the external power unit to the individual
power consumers via several busbars.
Overhead Panel
General
Busbars and circuit breakers supplying the consumers with current are
integrated in the overhead panel. Several systems are activated and
controlled at the overhead panel.
Assembly
The overhead console consists of two component brackets and the
front panel containing the components and the busbars on the rear.
All circuit breakers, switches and rheostats are mounted on the front
panel. The relays, fixed resistors and all other components are
mounted on the component brackets.
The front panel consists of three parts which each have background
lighting and bear the decals of the installed circuit breakers, switches
and rheostats.
Busbars
The following busbars route the current to the individual consumers:
-- ESSENTIAL busbar 1 (PP10E)
-- ESSENTIAL busbar 2 (PP20 E)
-- SHEDDING busbar 1 (PP10S)
-- SHEDDING busbar 2 (PP20S)
Additionally, the following busbars are available at the overhead panel
for AC voltage:
-- AC busbar 1
-- AC busbar 2
The essential consumers are connected to the two ESSENTIAL
busbars. Further DC power consumers are connected to the
SHEDDING busbars. Consumers which require AC voltage are
connected to the AC busbars.
The overhead panel is supplied with DC voltage by the PRIMARY
busbars 1 and 2 or the BATTERY busbar via the blocking diodes. The
BATTERY busbar supplies the ESSENTIAL busbars 1 and 2. Further
lines coming from the master boxes 1 and 2 supply the SHEDDING
busbars 1 and 2.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 33
July 2002 For training and information only
Overhead Panel
AC BUS I
SHEDDING
BUS I
ESSENTIAL BUS I
AC BUS II
SHEDDING
BUS II
ESSENTIAL
BUS II
Switch SHEDDING BUS
Switch BUS TIE I
Switch BUS TIE II
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 34
July 2002 For training and information only
Switch SHED BUS
The switch SHED BUS is a two position switch with the positions
NORM / EMER. The NORM position is protected by a safety guard
which has to be opened before switching to the EMER position.
In position NORMthe relays SBC1 and SBC2 are closed, as soon the
first generator supplies power to the system.
In position EMER the relays SBC1 and SBC2 are re-closed. This
switch position is selected, if both generators should fail or if the
system should be supplied by the battery.
Switches BUS TIE I / II
The switches BUS TIE I / II are three position toggle switches with the
positions NORM / OFF / RES. The switches are protected by a safety
guard, which positions the switch in the NORM position.
The switches allow the coupling or decoupling of the PRIMARY
busbars 1 / 2 with the relays BTC1 and BTC2.
In position NORM the respective bus tie relay is closed. The position
OFF opens the respective bus tie relay. The position RES allows after
a system failure again to close the respective bus tie relay.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 35
July 2002 For training and information only
Overhead Panel -- Switches
EMER
O
F
F
M
A
X
NORM
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 36
July 2002 For training and information only
Circuit Breaker Console 1 and 2
General
The HIGHLOADbusbar 1 is installed in the circuit breaker panel 1, the
HIGH LOAD busbar 2 is installed in the circuit breaker panel 2. All
circuit breakers which are connected to one of both HIGH LOAD
busbars are installed in the respective circuit breaker panel.
Consumers with high energy demand are connected to both HIGH
LOAD busbars.
Circuit Breaker Console 1
Circuit breaker panel 1 contains the HIGH LOAD busbar which is
directly supplied with DC voltage from PRIMARY busbar 1 in the
electrical master box 1. It is also equipped with the 28V DCreceptacle
and a connector for the Inflight Track & Balance system.
Circuit Breaker Console 2
Circuit breaker panel 2 contains the HIGH LOAD busbar 2 which is
directly supplied with DC voltage from PRIMARY busbar 2 in the
electrical master box 2.
