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Wrist/Hand/Fingers Special Tests Wrist/Hand/Fingers Special Tests

Special Test Tests for... Carpal Glides instability Glides/Stress instability (Fingers) vascular occlusion of the radial and ulnar Allen's arteries DeQuervain's Disease (tenosynovitis of Finkelstein's extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis longus)

Positive (+) Test increased laxity/pain increased laxity/pain delayed color into hand on one or both sides

pain with PROM into ulnar deviation

Tinel's Sign


tingling, pain, parasthesia into nerve distribution nerve pathologies (ulnar-Tunnel of Guyon, ulnar, radial or median median-carpal tunnel, radial-distal to radial styloid process) tingling, pain, parasthesia carpal tunnel syndrome into median nerve distribution

UE Dermatomes, Myotomes and Reflexes UE Dermatomes, Myotomes and Reflexes

Nerve Dermatome Myotome Root lateral arm; deltoid deltoid & biceps C5 tuberosity (elbow flexion) wrist extensors (wrist C6 lateral forearm extension) middle finger, triceps (elbow C7 middle posterior extension), wrist forearm flexors (wrist flexion) finger flexion and C8 4th & 5th digits ADD medial forearm T1 finger ABD (medial epicondyle) medial aspect of T2 NONE arm (biceps)

Reflex biceps (cubital fossa) brachioradialis (distal radius) triceps (olecranon fossa) NONE NONE NONE

Shoulder Special Tests Shoulder Special Tests

Special Test

Tests for...

Positive (+) Test

Anterior Drawer Test (Shoulder) Posterior Drawer (Shoulder) Jobe Relocation Test

Tests for anterior instability posterior GH instability

(+) sign is clicking and/or anterior subluxation clicking and/or posterior subluxation decreased pain and discomfort when humeral head is relocated (A/P) pain, discomfort, look of apprehension on patient's face, feeling that shoulder will dislocate grinding or palpable "clunk" in shoulder with movement increased gapping as the humeral head displaces inferiorly pain or laxity at AC joint pain with or without passive movement pain and/or obvious deformity (step-off, piano key) inability to lower arm in a controlled manner from 90 to 0 degrees (ADD) pain with IR but decreased with ER; pain/clicking with movement decreased strength on involved side; pain with resistance pain in mid-arc of ROM pain upon IR

anterior instability

Apprehension instability Test Clunk Test Sulcus Sign AC Compression labral tear multi-directional instability

AC and/or coracoclavicular ligement sprain AC and/or AC Distraction coracoclavicualr ligament sprain Grind Test labrum tear

Drop Arm

rotator cuff patholgy

O'Brien (Active SLAP Lesion Compression) Empty Can Active Impingement HawkinsKennedy supraspinatus weakness, impingement Impingement of active structures in shoulder impingement of the supraspinatus tendon

impingement of biceps or supraspinatus tendon SC ligament sprain and SC stress test instability subscapularis Gerber Lift-Off weakness/pathology Neer Impingement Speed's biceps tendinitis biceps tendonitis or subluxation biceps tendon rupture

pain with motion, especially near terminal end point elbows do not touch the table (active test) inability to lift hand off of spine; pain with movement pain @ bicipital groove and/or weakness in shoulder FLEX pain with movement or "popping" as tendon subluxes tendon can not be palpated; no active biceps contraction diminished/absent radial pulse diminished/absent radial pulse diminished/absent radial pulse Inability to maintain test position, diminished motor function, and/or loss of sensation Inability to maintain test position, diminished motor function, and/or loss of sensation superior pain indicative of AC joint pathology; anterior pain indicates subscapularis, biceps tendon, or supraspinatus pathology; posterior pain indicates infraspinatus,

Yergason's Ludington's Adson's Maneuver

compression of subclavian a. by scalenes (TOS) compression of Allen NV by pectoralis minor (TOS) compression of subclavian a. by Military Brace costoclavicular structures Roos Thoracic Outlet Syndrome translation: 25-50% = grade1>50% w/reduction = grade 2>50% w/o reduction = grade 3

Load/Shift Test

Cross-over impingement test

shoulder impingement

piano key sign AC joint instability Appleys adduction/IR or scratch test abduction/ER

teres minor or posterior capsule pathology (blank) (blank)

Lower Leg/Ankle Special Tests Lower Leg/Ankle Special Tests

Special Test

Positive (+) Test pain elicited in the Compression fracture of the tibia and/or fibula and/or tibia (Squeeze) fibula around fracture site pain elicited in the Percussion fractures (including stress) of tibia around fracture (Bump) the tibia site increased laxity and Anterior pain, palpable "clunk" ATF/CF laxity Drawer (Clunk) under the ankle

Tests for...

Kleiger's Talar Tilt (Inversion) Talar Tilt (Eversion) Thompson Tinel's Sign

rotary damage to deltoid; sydesmosis damage to CF damage to deltoid achilles tendon rupture/damage nerve pathology of posterior tibial nerve @ posterior medial malleolus Deep Vein Thrombosis/phlebitis (DVT)

mortise laxity, medial/lateral pain over deltoid or sydesmosis pain, increased laxity pain, increased laxity lack or decreased PF tingling, pain, parasthesia along nerve distribution burning, aching, general pain within calf

Homan's Sign

Knee Special Tests Knee Special Tests

Special Test

Tests for...

Varus Stress

LCL laxity

Valgus Stress

MCL laxity

Positive (+) Test increased opening of joint space (at 0 degrees - damage to capsule and ligament, at 30 degrees damage to ligament only) increased opening of joint space (at 0 degrees - damage to capsule and ligament, at 30 degrees -


ACL laxity

Anterior Drawer ACL laxity


anterolateral and posteromedial instability anterolateral instability; ACL laxity


Pivot Shift (McIntosh)

anterolateral instability; ACL laxity PCL laxity, posterior joint capsule integrity, arcuate complex instability medial and lateral meniscal damage meniscal damage ligamentous damage symptomatic plica dysfunction medial synovial plica dysfunction osteochondral defects or osteochondritis dissicans deterioration of patellar

damage to ligament only) increased anterior translation of the tibia; increased laxity of the ACL increased anterior translation of the tibia; increased laxity of the ACL increased anterolateral (IR) and posteromedial (ER) translation tibia subluxes anteriorly with knee at 20-30 degrees FLEX posterior shift of the tibia going into 30-40 degrees knee FLEX; anterior shift of the tibia into knee EXT tibia sags posteriorly pain, clicking at the joint line pain with compression pain with distraction reproduction of symptoms irregular motion (stuttering) between 40-60 degrees into knee EXT pain with EXT and tibial IR that is relieved with tibial ER pain under patella;

Posterior Sag (Godfrey's ) McMurray's Apley's Compression Apley's Distraction Medial Synovial Plica Stutter

Wilson's Grind (Clark's

Sign) Apprehension

articular cartilage patellar subluxation/dislocaiton


joint effusion

Ballotable Patella

joint effusion

grinding apprehension, pain during lateral translation of the patella small area of fluid accumulates on the medial aspect of the knee patella rebounds, "floats up" after depression

Hip/Pelvis Special Tests Hip/Pelvis Special Tests

Special Test Patrick/FABER Gaenslen's Spring Pelvic (Iliac) Compression Anterior Pelvic Distraction (Gapping) Posterior Distraction (Hibb's) Sacral Fixation (Gillett's)

Tests for... iliopsoas spasm, SI dysfunction

Positive (+) Test thigh does not lower; posterior pain (SI) or anterior pain (iliopsoas)

SI joint dysfunction, L4 pain in the SI region nerve lesion SI joint mobility pain is elicited integrity of SI ligaments pain at the SI joints due to sprain/irritation integrity for anterior SI ligaments integrity of posterior SI ligaments SI joint hypomobility, adhesions pain in the gluteals, legs, increased laxity greater laxity on injured side position of the PSIS remains level

Femoral Nerve Traction Trendelenberg Sign Thomas Test Kendall (Rectus Femoris Contracture) Ely's Ober's

nerve pathology L2-L4 gluteus medius weakness tight hip flexors (iliopsoas) tight rectus femoris tight rectus femoris ITB and TFL tightness

pain, numbness, tingling radiating to groin and/or anterior thigh NWB hip drops away from WB hip involved thigh flexes off table and back does not flatten against table involved knee moves into EXT hip on involved side spontaneously FLEX hip stays ABD or pelvis moves before hip is ADD pain at about 30 degrees from full knee EXT pain at 30-45 degrees of knee FLEX at lateral femoral condyle athelte will EXT trunk to relieve pain in hamstrings upon knee EXT knee FLEX is greater than 20 degrees to knee EXT pain in piriformis; resultant sciatica sharp pain, apprehension flet when fulcrum arm is under the potential fracture site pain, apprehension, catching, grinding, reproduction of



Renne's Tripod Sign (Hamstring Contracture) 90/90 Straight Leg Raise Piriformis

ITB Integrity

hamstring contracture

hamstring contracture piriformis tightness


femoral stress fracture

Hip Scouring (Quadrant)

arthritis, osteochondral defects, avascular necrosis, acetabular

Leg Length Limb Girth Anatomical Leg Length

Funcitonal Leg Length

labral defects symptoms anatomical or funcitonal difference in length leg length discrepancies >.25" difference in girth as atrophy/swelling of limb compared bilaterally difference in length >.25" as measured from leg length discrepancy medial malleolus to ASIS difference in length >.25" as measured from leg length discrepancy medial malleolus to umbilicus

Foot/Toes Special Tests Foot/Toes Special Tests

Special Test Glides/Stress Tarsal Glides Compression (toes) Pencil

Tests for... instability/laxity instability/laxity between tarsal bones fracture neuroma

Positive (+) Test increased laxity (blank) pain, crepitus, possible false joint radiating pain, numbness, parasthesia navicular drops .75" or more the distance to the floor longitudinal arch disappears with WB navicular drops more than 10mm

Feiss Line Supple Pes Planus

foot pronation supple arch (disappears with WB) or rigid arch (no arch present with NWB)

Navicular Drop foot pronation

Elbow Special Tests Elbow Special Tests

Special Test Tests for...

