Mrs. Sneha Prakash
Final year M.Sc (N) Navodaya College of Nursing, Raichur


INTRODUCTION Organizations require the services of a large number of personnel. These personnel occupy varies positions created through the process of organizing. Each position of the organization makes certain specific contributions to achieve organizational objectives. Hence the person occupying the position should have sufficient ability to meet its requirement. Staffing is that part of the process of management which is concerned with obtaining, utilizing and maintaining a satisfactory and satisfied work force. It is the process of identifying, assessing, placing, evaluating and developing individuals at work. Staffing is a very important function of the management. No organization can be successful unless it can fill and keep filled the various positions with the right type of employees. DEFINITION Staffing is the function by which managers build an organization through recruitment, selection and development of individuals as capable employees. (Mc Farland) Staffing is defined as filling positions in the organization structure through identifying workforce requirements, inventorying the people available, recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal, compensation and training of needed people. (Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell) PURPOSE OF STAFFING • • To establish and maintain sound personnel relation at all levels of the organization To make effective use of personnel to attain the objectives of the organization

1. Staffing is an important managerial function-

Staffing function is the most important managerial act along with planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The operations of these four functions depend upon the manpower which is available through staffing function.


2. Staffing is a pervasive activity-

As staffing function is carried out by all managers and in all types of concerns where business activities are carried out. 3. Staffing is a continuous activityThis is because staffing function continues throughout the life of an organization due to the transfers and promotions that take place.
4. The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnels-

Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure, that is, recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, providing remuneration, etc.
5. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job.

It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally selecting the most suitable candidate as per the job requirements.
6. Staffing is performed by all managers

Staffing is performed by all managers depending upon the nature of business, size of the company, qualifications and skills of managers, etc. In small companies, the top management generally performs this function. In medium and small scale enterprise, it is performed especially by the personnel department of that concern. SIGNIFICANCE OF STAFFING Staffing provides man power which is the key input of an organization. • • • • • • It helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs It makes for higher performance by placing right persons on the right job It improves job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective assessment and fair compensation of their contributions It facilitates optimum utilization of human resources and in minimizing costs of manpower It ensures the continuity and growth of organization through the development of organization It enables an organization to cope with the shortage of executive talent


NEED FOR STAFFING The need for staffing has increased due to the following reasons • Increasing size of organizations In a large organization there are several positions. Systematic programmes for the selection, training and appraisal of employees are required for efficient functioning of the enterprise. • Advancement of technology Significant improvements have taken place in technology. In order to make use of the latest technology, the appointment of right type of persons is necessary. Right personnel can to procured, developed and maintained for new jobs only if the management performs its staffing function effectively. • Long range need for manpower In order to execute the long term plans, management must determine the manpower requirements well in advance. It is also necessary to develop managers for succession in future. The need for staffing has increased due to shortage of good managerial talent and high rate of labour turnover. • High wage bill Personnel cost accounts for a major portion of operating costs today. Efficient performance of the staffing function is essential to make the best use of personnel. For example: If right type of people are selected and trained, management can obtain optimum results from the expenses incurred on recruitment, selection and training. • Trade unionism Efficient system for staffing has become necessary to negotiate effectively with organization of executives. With the spread of education, executives have become increasingly aware of their prerogatives. Collective bargaining has


brought change in their attitudes. Separation of ownership from management requires a more professional approach towards the staffing function. • Human relations movement Enlightened employers have come to recognize the dignity of labour. Managers use the knowledge of behavioral sciences in molding the behavior of employees in the right direction. By performing the staffing function well, management can show the significant it attaches to the human resources in the organization. CHARACTERISTICS OF STAFFING

Staffing is a universal function. It is the responsibility of every management. Staffing is a dynamic function Staffing cannot be entrusted fully to personnel department or any other service department. Staffing helps in the accomplishment of organizational goals through team spirit and optimum contribution from every employee. Staffing is concerned with the management of managers Staffing is a difficult function with extraordinary problems of social, philosophical and psychological in nature.

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ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD STAFFING POLICY A good staffing policy should possess the following characteristics • • • • • • • It should take into account the interest of both employer and employees It should be complete in every respect It should be simple and precise It should be reasonably stable and permanent It should be flexible It should be responsive to prevailing trends in industry and society It should take into account variations in the capabilities, interest and attitudes of employees


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It should be properly communicated to those for whom it is intended It should be uniformly applicable to all members of the organization It should be acceptable to the employees

ELEMENTS OF STAFFING The elements of staffing are

Procurement Employment of proper number and kind of personnel is the first function of staffing this involves: 1. Manpower planning It is the process of determining current and future manpower needs in terms of the number and quality of the personnel. 2. Recruitment It implies locating sources of acceptable candidates. 3. Selection It involves choice of right type of people from the available candidates. This requires evaluating various candidates and selecting those that match the needs of the organization. 4. Placement It means assigning specific jobs to the selected candidates.

Development After placing the individual on various jobs it is necessary to train them so that they can perform their jobs efficiently. Proper development of personnel is essential to increase their skill in the proper performance of their jobs. Development involves orientation, counseling and training of the personnel. Orientation is the socializing process of adjusting newly hired employees in the organization. Training is the process of improving the knowledge and skills of personnel.

