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í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 31 -V-™„j 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Åûª-úø’ -Å®Ω-í∫ç-ôí¬ cricket Çúø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ (É°æ¤p-


úÕçé¬ Çúø’-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√oúø’) ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
Present Perfect - Å°æpöÀ†’ç* É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊.
Present Perfect Continuous - Å°æpöÀ†’ç*
Éçé¬. Å®·ûË Ñ ûËú≈ Åçûªí¬ §ƒöÀç-îª-†-éπ\®Ω™‰ü¿’.
R.M.V.N. Ramakantha Rao, Visakhapatnam áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ I have been waiting for you for the
Q. È®Ø˛ Åçú˛ ´÷JdØ˛ ¢√uéπ-®Ωù °æ¤Ææh-éπç™ véÀߪ’†’ past one hour. (Present Per. Cont) ÅØË sen-
Present Perfect Tense -™ àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x tence BÆæ’èπ◊çü∆ç. Ñ sentence, wait îËÆæ’h-†o-
¢√ú≈™ îªJaÆæ÷h: "To denote an action begin- ¢√∞¡Ÿx, á´-J-éÓÆæç wait îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ó, ¢√∞¡xûÓ, ¢√∞¡Ÿx-´-*a-
ning at some time in the past and continuing †-°æ¤púË Å†-í∫-©®Ω’ éπü∆? ¢√∞¡Ÿx ´îËa-Æœ† ûª®√yûª wait-
up to the present moment" ÅE ÖçC. ´’Sx ing Å®·-§Ú-®·-†õ‰x éπü∆? Åçõ‰ Ééπ\úø Present
Present Perfect Continuous Tense í∫’Jç* Perfect Continuous Tense †’ Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ ïJ-T† Q. Æœü∆l¥ç-ûª-°æ-®Ωçí¬ 'shall' First persons ™ futurity I/ we shall be late •ü¿’©’, I/ we will be happy/
èπÿú≈ Å™«Íí ®√Ææ’çC. "The Present Perfect °æEÍéí¬F, Éçé¬ continue Å´¤-ûª’†o action èπ◊ E, second and third person ™ compulsion late ÅØË ÅØË-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.
continuous is used for an action which began ¢√úøôç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? (command, promise, threat) E Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC. British English ™ èπÿú≈ shall ¢√úøéπç I and
at some time in the past and is still continu- DEo•öÀd, ´’†èπ◊ ûÁL-ÊÆC: Present Perfect èπÿ, Å™«Íí 'will' First Persons ™ certainty E, sec- we ûÓ questions èπ◊ ´÷vûª¢Ë’, ÅD offers/ sug-
ing". confusion
ÉC é¬Ææh èπ◊ í∫’-JîËÆæ’hçC. N´-Jç- Present Perfect Continuous Tense èπÿ -ûË-ú≈ ond and third person ™ futurity E Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC gestions èπ◊ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’, Shall I make you
îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Åçûªí¬ ™‰ü¿E. Å®·ûË continuity E áèπ◊\´ stress éπü∆. é¬F v°æÆæ’hûªç Ñ û√®Ω-ûª-´÷u©’ ™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË some coffee/ shall we start? ™™«.
A. Present Perfect Tense talks of an action con- îËߪ÷-Lq-†-°æ¤úø’ Pr. per. cont. tense better. shall †’ will †’ indiscriminate í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. ÉC ÆæÈ®j-†ü∆ é¬ü∆ ÅØË N≠æߪ’ç Educated peo-
tinuing up to the present moment, where as °jí¬ shall î√™« Å®Ω’ü¿’í¬ éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC. ÆæÈ®j-†-üËØ√? ple with English as mother tongue ᙫ ´÷ö«x-
Present Perfect Continuous denotes an A. Modern English usage ™ shall èπÿ, will èπÿ úø-û√-®ΩØËü∆Eo •öÀd Öçô’çC éπü∆? Å™«çöÀ¢√∞¡x
action starting in the past and continuing ûËú≈ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Åçûª-Jç-*-§Ú-®·çC. American ¢√úø’éπ v°æßÁ÷-í¬™‰ standard Å´¤-û√®·. Usage is
even now. English ™ shall ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ¢√úøôç ™‰ü¿’. I and we more powerful than grammar or dictionary

