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The Beauty of the Lord’s Bride - Zion Restored: An Exposition of Isaiah 62:1-12
Elke B. Speliopoulos OBST 633: Isaiah June, 2009
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Synthesis and Outline of Isaiah 62:1-12 Summary: After being nearly destroyed and utterly downtrodden by her experience of war and exile, Israel shall yet experience restoration, and Jerusalem serves as the symbol of the Lord’s love and willingness to restore His people to a perfect relationship with Him. Outline: I. The Lord declares His love and devotion for His people through His prophet (62:1-7) A. Passionate Call for Zion’s Restoration: Return to a perfect and holy state for Jerusalem, the Lord’s city (62:1-3) 1. A strong call will issue for the restoration of Jerusalem (62:1) 2. The whole world will recognize Jerusalem’s elevated status and she will be recognized by her new name, given to her by the Lord (62:2) 3. Jerusalem will be as costly as jewelry from precious metals and stones to the Lord (62:3) B. Marriage Symbolism: A depiction of a restored Zion as the desirable bride (62:4-5) 1. By changing her name to one that signifies restoration and beauty, the Lord indicates that His covenantal relationship with Jerusalem is restored (62:4) 2. The Lord’s joy over his city and his people is shown in the marriage symbolism (62:5) C. Ensuring The Lord Is Listening: (62:6-7) 1. Watchmen will act as reminders to the Lord of His promise (62:6) 2. They will continue their work until the Lord accomplishes Jerusalem’s restoration (62:7) II. The Lord has sworn an oath and reconfirms it (62:8-9). A. The Lord’s oath is restated: His people will never again lose the benefits of their hard labor to an enemy (62:8) B. He confirms that what they have worked for, they shall enjoy in peace (62:9) III. The Lord promises His people His salvation and reconfirms their elevated status (62:10-12) A. An encouragement is given to workers to get ready for the Lord’s work (62:10) The Lord provides yet another reminder that His salvation is what Zion can expect and this and their just reward as His bride shall be made known to the ends of the earth (62:11) B. Jerusalem will be known by its beautiful new names, given to it by the Lord and signifying its restored status with Him (62:12)
Exposition of the Text Introduction In this beautiful testimony to the faithfulness of God, Isaiah describes the zeal the Lord feels for His bride, for His chosen people, the people of Israel, here symbolically represented as Zion or Jerusalem.1 God’s intention is for His people to be restored into a relationship with Him that can only be compared to the intimacy two lovers feel with each other within a marriage bond. As Oswalt points out, the sixty-second chapter of the book of Isaiah is the center point of a chiastic structure. This center point of this chiasm is expressed in chapters 60-622. It is the culmination of a triumphant passage, filled with hope and assurance for a people who will have suffered unrelenting pain by the time their exile, as predicted by Isaiah in another part of his writing, is completed. As God declares to His people, they will have the status of a married wife to Him - what a blessed hope to look forward to for a people so downtrodden! A Declaration of Love and a Promise of Restoration (62:1-7) The speaker in this passage passionately pleads Jerusalem's case and vows to not cease until a perfect standing of the city, and by symbolic extension the people of Israel, before God is achieved. He declares that he will not let up, but will speak out loudly until her status is one that lets her be a true light before the world with righteousness and salvation as the hallmarks of her restored status.
Douglas McC.L. Judisch, “ISAIAH 62: 1-5,” Sermon Notes on the Old Testament, http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/judisch/epiphany2c.htm (accessed June 27, 2009). However, here Dr. Judisch equates Zion and Jerusalem not just with the people of Israel, but with the broader church of God. He writes: “All the people of the True God, anywhere in the world and in time, constitute the "Zion" and "Jerusalem" of which the Messiah Himself speaks to His people in the verses before us.” 2 John N. Oswalt, The NIV Application Commentary: Isaiah (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003), 641.
