To all whom it ~y concern


Ee it kn .. Yfn that I, 1akola ?esla, O~· ::ew fork,

in t~e County a.~:! ~t8te of ~'ew York, electrician, have il1-

vt!tnted certain new and \lsertl1 Jl"lprovem'!!'lts in methods ot

an apparatus (or the electrical trBnsni~sion or power and

I do her~by dee:la,~e that. the followin~ is a ,tull. clear

and exae:t dose:riJ1ti~~ or the samB.

The prac\teal' :-Iolnt..ion or the prc·hlem of the

elee: t. rical conver.ion, . and trap!sl!Ii ss ion 01' r:lechani cal

ener/:y involves certain re'luireMenta which the apparatus

and BY8te~ heretofore !l!Iployed have not. teen capable.~ot


~l1ch a sCJluti on pri.lVlrily den."\n1s a 1'ni fOl"r.'lity of

speed in the MrJtor. i rreispect ive of i t~~ load w{thin 1 ta

nor". .. l "orkin,'t lil!l~ ts. ron the o+.h'lr }:and, it :11 neceBsary

to attain ~,p,rea~,er ocon~J'ly ot thHn has he~,:tofore existed, ~o constr~lct cheaper, more re11ablo and' a1m-

pIe apparatus. a.~cl such thaT al '!. d!U\~er and dhadvantap,e.

trOIn the use ot current., of hlr.h tension, which are n~ce8-

.-~ .

aary to an econOMical transmission, May be avDided.

This invention comprises a new method and appar-

~,L"; .tUB tor efteCUr..,. the transmission 01' power by electrical

agency whoreby ~ny 01' the present objections are overco~

and ~eat economr and etticiency s~cured.

~ ~.

tnthe practice ot this invention 8 motor i. em-,

ployed in which there are two or more indepenclent enerr.iz-

ing circuit.. throu~h owhich aro passed. In the manner here-

inatter des~ribed. alternatlnr. Cl'rrl!!nts. w}'.ich ettect a

prop'"resRiv8 HhitHn~ ot the .. : ,":0: or of the -lines 0 r

force- wl!ich, in ac c or-dan e e .... 1 th well known tr.~ori~~. !l!'o-

duces ~he action of ~h~ motor.

It Is obviovs ~hat a proper pro~rQssive shirtin~

or mOV~Ment of -,he lilies of force nay be-utilized to Bet

up a fTlovm~nt (H· :"'otatio!'l of eith~r olem~nt of the motor,

tl:e arl'lA tnra or t.~e r'j eld M6I";ne'" and t.ha t 5. f t.~e currents

di !"ec~ed thro"~h ~he Neveral c i r cu I ts of +.he !"Iotor are in

the proper .1irectinn no Comr'ltltator for ".}'9 !'!'lOtor 11111 be

rO'I1'ired. So, t.o avoid Cr.ll the usual eonmutati!"tr, app11-

anees in the sY8+:elll, t!:e mot.or cirCl1!ts ar~ connacted di-

ree tly wi th those or a sui table a1 terns t1n~ currt'nt senera-

; .

~or. The prftctic!:.l r'!sul-t~s of iH1ch a system, \ ts econol!)i-

cal advb1\+.a~p.II, .!'ld the ''lene of it.s ('onstM:ctior and opp.r-

atlon will be ~escribed more 1n det.ail by reterenco to the

.- . ~. :C~ -, -

acco~par.ying drawin~1S and diap,rarna.

Pi~re. 1 to 8 and la ".0 ~ ,inelusive, are dia-

.. :~. grams illu8tr.tin~ tho prlncipel ot tho action ot this in-

vention. n.e reMainin,,,: _Fir.tlres ar9 Vi9\fS of the

in var10us to~~ by Means of which the invention may be

... ~~

carried in~o ettect and which w11l bo described 1n thejr


Reterri~~ first t.o ~ir.ure 9, which .18 a d1ar.ram-

;,....-j.~ ,.. .

. .0:-'

.tic ~epre5entation ot a motor, a r,enerator and connecting

circui tain Accordance with tho invention. H is the :!IOtar

i._and a the r:en.~,.tor tor driving it.

The mo~or comprise.-:-

a ring or annulus R, preferably built up or thin insulated

iron r1n~s or annular plat~8, 80 :is to he i\8 -1S\1~c:ept1bl. as

~po881ble to variations in its mar.netic condition.


This rinv, i8 surrounded by tOUI' coils or lmnllatcd

wir a, symct!"'i c::ul~' ~2 ac o d , Br.d de::dgnat ed by C G ::, c ",

The di s::l~tric~l y opposi to coils ar e connect. e d ~;: so as to

co-operate in pairs in producir.g i'r':le poles on ::iamo~ricsl-

11 oppcsito psrts of t!1c r ir~.

le!'t !Ire connoct'Jd ~o t.erminus T 'l.T' T' as :.ndicatcd •. ~._-",

~te5%' ~hc ril"".g, v-d prercrsbly i:-.Side :l!' it, thoro i. mounted O~3!'1 axis or shsrt a oacnetie disk t) g!J'1erul,.


circular in :shape, but havir.g two sep:mt s cut !lowlY !loS

shmrr. •

This disk sho~d tu.--n rr~ely 'Irlt:~in the rina R.

T~c p;!ncr!lotor-,G 10 or 3n Ol·~nsr,. ~7pe,that';shclWn~


in t!".c prcacnt instance havirlC :io1,:' :!SSrnots H S and s

cylindrlcsl. 'Umst~rc ecr e A ":':O~d '!'tHh tho two coils B Bt.

a' snd eor.ncctcd respectiv'll,. t.o insul~t.ed contact rir6s

b b b' t.'.