Positive (+) Test increased opening of joint space (more opening at 0 degrees includes damage to capsule and Valgus UCL instability ligament; more opening at 30 degrees includes damage to ligament only) increased opening of joint space (more opening at 0 degrees includes damage to capsule and Varus RCL instability ligament; more opening at 30 degrees includes damage to ligament only) pain, tingling, parasthesia down Tinel's Sign nerve pathology ulnar nerve distribution (@ ulnar groove) Lateral pain at lateral epicondyle (flexor lateral epicondylitis Epicondylitis insertion) Medial pain at medial epicondyle medial epicondylitis Epicondylitis (extensor insertion) Pronator median nerve decreased strength, tingling pain


Pinch Grip

compression due to with pronation, "squeeking" pronator teres hypertrophy entrapment of the unable to touch fingers only "tuftinterosseous nerve to-tuft" instead of "tip-to-tip" only

Cervical Spine Special Tests Cervical Spine Special Tests

Special Test Brachial Plexus Traction (Shoulder Depression) Cervical Compression

Tests for... brachial plexus pathology

Positive (+) Test increase in symptoms with traction pain in the upper c-spine and/or UE pain down the involved extremity symptoms relieved/reduced with distraction

facet joint compression, spinal stenosis NR impingement Spurling's due to stenosis facet joint Cervical Distraction compression, spinal stenosis Vertebral Artery Test Tinel's Sign vertebral artery dysfunction

dizziness, confusion, unilateral pupil changes, nausea, nystagmus pain, tingling, parasthesia nerve pathology of down brachial plexus brachial plexus distribution @ Erb's point

Thorax Special Tests Thorax Special Tests

Special Test

Tests for... rib cage A/P Compression fracture or other injury rib cage Lateral Compression fracture or other injury abdominal trauma; Rebound internal bleeding abdominal trauma; Percussion/Auscultation internal bleeding

Positive (+) Test pain in the rib cage around the fracture/injury site pain in the rib cage and around the fracture/injury site pain felt with release (rebound) of pressure pain with percussion, abnormal/absence of sounds, rigid abdomen

Head/Face Special Tests Head/Face Special Tests

Special Test Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)

Tests for...

Tongue Blade

Weber's Halo

Positive (+) Test space is less than the TMJ width of 2 knuckles pathology/dysfunction when the patient tries to open their mouth inability to maintain a mandibular fracture firm bite; pain is elicited vibration is heard hearing loss (with otitis louder in the affected media) ear pale yellow "halo" will CSF leaks form on gauze

Cranial Nerve Testing (for AT) Cranial Nerve Testing (for AT)

Cranial Nerve I II

Name Olfactory




smell visual acuity (near and far), visual Optic fields (periphery), pupillary reaction eye tracking (ADD, elevation, depression, upward and outward, Oculomotor upward and inward, downward and inward) eye tracking (downward at nose and Trochlear medial) muscles of mastication ("bite down"), blink reflex; sensation (dull/sharp) of Trigeminal face Adbducens eye tracking (ABD), look to side facial expressions (smile, frown, lift Facial eyebrows, taste (sugar or salt) hearing (snapping, rub fingers Vestibulocochlear together) and balance (stork stance, tandem walking) Glossopharyngeal swallow, gag reflex check for hoarseness, open wide and Vagus say "AH" Accessory resisted shoulder shrugs (Spinal) Hypoglossal stick out tongue

Term definitions Term definitions

Question actin

Answer thin, protein filament component of myofibril chemical source for energy for body - adenosine ATP triphosphate ATPase enzyme which splits ATP to release energy fast-twitch (FT) a type of muscle fiber which is characterized by fiber lower peak tension time and highest power a single motor neuron and muscle fibers it motor unit innervates another name for a muscle cell whose structure contains nucleus, mitocondria, sacroplasm and muscle fiber myofibril. Individual muscle cell whose size ranges from 10-80um is diameter and range up to 12cm long. contractile elements of skeletal muscle composed myofibril of sarcomeres a thick protein filament composed of two protein strands, each folded into a globular head at one myosin end myosin crossthe two-headed portion of myosin filament with bridge attachment sites for actin and ATP plasma membrane which surrounds the muscle sarcolemma fiber/cell whose ends are fused to tendons which are attached to bones extentions of the sarcolemma which run laterally transverse through muscle figer. They carry nerve impulses tubules and allow for the exchange of waste products in the fiber. sarcoplasmic calcium storage area which wraps around reticulum myofibrils flud inside the muscle fiber composed of various sacroplasm organels and other cell material sarcomere basic unit of myofibril slow-twitch (ST) type of muscle fiber characterized by slower peak fiber tension time, lowest power and high aerobic

endurance tube shaped protein which twists around the actin tropomyosin strand which hides the active sites during muscle relaxation a complex protein which is attached at regular intervals to tropomyosin. It has an affinity for calcium ions which are released during muscle troponin activation and this affinity results in the pulling of the troponin off the myosin¶s active site ultimately resul rapid and substantial depolarization of a neuron¶s action potential membrane organ of the sensory division which detects the golgi tendon strain of the muscle/tendon complex thereby organ causing muscle actions to reduce injury specialized muscle fibers whose function is to monitor the length of the muscle and along with muscle spindle sensory nerve ending communicate to the CNS to maintain the desired muscle length neuromuscular site where motor neurons communicate with junction muscle fibers the cumulative effect of all graded potentials by summation axon hillocks which potentially result in an action potential site where nerve impulses are transmitted from synapse one neuron to the next chemicals stored in axon terminals of a neuron neurotransmitter which facilitate communication to the neighboring neuron decrease of potential voltage change of a neuron¶s cell membrane below the rest membrane depolarization potential (RMP = -70mV). This is used as a communication signal between cells

Term definitions Term definitions

Question acute muscle soreness atrophy delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) fiber hyperplasia

Answer pain felt during or immediately after training the decrease in muscle size due to immobilization or complete lack of exercise muscle soreness felt a day or two after eccentric exercise muscle size increase occurring from an increase in the number of muscle fibers achieved through fiber splitting muscle size increase occurring from an increased protein synthesis resulting in the increased number of myofibrils and actin/myosin filaments the muscle¶s capacity to sustain repeated activation the muscle¶s ability to exert strength for a measure of time the muscle¶s maximum generated force enzyme which is used to breakdown ATP thereby releasing its contained energy.

fiber hypertrophy muscular endurance muscular power muscular strength adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)

high-energy molecular compound which adenosine provides energy for the body¶s activity such as triphosphate (ATP) muscle movement. It resides in the body¶s cells and is derived from food bond energy aerobic metabolism generation of energy in the presence of oxygen a system which is used by cells to replenish ATP supplies. The molecule, PCr, is acted upon by an enzyme which releases a bonded ATP-PCr system phosphorous (P) plus energy. An ADP molecule uses this P and energy to form ATP. an older measure of the resting baseline energy basal metabolic consumption by the body to sustain basic life rate (BMR) support in the absence of voluntary muscle

electron transport chain fatigue gluconeogenesis glycogenesis glycogenolysis glycolysis glycolytic system

Krebs' cycle

lactate threshold (LT) maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) oxidative system phosphocreatine (PCr)

movement. This measurement was performed after 8 hours of sleep. BMR has been replaced by RMR which yields essentially series of chemical reactions which converts the hydrogen ion generated by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle into water and produces energy for oxidative phosphorylation. general sensation of tiredness with decrease in muscular performance the conversion of fat or protein into glucose the conversion of glucose into glycogen the conversion of glycogen into glucose the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid a system which produces energy through glycolysis. a series of chemical reactions which involves the complete oxidation of acetyl CoA and produces ATP with the byproducts of water and carbon dioxide. point during exercise where lactate starts to accumulate above the resting level. This occurs because lactate clearance in insufficient relative to lactate generation the maximum capacity of oxygen consumption by the body most complex energy system for generating high energy yields from the oxidation of fuels energy rich compound which is used in the fast generation of ATP during initial muscular activity

Ch. 19 Hip and Pelvis Ch. 19 Hip and Pelvis

Question adductor muscles coccyx greater sciatic notch hamstring muscles hip flexors iliac crest iliac crest contusion

Answer A muscle group that aids in the adduction of the hip The tailbone A space in the pelvis through which the sciatic nerve travles to the legs A group of muscles that extend the hip and flex the knee; consists of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimebranosus A muscle group that aids in the flexion of the hip The upper ridge of the ilium A pinful injury caused by a direct blow to the hip, resulting in ecchymosis, tenderness, and swelling; also known as the hip pointer

iliotibial band Inflammation of the iliotibial band syndrome A broad, flared bone that makes up the upper and ilium lateral sections of the pelvis The portion of the pelvis that is attached to the pubis ischium in front and the ilium laterally in the back; it bears the weight of the body when sitting myositis A painful condition in which a calcium deposit forms ossificans within the muscle Obturator The large openings in the ischium through which foramina blodd vessels and nerves pass to the legs The bone in the pelvis to the front of and below the Pubis bladder The portion of the vertebral column between the sacrum lumbar verebrae and the coccyx; it bears the weight of the body when sitting The center of the pubis where the two sides of the symphysis pubis are fused together It consists of the iliopsoas, srtorius, pectineus, and Hip flesors rectus femoris Adductor A muscle group that consists of the adductor longus, muscles adductor brevis, and adductor magnus

Term definitions Term definitions



steroid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that controls mineral and water balance. Aldosterone acts on the kidney promoting the aldosterone reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) into the blood. Water follows the salt and this helps maintain normal blood pressure hormone secreted by the hypothalamus which is stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary antidiuretic hormone gland. ADH is secreted when electrolyte concentration increases in the blood plasma (ADH) (e.g. water transfer to muscles or loss due to sweat) and causes water excretio the process where steroid hormone binds to specific positions on a cell¶s DNA thereby direct gene activating certain genes. The result is mRNA activation synthesis within the nucleus. The mRNA enters the cell cytoplasm promoting protein synthesis which may be used as enzymes, t - the reduction in the number of hormone down-regulation receptors on a cell which results in the cell being less sensitive to a particular hormone a non-steroidal hormone produced by the adrenal gland which is activated by the sympathetic nervous system. It increases your epinephrine cardiac activity, metabolic rate, blood pressure, respiration and glucose generation. The level of epinephrine rises during stre hormones secreted by the ovaries promoting estrogens the development of female secondary sex

characteristics a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary glucagon gland which increases during exercise and promotes muscle growth a pancreatic hormone that raises blood sugar growth hormone by promoting conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver - the name given to the effect of increased hemoconcentration blood plasma concentration which could result from muscular activity and sweating chemicals secreted by the endocrine system hormones which regulates the function of organs and tissues hormone produced in the pancreas that insulin regulates the level of glucose in the blood - type of control system which reacts to negative feedback increases input stimulus by attempting to inhibit system future stimulus action hormone based on either amino acids or proteins which are incapable of passing non steroid through the cell membrane and attach to the hormones outside of the cell to perform their control functions hormone, secreted by the adrenal gland and similar to epinephrine, that is the principal neurotransmitter of sympathetic nerve endings norepinephrine supplying the major organs and skin. It increases blood pressure and rate and depth of breathing, raises the level of bl name given to control mechanism fot blood renin-angiotensin pressure provide by the kidney and rennin mechanism hormone hormone based on cholesterol and are lipid soluble which are capable of passing through steroid hormones the cell membrane. They use direct gene activation to perform their control functions the cells which are controlled by a particular target cells hormone hormones secreted by the testes promoting the testosterone development of male secondary sex


aerobic interval training

anaerobic training

continuous training interval training sprint training aerobic training

characteristics the increase in the number of hormone receptors on a cell which results in the cell being more sensitive to a particular hormone training characterized by repeated, short efforts (30s to 5 min) performed just under race pace but with brief (5-15s) rest periods between efforts training which improves the efficiency of the anaerobic energy-producing system and can increase muscle strength with a better tolerance to acid-base imbalances resulting from lactate accumulation training without rest periods repeated high intensity training bouts separated by short rest intervals a form of anaerobic training involving very brief, intense training bouts training which improves the efficiency of the aerobic energy-producing system and can improve cardio respiratory endurance

