You are on page 1of 5

Kin trc Hy Lp c i

Kin trc Hy Lp c i ra i v hnh thnh trn mt vng t ai rng ln, bao gm min Nam bn o
Balkans, cc o nh vng bin Aegaeum (, Aigaion), khu vc Tiu , vng ven Hc
Hi, , Sicilia, Php, Ty Ban Nha v Ai Cp.
Mc lc
[n]
1 Cc qun th kin trc thnh a v kin trc dn dng Hy Lp c i
2 Qu trnh pht trin n i Hy Lp c i
3 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca cc loi thc ct
4 Cc cng trnh tiu biu cho kin trc thi k ny
5 Nhng loi hnh kin trc khc trong th gii Hy Lp c i
6 Xem thm
7 Lin kt ngoi
[sa]Cc qun th kin trc thnh a v kin trc dn dng Hy Lp c i
ni y, ngi ta thng t chc cc l hi, tin hnh thi u th dc th thao, bnh lun vn chng, din
thuyt, ngm th v biu din kch, ngoi ra cn c th trao i, mua bn. Do , v sau ngi ta xy thm
xung quanh cc qun th ny nhng sn bi thi u, qun tr, hi trng, cc hnh lang ct v cc loi n
i.
Hai qun th kin trc cng cng ph bin trong th c i lc by gi l agora (qung trng cng cng,
mang tnh dn dng) v acropol (l nhng qun th kin trc vi nhiu n i, c xy dng trn nhng
khu i cao). Din tch cc agora khong 5% din tch t thnh ph. Nhng agora tin k c hnh dng bt
quy tc nhng t cui th k 4 TCN tr i, n c dng hnh hc nht nh v c bao vy bi cc hng ct
thc hai tng. gia agora c t bn th v tng thn. Cc agora quan trng c th k ra l agora
Miletos (), Megalopolis (), Asoss v Knid.
Vo thi k c in thnh k, cc acropol c xy dng thm cc nh ht ngoi tri c thm dc bc cc
khu vc chn ni. Cc acropol ni ting nht l acropol Athena (Acropolis), Bergama (hay
, Pergamos) v Paestum.
[sa]Qu trnh pht trin n i Hy Lp c i
n th Hy Lp c i c c im l nhiu ct chy vng pha bn ngoi. Cc loi hnh n i c phn
theo mc phc tp ca cch thit k nhng ct nh sau:
Loi n c nht c dng hnh ch nht, li vo chnh cnh ngn v c hai ct chnh cnh ngn ny,
gi l dng ct i hin (Distyle); v d nh ngi n th thn Themis Rhamnus.
Loi n c th hai c dng nh trn, nhng c thm hai ct cnh ngn pha sau na, gi l dng ct
i hin c hai u ; v d n th Artemis Eleusina ().
Loi n ging loi n th nht, nhng thay v hai ct m l bn ct pha trc, gi l dng hng ct
mt trc hay hng ct hin (Prostyle); v d ngi n Selinus ().
Loi n ging loi n th hai, nhng c bn ct cnh ngn pha trc v bn ct cnh ngn pha
sau, gi l loi hng ct c hai u (Amphi-Prostyle) (tin t "amphi" c ngha l "c hai pha").
Loi n hnh trn, vnh ngoi c hng ct vng quanh gi l nh trn c hng ct bao quanh (Tholos); v
d Tholos Epidaurus ().
Loi n hnh ch nht c tng chu lc l chnh, nhng mt ngoi tng ghp thm cc ct, gi l loi
n c cc hng ct gi bao quanh hay b tr bao quanh (Pseudo-Peripteral); v d n th
thn Zeus Olympia ().
Loi n hnh ch nht c mt hng ct chy vnh ngoi chu vi cng trnh, gi l loi n c cc hng
ct bao quanh (Peripteral); v d n Hephaestos(hay Theseio - ) v n Parthenon ()
Athena (, Athna), n Paestum...
Loi n hnh ch nht, c hai hng ct chy bao xung quanh cng trnh, c tn gi l n Dipteral; v
d n Olympeion Athena, n th Apollo Miletos()...

Mt bng n th dng Distyle


Mt bng n th dng Distyle ct hai pha


Mt bng n th dng Prostyle


Mt bng n th dng Amphi-prostyle


Mt bng n th dng Peripteral
Mt bng n th Hy Lp c i c to thnh bi ba thnh phn chnh: pronaos (tin snh), naos (gian th)
v pathenon (phng chu bu). Ngoi ra, trong mt s n cn c thm opisthodomos (hu snh).
V p ca n i Hy Lp c i gn lin vi s ra i v pht trin ca cc loi thc ct.
[sa]S hnh thnh v pht trin ca cc loi thc ct






Thc ct l h thng t l v hnh thc trang tr ct, l cch ngi Hy Lp c i tm kim n ci p l
tng. C 3 loi thc ct c bn trong kin trc Hy Lp: ct Doric, ct Ionic v ct Corinth. Nhng thc ct
Hy Lp mang n cho kin trc mt hnh thc, mt sc sng, chu ng c th thch ca thi gian, biu
trng cho v p trong sng, khe mnh v tinh t ca kin trc c in. Thc ct Hy Lp c xem nh biu
tng ca kin trc c in.
Thc ct Doric:
Thc ct Doric, c hu thn l thc ct Toscan, l thc ct c nht v n gin nht trong h thng
cc thc ct c in. Thc ny c hnh thnh t mt tr thng ng phnh to y. Ni chung,
thc ct ny khng c phn ct (base) ln khng c phn u ct (capital). V p thc ct ny
thng c so snh vi v p khe mnh ca ngi n ng cng trng, do n c s dng
tng di cng ca u trng Coliseum v c kh nng chu lc cao nht. T l ng knh ct trn
chiu cao ct khong 1:4.
Thc ct Ionic:
Thc ct Ionic mang dng dp n tnh, mnh d v giu tnh trang tr hn ct Doric. Ngun gc ct
Ionic l Ionia, thuc a ca Hy Lp. Ct Ionic c 24 g sng ng trong khi ct Doric ch c 20 g, t
l ng knh ct trn chiu cao ct l 1:9. Ngoi ra, ct ny c thm ct (base) pha di v
u ct c hnh m nh, pha trn c hnh xon c loe ra ri cun vo trong (volute). Cc dm ngang
ca ct Ionic c phn v theo chiu ngang thnh ba di. Cc ngi n c ct ny l n
Artemis Ephesus (), n th Apollo Epikourios Bassae (, Bassaes),
n Erecteyon Athena.
Thc ct Corinth:
Thc ct Corinth ra i sau hai ct trn, vo khong th k th 5 trc Cng nguyn, c ng nt
mnh mai, giu trang tr, u ct c nhiu chi tit hoa l, ging nh mt lng hoa kt hp cng vi
my tng l phin tho dip (acanthe). Thc ct ny do kin trc sCallimachus sng to ra. Ct ny
c u im hn hai ct trn l i xng nhiu chiu v c th cm nhn c trong khng gian. C
th thy cng trnh s dng loi ct ny ti n Olympeion Athena v n Apollo Bassae.
Cc loi ct trn sau ny c ngi La M c i k tha v pht trin, ng thi sng to
thm hai loi thc ct mi l Toscan vComposite.