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design and implementation of a buck converter by kemjika ananaba

design and implementation of a buck converter by kemjika ananaba

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Published by kemito2001
Msc Project from University of glasgow
Msc Project from University of glasgow

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Published by: kemito2001 on Dec 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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During component selection, each component is selected based on certain circuit



Courtesy of practical design of Buck Converter by Johor Bahru

Fig. 3.1 Buck Converter With Component Rating

3.2.1 Inductor

Since the size of the inductor determines the operating mode of the buck converter,

inductor design plays an important role in buck converter design. The inductor functions

by taking energy from the electrical circuit storing it in a magnetic field and subsequently

returning this energy to the circuit4

When the inductor is discharging3

VL= -Vo = L diL /dt (3.1)

diL/dt = -Vo/L (3.2)

∆iLoff = -Vo/L * [∆toff]
∆iLoff = -Vo/L * [1-D]T (3.3)

When the inductor is charging,

VL= Vs -Vo = L diL /dt

diL/dt = [Vs –Vo]/L

∆iLon = (Vs-Vo/L )* [∆ton]
∆iLon = [Vs-Vo/L ]* DT (3.4)


Vs- Vo


-Vo ton toff

iR ∆iL

Fig 3.2 Inductor Voltage and Inductor current

Fig 3.2 shows the current and voltage waveform through the inductor.

ILMIN = IL – |∆iL|/2 = Vo/R - (1-D)Vo/ 2LF = Vo [1/R - (1-D)/ 2LF] (3.5)

ILMAX = IL + |∆iL|/2 = Vo/R + (1-D)Vo/ 2LF = Vo [1/R + (1-D)/ 2LF] (3.6) Critical Inductance (LC)

The critical Inductance value is the minimum inductance value at which the inductor

current reaches Boundary conduction mode. Any inductance value lower than the critical

inductance causes the buck converter to operate in the discontinuous current conduction

mode. The inductor value is critical to maintaining current to the load while the switch is

off. It is necessary to determine the minimum inductance necessary to support the output

current of the Buck converter so that the load is supported under worst-case conditions of

output voltage and input current3


Current (A)

Voltage (V)



iL AT L = LC

Fig 3.3 Inductor Current at Critical Inductance

In order to obtain the critical inductance the maximum inductor current ripple ∆iL or

minimum percentage load requirement is specified.

ILMIN = 0 = IL – [|∆iL|/2 ] = Vo [1/R - (1-D)/ 2LF]

LC = (1-DMAX)RMAX / 2F (3.7)

RMAX = Vo/IMIN (3.8)

DMAX = duty cycle calculated at minimum input voltage

F= Frequency

Peak current through the inductor determines the inductor's required saturation-current

rating, which in turn dictates the approximate size of the inductor. Saturating the inductor

core decreases the converter efficiency, while increasing the temperatures of the inductor,

the MOSFET and the diode3

. The peak current rating of the inductor is determined with

the maximum inductor current. The worse case minimum inductor current occurs at

maximum load.

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