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# FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO.

OF PAGES: 1/5
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4a
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : PLOTTING POLES AND CONTOURING OF
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DATA ( LAB 4a )
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To plot poles and carry out contouring of the structural geology data.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
a) Students should able to use the geological compass.
b) Students should able to measures the dip and dip direction of any planes.
c) Students should able to plot poles of the structural geology data.
d) Students should able to plot contour from the structural geology data.

3.0 THEORY
Analysis of the orientation of structural geology data involves;
- Plotting poles representing the dip and dip direction of each discontinuity. This plot will help to identify discontinuity sets,
for which both the average orientation and the scatter (dispersion) can be calculated.
- The second step in the analysis is to plot great circles representing the average orientation of each set, major
discontinuities such as faults, and the dip and dip direction of the cut face.

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS
- Equal-area for plotting poles and great circles (Appendix C)
- Equal-area polar net (Appendix D)
- Kalsbeek counting net (Appendix E)
- Tracing paper
- Pencil

5.0 PROCEDURE
- Poles can be plotted on the polar stereonet on which the dip direction is indicated on the periphery of the circle, and the
dip is measured along radial lines with zero degrees at the center.

- The procedure for plotting poles is to lay a sheet of tracing paper on the printed polar net and mark the north direction
and each quadrant position around the edge of the outer circle. A mark is then made to show the pole that represents
the orientation of each discontinuity as defined by its dip and dip direction. Poles for shallow dipping discontinuities lie
close to the center of the circle, and poles of steeply dipping discontinuities lie close to the periphery of the circle.

- Concentrations of pole orientations can be identified using Kalsbeek counting net. The Kalsbeek net is made up of
mutually overlapping hexagons, each with an area of 1/100 of the full area of the stereonet.

- Contouring is performed by overlaying the counting net on the pole and counting the number of poles in each hexagon;
this number is marked on the net. These numbers of poles are converted into percentages by dividing each by the total
number of poles and multiplying by 100. Once a percentage is written in each hexagon, contours can be developed by
interpolation.

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Bin Madun / Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 2/5
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4a
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : PLOTTING POLES AND CONTOURING OF
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DATA (LAB 4a)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS
- Discontinuities pattern.
- Equal-area equatorial net for plotting poles and great circles.

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION
(1) Give two (2) methods to draw the structural geology data and discuss based on what situation we choose that method
(each method).
(2) Explain the type of geological structure plotted in the stereonet with the aid of diagram.
(3) Explain the methodology to determine the discontinuities survey data.

8.0 CONCLUSION

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 3/5
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4a
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : PLOTTING POLES AND CONTOURING OF
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DATA (LAB 4a)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

TABLE 1 ORIENTATION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISCONTINUITIES

No.
Distance
m
Type
Dip Direction
degree
Dip
degree
Persistence
m
Aperture Infilling Roughness water
1 0.0 1 212 70 20 1 2 5 1
2 0.5 1 160 85 20 1 2 3 1
3 1.5 1 138 86 20 1 2 3 1
4 1.9 1 147 85 20 1 2 3 1
5 3.0 3 105 46 20 1 2 3 1
6 3.5 1 150 78 20 1 4 3 1
7 3.8 1 260 65 20 1 4 3 1
8 4.1 1 200 64 20 1 4 3 1
9 0.3 1 262 65 20 1 4 3 1
10 6.7 1 205 75 20 1 2 3 1
11 7.0 1 262 52 20 1 2 3 1
12 8.2 1 145 75 20 2 2 3 1
13 9.0 1 128 75 20 2 2 3 1
14 9.5 3 70 40 20 1 3 3 1
15 9.9 1 320 74 20 1 3 3 1
16 10.3 1 215 74 20 1 3 3 1
17 10.8 3 95 38 20 1 3 3 1
18 11.9 1 168 85 20 1 3 3 1
19 12.4 4 310 35 20 2 4 3 1
20 12.8 4 190 40 20 3 2 3 1
21 13.9 1 352 64 20 1 2 3 1
22 14.2 3 88 62 20 1 2 5 1
23 15.5 1 213 60 20 1 2 3 1
24 15.8 3 80 48 20 1 2 5 1
25 16.0 1 200 58 20 1 2 3 1
26 16.9 1 205 60 20 1 2 3 1
27 17.7 1 165 88 20 1 2 3 1
28 18.5 4 206 54 20 2 2 3 1
29 19.8 3 85 42 20 1 2 3 1
30 20.6 1 205 55 20 1 2 3 1
31 21.0 3 90 42 20 1 2 3 1
32 22.5 1 235 60 20 1 2 3 1
33 22.7 1 310 36 20 1 2 3 1
34 23.1 1 200 58 20 1 2 3 1
35 23.8 4 350 60 20 1 6 3 1
36 24.3 1 212 76 20 1 2 3 1
37 24.8 3 98 50 20 1 2 3 1
38 25.0 1 310 50 20 1 2 3 1
39 26.0 1 205 62 20 1 2 3 1
40 27.6 3 98 48 20 1 2 3 1
41 28.0 1 354 86 20 1 2 3 1
42 28.7 3 94 50 20 1 2 5 1
43 29.2 1 194 75 20 1 2 3 1
44 30.0 1 275 44 20 1 2 5 1
45 31.6 3 95 46 20 1 2 3 1
46 32.0 1 210 75 20 1 2 3 1
47 32.7 1 303 25 20 1 2 3 1
48 33.7 1 355 80 20 1 2 3 1
49 34.0 1 207 75 20 1 2 3 1
50 35.2 1 260 50 20 1 2 3 1

