أضواء على السياسة الشرعية-1

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‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪..‬‬
‫ﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻟﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﻻ ٍ‬
‫ﻼ ﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﺼﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻺﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﳘﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺳﻄﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﰲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﲢﻘﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﺩ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘ ٍ‬
‫ﻭﺧﻄﻮﺭ ِﺓ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤ‪‬ﻴﺔ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻃﻤﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﲏ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﳓﻮ ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ‪ -‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﻴ ٍﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ٍﻞ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﻪ ‪..‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺸﺎﳜﻲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ) ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﺒﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ، ( -‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪﺕ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺮﺣﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺷﺠ‪‬ﻌﲏ ﻭﺟﺮ‪‬ﺃﱐ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺄﺧﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺪﺃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﳍﻤ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫ﳓﻮ ﻣﻮﺟ ٍﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﱢﻊ ﳓﻮ ﺃﹸﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻤ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ﻭﺳﻄ ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻨﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻨﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻉ ﺷﺎ ﹼﺫ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻭﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻱ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﻰ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻭﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﺎﺋﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺭﺿﺎﻩ ‪..‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻷﺭﺟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺧﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻄﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪ -‬ﳚﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﺤﹰﺎ‪-‬‬
‫ﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻋﱪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺇﻳﺼﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇ ﱠ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺤﺘﺴﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﱠﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻨﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺂﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﻠﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻪ ‪ ..‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ  ‪ % Hْ ُS} :‬ـ‪ٍ0 UِD  Mَ ' ِEّ  Mَِ4 &' َ@ ِِ
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‫@ َ‪]{ 8ِِ V*ْ  ِ ْ3َ @   - ِEّ  W X 
- ِF Y/ ِ  - ْ3‬ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪ .. [108 :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺄﻣ‪‬ﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳚﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺪ ﴰﻠﺖ ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﴰﻠﺖ ‪ -‬ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻖ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺑﺸﻤﻮﳍﺎ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺑﺼﲑﺓ ( !‬
‫ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻭﺳﲑﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﺓ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬
‫ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﳎﺎﻻ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ‪ ..‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ؟‪ ...‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻋ‪‬ﻴﺔِ‬
‫ﺳﺔِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺪﻟﹸﻮﻝﹸ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ … ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻀﻊ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ ..‬ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻋﺮﻓﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺄﻟﲏ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﲔ ﳑﻦ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻼ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ! ﻓﻬﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ؟‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬

‫ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺣﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫! ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ؟! ‪ ..‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺃﻛﺸﻒ ﺷﺒﻬﺘﻪ ﺑﺄﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻣﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﻣﻨﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪@@Z@òbîŽÜÛ@ðìÌÜÛa@óäȽa@Z@üëc‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺒﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ؛ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ...‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻨﻮ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺗﺴﻮﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ‪،‬ﻛﻠﹼﻤﺎ ﻫﻠﻚ ﻧﱯ‪ ، ‬ﺧ ﹶﻠﻔﹶﻪ ﻧﱯ‪ ، ‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ‬

‫ﻧﱯ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺪﻱ" )‪ ،(1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪T‬ﺃﻱ ‪ ) :‬ﻳﺘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻋﻴﺔ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ  ‪ ) :‬ﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﻭﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﻣﱴ ‪‬ﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺤﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ( )‪. (2‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ  ﻳﺼﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ  ‪ ) :‬ﺇﱐ ﻭﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ( )‪. (3‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﻫﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ‪‬ﲝﺮ‪‬ﻗﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ـﺎ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﳓـﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺳﻮﻗـﺔ ﻧﺘﻨﺼﻒ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺱ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﲏ ﻓﻼﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﹸﻛﻠﱢﻒ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻠﻚ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﻋﱪﺓ ﲟﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ )‪ (4‬؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﺍﳋﻔﺎﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﺑﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻓﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ ) :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻓﺎﺣﺶ ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫" ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ " ﻻ ﳜﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻒ ﻭﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ؛ ﻟﻜﻨﲏ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪ ..‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺿﻔﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (3268‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (1842‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ ) ‪ ( 32472‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ )‪ (111/3‬ط ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ( ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ) ﺳﻪ ﻳﺴﺎ ( ‪ ،‬ﻓـ ) ﺳﻪ ( ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﲏ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭ ) ﻳﺴﺎ ( ﺑﺎﳌﻐﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌـﲏ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪@@@@Z@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÜÛ@ïyýĐ•⁄a@óäȽa@Z@bîãbq‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺪ‪‬ﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﲟﺪﻟﻮﻻﺕ ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺓ ؛ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫‪‬ﺗ ﹼﻄﻮ‪‬ﺭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﻗﺖ ﺯﻣﻨﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﳌﹸﺘﺠ ‪‬ﺪﺩ‪‬ﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺧﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺠﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺿـﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤ ﹶ‬
‫ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ؛ ﻓﻠﻔﻆ " ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ " ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧ‪‬ﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ‪ ......‬ﻭﺳﺄﻛﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺈﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ : Þëþa‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ‪T‬ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪ ) :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺸـﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺣﻲ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ : ïãbrÛaë‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳒﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪T‬ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪ ) :‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ؛ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ؛ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﺼﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻗ ِﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﹼﻟﻔﻪ‬
‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌ ِﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ؛ ﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﲦﱠﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ : bàç†yc‬ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳋﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ : bàèîãbqë‬ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻓﻘﻬﻲ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ؛ ﻳﻨﲑ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﹼﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻭﱄ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻮﺹ ﲟﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻀﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﲔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ، âbÇ@óäÈß@Z@Þëþa‬ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﻟـ) ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ( ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻸﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪ‪‬ﺑﺮ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺼﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ : â@ bÈÛa@óäȽbi@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÛbÏNNNéîÜÇë‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪ‪‬ﺑﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻣـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﳑﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺺ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺺ ﺗﻔﺼـﻴﻠﻲ‬

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‫ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺪﺓ )‪. (1‬‬
‫˜ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ) ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ( ؛ ﻭﺍﻧﺪﺭﺍﺟﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪@ b@óäÈß@Z@ïãbrÛaë‬‬
‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻬﺎ )‪ (2‬؛ ﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺢ ﰲ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻪ )‪.(3‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ ) .‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔ ‪‬ﻦ ﳍﺎ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺪﺑﲑﻫﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺻﺪﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﻦ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮﻫﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﳓﻮﻩ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﱄ ﻟﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻷﰊ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﻭﺭﺩﻱ ؛ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳚﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﺒﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻨﺼﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﺸـﺄ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺧﺎﺻ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺺ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﲢﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪ‪‬ﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻁ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﺎﺛﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻨـﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣـﱴ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻧﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ؛ ﻓﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ) :‬ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺝ ( ‪ ،‬ﻷﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ – ﻣﺜﻼ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳚـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻋﻨﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻹﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑـ"ﺩﺩﺓ ﺃﻓﻨﺪﻱ" ؛ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺁﻧﻔﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴـﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﺈﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻊ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﲣﺼﺺ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﲟﺪﻟﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﰲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ ˜b¨a@ óäȽbi@ òîÇŠ’Ûa@ òbîŽÛbÏ‬ﻫﻲ ‪8:
I ،  / ,aN *S  ،,P b ' 6$  <7 ) :‬‬
‫ ‪ . ( 8=,- 8Fc DJ ، 23 ، de <2J !)[- J,= f 2. ، 8#‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﶈﺘﺮﺯﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬

‫ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ : ( ,P b ' 6$  ) :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻭﻫﻢ ) ﺃﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ( ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪) :T‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻄﺎﻋﻮﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ؛ ﻓﻄﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﺗﺒﻊ ﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋـﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌـﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ؛ ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﻊ ﻟﻄﺎﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﺗﺒﻊ ﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ( )‪ (1‬؛ ﻓﺬ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺑﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻤﺮﻱ ‪ ) :T‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﱵ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﱵ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻆ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺯﺟﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ ( )‪ ، (2‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ (  / ,aN *S  ) :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﴰﻮﳍﺎ ﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺘﲔ ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ِﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ٍﻞ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ٍﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟـ) ‪. ( *SP‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﺑﲑ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑـ ) ;‪ ( / ,a‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ( 8#  8:
I ) :‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ؛‬

‫ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﳎﺎﳍﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﻌﱠﻠﻠﹶﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻴﺪ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﹸ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﻫﻮﻯ ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺯﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﰒ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻫـﺎ ؛ ﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬـﻞ ﻭﻫﻮﻯ )‪.(3‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪. (10/1‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ (43/29) :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ، ( g2hَ3j de <2J !)[- J,= f 2. ) :‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ؛‬
‫ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺔ) ‪ ( <2J‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ) ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ‪e‬ـ‪ ( d‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﳏ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ؛ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺗـﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ؛ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ‪ ( g2hَ3j‬ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﲝﺎﻝ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺃﻭﱄ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﳘﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ ؛ ﲝﻴﺚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻸﺻﻠﺢ ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﳌ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺪﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻯ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ؛ ﻛﺎﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﻗﺖ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺸﺮﻳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﹰﺎ ﲟﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ؛‬
‫ﻓﻴﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ( 8=,- 8Fc DJ ) :‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺮﺝ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﺪﻡ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﳍﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ؛ ﻓﻌﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺺ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﱠﰎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺣﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﲡﺎﻫﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﹾﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﻦ ﻗﻠﱠﺖ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻀﺎﻋﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻋ‪‬ﻴﺔِ‬
‫ﺳﺔِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﻴﺔﹸ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻞِ ِﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﱄ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ ؛ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﻟﹼﺔ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﻨﻈ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﺍﻋ‪‬ﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﺍﻋ‪‬ﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ؛ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﱠﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﲟﺪﻟﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﲑﻛﹼﺰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ؛ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘﺪِﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ : Þëþa@ wèäÛa‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﲟﻜﺎﻥ ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬

‫ ‪: áîÄÈÛa@æeŠÔÛa@åß@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÛa@†çaì‘@åàÏ‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ ؛ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﺄﻩ ﺑﺘﺄﻭﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﳏﺮﻣﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺧﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ؛ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ؛ ﻓﻴﺤﺮ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻃﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ‬
‫) ‪(1‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﺑﺎﺣﺘﻪ (‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ } ‪ ِ &% - GSَ  D;َ ٍHُS ِ LُS EDِ*Sَ Wَ Wِ4  ِ %َ@  Z [ِ% \ ِ \ -‬‬
‫^َ]ِِ‪ِ EY3ِ4 َaَS ٍ ِ LُS E Dِ*Sَ bَ@ " L*َ ;َ (27) 8ِSِLD ِ &% - G َPَ^;َ ٍ ِ LُS EDِ*Sَ Wَ Wِ4 - (26) 8‬‬

‫‪ { 5‬؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ‪،‬‬
‫َ ُِ‪[ ِc ' Lُ  َ LWِ4 L‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ  ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻟﻴﻮﺳﻒ‬
‫ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺑﺮ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺷﻬﺪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﻨﺖ‬
‫ﻼ ( ﲤﺰﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ) ﺍﳋﻠﻒ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻻﺑﺴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺑﺮﹰﺍ ؛ ﻓﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ ﻣﺸﻘﻮﻗﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻫﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﻮﺷﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻌﺒ‪‬ﻪ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Vَe3َ ْ]ِ4 ِf‬ـ‪ِ; G‬ـ‪َd ِE‬ـ‪َْ  5 F‬ـ &‪LFُ - ِA‬ـ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴـﺎﺀ ‪
- --  - } :‬ـ َ * ‪ *ُ^ X ! ْ]ِ4 W‬ـ‪ِ; ِW‬ـ  ْ‪ X‬ـ ‬
‫‪  َ3‬ـ‪ ِgْ  --  h‬ــ‪ (! َa‬ـ‪ Y -  XZ‬ـ ‪LFُ -‬ــ‬
‫‪ \ 5‬ــ‪ % F *Lَe;َ (78) !ِِ%‬ـ 
ـ َ * ‪ّ ُ - W‬ـً ‪ F /َ k‬ـ ‪*ْ^,‬ـً ‪*ِْ' -‬ـً ‪
-‬ـ‪ Yi‬‬
‫ِ‪ِِ*ْ^X‬ـ ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ )‪ (475/14‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﺳﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫;َـ'ِِ‪ { (79) 8‬؛ ﻓﻬـﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﷲ  ﺃﺛﻨـﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪﺓ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ‪. { W * َ 
 % F *Lَe;َ } :‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ‪ُel< !ِPY ِ#mَ nY9 Mَ ' - } :‬ـ&ْ ‪Y ,‬ـ‪َq َ]ِ4 M‬ـ َ‪َ ' GS‬ـ ِ‪ *ِ o "َp 5‬ـ " ‪ ,‬ـ‪ G‬‬