Any cony~iC!rl~ !'0:"1!l or colloctor or brush

bears on each :"ir.g and !'"rms a terl!'lin31 by -,..~ich tho cur-'

rer.t ~o sn~ !rOJ!l the rir.,.: is eonvcy':!d. These terain31s

- :~j.:

are conr.octed to th4t<t.ormir..u.s or tho motor by the· riroastt; -:!~.:~

erA L' in tho l!l311nor indicated, ~creb,. two complete cir~'2-:'~

cuits sro !'ormod, Dna including. sSf. ~h(J coils B or Ute-,
..... .,~
_&~ :"~. -t: .... ~ :-~
c~orstor and c· ~. o"! ~ho not. or , 3Jid ~o other the re-··:.·
.., mainir.g coils B' S'ld C C o~th'l r.'3nc:"~tor md :t!1"C\·J:sot.or.~'-

this s,ats:l. ar.d ror this p~pose refer':!!le e 1s Mado to

diag:'aI::I8 !'ir.~os 1 to 8 md 1a to Sa !'or N'l illustration


o •• "i;

orst or pass 'lI!':cn ir. 0P'l:"l.t. ion, 3Tid th!.! c:o:"rt:~ponding Sld

result snt :':'agnotic ch 31'lGeS ?rod'.lc'l~ in the r.1Otor •

. .'; c;j; .-

The r cvo Lut t on of ':.he 3:"l!\3':.':.l:"e o!' the gC!ic!'3.tor

~t'N~Qr. ~~o ~iQld l:1:!sn:?ts • S obviously pro duc es in tho

coils E E' !\lte:-nstir.r, eur r ont a tr.c iT.t.ensity 3Tid di!'ection

f£ 1t1ich d~-,r.d upon "A'ell kno-:tn la"s.

In the positior. o!"

the coils ir.dicsted in ?i'.1re 1. t.he courTed. in the coil B,

is pTsctie311y nil, 'llhc:"css the eoil B' st tho S!llftC t.i~

is developinl" its I!I!lxinr.l%!l C".l1"rer.t, and by the oems indi-

c3t ad in the d escri pH on o!' ~ibU!"e 9 th e circuit including

l.hU coil may :!l:::o includu: s~y, ~e colIs ceo!' the ~tor,

The !"esult. nth the pr.opcr eo r.:;ect iona,


'WOuld be t.~c ::ucn~iz!ltion o!' U:c Tirol: R, ~c pol'lS bei~

on the line N. 3.

The !l~C order'o!' conr.e::tionsboinr obseTvod;',be-

ty~on the coil B ST,d th, eoils C' '~'. t.he l!'ttcT.1hen trav-

ersed b7," s ~~!''';nt, t.end to ~ix tr.c pole3 at richt _ ~ es

...... .: tho cancr"t.or coils have :ada one-dr,hth of !L revo-

luti on, ~ro!Lching the position shown :,In !'igurc 2, bot.h pdr. .. ~ or coils C lnd C' nll be trsve!"sad by currer.t.s .. hich set

.- r _.:

in opp osit! on in 30 !'!a" !!lS !he locst ion o!' th e pole s 1s



. ,~.

Tho posi~ion o!' t.he poles will therefore be

.«. by the res:.1ltsnt ef!'ects'o-!" the l!\!lC1iotizir.g

: - .. ~

. . .. -,.(._.~~ -t'orces".~!' the ~ollS'.,:~l!,t is to SlY" it 'ldll advv-.;'""e slo~~

the rirG t.o s p031t.i on eorr~spoT.dir.r: to o!io-oi('hth o!' ~o

revolution o'!: the armatur I) o~ th~ G~ncr3toT ..

In FiS'.l!'e :s tho srmsturc: o'!: th~ eer.CT3.tor has p'!O- '"-


C7essed to or~-~ourth o'!: ~ revolution.

At the point indi-

C!!lt sd the cu...,. orit in t~c coil B is ~xi~!IZ!l ~ il~ in E'


it is nil, tl:e h.tter coil bcint; ir. its neutral posi~ion.

Th~ conditions Qxiatine st es~h succes-

siv Q oicr.!.h ot (.~.e r'!vol'.1tion src in lik'! Msn~.~r shown in

.. ~ - ..

A shor~ r~!'C!!"~nc9 to these ?icuros

" rQvol~ion.

Fere bet.h coila 3.1"e c~erdlng curront ,but .

i;" :p '~r:

tho coil E' havi:-.g r.o" Cl'ttcrcd t."e opposite !'leld is cenei-~'~



atir'b a curr~t. in t.ho opposit.e direction, h~v1ns toho op-

pas it e .. ;:agnet 1% IJ'C err .,.:t, •

,,~ .~(

Hcr,co .. tlle reaultllllt poloa <.~.

'ill bet on ~c line N S aa sho'm.

In ?icure 5 snd sa ono half' or one revol'.ltion has . boer. C::!&?lctCd nth ~ corrospoT.di~.c·move~r.t of t~: P01.~

In th b phss e co 11 B is in it a neu-


:Josit ion +.:119 coil B' is C~Qr'l\t ir.e

it a maxi::s'.lI!l cur- .'

. .,._;t.-,":

Ui . '!8::;' I: C2'O~:~

.4-l -, ,\,. . .- :4:: ..

rent; the C'.lrr'::lT.t boi roC in the S II!!c' dir ect ion aa in

',: «:'. it;In FiC-..I:"e 6 tho sr:nstm-8 hs~ co::!pl. <;lted fiv~-eicht~'l

o! a r'lvol!1tion. In this position ':011 B' develops a·.-~~'+~

- . . -; -~~

" .. -:-'"",

loss po.or!'lll ~.1rr~t, but in the :J!."!'IO di rect ion S5 bof'ore.~

The c:11'B on ~Q oihor hand,. h~"1ric ~t erod s rield of' ,%~~!

0pp'osito pol3ritf, Ccnerst es s current of oPI'osit.e di-

l"a~ion. ;'1(

Tho:! rQs~t. 3Jlt po1'3s -rlU thcl"etcSrc be -, on the

-~ .. ~ ~ . . ~ .. ,. .

lina ~ S PiC~~ sa, or in othor ~ords, ~he poles of the

1"1ro(; ... Ul be shi!'ted !\lon~ !"ivc-ait;hths or its pcriph'll"J'.

~;. Hit;u:oes 7 30M '7& in the Ss:le I!W'lncr ill ust rste

a rC'lolu~i on, ar.d .:'i~.lrcs 8 and 8" t.h o sc a-:' __ scvcn-oien ts !-'igurcs

will be r esdily w.dcrsto(.d !'~or.t the !'oresoir~.

