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Mrs. Sneha Prakash
Final year M.Sc (N)
Navodaya College of
Nursing, Raichur


Organizations require the services of a large number of personnel. These personnel

occupy varies positions created through the process of organizing. Each position of the
organization makes certain specific contributions to achieve organizational objectives. Hence the
person occupying the position should have sufficient ability to meet its requirement.

Staffing is that part of the process of management which is concerned with obtaining,
utilizing and maintaining a satisfactory and satisfied work force. It is the process of identifying,
assessing, placing, evaluating and developing individuals at work. Staffing is a very important
function of the management. No organization can be successful unless it can fill and keep filled
the various positions with the right type of employees.


Staffing is the function by which managers build an organization through recruitment,

selection and development of individuals as capable employees.

(Mc Farland)

Staffing is defined as filling positions in the organization structure through identifying

workforce requirements, inventorying the people available, recruitment, selection, placement,
promotion, appraisal, compensation and training of needed people.

(Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell)


• To establish and maintain sound personnel relation at all levels of the organization
• To make effective use of personnel to attain the objectives of the organization


1. Staffing is an important managerial function-

Staffing function is the most important managerial act along with planning,
organizing, directing and controlling. The operations of these four functions depend upon
the manpower which is available through staffing function.

2. Staffing is a pervasive activity-

As staffing function is carried out by all managers and in all types of concerns
where business activities are carried out.

3. Staffing is a continuous activity-

This is because staffing function continues throughout the life of an organization
due to the transfers and promotions that take place.

4. The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnels-

Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure,
that is, recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, providing
remuneration, etc.

5. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job.

It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally
selecting the most suitable candidate as per the job requirements.

6. Staffing is performed by all managers

Staffing is performed by all managers depending upon the nature of business, size
of the company, qualifications and skills of managers, etc. In small companies, the top
management generally performs this function. In medium and small scale enterprise, it is
performed especially by the personnel department of that concern.


Staffing provides man power which is the key input of an organization.

• It helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs
• It makes for higher performance by placing right persons on the right job
• It improves job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective assessment and
fair compensation of their contributions
• It facilitates optimum utilization of human resources and in minimizing costs of
• It ensures the continuity and growth of organization through the development of
• It enables an organization to cope with the shortage of executive talent


The need for staffing has increased due to the following reasons
• Increasing size of organizations
In a large organization there are several positions. Systematic programmes
for the selection, training and appraisal of employees are required for efficient
functioning of the enterprise.

• Advancement of technology
Significant improvements have taken place in technology. In order to
make use of the latest technology, the appointment of right type of persons is
necessary. Right personnel can to procured, developed and maintained for new
jobs only if the management performs its staffing function effectively.

• Long range need for manpower

In order to execute the long term plans, management must determine the
manpower requirements well in advance. It is also necessary to develop managers
for succession in future. The need for staffing has increased due to shortage of
good managerial talent and high rate of labour turnover.

• High wage bill

Personnel cost accounts for a major portion of operating costs today.
Efficient performance of the staffing function is essential to make the best use of
For example: If right type of people are selected and trained, management can
obtain optimum results from the expenses incurred on recruitment, selection and

• Trade unionism
Efficient system for staffing has become necessary to negotiate effectively
with organization of executives. With the spread of education, executives have
become increasingly aware of their prerogatives. Collective bargaining has

brought change in their attitudes. Separation of ownership from management

requires a more professional approach towards the staffing function.

• Human relations movement

Enlightened employers have come to recognize the dignity of labour.
Managers use the knowledge of behavioral sciences in molding the behavior of
employees in the right direction. By performing the staffing function well,
management can show the significant it attaches to the human resources in the


• Staffing is a universal function. It is the responsibility of every management.

• Staffing is a dynamic function
• Staffing cannot be entrusted fully to personnel department or any other service
• Staffing helps in the accomplishment of organizational goals through team spirit and
optimum contribution from every employee.
• Staffing is concerned with the management of managers
• Staffing is a difficult function with extraordinary problems of social, philosophical and
psychological in nature.


A good staffing policy should possess the following characteristics
• It should take into account the interest of both employer and employees
• It should be complete in every respect
• It should be simple and precise
• It should be reasonably stable and permanent
• It should be flexible
• It should be responsive to prevailing trends in industry and society
• It should take into account variations in the capabilities, interest and attitudes of

• It should be properly communicated to those for whom it is intended

• It should be uniformly applicable to all members of the organization
• It should be acceptable to the employees

The elements of staffing are

• Procurement
Employment of proper number and kind of personnel is the first function of
staffing this involves:
1. Manpower planning
It is the process of determining current and future manpower needs in
terms of the number and quality of the personnel.
2. Recruitment
It implies locating sources of acceptable candidates.
3. Selection
It involves choice of right type of people from the available candidates.
This requires evaluating various candidates and selecting those that match the
needs of the organization.
4. Placement
It means assigning specific jobs to the selected candidates.

• Development
After placing the individual on various jobs it is necessary to train them so that
they can perform their jobs efficiently. Proper development of personnel is essential to
increase their skill in the proper performance of their jobs. Development involves
orientation, counseling and training of the personnel. Orientation is the socializing
process of adjusting newly hired employees in the organization. Training is the process of
improving the knowledge and skills of personnel.