-
He has played cricket for half an hour now
cricket
Å®Ω-í∫ç-ôí¬ Çú≈úø’– É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπ◊. Éçé¬ -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 483 ûÓ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ shall ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’, ÅC èπÿú≈ -î√-™«
ví¬ç-C∑éπç ņ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. we/ I shall be happy,
ÅØË Ææ÷éÀh ÖçúøØË ÖçC éπü∆. Native speakers
¢√úË expressions éÌçûª-é¬-™«-EéÀ dictionary/
Çúø’-ûª’-Ø√oú≈/ ÇÊ°-¨»ú≈ ÅØËC Ñ grammar ™ accept Å´¤-ûª’ç-ö«®·.
tense clear í¬ ûÁ-©’°æü¿’. ÅC ´’†ç ÆæÈ®jçüË ÅE accept îËߪ÷-

He has been playing cricket ..


ÅüË Present Perfect LqçüË. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ Åçü¿’-´©x lan-
Continuous Å®·ûË (He has been guage simplify Å´¤-ûÓçC. ÅC
playing cricket for the past half ´’ç*üË.
an hour)

U. Ajay Kumar, Adilabad Q. Thingumabob = anonymous?


Tramp= ¢Ë¨¡u, Å®·ûË î√-™« Juggler= 4, 5 ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’ (•çûª’-™«xçöÀ ¢√öÀE)
Q. Nom de plume = Agnomen = cognomen = A. Anonymous= Ê°®Ω’ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-E/ -Å-ñ«c-ûª/ -Ææç-ûªéπç Å®Ω’ü¿’. í¬™x-Èé-í∫-ͮƜ àD éÀçü¿-°æ-úø-èπ◊çú≈ °æô’d-éÌ-ØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx =
soubriquet ? (letters ™«çöÀN). Thingamabob = Ææ´’-ߪ÷- Prestidigitator= Necromancer= îªE-§Ú-®·-†-
Adulteress=
-Ñ °æü∆-©Fo Ææ´÷-Ø√-®Ωn-é¬-™‰Ø√? ™‰E ¶µº®Ωh-
A. äéπõ‰ = Nickname- ´÷®Ω’Ê°®Ω’ = ´’®Ó Ê°®Ω’. EéÀ ÆæJí¬ í∫’®Ω’h®√E ´Ææ’h-´¤/ -´uéÀhéÀ ¢√úË ´÷ô. ¢√J Çûªt-©ûÓ Ææ綵«-≠œç-îª-í∫© ¨¡èπ◊h-©’-†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
Q. Funeral song = cremation song = plaintive
é¬E¢√JûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿ç Ö†o
English ™ nickname Åíı-®Ω´ Ææ÷îªéπçé¬ü¿’. Æ‘Y Sorcerer = ¶µº÷ûª vÊ°ûª °œ¨»îª ¨¡èπ◊h-©-ûÓ à¢Á’iØ√
Q. Perdition, subversion, spiflication, havoc, song = elegy = dirge = threnody?
Adulterer=
îË®·ç--éÓ-í∫-L-Íí-¢√∞¡Ÿx -Å-E.
A. Plaintive song =
¶µ«®Ωu-é¬E
dilapidation, annihilation, devastation, exter- N≥ƒü¿ Uûªç. Wizard = ´÷çvA-èπ◊-úø’/- éπ-E-éπô’d Nü¿u ûÁL-Æ œ-†-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
Elegy = M.SURESAN ¢√JûÓ Ææç•çüµ¿çéπ© °æ¤®Ω’-