Whon 3- ct.c rcvolu~1on is !lcco:JPi1shcd, the

S!IO!! action 13 -:-cpe!.tcd !"or t h o Tiext sild all subsequent

rcvol:.1~ions, snd in l:eTicr31, it rlll now be seen tl13t (!Very

correspondirc s~i~ti~~ o! the polos or lines of ~or~e a-

TJ':is .trlo~is :ltilizod to pr oduc e tho rotation 01

a body or _ sr:!l!Lt. ur e in a v s!'"i (!ty of w"ys.

For 0 XS!'lp1o ,

applyir&S tho Jr." inciple !\bove descri bed t.o the app srat.t8

possible nuabc-:- o!" ::t~Oictic lines, 1s sat in rotation !'ol-

lorir<{; tho oct ion o! tho lines 01" tho points o! gre&!oest.

~ -

at t ract.lon.

The disk D i!: :'icure 9, is shown Ii:;: cut. a"ay on


~_':r :-.r~ -f~

ojJpositc '~ides,bat tt-.1s "=ill not bo !'ound esst.!J'lUsl to

its oparst.l:m, a!: s:oircular disk, as indicated by dot.ted

lir.cs, 'lJo~d usc be ::lSin~J1ned in rotation. This ~he-
"':",-_ .!--r
-.$" ... ')
nO::1::ion is Pr'Clb3bly at !or i but Ilblc! 'to 3 certsin inertia or
r~siatanco ir .. ~arcnt in tho :!let al to the r5p ill shirti r.r; or tho linos';o! forco thro'Ul!h tho Ss:le, 1Ihieh results in a

co!:tin:.1OuB t.(!r.g~thl pull upon the disk t.h ... t csus es its'


This seO::B to be con!'ir.ncd by tho !'sct th"t a


M~S~S o~ ~ich this invention ~y be csrriod out, rc~orencc

sec~ion o~ So l!IO~or.

Pig-.lrO 12 is s ~op vi o~ o~ tho sao

1I'i~h the ~ ~d in section 'J71rl o,r.ibi~ins s discr~ ot t~~

. -.:.: ~.'

con~ec~i ons.

YiCO.1:"e 11 is Vi er.d or side vi':!" or the

canerator with the !'i!llds in scc~ion.

This !'orm ot motor

may t)f:~. used in pI sCC! o!' th~~ desc~ibod.

n is s cyl1nc1l-i cu or dru.'!l s!'m~t.ur c

. -ifE"¥;' ;:,

~' ...

. - .;." ~:..

cora, 'll'hich·

.':.: ..


Ob~ ous :"ss!".C)ns ..... sho~d bo SPl~; up as tar as,,; !Lcti~j to pr event thc~lrculst ion nthin it o~ curr !!nts ot -:':".:




Tho cor') is '!I'o'md lonei tudinuly nth t70 ..

COilS! E', the cnd~ o!' -:rhich "':"O . .I'~'l~pectiVolY coif'ect.e~~ to insw'\t.od contact. rlr~s d d d' d' csrrio:! by the ohstt·.~~

.'. ;'~

a upon 7hich ~'! sraat.ure is r.sountod. ._~~

N~ .,.~~

ti;Tho srmstur=r'::1s '-.-rar'o£;cd to·r~volve rithhi ... ·1111 ':-:.~}~

iron shell R ':'lh1-:h conutitutos tho ~cld I!lsr,not or o~ert>;j . "'·t·:":Jl

elomctnt o~ t.he motor. Thts sholl 10 pre!'orably f'onsod :.;.:~::~

.. ":lith~slot or opening r. but. it f!1~y be! com. in~~ a:J"8h~ . - ::~~~,:"

by the dott.ed lines, snd in this O"Iant it. is p:"e!'ers1ily

It. is ~ so desirable th at this shdl


: ·41


.. '

should bo divided up :ltmilt"Z'ly to t.he vl!lat.u:"e and !'Or

similar ressons.

':_~The eenerstor !'or drlvir.g this mot.or os)' be such


as t~a~ shown. in !1Curo 11. T,is r~p:,,~s~nts sn v.nul.:.o.r 7

or riT£ !l:-~s.~ure A s irr r-o urid ad by four coils E P P' F', of'

"Nhicr: U:os::! di~~~:-ic 311 y cpp o s i t o ar o oorJi~ct ed in

s er i e a so ~h~+:' ~o'.l!" f!"eo::! .and s ar e leN. • .. ~~ich sr e co nncct ad

The r i!iC is

mount ad on !l sh s!'t !l' between t!:'1 poles !i S.

The CO!it.s'!t. ri!"'Cs of e ac h p:dr of r;eneratlll" coils

e.!'"., COT4::.e:tcd t.o ~hos'3 o!' the or,to!'" respect.ively by zpcsns

oe cont.a::! l.r~shes 300 t.ho t.1m p vi r s o! cor.ductors L L L'L'

ss i!".clicstcd dis::1et.ric3.11y i!i !'ir,~c 12.

It. is obvioas !'ro::\ a cor~ider!lt!.or. o!' the precadir.g

Piguros that. tJ':c rot.ation o~ the ~norsto!" :-ir.S prodUces

C".lr:-ents in the coils P p' r.:ieh, beine t:-s:lGr!lHt.ed to the

motor eoils, 1::1?~rt ~o t.he "nM'tu:-c con of thr. !!lot.or,

net. ic polc3 ':7hich sre const anUy shitt (;!d sround th~" co re. This o!"!"cct sets ~jl a rotation o! tho !!IOtor Sl"l!latUr'e o ... il'8

to tho att.ractive !'orcQ bet. ... c~r. t.h~ shell R :Illd the polos

- .,.t}j

o! t.h 9 srl!lstur~, b:lt inasmtu:h ss the coilli in t.his case

ClOve relativoly t.o the shell or !'ield !!l3£fiats the :!IC.'V~cnt

o!" t.he coils it. in the oppo=itc direction to the progrou-,.; .'ir,.~~:.~

- -:-.1

ive movc::lOnt o~ the poles.

