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USING THE RIGHT TIME

Find someone who.. 2


Present Simple or Progressive? 3
Past Tense Simple or Progressive? 8
Present Perfect Simple or Progressive? 19
Past Perfect Simple or Progressive? 2
F!t!re Tense Simple or Progressive " F!t!re Perfect 31
#reaming the grammar dreams $ stor% &'
(ll tenses mi)ed and *!m+led &1
1
Find someone who.
chews chewing g!ms....................................................................................................................
has won a race or a contest ...............................................
li,es to have ver% hot +aths ..............................................
reads more than one +oo, a wee, .......................................
tal,s to plants ...................................................................
is tr%ing to +rea, a ha+it ...................................................
was +orn on a Th!rsda% ...................................................
owns a pet with fo!r legs .................................................
has got more than three +rothers or sisters .......................
will cele+rate his"her +irthda% ne)t month........................
wo!ld go to the moon if invited +% an astrona!t ...............
wears soc,s in +ed ..............................................................
dreams a+o!t fl%ing ............................................................
!s!all% goes to +ed after midnight .....................................
+elieves in reincarnation ....................................................
li,es wor,ing in the garden ...............................................
can tell a *o,e in -nglish ...................................................
saw a scar% movie last wee, ...............................................
goes *ogging .....................................................................
has seen .Swan /a,e. ......................................................
li,es spring +est ....................................................................
!s!all% sings in the +ath ...................................................
can coo, a ver% good meal. ..................................................
wo!ld li,e to +e 10 %ears old again .....................................
2
SIMPLE PRESENT
a1 2ater consists of h%drogen
and o)%gen.
+1 3ost animals ,ill onl% for
food.
c1 The world is ro!nd.
The simple present sa%s that
something was tr!e in the
past4 it is tr!e in the present4
and will +e tr!e in the f!t!re.
5t is !sed for general
statements of fact.
d1 5 st!d% for two ho!rs
ever% night.
e1 3% classes +egin at nine.
f1 6e alwa%s eats a sandwich
for l!nch.
The simple present is !sed to
e)press habitual or everyday
activity.
g1 5 have onl% a dollar right
now.
h1 5 don7t recogni8e that man.
i1 6e needs a pen right now.
9ertain ver+s are not !sed in
the progressive tenses. 2ith
these ver+s4 the simple
present ma% indicate a
sit!ation that e)ists right
now4 at the moment of
spea,ing.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
*1 :ohn is sleeping right now.
,1 5 need an !m+rella +eca!se
it is raining.
l1 :ohn and 3ar% are tal,ing
on the phone.
The present progressive e);
presses an activit% that is in
progress at the moment of
speaking. 5t +egan in the
recent past4 is contin!ing at
present4 and will pro+a+l%
end at some point in the
f!t!re.
m1 5 am ta,ing five
co!rses this semester4
n1 :ohn is tr%ing to improve
his wor, ha+its.
o1 She is writing another
+oo, this %ear.
<ften the activit% is of a
general nat!re= something
generall% in progress this
wee,4 this month4 this %ear.
>ote ?o1= The sentence means
that writing a +oo, is a
general activit% she is
engaged in at present4 +!t it
does not mean that at the
moment of spea,ing she is
sitting at her des, with pen in
hand.
3
VERBS USUALLY NOT USED IN ANY OF THE PROGRESSIVE
TENSES
@-AB -C(3P/- <T6-A DS-S <F T65S
@-AB
be ?a1 5 am h!ngr%
SENSES
hear
taste
smell
see
?+1 5 hear a noise.
?c1 This food tastes good.
?d1 5 smell gas.
?e1 5 see a +!tterfl%.
Eo! will be hearing from me.
?meaning= 5 will write or
phone %o!.
The doctor is seeing a
patient4 ?meaning= meeting
with1
MENTAL
ACTIVITY
know
believe
think
understand
recognize
remember
forget
mean
?f1 5 ,now his phone n!m+er.
?g1 5 +elieve his stor%.
?h1 5 thin, he is a ,ind man. ?meaning=
+elieve1
?i1 5 !nderstand %o!r pro+lem now.
?*1 5 don7t recogni8e him.
?,1 5 remem+er m% first teacher.
?11 5 forget his name4
?m1 5 mean this +oo,4 not that one.
5 am thinking a+o!t this
grammar4 ?meaning= 9ertain
tho!ghts are going thro!gh
m% mind right now.1
5 have been meaning to call
%o!. ?meaning= intending1
POSSESSION
possess
own
have
belong
?n1 6e possesses man% fine F!alities4
?o1 She owns a ho!se4
?p1 6e has a car. ?meaning= possesses1
?F1 That +elongs to me.
5 am having tro!+le.
6e is having a good time.
?meaning= e)periencing1
ATTITUDES
Want
prefer
need
appreciate
love
like
hate
dislike
seem
r1 5 want to leave now.
s1 6e prefers to sta% here.
t1 5 need some help.
!1 5 appreciate %o!r help.
v1 5 love m% famil%.
w1 5 li,e this +oo,.
)1 She hates dishonest%.
%1 5 disli,e this +oo,.
81 6e seems to +e a nice person.
@-AB
ATTITUD!
look
appear
-C(3P/-
She loo,s cold.
?aa1 ?meaning= seems to +e1
?++1 6e appears to +e asleep4
?meaning= seems to +e1
<T6-A DS-S <F T65S
@-AB
5 am looking o!t the window.
?meaning= !sing m% e%es to
see1
The actor is appearing on the
stage.
&
EXERCISE I
Use either the simple present or the present progressive of the verbs in
parentheses.
1. Kathy (sit, usually) _____________________in the front row in class, but today
she (sit) __________________ in the last row.
2. Diane can't come to the phone because she (wash) _________________ her
hair.
3. Diane (wash) __________________________her hair eery other day or so.
!. "lease be #uiet. $ (try) _____________________________ to concentrate.
%. (&oc', you, always) ________________________ the door to your apartment
when you leae(
). &oo'* $t (snow) _______________________________________________.
+. ,i'e (-o, not) __________________________________ to school ri-ht now
because it is summer. .e (attend) _________________ colle-e from /eptember
to ,ay eery year, but in the summer he (hae, usually) ____________________
a 0ob at the post office. $n fact, he (wor') ___________________________ there
this summer.
1. 2i-ht now $ (loo') _________________________ around the classroom.
3hmed (write) ____________________________ in his boo'. 4arlos (bite)
__________________ his fin-er nails.
G
5 ete!tives at "or#
5om and 6ic' are watchin- the house across the street. /omethin- stran-e is
happenin-.
"ut the erbs in brac'ets in the present simple or the present continuous to ma'e
correct sentences.
57, 8hat are you staring (you stare) at(
6$4K 5here's a man at the 9ohnsons' house. .e doesn't live (not lie) there. $
wonder what he
1
________________________________(do)
57, "erhaps he
2
__________________________ (isit) the 9ohnsons.
6$4K 6o. 5hey're not at home. 5hey both _______________________(wor') in
town. 5hey
!
_____________________________ (catch) the same train as Dad
eery mornin-. $t's stran-e. .e ______________________(watch) the house ery
carefully.
57, 6ow he
)
_______________________ (try) to open the -ate, but it's
loc'ed. &oo'* .e
+
________________________ (climb) oer the -arden wall. $
can't see him now.
6$4K &et's follow him. $ want to see what he
1
_______________________(do)
57, .e
:
___________________________(-o) to the -ara-e. .e 1'_________
_____________ (carry) a ladder. 6ow he
11
__________________________(put)
the ladder up to the bedroom window*
6$4K .e must be a bur-lar. . . .ey* ;ou*
8hat
12
_______________________(you do)(
,36 $t's all ri-ht, boys. $'m an insurance
a-ent. 1
13
____________________________
(e<amine) the roof. 5he 9ohnsons
1!
______________________ ('now) that $'m
here.
0

8
SIMPLE PAST
a1 5 wal,ed to school
%esterda%.
+1 6e lived in Paris for ten
%ears4 +!t now he is living
in Aome.
c1 5 +o!ght a new car three
da%s ago.
The simple past indicates that
an activit% or sit!ation began
and ended at a particular
time in the past.
d1 5 stood !nder a tree when it
+egan to rain.
e1 2hen she heard a strange
noise4 she got !p to
investigate.
f1 2hen 5 dropped m% c!p4
the coffee spilled on m%
lap.
5f a sentence contains when
and has the simple past in
+oth cla!ses4 the action in the
"when clause" happens first.
5n ?d1= 1st= The rain +egan.
2nd= 5 stood !nder a tree.
PAST PROGRESSIVE
i1 5 was wal,ing down the
street when it +egan to rain.
*1 2hile 5 was wal,ing down
the street4 it +egan to rain.
,1 5 was standing !nder a tree
when it +egan to rain.
l1 (t eight o7cloc, last night4 5
was st!d%ing.
m1/ast %ear at this time4 5 was
attending school.
5n ?i1= 1st= 5 was wal,ing down
the street.
2nd= 5t +egan to rain.
5n other words4 +oth actions
occ!rred at the same time4 +!t
one action began earlier and
was in progress when the other
action occurred.
5n ?11= 3% st!d%ing +egan +e;
fore 8=''4 was in progress at
that time4 and .pro+a+l%
contin!ed.
n1 /ast :an!ar%4 while %o!
were tr!dging thro!gh
snow in 5owa4 5 was l%ing
on the +each in Florida.
o1 2hile 5 was st!d%ing in one
room of o!r apartment4 m%
roommate was having a
part% in the other room.
Sometimes the past progressive
is !sed in +oth parts of a sen;
tence when two actions are in
progress sim!ltaneo!sl%.
p1 5t rained this morning.
F1 5t was raining this morning.
5n some cases4 the simple past
and the past progressive give
almost the same meaning4 as in
?o1 and ?p1.
9
=<ercise 1
Use the simple past or the past progressive in the follo"ing.
1. $ (read) ____________________________ only two chapters last wee'.
2. $ (read) _________________________ a boo' last ni-ht when you called.
3. $ (call) _______________________ 9ohn at nine last ni-ht, but he (be, not)
__________________ at home. .e (study) ____________________________
at the library.
!. $ (hear, not) _______________________ the thunder durin- the storm last ni-ht
because $ (sleep) _________________________.
%. ,y brother and sister (ar-ue) _______________________ about somethin- when
$ (wal') _________________________ into the room.
). 8hen $ (open) ______________________ the pac'a-e, $ (find) ______________
_________ a surprise.
+. .e (climb) ________________________ the stairs when he (trip) _____________
and (fall) _______________________. &uc'ily, he (hurt, not) __________________
himself.
1. 8hile $ (read) ___________________________ the little boy a story, he (fall)
_________________________ asleep, so $ (close) __________________________
the boo' and #uietly (tiptoe) __________________________ out of the room.
E$er!ise %
&o" 'eans !ame to (meri!a
P)t the verbs in bra!#ets in the past simple or past !ontin)o)s.
&ei /trauss came (come) from a small town in the south of >ermany. 8hen he
1
.
___________ (be) a youn- man, he
2
__________________ (fall) in loe with the
mayor's dau-hter.
1'
?ut the mayor and &ei's parents
3
_______________________(not want) them to
marry.
&ei's parents
!
_____________________ (send) him away to 6ew ;or' where his
brothers
%
________________________ (lie). 5hey
)
______________________ (be)
tailors and they
+
____________________ (teach) him to sew. $n 11%@, &ei
_______________________ (ta'e) some sailcloth from 6ew ;or' to /an
Arancisco when he _________________________ (meet) some men. 5hey
1 _____________________________(di-) for -old in the streams and riers. 5he
weather was bad. $t ________________________ (rain) and the wind*%
+++__________________________ (blow). 5he men were cold because they (wear)
13
___________________________thin trousers.
/uddenly &ei *,______________________(hae) an idea. .e
1%
____________
?!se1 the sailcloth which he*- _____________________ (transport) to ma'e
trousers for the men. 5hen he 1!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(sew) on metal studs to
ma'e them stron-er.
5he men 1# ____________________________ (loe) the trousers but they
1$""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(not li'e) the yellowB-rey colour. /o when &ei
/trauss %.______________________(open) a tailor's shop in /an Arancisco, he %1
_______________________ (import) a special thic' blue material from 6imes in
Arance. 5hat's how 0eans %% _________________________(become) blue.
E$er!ise / 0here 1i1 he !ome from2
Cse the words in brac'ets to write #uestions about &ei /trauss. .e came from
>ermany. (8here ...................from)
#Where did he come from$
11
1 .is parents sent him to 3merica. (8here)
________________________________________________________________
2 .is brothers tau-ht him to sew. (8hat)
________________________________________________________________
3 $n 11%@ he set out for /an Arancisco. (8hen)
________________________________________________________________
! .e met some prospectors on the way. (8ho)
_________________________________________________________________
% 5hey were di--in- in a rier. (8here)
_________________________________________________________________
) 5hey were wearin- thin trousers. (8hat)
_________________________________________________________________
+ .e was ta'in- sailcloth to 4alifornia. (8hat)
_________________________________________________________________
1 .e made trousers from the sailcloth. (8hat. . from)
_________________________________________________________________
: 5he men didn't li'e the colour. (8hy)
________________________________________________________________
1@ .e imported blue material from Arance. (8here... from)
_________________________________________________________________
E$er!ise , P(ST SIMPLE 3 P(ST C4NTINU4US
1. 8hen she ___________________________the dishes she ________________
a bi- plate. (dry D drop)
2. 8hile they _________________________ 5E, a thief _________________ in.
(watch D climb)
12
3 ,other _________________________ dinner, while we _______________ our
homewor'. (coo' D do)
!. 5he pupils ________________ cards, when their teacher _________________
(play D enter)
%. ,other _________________ the clothes, when the li-hts _________________
out (iron D -o)
). 5he postman ________________ the parcel, 0ust as they _________________
(brin- D leae)
+. /usan ________________ her purse, while she _________________________
(lose D shop)
1. 8e __________________a son-, when our headmaster ____________________
(sin- D enter)
:. 8hen he ____________________ to town, he __________________________
an accident (drie D hae)
1@. ,other ______________________ a ca'e, while we _____________________
in the -arden. (ba'e D play)
11. 3s $ _________________ down the street, a car __________ into the shop.
(wal' D crash)
12. 8hile we __________________ 5E, a thief _____________ our car.
(watch D steal)
13. 5he bur-lar ________________ the safe, when he _________ some footsteps,
(openDhear)
1!. Aather _______________ the newspaper, when the doorbell ______________.
(read D rin-)
13
E$er!ise 5
P(ST /$,"&= 3 P(ST C4NTINU4US 5%6
1. 8e ___________________________________5E last ni-ht. (watch)
2. 5he train ___________________________________ at ).3@. (leae)
3. ,other ____________________________the dishes B (wash) when the phone
_____________________________. (rin-)
%. 8e ________________________________ a nice party last /aturday, (hae)
). $n %% ?. 4. 9ulius 4aesar _____________________________to ?ritain. (come)
+. Aather ________________________________in his car B (wait) while mother
____________________. (shop)
:. $ couldn't come, because $ _________________________________ ill. (be)
1@. 9ust as he ___________________________________to bed, (-o)
the li-hts __________________________out. (-o)
12. 5he car suddenly _________________________________________. (stop)
13. $t ________________________(rain) when he_____________________ out of
the window. (loo')
1%. Aather ____________________________ home yesterday. (not come)
.e ______________________________ lunch in a restaurant. (hae)
1). $ ________________________________ throu-h the window. (loo')
/ome students _______________________________ on the blac'board, (write)
1+. 8e _____________________________an =n-lish son-, (sin-) when the door
__________________________ . (open)
11. ,other _______________________________ the rooms last /aturday. (clean)
1:. 5hey _____________________ that school, (build) when $ _________________
a little boy. (be)
1&
2@. /ome people in the waitin-Broom __________________________ (read).
/uddenly the door ___________________ (open) and the nurse
________________ (say), F5he ne<t one, pleaseG.
21. 5he do- ________________________________ the postman (attac').
0ust as he _________________________ letters into the letterBbo<. (put)
22. .ow ___________you _____________your le-( (brea') $ ________________
off the ladder, (fall) when $ ________________ some apples. (pic')
23. 8e ___________________________much sleep last ni-ht, (not -et) because
our nei-hbours ________________________________a party . (hae)
2!. ;ou are late. 5he train ________________________________ at 1.@@. (leae)
2%. 5hey _________________________________ to 4anada some years a-o. (-o)
2). $ ___________________________ my homewor' (do) when my friend "eter
____________________. (turn up)
2+. 5hey __________________tea (hae) when the doorbell __________________ .
(rin-)
7R(MM(R 0IT& L(U7&TER
P&s' Sim()e * +on'in,o,s
+om()e'e 'he -o.es /e)ow /0 ,sin1 'he 2o33e2' 'ense o4 'he 5e3/ in /3&2.e's6
%. #ad. 2hat do %o! call a small +rown thing with ten legs4 and green e%es?
5 don7t ,now4 son. 2h% do %o! as,?
2ell4 one .......................................... along %o!r lett!ce *!st +efore %o! ........... itH
&crawl' eat(
). 6arr% ........................................................ a large grandfather cloc, on his sho!lder4 &carry(
6e was delivering it to a c!stomer. 6e co!ldn7t see what was on his right hand side and
he .................................................over an old lad% who ............................... in a shop
window4 &knock' look( .57m ver%4 ver% sorr%4 .said the man.
.5diotH. sho!ted the old woman. .2h% can7t %o! wear a watch li,e ever%+od% else?.
*. 2hat .............................. %o! .......... in m% apple tree last night4 %o!ng man?
&do(
1G
2ell4 one of %o!r apples ................................ down when 5 ............................ %o!r garden
so 5......... it +ac, for %o!H &fall' pass' put(
+. 3agic Bo+ was a magician on a cr!ise ship. -ach night he too, o+*ects from the
passengers and made them disappear4 then reappear in strange places. The captain of the
ship had a parrot which alwa%s sho!ted .A!++ishH. at the end of the magician7s act. <ne
da% the ship ................................... an ice+erg and . .......... . &hit' sink( The
magician and the parrot were the onl% s!rvivors. 2hile the% ............................. on a large
piece of wood in the water4 the parrot ............ &lie' say( .<I4
geni!s. 2here7s the ship?.
,. ( lifeg!ard ................................................. a %o!ng lad% the ,iss of life when her
h!s+and ..................................... &give' arrive(.
2hat are %o! doing to m% wife?
57m giving her artificial respiration.
(rtificialH Jive her the real thing. 57ll pa% for it.
-. #octor4 lots of m% hair ........................................... o!t while 5 .................................. it this
morning4 &fall' brush(
6ave %o! got an%thing for it?
S!re. 6ere7s a +o).
.. ( %o!ng man was in the middle of a road with his right ear to the gro!nd. (n old lad%
as,ed him=
/.
2hat are %o! listening for?
( motor+i,e passed this spot ten min!tes ago.
That7s incredi+leH 6ow do %o! ,now that?
Beca!se it ................................... me while 5 ............................. the road and it.................
m% nec,. &hit' cross' break(
0. 6ow did %o! get that +ig red l!mp on %o!r nose?
5................................a +rose while 5 ............................... in the garden4 &smell' work(
B!t there is no 7+7 in rose.
There was in this oneH
10
T&). o3 w3i'e &/o,' &22iden's 0o, h&d7 whi)e 0o, we3e doin1 some'hin1 e)se. Fo3
e8&m()e6 I cut (past simple) m0 h&nd /&d)0 whi)e I was peeling (past cntinuus) some
(o'&'oes. I sc!ape" 'he side o4 m0 2&3 whi)e I was pa!#ing in 'own.
UPS 9 DO:NS
1. swim
2. rise
3. come
&. drin,4 throw
G. fight
0. ,eep
. +!%
8. light
9. thin,
1'.find
11.
+ite
12.
hear
13.
+ring

1&.
send
1G.
wear
10.
,now
1.
draw4
hide
18.
leave
19.
ring
2'.
+egin
21.
+eat
22.
do
23.
ta,e
2&.
drive
2G.
grow
20.
tell
2.
r!n
28.
catch
29.
get
3'.
c!t
31.
la%
32.
teach
33.
have
3&.
sell
3G.
show
30.
+!ild
3.
let
38.
+low
39.
spend
&'.
read
&1.
ma,e
&2.
sh!t
&3.
sit
&&.
hold
&G.
win
&0.
lose
&.
fall
&8.
sing
&9.
meet
G'.
weep
1''
FINISH
99
#<2>
98 9 $;
DO:N
9G 9& 93 92 91
81 82 83 8& 8G 80
DP
8 88 89 9'
8' 9 8 0 G & !<
DO:N
2 1
01 02 03 0& 0G
DP
00 0 08 09 '
0' G9
DP
G8 G G0 GG G& G3 =%
UP
G1
&1 &2 &3 && &G &0 &
DP
&8 &9 G'
&' &9 38 3 30
DP
3G 3& 33 32 31
21 %%
DO:N
23 2& 2G 20
DP
2 28 29 3'
2' 19 18 1!
UP
10 1G 1& 13
DP
12 11
1
START
2 3 & G 0
DP
8 9 1'
G1. give
G2. eat
G3. lie
G&. shine
GG. wa,e
G0. write
01. fl%
02. +rea,
03. go
0&. forget
0G. sa%
00. feel
1. spea,
2. see
3. p!t
&. +e
G. choose
0. dig
81. sleep
82. for+id
83. spread
8&. sha,e4 lend
8G. shrin,
80. forgive
91. tear
92. spit
93. spring
9&. spin
9G. !nderta,e
90. !nderstand
1
G. feed
G8. free8e4sweep
G9. pa%
0'. stri,e
0. ride
08. mean
09. +ecome
'. stand
. ,nee
8. lead
9. sew
8'. hit
8. steal
88. cost4 h!rt
89. swing
9'. shoot
9. swear
98. stic,
99. sin,
I33e1,)&3 5e3/s
1. swim ; swam ; sw!m ?schwimmen1
2. rise ; rose $ risen ?erhe+en1
3. come ; came $ come ?,ommen1
&. drin, ; dran, $ dr!n, ?trin,en1
throw ; threw $ thrown ?werfen1
G. fight ; fo!ght $ fo!ght ?,Kmpfen1
0. ,eep ; ,ept $ ,ept ?halten1
. +!% ; +o!ght $ +o!ght ?,a!fen1
8. light ; lit $ lit ?le!chten1
9. thin, ; tho!ght $ tho!ght ?den,en1
1'. find ; fo!nd $ fo!nd ?finden1
11. +ite ; +it $ +itten ?+eiLen1
12. hear ; heard $ heard ?hMren1
13. +ring ; +ro!ght $ +ro!ght ?+ringen1
1&. send ; sent $ sent ?schic,en1
1G. wear ; wore $ worn ?tragen1
10. ,now ; ,new $ ,nown ?wissen1
1. draw ; drew $ drawn ?8eichnen1
hide ; hid $ hidden ?verstec,en1
18. leave ; left $ left ?verlassen1
19. ring ; rang $ r!ng ?la!ten1
2'. +egin; +egan $ +eg!n ?anfangen1
21. +eat ; +eat $ +eaten ?schlagen1
22. do ; did $ done ?t!n1
23. ta,e ; too, $ ta,en ?nehmen1
2&. drive ; drove $ driven ?len,en1
2G. grow ; grew $ grown ?wachsen1
20. tell ; told $ told ?er8Khlen1
2. r!n ; ran $ r!n ?rennen1
28. catch ; ca!ght $ ca!ght ?fangen1
29. get ; got $ got ?+e,ommen1
3'. c!t ; c!t $ c!t ?schneiden1
31. la% ; laid $ laid ?legen1
32. teach ; ta!ght $ ta!ght ?lehren1
33. have ; had $ had ?ha+en1
3&. sell ; sold $ sold ?ver,a!fen1
3G. show ; showed $ shown ?8eigen1
30. +!ild ; +!ilt $ +!ilt ?+a!en1
3. let ; let $ let ?lassen1
38. +low ; +lew $ +lown ?+lasen1
39. spend ; spent ; spent?ver+ringen1
&'. read ; read ; read?lesen1
&1. ma,e ; made $ made ?machen1
&2. sh!t ; sh!t; sh!t ?schlieLen1
&3. sit ; sat $ sat ?sit8en1
&&. hold ; held $ held ?halten1
&G. win ; won $ won ?gewinnen1
&0. lose ; lost $ lost ?verlieren1
&. fall ; fell $ fallen ?fallen1
&8. sing ; sang $ s!ng ?singen1
&9. meet ; met $ met ?treffen1
G'. weep ; wept $ wept ?weinen1
G1. give $ gave ; given ?ge+en1
G2. eat ; ate ; eaten ?essen1
G3. lie ; la% ; lain ?liegen1
G&. shine ; shone ; shone ?scheinen1
GG. wa,e ; wo,e ; wo,en ?a!fwachen1
G0. write ; wrote ; written ?schrei+en1
G. feed ; fed ; fed ?f!ttern1
G8. free8e ; fro8e ; fro8en ?frieren1
sweep ; swept ; swept ?,ehren1
G9. pa% ; paid ; paid ?+e8ahlen1
0'. stri,e ; str!c, ; str!c, ?schlagen1
01. fl% ; flew ; flown ?fliegen1
02. +rea, ; +ro,e ; +ro,en ?+rechen1
03. go ; went ; gone ?gehen1
0&. forget ; forgot ; forgotten ?vergessen1
0G. sa% ; said ; said ?sagen1
00. feel ; felt ; felt ?fNhlen1
0. ride ; rode ; ridden ?reiten1
08. mean ; meant ; meant ?meinen1
09. +ecome ; +ecame ; +ecome ?werden1
'. stand ; stood ; stood ?stehen1
1. spea, ; spo,e ; spo,en ?sprechen1
2. see ; saw ; seen ?sehen1
3. p!t ; p!t ; p!t ?set8en1
&. +e ; was"were ; +een ?sein1
G. choose ; chose ; chosen ?wahlen1
0. dig ; d!g ; d!g ?gra+en1
. ,neel ; ,nelt ; ,nelt ?,nien1
8. lead ; led ; led ?f!hren1
9. sew ; sewed ; sewn ?nahen1
8'. hit ; hit ; hit ?schlagen1
81. sleep ; slept ; slept ?schlafen1
82. for+id ; for+ade ; for+idden
?ver+ieten1
83. spread ; spread ; spread ?ver+reiten1
8&. sha,e ; shoo, ; sha,en ?schNtteln1
lend ; lent ; lent ?leihen1
8G. shrin, ; shran, ; shr!n, ?schr!mpfen1
80. forgive ; forgave ; forgiven ?verge+en1
8. steal ; stole ; stolen ?stehlen1
88. cost ; cost ; cost ?,osten1
h!rt ; h!rt ; h!rt ?verlet8en1
89. swing ; sw!ng ; sw!ng ?schwingen1
9'. shoot ; shot ; shot ?schieLen1
91. tear ; tore ; torn ?reiLen1
92. spit ; spat ; spat ?sp!c,en1
93. spring ; sprang ; spr!ng ?springen1
9&. spin ; sp!n ; sp!n ?spinnen1
9G. !nderta,e ;!ndertoo, ;!nderta,en
?!nternehmen1
18
90. !nderstand ; !nderstood ; !nderstood
?verstehen1
9. swear ; swore ; sworn ?schworen1
98. stic, ; st!c, ; st!c, ?,le+en1
99. sin, ; san, ; s!n, ?sin,en1
19
PRESENT PERFE+T
a1 The% have moved into a
new apartment.
+1 6ave %o! ever visited
3e)ico?
c1 5 have alread% seen that
movie.
d1 5 have never seen snow.
The present perfect
e)presses the idea that
something happened ?or
never happened1 before
now' at an unspecified time
in the past. The e)act time
it happened is not
important.
5f there is a specific
mention of time4 the simple
past is !sed= I saw that
movie last night.
e1 2e have had fo!r tests so
far this semester.
f1 5 have written m% wife a
letter ever% other da% for
the last two wee,s.
g1 5 have met man% people
since 5 came here in
:!ne.
h1 5 have flown on an
airplane man% times.
The present perfect also e);
presses the repetition of an
activity before now. The
e)act time of each
repetition is not important.
i1 5 have +een here since
seven o7cloc,.
*1 2e have +een here for two
wee,s4
,1 5 have had this same pair
of shoes for three %ears.
The present perfect also4
when !sed with for or since'
e)presses a sit!ation that
began in the past and
continues to the present.1
5n the e)amples4 notice the
2'
l1 5 have li,ed cow+o%
movies ever since 5 was a
child4
m15 have ,nown him for
man% %ears.
difference +etween since and
for2
since O a particular time
for 3 duration of time
The present perfect has this meaning primaril% for those ver+s that are !s!all% not !sed in an%
of the progressive tenses. This meaning is e)actl% the same as the meaning of the present
perfect progressive tense.
21
PRESENT PER8ECT PR47RESSI9E
Aight now 5 am sitting at m%
des,.
?a1 5 have +een sitting here since
seven o7cloc,.
?+1 5 have +een sitting here for
two ho!rs.
?c1 Eo! have +een st!d%ing for
five straight ho!rs. 2h% don7t
%o! ta,e a +rea,?
?d1 6e has +een watching
television since nine o7cloc, this
morning.
?e1 5t has +een raining all day. 5t
is still raining right now.
This tense is !sed to
indicate the duration of an
activit% that began in the
past and continues to the
present. 2hen the tense
has this meaning4 it is !sed
with time words s!ch as
for' since' all morning' all
day' all week.
f1 5 have +een thin,ing a+o!t
changing m% ma*or.
g1 (ll of the st!dents have +een
st!d%ing hard.
h1 :ohn has +een doing a lot of
wor, on his thesis. 6e sho!ld
+e finished +% 3a%.
i1 3% +ac, h!rts4 so 5 have +een
sleeping on the floor latel%.
The +ed is too soft.
2hen the tense is !sed
witho!t an% specific
mention of time4 it
e)presses a general
activity in progress
recently' lately.
*1 5 have lived here since 19G.
,1 5 have +een living here since
19G.
l1 6e has wor,ed at the same
store for ten %ears.
2ith certain ver+s ?most
nota+l% live' work' teach(
there is little or no
difference in meaning
+etween the two tenses
when since or for is !sed.
22
E8e32ise 16
Dse the sim()e (&s' o3 'he (3esen' (e34e2'. 5n some sentences either tense is possi+le +!t the
meaning is different.
1. 5 ?not attend1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an% parties since 5 came here.
2. 5 ?go1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto a part% at Sall%7s apartment last Sat!rda% night.
3. Bill ?arrive1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPhere three da%s ago.
&. Bill ?+e1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPhere since the 22nd.
G. Tr% not to +e a+sent from class again for the rest of the term. Eo! ?miss4 alread%1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP too man% classes. Eo! ?miss1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP two classes *!st last wee,.
0. /ast :an!ar%4 5 ?see1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP snow for the first time in m% life.
. 5n her whole lifetime4 she ?see4 never1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPsnow.
8. 5 ?,now1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Jreg (dams for ten %ears.
9. So far this wee,4 5 ?have1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP two tests and a F!i8.
1'. Dp to now4 Professor 2illiams ?give1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP o!r class five tests.
11. The science of medicine ?advance1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a great deal in the 19
th
cent!r%.
12. Since the +eginning of the 2'
th
cent!r%4 medical scientists ?ma,e1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
man% important discoveries.
E8e32ise %6
Dse the (3esen' (e34e2' (3o13essi5e in the following.
1. The +o%s are pla%ing soccer right now. The% ?pla%1 have been playing for almost two
ho!rs. The% m!st +e getting tired.
2. (le) is tal,ing on the phone. 6e ?tal,1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPon the phone for over a half
an ho!r. 6e sho!ld hang !p soon. /ong distance is e)pensive.
3. 57m tr%ing to st!d%. 5 ?tr%1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto st!d% for the last ho!r4 +!t something
alwa%s seems to interr!pt met 5 thin, 57d +etter go to the li+rar%.
23
9omplete the following +% writing two sentences. Dse the present perfect progressive in the
first sentenceQ then ma,e another sentence that might t%picall% follow in this sit!ation.
&. The +a+% is cr%ing. She 4as been crying for almost ten minutes.
I wonder what#s wrong.
G. 5t7s raining. 5t PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
0. 57m st!d%ing. 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
. 57m waiting for m% friend. 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
8. Bo+ is sitting in the waiting room. 6e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
E8e32ise <6
Dse the (3esen' (e34e2' o3 'he (3esen' (e34e2' (3o13essi5e. 5n some sentences4 either tense
ma% +e !sed with little or no change in meaning.
1. 5t ?snow1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPall da%. 5 wonder when it stops.
2. 2e ?have1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPthree ma*or snowstorms so far this winter. 5 wonder how
man% more we will have.
3. 5t7s ten p.m. 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?st!d%1 for two ho!rs and pro+a+l% won7t finish
!ntil midnight.
&. 5 ?write1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP them three times4 +!t 5 still haven7t received a repl%.
G. 5 ?live1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP here since last 3arch.
0. The telephone ?ring1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP fo!r times in the last ho!r4 and each time
it has +een for m% roommate.
2&
. The telephone ?ring1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for almost a min!te. 2h% doesn7t someone
answer it?
8. The little +o% is dirt% from head to foot +eca!se he ?pla%1 PPPPPPPPPPPP in the m!d.
E8e32ise >6
Same as the preceding e)ercise.
1. (= ?Be4 %o!1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a+le to reach Bo+ on the phone %et? B= >ot %et. 5
?tr%1PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPfor the last twent% min!tes4 +!t the line ?+e1 PPPPPPPPPP+!s%.
2. (= 6i4 :enn%. 5 ?see4 not1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP%o! for wee,s. 2hat ?do4 %o!1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP latel%? B= St!d%ing.
3. (= 2hat are %o! going to order for dinner?
B= 2ell4 5 ?have4 never1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPpi88a4 so 5 thin, 57ll order that.
&. (= 2hat7s the matter? Eo!r e%es are red and p!ff%. ?9r%4 %o!1PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?
B= >o. 5 *!st finished peeling some onions.
&. (= #r. :ones is a good teacher. 6ow long ?+e4 he1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPat the !niversit%?
B= 6e ?teach1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPhere for twent%;five %ears.
E8e32ise =6 :h&' h&5e 'he0 /een doin1?
9omplete the sentences with the present perfect simple or the present perfect contin!o!s.
:ane has been writing ?write1 a letter to a maga8ine. She hasn7t finished it %et.
1. Ben PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?loo,1 for his pen;,nife4 +!t he hasn7t fo!nd it %et.
2. :enn% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?wait1 for the +!s for half an ho!r4 +!t it hasn7t arrived %et.
3. >ic, PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?pla%1 a comp!ter game for two ho!rs and he7s still pla%ing.
&. 3i,e hasn7t finished painting his car %et. 6e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?wor,1 on it for two
wee,s.
G. (manda PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?not come1 home %et. She has +een shopping in town since
1' o7cloc,.
2G
0. 3i,e7s car PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?ma,e1 strange noises. >ic, and :ane have cleaned all the
parts.
. Ben has +een drawing cartoons for two ho!rs. 6e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?not finished1 %et.
8. (manda has +een waiting for :enn% in town. :enn% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?not arrive1 %et.
9. :ane has +een ,nitting a p!llover. She PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?*!st finish1 it.
1'. 5t PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?rain1 all da% and it hasn7t stopped %et.
11. 3r Bla,e has +een mar,ing tests all evening +!t he PPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?not find1 a perfect
one %et.
12. Trig PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?practise1 the present perfect4 +!t he hasn7t got it right.
Thin, of a *o+ or activit% that %o! have started +!t have not finished4 for e)ample4 something
that %o! are ma,ing4 reading or drawing. 2rite a short paragraph a+o!t it. Sa% how long %o!
have +een doing it.
GRAMMAR :ITH LAUGHTER P3esen' Pe34e2' * P&s' Sim()e
Dsing the Present Perfect or the Past Simple4 complete the following *o,es=
1. . ................. %o! .................................. &be( to (merica +efore?
>o. This is m% first time.
#id %o! ,now that 9hristopher 9ol!m+!s .................................................. &find( (merica?
Aeall%? 5 never ,new it was lostH
2. 2hen %o! ........................... &sell( me this car this morning4 %o! .............................. &say( it
was tro!+le;free. Since then4 the +ra,es ........................ &fail( and the door ...................
&fall( off.
2ell4 sir4 5 did sell %o! the car +!t the tro!+le was freeH
3. #octor4 5 ............................... &have( a sore stomach ever since 5 ......................... &eat( three
cra+s last wee,.
....... the% .................................. &smell( +ad when %o! ............................ &take(
them o!t of their shells?
2hat do %o! mean ; too, them o!t of their shells?
&. >ow4 ......................... ever%one ......................... &read( the chapter on /ord >elson for
homewor,?
Ees4 sir.
20
Ievin4. in which +attle ................................ /ord >elson ..................................... &die($
-r4 his last one4 sir?
G. 5 ............................... &buy( this diamond ring from a man in the street. 5t7s for m%
girlfriend.
(re the% real diamonds?
5 hope so. 5f not4 the man ................................... *!st.......................... &cheat( me o!t of RG.
0. 6ow7s %o!r sister?
She .......................................... &go( on a ver% strict diet to lose weight.
(nd how is she getting on?
Fine. She .................................................................. &disappear( last wee,.
. 3rs Smith is ver% !pset. She thin,s she .............................. &lose( her cat.
2hen ................................... she last............................. &see( it?
Fo!r da%s ago.
2h% doesn7t she p!t an advertisement in the newspaper?
#on7t +e sill%. 6er cat can7t read.
8. 3% dad ....................... never ................................ &visit( the dentist.
3% dad will never go +ac, to the dentist.
2h%? 2hat happened?
The dentist.................................................... &take( all his teeth o!t.
2hat........................... %o!r dad ......................... &say($
>ever againH >ever againH
9. Ao+ert was fishing in a private la,e. (n old man came !p to him and as,ed=
.......... %o! ........ &catch( an%thing?
Ees. Three +ig fish since 5 ........................................... &start( this morning.
3% name is /ord (rton and 5 own this la,e. <h. 3% name is Ao+ert and 57m a terri+le
liarH
2
Past Perfe!t
A beggar stopped me the other day and said he $a"n%t $a" a bite for days.
What did you do$
I bit him5
6eter had a very large garden and he $a"
&een "igging it for about five hours when
7rs. 8urns came along.
9h' hello' 6eter. What are you growing$
The sweat was running down 6eter:s face.
4e looked up and said' ;Tired5<
28
PAST PERFE+T
a. 3% parents had alread%
eaten +% the time 5 got
home.
+. Dntil %esterda%4 5 had
never heard a+o!t it.
c. The thief simpl% wal,ed
in. Someone had forgotten
to loc, the door.
d. 6e had arrived before we
got there.
e. 6e arrived before we got
there.
f. After the g!ests had left4 5
went to +ed.
g. After the g!ests )e4'7 5
went to +ed.
The past perfect e)presses an
activit% that was completed
before another activity or
time in the past.
5f either before or after is
!sed in the sentence4 the past
perfect is not necessar%
+eca!se the time relationship
is alread% clear. The simple
past ma% +e !sed instead of
the past perfect4 as in ?e1 and
?g1.
PAST PERFE+T PROGRESSIVE
h. The police had +een loo,;
ing for the criminal for
two %ears +efore the%
ca!ght him.
i. The patient had +een
waiting in the emergenc%
room for almost an ho!r
+efore a doctor finall%
treated her.
*. 6e finall% came at si)
o7cloc,. 5 had +een wait;
ing for him since fo!r;
thirt%.
,. 6er s,in was s!n+!rned
+eca!se she had +een
l%ing on the +each all
afternoon.
The past perfect progressive
emphasi8es the duration of
an activit% that was in
progress before another
activity or time in the past.
l. 2hen :!d% got home4 her
hair was still wet +eca!se
she had +een swimming.
m. 6er e%es were red +eca!se
she had +een cr%ing.
This tense also ma% e)press
an activit% in progress recent
to another time or activity in
the past.
29
-)ercise 1= Dse Simple Past or the Past Perfect
(re there some sentences where either tense is possi+le?
11 6e ?+e1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a newspaper reporter +efore he
?+ecome1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPa +!siness man.
21 5 ?feel1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a little +etter after 5 ?ta,e1 PPPPPPPPPP the
medicine.
31 5 was late. The teacher ?give4 alread%1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPa F!i8 when 5 ?get1
PPPPPPPPPPPP to class.
&1 The anthropologist ?leave1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPthe village when she ?collect1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP eno!gh data.
G1 5t was raining hard4 +!t +% the time class ?+e1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPover4 the rain ?stop1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
01 3illions of %ears ago4 dinosa!rs ?roam1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the earth4 +!t the%
?+ecome1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPe)tinct +% the time h!man,ind first ?appear1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
1 9lass ?+egin4 alread%1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP +% the time 5 ?get1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there4 so
5 ?ta,e4 F!ietl%1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a seat in the +ac,.
81 5 ?see4 never1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPan% of Picasso7s paintings +efore 5 ?visit1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the art m!se!m.
91 5 almost missed m% plane. (ll of the other passengers ?+oard4 alread%1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
+% the time 5 ?get1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there.
1'1Eesterda% at a resta!rant4 5 ?see1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Pam #onnell%4 an old friend of
mine. 5 ?see4 not1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPher in %ears. (t first4 5 ?recogni8e4 not1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPher +eca!se she ?lose1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPat least fift%
po!nds.
3'
GRAMMAR :ITH LAUGHTER The P&s' Pe34e2'
Use h&d o3 h&dn@' 'o 2om()e'e 'he 4o))owin16
11 2hen her da!ghter arrived home from a part%4 3rs Thompson as,ed her if she ?than,1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPP her hostess. .>o4. she said. .The girl in front of me than,ed her and the
lad% said 7#on7t mention it7 so 5 didn7t..
21 6ere7s %o!r coffee4 madam ; it7s a special coffee all the wa% from Bra8il. <h4 5 was
wondering where %o! ?go1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
31 ( stressed managing director went to his doctor for help in getting to sleep. The wor,ers at
his factor% ?go1 PPPPPPPPPPPP on stri,e. The% wanted +etter pa% and conditions. The
director ?tr%1 PPPPPPPPPPPP sleeping pills +!t the% ?not wor,1 PPPPPPPPPPPP. The doctor
as,ed the director to lie F!ite still in +ed at night and to co!nt sheep. The following da%
the director ret!rned to the doctor7s s!rger%.
2ell4 said the doctor. (n% s!ccess?
57m afraid not4 he said. B% the time 5 ?co!nt1 PPPPPPPPPPPP the thirt%;first sheep the% ?all
go1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPP on stri,e for shorter ho!rs and lower fences.
&1 Ienneth is so st!pid. 6e phoned his teacher at school %esterda% to sa% he co!ldn7t come to
school +eca!se he ?lose1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP his voiceH
G1 ( doctor ?*!st give1 PPPPPPPPPPPPP a +o% an in*ection in his arm. 6e was a+o!t to p!t a
+andage on his arm when the +o% said4 2o!ld %o! mind p!tting the +andage on m% other
arm4 doctor?
2h%? 57m p!tting it over %o!r vaccination so that the other +o%s will ,now not to +ang
into 5t.
Eo! don7t ,now the +o%s in m% school4 doctorH
01 3!mH 3!mH #ad7s fallen over a cliff. 5s he o,a%? 5 don7t ,now. 6e ?not stop1
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP falling when 5 left.
1 ( +eggar stopped me the other da% and said he ?not have1 PPPPPPPPPPPP a +ite for da%s.
2hat did %o! do? 5 +it himH
81 5t was m% grandmother7s +irthda% %esterda%. 5s she old?
2ell4 +% the time we lit the last candle on her +irthda% ca,e4 the first one ?go1 PPPPPPP
o!tH
91 6arr% Smith was sent to 9entral (frica +% his compan%. 6e sent a postcard to his wife as
soon as he arrived. Dnfort!natel% it was delivered to another 3rs. Smith whose h!s+and
?die1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the da% +efore. The postcard read= (AA5@-# S(F-/E T65S
3<A>5>J. T6- 6-(T 5S T-AA5B/-.
31
32
SIMPLE 8UTURE : ;E GOING TO
a. 6e will finish his wor,
tomorrow.
b. 6e is going to finish his
wor, tomorrow.
c. 5 will wash the dishes later.
d. 5 am going to wash the
dishes later.
Will or be going to is !sed to
e)press f!t!re time. !hall ma% +e
!sed with 5 or we' +!t wil l =be
going to is more commonl%
!sed.S 5n speech4 going to is
often prono!nced .gonna..
e. Bo+ will come soon. When
8ob comes' we will see
him.
f. /inda will leave soon. 8e>
fore she leaves' she is going
to finish her wor,.
-. 5 will get home at G=3'.
After I get home' 5 will eat
dinner.
h. The ta)i will arrive in less
than five min!tes. As soon
as the ta?i arrives' we will
+e a+le to leave for the
airport.
i. The% are going to come
soon. 5 will wait here until
they come.
( cla!se is a grammatical str!c;
t!re which has a s!+*ect and a
ver+. ( .time cla!se. +egins with
s!ch words as when' before'
after' as soon as' until'
These words ma% +e followed +%
a s!+*ect and ver+=
When he comes' we will see him.
When 3 sub@ect O verb A time
cla!se
( f!t!re tense is not !sed in a
time cla!se. The meaning of the
cla!se is f!t!re4 +!t the simple
present tense is !sed.
0. 5 will go to +ed after I
finish m% wor,.
'. 5 will go to +ed after I have
finished my work.
<ccasionall%4 the present perfect
is !sed in a time cla!se4 as in ?,1.
-)amples ?*1 and ?,1 have the
same meaning. The present
perfect stresses the completion of
the act in the time cla!se +efore
the other act occ!rs in the f!t!re.
!haIl is !sed m!ch more freF!entl% in British -nglish than in (merican
-nglish.
33
USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE SIMPLE
PRESENT TO EAPRESS FUTURE TIME
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
a. 3% wife has an appointment with a
doctor. She is seeing #r. >orth ne?t
Tuesday.
+. Sam has alread% made his plans. 6e is
leaving at noon tomorrow.
c. (= 2hat are %o! going to do this
afternoon?
B= After lunch 5 am meeting a friend
of mine. 2e are going shopping.
2o!ld %o! li,e to come along?
d. (= 3% car is in the garage for repairs.
B= 6ow are %o! going to get to wor,
tomorrow?
(= 5 am ta,ing the +!s.
The present progressive ma% +e !sed to
e)press f!t!re time when the idea of the
sentence concerns a planned event or definite
intention.
?9<3P(A-= ( ver+ s!ch as rain is not !sed
in the present progressive to indicate f!t!re
time +eca!se rain is not a planned event.1
( f!t!re meaning for the present progressive
tense is indicated either +% f!t!re time words
in the sentence or +% the conte)t.
SIMPLE PRESENT
e. The m!se!m opens at ten tomorrow
morning.
f. 9lasses +egin ne?t week.
g. :ohn7s plane arrives at -2B, ne?t 7onday.
Sometimes the simple present is !sed in
sentences that contain f!t!re time words. The
simple present is !sed primaril% with ver+s
s!ch as open=close' begin=end' arrive=leave
and e)presses an esta+lished fact.
?>ote= 5n e)pressing f!t!re time4 the present
progressive is !sed in a m!ch wider range of
sit!ations than the simple present.1
3&
8UTURE PR47RESSI9E
a. 5 will +egin to st!d% at
seven. Eo! will come at
eight. 5 will +e st!d%ing
when %o! come.
b. Aight now 5 am sitting in
class. (t this same time
tomorrow4 5 will +e sitting in
class.
The f!t!re progressive
e)presses an activit% that will
+e in progress at a time in the
future.
c. #on7t call me at nine +eca!se
5 won7t +e home. 5 am going
to +e st!d%ing at the li+rar%.
The progressive form of be
going to2
be going to 3 be 3 >ing
?d1 #on7t get impatient. She will
+e coming soon4 ?e1 #on7t get
impatient. She will come soon.
Sometimes there is little or no
difference +etween the f!t!re
progressive and the simple
f!t!re4 especiall% when the
f!t!re event will occ!r at an
indefinite time in the f!t!re4 as
in ?d1 and ?e1.
FUTURE PERFE+T
a. 5 will grad!ate in :!ne. 5
will see %o! in :!l%. B%
the ne)t time 5 see %o!4 5
will have grad!ated.
b. 5 will have finished m%
homewor, +% the time 5
go o!t on a date tonight.
The f!t!re perfect e)presses
an activit% that will +e
completed before another
time or event in the future.
?>otice in the e)amples= by
the time introd!ces a .time
cla!se.Q the simple present
is !sed in a .time cla!se..1
FUTURE PERFE+T PROGRESSIVE
c. 5 will go to +ed at ten P.3.
6e will get home at mid;
night. (t midnight 5 will
+e sleeping. 5 will have
+een sleeping for two
ho!rs +% the time he gets
home.
The f!t!re perfect
progressive emphasi8es the
duration of an activit% that
will +e in progress before
another time or event in the
future.
d. 2hen Professor :ones re;
tires ne)t month4 he will
have ta!ght for &G %ears.
e. 2hen Professor :ones re;
tires ne)t month4 he will
have +een teaching for &G
%ears.
Sometimes the f!t!re perfect
and the f!t!re perfect
progressive give the same
meaning4 as in ?d1 and ?e1.
(lso4 notice that the activit%
e)pressed +% either of these
two tenses ma% +egin in the
past.
3G
Ds!all% there is little or no difference in meaning +etween will and be going to. Will and be
going to indicate inevita+ilit% ?i.e.4 the% e)press a simple fact!al statement a+o!t a f!t!re
activit% or sit!ation14 +!t be going to is !sed more freF!entl% than will in spo,en -nglish
when the spea,er is e)pressing a definite plan or intention.
The present progressive is also sometimes !sed to e)press a f!t!re meaning. The f!t!re
intention e)pressed +% the present progressive is !s!all% stronger than that e)pressed +%
be going to.
EAER+ISE 1 Dse the simple future=be going to1 or the simple present.
1. 57m going to leave in half an ho!r. 5 &finish( will finish " am going to finish all of m% wor,
+efore 5 &leave( PPPPleavePPPP.
2. 57m going to eat l!nch at 12=3'. (fter 5 &eat( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP l!nch4 5
&take(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC a nap.
3. 57ll get home aro!nd si). 2hen 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP home4 5 &call(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Sharon.
&. 57m going to watch a T@ programme at nine. Before 5 &watch( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
that programme at nine4 5 &write( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a letter to m% parents.
G. Jar% will come soon. 5 &wait( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP here !ntil he &come( PPPPPPP
0. 5t will stop raining soon. (s soon as the rain &stop( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP4 5
&walk( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to the dr!gstore to get some film.
. The seasons are predicta+le. For e)ample4 when spring &come( TTTTTTTTT
PPPPPPPPPPP the weather &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP warmer. This happens ever% %ear.
8. Aight now it is winter. 57m tired of cold weather4 +!t spring &come( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
soon. 2hen spring &come( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP this %ear4 5 &go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to
the par, ever% da% to en*o% the good weather.
9. (t a dinner part% in the Dnited States4 people !s!all% sit in the living room and &talk(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for a while +efore the% &go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP into the
dining room.
1'. Tomorrow 57m going to give a dinner part%. 5 have planned it ver% caref!ll%. Before 5 &ask(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPP m% g!ests to come to the dining room4 5 &serve( CPPPPPPPPPPPP drin,s
and hors d7oe!vres in the living room.
11. (= 6ave %o! mailed %o!r application %et?
B= >ot %et. 5 &fill(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC it o!t later
this evening. Then 5 &mail(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC it on m% wa% to class
tomorrow.
30
12. (= &8e' Douise( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCat the meeting tomorrow?
B= >o. She &be' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there.
%*. Aight now 5 am a *!nior. (fter 5 &graduate( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP with a B.(.4 5
&intend( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to enter grad!ate school and wor, for an 3.(.
Perhaps 5 &go(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC on for a Ph D. after 5 &get(
CCCCCCCCCCCPPPPPPPPPPPPP m% 3aster7s degree.
1&. (= 6ow long &stay' you( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPin this co!ntr%?
B= 5 &plan(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC to +e here for a+o!t one more %ear.
5 &hope(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC to grad!ate a %ear from this :!ne.
(= 2hat &do' you( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPafter %o! PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP &leave(
B= I &return( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP home and &get( .CCCCCCCCCCCCCC a *o+.
EAER+ISE % Use 'he 'utu!e p!g!essi(e o3 'he simple p!esent)
11 Aight now 5 am attending class. Eesterda% at this time4 5 was attending class. Tomorrow at
this time4 5 &attend(PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP class.
21 Tomorrow 57m going to leave for home. 2hen 5 &arrive( PPPPPPPPPPPP at the airport4 m%
whole famil% &wait(PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for me.
3. 2hen 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP !p tomorrow morning4 the s!n &shine( PPPPPPPPPPP4
the +irds &sing( PPPPPPPPPPPP4 and m% roommate &lie' still( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
in +ed fast asleep.
&. (= 2hen do %o! leave for Florida?
B= Tomorrow. :!st thin,. Two da%s from now 5 &lie( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP on the +each
in the s!n.
(= 6ave a good time. 5 &think( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a+o!t %o!.
G. (= 6ow can 5 get in to!ch with %o! while %o!7re o!t of town?
B= 5 &stay( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at the Pilgrim 6otel. Eo! can reach me there.
0. >e)t %ear at this time4 5 &do( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP e)actl% what 5 am doing
now. 5 &attend( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP school and &study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
hard ne)t %ear.
. /oo, at those dar, clo!ds. 2hen class &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP over4 it &rain' probably(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
8. (= (re %o! going to +e in town ne)t Sat!rda%?
B= >o. 5 &visit( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC m% a!nt and !ncle in 9hicago.
3
EAER+ISE <= Dse an% appropriate tense.
11 (nn and (nd% got married on :!ne 1st. Toda% is :!ne 1&th. (nn and (nd% &be(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPmarried for two wee,s. B% :!ne th4 the% &be(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP married for one wee,. B% :!ne 28th4 the% &be(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP married for fo!r wee,s.
21 This traffic is terri+le. 2e7re going to +e late. B% the time we &get( TTTTTTT
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to the airport4 Bo+7s plane &arrive' already( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP4 and
he will +e wondering where we are.
31 The traffic was ver% heav%. B% the time we &get(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC to the airport4
Bo+7s plane &arrive' already( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
This morning 5 came to class at 9=''. Aight now it is 1'='' and 5 am still in class. 5 &sit(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at this des, for an ho!r. B% 9=3' 5 &sit(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP this des, for a half an ho!r. B% 11='' 5 &sit(
CCCCCCCCCCCCCPPPPPPPPPPPPP at m% des, for two ho!rs.
&1 57m getting tired of sitting in the car. #o %o! reali8e that +% the time we arrive in Phoeni)4
we &drive( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for twent% straight ho!rs?
G1 3argaret was +orn in 19G'. B% the %ear 2'1'4 she &live(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
on this earth for 0' %ears.
01 Jo ahead and leave on %o!r vacation. #on7t worr% a+o!t this wor,. B% the time %o! &get(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP +ac,4 we &take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPcare
of ever%thing.
1 5 don7t !nderstand how those marathon r!nners do itH The race +egan over an ho!r ago.
B% the time the% reach the finish line4 the% &run( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
steadil% for more than two ho!rs. 5 don7t thin, 5 can r!n more than two min!tesH
81 2hat? 6e got married again? (t this rate4 he &have.CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC a
do8en wives +% the time he &die( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
91 2e have +een married for a long time. B% o!r ne)t anniversar%4 we &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPP
married for &3 %ears.
EAER+ISE * BORAL6
#isc!ss= 2hat do %o! thin, the twent%;first cent!r% will +e li,e?
!uggestions for discussion topics2
1. 3eans of transportation?
2. So!rces of energ%?
38
3. Pop!lation growth?
&. Food so!rces?
G. -)tinction of animal species?
0. 2eapon technolog%?
. -)ploration of the oceansQ e)ploration of the earth7s interior?
8. Space e)plorationQ contact with +eings from o!ter space?
9. Aole of comp!ters in dail% life?
1'. /ong;term sol!tions to toda%7s political crises?
11. (rchitect!re?
12. 9lothing st%les?
13. 5nternational lang!age?
1&. 5nternational world government?
1'11G. 5nternational televisionQ international comm!nication via comm!nication
satellites?
E8e32ise =6 :h&' wi)) 'he0 h&5e done?
2rite a4 + or c in the gap and read the completed sentences.
B% the wee,end the% PPPPcPPPPPP their newspaper.
a will have +een completing + have completed c1 will have completed
1 B% 2ednesda% afternoon4 Tom PPPPPPPPPPPPP fo!r people.
a will have interviewed + will interview c will +e interviewed
2 B% tomorrow night :enn% PPPPP fo!r articles.
a will +e written + will have written c won7t have +een writing
3 2hen the newspaper comes o!t4 the% PPPPPP on it for si) wee,s.
a will wor, + will have +een wor,ing c won7t have +een wor,ing
& The% hope that +% the end of ne)t wee, the% PPPPP 24''' copies.
a will +e sold + will have sold c won7t have sold
G >ic, hopes that +% the end of the %ear the% PPPPPPPPP rich and famo!s.
a won7t +ecome + +ecame c will have +ecome
0 B% ne)t month4 (manda PPPPPPPP articles.
a will have written + will have +een writing c will write
39
E8e32ise ;6 A/o,' 0o,
2rite the answers in f!ll sentences. Dse for O length of time.
6ow long will %o! have +een learning -nglish +% the end of this school %ear?
8y the end of this school year' I will have been learning nglish for three years.
1 6ow long will %o! have +een living in %o!r town +% ne)t s!mmer?
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
2 6ow long will %o! have +een living in %o!r ho!se or flat +% ne)t %ear?
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
3 6ow long will %o! have ,nown %o!r -nglish teacher +% the end of this school %ear?
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
& 6ow long will %o! have ,nown %o!r +est friend +% ne)t s!mmer?
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
G 6ow long will %o! have +een watching %o!r favo!rite T@ programme +% the end of this
%ear?
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
0 6ow long will %o! have +een attending %o!r present school +% the end of the school %ear?
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
.
&'
DREAMING THE GRAMMARBDREAMS
#o %o! dream? /et me tell %o! a+o!t a dream 5 had two
nights ago. 5 hadn7t +een dreaming for a long long time4
in fact since last 9hristmas. 6ave %o! noticed m% !se of
&1o7 4o3 &nd sin2e? Send me a message for help if %o!
don7t !nderstand the !se of the Past Perfect 9ontin!o!s
tense in the third sentence.
(n%wa%4 it was a terri+le nightmare. Terri+le things
were done to me= 5 was ro++ed4 then 5 was +eaten4 and
finall% 5 was ,illed. B!t then the nightmare changed into
a +ea!tif!l dream= 5 seemed to +e in some sort of
paradise4 where all the people were ver% +ea!tif!l and
nice4 and 5 was constantl% +eing h!gged and ,issed.
6ave %o! spotted all the ver+s in the passive voice?
5 was ta,en to their leader4 who loo,ed a +it li,e -li8a+eth Sh!e ?have %o! seen /eaving /as
@egas?1 and as,ed me a+o!t a million F!estions= who 5 was4 where 5 came from4 etc.Q and
after 5 had told her what had happened to me4 she as,ed me whether m% attac,ers had stolen
an%thing from me4 what the% loo,ed li,e and how 5 had +een ,illed. 9hec, the !se of tenses
in these indirect F!estionsH
Then onl% 5 noticed that this was a comm!nit% of women and that 5 was the onl% man there.
Their leader told me that if 5 had +een a woman 5 co!ld have sta%ed with them and +ecome a
mem+er of their comm!nit%. B!t since 5 was a man4 5 had to go +ac, to m% own co!ntr%. (nd
5 remem+er wa,ing !p with these tho!ghts on m% mind= 2hat wo!ld it +e li,e if 5 were a
woman? 2o!ld 5 have completel% different tho!ghts and feelings? >ote the !se of tenses in
the if;sentences.