‫‪&ُ ِ 5‬ـ&ْ ‪ّ LWِ4‬ـ‪% E‬ـ& ‪Y‬ـ&‪ rL‬ـ‪ { (118) 5ِ,L‬؛ ﻓـﺈ ﱠﻥ‬
‫‪ُm ِE َ ِ4 Ysِ4 ِEّ  ِ َt gْ  Ys Wَ@ ْ&uFvَ - 5‬ـ‪َ/ L5‬ـ‪َ ' r‬ـ ِ ‬
‫‪ (ُe3َ@ 5‬‬
‫‪ ِ َ ' GSَ َq -‬‬

‫ﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺑﺎﳍﺠﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﻠﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﰲ ﺗﺒﻮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺑﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻣـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﻠﻔﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﳌﺬﻧﺐ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﺃﺩﺑﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ … ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﲢﺮﱘ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ( ‪.‬‬

‫@‪@@Z@òíìjäÛa@òŞäŽÛa@¿@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÛa@†çaì‘@åßë‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻀ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺑِﺎﹾﻟﻜﹸ ﹾﻔ ِﺮ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ " :‬ﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍﹶﺛ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣ ِ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠﻔﹰﺎ " )‪ (1‬؛ ﻓﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍ ﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬
‫ﺱ ِﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺃﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬
‫ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ؛ ﺧﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻮﱄ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ  ﺇﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﻣﺆﺗﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺗﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺄﻣﲑ ﻣﻨﻪ )‪ (2‬؛ ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ  ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﻴﺶ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺺ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻕ‬
‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﹶﻓﹸﺄ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻒ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯ ِﻝ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑِﺎﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ  ‪ " :‬ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ "‬

‫)‪(3‬‬

‫؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍ‬
‫ﺱ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪ ‬ﹸ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ  ﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ  ﹼﳌﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ‪ " :‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ " )‪ (4‬؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪‬ﻣِﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫@‪@@Z@å톑aŠÛa@õbÐܨa@òŞä@åß@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÛa@†çaì‘@åßë‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﲨﻊ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ  ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺤﻒ )‪ (5‬؛ ﳌﱠﺎ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﺘﻐﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (1508‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (1333‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (3547‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (2288‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (651‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (4266‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (2584‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ، (4402) ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ  ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ  ﲜﻠﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﲦﺎﻧﲔ ﺟﻠﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﳚﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ  ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﻋﻤﺮ  ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ‪ (1).‬؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪ -T‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﹰﺎ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺮ ‪ ) : -‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ؛ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ؛ ﻓﺮﺁﻩ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﻔﻌﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻳﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﻛﻮﻩ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﲢﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ  ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ )‪ (2‬؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﻤﻞ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﲢﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻲ  ﻟﻠﺰﻧﺎﺩﻗﺔ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ] ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ [ ﲢﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻲ  ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍﻓﻀﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳌﱠﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ؛ ﻟﻴﺰﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ( )‪ .... (3‬ﻭﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﳎﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪ ﱠﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻑﰲ‬
‫ﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ؛ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺜﲑ ؛ ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺮِﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺣﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻟﻮﻥ ؛ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‬
‫ﷲ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨ‪‬ﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ : ïãbrÛa@wèäÛa‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑـ ) ﺃﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ( ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺳﺘﺄﰐ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Z@sÛbrÛa@wèäÛa‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ) ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ( ؛ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴ‪‬ﻜﺘ‪‬ﻔﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ :@ÉiaŠÛa@wèäÛa‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬

‫ﻑ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ؛ ﻓﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ؛ ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺷﺮﻋﻨﺎ ﲞﻼﻓﻪ ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻨﺎ ؛ ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ؛ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺪﻋﹰﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (6397‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ  ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (1706‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (4702‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ )‪. (27/1‬‬

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‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻋ‪‬ﻴﺔِ‬
‫ﺳﺔِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﹸﺳ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ) ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ( ؛ ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ؛ ﻓﻴﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ )‪ (1‬؛‬
‫ﰒ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ) ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﳎﺎﺯﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ( ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﺰ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬

‫@‪@@Z@òŽîöŠÛa@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÛa@c@Z@ü ëc‬‬
‫‪ . H@áíŠØÛa@æaŠÔÛa@I@lbnØÛa@Z@Þëþa‬ﻭﻫـﻮ ‪ :‬ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ  ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻔﻈﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ  ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﺮﰊ ﻣﺒﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺘﻼﻭﺗﻪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ  ‪ 8ِ*َ  ْ  Zr " ُH!ِ1Fََ EY3ِ4 - } :‬‬

‫)‪] { (195) ٍ8ِu yِ  ' ٍW (ِr (194) !ِ"ِPF*ْ  ِ W&ُ^َ ِ xِْ Sَ Mَ ' (193) 8َِtْ  w-u ِEِ َa 13َ (192‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ [ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .@òíìjäÛa@òäȎÛa@Z@ïãbrÛa‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﻘﻞ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﻠﱠﻤﺎﺕ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬
‫‪ : òČäŽÛaë@lbnØÛa@µg@ …Č ŠÛa@áØy‬ﻭﺍﻟـ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﻴ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭ ِﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻋﻴ‪‬ﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ .T‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺍﻥ ؛ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ . Êbº⁄a@Z@sÛbrÛa‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ‪ ) :‬ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﳎﺘﻬﺪﻱ ﻋﺼ ٍﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ  ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻱ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﲏ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﳍﻢ ‪ ) :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﺩﻳﲏ ( ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﺩﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ )‪ (2‬ﻭﺣ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳـﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﻌﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﲟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺘﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﳑـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺆﻛﱢﺪ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﹸﺎ ﻟﻺﲨﺎﻉ ؛ ﻛﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻮﻳ‪‬ـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﻜﻴ‪‬ـﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻔﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﻋ ‪‬ﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺯﻋﻤﻪ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺃﺳـﺎﺗﺬﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ -‬ﳑﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻛﺜ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻪ ﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﻮﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ ‪ ،‬ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﲞﻠﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﻈﻨﻪ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ xَِ] ِِ<{ ِA& ْ  - ِEّ ِ W&Fِ| ُ/ 5‬‬
‫ٍ َ;‪ ُFُ Wِ4 ِa&
L - ِEّ  Mَِ4 O-u‬‬
‫‪ \ ِ; 5‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ‪ ُ 'َ= F/َ Wِz;@} :‬‬

‫<  [ ‪] {@ }n!ِ-ْt/َ  ( ,َ@ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ [ 59 :‬؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ؛ ﻓﺪ ﱠﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺩ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(1‬‬

‫‪) ÷bîÔÛa@Z@ÉiaŠÛa‬ﺍﳌﻴـﺰﺍﻥ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﱪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ‪ ) :‬ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻻﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﲝﻜﻤﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻠﹼﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳋﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪T‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ) :‬ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﺣﻜﻢ ﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﰲ‬

‫ﺺ ﺣﻜ ٍﻢ ‪ : -‬ﺣ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻟﺖ ﻧﺎﺯﻟ ﹲﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﻜِﻢ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﳌﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺯﻟﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ( )‪.(2‬‬

‫‪ : éÇì™ìßë‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺒﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ِﻟﻴ‪‬ﻠﺤﻖ‬
‫) ‪(3‬‬
‫ﻞ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺑﺄﺻﻠﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﹼ‬
‫‪ ] énŞîv‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ [ ﻓﺜﺎﺑﺘ ﹲﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ğ y bČßcë‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ٍ َ;‪ ُFُ Wِ4 ِa&
L - ِEّ  Mَِ4 O-u‬‬
‫‪ \ ِ; 5‬‬
‫‪ lbnØÛa@åàÏ‬ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ُ 'َ= F/َ Wِ4 } :‬‬

‫‪] {@ }n!ِ-ْt/َ  ( ,َ@ - [  < xَِ] ِِ<{ ِA& ْ  - ِEّ ِ W&Fِ| ُ/‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ [59:‬؛ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳜﻠﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ  ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﻌﺎ ٍﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻱ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺼﹲﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻪ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ؟‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻨﻈﲑ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺼﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺪ ﹼﻝ ﲝﻜﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺮﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺴﻪ ﻭﻧﻈﲑﻩ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ؛ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ : òŞäŽÛa@åßë‬ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳉﻬﻨﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ ) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻲ ﻧﺬﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺞ ﻓﻠﻢ ﲢﺞ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻓﺄﺣﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ؟ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ " :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺣﺠﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻚ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﻨﺖ ﻗﺎﺿﻴﺘﻪ ؟ ﺍﻗﻀﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺎﷲ ﺃﺣﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ " )‪. (4‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻈﻔﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﻃﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪512 :‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (1754‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪ . (1768‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻧﺺ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﲑ ﺑﻨﻈﲑﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ  ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺩ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﺍﻵﺩﻣﻲ ﲜﺎﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜ ﱠﻞ ﺣﻖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Êbº⁄a@bŞßcë‬؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺤﺎﺑﺔ  ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳉ ‪‬ﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﲑﺍﺙ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﺣﺎﻡ ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰ‪‬ﺍﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻈﻔﱠﺮ ‪ ) :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﱢﻤﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﻋ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹸﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﻉ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪ ﱡﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱠﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﻊ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻔﻈ‪‬ﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ًﺀ ؛ ﻷ ﹼﻥ‬
‫ﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ -‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻣﹾﺜِﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻈ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬
‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﻴﺔ ؛‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺘﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﳊ ﹾﻜ ِﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﷲ  ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺖﺍﹸ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜِﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﻪ ؛ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻌﺒﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫@‪@@N@H@Þü†nüa@I@òîbjänüa@òîÇŠ’Ûa@òbîŽÛa@c@Z@bîãbq‬‬
‫‪ : éi@…aŠí@Þü†nüa‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﻘﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ )‪. (1‬‬
‫‪ : énÔîÔyë‬ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺣﻜﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﳎﺎﺯﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺘﺠﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑﻳ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺟ ﹼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﲝﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﳌﻦ ﻭﻟﱠﺎﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺒﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺠﱠﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﺻﻞ " ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ " ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺇﲨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@@@ZïÜí@bß@òîÛbº⁄a@Þü†nüa@òÛ…c@åàÏ‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ ‪ F ِ ِ َp ِ- ُ@ Mَِ4 - ِa&
L Mَِ4 O-u " & َ - ِEِ ْ&'َ]َ@ ِ~& َiْ  ِ-َ@ ِ َp Z‬‬
‫‪[ َ@ 5‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ % ) َ]ِ4 - } :‬‬

‫‪ { (83) }nِSَ Ysِ4 Wَ LV 5ُ Y/َs Eُ * , " - 5‬؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ ُ^ َ ' ِEّ  ُHْ;َ َs &َ - 5‬‬
‫َ ِ* ‪ F ِ E3َ &ُِFَ ( ! !ِPY E‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﺕ ﹸﺃﺧﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ‪‬ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﻨﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ( ﺃﻫـ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‪T‬ﻣﺴﺘﺪ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺗﻜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ‪ …) : -‬ﻓﺎﻻﻋﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ؛ ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﻁ ﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻟﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻴﺴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎ ﹸ‬
‫ﻼ؛‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ( ﺃﻫـ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻭﻭﺩﻱ‪ ) :T‬ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﳎﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﻔ ‪‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻧﺒﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ؛ ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ _ﺗﻌﺎﱃ_ ‪ % ) َ]ِ4 -@} :‬‬
‫‪ِEّ  ُHْ;َ َs& َ - 5‬‬
‫ ‪ F ِ E3َ &ُِFَ ( ! !ِPY E *ِ َ 5F ِ ِ َp ِ- ُ@ Mَِ4 - ِa&
L Mَِ4 O-u " & َ - ِEِ ْ&'َ]َ@ ِ~& َiْ  ِ-َ@ ِ َp Z‬‬
‫@َ [‬
‫' َ ^ُ ‬
‫‪ . ( { }nِSَ Ysِ4 Wَ LV 5ُ Y/َs Eُ * , " - 5‬ﻭﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪5ُ^َ Gِq " - ِ * ِ3 5‬‬
‫‪ ُ^ َ ' G * */ْ َ@ - 5‬‬
‫‪ ُ^ F!ِ 5‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ }:‬ﺍ ْ &‪ ُ^َ Gْ *َْ@ A‬‬