Since the speaker is not identified, several solutions as to who is speaking in verses 1 and 6 have been proposed. It could be the prophet speaking in both verses; alternately, it could be God speaking. A third possibility, proposed by Motyer, is that the Anointed One3, announced and described in 59:21, 61:1–3, 61:10–62:7, and 63:1–6, is speaking4. While earlier scholars seem to conclude that it is God speaking, modern scholars have settled on the prophet as the spokesperson. Oswalt believes God here is “promising that, despite his apparent silence, he was actively working to bring about the bright dawn”5 and cites Whybray and Bonnard’s support of this view of God acting as the speaker in both verses 1 and 6. Motyer thus could be thought of as agreeing with the approach of God speaking in these verses by promoting the Anointed One, known from a post-cross perspective as Jesus Christ, the Son of God. In verse 8, God for the first time is clearly identified as swearing an oath. While Whybray supports this aspect in giving additional credence to God speaking also in verses 1 and 66, this does not appear to be a truly critical point. Even if the prophet is speaking here, he acts as the mouthpiece of God and is under His inspiration. Chisholm even describes the speaker as “playing to the hilt the role of intercessor.”7 And so it becomes that the speaker here is the lesser issue; rather the importance of the resulting righteousness, which will be a part of the restored relationship and will serve as the vindication of Israel as the people of God before the nations around
J. A. Motyer, The Prophecy of Isaiah : An Introduction & Commentary (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1993), Is 61:10. 4 Ibid., Is 56:1. 5 John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 40-66. New International Commentary on the Old Testment (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1998), 578, 583. 6 R.N.Whybray, Isaiah 40-66. New Century Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1975), 246. 7 Robert B., Chisholm, Jr., Handbook on the Prophets (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002), 131
her who have acted hostile and have waged wars with them.8 As Oswalt points out, the parallel mention of righteousness and salvation indicate that righteousness for Israel is entirely based on God’s grace and outpouring of salvation, not their efforts, and that joining righteousness to salvation shows His desire for His people to live righteous lives9. Jerusalem as a Costly Jewelry in the Hands of God (6:3) Jerusalem shall become like a precious jewel in the hand of God, depicted here as a crown and a diadem. This adornment seems to indicate more than just the beautification of a bride getting prepared for her wedding. Buksbazen points out that the synonymous terms צניףand מצנפתindicate the turban or head-dress of the high priest (Ex. 28:4) and also indicate royal status (Ezk. 21:26) through the ,עטרתor crown10. Motyer raises another interesting perspective: Jerusalem will not wear these adornments, but rather that it will be the crown or diadem, which God holds in His hand. By this expression of kingliness, Israel will become a clear indication of God ruling as King. By God holding the crown or diadem, He shows their elevated and protected status as part of His kingship over them11. Jerusalem’s Renaming to Indicate Her Restored State as the Beloved Bride (6:4-5) In the next two verses, the repeated use of various forms of the verb bā˓al highlights the marriage symbolism used in these verses and outlines God’s perspective of the relationship He desires with His people.12 From a people deemed “forsaken” ()עזובה ָּ ֲ
Victor Buksbazen, The Prophet Isaiah: A Commentary (1971; repr., publication place: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 2008), 466. 9 Oswalt, 655. 10 Buksbazen, 466. 11 Motyer, Is 62:2 12 R. Laird Harris, Robert Laird Harris, Gleason Leonard Archer and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, electronic ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1999, c1980), 119.
and “desolate” ( ,)שממהIsrael is changed, made into a new people, fit to be desired and ָָׁ ְ loved, a people God can truly rejoice over. This “reversal of fortune” brings to mind a passage in Joel 2:25, which similarly shows God restoring what was taken.13 Key insight, as already mentioned, has to be that it is God who is doing the work, not the people. They cannot achieve this standing through their own efforts, but rather God has to be the enabler through grace poured out on them. The verb root בעלis used four times in various forms in the two verses (6:4-5), yet the one that has stumped most scholars is the use in verse 5. Here the sons are marrying their mother, based on the English reading of the text. An opinion, which has been presented, argues that sons cannot marry their daughters and since the Masoretic pointing is not inspired, the pointing could be changed to then translate as "builders", rather than sons. In Isaiah 54:5, it is argued, this term also stands for "husbands", indicating God as Israel's Maker. According to this opinion, the plural, here really standing for a singular, indicates excellency attributed to God.14 Looking at a textually significant property, Judish points out that “the only appearances of the qal imperfect are the two cases here in Isaiah 62:5 [BDB, 127a]. Thus, of the total of its sixteen instances in the TaNaK, seven of them surface in the Book of Isaiah and, more specifically, four of them here in verses 4 and 5 of Isaiah 62.” 15 Clearly, this shows a future and thus imperfect state. The relationship between Israel and her God
The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2001, Joel 2:25. “I will restore to you the years that the swarming locust has eaten, the hopper, the destroyer, and the cutter, my great army, which I sent among you.” 14 Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, A. R. Fausset et al., A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, On Spine: Critical and Explanatory Commentary. (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), Is 62:5 (see also Is 54:5). 15 Judisch, http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/judisch/epiphany2c.htm
