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of various levels of management. It helps in making decision & taking actions for fulfilling the objectives of an organisation. Functions of MIS : 1. Gathers data from internal & external sources of org.; 2. Process the data to convert it into inf.; 3. It supplies the processed data i.e. mgmt inf to managers to assist them in the function of dec making purpose. Purpose of MIS : It is composed of 3 elements : Levels of Mgmt : 1. Top 2. Middle 3. Lower 1. Management; 2. Inf; 3. System.
Types of inf : 1. Structured inf.; 2. Unstructured inf.; 3. Internal inf.; 4. External inf. Types of information system : 1. Executive Support System (ESS) 3. Mgmt Inf Sys (MIS) 5. Office automation sys (OAS) 2. Decision Support System (DSS) 4. Knowledge work sys (Expert sys) 6. Transaction processing sys (TPS)
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM :
Objectives of MIS : 1. Identifying inf needed at all levels of mgmt (a. Initialising inf. need, b. Ask ques about the need, c. Suggesting interpretation of that need, d. Detailing the original status, e. Review with the mgmt); 2. Listening objectives of MIS anticipated benefits; 3. Identifying sys constraints (internal constraints are : a. Top mgmt support, b. Orgnl policies, c. Personal need & availability, d. Cost & res.s, e. Acceptance); 4. Determining inf. needs & resources; 5. Developing alternative conceptual designing & selecting one; 6. Preparing the conceptual design report. Approaches of MIS development & growth : 1. Top down approach; 2. Bottom up approach; 3. Integrative approach; 4. Traditional approach; 5. Prototype approach; 6. End user dev approach; 7. Systematic approach for dev. in small org.
TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM :
Components of TPS : 1. Input; 2. Processing; 3. Storage; 4. Output. Methods for processing transactions: 1. Online entry with immediate processing;
2. Online entry with subsequent processing; 3. Batch processing.
DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM :
Objectives of DSS : 1. It should support the mgmt judgment rather than replacing it; 2. It should assist the managers in making effectiveness rather than its efficiency; 3. It should improve the managers dec making effectiveness rather than its efficiency. Components of DSS : 1. DB Mgmt Sys; 2. Model mgmt sys; 3. Support tools. Functions of DSS : 1. Model building; 2. What it analysis; 3. Goals seeking; 4. Risk analysis; 5. Graphical analysis. Tools of DSS : 1. Linear programming; 2. Mat. req. planning; 3. Queuing theory; 4. Description analysis; 5. Correlation analysis; 6. Variance analysis; 7. Transportation prob.; 8. Network analysis; 9. Max. flow of distance; 10. Regression analysis; 11. Dynamic prob.; 12. Multidimensional scaling; 13. Maskav process. Application of DSS : 1. Supply chain mgmt; 2. Customer relationship mgmt; 3. Geographic inf. sys.; 4. Web based customer dec. support sys.
EXECUTIVE INF. SYS. :
Components of EIS : 1. Executive; 2. Database (a. Data warehouse, b. Data mart.); 3. EIS software (a. Personal productivity s/w, b. Pre written EIS s/w, c. Customise EIS s/w.); 4. EIS output. EIS dev. process : Defining EIS Design EIS database Developing & procuring EIS s/w. Design EIS output
KNOWLEDGE BASED INF. SYS. :
Features of AI : 1. It is manmade unlike human intelligence which emerges from human brains. Therefore it does not fully think the way as humans do, though efforts are being made for understanding such kind of thinking. 2. AI is a type of comp prog that enable the comp to think or behave the programmer wants it. 3. Unlike the inf. sys. which provide inf. about the status of the phenomenon or object, AI has the potential to extent managers problem, solving ability, beyond his normal capabilities. ers Characteristics of Expert sys : 1. It performs prob solving work of human; 2. It represents knowledge in the form of rules & frames; 3. It ineracts with human; 4. It can consider multiple hy hypothesis simultaneously. Components of Expert Sys : 1. User Interface; 2. Knowledge Based; 3. Inference Engine; 4. Development Engine. Expert Sys Dev. Process : Prob identification Creation of dev. team Specification of rule set Dev. of prototype. Testing & refining prototype Actual Dev.
System Devlopment :
Types of Sys :
types of System
deterministic & probabilistic sys
open & close sys
abstract & physical sys.
formal & informal sys
Concepts related to system : 1. Boundary; 2. Interface; 3. Black box; 4. Decomposition; 5. Integration. Elements of a sys : 1. Input; 2. Process; 3. Output; 4. Feedback & control.
control input process output
System Dev./ Phases on SDLC :
identifying probs, oppurtunities & objectives desigining the recommended s/w devplng the documentary s/w testing & maintaining the sys. implementing & evaluating the sys.
determining inf. reqd
analysing sys. needs
Note :implementing & evaltng sys involves - a. Training, b. Conversion. c. Evaluation.
Sys. Dev. Approach :
1. Waterfall model; 2. Proto-typing model; 3. Requirement gathering; 4. Spiral model; 5. Incremental model
Lets discuss them now :
1. Waterfall model : Phases : (i)Feasibility study (ii) reqmnt analysis & specification (iii) design (v) testing (iv) coding (vi) maintenance
Drawbacks : 1. this model states that entire model should be frozen before the start of dev. process; 2. It requires formal documentation after each phase 3. It provides the working model to the client at the end of the dev. phase; 4. The model lacks any feedback path to the proceeding phase of the SDLC.