O~ a:- sr:-angemor.t s o!" t.he co 11s a!· bot.h e~erator

md motor are jlossibi'e sr.d s greator n'..l:1bcr o!" cir'~its~~~2

IDSy bo ".1S cd !IS wi 11 be seen in t.h~ ~'lI"O succeedir.g Pieuros. ",;

-!'i~urlJ 13 is -S' diS£;r3Mstic il!~t.:-stion or !. motor· "

. '. ... -_. ~#,;- .. ~.,'

.... ; "'!... ~ - v..._

and s s~crsto:-, connocted srad constr~::~ed in accord'lJ'lce .::

~iC'.1:'e 14 is m t:r.d "Ii e ... o!" th e

scnorat.or 'rl ~ it s !'i ~ld rn:"l11~t s in seen ion.

The !'ield o~ the ::IO~or Y is p!"oduced b'~ixm:1gT.ctic polos G' ;;., sec'.r~d. ~o or proj'l:tir.g fro::! !l ri!"oG or


4' H'

_r 3 • .':'10 •

Th~co r.ugn·:?ts or pol~s 3I"e \"io'.md 'ldth inSUlated ""po Sife..

coils, ~hos~ di ~c~r1c~ly I\~o :::~c:h o:hcr !lei n£, c


pairs so as to ;:rod'.1cC oppoai to pol'3s in each pu r. This

leaves six !rcc cnd e which !lrC eo nr.e et e d to the t~rminsls


sha!'t a.

s.n ar~lSt.uro A 'lrO'.1T,(\ 'Kith thrce co 11s X XI h· ~t' GO 4.0grco8

'.~ ~



The ends o! t.hc~le '!lID 11s src "on!"le~ od respectivell-

t.o ir.sulst.ed contact rir.cs ~ e e'e~.e· It •• -~,.'

The se rl r.cs

W are eO:-'::cc~ed ~o thos~ o!' t.he ootar in proper ordsr'b~

mlms a! coll!!~i!".c br'.1SleS arLl !lix wires !"orZ!Sinr. the ind~ .

pendent ~irc'.1its. ~.

Tho v3.1"istions in th9 st.rcTaCth ~d .

:,. .1~·

=~ .~


d! rection o!' -:~e cur:'cnts tr!ns::1ittod th:-ough. these cir-

-; -t,

e uit s 3nd trsve r:liraG tho coils of th 0 CIOt.or p:'oduce a ,

st. eadilj~~.ocreSS!"'Ye"~s!d~t.1r.g or t.hO r~sul~ ant att¥activ~ :'-~'':~ 1'orco exerted by t.he poles Gt upon tho arl:lsture n !I'll} co~/~·~

.~-:.~.: :~Ji

s.ecr.le.~,~ keep the a~tur!! in r "", ""?" T~~;, :e~:~:~!~3 1al 3dvantsce o~ this disposition is in obtuninc "IIO~~ ~

coJ&cemrsted and &loW'~r!'Ul ~cld. Thc ~lication or thi~~~

,.~ prlneipl~_ t 0 318tCl!lS involvir.r. mo.1l!.ii'le ct re~lts g~nJr,.U J:;~~;;.t

~~, :~~'~~~

. ~~,,:'

"ill beu."'1de!"~ oed !"rol!l t. his '.lp?srat'.1s.

~icU!'e as is

~, . ~ -

!Po d1sg1"=~t.ic r~resentaUon o~ a oodirted disposition or?,;' .:

Ra1'errinB noW' to 3icur~s 15 ~d 16:

the. invention ..

'. '

c- : •• -.~~'

::Fitul"c 16 1£ a torizon~!!Il cross seed on

ar th S .!!lOtor.

cut !!l'll'sy at :Jpposi~c e1ccs as s.J.:o'Yn i:!'l clot ted li!i~s ir. ~e

Fig'!'!, it: !':1c'.1."".tcd so 3S to !o1.1!"h freely inside tl'lO stat.ion-

sr~jO coils N' n· p Lae e d st ri~h~ s.nr1 ':!s to o!'"'.e 3.TDthcr.

n!ll s T T T' t:>,

o! tU t"!~n3.t inE; eu:-rl!:it. ::tAch;;'nos in "hi~h !L stat.i onsry in-

Th!lt ~hown'on:lists of a,'l"e-

volvir.g pa:1:IsnC!l'lt or 'Jlc~tro-cecnc~ A 31id !ou:- independont

cally oppos~t.e coih being cor.r.ect·~d in· aeries !l'1d having


their er.da .cc~ed to the te~ainals t t t' to'.

Fro= ~heao

te:-oinsls t:"1C c~!"~nts at"o lod to tl10 t or.':Iinsls of the':;_\t

'";' ~.

Thc ~d" o! ope!'!!lt ion is subst anti ally the 8:1fte

as In !ho p:.·ctvious case.! the C".1r'r ~t s ~ra\·ersir.g the "~1.1l.


of t b.! motor lo.avir.g the effoct to t~ th~ disk D. This

mode o~ cszoryins out the inv~tion the advsnt!lgo of

dispensing lIith t!':~ slid!nr: con~!Lets In tho 3Y8t~.

In tho !"orms ot" mot. or above deac!'i bed. only one . ..;;r.

..c. ~.

vldod with ancrr;i ZiT.S col1a.

of the elements. tho vlIl&!.uro or thc rield is pr 0- =.~:

.-~ ... -.

It !'~a1 ns !ohan to shaw how

both alcoonts lSy be 'II'ow:d nth co 11s. R:!fcr9T&ce is e:"O-

"foro had to Pigures 17 md 18.
-c.:. . .
Figure 17 is an trod view of such !L mo~or with s
diagrlW o! !'ieur e 18 is !L vi e'.2' of the g(!l'ior- stor with th~!'ield 08gnets in section. In ':·ig~e 17 the


O!' thin ir,~~3.tcd iron sheets or b~.!".ds -rlth eiiT-t pol~

-;i':!ccs G' 3.T,d co!"!"!!spondir.c; r':!ccsses ir; ~ich !"our Fairs

of coils V arc ~o~.d.

The dia:!tetric311y opp os t e o p3i:-s of

coils ar~ cOnl11lctcd i!", "lor!es!lid the ~ee crlds cenne et e d


to foX" t':T'!I".insls W.

tic.n beir.c the :s~o :!LS !':~re1nb8f'''ro expl&lned.

necnet.· R.