Locations
The circuit breaker consoles are installed on the LH side and on the
RH side of the cargo bay, respectively.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 37
July 2002 For training and information only
Circuit Breaker Panel 1 and 2
DC
RECEPT
TR&BAL
INFLT
3MJA
19VVA
10 5
10A
DC RECEPT
PP 10H
Bonding Connector 100 VV
DC Receptacle
DC Receptacle
Circuit Breaker
Functional Schematic
Circuit Breaker Panel 1
Circuit Breaker Panel 2
20 5
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 38
July 2002 For training and information only
Function -- Complete System
General
The following operating modes are possible in the DC power system:
-- Operation with battery (emergency function)
-- Automatic engine starting
-- One generator working
-- Generators working in parallel (normal function)
-- Generators working individually
-- Operation with external power unit (EPU)
-- Connection of SHEDDING busbars 1 and 2
-- System reactions due to malfunctions
Operation with Battery (Emergency Operation)
The battery supplies the BATTERY busbar with current. Both
ESSENTIAL and PRIMARY busbars are supplied by this busbar. The
HIGHLOADbusbars 1 and 2 and the SHEDDINGbusbars 1 and 2 are
not supplied with current.
The warning BAT DISCH is illuminated on the warning panel.
Switch Positions
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM/OFF in case of emer-
gency operation
GEN II NORM/OFF in case of emer-
gency operation
SHED BUS NORM
BUS TIE I NORM
BUS TIE II NORM
CDS/CPDS Cautions
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON GEN DISCON
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 24 24
GEN AMPS 0 0
BAT AMPS current load
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 39
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with Battery
PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
PP10S
SBC1
GC1
SC1
HLC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2
GPUC
PP20S PP10H
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist (opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 40
July 2002 For training and information only
Automatic Engine Starting
The engines can be started by means of the battery or an external
power unit (refer to operation by means of an external power unit).
The battery supplies the PRIMARY busbars 1 and 2 and the
ESSENTIAL busbars 1 and 2 with current via the BATTERY busbar.
To start the engines the starter/generator 1 is supplied with current
from the PRIMARY busbar 1, the starter/generator 2 from the
PRIMARY busbar 2. The engines can only be started successively.
When n
1
exceeds 50%, the battery master box disconnects thebattery
from the power supply circuit and the generator of the started engine
supplies current to the electrical system.
Switch Positions
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM
GEN II NORM
SHED BUS NORM
BUS TIE I NORM
BUS TIE II NORM
In addition:
FADEC ON
ENG CONTROL ENG I IDLE/FLIGHT
CDS/CPDS Cautions
The following cautions for the respective engine during the start-upare
displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON GEN DISCON
STARTER STARTER
CDS/CPDS Indications
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 24 24
GEN AMPS 0 0
BAT AMPS current load
The warning BAT DISCH illuminates on the warning unit.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 41
July 2002 For training and information only
Automatic Engine Starting
PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
PP10S
SBC1
GC1
SC1
HLC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2
GPUC
PP20S PP10H
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II
Ext. Power
Receptacle
Switch Position
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 42
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with One Generator
The HIGH LOAD busbars 1 and 2 are disconnected from the system.
The battery is again charged via the BATTERY busbar. Generator 1
supplies PRIMARY busbar 1 and, via the BUS TIE connection
PRIMARYbusbar 2 with current. The SHEDDINGbusbars 1 and 2 and
the ESSENTIAL busbars 1 and 2 are supplied with current by the
PRIMARY busbar 2.
If the defective generator 2 is operative, it can be connected again (set
GEN II switch first to position RESET, then to NORM).
Automatic deactivation of the HIGH--LOAD busbars and (optional)
high-current consumers (except Ext. Hoist) prevents overload of the
generator still in operation.