‫ِ
‪ ، { (3) ًF!ِ A n‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺇﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻑ ﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ؛ ﻓﻠﺰﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﻥ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺼ ٍﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪،‬‬
‫‪ òîÜî–ÐnÛa@ òÛ…þa@ bŞßcë‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﹼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﺩﻟ ﹸﺔ ﻃﺮ ِ‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ )‪ (1‬؛ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺘﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﲨﺎﻟﹸﻬﺎ ﲢﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﹸﻗ ِ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱢﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺓ‬
‫ﺙ ﳏـﺮ‪‬ﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺮ‪‬ﺑﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ؛‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ؛ ﻭِﻗﻠﱠﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﲝﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﺐ ﲟﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻠ ِﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻭﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ؛ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ )‪ ، (2‬ﻭﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﻛﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﻓـﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍ ِ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻭ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺸِﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ) ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ( ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﲟﺼﻄﻠﺢ ) ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫( ﲡﻮﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻟﱠﺎ ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ) ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ( ﺭ ‪‬ﺩﹰﺍ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ؛ ﺩﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻳﺮِﺩ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﲔ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻇﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺸِﺌﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻭﺩﻻﻻ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﱠﰒ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ – ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑـﺎﻟﻔﺮﻉ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺑﺒﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺼﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺶ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻨ‪‬ﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬

‫ @‪ . (1) ò܍Š½a@|Ûb–½a@Z@µëþa@ÕíŠĐÛa‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﲨﻊ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺿﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻀﺮ‪‬ﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲣﻠﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ : µëþa@Þb§a‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻫﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻻ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﳍﺎ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺩﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺮﻭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳚﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﺭﺅﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﲟﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻜﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ : òîãbrÛa@Þb§a‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻫﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﳍﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ؛ ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻐﺎﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩﻉ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺗﻜﻔﲑﻩ‬
‫ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﻮﻥ ‪ :‬ﲟﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ‪‬ﻣِﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﺮﺩﻋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ ﻻ ﻳﺒﺎﻟﻮﻥ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ؛ ﳋﻔﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺃﳘﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ؛ ﺑﺎﺷﺘﺮﺍﻃﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ِ W-ِ%cَ ! !ِPY - } :‬‬
‫‪ {(3) U‬؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫‪[ ِ < W&ُ * /َ  *ِ EY - ِEِ W&ُc '&ُ/ 5‬‬
‫‪ ُ^َِ] L 
*َ ! Wَ@ ِH Sَ Z ٍ# Sَ " !ِ Xَ ;َ &ُSَ  *ِ W-& ! L5ُm 5‬‬
‫‪ ِِ€ (l3‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻭﻣﺘﺸﻌ‪‬ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﳝﻬ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺺ ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﺃﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ‪ :‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣـﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﳍـﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﲢﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﺭﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ؛ ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ – ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺑﺘﻔﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ؛ ﻛﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﲜﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻔﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ؛ ﻛﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺎﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻴﺎﺕ ؛ ﻛﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﺧـﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲞﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺘﻤﺔ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﻳﺪﺭﹸﺃ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﻮﺱ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﳚﺮﻱ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫) ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺼﻔﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻐﺰﺍﱄ ‪ 420-416/1 :‬؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ‪ 213/5 :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪ 263/3 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻔﺘﻮﺣﻲ ‪ 168-159/4 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ‪-412/1 :‬‬
‫‪ 414‬؛ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﶈﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ‪ 6 :‬؛ ﻭﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ‪. ( 237/2 :‬‬

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‫ﻕ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ ﹶﳌﻠِﻚ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺘﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ؛ ﻟﻴﻨـﺰﺟﺮ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻐﻲ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﳛﻜﻢ ﺑﺈﻫﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﳘﻠﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﻳﻨﺴﺒﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﻊ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺑﺬ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﲝﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻳﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﻠﻐﺎﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ : òrÛbrÛa@Þb§a‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻫﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻜﺖ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﻻ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺼﻠﹶﺤ ‪‬ﻲ ﺩﺍﺧ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺻﻞ ﹸﻛﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ؛ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬
‫ـ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﺸﺄﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﺃﺻ ٍﻞ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳ َ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺑـ " ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ " ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ ‪ٌ<$ ِ/q;  6ِ "3' k hh1l-=h D DJ ، 96-‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ِ .,3 8ٍ E 8ٍ FI o<7 ) :‬‬
‫‪ . ( r2hj‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻠﻲ )ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﺂﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ( ؛ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻐﲑ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﺘﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩ ﱠﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ؛ ﻭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻭﺷﻜﻠﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩ ﱠﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ، ( 8ٍ E 8ٍ FI o<7 ) :‬ﻳﺆﻛﱢﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﻨ ﱢﻈﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﺍﺕ ؛ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺮﻯ ﳎﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ؛ ﻛﺎﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍ ِ‬
‫ﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﳐﺼﻮﺹ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊ ‪‬ﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺫﻛﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺕ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻘ ﹸﻞ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫ﺝ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺨ ِﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ، ( r2hj ٌ<$ ِ/q;  6ِ "3' k hh1l-=h D DJ ) :‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺩﻻﻟ ٍﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ٍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺧ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ؛ ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺧ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪.‬‬

‫‪: ò܍Š½a@b–½bi@Þü†nüa@òîvy‬‬

‫ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺣﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ lbnØÛa@åàÏ‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ ؛ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﺄﻩ ﺑﺘﺄﻭﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪) :T‬ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺎ ﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ‪‬ﻋِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﰒ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺧﻮﻓﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﱂ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪ ‬‬

‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻐﲑﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﻔﲑﻩ ﻷﺑﻮﻳﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻘﺘﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺯ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ( )‪.(1‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ) :‬ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﳏﺮﻣﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺧﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ؛ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻞ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ؛‬
‫ﻓﻴﺤﺮ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻃﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﳌﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﺑﺎﺣﺘﻪ ( )‪. (2‬‬
‫‪ òäŽÛa@åßë‬ﺃﺩﻟﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﱄ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ  ﺇﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﻣﺆﺗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﱂ ﻳﺆﻣ‪‬ﺮﻩ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ؛ ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﻴﺶ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰒ ﻧﺺ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺗﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺄﻣﲑ ﻣﻨﻪ )‪ . (3‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﳌﻦ ﺗﺄﻣ‪‬ﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ )‪. (264/11‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ )‪. (475/14‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ﺻـ‪،8‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪﻩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪" :‬ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺟـﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊـﺮﺏ ﺑﻐـﲑ ﺗﺄﻣﲑ‪،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ‪:‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺭﺟﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻀﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  "‪.‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪. 586/7 :‬‬

‫א א 
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‫‪ Ê@ bº⁄a@bߪ cë‬؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ  ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﺳﻜﻮﺗﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﻛـﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﺎﻧﻀـﻤﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ )‪ (1‬؛ ﻭﻋﻬﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﳋﻼﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ )‪. (2‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻭﻳﻦ )‪ (3‬؛ ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺷﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺑﺜﻤﺎﻧﲔ )‪.(4‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻛﺜﲑ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻜـﲑ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﲨـﺎﻉ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ؛ ﻓـﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺰ‪‬ﺍﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ؛‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﰲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﱢﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻮﺭﺽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺞ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﳏ ﱢﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺎﺯﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺎﱂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺔ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﱢﺮﻳﻦ ﳍﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺿﺒﻄﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻀﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺗﺰﻳﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺸﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ‪‬ـﺎ ؛ ﻓﻘـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻃﻮﺍ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﹰﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﻬـﺎ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻧﺼﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ‪ .‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪ ﱢﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻠﻲ ؛ ﺑﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺟﻨﺴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺹ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﰲ‬
‫ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪ T‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ) :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻋﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﹶﺼﻠﹶﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻧﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺺ ﻣﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺺ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻋﱪﺓ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﻳﺎﺕ ؛ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺜﺮ ﲣﺼﻴﺼﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﻪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﲔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﲔ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﳎﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻃﲔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ...‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺠﺞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﲔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺔ ﻣﺎ ﹸﻓﻬِﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺬﻭﺫ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺮﻓﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﲔ ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﻠﻐﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻘﺪﳝﻪ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺺ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺯﺍﻋﻤﹰﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﻗـﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ﺻـ‪. 8‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )‪.(274.192/3‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )‪ (234/3‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ﺻـ‪. 8‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺘﺒ‪‬ﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬
‫ﻭﺩﺭﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﻓﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﳘﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻻ‬
‫ﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﹸﺮﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻭ ﻻ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﻭﻻ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺧﺎﺹ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﻉ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺰ‪‬ﺍﱄ‪ ) :T‬ﻣﻦ ﻇ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺧﺎﻣﺲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺩﺩﻧﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﹸﻓ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﻣ ﱠﻄﺮﺣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺮ‪‬ﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻉ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤ ٍﺔ ﺭﺟﻌﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ؛ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻣﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﺻ ﹲﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻋ ِﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﺄﺩﻟ ٍﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻻ ﺣﺼﺮ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻔﺎﺭﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ؛ ﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻣﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺴﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﲔ ﻭﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ( ‪.‬‬

‫™‪@@Z@ò܍Š½a@b–½bi@Þü†nüa@Áiaì‬‬
‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻫﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ؛ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺣ ﹼﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺿﻨﻚ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺩﻭ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻻ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺎ ﳌﺼﺪﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ) ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻭﻋﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻨـﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺂﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳜﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻄﺎﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﰲ ﻭﱄ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﱄ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﱠﺪﻩ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﱠﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻫﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ؛ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻣﺘﻜﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻼﻕ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻮ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻭﻃﺒﻌﻪ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻫ ﹰ‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻬﺠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﻥ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺳﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪) :T‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳚﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻭﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺬﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻬﺎ ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﺭﺟﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺛﺎﱐ ﺣﺎﻝ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ) :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﳚﺐ‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻘﻘﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺒﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺂﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻗﺒﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺑﺎﻹﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﲟﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬
‫ﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺠﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺂﻟـﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺨﺮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻠﺰﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ … ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﰒ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺰﻟﹼﺔ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺘﺪﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺫﻣﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻨﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ‪ -‬ﻧﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻧﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﺼﺮﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﺼﻲ ﻭ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻛﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺿﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﺒﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻹﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ‪ .‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻫﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ) ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻐﺎﺓ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻠﻐﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﲔ ﺳﺪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻴﻪ ( )‪ . (1‬ﻭ‪‬ﻗﺪ ﻣﺜﹼﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪ :‬ﲝﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺺ ‪ ،‬ﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘـﻪ ﺑﻨﻘﻴﺾ ﻗﺼﺪﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻐ ‪‬ﺰﺍﱄ‪ ) : T‬ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻼﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﻬـﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ( )‪ ، (2‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ …) :‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ( )‪ (3‬؛ ﺑﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﳘ ‪‬ﻲ ﻓﺮﺿ ‪‬ﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗـﻊ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺩ‪.‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪. 255-254 :‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺷﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻷﰊ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ‪ ، 188 :‬ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ‪ :‬ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺼﻔﻰ ‪ 313/2 :‬؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪ ،115 /2 :‬ﺑﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ‪ /‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜـﱪﻯ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴ‪‬ﻠﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻠﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ )‪ .(1‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ( )‪ . (2‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻟ ِﻘﺴ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻠﻐﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻣ ﱠﻄﺮ‪‬ﺣﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ؛ ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭﺛﻴﻖ ﺑﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺩﺭﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻌ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﺣﻢ )‪ ، (3‬ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺩﺭﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺒﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﶈﻈﻮﺭﺍﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻒ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﺖ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺗﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﻋﻲ ﺃﻋﻈﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺿﺮﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺃﺧﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻣﺜﹼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﲟﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﻖ ﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻪ ﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﻸﻓﺴﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ‪ :‬ﻗﻄﻌﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻇﻨﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﳘﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ‪:‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﺖ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﺖ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﻊ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﺖ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺘﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ) ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ...‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ ( )‪ (4‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻐﺰﺍﱄ ‪ ، 460 :‬ﻁ‪ ،1419-3‬ﺕ‪ /‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻫﻴﺘﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺩ‪.‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪. 255 :‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ‪ ، 181:‬ﻁ‪ ، 1403-1‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ ‪:‬ﺟﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﳉﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﻪ‬
‫ﲜﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺪﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺯﻱ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ‪. 123:‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫@‪@@æbŽzn⁄a : òîãbrÛa@ÕíŠĐÛa‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪ :‬ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻛ ﱢﻞ‬
‫ﳊ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻲ ِﺀ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ؛ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﻓﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻭﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺘﻔﺎﺳﲑ ﳐﺘﻠﻔ ٍﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻫﻢ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺒ ِﻬ ٍﺞ ﻣﺮﻏﻮ ٍ‬
‫ﺴﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻮ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ؛‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﺰﺍﻉ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎﻗﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﻔﻈﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﶈ ﹼﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻗﹸﺼﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ )‪. (1‬‬

