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You are on page 1of 21

What is stoichiometry?

Stoichiometry is the

quantitative study of

reactants and products in

a chemical reaction.

What You Should Expect

Given : Amount of reactants

Question: how much of products can be

formed.

Example

2 A + 2B 3C

Given 20.0 grams of A and sufficient B,

how many grams of C can be produced?

What do you need?

You will need to use

i. molar ratios,

ii. molar masses,

iii. balancing and interpreting equations, and

iv. conversions between grams and moles.

Note: This type of problem is often called "mass-mass."

Steps Involved in Solving Mass-Mass

Stoichiometry Problems

Balance the chemical equation correctly

Using the molar mass of the given substance,

convert the mass given to moles.

Construct a molar proportion (two molar

ratios set equal to each other)

Using the molar mass of the unknown

substance, convert the moles just calculated

to mass.

Mole Ratios

A mole ratio converts moles

of one compound in a

balanced chemical equation

into moles of another

compound.

Example

Reaction between magnesium and oxygen

to form magnesium oxide. ( fireworks)

2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s)

Mole Ratios:

2 : 1 : 2

1) N

2

+ 3 H

2

---> 2 NH

3

Write the mole ratios for N

2

to H

2

and

NH

3

to H

2

.

2) A can of butane lighter fluid

contains 1.20 moles of butane

(C

4

H

10

). Calculate the number of

moles of carbon dioxide given off

when this butane is burned.

Practice Problems

Mole-Mole Problems

Using the practice question 2) above:

Equation of reaction

2C

4

H

10

+ 13O

2

8CO

2

+ 10H

2

O

Mole ratio

C

4

H

10

CO

2

1 : 4 [ bases]

1.2 : X [ problem]

By cross-multiplication, X = 4.8 mols of CO

2

given off

Mole-Mass Problems

Problem 1: 1.50 mol of

KClO

3

decomposes. How

many grams of O

2

will be

produced? [k = 39, Cl =

35.5, O = 16]

2 KClO

3

2 KCl + 3 O

2

Use mole ratio

Get the answer in moles and then

Convert to Mass. [Simple Arithmetic]

Hello!

If you are given a mass in the problem,

you will need to convert this to moles

first. Ok?

Lets go!

2 KClO

3

2 KCl + 3 O

2

2 : 3

1.50 : X

X = 2.25mol

Convert to mass

2.25 mol x 32.0 g/mol = 72.0 grams

Cool!

Try This:

We want to produce 2.75 mol of KCl. How many

grams of KClO

3

would be required?

Soln

KClO

3 :

KCl

2 : 2

X : 2.75

X = 2.75mol

In mass: 2.75mol X 122.55 g/mol

= 337 grams zooo zimple!

Mass-Mass Problems

There are four steps involved in solving

these problems:

Make sure you are working with a properly

balanced equation.

Convert grams of the substance given in the

problem to moles.

Construct two ratios - one from the

problem and one from the equation and set

them equal. Solve for "x," which is usually

found in the ratio from the problem.

Convert moles of the substance just solved

for into grams.

Just follow mass-

mass problem to

the penultimate

level

There are four steps involved in solving these

problems:

Make sure you are working with a properly

balanced equation.

Convert grams of the substance given in

the problem to moles.

Construct two ratios - one from the

problem and one from the equation and set

them equal. Solve for "x," which is usually

found in the ratio from the problem.

Convert moles of the substance just solved

for into Volume.

Conversion of mole to

volume

No of moles = Volume

Molar volume

Can you remember a similar equation?

Molar

The molar volume is the

volume occupied by one

mole of ideal gas at STP.

Its value is: 22.4dm

3

Practice Problems

Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide formed

at STP in dm

3

' by the complete thermal

decomposition of 3.125 g of pure calcium

carbonate (Relative atomic mass of Ca=40,

C=12, O=16)

Solution:

Convert the mass to mole:

Molar mass of CaCO

3

=

40 + 12 + (16 x 3) =

100gmol

-1

Mole = mass/molar mass

3.125/100 = 0.03125mol

Practice Problems

As per the equation,

Mole ratio 1 : 1

problem 0.03125mol X

X = 0.03125mol of CO

2

Convert mole to volume [slide 17]

Volume = (

0.03125

x 22.4)dm

3

= 0.7dm

3

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