Switch Position
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM
GEN II NORM/OFF/RESET
SHED BUS NORM
BUS TIE I NORM
BUS TIE II NORM
CDS/CPDS Cautions
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON
CDS/CPDS Indications
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 28 28
GEN AMPS current load 0
BAT AMPS charging current, if provided (negative)
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 43
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with One Generator
PP10S PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
SBC1
GC1 SC1
HLC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2
GPUC
PP20S PP10H
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
HPC1
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt)
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
Ext. Power
Receptacle
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 44
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with Generators Connected in Parallel
Both starter/generators operate as power sources and supply current
to their respective PRIMARYbusbars, which in turn supply all the other
busbars with current. The battery is charged via the BATTERYbusbar.
The system load is shared equally by both generators due to the
connection of PRIMARY busbar 1 to PRIMARY busbar 2, i. e., the
BUS TIE I and II switches are set to NORM.
Switch Position
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM
GEN II NORM
SHED BUS NORM
BUS TIE I NORM
BUS TIE II NORM
CDS/CPDS Indications
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 28 28
GEN AMPS current load current load
BAT AMPS charging current, if provided (negative)
The current load on generator 1 and generator 2 is identical.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 45
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with Parallel Connected Generators
PP10H PP10S PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
SBC1
GC1
SC1
HLC1 BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2
GPUC
PP20S
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
Ext. Power
Receptacle
HPC2
F
F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 46
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with Separated Generators
With the BUS TIE I in the OFF position both PRIMARY busbars are
disconnected. Each generator supplies the respective PRIMARY
busbar only and the generator load will be different. Generator 2
additionally charges the battery.
The HIGHLOADbusbars 1 and 2are disconnectedfromthehelicopter
power supply system.
Switch Position
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM
GEN II NORM
SHED BUS NORM
BUS TIE I OFF
BUS TIE II NORM
In position NORM the BUS TIE switches are protected by means of a
cover against unintended operation.
CDS/CPDS Cautions
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
BUSTIE OPN
CDS/CPDS Indications
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 28 28
GEN AMPS current load current load
BAT AMPS Charging current, if provided (negative)
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 47
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with Separated Generators
PP10H PP10S PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
SBC1
GC1
SC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2
GPUC
PP20S
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
Ext. Power
Receptacle
HLC1
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 48
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with External Power Unit
The electrical master box 2 connects the external power unit to the
PRIMARY busbar 2. If the BUS TIE I and BUS TIE II switches are set
to NORM, the PRIMARY busbar 1 is again supplied with current. All
other busbars, except the BATTERY busbar, are supplied with current
by both PRIMARY busbars. The BATTERY busbar is only connected
to the battery and both ESSENTIAL busbars and disconnected from
the remaining power supply systemas long as the external power unit
is connected. The battery cannot be recharged by means of the
external power unit.
Both starter/generators are also disconnected from the power supply
system, as long as the external power unit supplies current. They can
not be connected.
Switch Position
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM/OFF
GEN II NORM/OFF
SHED BUS NORM
BUS TIE I NORM
BUS TIE II NORM
In addition, the circuit breaker on the external power receptacle must
be activated to enable the external power supply to be connected
through the electrical master box 2.
CDS/CPDS Cautions
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON BAT DISCON
EXT POWER
EPU DOOR
GEN DISCON
CDS/CPDS Indications
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 28 28
GEN AMPS
BAT AMPS 0
There is no load indication of the EPU.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 49
July 2002 For training and information only
Operation with External Power Unit
PP10H PP10S PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
SBC1
GC1
SC1
HLC1 BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2 GPUC
PP20S
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
Ext. Power
Receptacle
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 50
July 2002 For training and information only
Connection of Shedding Busbar 1 and 2
Switch SHED BUS controls the power supply of the SHEDDING
busbars 1 and 2. In position EMER ON they are constantly supplied
with current, in position NORMthe supply depends on the operational
mode of the DC system. In position NORM the switch is protected by
means of a cover against unintended operation.