will be molded to this state when righteousness and salvation have become the marquee over Jerusalem. A look at the Hebrew verb root בעלhere may clarify what may be meant in the text. It appears in verse 5 in the qal form. This can mean “marry”, but also “rule over, i.e., have rulership and governance” in the context of a territory, such as its use in 1 Chronicles 4:22.16 What speaks against this is the possessiveness indicated by this use.17 While it may be true that a husband held a rule over his wife in the Ancient Near Eastern cultures, it seems to eliminate the tenderness indicated in the words to Zion. The soothing tone of the future beauty of her relationship to God would be seriously interrupted with such an interpretation. Oswalt argues that this relationship described in verse 5 is indicative of a relationship (on an ongoing basis), rather than a state. This seems to support the relational aspect God highlights throughout all of Isaiah 62.18 A key observation, which can be made about the new and optimistic names Hephzibah and Beulah given to Jerusalem by her God, is that their being named together contrasts Israel’s faith in Yahweh with the cultic beliefs of the Caananite cultures around them. The name of the god Baal contrasts here with the husband image for God. Where Baal symbolized fertility, the God of Israel stands for faithfulness and delight.19 Watchmen Will Remind God of His Promises (6-7) In verses 6 and 7, the focus shifts back to the call already issued in verses 1 and 2, one to not let God forget the promises He has made. The issue of who is speaking has
James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament), electronic ed. (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), DBLH 1249, #2. 17 Inc Thomas Nelson, Woman's Study Bible . (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995), Is 62:5. 18 Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 40-66, 581. 19 D. A. Carson, New Bible Commentary : 21st Century Edition, Rev. Ed. of: The New Bible Commentary. 3rd Ed. / Edited by D. Guthrie, J.A. Motyer. 1970., 4th ed. (Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill., USA: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994), Is 62:1.
already been addressed; however, of additional great interest is the role of the watchmen. Why would they need to be there? If God is omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent, would He not remember the promises He has made? Examples of watchmen (or watchwomen) exist in the Scriptures. Motyer cites several examples from the New Testament; one of them is Anna the Prophetess in Luke 36-38 who prior to Jesus’ birth would be in the Temple daily, praying and reminding the Lord of His promised Messiah.20 In the ancient world, watchmen would be posted on the walls to keep a lookout for any advancing enemies. While on duty, they could not sleep.21 This image plays into verse 6, but there is more to this then just watchmen on duty. One suggested background for this image is the use of watchmen in Ezekiel (3:17-19; 33:7-9) as those who warn of impending danger in order to ward off imminent disaster. As Oswalt states, in the context of Ezekiel, these watchmen were clearly the prophets. He offers two other solutions: the watchmen could represent angelic beings that function within God’s court. They could also be those that fulfilled a particular function in the Israelite kings’ courts. These officers in the royal court were literally called “The One Who Reminds”, and they would advise the king on a regular basis of the covenantal promises he had made. Oswalt argues that this is imagery familiar to the readers of Isaiah’s writings and is as such used to reassure them that God will not be forgetting His promises because He is continuously being reminded.22 In light of the reading of other Ancient Near Eastern cultures’ texts, many similarities to the language of the Old Testament writers can be found, and as such, this
Motyer, Is 62:2. John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-c1985), 1:1117. 22 Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 40-66, 584.
last assumption seems to be the one that makes the most sense. An Israelite would have understood that His God could now not possibly forget promises made, as “safeguards” had been put in place. An Oath Made By the Lord Will Not Be Broken and Is Reconfirmed (62:8-9) Verse 8, as already indicated, is the one place in Isaiah 62 where there can be no debate of who is speaking: God is identified as making a very solemn promise, using the symbolism of His right hand and His mighty arm. This language is also one that is quite familiar to the audience of Isaiah’s writings, as they have been introduced to the right hand as one of blessing. As far back as the book of Genesis, this concept has been developed: one example is Gen 48:13–14, where Jacob uses his right hand to bestow his blessing on Ephraim, the younger son of Joseph, and thus bypassing the older son, Manasseh. The mighty arm of God would also be a well known symbolism for God’s sovereignty through the retelling of the Exodus story. Chisholm postulates that the meaning of God’s sovereignty being expressed through the symbolism of “right hand” and “mighty arm” are a guarantee to the people of Israel that what God has promised, He will realize in their future.23 Not their enemies, but Israel will be eating a rich diet of food and drinking excellent wine they grew themselves. The difference is not the peaceful setting, however, but even more so that they will eat and drink not to simply fulfill their bellies' desire, but with great thanksgiving as they celebrate in the courts of God's sanctuary.24 The Lord Confirms the Restoration and Salvation of Zion (62:10-12)
Chisholm, 131. Jamieson, Fausset, Fausset et al., Is 62:9.