Term definitions

Term definitions Term definitions

Question capillary-to-fiber ratio cardiorespiratory endurance

Answer the number of capillaries per muscle fiber. This increases with exercise training the capacity of the body to sustain prolonged exercise training regime with contains both cardio and cross-training resistance training or a regime which combines multiple types of sport-specific workouts the length of time, after an exercise bout, it heart rate recovery takes for the heart to resume a resting pulse period rate the name given to individuals participating in a nonresponders controlled experimental study who show no resulting improvement/changes oxygen transport the name given to the cardiovascular and system respiratory systems combined the name given to individuals participating in a controlled experimental study who show responders resulting improvement/changes a exercise training technique which focuses on improvement of sport specific components specificity of training which closely mimics the specific end athletic activity the measurement of the amount of oxygen arterial-venous extracted by the body from the blood as oxygen difference measured fully-oxygenated blood immediately (a-vO2 diff) entering the atrium artery versus the oxygendepleted blood entering the right atrium one of three form/structure characteristics of Body build the body classified as muscularity, linearity or fatness Body composition chemical makeup of the body. Body size height and mass of the body Chronic fatigue measurable declined athletic performance syndrome lastly months to years usually associated with

Densitometry Fat-free mass Fat mass Hydrostatic weighing

Lean body mass

Relative body fat Skin fold fat thickness

weight loss and poor diet a technique for measuring the body¶s density the human body mass minus the fat mass human bodies¶ mass derived from fat ± the process of measuring the body weight while submerged in water whose result can determine the body volume the term applied to the human bodies¶ mass summed from the fat-free mass plus the addition of a predicted essential fat needed for survival the ratio of a bodies¶ fat versus the bodies¶ total mass. a low cost, field measurement method used to help estimate body density

Basic Vocabulary Basic Vocabulary

Question Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Superior Inferior Proximal Distal Abduction Adduction Superficial Deep Flexion Extensioin

Answer front of the body back of the body toward the midline away from the midline above or towards the head below or towards the foot closer (the wrist is proximal to the hand) farther away (the wrist is distal to the shoulder) movement away from the midline movement toward the midline nearest to the surface farthest from the surface decreasing the angle between two bones increasing the angle between two bones

Upper Body Muscles Upper Body Muscles

Muscle rhomboids

Actions retraction, depression, downward rotation

Lever Advantages mechanical advantage, type I high force potential

levator scapulae

upper trapezius

middle trapezius

lower trapezius

serratus anterior

latissimus dorsi

anterior deltoid

biceps brachi

scapula: elevation, high force, downward rotation, Type low ROM, abduction, III mechanical retractionspine: advantage lateral flexion, rotation neck: extension, mechanical lateral flexion, advantage, Type I rotationscapula: low force, low elevation velocity low velocity, retraction, elevation, Type good force, mechanical upward rotation III advantage mechanical upward rotation, advantage, Type I adduction, depression high force, high velocity high force, abduction, upward Type ROM, rotation, depression III moderate velocity high force and velocity, adduction, internal and external rotation, Type hybrid ROM and extension, horizontal III mechanical abduction advantage abduction, flexion, internal rotation and (blank) (blank) horizontal adduction elbow and shoulder high force and Type flexion, supination, velocity, III weak horizontal mechanical

adduction brachialis supraspinatus infraspinatus subscapularis teres minor teres major flexion abduction and stabilization external rotation and horizontal abduction internal rotation and stabilization external rotation and horizontal abduction internal rotation, extension and adduction horizontal flexion, horizontal adduction, internal rotation, adduction, flexion, abductionscapula: downward rotation, depression, and initial protraction abduction, downward rotation, depression shoulder extension, adduction, elbow flexion, supinator

advantage ROM, low Type force, low III velocity low force, low Type I velocity, ROM (blank) (blank) Type III high force, low velocity, hybrid

(blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)

pectoralis major

Type III

high force, moderate velocity, mechanical advantage

pectoralis minor triceps brachii

(blank) (blank)

brachioradialis pronator teres, pronator quadratus, and flexor carpi radialis sternocleidomastoid lateral deltoid

ROM, high Type I velocity, high force ROM, low flexion, supination Type II velocity and and pronation initiator force internal rotation flexion, rotation, lateral flexion, extension abduction, flexion, (blank) (blank)

(blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)

posterior deltoid supinator and biceps brachii flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, flexor pollicus longus, flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis extensor digitorum, carpi radialis longus and brevis, carpi ulnaris, indicis, digiti minimi, pollicus longus and brevis penis

transverse abduction external rotation, (blank) (blank) extension, transverse external rotation (blank) (blank)

wrist flexors

(blank) (blank)

wrist extensors

(blank) (blank)


(blank) (blank)

Lower Body Muscles Lower Body Muscles





adduction, Type III (II internal rotation w/knee bent)


tensor facia latae

hip and knee flexion, external Type III lever rotation hip, eternal rotation knee internal rotation, Type III ROM abduction, hip flexion hip flexion, Type III knee extension hip flexion, knee extension, Type III adduction

Adavntages high force, high velocity, hybrid ROM and mechanical advantage low force, high velocity, hybrid ROM and mechanical advantage low force, low velocity, ROM mechanical advantage, high force, high velocity high force, high velocity, ROM good force, hybrid ROM and mechanical avantage, high velcity good force, high velocity, hybrid ROM and mechanical advantage

rectus femoris

biceps femoris

hip flexion, Type III (II if knee extension, resistance on semimembranosis external femur) rotation at knee


hip extension, Type III (II if knee flexion, resistance at internal rotation femur) at knee

adduction, internal rotation, adductor magnus, minimal hip longus and brevis flexion and extension (magnus) knee flexion (initiator), plantarflexion



plantarflexion (esp. knee bent)

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion, inversion



gluteus maximus

gluteus medius and minimus hip external rotators

hip flexion, adduction, external rotation adduction, external and Type III minimal internal rotation hip extension, adduction, Type III external rotation external and external Type III rotation, abduction hip external rotation Type III

ROM, higher velocity, mechanical advantage and Type III force w/increase in size, mechanical advantage type II (knee (type II), ROM flexion), type III (type III), high (plantarflexion) force, high velocity high force, high velocity, type III or type ROM or II mechanical advantage mechanical advantage, type II high force, high veloity high force, high velocity, Type III mechanical advantage ROM

high force, high velocity, ROM ROM, moderate force, high velocity ROM, moderate force, low


knee flexion, Type III internal rotation

peroneus longus and brevis


type II

peroneus tertius

eversion, dorsiflexion

type II

tibialis posterior

inversion, plantarflexion

type II

vastus lateralis

knee extension type III lever

vastus intermedius knee extension type III lever knee extension type III lever and patellar tracking

vastus medialis

velocity ROM, high force (internal rotation), low velocity high velocity, mechanical avantage, high force mechanical advantage, low force and velocity mechanical advantage, high force, high velocity high force, hybrid, high velocity high force, high velocity, hybrid high force, high velocity, hybrid

basic elbow injuries basic elbow injuries



Signs and Symptoms Inflammation of the muscles attached to the epicondlyes of the Humerus.Medial is associated with throwing activities and golf. Lateral is associated with Tennis and the backhand



RICE, NSAIDS, Rest, Theraputic Modalities (Ultrasound, Electrical Stimulation), Sling, decrease activity

Strengthen Muscles around elbow. Gradual increase in activity

Olecranon Bursitis Inflammation of the bursae on the posterior elbow Elbow Dislocation Forearm Fracture - Ulna and/or Radius Fracture Scaphoid or Navicular Fracure Falling on an outstretched hand Ganglion Cyst -

Pain, Edema, Point RICE, Cold tenderness and Compress, Spontaneous Reduce activity Swelling Sling, Ice, Immobilization, Refer to Physician for Reduction Cold or Ice, sling and splint, Physician visit, xray Slint, Ice, Physician Referal, Imobolization for upto 6 weeks, xray after 3 weeks Drawing of fluid,

Elbow Pad

Swelling, Deformity, Pain and Disability

Learn to roll

Swelling, Pain, Deformity, and False Joint Swelling, Pain on Schaphoid bone or Pain in Anatomical Snuff Box Usually found on

Forearm Pads when applicable

Learn to roll


Localized Swelling on tendon

wrist or finger after apply preasure wrist injury. pad, surgical Swelling, Mild removal Preasure and Slight Discomfort Ice and release of blood from Subungal (Nail under nail - If bed) blood is not Pain, Lifting of Hematoma release, none finger nail, Bruising or Fingernail will be accumimlation Discoloration seperated from of blood under nail bed to the finger nail causing nail to fall off Finger Dislocation Swelling, Bleeding, Reduction, Disruption of None the Joint a the Deformity and Pain Splinting the MCP, PIP and DIP joints Splint in Flexion Pain, Swelling, (Natural hand Point Tenderness, position) or Finger none deformity, rapid position found, Fractures discoloration and Ice and don't reduction of ROM move into extension

Anatomical Descriptions Anatomical Descriptions


Description Longitudinal line divides body into Left/Right halfs Median Plane (middle of Sagittal) Longitudinal line divides torso, head or limbs into Saggital Plane Left/Right halfs Coronal or Longitudinal line divides that divides the body into Frontal front and back parts Transverse or Divides the body or body parts into upper and lower Cross parts, perpendicular to longitudinal plane. Crainial Closer to the head Superior Higher or above another part or region Caudal Closer to the feet Inferior Lower or below another part or region Anterior Towards the front Ventral Towards the Anterior (front) Side Posterior Towards the back Superior Upper or above Inferior Lower or below Ventral Towards the anterior (front) side Superficial on or near the surface Deep distant from the surface Nearest to the beginning or to the point of Proximal attachement Furthest from a specific point or from a point of Distal attatchement

