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The Northwest Coast

NORTHWEST COAST

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L / G)

cold winters, cool summers

heavy rainfall

thick fir, spruce, cedar forests
NORTHWEST COAST

FOOD

clams, shellfish, seals, sea lions,
whales, halibut & other fish

deer, moose, bear, elk, beaver,
mountain goat
NORTHWEST COAST

CLOTHES

Bark used to make waterproof
capes

NORTHWEST COAST

SHELTER

Large, wooden plank houses with
bark shingles

NORTHWEST COAST

TOOLS

Bone Harpoons

Ivory needles

Wooden wedges, bone drills,
stone chisels & knives




CALIFORNIA

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

winter rains, hot dry summers

coastal foothills, valleys, deserts,
mountains

oak trees with acorns
CALIFORNIA
FOOD

salmon, shellfish

deer, rabbits, ducks

roots, berries, pine nuts, acorns
CALIFORNIA

CLOTHES

grass skirts

animal hides

CALIFORNIA

SHELTER

cone-shaped homes covered in
bark or reeds

CALIFORNIA

TOOLS

baskets for cooking, storage,
sifting, and catching fish



GREAT BASIN

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

desert with extreme
temperatures and limited food /
water
low grasses, sagebrush
small animals - rabbits and lizards
GREAT BASIN
FOOD
followed food sources seasonally

spring: ducks, cattail plants

summer: snakes, grasshoppers,
plants, seeds, berries

autumn: pine nuts, jackrabbits
GREAT BASIN

CLOTHES

rabbit skin robes in winter

GREAT BASIN

SHELTER

temporary camps

caves & huts

GREAT BASIN

TOOLS

seed beaters: flat baskets used
to knock seeds loose from plants
(like a raquet)


PLATEAU
LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

cold winters, gentle summers

mountains with forests, flat lands
with grasses

large rivers with abundant fish
PLATEAU
FOOD
hunted and gathered seasonally

spring: wild onions, carrots,
camas

autumn: hunting meat

salmon was most important food
PLATEAU

CLOTHES

animal hide dresses, leggings, &
shirts

elaborate, woven hats

PLATEAU

SHELTER

partially underground pit houses
covered with saplings, reeds, and
mud

PLATEAU

TOOLS

spears or nets to catch salmon


SOUTHWEST

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

canyons, mountains, deserts,
mesas

dry hot climate

Colorado River & Rio Grande River
SOUTHWEST
FOOD

used irrigation ditches & dams to
grew corn, beans, and squash

hunted small animals like rabbits


SOUTHWEST

CLOTHES

lightweight, cotton clothes to
protect them from sun

SOUTHWEST

SHELTER

thick adobe walls to protect from
heat and cold

pueblos of adobe apartments

SOUTHWEST

TOOLS

irrigation ditches & dams

clay ovens, clay pots

GREAT PLAINS

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

treeless grassland

dense grasses

more water and softer soil in the
eastern part of the region
GREAT PLAINS
FOOD

buffalo was the main food
GREAT PLAINS

CLOTHES

buffalo skin robes

GREAT PLAINS

SHELTER

tipis made of buffalo hides
fastened together and stretched
over cone of poles

GREAT PLAINS

TOOLS

bow & arrow

bone knives

bone scrapers

EASTERN WOODLANDS

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

snowy winters, rainy summers

thick forests

more lakes than any other region
EASTERN WOODLANDS

FOOD

hunted / trapped bears, beavers,
birds, & fish

gathered sap from trees

some farming
EASTERN WOODLANDS

CLOTHES

deerskin skirts, capes, &
moccasins

EASTERN WOODLANDS

SHELTER

log-frame houses covered with
elm bark

longhouses housed several related
families

EASTERN WOODLANDS

TOOLS

log & bark canoes

corn grinders

bark bins to store harvest

SOUTHEAST

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY (L/G)

warm, humid summers; mild
winters

coastal plains, river valleys

mountains, swamps
SOUTHEAST
FOOD

farming beans, corn, squash,
pumpkins, sunflowers

hunted squirrels, rabbits,
turkeys, deer, alligators

plants like sweet potatoes, wild
rice, & persimmons
SOUTHEAST

CLOTHES

short deerskin skirts

SOUTHEAST
SHELTER
homes clustered around large,
earthen mounds

strips of tree bark woven into
rectangular frame plastered with
clay

pointed leaf roofs

SOUTHEAST

TOOLS

stone, shell, or animal bone hoes
for farming

blowguns, bow & arrows