‫ﺠﻠﱢﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﲔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪ : Þëþa‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺴﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻘﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺘﻬﻴﻪ ﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ؛‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻃ ُﹸﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ‬

‫)‪(2‬‬

‫ﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻣﻌﺘ ٍﱪ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎ ُﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫‪ : ïãbrÛaë‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺺ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎ ِﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺹ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺮ‪‬ﻓﻪ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ؛ ﻟﺪﻟﻴ ٍﻞ ﺷﺮﻋ ‪‬ﻲ ﺧﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪ ) :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺸﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ( )‪.(3‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﺮﻋ ‪‬ﻲ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ؛ ﻓﻴﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﺎﺣﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺮﺧ‪‬ﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ )‪ (4‬؛ ﻛ ﱡﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ؛ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺧﻔ ‪‬ﻲ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻨﻪ ؛ ) ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﺍﻃﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﲰﻨﺪﻱ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻤﺎﻡ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻣﲑﺑﺎﺩ ﺷـﺎﻩ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﻮ‪‬ﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻵﻝ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﺭ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ‪ :‬ﻓﻮﺍﺗﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻷﰊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ ‪ 689-688 :‬؛ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻃﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ ‪ 214/4:‬؛‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺼﻔﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻐﺰ‪‬ﺍﱄ ‪ 410/1:‬؛ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪ . 293، 288 :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ﳍﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ ‪ . 145 /10 :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺃ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺍ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻌﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻳﲏ ‪.486 :‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ( )‪ (1‬؛ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺃﻭﺟﻬﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﺹ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯﻫﺎ ؛ ﺩﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﺩ‪‬ﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻮﻋ‪‬ﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺻﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ‬
‫ﻼ ﺧﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻬﺪ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺃﺻ ﹲﻞ ﻛﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ؛ ﻟﻠﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﻪ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑـ " ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ )‪. (2‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘ ِﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ -‬ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﻌﺬﱢﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳑﻜﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻠﱠﻒ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﻭﻋﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ؛ ﻓﻴﻌﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ؛ ﺭﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ؛‬
‫ﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻴﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﳉﺰِﻡ ﺃﻭ ِﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪ : ïç@ñ‰ëŠšÛaë‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﺮﺍﻉ ﹸ‬
‫؛ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﺜﹼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥﱠ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﹸﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ﻋﻮﺭﺓ ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ؛ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺭﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﹼﻖ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻟﻮ ﹸﺃ ِﺧ ﹶﺬ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ ( )‪ ، (3‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ) : (4) T‬ﺇﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﻋﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺁﺟﻠﺔ‬
‫ﲡﻤﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻼﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﺸﻘﱠﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﰉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ؛‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ‪ /‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪.200‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻣﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ؛ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ) ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﺃﹸﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺸـﺒﻬﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺾ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﳌﻘﺘ ٍ‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪. 203/2 :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﺮﻉ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺩﺭ ِﺀ ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍﺭﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﲡﻤﻊ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﻘﱠﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺗﺮﰉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ؛ ﻭﻛ ﹼﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﻧﻈﺮ ﳍﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻓﻖ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﱢﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎ ٍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮ‪‬ﻓﺎﺕ (‪.‬‬
‫‪ : énÔîÔy@¿@æbŽznübÏ‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻋﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﹰﺎ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻋﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ؛ ﳋﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺄ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﺛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻁ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﱄ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺘﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻳﲏ ‪ ) :‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻋﺖ ؛‬
‫ﻟﺪﺭﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺂﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪@@N@æbŽznüa@Êaìãc‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋـﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺜﱠﻞ ﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍ ِﺀ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎ ُﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻣـﻊ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﻩ ‪ -‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﻩ ‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺑـ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ‪ -‬ﰲ‬
‫‪ : Þëþa‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻴﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ‪ -‬ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﻠﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﻜ ٍﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ؛ ﻭﺇﳊﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﺄﻗﺮ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺷﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣ‪‬ـﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺄﺻﻠﲔ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻟﻜ ٍﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﻋ ‪‬ﻲ ؛‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺮِﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻬﺪ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏ ﹰ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﲔ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻫﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﺩﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺩﱏ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﺩﻗﱠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﻠﹼﺔ ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺸﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ﺇﳊﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ؛ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺪِﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﱡﻘ ِﻖ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺒﻬ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﳊﺎﻕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻳﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ؛ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳉﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﱢﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻕ )‪ (1‬ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻖ ﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﻣﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﺎﺭ ؛ ﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﻘﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﻟﻜـﻪ ؛ ﻛﺤـﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺣـﻖ‬
‫ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﳎﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺃﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﻩ )ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ( =‬
‫=ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﺏ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ‪ -‬ﻭ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ ﻟﺴﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﻉ ؛ ﻭﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪25‬‬

‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ؛ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ )‪. (1‬‬

‫‪ : ïãbrÛa‬ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬

‫)‪(2‬‬

‫‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﺿﺖ‬

‫ﺻﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﻼ ﺧﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻬﺪ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺃﺻ ﹲﻞ ﻛﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ؛ ﻟﻠﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻇﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻪ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑـ " ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻓـﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪@@N@Êbº⁄bi@æbŽznüa@Z@Þëþa@ÊŠÐÛa‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻔﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺣﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﱰﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺯﻳﺪﺍﻥ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺑـ " ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻕ " ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴـﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺩﺛـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﺮﺷﺪ ﺍﳊﲑﺍﻥ ﻗﺪﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺷﺒﻬﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﲜﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﰲ ﻛ ٍﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺒـﺎﺩﺭ ؛‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻴﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ ﻭﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺎﺭﺓ ﲜﺎﻣﻊ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﲔ – ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺟ‪‬ﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻠﻜﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﲔ ﺍﳌﺆﺟ‪‬ﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻓﺔ ‪ -‬؛ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀـﻰ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺁﻯ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﻹﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺧﻔ‪‬ﻴﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻦ ﻛﺴﺎﺑﻘﻪ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﺄﻣ‪‬ﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﻤ‪‬ﻖ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎ ؛ ﻭﻣـﻊ ﺧﻔﺎﺋـﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬـﻢ‬
‫ﺭﺟﺤﻮﻩ ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪‬ـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘـﻖ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻏﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺠﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﻔ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ ؛ ﻭﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ ؛‬
‫ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹼﻚ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺄﹶﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ؛ ﻓﻴﻠﺰﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﻔ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ ؛ ﻭﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳉﻠﻲ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹼﻚ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ـﹶﺄﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﻘـﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ؛ ﻓﻴﻠﺰﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﹸﻓﺮﺩ ؛ ﻷﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪. 296 :‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﺑﺄﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ " )‪ .(1‬ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮﻉ ﺑﺈﻓﺘﺎ ِﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﻜﻮ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻟـﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻋﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺼﻨﺎﻉ )‪ (2‬؛ ﻣﻊ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﻡ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ؛ ﻭﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﻡ ﳑﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﻨﺺ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎ ُﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻩ ؛ ﳉﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬ﻲ )‪. (3‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﺗﺮﻛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ؛ ﻟﻺﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺪﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ]‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ [ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﻻ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﲔ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﻪ ( )‪. (4‬‬

‫‪@@@N@ñ‰ëŠšÛbi@æbŽznüa@Z@ïãbrÛa@ÊŠÐÛa‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺘﻌﺬﱢﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﳑﻜﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﻠﱠﻒ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﻭﻋﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ ؛ ﻓﻴﻌﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ؛ ﺭﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ )‪. (5‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟـﻪ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﹸﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ﻋﻮﺭﺓ ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ؛ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺭﻓﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ )‪.(6‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ )‪. (7‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﺩ‪.‬ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ‪. 78:‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺼﻨﺎﻉ ‪ :‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻊ ﻭﺳﺆﺍﻟـﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﻤﻞ ﱄ ﺧﻔﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﱘ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﳓﺎﺱ – ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ – ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺜﻤﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻪ ؛ ﻓﻴﺠﻴﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺐ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻣﲑ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﻩ ‪. (78/4) :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪. (203/2) :‬‬
‫ﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻴﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ؛ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ =‬
‫ﳉﺰِﻡ ﺃﻭ ِﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﺮﺍﻉ ﹸ‬
‫= ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪ 438 :‬ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﲝﺚ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪ . 145 /10:‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺻـ‪ 22‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (7‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻐﺰ‪‬ﺍﱄ ‪ 479-478 :‬؛ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪ 200/2 :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪ 139 /2 :‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﻠﱯ ‪ 354:‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 315‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ‪ 75 :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺑـ ) ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ( ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻤ ﹲﻞ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ‬
‫ﺺ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻩ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﶈﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺠﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ – ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺑـ ) ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ( ﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺯﻉ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻣﺸﺎﺣ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻓﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻻﺕ ؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﱢﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ؛‬
‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ ِﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ؛ ﺭﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺝ ﻭﺩﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﺭ ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻠﱡﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@@ :æbŽzn⁄a@òîvy‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﲜﻼﺀ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﻞ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ؛‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ )‪ (1‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺠﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﺣﺠ‪‬ﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﲢﺘﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻫﺎ ؛ ﺑﻨﺺ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻉ ﺃﹸﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺛﺒﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺮﻭ ٍ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﶈﱠﺪﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻉ ﻭ ﺳﺠﻮﺩﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺭﻛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﺍﺳـﺘﺜﻨﻴﺖ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺭﻛﻌﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺭﻛﻌ ٍﺔ ﺭﻛﻮ ‪‬‬
‫‪ِْe ! Wَ@ 5‬ـ‪Y 5ُ^ F‬ـ‪ !ِP‬‬
‫‪LD ِ ْ-Dْ/َ Wَ@ w[  F) 5‬ـ‪ْeِ< Wِ4 ِ0 n‬ـُ ‬
‫‪ ُ^ َ ' َ ;َ ِo "َp ِ; 5‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ُ  َq َ]ِ4 - } :‬‬
‫‪َeِ€‚Iَ 5‬ـ‪Z ٌ#‬ـ ‪ L 5F‬ـ‪ x‬‬
‫‪ *Sَ َt;َ 5‬ـ‪َ G‬ـ‪LD 5‬ـ‪ْ ;َ 0 n‬ـ َُ ‬
‫‪ ' 5‬ـ ‪Fِu ً-‬ـً )‪Fُ َ]ِ4 - (101‬ـ‪ِ; G‬ــِ ‬
‫َ‪َe‬ـ‪َ^ْ  LWِ4 ْ-‬ــ;ِِ! َـ‪ُ^َ ْ&ُ3‬ـ ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪ D! 5‬ـ„&ْ َ; ْ‪ D‬ـ„&ْ  ـ‪<ْt ْ - x‬ـ‪ِ, ْ-ُP‬ـ‪ % "ْP‬‬
‫‪َْ - 5‬ـ‪َeِ€‚Iَ ِƒْt‬ـ‪ <ُ@ ٌ#‬ـ ‪َ b‬ـ ‬
‫‪َ; 5‬ـ‪
َ]ِz‬ـ‪ُ3&ُ^ ْ ;َ ْ- g‬ـ&ْ ِـ ‪ُ^ِ€k " -‬ـ ‬
‫ ْ ‪
َ@ ْ-ُP<ْt‬ـِ‪ َ X‬‬‫‪ُِ* ;َ 5‬ــ&‪َ ' W‬ـ ^ُ‪َ L 5‬ـ‪ِ, - ً#‬ـ ‪ F) َs - }0‬ــ‪َ ' w‬ـ ^ُ‪5‬‬
‫‪ ِ َ@ - 5‬ـِ^ُ ‬
‫‪Y L - 5‬ـ‪َeَ !ِP‬ـ‪َ ْ-‬ـ & َ‪ُُeْ…/‬ـ&‪ ' W‬ـ  @َ
ـِ‪ ُ^ِ X‬‬
‫ @َ
ـِ‪ َ X‬‬‫‪َ^ْ ِ L 'َ@ Eّ  LWِ4 5‬ـ;ِِ! ' ـ‪Fِu ًَP‬ـً‬
‫‪ ُ "ْPِ, ْ-ُP< - 5‬‬
‫‪ ُ^َ Xِ
َ@ ْ& َ/َ Wَ@ Mَq‬‬
‫‪ L 5ُFُ - َ@ ٍَ L Z bً]َ@ 5‬‬
‫ِ‪ ُ^ِ Wَ^3‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﻤ ﱢﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻬﻢ‬
‫)‪] { (102‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ[ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﹸﻗﱢﻠ ﹶﻞ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ﺭﻛﻌﺎﺗِﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻟ ‪‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪28‬‬