T::e ends o~ tho Sl"oature co!ls l\l"C e(1'l.:-:e::t ~d

to t"lfO p~irs o!' co~t.~c~ rirogs d d d' dl.

ltir.d to pr oduc e e'..1:"r::nt s 9f tho d asiT' ad .~ar act. t:!C' • In

~e prcscn~ 1r,stanco it consists of s field :!'ULCntrt. N S

and an an:.t~o A n!h two co! 1.:5 a!. :-if11t. !ll'igl es , t.ho ~da

--~ ~~ -'J

ot which al" e c onnoe!.od t.o f01:- e or.t s:t rl!"lSS b b b' b I" ••

-_,. ...

C Sl"T' 10 d by it s :it s!'t.

Tho cirr:uit. eor.r.oct1ons sre Qstsblished be~"e:n


.. ~ --: ...... on t.ho s~er!t.t.or shaft !V£d those on the motor

shsft. by br~shes Slid '.rl!"es ss previol.1sly explain ed. In order to propcriy '!nc:-r.izc ~he,~fi 'J1d oacn!1t of. t ~

mct.Ol"!', hcnrevor. ~ c connections ~T'C so msde with the arm.-

ture coi13.bY wir'!s ~~s41~ t.heret.o t.hst. 7hile th~ ro~~ts

. .:ti.. ' :.~ ~ .','

ot great.est' attrs'!tion or grestest density ot ~s£netiCl~'

linoa of !"orce upon th!: armature sre shi!'ted in ene direc ..

tion, th~~ Upon the fi~d mscnct are IDsdo to progress in

. :-",:, ~~' . l':: ", "

!Ill opposit.e dir ection.

In oth ~ !'es~oct.s t.he operation is·


,1.dcnticl' t}:~ :;~e 90S in t.he ot.b~!" e as e s described.

.'--.-: .. ..:

,This ar:-a!lbcr1:mt. r!!s'.11ts in an incrc!ls~d speed of rot~tion.

In Pigu:-e 17, for eXSZ!lIllot t.!;c t.e:-min!lls of' each' .

set of fic!d coils sro e onne ct ed with the wires to the arar.

, .

'"tore coils in such way th3.t the !'ield coi13 will ::!!lintain'

o;:'P!,sit.c poles in sdvanec of' t.he poles of' th<:! armatur c.
~ . -::.~'.~
Ir. the drsnnr.s th e- !'i eld coils are in sh'.JJ'its to ·th~ srm~t!.i::-e, b:.l!. they' may be in :J~ries or in independent

. . . _ .

. ci re-.:.it8.

, .



I~, 15 :obvio".ls th~t t.he ,Hmc p:'inciplo may bo sp-:',


, t,

plied to',th''! various tYP,icsl !"OT!!1S or motorhereinbef'oro

, "

desert bed.


,~~ : . ,~~j

.: ......


.:_=_ ..

lUstr31; 1r.g' s l'lC)di!'ic.~t ion' in t.he ~tor. " I~ ~~is.:yj1~~0.f~<1 U"o e vsrio'.l:l psrts' sre t~e sa::!!! 90s i!'i !'igure9, exco?t t.hat·:.:~

• • _-.;::!

·th 0' armst. ure e er e of' the. mot or is "o:md wi t.h· t:wo coils, at .: r ~

. ....;..~, . - .. ~."

ri·e;ht.. N'lblcs ·to c~chot.hcr, the co~e boir.c ;'~~l1~~er,'or:l:~i

•• ... ." -. : .: .J.

.c. diGk •. , 'The ~'!rO coils f'o'rm inder.end~nt elos~d '.'rci1it ..·~·~:1

runninc !reo ~he,rotstion of' t.he

"~~. ';j.':'

s,.nchrono~ wit.h'·the rotation

. .. .

. ,~ ······:=f

in.ducat! cir cuit swill be !"o'lnd"·i~

~ .... ::L~4 ':'.::j~

When s ~o: .t.hus co:.s:ructed is not lo.ded.' b~ .. ,~,~~

Sl"mature is p .. ·.ct iC~1'''':~ . ~. " .: ~+~~:~

'"l:~ .•.... ..

o! ~~e poles in tl:te !~ el d, "'~::


• This arr'sr~e~t of' closed

.... : ...

.... ~... :"_-'.

to C1vI) vC!"y e!'f'icient :-osult=s.

, ,

md under t.hese circu.':lStances vcry lit.~lc cu:-r':mt ia'por~ .~

'c;"iU,io in tho coUs e e', but. it'· a load is !l.dded !he


.'-~~~- :~

.. >

speod t''lndl! to 'd~~nish v.d ~o ,cur:-~nts in 'the eol1 !Ire 's~~ntcd. so ~st <;he rotary ef'!(·rt is incroased pTOjlor-·

~~"). . . ;"-:

t.i onstcl,.


bl~ o!' CISt.:r.' r.1odifiod spplics~ion:£t oost of '!'fhich !'lllow

as a o!' cour ae !'!"03 ~hc I!onst:ouctions desc:oibedf

!'o:o' ir.staT.ce, the '.rmat'.1re or ir.ciac ed coils or t.hose in

which t.he currant. sre s~t '.lJ'l by induction, ~y he held

by ::1Csr.s o!' S u1 t",b Le :U idiTol: con~ aet s.

. .~.

H is uso ap- -,'

r.etic'p&rts o!: tho .. motor 3tatior.ar7.

An adv!\nt.l£c and 3. characterist.ic !'eature o't motor.

eonstr'.let~d lr.d opar!\tcd in aecordsnca with th is plan, 1. t.h ~ir capability ot almost inst !mt.anco'.ls rev!rs!t:. b1 t.~; r~"Ie:"Bal o!' one or the energizing cu:or'!nt.s t'ror:t t.he gcn)~

.~~ :~

This '!d l:!. be '...U'ld~rst ood !"ro~ s ~on:lidcrst ion or;

th~ ~rkir~ conditions.