mination, damnation, extirpation, desolation îªE-§Ú-®·†¢√J ñ«c°æ-鬮Ωnç ®√ÊÆ éπNûªyç. ≠æflúø’. Å®·ûË à ®Ωçí∫ç™ Å®·Ø√ ØÁj°æ¤-ùuç-éπ-©-¢√-∞¡x†’
äéπ-õ‰Ø√? N’í∫-û√-´Fo äéπ\õ‰. Å®Ωnç– îª®Ω-´’-Uûªç. Pro= DEéÀ ¢Ë¨¡u ÅØË Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. àü¿-®·Ø√ ¢√u°æ-
èπÿú≈ Ç ®Ωçí∫ Wizard Åçö«®Ω’. Sachin is a
Q. Repository, necropolis, crematorium, crema- batting/ cricket Wizard. The boy is a com-
A. Perdition, damnation = §ƒ°æ¤©’, î√´¤ ûª®√yûª é¬Eo ´%Ahí¬ éπ©-¢√∞¡Ÿx– professionals- DEéÀ
tory, cemetery, burial ground, grave yard. puter Wizard (Computer ™ E°æ¤-ù’úø’)
abbreviation 'Pro'. É°æ¤púø’ ≤ƒEߪ÷ O’®√b– Pro
Q.
§ÒçüË †®Ω-éπ-ߪ÷-ûª†. ¨»°æ-Ø√-®√n-©èπ◊ ¢√úË ´÷ô©’. Hai, Hi
N’í∫û√´÷ô-©Fo Ø√¨¡†ç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ synonyms. A. Repository (ECµ)– N’í∫û√ ´÷ô-©ûÓ DEéÀ = Professional Tennis Player (Ç¢Á’ ´%Ah, ten-
Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC éπÈ®èπ◊d?
A. Hi ÅØËC correct.
Q. Picnic, junket, jaunt, outing, fete champetre= nis véÃúø.)
Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’.
Crematorium = Crematory = (´’%ûª-üË-£æ…©) Q. Jeopardy, menace, peril, hazard, danger,
´†-¶µ-ï† ßª÷vûª. éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? Q. Exorcist, warlock, conjurer, charmer, breakneck Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
A. Picnic= outing = fete champetre = enchanter, magician, juggler, necromancer,
ü¿£æ«-†-¨»© (¨¡t¨»†ç)
¶µï† A. breakneck
Necropolis= burial ground = grave yard =
äéπõ‰. Å®·ûË †’ v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i†
- Fete champetre- French sorcerer, wizard, prestidigitator èπ◊ Å®Ωnç äéπ- (breakneck speed)
cemetery
N£æ…-®Ω-ߪ÷vûª ´÷ô– (´’%ûª-üË-£æ…-©†’) °æ‹úÕa-°õ‰dîÓô’ ¢Ëí¬-EéÀ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. N’í∫û√
English ™ Å®Ω’ü¿’. õ‰Ø√? ¢√öÀ ´’üµ¿u™ èπÿú≈ *†o *†o ûËú≈-©’-Ø√o®·.
(¨¡t¨»†ç) A. ÅFo Éçvü¿-ñ«-©ç/ -´÷-ߪ÷-ñ«©ç/ í¬®Ω-úŒéÀ Ææç•ç- Q. Hospital = infirmary = dispensary äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
Junket = Ææ®Ωü∆ߪ÷vûª, ´·êuçí¬ v°æñ«-üµ¿-†çûÓ.
Q. Moll, demirep, wench, drab, trollop, tramp, Cµç-*† ´÷ô™‰, Å®·ûË ûËú≈-©’-Ø√o®·. A. äéπõ‰ 鬴¤. Infirmary Åçõ‰ èπÿú≈ ÇÆæ’°æ-vûË,