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DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4a
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : PLOTTING POLES AND CONTOURING OF
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DATA (LAB 4a)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

CONTD:-

51 36.0 3 95 42 20 1 2 3 1
52 37.1 1 185 80 20 1 2 3 1
53 37.4 3 94 38 20 1 2 3 1
54 38.1 1 353 80 20 1 2 3 1
55 38.9 1 260 60 20 1 6 3 1
56 39.0 1 192 55 20 1 2 3 1
57 40.2 1 193 74 20 1 2 3 1
58 40.5 1 288 52 20 1 2 3 1
59 41.2 1 200 62 20 1 2 3 1
60 42.0 1 215 80 20 1 2 3 1
61 43.0 1 295 56 20 1 2 5 1
62 43.5 1 206 60 20 1 2 5 1
63 44.1 1 308 50 20 1 2 3 1
64 44.5 1 330 70 20 1 2 5 1
65 44.9 1 204 60 20 1 2 3 1
66 50.6 1 214 60 20 1 2 3 1
67 50.9 3 90 45 20 1 2 3 1
68 51.6 1 205 55 20 1 2 3 1
69 51.9 1 306 30 20 1 2 3 1
70 53.0 1 210 68 20 1 2 3 1
71 54.2 1 298 24 20 1 2 3 3
72 55.0 3 100 58 20 1 2 3 3
73 55.8 1 204 65 20 1 2 3 2
74 56.2 1 307 30 20 1 2 3 3
75 57.0 1 210 60 20 1 2 3 2
76 58.0 1 214 65 20 1 2 3 2
77 58.9 1 290 60 20 1 2 5 2
78 59.5 1 212 62 20 1 2 3 3
79 60.0 1 215 62 20 1 2 3 2
80 60.2 3 100 56 20 1 2 3 2
81 60.9 1 255 50 20 1 2 3 2
82 61.3 1 205 62 20 1 2 3 2
83 61.9 3 90 50 20 1 2 3 2
84 62.4 1 342 85 20 1 2 3 3
85 62.9 1 210 55 20 1 2 3 3
86 63.8 1 265 45 20 1 2 3 1
87 64.0 3 100 52 20 1 2 3 1
88 65.2 1 172 88 20 1 2 3 1
89 66.0 1 262 48 20 1 2 3 1
90 66.7 1 10 88 20 1 2 3 1
91 68.0 1 206 75 20 1 2 3 1
92 69.8 3 100 55 20 1 2 3 1
93 70.0 1 208 56 20 1 2 3 1
94 71.9 1 190 80 20 1 2 3 1
95 72.0 1 320 88 20 1 2 3 1
96 73.1 1 210 60 20 1 2 3 1
97 73.9 3 95 52 20 1 2 5 1
98 74.3 1 220 58 20 1 2 3 1
99 75.0 1 300 45 20 1 2 3 1
100 76.2 1 348 88 20 1 2 3 1

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DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4a
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : PLOTTING POLES AND CONTOURING OF
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DATA (LAB 4a)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