Compensation levels


Compensating personnel means determining adequate and equitable remuneration of personnel for their contributions to the organizational goals. Both monetary and nonmonetary rewards are decided keeping in view human needs, job requirements, prevailing wage levels, organization’s capacity to pay etc. Compensation involves job evaluation, performance appraisal; promotion etc. Job evaluation is the process of determining the relative worth of different jobs in the organization. Performance appraisal involves evaluating the employee’s performance in relation to certain standards. Promotions, transfers etc are other elements of the reward system. • Integration It involves developing a sense of belonging to the enterprise. Sound communication system is required to develop harmony and team spirit among employees. Effective machinery is required for the quick and satisfactory redressal of all problems and grievances of employees, it is essential to motivate employees towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. Discipline and labour relation are important elements of integration. • Maintenance It involves provision of such facilities and services that are required to maintain the physical and mental health of employees. These include measures for health, safety and comfort of employees. Various welfare services may consists of provision of cafeteria, restrooms, group insurance, recreation club, education of children of employees etc. STEPS IN STAFFING PROCESS
Human resource planning



Induction and orientation


Training and development

Performance appraisal


Employment decisions

Human resource planning The purpose of human resource planning is to ensure that the personnel needs of the organization will be met. Three elements of human resource planning are: • Forecasting the personnel requirements • Comparing the requirements to the inventory of potential candidates within the organization • Developing specific plans for how many people to recruit or whom to train Recruitment In this step, management will attempt to identify and attract candidates to meet the requirements of anticipated or actual vacancies. The actual recruitment of potential employees is traditionally done through newspaper and professional journal advertisement. Selection Following recruitment, those candidates who have applied for the position advertised must be evaluated and one chosen whose credentials match job requirements. The steps in selection process include completing an application form, interview and physical examination. Induction and orientation Once selected, the employee must be integrated into the organization. The induction and orientation process includes introduction of the new employee to the work group and acquainting him with the organization’s policy and rules. Training and development


Through training and development the organization tries to improve the employee’s ability to contribute to the organization’s effectiveness. Training is concerned with improvement of the employee’s skills. Development is concerned with the preparation of the employ for additional responsibility. Performance appraisal A system designed to measure the actual job performance of an employee compared to designated performance standards. Employment decisions Employment decisions in the areas of monetary rewards, transfers, promotions and demotions will be made based on the outcome of the performance appraisal. Separation Voluntary turnover, retirements, layoffs and terminations must also be a concern of management. FACTORS INFLUENCING STAFFING Staffing is basically a dynamic process and is affected by a variety of factors, both external and internal. Staffing function is affected by various elements of management process but at the same time it affects other elements also. For example: planning of an organization decides the number and type of personnel required. At the same time number and type of personnel also affect what the organization can do. Thus staffing is affected by different factors which can be grouped into two categories, external and internal. External factors There are various external factors which have their impact on staffing policy, and an organization does not have control over these factors. 1. Legal factors There are various legal provisions which affect the staffing policy of an organization. Various acts which provide restrictions to free recruitment are Child Labour Act 1986, Employment Exchange Act 1959, Factories Act 1948 and Mines Act 1952. Besides provision regarding mandatory employment of certain categories of personnel such as SC/ST, OBC etc impinge upon staffing policy of an organization.
2. Socio-cultural factors


Various socio-cultural factors affect the extent to which the organization can employ certain categories of personnel for certain job. For example: our socio-cultural factors almost prevent the employment of women in certain manufacturing operations such as operations involving physical exertion etc. 3. External influences There are various forces in the environment which exert pressures on the employing organizations. These pressures may be from the political structure in the form of emphasis on ‘sons of the soil’ or pressure for appointing certain individuals, pressure from the community to which the promoters of an organization belongs.

Internal factors Besides the various external factors, there are various internal factors which affect staffing. They are 1. Organizational business plan Organizational business plan directly affects staffing function because it determines the type of personnel that may be required in future. Based on the business plan organizations may be divided into three categories: growing, stagnating and declining. A growing organization undertakes various new projects either in the same line of business or different business. Such an organization requires more personnel in future besides maintaining its existing personnel. A stagnating organization adopts stability strategy in which growth does not come by way of additional investment but by making the present investment more effective. Such an organization focuses more on retaining its present personnel by offering them suitable rewards and financial incentives. A declining organization focuses on reducing its business operation by divesting those businesses which do not match with its core competence. Such an organization goes for downsizing personnel by offering voluntary retirement scheme and pays below average financial incentives.


2. Size of organization Size of an organization is the factor which determines the degree of attractiveness to the prospective candidates. A small organization cannot have the same staffing practices which a large organization may have. 3. Organizational image Organizational image is an important factor for attracting personnel for selection. The image of an organization in human resource market depends on its staffing practices like facilities for training and development, promotional avenues, compensation and incentives and work culture. CONCLUSION Staffing is the process of filling all positions in the organization with adequate and qualified personnel. The staffing function assumed great importance due to increase in size of organizations, rapid advancement of technology and growing complexity of human behavior. In recent years there has been considerable development of knowledge in the field of staffing. The overwhelming role resources in organizations have been recognized. As a result management human resources have become a vital area of management. REFERENCES

Gupta C.B “Management And Organization” fourth edition (1999), Sultan Chand and Sons Publishers, page no: 4.3-4.7 Prasad LM “Principles And Practice Of management” seventh edition (2007), Sultan Chand and Sons Publishers, page no:536-541


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