(´’† ´’çvûª’©’ v°æ¶µº’ûªy ê®Ω’aûÓ NüË-¨»©’ AJ-T- havlot, pro, whore, floozy, strumpet, scarlet Exorcist = ÅB-ûª-¨¡-èπ◊h-©ûÓ ´’†’-≠æfl©èπ◊ °æõ‰d Å®·ûË àüÁjØ√ ã ÆæçÆæn™/ ã factory ™E -¢√-∞¡xèπ◊
®√-´-úøç ™«çöÀC) woman, courtesan, adulteress, bawd, prosti- -ü¿ßª÷u-©†’ ´ü¿-©-íÌ--úø-û√-´’E îÁ°æ¤p-éÌ-ØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx. ¢Ájü¿uç îËÊÆ -ÇÆæ’°æ-vA (NúÕí¬ é¬èπ◊çú≈)– ÅC Ç
Jaunt = Ææ®Ωü∆ v°æߪ÷ùç tute- Warlock = -îË-ûª-•-úÕ-™«ç-öÀ-N îËߪ’-í∫-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx -Å-E.
äéπ-õ‰Ø√? ÆæçÆæn™  ¶µ«í∫ç. Dispensary= -ÇÆæ’°æ-vA-™ 
Q. Journey = peregrination = travel äéπ-õ‰Ø√? A. Ñ éÀçC ¢√öÀéÀ ûª°æp N’í∫û√ ¢√öÀ-éÌÍé Å®Ωnç, ¢Ë¨¡u- Conjurer = àO’-™‰EîÓô ´Ææ’h-´¤-©-†’/- ´’-†’-≠æfl-©†’ ´’çü¿’©’ éπL°œ ÉîËa ¶µ«í∫ç.
A. Journey = Travel = Peregrination (§ƒçúÕûªuç) ©E. Drab †’ Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ É°æ¤púø’ ¢√úøôç ™‰ü¿’. éπ†-°æ-úËô’d îËߪ’-í∫-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx. (ë«Sí¬ Ö†o îËA™ Q. Vade-mecurm= handbook= bibelot= leaflet
Q. Rialto= Market= Bazar É´Fo äéπ-õ‰Ø√? Wench= Çúø-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ é¬Ææh Å´’-®√u-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´÷ô.
úø•’s-™«ç-öÀN éπ†-°æ-úËô’x îËߪ’-í∫-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx). äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
Charmer = ´’çvûª-ñ«-©çûÓ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ ûª´’-°æôx A. Vade-mecurm= bibelot= pocket book.
A. äéπõ‰. Courtesan = ¢Ë¨¡u, Å®·ûË §ƒûª-®Ó-V™x ®√V-©-
Q. Thorough fare = main road. éπÈ®Íé-dØ√?
Çéπ-J{ç°æ-ñ‰-Ææ’-éÓ-í∫-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx/ Ææ¢Á÷t-£æ«-†-¨¡-éÀh-í∫-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx = Leaflet= folder= printed Ææ´÷-î √®Ω °ævûªç–
éÌ-©’-´¤™ üË´-ü∆-Æ‘-©-™«çöÀ¢√∞¡Ÿx. É°æpöÀ ¢Ë¨»u-´%-Ah™ Enchanter = -´÷-ç-vAéπ -¨¡-èπ◊h-©ûÓ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ ´¨¡ç
A. Correct. Ö†o Æ‘Y©-éÀC ´Jhç-îªü¿’. ´’úø-ûª-°-öÀd† È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ Ê°@© Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç Ö†o
îËÆæ’éÓ-í∫-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx paper.

