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# PSEUDO FORCE

Pseudo Force
A fictitious force, also called a pseudo force or d'Alembert force , is an apparent force that acts on all masses in a non-inertial frame of reference, such as a rotating reference frame. The force F does not arise from any physical interaction but rather from the acceleration a of the non-inertial reference frame itself. Due to Newton's second law F = ma, fictitious forces are always proportional to the mass m being acted upon.

Detection of non-inertial reference frame
Observers inside a closed box that is moving with a constant velocity cannot detect their own motion; however, observers within an accelerating reference frame can detect that they are in a noninertial reference frame from the fictitious forces that arise. They can even map out the magnitude and direction of the acceleration at every point with a plumb bob and a protractor. Another example of the detection of a non-inertial reference frame is the way a Foucault pendulum precesses.

Examples of pseudo forces
CIRCULAR MOTION A similar effect occurs in circular motion, circular for the standpoint of an inertial frame of reference attached to the road, with the fictitious force called the centrifugal force, fictitious when seen from a non-inertial frame of reference. If a car is moving at constant speed around a circular section of road, the occupants will feel pushed outside, away from the center of the turn.

GRAVITY AS A PSEUDO FORCE All fictitious forces are proportional to the mass of the object upon which they act, which is also true for gravity. This led Albert Einstein to wonder whether gravity was a fictitious force as well. He noted that a freefalling observer in a closed box would not be able to detect the force of gravity; hence, freefalling reference frames are equivalent to an inertial reference frame (the equivalence principle)

We mention two possible ways of analyzing the problem: 1. From the viewpoint of an inertial reference frame with constant velocity matching the initial motion of the car, the car is accelerating. In order for the passenger to stay inside the car, a force must be exerted on him. This force is exerted by the seat, which has started to move forward with the car and compressed against the passenger until it transmits the full force to keep the passenger inside. Thus, the passenger is accelerating in this frame, due to the unbalanced force of the seat.

ACCELERATION IN A STRAIGHT LINE When a car accelerates hard, the common human response is to feel "pushed back into the seat." In an inertial frame of reference attached to the road, there is no physical force moving the rider backward. However, in the rider's non-inertial reference frame attached to the accelerating car, there is a backward fictitious force.

2. From the point of view of the interior of the car, an accelerating reference frame, there is a fictitious force pushing the passenger backwards, with magnitude equal to the mass of the passenger times the acceleration of the car. This force pushes the passenger back into the seat, until the seat compresses and provides an equal and opposite force. Thereafter, the passenger is stationary in this frame, because the fictitious force and the (real) force of the seat are balanced.