(nd now it7s %o!r t!rn. Please tell !s a+o!t a dream of %o!rs4 +!t ma,e s!re %o!r acco!nt
incl!des e)amples of at least & grammatical str!ct!res that we have practised in this co!rse
?*!st as m% little essa% contains e)amples of sentences with &1o7 4o3 &nd sin2e4 passive
constr!ctions4 indirect F!estions and if;sentences1.
&1
&2
E8e32ise 1= (nswer the F!estions in complete sentences=
1. 2hat places have %o! visited since %o! came to Feld,irch? 2hen?
2. 2hat co!ntries have %o! +een to? 2hen?
3. 2hat programmess have %o! seen on television? 2hat did %o! watch last night?
&. 2hat are %o! doing right now? 2hat is ?. ...1 doing? 2hat am 5 doing?
G. 2hat ,ind of shoes is ?. ...1 wearing?
0. 2hat are %o! wearing toda%?
. 2hat will %o! +e doing tonight at midnight? 2hat were %o! doing last night at midnight?
8. 2hat are %o! going to +e doing at this time tomorrow?
9. 2hat time are %o! coming to class tomorrow?
1'. 2here will %o! +e living three %ears from now?
11. 6ow long have %o! +een going to school?
12. 2hat have we +een doing for the last five min!tes?
13. 6ow long have %o! +een sitting in that chair?
1&. 6ow long will %o! have +een sitting in that chair +% the time class is over?
1G. 2here are %o! living? 2here were %o! living five %ears ago?
10. 6ow long are %o! going to +e living in @orarl+erg? 6ow long will %o! have +een living
here +% the time %o! leave?
1. 2hat have 5 +een doing?
18. 2hat have we +een st!d%ing in class?
EAER+ISE % Dse an% appropriate tense for the ver+s in parentheses.
11 :ohn is in m% -nglish class. 6e &study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -nglish this semester. 6e
&take' also( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a co!ple of other classes. 6is classes &begin(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at 9='' ever% da%.
21 Eesterda% :ohn ate +rea,fast at 8=''. 6e &eat' already( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
+rea,fast when he &leave( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for class at 8=&G. 6e &eat' always(
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+rea,fast +efore he &go( PPPPPPPPPP to class. 5 &eat' not' usually(
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC+rea,fast +efore I&go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to
class. B!t 5 &get' usually( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP h!ngr% a+o!t midmorning. Tomorrow
+efore 5 &go( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC to class4 5 &eat( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
+rea,fast.
&3
31 :ohn is in class ever% morning from 9='' to 12=''. Two da%s ago4 5 &call( PPPPPPPPPPPP
him at 11=3'4 +!t 5 co!ld not reach him +eca!se he &attend( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
class at that time.
&1 #on7t tr% to call :ohn at 11=3' tomorrow morning +eca!se he &attend( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPat
that time.
G1 Eesterda% :ohn too, a nap from 1='' to 2=''. 5 came at 1=&G. 2hen 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPP
there4 :ohn &sleep( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP. ;6e &sleep( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
PPPPPP
PPPP for &G
min!tes +% the time 5 came.
01 Aight now :ohn &take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a nap. 6e &fall( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
asleep an ho!r ago. 6e &sleep( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for an ho!r.
1 Three da%s ago4 :ohn &start( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to read Earewell to Arms' a novel +%
-rnest 6emingwa%. 5t is a long novel. 6e &finish' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
reading it %et. 6e &read( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it +eca!se his -nglish teacher
assigned it.
81 Since the +eginning of the semester4 :ohn &read( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
three novels. Aight now he &read( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A Earewell to
Arms. 6e &read( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPthat novel for the past three da%s. 6e
&intend( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to finish it ne)t wee,. 5n his lifetime4
he &read( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP man% novels4 +!t this is the first
6emingwa% novel he &read' ever( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
91 Tomorrow4 after he &eat( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP dinner4 :ohn &go(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto a movie. 5n other words4 he &eat( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
dinner +% the time he &go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to the movie.
EAER+ISE <= Dse an% appropriate tense for the ver+s in parentheses.
1. (= There is something 5 have to tell %o!.
B= Jo ahead. 5 &listen( TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT.
). (= 6i4 (nn. &7eet' you( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP m% friend4 Jeorge Smith?
B= >o4 5 &have' never( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC . the pleas!re.
(= Then let me introd!ce %o!.
3. (= StopH 2hat ?%o!4 do1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?
B= 5 ?tr%1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to get this piece of toast o!t of the
toaster. 5t7s st!c,.
(= 2ell4 don7t !se a ,nife. Eo! &electrocute(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC %o!rselfH
&&
B= 2hat do %o! s!ggest 5 do?
(= Dnpl!g it first.
& (= There7s :ac,.
B= 2here?
(= 6e ?lie1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP on the grass !nder that tree over there. B=
<h %es. 5 &see( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC him. 6e &Iook' certainly( CCCCCCCC
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP comforta+le. /et7s go tal, to him.
G. (= ?Ta,e4 %o!1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -con 12' this semester?
B= >o4 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
(= ?Ta,e4 %o!4 ever1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it?
B= Ees4 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
(= 2hen &take( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC%o! PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPit?
B= /ast semester.
(= 2ho &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o!r professor?
B= #r. /ee.
(= <h4 I have the same professor. 2hat &be' he( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP li,e?
B= 4e &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ver% good.
0. (= 2hat7s wrong with 9hris?
B= 2hile he ?%awn1TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT4 a fl% ?fl%1 PPPPPPPPPPPP
into his mo!th.
(= I &believe' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP thatH Eo! &kid( CCCCCCCCCCC
(= I &go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to a pla% last night.
B= &8e' it( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an% good?
(= I tho!ght so. I &en@oy( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC it a lot.
B= 2hat &be' it( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?
(= Arsenic and 9ld Dace. I &see' never( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it +efore.
B= <h4 5 &see( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP that pla% too. 5 &see( PPPPPP
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it a co!ple of %ears ago. 5t &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP good4
&be' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it?
8. (= 5 was in %o!r hometown last month. 5t loo,ed li,e a nice town. 5 &be' never(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there +efore.
B= 2hat &do' you( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in that part of the co!ntr%?
(= 3% wife and 5 &drive( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to 2ashington to visit her
fol,s.
&G
9 (= 3a% 5 +orrow some mone%? 3% chec, &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPs!pposed to arrive
%esterda%4 +!t 5 still &receive' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it. 5 &need( PPPPPPPPPPPPP to
+!% a +oo, for one of m% classes4 +!t 5 &have' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an% mone%.
B= S!re. 57d +e happ% to lend %o! some. 6ow m!ch &need' you(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC$
(= Five +!c,s FbeG PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP eno!gh. Than,s. 5 &pay(CCCCCCCCCCCC
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o! +ac, as soon as 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP m% chec,.
1'. (= 6ello?
B= 6ello. 3a% 5 spea, to S!e?
(= She &be' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in right now. 3a% 5 ta,e a
message?
B= Ees. This is (rt <7Brien. 2o!ld %o! please as, her to meet me at the li+rar%
this afternoon? 5 &sit( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at one of the st!d% +ooths on the
second floor.
EAER+ISE &= Dse an% appropriate tense for the ver+s in parentheses.
1 3% grandfather &fly' never( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in an airplane4 and he has no
intention of ever doing so.
2 :ane isn7t here %et. 5 &wait( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for her since noon4 +!t she still
&arrive' not( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
3 5n all the world4 there &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP onl% 1& mo!ntains that
&reach( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a+ove 84''' meters ?2042& feet1.
& 5 have a long trip ahead of me tomorrow4 so 5 thin, 57d +etter go to +ed. B!t let me sa%
good;+%e now +eca!se 5 won7t see %o! in the morning. 5 &leave' already( PPPPPPPPPPPPP
+% the time %o! &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP!p.
G Aight now we &have( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a heat wave. The temperat!re
&be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in the !pper 9'7s for the last si) da%s.
0 /ast night 5 &go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to a part%. 2hen 5 &get( PP
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there4 the room was f!ll of people. Some of them &dance(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP and others &talk( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP. <ne %o!ng woman &stand(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP +% herself. 5 &meet' never(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC her4 so 5
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP &introduce( m%self to her.
(+o!t three %esterda% afternoon4 :essica &lie(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC in +ed reading a
+oo,. S!ddenl% she &hear( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP lo!d noise and &get( PPPPPPPPPPP
!p to see what it was. She &look( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP o!t the window. ( tr!c,
&back' @ust( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP into her new carH
&0
8 >e)t month 5 have a wee,7s vacation. 5 &plan( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to ta,e a trip. First4 5
&go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to 3adison4 2isconsin4 to visit m% +rother. (fter 5 &leave(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 3adison4 5 &go( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to 9hicago to see a friend who
&study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at a !niversit% there. She &live( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
in 9hicago for three %ears4 so she &know( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP her wa% aro!nd the
cit%. She &promise( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to ta,e me to man% interesting places. 5
&be' never( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in 9hicago4 so 5 &look( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
forward to going there.
9 Eesterda% while 5 &sit( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in class4 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
the hicc!ps. The person who &sit(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC ne)t to me told me to
hold m% +reath. 5 &try(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC that4 +!t it didn7t wor,. The
instr!ctor &lecture(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC and 5 didn7t want to interr!pt him4 so
5 *!st sat there tr%ing to hicc!p F!ietl%. Finall%4 after 5 &hiccup(PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for
almost five min!tes4 5 &raise( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC m% hand and &e?cuse(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP m%self from the class to go get a drin, of water.
1' The weather has +een terri+le latel%. 5t &rain(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC off and on for
two da%s4 and the temperat!re &drop(PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at least twent% degrees. 5t
&be(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC in the low &'7s right now. :!st three da%s ago4 the
s!n &shine( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP and the weather was pleasant. The weather
certainl% &change( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP F!ic,l% here. 5 never ,now what to
e)pect. 2ho ,nows? 2hen 5 &wake( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP !p tomorrow
morning4 ma%+e it &snow( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
EAER+ISE = Dse an% appropriate tense.