SK Abbas, Nellore A.Sridhar, Oripenta


Language CDs Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç BÆæ’-éÓ- 2) á°æ¤púø÷ Öû√q-£æ«çí¬, ÆæçûÓ- Q. layout Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? Q. Dark horse Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
Q. 鬙¸ ÂÆçô®˝, G.°œ.ä. Æœ•sç-CéÀ - ´úøç. 3) English speaking Q. Cost to cost sale Åçõ‰ ? ≠æçí¬ ÖçúË, jokes îËÆæ÷h. A. layout = É∞¡Ÿx, É∞¡x Ææn™«©, A. Dark horse = Åçü¿J Åçîª-Ø√-
¶«í¬ practise îËߪ’çúÕ. 4) Call A.
Q. Impact Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? roads †’ îª÷°œçîË plan
võ„iEçí˚ ÉîËa ¢√®·Æˇ wõ„j-†-®˝í¬, é̆o üµ¿®ΩÍé Ţ˒t-ߪ’úøç ™«¶µºç ©èπ◊ N®Ω’-ü¿l¥çí¬ á´®Ω÷ ņ’-éÓE
English Language Trainer í¬ centre training/ Accent train- A. Impact= v°æ¶µ«´ç, Q. Beehive Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈/ ûªßª÷®Ω’îËÆ œ† Nüµ¿çí¬ ã §ÚöÙ ÈíL-îË-¢√∞¡Ÿx/
career áç-éÓ¢√-©†’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. ing courses ê®Ω’aûÓ ™«¶µºç-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ Å´’túøç.
The impact of oil prices = A. Beehive = ûËØÁûª’-õ„d
(£j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ 
Q. Up date Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
àüÁjØ√ §ÚöÙ á´®Ω÷ Ü£œ«ç-
Åçü¿’-èπ◊ 鬢√-Lq† Nü∆u-®Ω|-ûª©’, É™«çöÀ courses E®Ωy-£œ«çîË
A. Up date= Ñ éπ~ùç ´®Ωèπÿ ïJ-
·®Ω’ üµ¿®Ω© v°æ¶µ«´ç Q. Bump Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? îªE KA™ ÈíL-îË-¢√∞¡Ÿx/ ïô’d
éÓ®Ω’q© N´-®√©’ ûÁ©’°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. institutes
Q. Under dogs Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
î√™« ÖØ√o®·.) ™ Q. Punch dialogue
A. O’ Ǩ¡ßª’ç î√™« ´’ç*üË. O’®Ω’ T†/ Ö†o N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ Ææ´÷-î√- Åçõ‰ A. Bump = (áûª ’h°æ™«x© N≠æ-
A. Under dogs = ãôN’ §ƒ©-´¤-
îË®ΩçúÕ. Péπ~ù §Òçü¿çúÕ. ÉC
îËߪ÷-LqçC– 1) English & î√™« ´·êuç. áçûª O©’çõ‰ ®√Eo ´÷®Ω’p-©†’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- àN’öÀ? ߪ’ç™) áûª’hí¬ Ö†o v°æü˨¡ç/
Foreign Languages University, Åçûª English îªü¿-´çúÕ– ´úøç/ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’úøç. A. Punch dialogue = Å-A úµŒ é̆úøç/ úµŒ éÌôdúøç. û√-®ΩE/ ãôN’ §ƒ©ßË’u
Hyderabad Diploma course
™ ´·êuçí¬ novels ™«çöÀN. Q. Upto date Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ´·êu-¢Á’i†/ ´·ë«uéπ-®Ω{ù éπL-T† Q. Washed out Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ´uèπ◊h©’/ ïô’x. (´’†èπ◊ ≤ƒ´÷-
in communication skills 5) Eenadu spoken English
™«çöÀN A. Up to date= û√ñ«/ †÷ûª†. dialogue. A. Washed out = 1) áèπ◊\´ Öûª-
†uçí¬, àüÁjØ√ §Úöà ïJ-Íí-ô-
Institute/ lessons
¢ÁçôØË îËߪ’-úøç. 2) °j lesson
™ v°æA ´·çü¿’ Q. Bubbly Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? Q. áéπ\-úø -á-™« -Ö-†o-C -Åéπ\-úø éπ-úøç ´©x ®Ωçí∫’ ¢ÁL-Æœ-§Ú-®·† °æ¤púø’, ´’† ≤ƒ†’¶µº÷A Åçû√
British Council/ Oxford/ conversation
ÉîËa friend (s) O’ A. Bubbly= 1) †’®Ω-í∫©’/ •’úø-í∫- -Å-™«Íí– -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -à-´’ç-ö«®Ω’? (•ôd©’). 2) ÅL-Æœ-§Ú®· F®Ω- ãúÕ-§Ú-ûª’†o ´uéÀh/ ïô’d
Cambridge English practice (under dog) °æôx Öçô’çC.)
¢√∞¡x ûÓ îËߪ’çúÕ. ©ûÓ Ö†o (§ƒF-ߪ’ç-™«ç--öÀN) A. As is, where is Ææçí¬ Ö†o

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm