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Historically, what is the average score on the

AP Chemistry exam needed to get a 2, 3, 4, or


5?

Score AP
16 1
31 1
31 1
33 2
38 2
43 3
45 3
50 3
52 3
52 3
53 3
53 3
55 4
57 4
59 4
62 4
64 4
64 4
66 4
69 5
81 5
81 5
83 5
83 5
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Score
Exam 3: Periodicity
One step back
Two steps forward
Clear learning objectives for each topic based
on AP Curriculum Framework
Example AP questions embedded in
notes/discussion
Clicker Quiz at the beginning of every class to
assess last class notes and/or homework
from the night before

Topic 4.1 Bond Energy
Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of
materials can be explained by the structure and
the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules
and the forces between them.
Enduring understanding 2.C: The strong
electrostatic forces of attraction holding
atoms together in a unit are called chemical
bonds.
Essential knowledge 2.C.1: In covalent
bonding, electrons are shared between the
nuclei of two atoms to form a molecule or
polyatomic ion. Electronegativity differences
between the two atoms account for the
distribution of the shared electrons and the
polarity of the bond.
Page 23-24
What will be on the AP?
What specifically wont be on the AP?
Learning Objective:
LO 2.18 The student is able to rank and justify
the ranking of bond polarity on the basis of the
locations of the bonded atoms in the periodic
table. [See SP 6.1]
Most simply, the strength of a bond is measured
by determining how much energy is required to
break the bond.
This is the bond enthalpy.
The bond enthalpy for a ClCl bond,
D(ClCl), is measured to be 242 kJ/mol.
This table lists the
average bond
enthalpies for many
different types of
bonds.
Average bond
enthalpies are positive,
because bond breaking
is an endothermic
process.
NOTE: These are average
bond enthalpies, not
absolute bond
enthalpies; the CH
bonds in methane, CH
4
,
will be a bit different
than the
CH bond in
chloroform, CHCl
3
.
Yet another way to
estimate H for a
reaction is to compare
the bond enthalpies of
bonds broken to the
bond enthalpies of the
new bonds formed.
In other words,
H
rxn
= (bond enthalpies of bonds broken)
(bond enthalpies of bonds formed)
CH
4
(g) + Cl
2
(g)
CH
3
Cl(g) + HCl(g)

In this example, one
CH bond and one
ClCl bond are broken; one
CCl and one HCl bond
are formed.




H
rxn
= [D(CH) + D(ClCl) [D(CCl) + D(HCl)
= [(413 kJ) + (242 kJ)] [(328 kJ) + (431 kJ)]
= (655 kJ) (759 kJ)
= 104 kJ
CH
4
(g) + Cl
2
(g) CH
3
Cl(g) + HCl(g)
We can also measure an average bond length for
different bond types.
As the number of bonds between two atoms
increases, the bond length decreases.
2002 D Required
Use the principles of atomic structure and/or chemical bonding to
explain each of the following. In each part, your answer must include
references to both substances.

(c) The carbon-to-carbon bond energy in C2H4 is greater than it is in
C2H6.


Ans. The carbon-to-carbon bond in C2H4 is a double bond, which is
stronger than the carbon-to-carbon single bond in C2H6.

Topic 4.2 Lewis Structures, VSEPR Theory, and Polarity
Essential knowledge 2.C.4: The localized
electron bonding model describes and
predicts molecular geometry using Lewis
diagrams and the VSE PR model.

Page 26-27
What will be on the AP?
What specifically wont be on the AP?
Learning Objective:
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis
diagrams and VSEPR to predict the geometry
of molecules, identify hybridization, and make
predictions about polarity.
Lewis diagrams are diagrams that show the bonding
between atoms of a molecule and the lone pair
electrons.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion
(VSEPR) theory is a model used to predict the
geometry of individual molecules from the number of
electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.
Hybridization is the concept of mixing
atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with
different energies, shapes, etc., than the component
atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to
form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Steps for drawing Lewis Structures
1) Arrange elements so the least electronegative
element is central. Make single bonds. (Keep a
tally on total valence electrons used/unused)
2) Complete Octets of non-central atoms with lone
pairs.
3) Place remaining electrons on central atom.
4) Make multiple bonds to satisfy octets and
minimize formal charge.
Draw the Lewis Structure for H
2
CO.
BF
3



It is allowed to expand the
octet of atoms on the 3rd row
or below.
Presumably d orbitals in these
atoms participate in bonding.
The shape of a molecule
plays an important role
in its reactivity.
By noting the number of
bonding and
nonbonding electron
pairs we can easily
predict the shape of the
molecule.
Simply put, electron pairs,
whether they be bonding
or nonbonding, repel each
other.
By assuming the electron
pairs are placed as far as
possible from each other,
we can predict the shape
of the molecule.
We can refer to the
electron pairs as electron
domains.
In a double or triple bond,
all electrons shared
between those two atoms
are on the same side of the
central atom; therefore,
they count as one electron
domain.
This molecule has
four electron
domains.
The best
arrangement of a
given number of
electron domains is
the one that
minimizes the
repulsions among
them.

These are the
electron-domain
geometries for two
through six electron
domains around a
central atom.
All one must do is
count the number of
electron domains in
the Lewis structure.
The geometry will be
that which
corresponds to that
number of electron
domains.
The electron-domain geometry is often not the
shape of the molecule, however.
The molecular geometry is that defined by the
positions of only the atoms in the molecules, not
the nonbonding pairs.
Within each electron
domain, then, there
might be more than
one molecular
geometry.
In this domain, there is only one molecular
geometry: linear.
NOTE: If there are only two atoms in the
molecule, the molecule will be linear no matter
what the electron domain is.
There are two molecular geometries:
Trigonal planar, if all the electron domains are bonding
Bent, if one of the domains is a nonbonding pair.
Nonbonding pairs are physically
larger than bonding pairs.
Therefore, their repulsions are
greater; this tends to decrease bond
angles in a molecule.
Double and triple
bonds place greater
electron density on
one side of the
central atom than do
single bonds.
Therefore, they also
affect bond angles.
There are three molecular geometries:
Tetrahedral, if all are bonding pairs
Trigonal pyramidal if one is a nonbonding pair
Bent if there are two nonbonding pairs
There are two distinct
positions in this
geometry:
Axial
Equatorial
Lower-energy conformations result from having
nonbonding electron pairs in equatorial, rather
than axial, positions in this geometry.
There are four
distinct molecular
geometries in this
domain:
Trigonal bipyramidal
Seesaw
T-shaped
Linear
All positions are
equivalent in the
octahedral domain.
There are three
molecular
geometries:
Octahedral
Square pyramidal
Square planar
1989 D
CF
4
XeF
4
ClF
3

(a) Draw a Lewis electron-dot structure for each of the
molecules above and identify the shape of each.
(b) Use the valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR)
model to explain the geometry of each of these molecules.
Answer:
(a)
(b) CF
4
= 4 bonding pairs around C at corners of regular
tetrahedron to minimize repulsion (maximize bond angles).
XeF
4
= 4 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs give octahedral
shape with lone pairs on opposite sides of Xe atom
ClF
3
= 3 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs give trigonal
bipyramid with one pairs in equatorial positions 120 apart.
Selenium reacts with fluorine to form SeF4. Draw
the complete Lewis electron-dot structure for SeF4
and sketch the molecular structure. Indicate
whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar, and
justify your answer.
(d)
See-saw shape
Because F is very electronegative and the molecule
is asymmetric with respect to the fluorines, this molecule is
polar.

In larger molecules, it
makes more sense to
talk about the
geometry about a
particular atom
rather than the
geometry of the
molecule as a whole.
This approach makes
sense, especially
because larger
molecules tend to
react at a particular
site in the molecule.
In Chapter 8 we discussed
bond dipoles.
But just because a
molecule possesses polar
bonds does not mean the
molecule as a whole will
be polar.
By adding the
individual bond
dipoles, one can
determine the overall
dipole moment for
the molecule.
Topic 4.3 Hybridization and Bonding Theory
We think of covalent bonds forming through the
sharing of electrons by adjacent atoms.
In such an approach this can only occur when
orbitals on the two atoms overlap.
Increased overlap brings
the electrons and nuclei
closer together while
simultaneously decreasing
electron-electron
repulsion.
However, if atoms get too
close, the internuclear
repulsion greatly raises the
energy.
But its hard to imagine tetrahedral, trigonal
bipyramidal, and other geometries arising from
the atomic orbitals we recognize.
Consider beryllium:
In its ground electronic
state, it would not be able
to form bonds because it
has no singly-occupied
orbitals.
But if it absorbs the
small amount of energy
needed to promote an
electron from the 2s to
the 2p orbital, it can
form two bonds.