11 <n :!ne 2'th4 5 ret!rned home. 5 &be( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
21 awa% from home for two %ears. 3% famil% &meet( CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
31 me at the airport with ,isses and tears. The% &miss(CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
&1 me as m!ch as 5 had missed them. 5 &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ver%
G1 happ% to see them again. 2hen 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the
01 chance4 5 &take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a long loo, at them. 3% little
1 +rother &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP no longer so little. 6e &grow(
81 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at least a foot. 6e &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
91 almost as tall as m% father. 3% little sister &wear( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
1'1a green dress. She &change( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP F!ite a +it4 too4 +!t
&
111 she &be' still( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP mischievo!s and inF!isitive. She
121&ask( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP me a tho!sand F!estions a min!te4 or so
131it seemed. 3% father &gain( PPPPPPPPP4PPPPPPPP some weight4 and
1&1 his hair &turn( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a little +it gra%er4 +!t otherwise
1G1 he was *!st as 5 had remem+ered him. 3% mother &look( PPPPPPPPPPPP
101 a little older4 +!t not m!ch. The wrin,les on her face &be( PPPPPPPPPPP
11 smile wrin,les.
EAER+ISE ;6 Dse an% appropriate tenses.
11 <n :!ne 2'th4 5 will ret!rn home. 5 &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
21 awa% from home for two %ears +% that time. 3% famil% &meet(
31 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP me at the airport with ,isses and tears. The%
&1 &miss( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP me as m!ch as 5 have missed them. 5
G1 &be( TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT ver% happ% to see them again. 2hen
01 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a chance4 5 &take( PPPPPPPPPP
1 a long loo, at them. 3% little +rother &be' no longer( PPPPPPPPPPP
81 so little. 6e &grow( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at least a foot. 6e &be(
91 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP almost as tall as m% father. 3% little sister
1'1 &wear' probably( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a green dress.
111 She &change(PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP F!ite a +it4 too4 +!t she &be' still(
121 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP mischievo!s and inF!isitive. She &ask' probably(
131 CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC me a tho!sand F!estions a min!te4 or so
1&1 it will seem. 3% father &gain' probably( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP some
1G1 weight4 and his hair &turn( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a little gra%er4 +!t
101 otherwise he will +e *!st as 5 remem+er him. 3% mother &look1
11 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP *!st the same. Perhaps she &look(
181 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a little older4 +!t not m!ch. The wrin,les on
191 her face &be( CCCCCCCCCCCPPPPPPPPPPPPP smile wrin,les.
EAER+ISE ! Dse an% appropriate tenses.
11 #ear (nn4
21 5 &receive( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o!r letter a+o!t two wee,s
31 ago and &try( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to find time to write %o! +ac,
&1 ever since. 5 &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ver% +!s% latel%. 5n the past
&8
G1 two wee,s4 5 &have( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP fo!r tests4 and 5 have
01 another test ne)t wee,. 5n addition4 a friend &stay( PPPPPPPPPPPPPP
1 with me since last Th!rsda%. She wanted to see the cit%4 so we &spend(
81 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a lot of time visiting some of the interesting
91 places here. 2e &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to the 8oo4 the art
1'1 m!se!m4 and the +otanical gardens. Eesterda% we &go( PPPPPPPPPPPP
111 to the par, and &watch( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a +alloon race.
121Between showing her the cit% and st!d%ing for m% e)ams4 5 &have' barely(
131TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTeno!gh time to +reathe.
1&1Aight now it &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 3 (.3. and 5 &sit(
1G1PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at m% des,. 5 &sit( PPPPPPPPPPPP
101here five ho!rs doing m% st!d%ing. 3% friend7s plane &leave(
11PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at 0='G4 so 5 &decide( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
181not to go to +ed. That7s wh% 5 &write( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o! at
191s!ch an earl% ho!r in the da%. 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a little
2'1 sleep%4 +!t 5 wo!ld rather sta% !p. 5 &take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPP a
211nap after 5 &get( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP +ac, from ta,ing her to the
221airport.
2316ow &get' you( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP along? 6ow &go' your
2&1 classes( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP? Please write soon.
Eo!rs tr!l%4
EAER+ISE # Dse an% appropriate tense.
(= 6i4 m% name is :ose.
B= 6i4 m% name is (li.
11 :ose= &Hou' study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at this !niversit%?
21 (li= Ees4 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o!?
31 :ose= Ees4 5 &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP here since last Septem+er.
Before that 5 &study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPP -nglish at another school.
&1 (li= 2hat &you' take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?
G1 :ose= 5 &take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP chemistr%4 math4 ps%cholog%4 and
(merican histor%. 2hat &take' you( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?
01 (li= 5 &study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -nglish. 5 &need( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
to improve m% -nglish +efore 5 &take( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP reg!lar academic co!rses ne)t
semester.
&9
1 :ose= 6ow long &you' be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPhere?
81 (li= 5 &be( CCCCCCCCCCCCPPPPPPPPPPPPP here since the +eginning of this semester.
(ct!all%. 5 &arrive( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPin the Dnited States si) months ago4
+!t 5 &study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP -nglish at this !niversit% onl% since
:an!ar%. Before that 5 &live( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP with m% +rother in 2ashington4 #.9.
91 :ose= Eo! &speak( TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT -nglish ver% well. &Hou'
study( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a lot of -nglish +efore %o! &come( PPPPPPPPPPPPP PP to the
Dnited States?
1'1(li= Hes. I &study( TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT -nglish for ten %ears in m%
own co!ntr%. (nd also4 5 &spend( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP some time in 9anada a co!ple of
%ears ago. 5 &pick( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP !p a lot of -nglish while 5 &live(
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there.
111 :ose= Eo! &be( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPl!c,%. 2hen 5 &come( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to
the Dnited States4 5 &study' never( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an% -nglish at all. So 5 had to spend
a whole %ear st!d%ing nothing +!t -nglish +efore 5 &start( PPPPPP school.
121(li= 6ow long &you' plan( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to +e in the D.S.?
131:ose= 5 &be' not(PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP s!re. Pro+a+l% +% the time 5
&return( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP home4 5 &be( PPPPPPPPPPP here for at least five %ears. 6ow
a+o!t %o!?
1&1(li= 5 &hope( PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto +e finished with all m% wor, in two and a half %ears.
EAER+ISE $=
.P,' 'he 5e3/s in /3&2.e's in'o 'he 2o33e2' 'enses.
11 The% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o!r lessons. ?not li,e1
21 2hile we PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to the station it PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto
snow4 ?drive1 ?+egin1
31 2atch this r!nner. 6e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?win1.
&1 (fter the centre forward PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the first goal the fans
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP mad ?score1 ?go1
G1 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a shooting star ? never see1
01 2e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the res!lts tomorrow. ?,now1
1 #iana PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Beethoven7s moonlight sonata last night.
?pla%1
G'
81 She PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o! are an old fool. ?thin,1
91 Bo+ PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP three letters since +rea,fast. ?write1
1'1Iate PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in /ondon ?not live1
111 She PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP me an answer when 5 as,ed her. ?not give1
121(fter :ane PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a fashion maga8ine she
PPPPPPPPPPPP the piano4 ?read1 ?practise1
131<!r landlad% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP !s a c!p of tea last night. ?give1
1&13r Brightwell PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP?phone1 his secretar% all da% long .
1G15 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an% dressma,ing since 5 left school4 ?not do1
1013r Bellows PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP from the DS(. ?*!st arrive1
113r Brown PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a letter ever% da%. ?write1
1813rs 3a!ldling PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the letter immediatel% after she
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPit ?post1 ?finish1
191The Smiths PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %et. ?not come1
2'15 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP two e)ercises4 wo!ld %o! li,e to do the third?
?correct1
211Aichard !s!all%PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a p!llover +!t when 5
PPPPPPPPPPPPPP him last night he PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a coat. ? wear1 ? see1 ?wear1
221PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto 3e)ico? ?%o!4 ever4 +e1
2315 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to :ane since last 3onda%. ?not write1
2&1 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPto phone %o! last night? ?Bo+ tr%1
2G15 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP this pla% +efore. ?not see1
201 :effre% than,ed his father for what he PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP for him. ?do1
213ar% and /i88% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the poem all afternoon. ?learn1
281Bo+ PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP foot+all all the afternoon. ?pla%1
291The%Ud +etter come in. 5t PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to rain ?+egin1
3'1Bettie PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP his coat last night. ?tear1
311The Second 2orld 2ar PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in 1939. ?+egin1
321Eo!r coat PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP there the whole afternoon. ?lie1
331The postman PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the post ever% da%. ?+ring1
3&1She PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP %o! ?soon forget1
3G15 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a coat +eca!se it7s too hot toda%. ?not wear1
301/i88ie and #oll% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at si) this morning4 ?wa,e !p1
312e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an answer last night. ?not get1
G1
3813% parents PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP in Berlin since 198'. ?live1
391.6owPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP at school? ;5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPP ver% well
?Bo+ get on1 ? +elieve1
&'1:aF!eline PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP wh% 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP earlier.
?wonder1 ?write1
&11 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the film last night? ?%o! see1
&212e need not r!n. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the +!s ? %o! see1. 5t
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the +!s station ?*!st leave1
&315 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a letter ?write1 when Fred PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
the room ?enter1
&&1Peter PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP his +est now. ?tr%1
&G15 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP the wor, tomorrow. ?do1
&015 co!ldn7t answer the phone +eca!se 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP a shave. ?have1
&15 can7t !nderstand what %o! PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP. The traffic is too
nois%. ?sa%1
&813athews PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP an interesting pla% most of the evening.
?watch1
&91Peter s!ddenl% PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP that he PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP his cap in the train4
?reali8e1 ?leave1
G'16e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ne)t wee,. ?not come1
G11Before he PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP awa% he PPPPPPPPPPPPP a letter. ?go1 ?write1
G21Bo+ PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP tennis ver% well. ?not pla%1
G312hen 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPhim hePPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP to 6elen4 ?see1
?tal,1
G&1Eo! need an !m+rella. 5t PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ?rain1
GG1She PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP sta% !p later than nine %esterda%4 ?m!stn7t1
G015 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP finish m% wor, last night. ?m!st1
G12e PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP this letter +efore he PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP home ?can
translate1 ? go1
G81:ohn PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP do it now. 5 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP it later4 ?not
need1 ?do1
G2