.~1~ tsting in s cert.un direction !ollo1l'inc the !!lO"lement. ot·tbO~

.h1~1"C ;>ole., 'h:" l.t 'h. d1r;.tior. or tho .~U't1nB' re"le:osad l'Ihitt1 NY be done by rc!"I~rsir.g tho eonneet1on~>:~ or o~e o!: the t.o··~ergizins cireuits. 11" it. 'be bor~~iJ in' mind that in a dyn!lOo-~l~ctric oschine the cmerQ d~;lQi velop~d i:s very n'l!l.:"ly propor":.ion3.te to the o!' t.ho:.·:-~


.,~" ~.... . ..... (..

speed, it is ovid~t t.hst 3t :l'.lC.'l 301!l!:!nt Vl e~r.ordinary~ - -·-~1'

I'0we~ is·brou{.ilt. to pl:lY in rO"lo:osirlS t.he ootor.

In ad.";_A

dition ~ ~his ~o resis~sncc ot thQ ootot hvery greatly' • oj"

recbced at the CIOilcn~ o!: r~vol'sal so ~hat a I!\Uch grester -.'

am:lunt o~ current passes th !"ough th c cnerCi zing cir cuit s ,

The p!";~o:nt.mon alluded t o , viz: The v sr i at i cn of'

nary ::to~orst i:; :-:!"'ob:>.bly l.~:=-ib'_r:.:'I.ble to the vsr1atian in

the_ a:1a:.lT.t a!' :1~!f'-ind".lction in the in'1t'!3ry or -:ncrgizir.g


in the cirS7i!:gs 30!'t iron ~ eld ::tar,n~t s excited by a COn-

This pl3n is :to very advan t 9g eoua or,e t b".lt it is

!:Iagroc) bo stronr,ly $~rjill:od b~ its ::oils :>.nd ~lote circ:J1ta ~hro'.l£h ~ho a:-::at".l!"'~ coils closed, ass"Zlinr, ~he 5ener-~tor

to be rWir.1r.,; !It !l cartain speed, the motor rill not so;art.

b~ i!' th~ !"ield be b".lt sliGhtly enerciz~d or in general

J_. ... .~-f!'_.

in such condition that the :Upict.!o inf'lUonco o!" tho -;";'m-

~ t.ure p rOllond or 3t e sin d at emir:. inr it::; oa r.n ct i c condit. i on,

its nO:":!lal or osxi=r..ln spe ed ,

Por t !,is !'oa.oon it is de-

sirablo ~o kce;J, 3t tho sta:-t snd ~til tho oator h!ls


atto ainod its nOr:!l~ :1poo-i:!, or nc!.Tly :10;' t.~o !i. old 01 -

open, or to po:-::dt b~ little C'I17"rent to pass th~ouGh it.

Anoth or cl\ar!lctcristic of' this f'i):-m of' octor is-


.~.-' '

that-it. S dirlJ~ ion o!" ro~ at ion is not rovoraed by rovera-·

iraf; tho cU:-e::t.ion or the cu:,rcnt t.hro:.lCh its !'iold coils,

for the direction of' rotation dCj'londs, not upon the p~lsr-


it.y o~ ~hc !"icld, b".l~ upon t.ho 1i:-(!ction in which the!

To !'evers~ the mo~or

t.h e con:-.ccUons o!' ~i ther or th~ cr.a:-r.i zinc cire'.lit s oust


b ~ rovers .,d.

It ':fill be !"o".l.:1d i!' tor.!! !"i elds or both ~he gener-

ator and cot-or be strongly encrlrized, ~hat otsrting tho

gcncrstr:- ~arts t.he ootor .. and ~at. th~ sp ced or t.ho

out.or io ir.eressod in syr.c.~ronism ':fi!.h the generat.or.

Hot.ors cO:1st.ructod and o?o::r"ted upon this pTinci-

pIc aaint!!.in .umost sbs:>lat.o::ly t.b~ SS-"'\C speed for 311

loads nthin their normsl 1I'o"!'"kir-tC liait.s, snd in pra~tlce

load'.:d ~o such !ll as to cr.eck its speo~, the :speed

o~ t.he gar.ers~or, i!' its r.\oHve pO'IYer be not too crest,

quulths rander this jlart.ic~sr

:. ::.:.~~ ::tOtor vo't7 WI otu;l:

under .. e ert sin e ond1 ti (Ins.


With t.hh descri.,tio:1 o!' the naturo of the inv'JI'lt1on.?:,

.,; ~"'.:

snd or so::t!! o!' th e vsrious 1I'3.ys 1n which it. is c:u-rled

ies which t.!':c applications o!" t.he invention

ch!.\l" aet. eri st.';':~;

"Zt· <~;;;

possess. !D'ld_ :-,.:;

:... -.' ~ .•

into.e!'f'oct, !It.tC!n~ion is c3.11cd t.o certain

~-~ '.

the advant~e8 which it. o!'!'ers.

-'1.~ .. ~~ cd in Pig'.l!"o 9, it. ':rill bo ob~er'/cd t.hat sinco:_~~

."-~;" ....-·3 has a t.cndancy t.o !,ollo'!l' conti!'luo".1s1y the point.~~.:..o~

srou:.d the rir.c one e !'or es,,:h revolut.ion or tho gostur-e"

" . ~.~-!~

o! t;1o C':!I'lerator,. it !'ollows thst the oover.\Cm~Q~ tho .~~.~-t .:.~~ D 1d:l1 be synchrono".1s 'rlth t.hst. o!' th~ "maturo A. This /~{

f'eat\1:" Q 'trill be !"O'.lnd to exist in 3.11 o~.,r !'oros in ..m1ch.!:;'

••• :..*..,


a :.hi!'tiri£: o!' the poles o!' the mot o r t!~rouch three hundred

and sixt!' dnere~s.

I n ~h ~ pr t i cu L ~r mo di fi c:..t i or. !Oho'!rTi i n ri cur e 15.

generator 3.l":!iat.~e is double as co~~:\r:!::! nth t.he preced-

ir.c e as ea and the pol!lritic:. in thcr.totor ar e :lhit'thdt

arour.d t.wice by one r~vol"ltion of t.he eaner~or sr'mat.ure.

'he speed of th:! mot.or ':fill, t.h~r~~ore, b'!!) that or

~ d ~

the c~er!ltor.