Mixing the s and p orbitals yields two degenerate
orbitals that are hybrids of the two orbitals.
These sp hybrid orbitals have two lobes like a p orbital.
One of the lobes is larger and more rounded as is the s
orbital.

These two degenerate orbitals would align
themselves 180 from each other.
This is consistent with the observed geometry of
beryllium compounds: linear.

With hybrid orbitals the orbital diagram for
beryllium would look like this.
The sp orbitals are higher in energy than the 1s
orbital but lower than the 2p.
Using a similar model for boron leads to
three degenerate sp
2
orbitals.
With carbon we get
four degenerate
sp
3
orbitals.
For geometries involving expanded octets on the
central atom, we must use d orbitals in our
hybrids.
This leads to five degenerate sp
3
d
orbitals



or six degenerate sp
3
d
2
orbitals.
Once you know the
electron-domain
geometry, you know
the hybridization
state of the atom.
Hybridization is a major player in this
approach to bonding.
There are two ways orbitals can overlap to
form bonds between atoms.
Sigma bonds are characterized by
Head-to-head overlap.
Cylindrical symmetry of electron density about the
internuclear axis.
Pi bonds are
characterized by
Side-to-side overlap.
Electron density above
and below the
internuclear axis.
Single bonds are always bonds, because overlap
is greater, resulting in a stronger bond and more
energy lowering.
In a multiple bond one of the bonds is a bond and
the rest are bonds.
In a molecule like
formaldehyde (shown
at left) an sp
2
orbital on
carbon overlaps in
fashion with the
corresponding orbital
on the oxygen.
The unhybridized p
orbitals overlap in
fashion.
In triple bonds, as in
acetylene, two sp
orbitals form a bond
between the carbons,
and two pairs of p
orbitals overlap in
fashion to form the
two bonds.
Two Lewis structures can be drawn for the
OPF3 molecule, as shown below.
(i) How many sigma bonds and how many pi
bonds are in structure 1?

P
O
F F
F
:
: :
:
..
..
..
..
..
:
:
P
O
F F
F
:
: :
:
..
..
..
..
..
. .
: :
When writing Lewis structures for species like the
nitrate ion, we draw resonance structures to more
accurately reflect the structure of the molecule or
ion.
In reality, each of the four atoms
in the nitrate ion has a p orbital.
The p orbitals on all three
oxygens overlap with the p
orbital on the central nitrogen.
This means the electrons are not
localized between the nitrogen and
one of the oxygens, but rather are
delocalized throughout the ion.
The organic molecule
benzene has six bonds
and a p orbital on each
carbon atom.
In reality the electrons in benzene are not localized,
but delocalized.
The even distribution of the electrons in benzene
makes the molecule unusually stable.
Though valence bond theory
effectively conveys most
observed properties of ions
and molecules, there are
some concepts better
represented by molecular
orbitals.
In MO theory, we invoke
the wave nature of
electrons.
If waves interact
constructively, the
resulting orbital is lower
in energy: a bonding
molecular orbital.
If waves interact
destructively, the
resulting orbital is higher
in energy: an antibonding
molecular orbital.
In H
2
the two electrons go
into the bonding
molecular orbital.
The bond order is one half
the difference between
the number of bonding
and antibonding
electrons.
For hydrogen, with two
electrons in the bonding
MO and none in the
antibonding MO, the bond
order is
1
2
(2 - 0) = 1
In the case of He
2
, the
bond order would be
1
2
(2 - 2) = 0
Therefore, He
2

does not exist.
For atoms with both s
and p orbitals, there are
two types of interactions:
The s and the p orbitals
that face each other
overlap in fashion.
The other two sets of p
orbitals overlap in
fashion.
The resulting MO
diagram looks like this.
There are both and
bonding molecular
orbitals and * and *
antibonding molecular
orbitals.
The smaller p-block elements in the
second period have a sizeable
interaction between the s and p
orbitals.
This flips the order of the s and p
molecular orbitals in these
elements.