‫ﺠﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺣﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ؛ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻭﺟﻮﻫﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠﺘﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﺍﳊﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﹸﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﺘﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﺷﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ( )‪.(1‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻟﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺭ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪. (2).‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ﻭﺟﻬﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺻ ٍﻞ ﻣﻘﺮ ٍﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﺼﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻠﺤ ﹰﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻮ ٍﻡ ؛ ﻓﺄﻃﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍ ٌﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﻓﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ؛ ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻛﻠ ‪‬ﻲ ﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬
‫ﳎﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ؛ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺣﺠﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎ ِﺀ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻠﻘﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳌﱠﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻀﺒ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﳉﺆﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻌﺮ‪‬ﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺝ ﻭﻛﺎﺷﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ؛ ﻓﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻹﲨـﺎﻉ ﻛﺸﻒ‬
‫ﺝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺧ‪‬ﺬ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ؛ ﻓﻜﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺮ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ( )‪ ، (3‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻓﱡﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫=ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ؛ ﲣﻔﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻀﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺀﹰﺍ ﻟﻀﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺯﻩ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺲ ِﻋﻨ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ "‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ (ـ‪ : #LF‬ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻠﻢ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﻡ ؛ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ " :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗِﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴﻠﹶﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﳌﺎ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬
‫)ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ )‪ (3503‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (1232‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (4613‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ( ؛ ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ﻓِﻲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻓﻔِﻲ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ٍﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻠﻮ ٍﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯ ٍﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮ ٍﻡ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ـ ٍ‬
‫ﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ " :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸـﻮ ٍﻡ " ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫)‪ (2152‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (1604‬؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳊـﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮﻉ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺯﻉ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪. (1609-1607/5) :‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪. 333 :‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪. 333-332 :‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺣﺠﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ؛ ﻹﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﺘﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﲣﺼﻴﺼﹰﺎ ﻟﻨﺺ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺺ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ ﺑﺎﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﻮﺯﻧﺎ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﻤ‪‬ﺎﻡ )‪ (1‬ﺑﺄﺟ ٍﺮ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ؛‬
‫ﻻﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﹼﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻩ ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻻﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﹼﺔ ( )‪. (2‬‬
‫‪ : énÔîÔy@¿@æbŽznübÏ‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫؛ ﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻋﻠﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﹰﺎ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻋﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ )‪ (3‬؛ ﳋﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺄ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﺛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻁ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﱄ ﳏ ﹼﻞ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻇﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﰲ‬
‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻩ ؛ ﻻ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﻨ ﱢﻈﺮِﻳﻦ ﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪: pbànm‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺿ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳊﻤ‪‬ـﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﺘﺴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺎﺀ ﳏﻤ‪‬ﻰ ؛ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻓﹼﻬﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺸﻔﺎ ًﺀ ‪ .‬ﻋﺮﺑـﻲ ﻣﺬﻛﹼﺮ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ؛ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬
‫‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﳝـﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻦ ؛ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺸﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫـﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﻘـﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻـﻞ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗـﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﺃﻭ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳌﻦ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤ‪‬ﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﻃﺎﺏ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤﻴ‪‬ﻤﻚ ﻭ ِﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﻃﺎﺏ ﻋﺮﻗﻚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ 67 :‬؛ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﻢ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﻮﻱ ‪ 404:‬؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﻴ‪‬ـﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻭﻱ ‪ ، 17 :‬ﻁ‪ 1408-1‬ﻫـ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺕ‪/‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﺻﺎﱀ ﲪﺪﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ ﻭﻣﻨﻜﺮﺍﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ -‬ﺑـ)‬
‫ﲪ‪‬ﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻧﺎ ( ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪. ( 208-207) :‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪. ( 138/1) :‬‬

‫א א 
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‫ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ )‪ . (1‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑـﲔ ﲣﺼـﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﱠـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥﱠ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻌﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﲎ ؛ ﻻﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﱠﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﹼﺔ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﱠﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌﺪِﻡ ﺑﻞ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺜﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ )‪ (2‬؛ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪. (3) T‬‬

‫@‪@@Éöa‰ˆÛa ñ†ÇbÓ@Z@òrÛbrÛa@ÕíŠĐÛa‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ :‬ﲨﻊ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍ ٌﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺬﺭﻉ ﺑﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺳﻞ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻓﺖ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺩﺭﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺻ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻈﻮ ٍﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺻِﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﶈﺬﻭﺭ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺻِﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪-‬ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪-‬‬
‫ﺑـ" ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﹸﺃﺧﺮﻯ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﲎ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ؛ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﲟﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﺍﻣـﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻳﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻈﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻃﺒﺎﻉ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﲰﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ ‪:‬‬

‫@‪: Éöa‰ˆÛa@†@ñ†ÇbÓ@Z@üëc‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑـ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻡ ؛ ﻓﻤﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﱂ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺪ ﻭﲢﺴﻢ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻓﺖ ﺑﺘﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌ ﱠﻞ ﺃﻗﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﻮﺯﻱ ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﺹ‪ ، 65‬ﻁ ‪ 1404 -1‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬
‫؛ ﻭﻧﻔﺎﺋﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﶈﺼﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪. (4279/9) :‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪. (208-207-204/2) :‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ‪ 62 :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﲝﺚ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ )‪ ، (20‬ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪. ( 36 -34 :1418 ،‬‬

‫א א 
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‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﻏﲑ ﳑﻨﻮﻉ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻌﻞ ﳏﻈﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@@@Z@Éöa‰ˆÛa@†@òîvy‬‬
‫ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻃﹸﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﺎﻓﺮﺕ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺼﺮ‬
‫؛ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ] { ٍ5ْ ِ' ِ َ…ِ ً-  ' Eّ  ْ&u( ;َ ِEّ  ِW- ِ W&'  ! !ِPY ْ&u(/َ َs -@} :‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ‪ [108 :‬؛‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ  ﻋﻦ ﺳﺐ ﺁﳍﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻏﻴﻈﹰﺎ ﻭﲪ‪‬ﻴﺔ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺳﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ) ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ( )‪.(1‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ‬

‫‪ ] { 5‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫‪َِ@ r‬ـ [‬
‫‪َ^ِ -ْ & * 
- َ3‬ـ;ِِ! ' ـ‪[ َP‬‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ُc3 ْ&ُ&ُS -  Fِ' " ْ&ُ&ُ/َ َs ْ&F k !ِPY  !u َ@  !@} :‬‬

‫‪ [104 :‬؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ  ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺭﺍﻋﻨﺎ ( ﻟﻠﻨﱯ  ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﳜﺎﻃﺒﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻋﲏ ﲰﻌﻚ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺌﻼ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻮﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ‬
‫ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻭﻥ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﻄﺎ‪‬ﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸِﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍِﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻪ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ِ " :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻜﺒ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ِﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍِﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻪ " ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻝﹶ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﻪ " )‪ (2‬؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺳـﺎﺑﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ِﻞ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪ " :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ﺐ ﳍﻤﺎ ؛ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠ ِﺰ‪‬ﻳ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺳﺒﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﻷﺑﻮﻳﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ  ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ  ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻘﺘﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﹸﰊ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻞ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ـﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻪ " )‪ (3‬؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺱ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﺪ‪ ‬ﹸ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ‪ -‬ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ ‪ -‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ " :‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﳑﻦ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﳑﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ )‪. (4‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪T‬ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﲔ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍ ﳍﺎ )‪ (5‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ؛ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻄﺮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪. (137/3‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (5628‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (90‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ﺻـ‪. 9‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ )‪. (159:137/3‬‬

‫א א 
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‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪T‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﹸﺃ ِﺧﺬﹶﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍ ِﺀ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺮﺍ ًﺀ ﻳﻔﻴـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺮﺭ ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﹸﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ؛ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺘﻪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ؛ ﻓﻴﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻ‪‬ﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ – ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ – ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘِﺒﻬ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﺤﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﹸﻣﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ِ " :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺰ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻰ ِﺣﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ِﺣﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺏ ﻓِﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻣﹶﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺿ ِﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘِﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ﹰﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺃﹸﻣﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻊ ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﻟﻂ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻳﺒ‪‬ـ ﹶﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺷِـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻰ – ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ – ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ِﺷ ‪‬‬
‫ﻂ ﺍﹾﻟ ِ‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ﹶ‬
‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ِﺷ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻉ‪ ‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ِ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﺴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ " )‪ (1‬؛ ) ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ( )‪. (2‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ " :‬ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ " ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺂﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭﻩ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪﻫﺎ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻛﺎ ٍ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻹﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻃﱯ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻴﺔ( ‪.‬‬

‫™‪@@Z@@Éöa‰ˆÛa@†@@Áib‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﱢﻈﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ ﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻻ ﳚﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺳﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳ‪‬ﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺄﺻﻞ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ " ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ " ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟـﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺣﺜﲔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺄﺫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﻌﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗ‪‬ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﰲ ﳎـﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ؛ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳊﺴـﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴــﺔ‬
‫ﺐ ﺁﳍﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺄﺫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﺼـﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﺭﻳﻌ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬـﺔ ﺃﹸﺧـﺮﻯ ‪ -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺪﻓـﻊ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺟﺤـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (1599‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ، (5710 ، 4453‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﻭﺩ )‪ ، (3329‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﲑ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟ ‪‬ﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
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‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻮﺕ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻓﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺄﺫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﲝﻴـﺚ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻈـﻦ‬
‫ﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ﺩﺭ َﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ‬
‫ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ؛ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲟﺤﻈﻮ ٍﺭ ﺧﻄ ٍﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻹﺣﺘﻴﺎ ﹸ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻟﻪ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨـﺪﺭﻯ ُﺀ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺷﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺍﳋﺸﻴﺔ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﳊﻈﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ " ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ " ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺭﺍﺳﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﳌﱠﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﺣﺎﺯﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪـﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻘﺒﺔ ﻋﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺬ ‪ ،‬ﳌﻦ ﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺗﻀﺠ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺡ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺮﻭﻣﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲦﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻣﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﲡﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﻠﹼﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ـﺎﺱ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻠﹼﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﺳﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﻴﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﹼﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ !‬