Verse 10 has posed a bit of a challenge in interpretation as it is not clear from the text who the people are that are being encouraged to go out and prepare a way for the people and to build highways. Also the use of the term “signal” has been one that has caused many scholars to offer an opinion. By reading verse 10 in the English translation, and keeping in mind that the scenario described here is one that is written to a people who will face exile and much pain, it appears to the reader that the people who are coming out are the people of Israel, who have been spread to many corners of the world through their exile experiences. If they are the ones leaving, where are they going? The only logical explanation can be that they are going up to Jerusalem, which in the next verses will be the final goal of God’s plan of salvation and reward. Who then are the ones being asked to ensure that this can happen by preparing highways for the Israelites to travel on? Could it be the Israelites themselves who are being asked to play a more active part, and hence show their faith in their God, in their homecoming? Are these the people who have held them as captives in their land who are now being encouraged by God to make their return possible? Does the highway symbolize the much broader invitation to all the nations as they follow Israel’s lead, i.e., is this reminiscent of Zechariah 8:23, where the prophet speaks of the days in which ten men from all nations shall take hold of the robe of a Jew because they have heard that God is with him? In considering these different options, Oswalt makes an excellent point by stating that the text may be as vague as it is at this point to allow all these interpretations to fit within the confines of this one verse.25 Motyer supports the thought as extending
Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 40-66, 586.
into verse 11: what God has announced to Israel, He has also through them announced to the whole world. There is no different salvation.26 In light of these considerations, Isaiah gives us a prophetic statement in the first part of the verse that does not have to endure discussions around whether or not it is to be read literally. All fulfillments will fit neatly here. The remaining portion of the verse contains the term “a signal” (ESV), also translated “signal flag” (NET), “banner” (HCSB) and “standard” (KJV). Matthews, Chavalas and Walton suggest that this indicates a marking in a tribal setting or even in a military sense.27 Whybray proposes a different solution that seems more logical28: in Isaiah 49:22, God has already announced that He will lift the banner to call the nations.29 From a post-cross perspective, this banner lifted now can be seen fulfilled in Jesus Christ’s method of death through which all have been invited to join with God in an intimate relationship. Verse 11 uses language, which according to Matthews, Chavalas and Walton indicates the spoils of war being brought back30. More importantly, the word of salvation has reached the nations who now confirm back to the Daughter of Zion that her God has come bearing salvation and reward.31
Motyer, Is 62:11. Victor Harold Matthews, Mark W. Chavalas and John H. Walton, The IVP Bible Background Commentary : Old Testament, electronic ed. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), Is 62:10 28 Whybray, 251. 29 The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. (Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2001), Is 49:22. Thus says the Lord God: “Behold, I will lift up my hand to the nations, and raise my signal to the peoples; wand they shall bring your sons in their bosom, and your daughters shall be carried on their shoulders.” 30 Matthews, Chavalas and Walton,, Is 40:10. 31 Believer's Study Bible, c1991 Criswell Center for Biblical Studies., electronic ed. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995), Is 62:11.
The last verse, verse 12, acts as a joyful summary of the wonderful future state, which God has announced to the people of Israel. The significance of their renaming continues from verse 4. This name change in the Ancient Near East often predicted a coming change in character or indicated one that had already happened. As such, Zion's new name is an indication given of the righteous character which will mark her.32 Oswalt picks up on the importance of this renaming: all the four terms given as new names to Jerusalem are terms which indicate a relationship. As he writes, “The end result of God’s work on our behalf is not some state or condition of our own, but a relationship with himself, one of acceptance, redemption, and holiness.”33 The holy nation of priests God had envisioned Israel to be is becoming a reality as they now not just rejoice in their own blessings, but have shared their salvation with the ends of the earth.
Walvoord, Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, 1:1116-1117. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 40-66, 590.