Switch Position
The switches must be set to the following positions:
BAT MSTR ON
GEN I NORM (OFF in case of emer-
gency operation)
GEN II NORM (OFF in case of emer-
gency operation)
SHED BUS EMER ON
BUS TIE I NORM
BUS TIE II NORM
CDS/CPDS Cautions
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON SHED EMER GEN DISCON
CDS/CPDS Indications
The following electrical values are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I SYS II
DC VOLT 24 24
GEN AMPS 0 0
BAT AMPS current load
Warning Unit
The warning BAT DISCH illuminates on the warning unit.
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 51
July 2002 For training and information only
Additional Switch On of Shedding Busbars 1 and 2
PP10H PP10S PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
SBC1
GC1
SC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2
GPUC
PP20S
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
Ext. Power
Receptacle
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
HLC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 52
July 2002 For training and information only
Fault Reactions
Primary Busbar Fails
If the PRIMARY busbar 1 fails (e.g. due to a short-circuit), it is
immediately disconnected together with generator 1 from the
BATTERY busbar and the PRIMARY busbar 2. The SHEDDING
busbar 1 and the HIGHLOADbusbar 1 are also disconnected fromthe
PRIMARYbusbar 1. TheESSENTIAL busbar 1 is supplied withcurrent
by the PRIMARY busbar 2 via the BATTERY busbar. The battery is
charged again via the BATTERY busbar. If PRIMARY busbar 2 fails,
the operating mode is identical.
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON
BUS TIE OPN
Both Primary Busbars Fail
If both PRIMARY busbars fail, only the busbars BATTERY and
ESSENTIAL 1 and 2 are supplied by the battery. All other busbars are
isolated from the power supply.
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
GEN DISCON GEN DISCON
BUS TIE OPN BUS TIE OPN
Defect in the Bus Tie Line
If a defect occurs in the BUS TIE line, i.e. in the connection line
between both systems, the system disconnects it from the PRIMARY
busbars and the BATTERY busbar. Both generators supply current to
the consumers of their system; the battery supplies the BATTERY
busbar. The HIGH LOAD/HIGH POWER (except Ext. Hoist) busbars
are disconnected from the power supply.
The following cautions are displayed on the CDS/CPDS:
SYS I MISC SYS II
BUS TIE OPN BAT DISCON BUS TIE OPN
u NOTE If the BUS TIE line was faulty, for reengaging the
BUS TIE switches must be placed in the RESET
position and then back to OFF (e.g. try again to
reengage).
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 53
July 2002 For training and information only
Fault Reactions (Ex. Defect Bus Tie Line)
PP10H PP10S PP10E PP20E
Generator
1
Generator
2
SBC1
GC1
SC1
BTC1
PP20H
BATC
EBC2 EBC1
SC2 GC2
SBC2
HLC2
BTC2 GPUC
PP20S
Battery
El. Master
Box 1
PRIMARY-
Busbar 1
BATTERY--
Busbar
PRIMARY-
Busbar 2
Battery Master Box
O
N
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
N
O
R
M
O
F
F
R
E
S
E
T
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
E
M
E
R
O
N
N
O
R
M
R
E
S
E
T
O
F
F
N
O
R
M
BAT MSTR GEN I GEN II SHED BUS BUS TIE I BUS TIE II Switch Position
Ext. Power
Receptacle
HLC1
HPC2
F F
El. Master
Box 2
Ext. Hoist
(opt.)
A/C (opt.)
HPC1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 54
July 2002 For training and information only
AC Power System
General
The AC power system generates 26 V and 115 V ACvoltage with 400
Hz each out of 28 V DC voltage. The helicopter is equipped with one
system (SYS 2) or two systems (SYS 2 and SYS 1). The AC voltages
are distributed via busbars and modules.
The alterning voltages are used for navigation instruments and for the
Stability Augmentation System (SAS).