CONTD:-

101 77.3 1 210 60 20 1 4 2 1
102 78.0 1 348 84 20 1 4 2 1
103 79.0 1 336 78 20 1 4 2 2
104 80.6 3 93 38 20 1 2 3 3
105 82.0 1 180 80 20 1 2 3 3
106 84.0 1 320 36 20 1 2 3 3
107 85.8 1 205 62 20 1 2 3 3
108 86.0 1 312 39 20 1 2 4 3
109 87.0 3 102 44 20 1 2 3 2
110 89.5 1 205 60 20 1 2 4 2
111 90.0 3 90 45 20 1 2 4 2
112 90.8 1 314 36 20 1 2 3 2
113 91.3 1 210 62 20 1 2 3 3
114 92.0 3 95 46 20 1 2 3 3
115 92.9 1 216 82 20 1 2 4 3
116 94.0 1 320 38 20 1 2 4 2
117 95.5 1 207 70 20 1 2 5 2
118 97.0 3 95 48 20 1 2 3 2
119 98.6 1 204 60 20 1 2 3 1
120 100.0 1 298 42 20 1 2 3 1
Type Aperture Infilling Materials Roughness Water
1) Joint 1) Very narrow ( <2mm) 1) Clean 1) Polish 1) Dry
2) Bedding 2) Narrow (2-6mm) 2) Surface staining 2) Slikensisded 2) Wet
3) Foliation 3) Moderately narrow (6-20mm) 3) Cemented 3) Smooth 3) Flow
4) Fault 4) Moderately wide (20-60mm) 4) Cohesive 4) Rough
5) Others 5) Wide (60-200mm) 5) Noncohesive 5) Define ridges
6) Very wide ( >200mm) 6) Chlorite + talc 6) Very rough
7) Calsite
8) Others

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 1/3
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4b
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : DETERMINE THE DISCONTINUITIES SETS
AND MODES OF FAILURES OF STRUCTURAL
GEOLOGY DATA DUE TO SLOPE (LAB 4b)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To identify the major and minor discontinuities set, plot the great circle of discontinuities and analyze the failure modes.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
a) Students should able to plot the great circles.
b) Students should able to analyze the potential failures modes.

3.1 THEORY
Mode of rock slope failures.

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Bin Madun / Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 2/3
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4b
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : DETERMINE THE DISCONTINUITIES SETS
AND MODES OF FAILURES OF STRUCTURAL
GEOLOGY DATA DUE TO SLOPE (LAB 4b)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

3.2 THEORY
Mode of slope failures based on discontinuities sets plot.
Modes of failure Criteria
Circular
i. Very weak material, highly jointed or fractured or weak soil
ii. Homogenous soil
Planar
i. Dip direction lie within 20
0
from the design slope dip direction.
ii.
f
>
p
> |
j
(slope angle>plane angle>friction angle)
iii. Release surfaces must be present to define the lateral boundaries of the slide.
Wedge
i.
f
>
i
> |
j
(slope angle>intersection of 2 plane angle>friction angle)
ii. driving force due to the weight of wedge must exceed the frictional resistance of
the planes.
Toppling

i. The discontinuities dip direction must lie between 10 of slope
dip direction (opposite direction).
ii.

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS
- Equal-area equatorial net (Appendix C)
- Tracing paper

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Bin Madun / Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007

p j f
| s + ) 90 (
0

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 3/3
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4b
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : DETERMINE THE DISCONTINUITIES SETS
AND MODES OF FAILURES OF STRUCTURAL
GEOLOGY DATA DUE TO SLOPE (LAB 4b)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

5.0 PROCEDURE

Plotting great circles:-

Great circles are plotted on the equatorial net, but they cannot be plotted directly on this net because the true dip can only
be scaled off the horizontal axis. The plotting procedure for great circles consists of the following steps:

1. Lay a piece of tracing paper on the net with a thumbtack through the center point so that the tracing paper can be
rotated on the net.

2. Mark the north direction of the net on the tracing paper.

3. Locate the dip direction of the plane on the scale around the circumference of the net and mark this point on the tracing
paper. Note that the dip direction scale on the equatorial net for plotting great circles starts at the north point at the top
of the circle and increases in a clockwise direction.

4. Rotate the tracing paper until the dip direction mark coincides with one of the horizontal axes of the net, that is, the 90
o

or 180
o
points of the dip direction scale.

5. Locate the arc on the net corresponding to the dip of the plane and trace this arc into the paper. Note that a horizontal
plane has a great circle at the circumference of the net, and a vertical plane is represented by a straight line passing
through the center of the net.

6. Rotate the tracing paper so that the two north points coincide and the great circle is oriented correctly.

The slope data was given as 90 (dip direction) and 60 (dip angle)

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS
- Major and minor discontinuities sets marks as J1,J2..Jn
- Potential modes of failures

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION
(1) Explain the mode of failure for rock slope for each type.
(2) Identify which discontinuities sets that have some potential to fail and what are their failure modes.
(3) What are the others criteria that must be met in order to promote the slope failure?