‫@‪@@ .Éöa‰ˆÛa |nÏ@ñ†ÇbÓ@Z@bîãbq‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﰲ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ " )‪ (1‬؛ ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻠـﺐ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﱀ‬
‫ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲢﺼﻞ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑـ" ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟـﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ "‬
‫ﺻﹸ‬
‫ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑـ" ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ " ‪ :‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ؛ ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ " :‬ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ " ‪‬ﻭ " ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻪ " ‪‬ﻭ " ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ " ‪‬ﻭ " ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟـﺐ " ‪‬ﻭ " ﻣﻘﺪﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ " ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺑـ"اﻻﺣﺘﻴـﺎﻁ " ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﹸﻣﺮ ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﹸﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻪ ؛ ) ﺇﺫ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‬

‫ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ( )‪ ) ، (2‬ﻓﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺧﺼ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﲔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﹸﻗﺮِﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﲔ ( )‪.(3‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻱ )‪.(119/20‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ )‪. (675/11‬‬

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‫‪@@Z@Éöa‰ˆÛa@|nÏ@áØy‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭﹰﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ‪F k !ِPY  !u َ@  ! } :‬ـ& ‪َ]ِ4‬‬
‫‪Fُ Wِ4 5‬ـُ ‬
‫ ‪ُ^Y‬ـ ‬
‫‪[  < 5‬‬
‫‪ ُ^َِ] h  ْ  -"َ] - ِEY ِِْ] Mَِ4  & 
َ; ِ# *gْ  ِA& ! ِ ِ0َLDِ †ِ&ُ3‬‬
‫‪*َ /َ 5‬ـ&‪]@{ W‬ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪[9 :‬‬
‫‪َِ4 5‬ـ‪M‬‬
‫‪ !َ@ - 5‬ـِ! ^ُ ‬
‫‪َِ4 5‬ـ‪LD M‬ـ‪ِ(ْd; ِ0n‬ـُ&ْ ‪)-‬ـ&‪ ُ^ %‬‬
‫؛ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ ‪ ! } :‬ـ @َ ‪ !u‬ـ ‪Y‬ـ‪F k !ِP‬ـ&ْ ‪ *ُS َ]ِ4‬ـُ ‬

‫‪] { ِ8  َ^ْ  Mَِ4 5‬ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ [6:‬؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻼﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ُ^َ ) "َ@ - 5‬‬
‫ ْ*  ;ِ‪ ُ^ِ
-‡ِ ْ&X (  - ِ6‬‬

‫ﺺ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ؛ ﻛﺈﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ؛ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ؛‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻗﺼﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺑﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻌﻨﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﻼﺻﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ) :T‬ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺎﺣﺔ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ) :T‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺎﺑﻌ ﹰﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻓﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﺴـﺐ ﺇﻓﻀـﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺑﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳏﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺇﻓﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻓﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﺒﻊ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ( )‪.(1‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪﻱ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ؛ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳـﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻨﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺴﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺍﺑـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻜﻤ‪‬ﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ … ( ‪ .‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ‪ ) :T‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌـﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻔﻌ ٍﻞ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺳﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﻭﺗﻨﺪﺏ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﺡ ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﳏﺮﻣﺔ ﻓﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻴ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺋﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪. (135/3‬‬

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‫ﳑﺎ ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﺪ ﹼﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ' 5‬ـ‬
‫‪َd‬ـ&ْ ِ‪ِ(ُe3َt‬ـِ ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ‪ ' ْ&ُeYَiَ ! Wَ@ ِr  'َp Z 5َ & ,   - ِ# F!ِ *ْ  ِH %َtِ Wَ   } :‬ـ "‪
L‬ـ&‪ّ ِa‬ـ‪ ! َs - ِE‬‬
‫‪ِ W&ُ F ! َs - "Yeُ^ْ  ُˆِ… ! ً$ِI &  W-|َ ! َs - ِEّ  ِHِ
ِ; ٌ# D *ْi  َs - [‰ D3َ َs - ٌt *vَ 5‬ـ  ' ـ‪Y3 y-‬ـ ‪Ysِ4 }n‬‬
‫‪ ِD! َs 5‬‬
‫‪ Y3َtِ xَِ] ِEِ(ْeY3‬‬

‫ُِ‰ َ‪] { 8ِFِ( X*ْ   )َ@ hِ! َs Eّ  LWِ4 Š[ ِ ‹ ٌH * ' ِEِ 5‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ، [120 :‬ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻟﻠﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﳏﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﺘﻤﻤﺎﺕ ﳍﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﻨ‪ِ ‬ﺔ " )‪ (1‬؛ ﻭﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺲ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ِﻋ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻬ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳﻘﹰﺎ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳﻘﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ " :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﲏ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ؛ ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ ﺛﺒـﺖ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺇﻳﻘـﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﻜﱡﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺑﺎﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻗﺼﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺟـﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﺔ ﺇﳚﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪﻱ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺸﻲ ٍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻪ‬
‫‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻴﺔ ؛ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻢ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻤ‪‬ﺎﺕ ؛ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲ ِﺀ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻲ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﲟﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻭﻭﺳﻴﻠﺘﻪ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺮﻣﺔ ؛ ﻓﺘﻔﺘﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻀﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺷـﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺭﺍﺟﺤـﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ " :‬ﻟﻠﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ " ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﹸﺃﺑﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺤﺔ ( )‪ ، (2‬ﻭﻣﺜﱠﻞ ﻟﻪ ﲟﻨـﻊ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (2699‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ )‪ ، (225‬ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ، (7421‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻱ )‪. (164/1‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪36‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﹼﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺳ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ؛ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻔﻀﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﺸﻤﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻳﻔﻮﺕ ﻓﺘﻔﻮﺕ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺮﻋﺖ ؛ ﳌﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪ ) :T‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺮﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻀﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻮﺳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻓـﺪﺍ ِﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻯ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳐﺎﻃﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪﻧﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ...‬؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺪﻓﻊ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺄﻛﻠﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳـﺰﱐ ﺑﺎﻣﺮﺃﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ؛ ﻟﺮﺟﺤﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ (‬
‫‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ ) :T‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻟﻠﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻳﺒﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻳـﺎ ؛ ﻟﻠﻤﺼـﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ( )‪. (1‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣ‪‬ﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ‪ ،‬ﲡﻌﻞ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻻ ﳌﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺯﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻼ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺰﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ﻏﲑ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻪ ﻣﺘﻬ ٍﻢ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻄﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳚﻌﻠﲏ ﺃﻗﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺋﻨﺎ‬
‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﳛﺮ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻋﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ‪ -‬ﻭﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ‪ -‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﲔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﲪﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﺓ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻓﺘﻮﻯ ؛ ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺧﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺑﻌﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻗﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪-‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﺘﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ) ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ( ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗـﺎﺩﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻼﻣـﺔ ﳏﻤـﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﱵ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﻭﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺣﻴﻨـﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸـﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌ ﹼ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،T‬ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻃﻤﺄﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺑﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺄﳊﻖ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻨﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﷲ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫@‪@@@N@ÒŠÈÛa@ñbÇaŠß@ñ†ÇbÓ@Z@òÈiaŠÛa@ÕíŠĐÛa‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻓﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ) ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻴﺪ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ( ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ؛ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻗﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺎﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺭﺍﺕ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﲞﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ )‪. (161/2‬‬

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‫ﻓﻼ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺭﺍﺕ ‪-‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪-‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@@Z@ïÜí@bß@ÒŠÈÛa@ÞbàÇg@Þb©ë‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﻑ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﻑ ﰲ ﻣﻘـﺎﺩﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﺯﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ؛ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺕ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ()‪ . (1‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ( ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨـﺎﻁ ﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻋﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻠﺤﻆ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﳍﺎ ﺻﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺸـﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ؛ ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻴﻎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﻮﺥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻮﻉ ﻭ ﺇﺟﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﻭﺻﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﰲ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻫـﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺛﻴـﻖ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺗ‪‬ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺋﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﻘـﻖ ﺑـﻪ ﺻـﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺃﲨﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺰﻳﺮ ﻛﺄﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺕ ﺇﻋﻤﺎ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﳎﻤ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺎﻻ ِ‬

‫ﻭﺿﺎﺑﻄﻪ ‪ " :‬ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺗ‪‬ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ؛ ﻛﺈﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊـﺮﺯ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻗﺒﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺪﺍﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺼﺒﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﲟﺎ ﺟﺮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ " ‪.‬‬

‫‘‪@@Z@ÒŠÈÛa@‰bjnÇa@ÂëŠ‬‬
‫ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻱ )‪. (40/24‬‬

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‫‪ .1‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻧﺼﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﺩﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺛﻪ ؛ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪ :‬ﺍﻃﱢﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﺍﻥ ﲞﻼﻓﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﹼﰒ ﻋﻘﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫‪@@N@ê‰bjnÇaë@ÒŠÈÛbi@ˆþa@òîvy‬‬
‫ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﺪ ﱠﻝ ﳊﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ِq‬ـ  @َ ‪% َs-‬ـ‪ , L‬ـ & َ ِ َـِ َ ِ ِ* ـ  @َ"  @َ‪! W‬ـِ‪َqL L5‬ـ' َ‪َ' - #‬ـ‪ُ& *ْ  M‬ـ&ِ َـ‪ُSْ=ِ" E‬ـ‪L‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ‪ِ &ْ  -@} :‬ـ ƒ ! ‬

‫ﲎ ﻭﻓﻘﺮﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ] { ِ~- *ْ ِ Lُ/ & (ِ -‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ [233 :‬؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻏ ‪‬‬

‫ﻑ " )‪ (1‬؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺣﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﻚ َﻭ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻙ ﺑِﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﳍﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ " :‬ﺧﺬِﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﻔِﻴ ِ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ؛ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ؛‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻣﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻟـﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺣﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ؛ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻧﺼﹰﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪@@@Z@t…b§a@ÒŠÈÛa@Êbjmbi@Ðí@åàîÏ@Â’í@bß‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﹼﺮﻫـﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺴﻮﻍ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺙ ﻟﻜ ﹼﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺼﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻭﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺑﻨﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻏﲑﻩ ؛ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺷﺮﻃﻮﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﱵ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﻗ ﱠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻘﻄﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺮ‪‬ﺣﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺰﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻻﺑـ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ ] ﻳﻌﲏ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ [ ؛ ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻚ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﲔ ؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺃﺋﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻋﺼﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻋﺼﺎﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋـﺎﳌﲔ ﲟـﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺘـﺎﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺁﲦﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ؛ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﺃﻫ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (5049‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ، (1714‬ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪39‬‬

