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CloseReadingoftheMagnaCarta

Theme #s Evidence
1. Ruleoflaw
Powersandprivilegesofthekingare
clearlydefinedandlimited.
Charterprovidesforenforcementof
restrictionsplacedontheking.

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auniformsystemofjustice
Thekingcantmovetrialsfromlocalcourt.
minimizedthekingsclaimsoverproperty
removecompletelyfromtheiroffices
removefromthekingdom
wewilltreathiminthesamewasasourother
baronsofEngland
themeansbywhichthebaronscouldenforce
therightsandlibertiesagreedtobytheking
2. Fairnessofthelawsand
theirexecution
Reasonablerulesandregulations
Equaljusticeunderthelaw
Recognitionofcustoms,traditions,
andestablishedrights
Restorationofpropertyandfinesif
notjustlytaken
Punishmentinproportiontocrime

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TheEnglishChurchshallbefree
anissueoffairness
Iftheguardiandamagedordestroyedthe
propertytheheirhadarighttocompensation
protectthechildrenfrombeingforcedby
guardiansintomarriages
notforceawidowtoleaveherhome
awidowcouldchoosenottoremarry
debtsowed
theylimitedthecircumstancesforwhichsucha
taxcouldbeimposed
shallenjoyalltheirlibertiesandfreecustoms
generalconsent
Nomanshallbeforced
Punishmentforviolationsofthelawwastobein
proportiontotheseriousnessoftheoffense
proportiontothegravityoftheoffence.
ancientobligation
shallremainatitsancientrent
Thechurchdistributedthedeadspropertyto
theirfamilyandfriends.
thisprovisionrequiredimmediatepayment
tenantswhocouldnotaffordthefeecould,
instead,acceptguardduty
Wewillholdtheescheatinthesamemanner
asthebaronheldit.
Lawenforcersmustknowthelawandkeepit
themselves.
evilcustomsaretobeabolishedcompletelyand
irrevocably
returnallhostagesandcharters
wewillatoncerestorethese

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renderingjusticeinconnexionwithforeststhat
aretobedisafforested
repaymentofallfinesthatwereimposed
unjustly
theseareatoncetobereturnedtothem
wewillatoncedofulljusticeaccordingtothe
lawsofWalesandthesaidregions
returnthesonofLlywelyn,allWelshhostages,
andthecharters
Letallmenofourkingdom,whetherclergyor
laymen,observethemsimilarly
Wehaveremittedandpardonedfully
3. Commitmenttodue
processoflaw
Establishedprocedures
Notrialwithoutevidence/testimonyto
supportaccusations
Relianceonlocalcourtsand
magistrates
Trialsheldinatimelymanner
Trialsopentothepublic
Trialbyajuryofonespeers

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apermanentcourtledtoaspeedytrial
ajusthearing
withoutreferencetothevalueofhis
ecclesiasticalbeneficefairtrial.
evidenceneededincourtforcrime
faithfulwitnesses
ajuryofonespeers
noonedenyordelayrightorjustice
peoplewholiveoutsidetheforestneednotin
futureappearbeforetheroyaljusticesofthe
forestinanswertogeneralsummonses.
Nooneshallbearrestedorimprisonedonthe
appealofawomanforthedeathofanyperson
4. Respectforeconomic
rights
Rightstoproperty
Fairnessineconomic
transactionsstandardweightsand
measures
Reimbursementsforand/or
restorationofproperty
Freedomformerchantstomovein
ordertoconductbusiness
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andanymanthatoweslessshallpayless
returntheland
protectionofanindividualsproperty
unfairlylosetheirinheritanceorotherproperties
restrictionsonthepowertotax
respectstotherightsofproperty
withouthisconsent
withouttheconsentoftheowner
thelandwastobereturnedtothelord.
Providedtransportationaccessfortrade.
fairexchangeinthemarketplace
AllmerchantsmayenterorleaveEngland
unharmedandwithoutfear
lawfulforanymantoleaveandreturntoour
kingdomunharmedandwithoutfear
shallatoncebedisafforested