T1':.e s!ll!le result is 'Jvil!~tly obtained by such a

disp osi t ion as 6J':!'. to s~o'l'm in


!lirur~ 17 w!:cre the ~le::J o~~

both elem~t s U"e shi!'t ed in opposi til di ~ection ••

ACSin, considerinc t.he :!.pparatus illustrated by



of t.h!l 1ny~t.ion. it

~d.. O>.,~

~ .. e- ~

is ob-A ous th at.

sinco the !\t~ract.ivc effe~ upon th'l disk D is g:"est.ost

-.hal the ~iok is in its prop~r rclstiv:! podUon t.c~.tho

.,-_ .~ ""~ .. ~ e::-

polos developed 1:i the r ir.g R, t}13t. i:: t.o s3Y. when ita

ends or poles 1~edi~te1y !'ollow those of t.he ~r~. tho ::pe~d ~.:.t.hc :!lotor for all load3 wi thin t.he norasl"'~rkiT~

l10fts of the !!lotor will be prac~icsll.y const.ant.

- ,.

It is clearly aPi>3,rcnt tbs't 'the speed csn never exceed tire arbitrary l1r.tit. ss dcto~ined by th~ c~1trstor:'':

and slsg t.hat nt-hin cart.un lin1ts, ~t least t the speed

of the aotor will be indep~r.d~r.t o~.the stnongth ottr.o

'''''" -".

.. -:...-.


I~ will no", be !!lor!! rgsdily S~~ !'rom the sbove

descri,~ion how !";uo tho rOqllir'.lr!l""ts ,·r s practical system:

,.' ••••. ,'1::


~.. - . -. ,.>:'"

ot '!fectrical trmsl!lissi'on ot power 3l" e resl izcd by ~his

invar.t ion.

It. s ecur es:-

:?irst, s ~i!'orm :ipecd under sll loads wit hin the .K,

normal workinC li!!llts o!' ~hc !!lotor without the use or 'J.rv.:;

,~ :':'

suxllisry r~ul~tor.



S~co:ld, s:(nc~oni~ between the :!lotor snd g-~er3t or""":.

. ,,.

Thi:"d, crest~r o!'!'iei~nt:y by ths oore di~ .. cct appl1":>

' .. -c " " .: - :.- • -; .. - ., ••

cation o~ the CU:T~t, no co~ut~~,in~ devices being rc-

qtlirod or. eHher t~c !!loto:" or rC!",er·.·.tor.

st. I".1ction.

. '-

- .


. 1',-

.- .