‫ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺭﻓﹰﺎ ﺑﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺭﻛﹰﺎ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻫﻠـﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻣﺎﻫﺮ ؛ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‪T‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ) :‬ﻟﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺣﻔـﻆ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﻛﺘـﺐ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻠﻤﺬ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﳚﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ ﻻ‬
‫ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺄﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻨﺎﺛﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻟﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ؛ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺑﺄﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﺘﲔ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺼﻞ ‪ -‬ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻧﺘﺸـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ‪ -‬ﻓﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ ﳑﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ؛ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﴰﻮﳍﺎ ؛ ﻓﻴﻘﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺣﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺳﺒ‪‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺑﺼﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫@‪@@N@òÐÜn‚½a@baìyc@óÜÇ@òÛ…þa@ÝíŒäm@Z@òŽßb¨a@ÕíŠĐÛa‬‬
‫‪@@N@ÕíŠĐÛa@êˆèi@…aŠ½a@Z@ü ëc‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ :‬ﲪﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪ ‪ -‬ﳑﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺚ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺗﻨﻈﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ؛ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤ ﹸ‬
‫ﻭﺗﱰﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ )‪. (1‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟـﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻯ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﻗﺎﻗﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳـﺪ ﹼﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻬﻢ ﺑﻔﺪﺍﺀ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ -‬ﻭ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﺣﻮﺍ ٍﻝ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪@@@N@baìyc@óÜÇ@ā‰bÈnÛa@bçŠçbÃ@Ûa@òÛ…þa@ÝíŒäm@òîvy@Z@b îãbq‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌ ﱠﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ؛ ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪‬ـﺎ ﻟـﺪﻳﻬﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭﺓ ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻼ‪-‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﹾﺜﺒِﺖ ﺣﻜﻤﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ؛ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ‪ -‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﺧـﺘﻼﻑ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ؛ ﻭﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺚ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ) ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ( ؛ ﻭ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻓﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ؛‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻭﻇﻨ‪‬ﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻛﻠﱡﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ( )‪. (1‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﲔ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻌ‪‬ﻴﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳚﺰ ﺍﳌﺼﲑ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺼﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻜ ٍﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ( )‪. (2‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ … ) :T‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻗﻮﻯ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﲟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﲨﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻠﲔ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻠﲔ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ( )‪. (3‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ‪T‬ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ‪ " :‬ﻭﺍﳊﺠ‪‬ـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳋﱪﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺘﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻃﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺃﺣـﺪﳘﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻵﺧـﺮ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛ ﱡﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻳﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ؛ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺒﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ " )‪. (4‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺼ ﱡﻔ ٍﺢ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌ ‪‬ﺪﺩ‪‬ﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ؛ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﱢﺪ ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﻛﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻼ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﻤِﻼ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻄﱠﻞ ﻭﺍﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫)‪. (59/5‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﻝ ) ‪ . (382-381 /2‬ﻭ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﶈﺼﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺯﻱ ] ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ‪ :‬ﻧﻔﺎﺋﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﶈﺼﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ [ ‪:‬‬
‫‪.3846/8‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪) ، ( 242/3 ):‬ﺍﳊﺞ ‪(27 :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠـﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺟﻲ )ﺕ‪ ، 251: (450/‬ﻁ ‪1418-2‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﺕ‪ /‬ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﺃﲪـﺪ ﻋﺒـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻮﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻧﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺯ ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮ‪‬ﻣﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻘﻴ‪‬ـﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺤـﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣــﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ " :‬ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻮﻁ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ " ‪ .‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺷﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺎﺋﺮ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ‪ 233 :‬؛ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺰﺭﻛﺸﻲ ‪(309/1) :‬‬

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‫ﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ( ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻨﻮ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺎﻥ ( ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻮ‪‬ﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺃﻥ ﳝ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻼ ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﲟﺎﻝ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﺮ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﺾ ﺃﺳﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ؛ ﻻ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺎﺳ ‪‬ﺦ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻪ ( )‪ . (1‬ﻭﻗﺮ‪‬ﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻧﺎﺳﺦ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺥ ؛ ﻓﻜ ﹼﻞ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﱢﻓ ُ‪‬ﻖ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻌﲔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﲔ‬
‫ﺺ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﱢﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ … ﻭﻳﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲ ِﺀ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ؛ ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﲎ ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ‬
‫ﲎ ﻭ ﳚﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﲎ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﻔﻈﻪ ﺣﺎﻓ ﹲ‬
‫ﲔ ﺳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺘ ِ‬
‫ﻆ ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﻛ ﱞﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺭﺁﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻌﲔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﻔ ﹸ‬
‫ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﳐﺘﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻒ ( )‪. (2‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻔﻰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪T‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﻓﻄﺮﺓ ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﳚﻮﺯ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻘ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻧﺎﺳﺦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰒ ﺧﻮﻟﻒ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ ؛‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺥ ﲟﻌﺰﻝ ( )‪. (3‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﳊﺎﺯﻣﻲ‪ -T‬ﺑﻌﺪ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ِﻩ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺍﺧﻴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﲔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻧﺴﺨﹰﺎ ‪ ، ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﲔ ‪ ) :‬ﻧﻈﺮﺕ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﲨ ‪‬ﻊ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﱐ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﰲ ؛ ﻭﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﲪﻞ ﻛﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻡ ﻻ ؟ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟ ٍﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﱃ ؛ ﺻﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺾ ؛ ﻭﻷ ﱠﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻋﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ( )‪.(4‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﻮﻱ‪ ) :T‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌـﺎﺭﺽ ﺩﻟﻴﻼﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹸﻜﻠﱢﻴـﱠﺔ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﻭﺍﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻋﻤﺎﻝ( )‪. (5‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﱄ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻠﻮﻱ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ " ﺍﻷﻡ " ‪ ، ( 551 ، 541/9) :‬ﻁ‪1413-1‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﺨﺮﻳﺞ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ‪/‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻄﺮﺟﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪.(214-213 ) ،‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪. (473/2) :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺯﻣﻲ ‪.54 :‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ ﰲ ﲣﺮﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪.506:‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

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‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﻘـﻂ …( ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ) :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻠﱠـﺔ ﺧﻔﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲢﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺣـﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﲔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﻴﺌـﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﺧ‪‬ﺺ ﻭﻗﺘـﹰﺎ ؛ ﻓﻴﺠـﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﺤﺺ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ …( )‪.(1‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻣﻪ ‪. (2) .‬‬
‫@‪@@N@ðìjäÛa@ÒŠ–nÛa@Êìã@ñbÇaŠß@Z@ñ†ÇbÓ‬‬
‫ﺗﱰﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﻣﺆﺛﱢﺮﺓ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﲣﻔﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻳﺘﺼﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﺓ ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻔﱵ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ؛ ﻭﻟﻜ ﱢﻞ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ ؛‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ‬
‫‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﻠﱢﻐﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ  ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ؟ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﻪ  ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﻣﻔﺘﻴﹰﺎ )‪ ، (3‬ﳜﱪ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ؟ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﻪ  ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻮﺱ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ) ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﹸﻓﻮ‪‬ﺿﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻼﺋﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻐﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻃﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ( )‪ (4‬؛ ﻓﻴﻘﺘﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ؟ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﻪ‬

‫ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﺣﺎﻛﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ؟ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪.(398/1‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺰﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﲝﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ -‬ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺼﻔﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻐﺰﺍﱄ ‪(476/2) :‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﻧﻔﺎﺋﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ ) ‪ ( 3846/8‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠ‪‬ﺎﺭ ‪( 609/4 ):‬؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺧﲑﺓ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪ : 1/135‬؛ ﻭﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻣﲑ ﺑﺎﺩ ﺷﺎﻩ ‪ (137/3) :‬؛ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،349 ، : 2/338‬ﻭﺫﻛـﺮ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ؛ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﺒﺖ ‪ ،698/2 :‬ﻁ‪ ،1417-1‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﱪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ؛ ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺛﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﻧﺎﻓﺬ ﺣﺴﲔ ﲪ‪‬ﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ، 1414-1‬ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﲨﻊ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﺸﺮﻭﻃﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﱄ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﶈﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺄﻗﺴﺎﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻴﺪ‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺻـ‪ 41‬ـ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪ :‬ﺻـ‪ 105‬ـ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﱵ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻢ ؛‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ  ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ؛ ﻓﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺗﺼﺮ‪‬ﻓﻪ  ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ  ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ] ﻛﺈﺑﻼﻍ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﺍﳊﺞ [ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ] ﻛﺈﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﻧﻜﺤﺔ [ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ] ﻛﺈﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﺵ [ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ] ﻛﺈﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﺐ ﳌﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﰊ [ )‪ (1‬؛ ﻟﺘﺮﺩ‪‬ﺩﻩ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺗﺒﺘﲔ ﻓﺼﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻠﱢﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻠﱢﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ  ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ  ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻠﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ … ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ  ﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ … ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻴـﻪ  ﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﲝﻜﻢ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ … ( )‪.(2‬‬

‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﳏﻘﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﳍﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﻭ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﲝﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﻐ‪‬ﺒﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻬﺎﻭﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ : Þëþa‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ ،‬ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻪ ﺑﻪ  ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻷﻣﺘـﻪ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻛﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ  ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻔﺘﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺼـﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ : ïãbrÛa‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ  ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻔﺘﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻـﻒ ﺳـﻮﺍﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺑـﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬

‫ﻼ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﶈﻘﻖ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ :T‬ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﱄ ﺑﺄﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹼ‬
‫ﺻﺎﱀ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺼﺮ‪‬ﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻤِﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺻـ‪ 116 ، 109‬ـ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺻـ‪ 209 ، 207‬ـ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ )‪. (206/1‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ ‪ .(1) ( .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ؛ ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﲔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ )‪ (2‬؛ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺿﺒﻂ ؛‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺻﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫@‪@@@Z@òÜ•@pa‡@†öaìÏ‬‬
‫‪ : µëþa@ñ†öbÐÛa‬ﻓﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ) ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ( ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑـﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﲟﺎ ﳚﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﱠﺔ؛ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(3‬‬

‫‪ : òîãbrÛa@ñ†öbÐÛa‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ﳏﻤﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ )ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎﻥ( ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌ ﹼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﺘﺄﺻﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ ﻭﻟﻌﻠﹼﻪ ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪.‬‬
‫@‪@@ .áíŠznÛa@‰bš½a@¿ë@L@òybi⁄a ÉÏbä½a@¿@Ý•þa@Z@ñ†ÇbÓ@Z@ò…bŽÛa@ÕíŠĐÛa‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺃﺻﻠﲔ ‪:‬‬

‫@‪@@N@òybi⁄a@ÉÏbä½a@¿@Ý•þa@Z@Þëþa‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ )‪ (5‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻘـﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺣﺔ ؛ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﺜﺒـﺖ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪.‬‬

‫ﳊ ﱢﻞ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﷲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﲔ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﲏ‪ ) :T‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲢﺮﱘ ﳚﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍ ِ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﻡ ‪.244/2‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ؛ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸـﺮﻭﻥ –‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ – ﺹ ‪ 108 :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ؛ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ ‪ 209-205/1 :‬؛ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧـﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻁ )ﺕ‪ ] (723/‬ﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ [ ‪ 207-206/1 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ : 3/490-491‬؛ ﻭ ﺣﻜـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ‪ /‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ )ﺕ‪ ،130-129 : (1377/‬ﻁ‪ ،1412-1‬ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ‪ /‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫؛ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ /‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ ، 242-240 :‬ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﰲ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﰲ ‪. 100-99 :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﻀﻤ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﰲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻸﻣﲑ ﻋﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ؛ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ ،107-103/1 :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ )‪. (3،11،27،36،38،40،42،45‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑـ " ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ " ؛ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻒ ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪45‬‬

‫ﺣﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ؛ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑـﻪ ( )‪ .(1‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴﻘﹶﻦ ﺣﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲢﺮﱘ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺁﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﳎﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ( )‪. (2‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻫﻢ ﳑﺎ ﳛﺘـﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ ؛‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻈﺮ ؛ ﻓﻼ ﳛﻈﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻈﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ … ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ؛ ﻓﻼ‬
‫‪ Fِ 5‬ـ‪E‬‬
‫‪ِ 5‬ـ  "ِ=ْŒٍ َ;‪ْ g‬ـُ ‬
‫‪  5‬ـ @َ‪ْ3‬ـ‪ُ^َ ُK َa 1‬ـ ‬
‫ﳛﻈﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻟﺪﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ !َ@ "َ@ Hْ ُS@} :‬ـُ ‬