Theological Significance As Oswalt points out, the issue addressed in chapters 60 through 62 of Isaiah is not about the physical enemy Babylon who has caused such obvious harm to the people of Israel, nor is it about any of Israel’s other enemies, but rather it is about addressing the “persistent sinning”34 by the people described as the apple of God’s eye in Deuteronomy 32:9-10.35 Through God’s grace, He has offered to heal the broken relationship and restore it to one marked by mutual adoration, love and trust. The restoration of Zion to a beloved bride of the Lord has much broader implications than just those for the people of Israel. Through this amazing healing in the relationship status, God achieves a much broader goal, which He already began to address in Isaiah 56: the Gentiles shall join in this beautiful picture of a people restored to their God36. Application Isaiah 62 in many ways is a crown jewel in Isaiah’s writing by describing just how much love and care God not only wants to lavish on His people Israel, on those who stand in a close, intimate relationship with Him, but will also lavish on those who will
John N. Oswalt, "Isaiah 60-62: the glory of the Lord." Calvin Theological Journal 40, no. 1 (April 2005): 95-103. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 25, 2009). 35 The Holy Bible : English Standard Version, Deu 32:9-10. “But the Lord’s portion is his people, Jacob his allotted heritage. He found him in a desert land, and in the howling waste of the wilderness; he encircled him, he cared for him, he kept him as the apple of his eye.” 36 Ibid., Isa 56:6-7. “And the foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, to minister to him, to love the name of the Lord, and to be his servants, everyone who keeps the Sabbath and does not profane it, and holds fast my covenant— these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.”
come to Him from many nations. It is His promise to keep. Believers, whether Jews or Gentiles, can look forward to the intimate relationship they will enjoy with their God. At the same time, it would be doing injustice to God in the here and now to deny that He already pours out this attention and delight over the ones who have been redeemed by trusting in His sovereign grace, imparted to us through the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the One who “is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation”.37 As we have been adopted as sons and daughters into the family of God, we have joined in Abraham’s heritage,38 and as such can fully enjoy God’s blessings in this life. After first coming to faith, many people seem to think that the goal achieved is eternal life and having that goal tightly “locked down” by trusting in Christ as being sufficient to pay for their sins. This is complete truth, yet it clearly cannot be the focus of Kingdom living in the here and now. The Holy Spirit, residing in us as believers, produces the fruits of the Spirit and allows us to live lives that are both honoring to God and useful to Him as we can be deployed as tools for Him. The blessings we can take away for our lives in this relationship with God can produce a lasting joy and peace in our lives. As we submit to the Holy Spirit’s leading and prompting, our lives are being molded ever more to resemble Jesus Christ, and we become conscious of the benefits of living in a constant relationship with God, not one that ends on Sundays after we walk out of church.
Ibid., Col 1:15. Ibid., Gal 3:29 And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise.
At the same time, we need to remind ourselves that this relationship to a holy God comes with His expectation of us holding up our part as one part of a relationship, described by God in marriage terminology. The trust He bestows on us needs to find reciprocation in us. Whether this is expressed in our complete trust in His provision and ultimate fulfillment of all promises made, or whether this comes about in physical obedience by avoiding things that harm us and that are unhelpful to further God’s Kingdom, we need to strive to live in a relationship with our great God. We are loved, but we need to love back.
Bibliography Believer's Study Bible, c1991 Criswell Center for Biblical Studies., electronic ed. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995. Buksbazen, Victor. The Prophet Isaiah: A Commentary. 1971. Reprint, publication place: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 2008 Carson, D. A. New Bible Commentary : 21st Century Edition, Rev. Ed. of: The New Bible Commentary. 3rd Ed. / Edited by D. Guthrie, J.A. Motyer. 1970., 4th ed. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill., USA: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994. Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. Handbook on the Prophets. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. Harris, R. Laird, Robert Laird Harris, Gleason Leonard Archer and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, electronic ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1999, c1980. The Holy Bible : English Standard Version. Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2001. Nelson, Inc Thomas. Woman's Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c1995. Jamieson, Robert, A. R. Fausset, A. R. Fausset et al., A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, On Spine: Critical and Explanatory Commentary. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997. Judisch, Douglas McC.L. “ISAIAH 62: 1-5.” Sermon Notes on the Old Testament.http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/judisch/epiphany2c.htm (accessed June 27, 2009). Matthews, Victor Harold, Mark W. Chavalas and John H. Walton, The IVP Bible Background Commentary : Old Testament, electronic ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000. Motyer, J. Alec. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1993. Oswalt, John N. "Isaiah 60-62: the glory of the Lord." Calvin Theological Journal 40, no. 1 (April 2005): 95-103. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed June 25, 2009). Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah: Chapters 40-66. New International Commentary on the Old Testment. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1998. Oswalt, John N. The NIV Application Commentary: Isaiah. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003.
Swanson, James. Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament), electronic ed. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997. Walvoord, John F., Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary. The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983c1985. Whybray, R.N. Isaiah 40-66. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1975
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