Components
The system 2 of the AC power system consists of the following:
-- Static inverter
-- Circuit breaker INV 2
-- Switch INV 2
-- AC busbar
-- Modules
-- CDS/CPDS as display unit
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 55
July 2002 For training and information only
AC (400 Hz) Power System
ENGI
ENGII
O
F
F
M
A
X
AC--Busbar 2
Static
Inverter
Plug
Circuit Breaker INV 2
Switch INV 2
AC--Busbar 1
Switch INV 1
Switch AC BUS SEL
Circuit Breaker INV 1
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 56
July 2002 For training and information only
Static Inverter
The static inverter 2 collects DC voltage fromthe ESSENTIAL busbar
by pushing the circuit breaker INV2 PWRand closing the INV 2 switch.
It converts the supplied 28 V DC into two ACvoltages 26 V and 115 V
with 400 Hz each. The voltages are then stabilized in the static
inverter 2. They are distributed to the consumers via modules and the
AC busbar 2.
The static inverter 2 is installed on the RH side behind the interior
paneling behind frame 4.
Circuit Breaker
The circuit breaker INV 2 is installed in the overhead panel.
Switch
The switch INV 2 is installed in the overhead panel.
AC Busbar
The AC busbar 1 and 2 are integrated in the overhead panel. They
distribute the AC voltage to their consumers as long as the inverter
select switch is in the NORM position (2 inverters installed). After a
failure of one inverter the remaining inverter can be selected for the
complete AC system by switching to position INV1/INV2.
Modules
The modules for AC high/low are installed in the cabin roof.
CDS/CPDS Cautions
If the static inverter 2 is defective, INVERTERis displayed in theSYS II
area of the CDS/CPDS. If there is 28 V DC at the CDS/CPDS input,
the caution will disappear.
The following conditions at the signal output of the inverter are
possible:
-- 28 V DC: CDS/CPDS Caution off
-- Open circuit: CDS/CPDS Caution on
EC 135
Training Manual
Electrical System
09 -- 57
July 2002 For training and information only
AC (400 Hz) Power System -- Functional Schematic
ESSENTIAL Busbar 2
115VAC
400 Hz
26VAC
400 Hz
115VAC
400 Hz
26VAC
400 Hz
INV 1 PWR
INV 2 PWR INV 2
INV 1
INV SEL
AC BUS SPLY
INV 2
NORM
INV 1
26VAC
400 Hz
ESSENTIAL Busbar 1
Inverter 2
Inverter 1
Modules
CDS/CPDS
115VAC
400 Hz
115VAC
400 Hz
26VAC
400 Hz
INVERTER INVERTER
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 1
July 2002 For training and information only
Inspections
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 2
July 2002 For training and information only
Table of Contents
Types of Inspections 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scheduled Checks and Inspections 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 3
July 2002 For training and information only
Types of Inspections
Visual Inspection
The purpose of a visual inspection is to give information about the
external condition of a system (excessive leakage, deformation,
damage or missing parts). It is performed without removing any parts
of a system.
The various systems (hydraulic system, air cooling system, engines
etc.) are accessible through several panels and doors.
Condition Inspection
The condition inspection is an extended visual inspection. As
supplementary steps, parts or specified units and components must
be inspected for corrosion, damage, wear, secure installation etc.
For most inspection steps special equipment is needed (measuring
instruments, magnifying glass etc.) Removal of parts may be
neccessary.
Functional Tests
Functional tests check the correct operation of units, systems and
subsystems e.g. engine ground run.
Inspection for Cracks
Inspections for cracks areperformed inorder todetect material defects
due to fatique or overstress at an early stage. Three different
procedures are executed:
-- Visual inspections with the bare eye or with the aid of a
magnifying glass
-- Penetrant crack inspection
-- Magnetic particle inspection
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 4
July 2002 For training and information only
Scheduled Checks and Inspections
General
To guarantee the airworthiness of the EC 135 helicopter, checks and
inspections have to be carried out according to chapter 05 of the AMM.
The EC 135 inspection system in general is split into:
-- Checks
To be carried out by the pilot or a mechanic without the
need of an inspector.