‫‪. (3) ( … {@َsَ , - ً   ,‬‬

‫‪: Ý•þa@aˆèi@Þü†nüa@òîvy‬‬

‫ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﺪ ﱠﻝ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ ZY 5ُ^َ YHِ,ُ@ Hْ ُS 5‬ـƒ { ] ﺍﳌﺎﺋـﺪﺓ ‪ [4:‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫ ﻟـﻴﺲ ﺍﳌـﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ َ YHِ,ُ@ َ]  x3َ &َُt ( ! } :‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ؛ ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﺎﺏ ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺣ ﹼﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻫﺎ )‪.(4‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ  ‪ُm ً ِ* ) ِo "َp ِ; L 5ُ^َ 6َ < †ِPY &% } :‬ـ‪ 
L5‬ـ َ& ‪َِ4 b‬ـ‪L( M‬ـ*  َ;( ـ&‪
L%L‬ـ ‪
h‬ـ* ‪% - ٍƒ -‬ـ& ‬
‫ٍ ' ِـ [‬
‫ِ^ُـ‪ \ lH‬ـ ‬
‫‪] { 5‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ [29 :‬؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﷲ  ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﱳ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﺋﺰ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ )‪.(5‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ُS } :‬ـ‪ِ)َ@ Ys H‬ـ ;ِـ  ـ @ُ ‪ِ,-‬ـ ‪َِ4‬ـ‪}L X L‬ـ ' َـ‪َI M‬ـ'ِ‪* ْ ! ٍ5‬ـ‪ُ^ ! Wَ@ Ysِ4 E‬ـ&‪َ   W‬ـ‪}  - َ@ ً#‬ـ‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪[ ِ,L" ["&ُeَd xL " LWِz;َ ٍ ' َs - ٍ   َd Lُْq ِ *;َ ِEِ ِEّ  ِ َ…ِ YHِ%ُ@ ً (ِ; - َ@ [ )ِ" EY3ِz;َ ٍ!ِ1Fِ< 5 Xَ - َ@ },&ُe (L‬‬
‫{ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ‪ [145 :‬؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮ ‪‬ﱘ ﻣﺴﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻨﻪ )‪. (6‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪T‬ﺑﺂﻳﺔ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺃﻟﻄﻔﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ !‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻏﻴﺎﺙ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺠﻮﻳﲏ ‪ ، 490 :‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪.502 :‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪.510-509 :‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ ، 176 :‬ﻁ‪ ، 1416-1‬ﻃﺒﻌﺔ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ‪ 411/2 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺩ ‪.‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪396 :‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺩﻟﹼﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ 173 ، 86 :‬؛ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ‪.411/2 :‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﲔ ﹶﻓﺤ‪‬ـﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺤﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ـ ِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ِ " :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

‫‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟِﺘ ِﻪ " )‪ (1‬؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﺑﻂ  ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ )‪.(2‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶـﺎﻗ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸﻮﺍ‬
‫ﷲ ﰲ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎِﺑﻪِ ﻓﹶﻬﻮ ﺣ‪‬ﻼ ﹲﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ  ‪ " :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ ﺍ ُ‬
‫ﷲ ﻋﺎ ِﻓ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺈﻥﱠ ﺍ َ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍ ِ‬
‫ﷲ ﱂ ﻳﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺴﻰ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ " ﻭﺗﻠﻰ ‪  - } :‬ـ َـ‪u " W‬ـ‪ِ(3َ x‬ـŽ { ]ﻣﺮﱘ ‪ (3) [64 :‬؛ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ‬

‫ﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻔﻮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺣﺮﺝ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺣﺮﺝ ﰲ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳏﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ؛ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑِﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ ﱡﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﳝﻬﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻟﻠﺸﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ )‪. (4‬‬

‫@‪@@@N@áíŠznÛa@ȉbš½a@¿@Ý•þa@Z@ïãbrÛa‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﱪ ﺑـ) ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ( ﺃﻭ ) ﺍﳊﻈﺮ ( ﺑﺪﻝ ) ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﺸﺄﻧﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ )‪ (5‬؛ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﰲ‪ ) :T‬ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ( )‪. (6‬‬
‫ﺸﺮﻉ ؛ ﻓﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺣﺔ … ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﻮﻱ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺆﳌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ( )‪. (7‬‬

‫‪: Ý•þa@aˆèi@Þü†nüa@òîvy‬‬

‫ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﺪ ﱠﻝ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺍﻵﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻟﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﻳـﻢ ﺍﻟﻀـﺮﺭ ﻭﻣﻨﻌـﻪ ؛ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪0[ ِ - L"‚َُ/ َs } :‬‬

‫ِ& َِ‪] { ِOَِ &ِ EY [&ُ&  َs -  %‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ ، [233:‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ 5َ vَ َ;َ xَِ] Hْ ْe !   - ْ-َ َ Y }" ِq L%&ُ^ِ( *ُ/ َs - } :‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ، (6859‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (2358‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ  ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ‪ 412-411/2 :‬؛ ﻭﺭﻓـﻊ ﺍﳊـﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌـﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪.399 :‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ ، (3419‬ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪ ، (11160 ، 794‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﲔ )‪ ، (2102‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ  ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺨﻴﺺ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪ ، 398 :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﱠﻝ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧ‪‬ـﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪" :‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻔﹶـﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ " )ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ )‪(1726‬‬
‫ﺤﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓِﻲ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻜﹶـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻼ ﹸﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓِﻲ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﲔ )‪ ، (2086‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ( ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ‪.112 :‬‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ‪ 409/2 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪.394-393 :‬‬

‫)‪ (6‬ﺍﻟﺬﺧﲑﺓ ‪.151/1 :‬‬
‫)‪ (7‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ ﰲ ﲣﺮﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪.487 :‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪47‬‬

‫‪] {5‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ ، [282:‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫َ‪] { E (ْe3‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ، [231:‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ُ^ِ ٌŒ&(ُ; EY3ِz;َ ْ&ُ ْe/َ Wِ4 - [ِ \ َs - [‰ِ/َ L"‚َ! َs - } :‬‬

‫‪L%-u"َُ/ َ - 5‬‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪] { y"‚َ  َd ٍ!  - َ@ ‚ ِ M ‹&! ٍ#Lِ‹ - ِ  ِ } :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ، [12 :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ُِ )- } :‬‬
‫َُِ‪] { Lِ َ ' &ُZ‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ‪ ، [6:‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪] { ِ, n ‹ِ4   ِo "َp ِ; ْ-ِ(ْeُ/ َs - } :‬ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ‪ [56 :‬؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻭﺇﻥ‬

‫ﻼ ﻛﻠﻴﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﲢﺮﱘ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻞ )‪. (1‬‬
‫ﺿﺮ‪‬ﺍﺭ " )‪ (2‬؛ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺩﺍ ﱞﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻧﻜﺮ ﹰﺓ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻭ ﻻ ِ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ":‬ﻻ ‪‬‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻜﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺗﻌﻢ)‪ (3‬؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ ‪ " :‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﲢﺮﱘ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ " )‪. (4‬‬

‫@‪@@å톑aŠÛa@žõb
ÐÜ
¨w a@òŞäŽ @ŽÊbfljmğbi Þü†nüa@Z@òÈibŽÛa@ÕíŠĐÛa‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﺗ‪‬ﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﺗ‪‬ﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻲ ﺍﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﲝﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ : å@ 톑aŠÛa@õbÐܨbi@…aŠ½aë‬ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷُﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔـﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﺎﻫﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ " :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ … " ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﱠﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﲔ )‪. (5‬‬
‫‪ : å@ 톑aŠÛa@õbÐܨa@òŞäŽi@…aŠ½aë‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻓﱴ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﻫﻢ ؛ ﻟﻸﻣ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪T‬ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻪ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑـﺄﻗﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻫﻢ ﺻﻔﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ )‪ (6‬؛ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺺ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣـﻦ ﺑـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺴﲔ ‪.406 :‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (2340‬؛ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ (2345‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ ﰲ ﲣﺮﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻺﺳﻨﻮﻱ ‪.487 :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻃﺄ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪.32/4 :‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺫﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻷﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ 146/10 :‬؛ ﻭﺇﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺋﻲ ‪ 49 :‬؛ ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﱯ‬
‫‪ 330/:1‬؛ ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ‪ : 2/122‬؛ ﻭﻣﺮﻗﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﺸﻜﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﳌﻼ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱ ‪109/1 :‬‬
‫؛ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ – ﲝﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻮ ﺷﻌﺮﺍﺀ ‪ ، 98:‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (6‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ 176/4 :‬؛ ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ‪ 123- 126/ 2 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﲝﺚ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻮ ﺷﻌﺮﺍﺀ ‪ ، 98:‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ..‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺣﺠﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﲨﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﻭﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺸﻴﺨﻨﺎ ‪ /‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﻳﺶ‪.‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪48‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﱴ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﻨﻒ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺍﺗﻔـﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﺟﺘـﻬﺎﺩﻫﻢ ؛ ﻛﻤﺴـﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻛﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ...‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ ﺃ‪‬ـﻢ ﻻ‬
‫ﳚﺘﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ ﻭﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﻢ ( )‪. (1‬‬
‫ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑـﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ) :T‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺭﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺣﺠﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﻮﻩ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬
‫ﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪" :‬‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺭﻳﺐ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩ ﱠ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ … " ( )‪. (2‬‬

‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺟﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ  ﻓﻴﻪ )‪. (3‬‬
‫‪@@@å톑aŠÛa@õbÐܨa@òŞäŽi@ˆþa@òŞîvy‬‬
‫ﲔ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺷﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﺍ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻀ‪‬ـﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺨ ﹶﻠﻔﹶﺎ ِﺀ ﺍ ﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪﻳ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺘِﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪ِ ‬ﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ " :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬‬

‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺛ ٍﺔ ِﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱠ ِﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ٍﺔ ﺿ‪‬ﻼﹶﻟ ﹲﺔ " )‪.(4‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ ﹶﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﹸﻛﻞﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪﺛﹶﺎ ِ‬
‫ﺑِﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺟ ِﺬ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻗﺮﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺴﻨﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻨﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺳﻨﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻛﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﱯ ‪ ) ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺟﺬ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣـﺎ ﺃﻓـﱴ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ؛ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﹼﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺴـﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ( )‪ (5‬؛ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ‬
‫‪.123-122/19‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪.574-573/20 :‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ – ﲝﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻮ ﺷﻌﺮﺍﺀ ‪.306:‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﲨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒ ‪‬ﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪) :‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺼﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻱ … ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﳊﻤـﺪ ﷲ (‬
‫)ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ‪ (98-96/1:‬؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ‪ 109/2 :‬؛ ﻭ ﺇﺭﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻸﻟﺒﺎﱐ ‪ ..107/8 :‬ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ‪ T‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻌﲔ ‪ 176/4 :‬؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪ 88-87/1:‬؛ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘـﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻟـﻪ‪: 4/290-‬‬
‫‪293،449‬؛ ﻭﺇﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺋﻲ ‪ 50-49:‬؛ ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑـﻦ ﺭﺟـﺐ ‪-120/2 :‬‬
‫‪ 121‬؛ ﻭﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪.414 ، 407/3 :‬‬

‫א א 
א‬

‫‪49‬‬

‫ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪. (1)T‬‬
‫ﻜ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ "‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ‪ِ " :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭِﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺑﻘﹶﺎﺋِﻲ ﻓِﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪِﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃﺑِﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾ‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺑﺎﻹﻗﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﺄﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺃﻥﱠ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳊـﻮﺍﺩﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷـﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ؛ ﻓﺒﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻳﺘﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ )‪ (3‬؛ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ؛ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪﻫﺎ )‪. (4‬‬
‫ﺺ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﲨﻠﺔ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﳌﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ؛ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﲞﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﲪﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﲔ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑـﻦ ﻋﻔـﺎﻥ ‬
‫ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺳﲑﺓ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ " :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ "‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫‪...h  ُK  \ Wِ4 39َ  1‬‬
‫'ِ‪ ُ &YS / - " #L‬‬
‫‪ LVِ # 
Z( Mَ ' [ &ْqَ@ "  ِ ُaL-َp 1‬‬
‫‪ ُ َِ F ! F% :ِ4‬‬
‫'ِ‪"ِ/َِْ/َ - ِ#L‬‬
‫" ‪ LV ِ# 
Z( ِƒs g‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ‪ ، 12/7 :‬ﲝﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﻭﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺬﺭﻱ ؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺒﻐﻮﻱ ‪ 207/1:‬؛ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻳﺔ ‪ ،12/7 :‬ﲝﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺬﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪...‬ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ ‪.108/2 :‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ‪ 405/1 :‬؛ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻃﱯ ‪ 409 ،293 ،133-132/4 :‬؛ ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋـﺪﺓ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻛﺮﻡ ﺿﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ ‪.85-82:‬‬

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