8.0 CONCLUSION

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 1/1
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
EDITION: LAB 4c
NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
TOPIC : PLANE AND WEDGE FACTOR OF SAFTEY
(LAB 4c)
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To identify which discontinuities are potential to fail and calculate the factor of safety.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
a) Students should able to calculate the safety factor for plane failure.
b) Students should able to calculate the safety factor for wedge failure.

3.0 THEORY
To obtain the factor of safety for planar is much simple rather than wedge. For plane, consideration on one discontinuity,
besides wedge two discontinuities (sets). Two (2) conditions need to exam, wet and dry conditions.

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS
- Equal-area equatorial net (Appendix C)
- Tracing paper

5.0 PROCEDURE
- Determine the mode of failures
- Used appropriate formula of planar or wedge given in APPENDIX A and B
- The other information/properties from the site study and laboratory works are given as following:-
i. Rock unit weight, r = 25 kN/m
3

ii. Rock friction angle, | = |
a
= |b = 30
iii. Water unit weight, w = 9.81 kN/m
3

iv. Cohesion of discontinuities, Ca = Cb = 50 kPa
v. Height of slope = Height of wedge = Height of plane, H = 50 m
vi. Tension crack depth, Z = Tension crack height, Zw = 1 meter
vii. Upper slope data = 100 (dip direction) and 20 (dip angle)
viii. Inclined angle of anchor () = (T) = 20
ix. Bars for Y25 = 10 ton = 100 kN

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS
- Factor of safety of plane failure in wet and dry condition
- No of bars required to reinforced the plane failure
- Factor of safety of wedge failure in wet and dry condition

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION
(1) For some cases, give the recommended value of safety factors for the rock slope in civil engineering / construction
industry with some justifications.
(2) Describe and explain the rock slope stabilization method.
(3) Explain the main differences about the assessment of the Rock Slope and Soil Slope.

8.0 CONCLUSION

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Bin Madun / Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007

APPENDIX A

SEMESTER/SESSION : COURSE : 3BFC
SUBJECT : GEOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN CODE : BFC 3013
Given:
FOS = cA + (W cos - U - V sin + T sin (+)) tan |
W sin + V cos - T cos (+)

A

= failure plane area | = friction angle
c = cohesion U = vertical water pressure
W = weight of failure block V = horizontal water pressure

= failure plane angle

= slope angle
H = height of plane Z = tensional cracks
T = tension of anchor = inclined angle of anchor

r
= unit weight of rock
w
= unit weight of water

A = (H-Z).cosec

W =
r
. H [(1-(Z/H) )cot cot ]
U =
w
.Z
w
.(H-Z).cosec
V =
w
.Z
w

cosec = 1/sin sec=1/cos cot=1/tan

W
H
Z
w

Z
U
V

T

APPENDIX B

SEMESTER/SESSION : COURSE : 3BFC
SUBJECT : GEOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN CODE : BFC 3013

Given:
b a b a
t
Tan Y B Tan X A Y C X C Fos
w w
H
|

) .
2
( ) .
2
( ) . . (
3
+ + + =
a C = Cohesion b | = Friction angle
H
t
= height of wedge
a
= dip angle for plane a

b
= dip angle for plane b
5
= dip angle for wedge intersection
= unit weight of rock
w
= unit weight of water

X, Y, A, B is factor which depend upon the geometry of wedge

na Cos Sin
Sin
X
. 2 45
24
u u
u
=
nb Cos Sin
Sin
Y
. 1 35
13
u u
u
=
nb na
nb na b a
Sin Sin
Cos Cos Cos
A
.
2
. 5
.
u
u
=
nb na
nb na a b
Sin Sin
Cos Cos Cos
B
.
2
. 5
.
u
u
=

APPENDIX C

SEMESTER/SESSION : COURSE : 3BFC
SUBJECT : GEOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN CODE : BFC 3013

Equal-area equatorial net for plotting poles and great circles
(DO NOT CHANGE THE SIZE)

APPENDIX D

SEMESTER/SESSION : COURSE : 3BFC
SUBJECT : GEOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN CODE : BFC 3013

Equal-area polar net for plotting poles
(DO NOT CHANGE THE SIZE)

APPENDIX E

SEMESTER/SESSION : COURSE : 3BFC
SUBJECT : GEOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN CODE : BFC 3013

Kalsbeek counting net for contouring pole concentrations
(DO NOT CHANGE THE SIZE)