. ~ Sixth, d1:11nutlon o!' d!Vlce~ fro:! injury to pcr~ns:~

-\rd IIpp ara tUB •


ThO:JO ootors !!ISy bo r:m in saries, 1!r.11tiple d"O

~~~~ or I!IUlt iplc sories under ~onc!1 tions "Ul understood by ... _::~:

fi"_- '~'l;.~'-"'~

,'- . '-~ ~,,- "f~. -::;~~

tlloco skl110d in the srt. .~.;~:.

~~ !!IO!UlS or devices for csrrying out the prin~~i~ ".:.:.~ or this invention may be varied to P. tar crost.~~,ext~~~

it ~r. '. ~ ffi

than - hoa bo... india.' od her.i n, ".... <h. inyenti:',; in01;;A:;

in ganersl, :IOtors containing two or mora IndC!pondOnt ~~"':i$~. cuit."·thro'.lSh which tho op~:,,'lt.inC current. are'1ir~ct~_ in t.he :!Winer deseri bed. By ·independent· it is not':~ik~

·:W ?1iod t.hat the circuits ar o necess3rily 1S0l'!.to~ troa i4;.:jf

one ~:hot.h~, !'or !~ sooe ir.s~ :\ll~es there elo~~fi~

.: , ,.'ht

act1~n o~ ~hc OO~~f ~tho~t r.ce~sssrily ~:"oducin£ a r.S~i: or dir!'eront action.


· ~., "" '. new to p rortuc e the +o t.a t i o n ot a ;wtor

by int,~rMit.te! sh1L't1np, tile poles of o ne or its e l enen ts

hatt~~y or S(ll'''ce of d:i rect or co ntf nuor-a cur-r-ent s ,

reversinp, sueh cnrrent.s hy sni table l!l~chani e a I ap!,liances :.

~ ..

oppos_He riirect.ion~.

In au e h eaa es , howev~r. tt~e roten-

ti 301 ot '.he ener;>;i 2 inp' eur-r-en tM l'el!lai ns ~he same, thei r

di r~ct!on only boinl'; chan~od.

invent.ion. on .. he o' hand , ·,T"l'C alt.eT" Cl~r!"C!i.t.8 ar~

at an apr)nrR~~'a for nt.!lizin~ SliC1-; enrr-en ta ,

The :l1llerenc:e t-,I! '.ween t,he two pI ans and the ad-

viUltBp,.,S o! ~1s one are ohvions.

1.:y pro(\ucinr. an

tall «t !,o+.en·.!Rl. tJ:;~ exae t cnncUtions o r t.he '~'.m!!rator are reprl)dt'c~~. !n t.he !'\Ot.0ri and by such onrrent.8 and th~: c:onsO·l'''!nt. p"nrit'c+.i on of rf!llUl ~an':. poles t~e pror,re8sion

ot t.he poles w111 be cont.int1011S and nof. in·.~TI!li ttent. In


addition to thh. +-hl! !,ract~cal dltficult.y;ot interrupti",.. -!tT

or revers1n/t a Cllrrent. ot any considerabl" str~n~th i.

such t.hat non~~ot the deViS_;~ at "resent ~om could be ~. ~ade a8 econo~lcally or practically ettec~ the trsnsmi88-

jon ot power by rever81n~. in t;he Manner described, a con-

tin'Uolls - or di rect Cl'rren t;.

el"~erlt oi' t.he mot.or i2 conClf!rned • I'ly invention involves



th:1 nse ot an _al+.ernat.i!!F, ar-d1stlnp.;1I1sr.ed trom 8 reversed

current,ora current ,:h!ch while continll01~8 and direct ia


shi i't.ed ,'rol!l coil t.o coil by U!1Y form ot C(ll!l'lutator. re-

Wlhll re~~rd t.o t!8t p~rt of the in-


Motor s irnul+,a."'t:!onsly. +.he uae o t ,:!j t,h~r a1 ~.'1rn~tinr. or


t"lItversed Cl'rrent,s is within the scope O!' thc;t invention a1-.

~' 'J ~ ,

tt.ou;~h the ua e oC rev':!rsed currents is t!ot re~ard~d 8S or'

omch prbc·'lf"ortanc".


1. nle method herein described of e1ectr!cal1y

tranam1 t,~i~ Jlower wh1 ch consists in prodl1cin~ a contin11-


ousl)' Fr.~ru8ivl! r'lOVeMent ot the polal"i ties ot el ther or

bot.h elert~nt,. ( t.he annat.,'re or field 1"1a~net. or '"I&~nets )

ot a motor by d"ve!01l1,~ a1 tl)rnatinr;.current8 in incJepend-

-: "'_' . - ;


ent circnit.s ir.cllldin~ t.he ria~ne~izjnr; co I Ls of either qr

hoth eler!9nts, as hor'Jin Bet tort.'1.

2.~ The cOMhination wi t.h a I'IOt'Or cor.·.ain1nr.'8ella-

rate or indepencle!'tt circuits on th~ armatnre or field or


1::oth, o~ an alt..,..t,!nr. current p'enerator containin~ induced.

~ ~ ~ ~

CirC\li te connected lr.dopentlen~,ly to corre!!r-ondin~ ci reul toe

in the l"'.ator whereby a rot.ation oi the ,:ener8tor r.rodt1ces

a !'lro~res~!.ve sh1lUn,1 !!t the poles o~:t~~e r.1Ot.or, asJierein~ describerl.

3. In a ~Y8tem tor th~ electrical power, thj1~oDlbfn8t1on 1~ a l'I01.or pro:idCd

transMission ot . .!i> .. :'-:-.

dth two or'more:'


independent D!a~net1z1n~ CI)115 corre:'rondin,1 to the Ploter .

col1. a;\d ;irCUitB CO!l~~ct1nr, (Urectl\.::.the l!lOtor aJld.j.enerat or coils 1n such ()rder that t}··) cnrrents doveloped by

"t.he r;enorator will he rastietl,.uj~h t.!,>'J eorresponcUn~ rno-

t.or coils .. and thoretoy P,~ori\'ce a pr",":ressive shifU!'r,'ot tho

poles ot tl.e "~otor, RS hernin set l·orth.


4. The camb1nation "ith a motor having an annula.r

or rine shape'd field and a cylindrical or equivalent arma-

toure. and independdnt coils on the field or a~ature or


Jboth• or an altarnat'1ng curr6nt generator having corres-

pondingly independent coils and clrcuits including the

.e- --;


genlJrator coils and corresponding motor coils in such'

manner that the rotation or the e9l1erator callses a pro-

erassive shifting or. the poles of the mot.or in the man-

ne r set. r art h.

5. In a system for t.he electricu transmission ot

po"er, t.he combination of t.he rollowing Instrumentallti,.,

to .it.: a motor cCZlposed at' a disk or its equivalentmount. ad "it.,hln a ring or annular rield_whieh 1. provI4,.d·.U~ magnet I zing coUs connected in diamat ric&1ly opposite

pair. or group. to ind9pendent terminal., a generat.or havI~t Inc1Ucod COil .• or groupe ot'ooU. equ81. In-;ilumb.!,>f~:': t.o the pair. or groups or motor coUs and circuit. oon-

nut ing the t.erminal. or' said con. t.o the term1~~. or~

. ;.., '-~~ '--~-' c: - -

t.he mot.or respectively and in such order that. the rota-.

t.lon of t.he generator and t. he consequent product ion ot alt.ernatlng current •. In t.he respective circuit.. p.."daoe.,~

, :',]:r, _';;: .' "... -, .

. -'':

• progr ••• t v. movement ot th e polarities ot t.he motor, •• ".

herGinbetore described.

..... . _l:iov..'

t.. ">.'rf.~' -"~

,at$.'" 'lhe me\hod~hereln described I)t operat. ing e18o- ,',~ }j


." .

t. ro. magnetio mot. on .hloh cons ist. In procluo ing • progr ••. ~~

. - ,"" .:: ..

.. .

dYe .hlttlng or the poles ot its armature by an alt.erna;'_i::: ::,-:-;.~~. and ene~Blzing its field magnots by a con-

tinuou. current as set. forth.

7. 'the e cmbinat ion "i th a motor e ontainlng lndepen~::

dent indaoing or energizing circuit.. and closed induced 20

circuits, oi' an altornat.inp' cur r ent ~ont'rator hav!n;; in-

due ad or ;~eneratin,: c1 1'C\li ts corrcsl'ont1in~ to and connected

with the 9nerr,izinp; circl1its ot' the mo t o r , as ;-:et. forth.

q.~; An (!i!!ctro~ina;~neti c motor -having~ its rield mar.~4: ."~ .

. -;II'

its arf'lat\lre ·w1t.h~·r

. . .. '

netft wo\~nd with independent coils and

~~ ~("~~ '_ ...•. __ ..... ~ .:

- ,.'''::'''

alternat1!"~ eur-r ent s connected to t.he field coils and capa--'-

in~ep'lndent clasen coils in COMbination with a SO\lrcoot

.-:-' .~

bll! of pro;;reF.slvoly shil'tinr, the poles of tho field Ma."!not, as ijt forth.

~ .... new York f, ~ S, }"-'<il

Sip;ned in ~tescnce of

~ ~ .... "._, e.. -j~t:rt;::;;:

~,,_ <2. ~-;b.


. ~ --.-

This is the spocification referred to 1n tho at-

tldavlt ot ~lkola Te81a, :.~.

betore ae this ~ ".

horeto annexed, and sworn to day ot' ~ IM8.

'- 9 ~-.J 7



~ 9 , . .1 7

, ... ~.. _. _-

• • • °0•• :.,~:.:.

j . # •

'. '.-~; "lA'" ., ....

. . J_'(?-."" .' -', ' ' .

.,.. _- .. .. .

. .' fi .

. . . ,

. "

.. • t'

. ", -, .

. , .

:. ':R#-?

. , .



' ..

" . .... .

, .

, .




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