• Compensation levels

Compensating personnel means determining adequate and equitable remuneration

of personnel for their contributions to the organizational goals. Both monetary and
nonmonetary rewards are decided keeping in view human needs, job requirements,
prevailing wage levels, organization’s capacity to pay etc. Compensation involves job
evaluation, performance appraisal; promotion etc. Job evaluation is the process of
determining the relative worth of different jobs in the organization. Performance
appraisal involves evaluating the employee’s performance in relation to certain standards.
Promotions, transfers etc are other elements of the reward system.

• Integration
It involves developing a sense of belonging to the enterprise. Sound
communication system is required to develop harmony and team spirit among employees.
Effective machinery is required for the quick and satisfactory redressal of all problems
and grievances of employees, it is essential to motivate employees towards the
accomplishment of organizational goals. Discipline and labour relation are important
elements of integration.

• Maintenance
It involves provision of such facilities and services that are required to maintain
the physical and mental health of employees. These include measures for health, safety
and comfort of employees. Various welfare services may consists of provision of
cafeteria, restrooms, group insurance, recreation club, education of children of employees


Human resource planning



Induction and orientation

Training and development

Performance appraisal

Employment decisions

Human resource planning

The purpose of human resource planning is to ensure that the personnel needs of the
organization will be met. Three elements of human resource planning are:
• Forecasting the personnel requirements
• Comparing the requirements to the inventory of potential candidates within the
• Developing specific plans for how many people to recruit or whom to train

In this step, management will attempt to identify and attract candidates to meet the
requirements of anticipated or actual vacancies. The actual recruitment of potential employees is
traditionally done through newspaper and professional journal advertisement.

Following recruitment, those candidates who have applied for the position advertised
must be evaluated and one chosen whose credentials match job requirements. The steps in
selection process include completing an application form, interview and physical examination.

Induction and orientation

Once selected, the employee must be integrated into the organization. The induction and
orientation process includes introduction of the new employee to the work group and acquainting
him with the organization’s policy and rules.

Training and development


Through training and development the organization tries to improve the employee’s
ability to contribute to the organization’s effectiveness. Training is concerned with improvement
of the employee’s skills. Development is concerned with the preparation of the employ for
additional responsibility.

Performance appraisal
A system designed to measure the actual job performance of an employee compared to
designated performance standards.

Employment decisions
Employment decisions in the areas of monetary rewards, transfers, promotions and
demotions will be made based on the outcome of the performance appraisal.

Voluntary turnover, retirements, layoffs and terminations must also be a concern of
Staffing is basically a dynamic process and is affected by a variety of factors, both
external and internal. Staffing function is affected by various elements of management process
but at the same time it affects other elements also.
For example: planning of an organization decides the number and type of personnel required. At
the same time number and type of personnel also affect what the organization can do. Thus
staffing is affected by different factors which can be grouped into two categories, external and
External factors
There are various external factors which have their impact on staffing policy, and an
organization does not have control over these factors.
1. Legal factors
There are various legal provisions which affect the staffing policy of an
organization. Various acts which provide restrictions to free recruitment are Child
Labour Act 1986, Employment Exchange Act 1959, Factories Act 1948 and Mines Act
1952. Besides provision regarding mandatory employment of certain categories of
personnel such as SC/ST, OBC etc impinge upon staffing policy of an organization.

2. Socio-cultural factors

Various socio-cultural factors affect the extent to which the organization can
employ certain categories of personnel for certain job.
For example: our socio-cultural factors almost prevent the employment of women in
certain manufacturing operations such as operations involving physical exertion etc.

3. External influences
There are various forces in the environment which exert pressures on the
employing organizations. These pressures may be from the political structure in the form
of emphasis on ‘sons of the soil’ or pressure for appointing certain individuals, pressure
from the community to which the promoters of an organization belongs.

Internal factors
Besides the various external factors, there are various internal factors which affect
staffing. They are
1. Organizational business plan
Organizational business plan directly affects staffing function because it
determines the type of personnel that may be required in future. Based on the business
plan organizations may be divided into three categories: growing, stagnating and
A growing organization undertakes various new projects either in the same line
of business or different business. Such an organization requires more personnel in future
besides maintaining its existing personnel.
A stagnating organization adopts stability strategy in which growth does not
come by way of additional investment but by making the present investment more
effective. Such an organization focuses more on retaining its present personnel by
offering them suitable rewards and financial incentives.
A declining organization focuses on reducing its business operation by divesting
those businesses which do not match with its core competence. Such an organization
goes for downsizing personnel by offering voluntary retirement scheme and pays below
average financial incentives.

2. Size of organization
Size of an organization is the factor which determines the degree of
attractiveness to the prospective candidates. A small organization cannot have the same
staffing practices which a large organization may have.

3. Organizational image
Organizational image is an important factor for attracting personnel for selection.
The image of an organization in human resource market depends on its staffing practices
like facilities for training and development, promotional avenues, compensation and
incentives and work culture.

Staffing is the process of filling all positions in the organization with adequate and
qualified personnel. The staffing function assumed great importance due to increase in size of
organizations, rapid advancement of technology and growing complexity of human behavior. In
recent years there has been considerable development of knowledge in the field of staffing. The
overwhelming role resources in organizations have been recognized. As a result management
human resources have become a vital area of management.

1. Gupta C.B “Management And Organization” fourth edition (1999), Sultan Chand and
Sons Publishers, page no: 4.3-4.7
2. Prasad LM “Principles And Practice Of management” seventh edition (2007), Sultan
Chand and Sons Publishers, page no:536-541