-- Inspections.
To be carried out by a mechanic and signed by an
inspector.
Types of Checks and Inspections
The following checks and inspections have to be carried out according
to the maintenance manual/flight manual:
-- Preflight check (O--level)
-- Complementary check 50 Fh (O--level)
-- Complementary check 100 Fh (O--level)
-- Intermediate inspection 400 Fh (I--level)
-- Periodical inspection 800 Fh or 2 years (O/I--level)
-- Supplementary inspections acc. to operating time
-- Inspections after operation under special environmental
conditions
-- Special inspections after maintenance activities
-- Ground run / functional check flight
Preflight Check
The preflight check is to beperformed by the latest prior tothe first flight
of the day.
The checklist is included in the flight manual, resp. pilots checklist and
can be carried out by the pilot or a mechanic. Only on the job training
is neccessary.
Complementary Checks
A) Every 50 flight hours a complementary check has to be performed.
The time limit of 50 h may be exceeded by up to 10 flight hours.
The complementary check 50 Fh can be carried out by the pilot or a
mechanic. Only on the job training is neccessary.
B) Every 100 flight hours a complementary check has to be performed.
The time limit of 100 h may be exceeded by up to 10 flight hours.
The complementary check 100 Fh can be carried out by the pilot or a
mechanic. Only on the job training is neccessary.
Intermediate Inspection
An intermediate inspection has to be performed:
-- After 400 flight hours TSN (time since new)
-- then 400 flight hours after due time of a periodical
inspection
The time limit 400 h may be exceeded by up to 80 flight hours. If
performed at the same due time, the intermediate inspection is
replaced by the periodical inspection.
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 5
July 2002 For training and information only
Inspections
SCHEDULED INSPECTIONS
05--21--00, 6--2 Complementary Check 50 Fh
05--21--00, 6--3 Complementary Check 100 Fh
05--22--00 Intermediate Inspection 400 Fh
05--24--00 Periodical Inspection 800 Fh or every 2 Years
05--23--00
12--Month
Inspection
Preflight Check
05--25--00 Supplementary Inspections acc. to Operating Time
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 6
July 2002 For training and information only
12--Month Inspection
An12--month inspection is to be performed acc. to AMM 05--23--00
page 601:
The time limit of 12 month may be exceeded by up to 3 month.
If performed at the same due time, the 12--month inspection is
replaced by the periodical inspection.
Periodical Inspection
Aperiodical inspection is to be performed
-- After 800 flight hours TSN or two years TSN, whichever
comes first
-- then 800 flight hours or every 2 years, wichever occurs first
Supplementary Inspection acc. to Operating Time
Supplementary inspections are to be performed. The given time limit
may be exceeded by 10% of the resp. interval.
Conditional Inspections after Maintenance Activities
Conditional Inspections have to be performed, due to performance of
a maintenance measure after time limits of parts and components
have been reached. The given time limit may be exceeded by 10% of
the resp. interval.
Conditional Inspections after Operational Incidents
These inspections have to be performed after specific operational
incidents either prior to the next flight or at specified time intervals.
The inspections ensure that airworthiness will be maintained or may
be restored as a result of specific maintenance activities.
Ground Run and Functional Check Flight
Section 05--60--00 contains the procedures for ground check run and
functional check flight.
The description for both helicopter models is provided in forms and
arranged as a test report, that may be equally used for performing and
recording purposes.
The scope of ground check run and functional check flight may be
restricted depending on maintenance measures performed. Possible
restrictions are listed in front of test reports.
EC 135
Training Manual
Inspections
10 -- 7
July 2002 For training and information only
CONDITIONAL INSPECTIONS
GROUND RUN AND FUNCTIONAL FLIGHT
05--51--00 Conditional Inspections after Operational Incidents
05--52--00 Conditional Inspections after Maintenance Activities
05--60--00 Ground Run and Functional Check Flight