2. Proto-typing model :
This model overcomes the waterfall model. The toy implementation enables the client to play with the proto-type & evaluate the functionalities provided in it to get the feel of actual sys. to be developed. This model is for those who req. client feedback.
analysis Customer evaluation design coding Prototype
3. Evolutionary model : It is iterative in nature & in each new iteration achieves a completely new enhanced version.
4. Spiral model : Invented by BOGAM (comp scientist). It is combination of : waterfall + proto-typing = spiral. It consists of 6 regioins : 1. Client comm.; 2. Planning; 3. Risk analysis; 4. Engineering; 5. Construction & release; 6. Client evaluation.
5. Incremental model : There are three phases in incremental model : 1. Design; 2. Implementation; 3. Analysis. This model is devlpd in various incremental steps. Each step adds some functionalities to the existing version of s/w until its fully devlpd.
Description Implementation Analysis Description Implementation Analysis Description Implementation Analysis
Predetermined objectives of system analysis : 1. Knowledge of sys operation; 2. Identification of user req. in the proposed sys. Determination of req.s : 1. Req. anticipation; 2. Req. investigation; 3. Req. specification
Structured analysis tools :
The various struc analysis tools reqd to dev. sys are : 1. Data flow diag.; 2. Data dictionary; 3. The dec. Tree; 4. Dec. Table
Lets discuss them now :
1. Data flow diag. : DFD is a technique used to specify how data flows b/w functs. of sys. Basic elements of a DFD are entity, diags, data flow, data store, & process. Types : 1. Physical DFD; 2. Logical DFD; 3. Context diag.; 4. The “0” level DFD 2. Data dictionary : It is an orgnsd cllction of all relevant sys data elements. It is a catalogue of data elements of the sys. It stores the description & details of data flows & data stores. Attributes : 1. data element; 2. Data description; 3. Aliases; 4. Length; 5. Data values; 6. Data names; 7. Data struc. Data Name F name L name Add Phn Dob Data Description First name Last name Address Phone number Date of birth No. of Characters 8 8 7 11 11
3. The Dec. Tree :
action Condition Condition Condition Condition action action action action action action action
Condition ROOT Condition
4. Dec. Table : The dec. tree consists of 2 parts : 1. STUB; 2. ENTRY. It includes the foll. : 1. Cond.; 2. Cond. Alternatives; 3. Action; 4. Action entry.
Sys. Design :
The identification of data reqd. includes : 1. Identifying the data source; 2. The nature & the type of available data; 3. Data gap. Levels of Sys. Design : 1. Conceptual design : Foll.are steps involved in conceptual design :
problem identification set sys. objectives constrant identification determination of inf. reqd. devlpmnt of various res.s conceptual design documentation preparation of report
Unit – III
Types of inf : 1. Strategic; 2. Practical; 3. Operational. Quality of inf : 1. Timeliness; 2. Accuracy; 3. Relevant; 4. Adequate; 5. Completeness; 6. Explicitness; 7. Exception based. Types of inf sources : 1. Primary & 2. Secondary. Classification of inf :
On the basis of application On the basis of usage
Action Vs No Action
organisational database operational
Internal Vs External
Methods of data information collection : 1. Observation; 2. Experiment; 3. Survey; 4. Subjective estimation; 5. Transaction processing; 6. Purchased from outside; 7. Publications. Relevance of inf in dec making : 1. Value of inf i. certainity; VPI = (V2-V1) - (C2 – C1)
ii. risk & uncertainity.
Unit – IV
Information technologies used by comp based information system : 1. Comp h/w tech; 2. Comp s/w tech; 3. Tele comm. network tech; 4. Data resource mgmt tech Information tech architecture : 1. IT platform; 2. Data resources; 3. Application portfolio Contemporary dev in IT ?: 1. Inc in computing power; 2. Dec in h/w size; 3. Fast inf comm.; 4. Incrsd user friendliness Functions of IT : 1. Data capture; 2. Data storage; 3. Data transmission; 4. Data processing; 5. Data manipulation; 6. Data retrieval; 7. Data display Nature of multimedia data : 1. Text; 2. Graphics ; 3. Images; 4. Animation; 5. Video; 6. Audio Application of multimedia data : Some typical applications of multimedia data are : 1. Media commerce; 2. Medical media database; 3. Bio informatics; 4. News & entertainment; 5. Presentations recording; 6. Bio matrix Contents in multimedia database : 1. Media data; 2. Media format data; 3. Media keyword data; 4. Media features data Designing multimedia data : The foll characteristics have direct or indirect impacts on design of multimedia data : 1. The huge size of multimedia database; 2. Temporal nature of data; 3. Richness of content through media; 4. Complexity of representation & subjective interpretation. Challenges in designing multimedia databases : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The database should be able to manage diff. types of I/P, O/P & storage devices. The database should be able to support diff. platforms & operating sys. The database needs to handle a variety of data compression & storage format. DB must integrate diff. data models. DB needs to offer a variety of query sys for diff. kinds of media. It would have distributed DB features that cover the entire work as the geographic event. Multimedia data may have to be delivered after available network in real time It needs to synchronise multiple media type related to one single multimedia object.
Types of database : 1. Operational DB; 2. Distributed DB; 3. External DB; 4. Hyper media DB
Schema & sub schema of data : 1. Logical view of user data; 2. The view of database administrator (DBA); 3. Logical view.
Database models :
1. Hierarchical DB model;
2. Network DB model;
Product Area (P) Assembly Area (A)
Sub Assembly Area (SA)
Part Area (R)
Component Area (C)
C C C C C C
R R R
3. Relational DB model
Following are the relationship types :
1. One to one; (1:1)
Occupation Patient Assign Bed
2. One to many; (1:M)
3. Many to many. (M:M)
Operation Patient Operates Surgeon
Relationship with data model : 1. Entity; 2. Attributes; 3. Data value; 4. Key attributes; 5. Record.
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