Everything from the knee down-Origins, Insertions, Actions, and Innervations Everything from the knee down-Origins, Insertions, Actions, and Innervations




Action Flexes lateral four toes, Supports medial and lateral longitudinal arches

Innervati on

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

Medial calcaneal tuberosity Middle and phalanx of central toes 2-5 part of plantar fascia

Medial Plantar Nerve (L5-S1)


Sides of FDL tendon

Medial plantar Medial side of Extend toes at nerve proximal interphalangeal (L5-S1) phalanx and joints and flex and dorsal EDL metatarsal Lateral tendon of toes phalangeal joints Plantar 2-5 nerve (S1-S2) Achilles tendon onto posterior calcaneus

Posterior head and proximal Soleus 1/3 of body of fibula and soleal line Lateral head: posterior surface of lateral Gastrocnem condyle of ius femur; medial head: posterior surface of

Plantar flexes foot

Tibial Nerve (S1-S2)

Achilles tendon onto posterior calcaneus

Tibial Plantar flexes Nerve foot, Flexes knee (S1-S2)

Tibialis Posterior

Tibialis Anterior

Flexor Digitorum Longus

Flexor Hallucis Longus

Extensor Hallucis Longus

femur above medial condyle Upper half of posterior shaft of tibia and upper 2/3 of medial surface of fibula and interosseu s membran e Upper half of lateral shaft of tibia and interosseo us membran e Middle 3/5 of posterior surface of tibia Lower two thirds of posterior fibula and interosseu s membran e Middle half of anterior shaft of

Tuberosity of navicular bone and all tarsal bones (except talus), bases of 2nd-4th metatarsals and spring ligament

Plantar flexes and inverts foot. Tibial Supports medial Nerve longitudinal arch (L5-S1) of foot

Inferomedial aspect of Dorsiflexes and medial cuneiform and inverts foot base of 1st metatarsal Base of distal phalanges of lateral four toes

Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

Flexes distal phalanges of lateral four toes

Tibial Nerve (L5-S1)

Base of distal Flexes distal phalanx of big phalanx of big toe toe

Tibial Nerve (L5-S2)

Base of distal phalanx of great toe

Extends big toe and assists dorsiflexion

Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

Extensor Digitorum Longus

Fibularis Tertius

Fibularis brevis

Quadratus Plantae

fibula Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 3/4 of anterior surface of bod of fibula, interosseu s membran e Distal 1/3 of anterior shaft of fibula Lower two thirds lateral shaft of fibula Lateral tuberosity of calcaneus , medial side of calcaneus

Distal phalanges of toes 2-5

Deep Extends toes and peroneal assists nerve dorsiflexion (L4-S1)

Base of 5th metatarsal

Dorsiflexes and everts foot

Deep peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

Base of 5th metatarsal

Superficia Plantarflexes and l peroneal everts foot nerve (L4-S1)

Lateral border Flexes toes 2-5 long flexor tendons

Lateral Plantar (S1-S2)

Plantar Interossei

Medial sides of bases of proximal nferomedi phalanges of al shafts 3rd , 4th and of 3rd , 5th 4th and metatarsalsMe 5th dial sides of metatarsal bases of s proximal phalanges of 3rd, 4th and

Adduct 3rd 4th and 5th toes, Assist lumbricals Lateral in extending interphalangeal Plantar (S1-S2) joints while flexing metatarsal phalangeal joints

5th toes Oblique head: base of 2, 3, 4 metatarsal s. Transvers e head: plantar metatarsal ligaments and deep transverse ligament

Adductor Hallucis

Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe and lateral sesamoid

Adducts and flexes Lateral metatarsophalan Plantar geal joint of big toe

Dorsal Interossei

Sides of the metatarsal bones

Lateral plantar Abductor calcaneus Digiti Minimi and plantar fascia Base of Flexor Digiti 5th Minimi metatarsal Cuboid, lateral cuneiform and tibialis

Flexor Hallucis Brevis

Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th toe and 5th metatarsal Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of little toe Medial and Lateral sides of base of proximal phalanx of

Abduct 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes, Lateral Assist in Plantar extending IP (S1-S2) joints while flexing MP joints

Flexes and abducts 5th toe

Lateral Plantar (S1-S2)

Flexes MP joint of little toe

Lateral Plantar (S1-S2)

Flexes MP joint of big toe

Medial Plantar (L5-S1)

Abductor Hallucis

posterior tendon Medial calcaneal tuberosity and plantar fascia

great toe Medial aspect of base of Flexes and proximal abducts big toe phalanx of big toe

Medial Plantar (L5-S1)

Movement terminology Movement terminology

Question Backward movement of shoulder girdle Upward movement of shoulder girdle Movement beyond the normal range of flexion Radius lies diagonally across the ulna, palm down Movement of body part toward the midline Movement of the sole of the foot inward or medially Downward movement of the shoulder girdle Movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone toward the midline Face-upward position of entire body, back lying Increase of the angle in a joint

Answer Retraction Elevation Hyperflexion Pronation Adduction nversion Depression Internal Rotation Supine Extension

Anatomy Terminology Anatomy Terminology

Question anterior posterior medial lateral superior inferior infra supra dorsal ventral plantar palmar volar proximal distal pronation supination valgus varus tropy chondro gram rrhea partum

Answer front back close to the midline farther from the midlnie above below below above top bottom bottom of the foot palm of the hand back of the hand closer to the body far from the body palm down palm up a medial force a lateral force development cartilage record of watery discharge birth

Prenatal Exercise Do's and Don'tsStack #127082 Prenatal Exercise Do's and Don'tsStack #127082

definition check with physician before beginning any prenatal program use jerky, jarring and twisting movements think safety make quick directional changes lie on back after the first trimester of pregnancy listen to your body perform exercises that decrease pulmonary space include muscular endurance exercises perform exercises or activities that compromise hip/pelvis joint structure include stretching modify intensity of the activity perform activities that could cause trauma to the abdominal area modify the exercise if shortness of breath occurs Intake adequate amount of calories engage in competitive, unfamilar activities eat a high carbohydrate snack prior to exercise stay hydrated hold breath during exercise dress appropriately use relaxation exercises

answer do don't do don't don't do don't do don't do do don't do do don't do do don't do do

Psychology 001 Psychology 001

Question Not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased; external thoughts Placing excessive emphasis in one's own moods, attitudes, opinions, etc.; internal thoughts Created by Benjamin Rush to subdue aggressive patients A powerful laxative for mind and body purification; taken by Lewis and Clarke Drilled whole into skull to let demon escape; based on superstition False agents of church beat patients; considered saviors; had many patients 18th century cure for physical and mental blood carrying ailments; used leeches; Washington used; carried out sometimes by barbers 6 feet long and 3 feet wide box; to control aggressive patients For violent cases; still used today as a restraint Before reform, patients were held with______________ Helped at school for children; appalled with sunday school conditions; wrote letters to officials; nurse during Civil War; eradicated poor conditions successfully 19th century treatment for depression; thought to induce a thereputic high Psychoanalytic Thinkers Freud prescribed______________

Answer Objective

Subjective The tranquilizing chair Rush's Thunderbolt Trephining Flagellants Bloodletting The crib The straitjacket Common criminals

Dorothea Dix

Circulation chair Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler Cocaine

Two components of dream analysis ________ is the root of all neurotic problems Freud's phobias Freud's treatment for neurotic women Inate and instincitve; necessary for life preservation; demanding; not bound by society; controlled during adulthood; biggest in children Death instinct Drives- hunger, thirst, sex Society's rules, prohibitions, restrictions; conscience; parents enforce; almost become inate; too much leads to being judgmental, OCD, anorexia Logical, compromises others; makes stuff morally acceptable; unemotions-all cognitive

Manifest and Latent Sex Crossing street, travel, successful men(Carl Jung) Talk therapy, free association ID Thanatos Eros Superego


Fuctional Anatomy Fuctional Anatomy

Question Concentrically accelerates dorsiflexion and inversion Concentrically accelerates plantarflexion and inversion of the foot Concentrically accelerates plantarflexion Concentrically accelerates plantarflexion Concentrically plantarflexes and everts the foot Concentrically accelerates knee flexion and hip extension. Tibial external rotation Concentrically accelerates knee flexion and tibial eternal rotation Concentrically accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial internal rotation Concentrically accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial internal rotation Concentrically accelerates knee extension Concentrically accelerates knee extension Concentrically accelerates knee extension Concentrically accelerates knee extension and hip flexion Concentrically accelerates hip adduction,flexion, and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, extension, and external rotation Concentrically accelerates hip adduction, flexion, and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip adduction,flexion,and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip adduction,

Answer Anterior Tibialis Posterior Tibialis Soleus Gastrocnemius Peroneus Longus Hamstring Complex Biceps Femoris-Short Head Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Vastus Lateralis Vastus Medialis Vastus Intermedius Rectus Femoris Adductor Longus Adductor MagnusAnterior Fibers Adductor MagnusPosterior Fibers Adductor Brevis Gracilis Pectineus

flexion, and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip abduction and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip abduction and external rotation Concentrically accelerates hip abduction and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip flexion,abduction,and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip extension and external rotation Concentrically accelerates hip flexion and external rotation. Concentrically extends and rotates lumbar spine Concentrically accelerates hip flexion, external rotation, and abduction. Concentrically accelerates knee flexion and internal rotation Concentrically accelerates hip external rotation, abduction, and extension Concentrically accelerates spinal flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation Concentrically accelerates spinal flexion, lateral flexion,and contralateral rotation Concentrically accelerates spinal flexion, lateral flexion, and ipsilateral rotation Increases intra-abdominal pressure. Supports the abdominal viscera Concentrically pulls the central tendon inferiorly, increasing the volume in the thoracic cavity Concentrically accelerates spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion Spinal laterl flexion Concentrically produces spinal extension and lateral flexion. Concentrically produces extension and contralateral rotation of the head. Concentrically accelerates spinal extension

Gluteus MediusAnterior Fibers Gluteus MediusPosterior Fibers Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia Latae(TFL) Gluteus Maximus Psoas


Piriformis Abdominal Musculature External Oblique Internal Oblique Transversus Abdominis Diaphragm Superficial Erector Spinae Qualratus Lumborum Semispinalis Multifidus

and contralateral rotation Concentrically accelerates shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation

Latissimus Dorsi

Cognitive Psychology material for test 1 (ch 1 - 5) Cognitive Psychology material for test 1 (ch 1 - 5)


Answer a branch of computer science concerned with creating computer that Artificial intelligence mimic human performance on cognitive tasks a connection or link between two units Association or elements Attention mentally focusing on some stimulus A school of psychology that seeks to define psychological research in terms Behaviorism of observable measures, emphasizing the scientific study of behavior. A research paradigm in which different Between-subjects design experimental subjects participate in different experimental conditions The construction of pictures of the anatomy and functioning of intact brain Brain imaging through such techniques as(CAT, or CT), (PET), (MRI), or (fMRI) a research paradigm in which an investigator begins by asking participants a series of open-ended Clinical interview questions but follows up on the responses with specific questions that have been prepared in advance A school of neuropsychology that investigates the cognitive abilities an Cognitive neuropsychology deficits of people with damaged or otherwise unusual brain structures A movement in psychology that culminated after World War II, Cognitive revolution characterized by a belief in the empirical accessibility of mental states and events The central issues addressed involve Cognitive science the nature of mind and cognition and

Computer metaphor


Controlled observation

Decision making

Ecological approach

Ecological validity



Experimental control

how information is acquired, stored, and represented The basis for the informationprocessing view of the brain. Different types of psychological processes are thought to be analogous to the workings of a computer processor An approach to cognition emphasizing parallel processing of information through immense networks of interconnected nodes. A research paradigm in which an observer standardizes the conditions of observation for all participants, often introducing specific manipulations and recording responses. The process(es) by which an individual selects one course of action from among alternatives An approach to the study of cognition emphasizing the natural contest or setting in which cognitive activities occur, and the influences such settings have in the ways in which cognitive activities are acquired, practiced, and executed A property of research such that the focus of study is something that occurs naturally outside an experimental laboratory A philosophical doctrine emphasizing the role of experience in the acquisition of knowledge A test of a scientific theory in which the researcher manipulates the independent variable A property of research such that the causes of different behaviors or other phenomenon can be isolated and tested. Typically, this involves manipulating independent variables

and holding constant all factors but the one(s) of interest A school of psychology emphasizing questions such as why the mind or a Functionalism particular cognitive process works the way(s) it does A Piagetian approach to the study of cognitive development that emphasizes the intellectual structures underlying Genetic epistemology cognitive experience at different developmental points and the ways in which the structures adapt to environmental experience. A school of psychology emphasizing the study of whole entities rather than Gestalt psychology simple elements. An applied area of research that focuses on the design of equipment Human factors engineering and technology that are well suited to people¶s cognitive capabilites Subtle patterns of performance that Individual differences differ qualitatively and/or quantitatively across individuals Information processing equates cognition with the acquisition, storage, and manipulation of information (for Information-processing example, what we see, hear, read approach about, think about) through a system consisting of various storage places and systems of exchange A methodological technique in which trained observers are asked to reflect Introspection on, and report on, their conscious experience while performing cognitive tasks The mental depiction, storage, and Knowledge representation organization of information. A system of communication that is governed by a system of rules (a Language grammar) and can express an infinite number of propositions

A system that acquires, stores, manipulates, and/or transmits Limited-capacity processor information but has fixed limits on the amount or rate of processing that it can accomplish A field of study focusing on the Linguistics structure, use, and acquisition of language The ³mapping´ of brain areas to different cognitive or motor functions; Localization of function identifying which neural regions control or are active when different activities take place The cognitive process underlying the storage, retention, and retrieval of Memory information Mental representation An internal depiction of information A philosophical doctrine emphasizing Nativism the role of innate factors in the acquisition of knowledge A research paradigm in which an observer observes participants in Naturalistic observation familiar, everyday context while ideally remaining as unobtrusive as possible An approach to cognition emphasizing parallel processing of information Neural network through immense networks of interconnected nodes. A body of knowledge that selects and highlights certain issues for study. It includes assumptions about how a particular phenomenon ought to be Paradigm studied and the kinds of experimental methods and measures that are appropriate to use The classification of a stimulus into a Pattern recognition category The interpretation of sensory Perception information to yield a meaningful description or understanding

Person-machine system

Problem solving






Within-subjects design Ablation


The ideas that machinery operated by a person must be designed to interact with the operator¶s physical, cognitive, and motivational capacities and limitations The cognitive process(es) used in transforming starting information into a goal state, using specified means of solution An empirical study that appears to involve some, but incomplete, experimental control - for example through nonrandom assignment of subject to conditions Cognitive process(es) used in transforming given information, called premises, into conclusions. Reasoning is often seen as a special kind of thinking. The retrieval of information in which the processor must generate most of the information without aids The retrieval of information in which the processor must decide whether the information presented has been previously presented One of the earliest schools of cognitive psychology. It focused on the search for the simplest possible mental elements and the laws governing the ways in which they could be combined A research paradigm in which the same experimental subjects participate in different experimental conditions Removal of cells or tissues, often through surgical means A perceptual property of objects, places, and events that makes clear what actions or behaviors on the part of the perceiver are permitted in interaction with the object, place, or


Anterograde amnesia

Aphasia Attention hypothesis of automatization Attentional capture

Attenuation theory

Automatic processing

Bottom-up-processing Capacity

CAT (computerized axial tomography)

event An area of brain tissue with extensive connections to the olfactory system and hypothalamus, thought to be involved in mood, feelings, instinct, and shortterm memory Lack of memory for events that occur after a brain injury A disorder of language, thought to have neurological causes, in which either language production, language reception, or both are disrupted The proposal that attention is needed during a learning phase of a new task A phenomenon in which certain stimuli seem to ³pop out´ and require a person to shift cognitive resources to them, automatically A mode; of attention in which unattended perceptual events are transmitted in weakened form but not blocked completely before being processed for meaning The carrying out of a cognitive task with minimal resources. Typically, automatic processing occurs without intention, interferes minimally with other cognitive tasks, and may not involve conscious awareness Cognitive (usually perceptual) process guided by environmental input. Also called ³data-driven´ process The sum total of cognitive resources available at any given time An imaging technique in which a highly focused bean of X-rays is passed through the body from many different angles. Differing density of the organs of the body results in different deflection of the X-rays, which allows visualization of the organ

Central executive (of WM)


Cerebral cortex

Change blindness



Constructivist approach to perception

Context effect

Controlled processing

Corpus callosum


The proposed component of working memory responsible for directing the flow of information and selecting what information to work with Part of the brain that controls balance and muscular coordination The surface of the cerebrum, the largest structure of the brain, containing both sensory and motor nerve cell bodies The inability to detect changes to an object or scene, especially when given different views of that object or scene The formation of individual units of information into larger units. This is often used as a means of overcoming short-term memory limitations The form in which information is mentally or internally represented An understanding of perception as a process requiring the active construction of subjective mental representations not only from perceptual information, but from longterm memory as well The effect on a cognitive process (for example, perception) of the information surrounding the target object or event. The carrying out of a cognitive task with a deliberate allocation of cognitive resources. Typically, controlled processing occurs on difficult and/or unfamiliar task requiring attention and is under conscious control The large neural structure containing fibers that connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres A hypothesized process of forgetting in which material is thought to erode, break apart, or otherwise disintegrate or fade

Dichotic listening task

Direct perception

Distal stimulus

Divided attention Dual-task performance Event-related potential (ERP) Echo EEG (electroencephalography) Encoding ERP (even-related potential)

Executive functioning

Exhaustive search Faculty psychology

A task in which a person hears two or more different, specially recorded messages over earphones and is asked to attend to one of them A theory of perception, proposed by James J, Gibson, holding that information in the world is ³picked up on´ by the cognitive processor without much construction of internal representations or inferences. An object, event, or pattern as it exists in the world. Contrast with proximal stimulus The ways in which a cognitive processor allocates cognitive resources to two or more tasks that are carried out simultaneously An experimental paradigm involving presentation of two tasks for a person to work on simultaneously A sensory memory for auditory stimuli A technique to measure brain activity, specifically, to detect different states of consciousness. The cognitive process(es) by which information is translated into a mental or internal representation and stored An electrical recording technique to measure the response of the brain to various stimulus events Cognitive process including planning, making decisions, implementing strategies, inhibiting inappropriate behaviors, and using working memory to process information A search or information in which each item in a set is examined, even after the target is found The theory that different mental abilities, such as reading or


Feature integration theory

Filter theory

fMRI (functional MRI)



Form perception

Frontal lobe


Gestalt principles of perceptual organization

computation, are independent and autonomous functions, carried out in different parts of the brain A component, or part, of an object, event, or representation A proposal that perception of familiar stimuli occurs in two stages. The first, automatic, stage involves the perception of object features. The second, attentional, stage involves the integration and unification of those features A theory of attention proposing that information that exceeds the capacity of a processor to process at any given time is blocked from further processing An imaging technique that uses MRI equipment to examine blood flow in a noninvasive, non-rational dioactive manner The part of the brain containing the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and the cerebral cortex The processes that prevent information from being retrieved from a memory store The process by which the brain differentiates objects from their backgrounds A division of the cerebral cortex located just beneath the forehead containing the motor cortex, premotor cortex, and the prefrontal cortex A single geometric component hypothesized to be used in the recognition of objects Laws that explain the regularities in the way people come to the perceptual interpretations of stimuli. The emphasis is on the apprehension of whole




Icon Inattentional blindness


Late-selection theory


Localization of function

Long-term memory (LTM)

structures rather on than the detection and assembly of parts of structures The part of the brain, containing some of the most evolutionarily primitive structures, that is responsible for transmitting information from the spinal cord to the brain, regulating life support functions, and helping to maintain balance A structure of the brain in the medial temporal lobe; damage or removal can result in amnesia A structure in the forebrain that controls the pituitary gland and so-called homeostasis behaviors, such as eating, drinking, temperature control, sleeping, sexual behaviors, and emotional reactions A sensory memory for visual stimuli The phenomenon of not perceiving a stimulus that might be literally right in front of you, unless you are paying attention to it A hypothesized process of forgetting in which material is thought to be buried or otherwise displaced by other information but still exists somewhere in a memory store A model of attention in which all perceptual messages, whether attended or not, are processed for some meaning Specialization of function of the two cerebral hemispheres The ³mapping´ of brain areas to different cognitive or motor functions; identifying which neural regions control or are active when different activities take place A memory store thought to have a large, possibly infinite capacity that

Long-term potentiation

Medulla oblongata

Memory trace


Modal model of memory

Motor cortex

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

Occipital lobe Pandemonium model

holds onto incoming information for long periods of time, perhaps permanently. Also called secondary memory A process, hypothesized to be a mechanism for long-term learning, in which neural circuits in the hippocampus are subjected to repeated and intense electrical stimulation, resulting in hippocampal cells that are more sensitive to stimuli A structure in the hindbrain that transmits information from the spinal cord to the brain and regulates life support The mental representation of stored information the part of the brain containing structures that are involved in relying information between other brain regions, or in regulating levels of alertness A theoretical approach to the study of memory that emphasizes the existence of different memory stores(for example, sensory, memory, short-term memory, long-term memory) A structure in the frontal lobe that controls fine motor movement in the body A body-imaging technique in which a person is surrounded with a strong magnetic field. Radio waves are directed at a particular part of the body, causing the centers of hydrogen atoms in those structures to align themselves in predictable ways. A division of the cerebral cortex located at the back of the head that is involved in the processing of visual information A model of letter perception based on a

Parallel search

Parietal lobe

Pattern recognition Percept


Perceptual learning PET (positron emission tomography) Phenome

Phonological loop (of WM)


Plasticity Pons

bottom-up hierarchy of feature detectors. A search for information in which several stores or slots of information are simultaneously examined to match to the target A division of the cerebral cortex located at the top rear part of the head; contains the primary somatosensory cortex The classification of a stimulus into a category The outcome of a perceptual process; the meaningful interpretation of incoming information The interpretation of sensory information to yield a meaningful description or understanding The changes in perception that occur as a function of practice or experience with the stimuli A brain-imaging technique that shows which areas of the brain are most active at a given point in time The smallest unit of sound that makes a meaningful difference in a given language The proposed component of working memory responsible for sub-vocally rehearsing auditory information The idea (now discredited) that psychological strengths and weaknesses could be precisely correlated to the relative sized of different brain activity. The ability of some brain region to ³take over´ functions of damaged regions A structure in the hindbrain that acts as a neural relay center, facilitating the ³crossover´ of information between the

Prefrontal cortex Primacy effect

Primary somatosensory cortex


Proactive interference



Proximal stimulus

Psychological refractory period (PRP)

Recency effect Rehearsal Retention duration

left side of the body and the right side of the brain and vice versa. A region in the frontal lobe that is involved with executive functioning The improvement in retention of information learned at the beginning of a task A region in the parietal lobe involved in the processing of sensory information from the body ± for example, sensations of pain, pressure, touch, or temperature The facilitation in responding to one stimulus as a function of prior exposure to another stimulus A phenomenon in which earlier learned material disrupts the learning of subsequent material A specific inability to recognize faces, even very familiar ones, with intact recognition of other objects An abstract representation of an idealized member of a class of objects or events Reception of information and its registration by a sense organ ± for example, retinal images in the case of vision An interval of time following presentation of a first stimulus during which a person cannot respond to a second stimulus, presumably because of a central bottleneck in attentional processing The improvement in retention of information learned at the end of a task A mnemonic strategy of repeating information (either aloud or silently) to facilitate retention and later retrieval The amount of time a memory trace


Retinal image

Retrieval Retrograde amnesia


Schema theory

Selective attention Self-terminating search

Sensory memory

Serial positron effect

Serial search Short-term memory (STM)

remains available for retrieval A layer of visual receptor cells at the rear of the eyeball A proximal stimulus for vision, consisting of the projection of light waves reflected from stimuli and projected to a surface at the back of the eye The process by which stored information is brought back to conscious awareness Amnesia concerning old events An organized framework for representing knowledge that typically includes characters, plots, and settings, and incorporates both general knowledge about the world and information about particular events A theory of attention that claims unattended information is never perceived The focusing of cognitive resources on one or a small number of tasks to the exclusion of others A search for information that stops when a target is found A memory store thought to hold onto incoming sensory information for very brief periods of time. A different sensory memory store is hypothesized for each sensory system The phenomenon that items at the beginning or end of a list of items are more easily recalled than are items from the middle of the list A search for information in which several stores or slots of information are sequentially examined to match to the target A memory store thought to hold onto

Size constancy


Stroop task

Subjective contours


Temporal lobe


Top-down process

Visual agnosia

incoming information for up to 20 ± 30 seconds. Also called ³primary memory.´ It is thought to have a small capacity (up to 7 +/- 2) The phenomenon that one¶s perception of an object remains constant even as the retinal image of the object changes size (for example, because the object has moved closer or father away from the perceiver) The mental ³holding on´ to information between the time it is encoded and the time it is retrieved A task invented by J.R. Stroop in which a subject sees a list of words (color terms) printed in an ink color that differs from the word named (for example, green printed in blue ink). Illusory outline created by certain visual cues that lead to erroneous from perceptions. The existence of this phenomenon suggests that perception is an active constructive process A stored pattern or model to which incoming information is matched in order to be recognized and classified A division of the cerebral cortex located on the side of the head, involved in the processing of auditory information and in some aspects of memory a structure in the forebrain, involved in relaying information, especially to the cerebral cortex Cognitive (usually perceptual) process directed by expectations (derived from context, past learning, or both) to form a larger percept, concept, or interpretation. Also called conceptually driven or theory-driven process An impairment in the ability to interpret (but not to see) visual information

A task in which subjects are asked to detect the presence of a particular Visual search task target against an array of similar stimuli The proposed component of working Visuospatial sketch pad (of memory that maintains visual or spatial WM) information The phenomenon that single letter are more quickly identified in the contest of Word superiority effect words than they are when presented alone or in the context of random letters A memory structure proposed by Baddeley, described as consisting of a Working memory (WM) limited-capacity work space that can be allocated somewhat flexibly, into storage space and control processing.

Psychology test 2 Psychology test 2

Question functions of glial cells denrite soma axon mylein sheath nodes of ranvier acetylcholine medulla pons GABA cerebellum frontal parietal temporal occipital thalamus hypothalmus hippocampus amygdala left side of brain right side of brain sensation perception transduction

Answer surround neurons and hold them in place receives information from other neurons cell body carries neural impulse down to terminal buttons fatty covering around axon gaps in the myelin sheath arousal, attention, memory unconscious thought sleep and arousal inhibitory NT coordination thought, balance association cortex somatosensory auditory vision sensory relay controls autonomic nervous system memory emotions language, logic, analytic thought, science and math creative, art and music, holistic thought deduction of physical energy and convergence to neural signals organization and interpretation of sensations physical energy or chemicals are translated into neural information

place theory frequency theory taste smell basic tastes vestibular sense kinesthesia monocular cues binocular cues

refers to location along the basilar membrane that is activated higher frequency sounds produce greater neuron firing gustatory taste cells on taste buds olifactory, cilia can distinguish between 10,000 odors sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami receptors in the semicircular canals of the inner ear respond to movement and acceleration and to changes in upright posture sense of balance the ability to sense the position and movement of one's body parts clues about distance based on the image in one eye each eye sees an object from slightly different positions

gen med terms gen med terms

TERM myocardium endocardium pericardium

DEFINITION muscle that makes up the heart c.t. that encloses the entire heart attaches the endocardium to the thorax branch from the base of the aorta to coronary arteries supply the entire myocardium systole contraction phase diastole atria and ventricles relaxed amount of blood pumped into aorta during stroke volume a single ventricular contraction stroke volume x heart rate: volume of cardiac output blood pumped per minute erythrocytes (rbc) transport o2 remove co2 phagocytosis, mediate immune system leukocytes (wbc) response thrombocytes (platelets) clotting pressure of blood against arterial walls, blood pressure maintains perfusion of o2 into organs myocardium deprived of oxygen resulting myocardial ischemia in chest pain (angina) shortness of breath; occurs when cardiac dyspnea output decreases reduction in the body's capability to fatigue perform work senseation of skipped beats or the heart palpitation fluttering uncomfortably disturbance of the electrical activity that controls the heartbeat which causes arrhythmia cardiac contractions of excessive pace or strenght (palpitations) impaired gait, occurs when blood flow to a claudication lower limb is blocked edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in the

Korotkoff sounds atherosclerosis aneurysm athletes heart

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

myocardial ischemia arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia Q-T interval

interstitial spaces, occurs with chronic cardiac conditions or obstruction of veins or lymph vessels sounds used to determine bp arteries that have been pathologically narrowed deformed arteries general cardiac hypertrophy- enlargmenet of both ventricles due to adaptation to strenuous aerobic exercise pathological enlrgment of the heart associated with an asymmetricl enlrgment of the left ventricular cavity-leading cause of SCD in young athletes oxygen needed by myocardium exceeds oxygen in blood delivered by the coronary arteries fatty infiltration (penetration) and fibrosis of the myocardium of the right ventricle deformity of mitral valve leaflets that prevents it from closing completely intermittently occuring very rapid heart rate at rest >150 bpm- defect in discharge pattern of SA node, atria, or AV node that causes drastic increase in heart rate time it takes for ventricles to depolarize and repolarize accessory pathway between atria and ventricles conducts more rapidlyithan the AV node, and result is that one of the ventricles depolarizes slightly before the other Connective tissue disorder associated with increased risk for scd, develop potentially fatal deformities in aorta Sudden blows to the chest that occur during the vulnerable phase of cardiac repolarization that induce a severe ventricular arrhytmia

Wolfe-parkinson-White Syndrome

marfan Syndrome

Commotio Cordis

myocarditis generic drug

enteral routes parenteral routes enteric coating extended release medication buccal suppository pharmacokinetics bioavailability first pass effect

passive diffusion active transport facilitated diffusion onset of action duration of action

metabolism halflife

inflammatory process of the cardiac muscle cells copy of brand name drug whose patents have expired can sell for cheaper bc no experimental cost routes of admin that provide entry to the boyd by way of alimentary canal or digestive system (oral, rectal) injection inhalation sublingual buccal and topical delays the release of medication until it reaches small intestine released over a longer period, contains more drug between cheek and gum common dosage form used to administer meds via rectum physiological process of how the body acts on a drug (ADME) amount of drug that is actually available in the body's tissues occurs if drug is absorbed from the intestine into the liver before entering the systemic circulation lipid soluble drugs diffuse more quickly and easily and are capable of passing through blood brain barrier to affect cns protein move drug across membrane drug selectivity through binding of a protein time it takes for drug to reach site of action period of time when concentration levels are sufficient enough to proeduce a therapeutic effect process by which drugs are inactivated and broken down into more water soluble metabolites in preparation for excretion time it takes for concentration to be reduced by one half after it has reached

elimination pharmacodynamics agonist antagonist receptor theory of drug action potency steady state

peak concentration process by which body rids itself of drug process of how drug acts on the body drug that fits the receptor and initttates a mechanism similar to the endogenous compound drug that fits receptor but fails to initiate or block mechanism agonists and antagonists strenght of drug maintaing blood levels within the therapeutic range, achieved once the blood levesls from continued dosing matches the levls of excretion of a drug 2 drugs of same type taken together to add and increase overall effect 2 unrelated drugs to reduce effectivenss of oral drug gi mucosal integrity, platelet aggregation, renal function inflamation, pain, wound healing inhibit synthesis of bacterias cell wall (bactericidal antibiotics) disrupt normal protein synthesis inhibit an enzyme used to synthesize tetrahydrofolic acid within bacteria misuse of antibiotics has lead to increased incidence of antibiotic resistancce respiratory tract stomach cerebrospinal fluid lipid soluble, can cross blood brain barrier to affect cns (drowsiness)

agonistic interaction antagonistic effects cox 1 (housekeeping) responsible for cox 2 (inflamatory gene) responsible for penicilins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglcosides sulonamides staphylococcus aureus infection h1 histamine h2 histamine h3 histamine 1st generation h1 antihistamine

2nd gen antihistamine decongestants bronchodilators antiemetics antidarrheals

bulk forming laxative

osmotic laxatives stimulant laxatives antacids fungicidals fungistatics

antiviral meds deep somatic pain visceral pain hyperplasia


less lipid soluble, not as drowsy, better for daytime cause vacoconstriction of the blood vessls within the nasal passages to help reduce swelling of mucous membranes used by individuals with asthma to relax bronchial spasms and expand airways used to treat nausea and vomiting (regulated in medulla) used to treat symptoms of diarrhea, howerver don't generally treat underlying cause made of a fiber or cellulose that swells once combined with fluid producing a thick substance that stimulates perisatalsis and pushes the intestinal content forward function to increase peristalis by drawing water into the intestinal lumen increase motility of bowels neutralize stomach acid and increase gastric pH disrupt cell membrane of fungus thus killing the fungal cell, prevent the fungal cell from replicating, allowing the immune system to mainage the infection used to treat herpes and influenza infections prevent and reduce duratin and severity of the virus bone nerve muscle tendons ligaments arteries or joints internal organs increase in nmber of cells in a tissue without chane in the rate of cell division or function (adaptaion to chronic increased metabolic demands) replacement of cells of one type with antoher in response to physical or chemical irritants

dysplasia necrosis proliferative stage remodeling stage hyperpnea osteocytes osteoplats osteoclats osteomyelitis arthritis connective tissue epithelium endothelium hemorrhage shock septicemia

cells adapt by changing to an abnormal cell type (cancer) cell death serves to close the tissue wond (scar) overlaps proliferative: some tissue remodeling occurs while collagein is still being deposited to heal the damage. stops when structure is restored rapid respiration mature bone cells produce osteocytes resorbe osteocytes inflammation of bone and bone marrow subtle joint instability and joint capsule inflammation collagen and elastin. heals with collagen only, loses flexibility after injury lines int. ext surfaces of body lines cardiovasuclar system loss of large amounts of blood from vascular system organs become deprived of blood borne nutrients and oxygen presense of infection

Chapter 11 - Schizophrenia Chapter 11 - Schizophrenia

Question Schizophrenia What are delusions? Most common types of delusions Thought Disorder Tangential speech Loose associations Poverty of Speech Thought Blocking Neologisms Perseveration Clanging Hallucinations

Answer Disorder marked by breakdown in cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. A rare but devestating illness. Extremely irrational beliefs remain despite lack of supporting evidence. Delusion of persecution, reference, being controlled, grandeur, thought broadcasting and thought insertion. Breakdown in processing of thoughts which leads to distorted speech. Distorted speech is however not unique for Schizophrenia. When a person goes on a tangin before getting to the point When a person goes on a tangin without reaching a point. Very vague speech, usually slow and convey very little info. When a person starts talking then suddenly stops. Made up words Repeating things. Saying a string of words that all rhyme. Perception that occurs in the absence of external stimuli.

What is the most Auditory common hallucination? Variations in auditory 3rd person commentary and command hallucinations hallucinations. Inability to experience pleasure. No change Anhedonia in mood.

Behavior that doesn't express any change in mood. Voice and expressions usually just Flat Affect stayes flat. Inappropriate Affect Example: Laughing at a funeral. Avolition Inability to persist in goal-directed behavior. Posturing or mannerisms. Example, freezing Catatonia in a posture for an hour. Staying at a posture and being very stiff, Negativistic Catatonia almost impossible to move. Waxy flexibility Staying at a postire and being very flexible Catatonia and moveable. Echolalia Repeating what people say to you Echopraxia Repeating, immitating motormovements. Added behavior that wasn't present in the Positive symptoms person's life before Schizophrenia. Missing behavior that was present before in a Negative symptoms person before Schizophrenia Example: flat affect. Psychosis: Problems with knowing what is reality and what is not. Schizophrenia: a Psychosis versus psychotic disorder because it makes people Schizophrenia have difficulties with knowing what's reality and what's not. 1.Two or more over a month: Delusions, hallucinations, disordered speech, Diagnosis of disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative Schizophrenia symptoms. 2.Marked impairment in fuctioning 3.Signs of disorder for 6 months 4.symptoms not due to drugs or medical conditions. 1.one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallicinatiosn 2.delusional tend to be around Paranoid Type a theme. Example: persecution, grandeur, jealousy. Disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, flator inappropriate affect. Delusions tend to Disorganized Type be disorganized (religious or sexual. Often neglect hygiene. Impaired motor behavior. Periods of stupor or Catatonic Type catalepsy. Behavioral negativism. Posturing or mannerisms. Echolalia or echopraxia.

Undifferentiated type

Residual Type Brief psychotic disorder Folie a deux (Shared psychotic disorder)

Genetic factors for Schizophrenia

Excessive, purposeless behavior. Major symptoms of schizophrenia but doesn't fit in one preticular type. Might fit on none or in many. Person who used to have schizophrenia and recovered but still have symptoms but not enough for full schizophrenic diagnosis. One of more positive symptoms of schizophrenia that lasts less than a month and is caused by trauma orextreme stress. Delusions due to living with someone else with delusions. Little is known about this condition. Family studies and twin studies where made to determine the cause of Schizophrenia and it whowed that there is a genetic factor to the illness. The more genes you share with a person with schizophrenia, the bigger the risk is that you get it. 3%

Prevelenace of Schizophrenia amongst the general population

If a monozygotic twin has schizophrenia, The prevelance of there is a 48% that the other one will get it. If Schizophrnia. a fraternal twin has schizophrenia there is Monozygotic twins only a 17% chance that the other one will get versus fraternal twins. it. There are proof that says that the environment can play an important factor to the cause of Schizophrenia. Ex: Not both of Environmental factors monozygotic twins have to get it. Spouses of person with schizophrenia can get it, as well as half siblings. Cildren fall in 1 of 4 groups. 4 groups: either Studies of the the twins are 1.identical or 2.fraternal, either Offsrping of twins 3.parent had schizophrenia or 4.twin of parent had schizophrenia. Three groups were the same: mom has Result of studies of schizophrenia but moms identical twin the offspring of twins doesnt, mom doesn't but moms identical twin

Search for behavioral markers of schizophrenia

Dopamine Hypothesis

Biochemical factors: Brain absnormalities

Hypofrontality in Prefrontal cortex

Schizophrenia caused by flu? Stress causes Schizophrenia Family interactions: Expressed emotions

Diathesis-Stress model

Historical medical treatments Antipsychotic medication

does, mom has but moms fraternal doesnt. The only one that was radically less was: moms fraternal twin does but mo doesn't. Smooth-pursuit eye movement. Tracking an object with head still: eyes move jerky. And many of their relatives! Antipsychotic drug. Drugs found to reduce posative symptoms, they blockes action of neurostransmitters. Conclusion: schizophrenia related to too much dopamine activity. Proof: drugs that increase dopamine cab produce schizophrenic symptoms. 3 of 4 adults with schizophrenia show loss of brain tissue. Evidence: enlarged ventricles and reduced brain tissue volume. Prefrontal cortex handles planning, expresses emotions and appropriate social functioning and organizes though processes. Hypofrontality decreases brain activity in prefrontal cortex. This occurs with schizophrenia: could explain negative sympotms. Severe flu during 2nd trimester can results in a higher risk of schizophrenia for child. Stress may activate underlying vulerability and or increase risk of relapse. Low tolerance and empathy for the ill family member can result in relapse. Living in a hostile and critical household increase relapse. Ex: patient with EE 50% and patient without EE 14% Diathesis is the predisposition to develop schizophrenia, most often biological. Stess combined with the diathesis can lead to schizophenia Lobotomy, electroconvulsive therapy, insulin shock therapy (induse seizures and then coma, when the patient wakes up he is supposebly treated.) Ex. Haldol, Thorazine, Stelazine. They block dopamine receptors in the brain. They

primarily help positive symptoms. Short term Side effects of antipsychotic medication Long term die effects of antipsychotic medication Individual and group psychotherapy Extrapyramidal side effects (parkinson-like) such as stiff muscles and spasms 1 in 4 develop Tardive Dyskinsesia (TD). Involuntary movements (face, mouth, neck, arms, legs) Focus on stress reduction, social skills, dealing with criticism, and medication compliance

Chapter 1 - Intro to Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1 - Intro to Abnormal Psychology

Questio Answer n

Questio Answer n Paracelsus was a Swiss physician that What are 1.Social What proposed a the Deviance was theory criteria 2.Unusualness Paracels about how for 3.Discomfort us' the starst determin 4.Mental Astrologi and the ing illness cal moon could abnorma 5.Maladaptive Model? explain lity? ness abnormal behavior. Coined the term "lunatic". During the 11th century you might have been accused of Goes against being a standards of Social Witchcra witch if you Devianc society and ft were single cultural e or just relativism. eccentirc. The pope decreed that witches be executed. Unusual Rare, What A manual ness statistical was the written by

Question Asnwer

Modern Psychoan alytic perspecti ves to mental illness

focuses on the role of the unconsci ous

role of reinforce Modern ment behaviori and stic views punishm of mental ent in illness determini ng behavior

A modern How cognitive people

Discomf ort

Evidenc e of a psycholo gical disorder

deviance and Malleus two priests approach think also Maleficar that outlined to mental about somewhat ties um? tests for illness their to culture. how to world determine if determin someone es their was a witch. emotions For and example: behavior Water-floeat Test She advocate Leaches d moral was used to therapy suck the in blood/illnes America, s out of you. initiated if the The amount of legal leaches personal didn't help Who was forms for distress and 1700s they would Dorothea jails and discomfort a Leaches Dix? asylums cut you person i as well open and experiencing. as let you establish blees. The ed over artificial 30 leach was mental invented in institutio the 1800s. ns. Restrain es where How did removed Hippocrates moral and believed theray patients The 3 d's: Hippocra that look in where Dysfunction, tes early abnormal the treated Distress, Biologica behavior asylums as deviance. l Model was due to from the normal physical 1700s to as disease. the possible. 1900s? Treatme nt was

work, fresh air and social interactio ns. Based on that mental illness was due to separatio n from nature and stress of rapid social change. The grew food + events. Disorders caused by imbalance in four major bodily What are fluids; the three blood, black general bile, yellow Biological, Hippocra theories bile and supernatural tes of phlehm. and Humoral psycholo Too much psychological. Theory gical black bile disorder would result s? in depression. Bloodletting and vomiting was

Bilogical Assumed and cause of "moral" insanity in causes the 1800s caused insanity.

common treatments. How was abnorma l behavior viewed in the Stone ages and how was it cured? complex interactio Used a tool to An What did n of drill a hole in intergratio the The modern biologica your head to nists Humoral findings or l, let the evil modern Theory neurotrans psycholo spirits out. view of foreshad mitters. gical and Called abnormal ow? sociocult Trephination. behavior ural factors.

Multiple aches and other bodily Abnormal symptoms behavior was with no caused by other demonic apparent possession physical How was and exorcism illness was abnorma was used to caused by l persuade the the Where behavior demon to wandering did viewed leave the uterus. hysteria in the body. If the Which led come middle demons did to the word from? ages not respond to hysteria. and how the exorcism, The was it body pain was treatment cured? used to was to get encourage the married, demon to have sex or leave. Ex: The drive the rack. uterus back to place by strong smells. In the 1500s in St The Bedlam The rise europe Mary's used of mentally Bethlehe mentally Asylums disturbed m disturbed as

people was seen as a threat to society and where put in "Madhouses". Patients rarely got treatment and conditions were horrible. Started the beginning of Moral Therapy. Was a french physician in charge of La Bicetre Dr. hostpital. Philippe Argued that Pinel absnormal behavior was due to a disease. Pushed for the beed of dignity and tranquility for patiens.

entertainme nt for the townspeopl e. Patients where often tied or chained up.

Which was the first public hospital in America exclusiv ely for mentally ill?

Public Hospital of Williamsbur g

Sleep Psych Sleep Psych

Question Alpha Activity

Answer Restful state while awake, before sleep, long train of waves, can get from visual cortex while eyes are closed

What does REM sleep cognitive growth help? What does slow wave resting and rebuilding, body sleep When does slow wave 1st half of the night sleep occur 90 minute biological rhythm and controls day Ultradian Rhythm dreaming Who is most 10 year olds/before puberty aroused/awake What time is there a lot 3pm of sleepiness What happens If you get below 5 you will be miserable the between 4 and 5 hours next day (between 4-5) of sleep received Ducks, Dolphins and can sleep one hemisphere at a time whales and other birds... Most of nonrem sleep symptoms, eeg Reptiles Sleep modulated, typical posture, tortuse shows some rem sleep, quiet period Some rem sleep may have evolved from fish Bird Sleep and progressed Combined REM sleep beyond the cortex at Accidna brain stem level (egg laying) Both REM and NREM sleep (nocternal egg Platypus laying) they have rem sleep cuz they have eggs Longer than a day, menstruel and seasonal Infradian rhythms

Little longer than a day, first study on plantsstill open up w/o sunlight, gets weaker as we Circadian grow older cues that entrain circadian rhythm to 24 hours, bright light is most important, Social Zeitgebers interacting, Amplitude decreases as we get older Tested 28 and 21 hour cycles, controlled Kleitman and everything: body temp, Older guy didn't RIchardson's Quarters adjust and stayed on 24hour, sleepiest when in Mammoth Cave body temp is lowq 3 weeks is max of no sleep, uses up energy Sleep Deprevation and lowers body temp Circadian Oscillation of Vigilance States lowest temp is towards end (90 minutes Entrained before you awake) released when you sleep and doesn't have its own rhythm, associated with slow wave Growth Hormone sleep/first half of night Increases during sleep and released more Cortisol during REM sleep, 7 min to sleep and 14 minutes awake, 20 minute day compresses the sleep cycle, the rhythms still exist/cycle and same proportions SLeep better in ludial phase (from ovulation Menstrual Cycle to mestration) and phollicular phase: after menstration to ovulation Luteal Phase (menstral Daytime sleepiness is greater ovulation to cycle) menstration Pollicular phase After menstration back to ovulation, better (menstral cycle) sleep quality and less variable Suprachiasmatic Place in brain that controls all circadian Nucleus (SCN) rhythms, close to optic chiasm Way we organize the viusal field, parts go to left and right hemisphere and cross the optic Optic Chiasm chiasm Gland that releases melatonin, surprssed by Pineel Gland light and released during night

Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome Delay Sleep Phase Syndrome What color light has biggest affect on circadian rhythm?

Go to bed before normal time, wake up earlierBeing a lark (wake up early) Go to bed after normal time (later like you can't get to sleep) and sleep in later (owls) Blue light, strong with the sun

Going to bed later, more in young people, sleepy in morning, Treated: light therapy Circadian Rhythm (show light AFTER nadir) Disorder(Delayed chronotherapy(adjusting sleep schedule Sleep Phase Disorder) around clock), CBTi (cognitive behaviral interventions Going to bed earlier, wake earlier, in elderly, Circadian Rhythm Light therapy (show light BEFORE nadir) Disorder (Advanced... and CBTi Non-entrained Type of Free running rhythm that does not entrain, Circadian Rhythm seen in individuals with retinal blindness, Sleep Disorder treated by: melatonin and sleep scheduling We are all entrained to go to bed and wake Entraiment up at the same time Irregular Sleep-Wake No pattern to the sleep-wake rhythm, Type of Circadian Normal TST per 24 hours, Seen in infants Rhythm Sleep and people w/ diffuse brain damage Disorder Temporary mismatch between local time and the sleep-wake rhythm, more when Jet Lag Disorder traveling east across time zones, There are melatonin supplements. Characterized by complaints of insomnia or excessive sleepiness that occur in relation to Shift Work Disorder work hours scheduled during the usual sleep period They sleep 2/3 of day, 50% in Rem and 50% NREM, REM sleep is longest during infancy, Sleep in Infants sleep pattern starts to develop at 3 to 4 months

grows and develops into REM sleep, premature babies have higher % of active Active Sleep sleep, is highly important for the development of the brain Stays the same after early adolescnce, 20Sleep Span decreases 25% and same for old and middle aged as you get older people Older people (harder to get back to sleep) Fragmented sleep and as you get older the less slow wave (Stage 3 and 4) you get. Low frequency and High AmplitudeStage 3 Slow wave sleep and 4 Men tend to lose slow wave sleep before Men vs. Women sleep women do, parrallel to life expectancy Over 65 your amplitude drops, and more As you get older... awakenings 5 yr olds: more than 9 hours of sleep, 10 Sleep Amount in... year olds: stays the same. 15 years: 8 hours of sleep, and after is less than 8 Does sleep Latency Not very much change as you get older? More when your younger and more when Stage 1 your really old Sleep attempts occur during night and Bimodal distribution afternoon when we are not already asleep College students during every oppurtunity Twilight Zone for MSLT, and that is considered Clinically Sleepy Total sleep time: increases in early teens, TST decreases after that Co-Sleeping Larger cities have more co-sleepers, Definition of Sleep Homeostatic, Behavioral quiet period, and across Species change in responsiveness, reversible Behavioral Quiet Debate that it might be sleep but, some Period people don't have it or animals have it What sounds are you Name most responsive to? Other criteria to define Typical Posture, EEG modulation to


Measure Sleep

Polysomnography Lienstien SAD Wake Stage 1 Stage 2 Sleep Spindle K complex Stage 3 Stage 4 REM Behavioral Disorder Alpha Activity EOG What does REM sleep help Slow wave sleep helps What time is there a lot of sleepiness in the day Slow wave sleep occurs more... Ultradian Rhythm

distinguish wake from sleep, EEG difference indicating different stages of sleep. Diaries/Logs, Polysonography, Retrospective quiestionarres, observer ratings, movement (actigraphy), responses to external stimuli, PSG PSG, "Gold standard" of sleep measurement, EEG, EMG, EOG, Test to see how well you respond to external stimuli. Relaxed Alpha EEG, 8-12 hz 5-10%, Theta EEG waves, slow-ROLLING EYE MOVEMENT, 3-7hz, mixed frequency, and low voltage 50%, sleep spindles, k complexes Burst of EEG activity, at least .5 seconds and 12-14 Large negative and postive deflection, greater than 75 mic Just like stage 4, slow wave sleep, delta waves, 20-50% delta eeg waves, 15-20% of the sleep cycle same as 3, advanced equipment to see Act out your dreams Restful state while awake, before sleep, train of waves that you can get from your visually cortex while your eyes are closed Measure above one eye and below the other Cognitive growth Rest and rebuild body Afternoon dip 3:00 during 1st half of night controls day dreaming rhythm, 90 minutes about

Most aroused and awake

Before puberty

types of psychologists types of psychologists


Answer Deals with more extreme types of disorder. Clinical Diagnosing and treatment Counseling deals with less sever issues setting problems and problems dealing with school (educational) students focus on 1 certain aspect and its developmental development over time personality different qualities and traits social factors influence individual and vise social versa environmental deals with physical and social surroundings experimental trained in research biological people over animals comparative animals over people industrial/organizational productivity, stress. what influences jobs geropsychologist memory loss

The Brain The Brain

Question PET Scan

Answer records biochemical rxn¶s in brain as they occur Magnetic fields & radio waves produce vibrations MRI in the nuclei of atoms²the vibrations are recorded BRAIN STEM passageway to upper/lower portions of the brain Medulla mechanical fx¶s: breathing, heart rate Pons attention, sleeping/walking, dreaming Reticular network of neurons that screens info & alerts Activating System other areas of brain if necessary« ³secretary´ Cerebellum balance, precise mvt¶ Hypothalamus Controls important basic drives in brain directs sensory info to proper areas of brain Thalamus (visual, auditory, etc&hellip master gland²2nd in command²takes orders Pituitary gland from hypothalamus²sends messages to other endocrine glands EEG records brain waves (electrical patterns Limbic System forms a border b/t higher/lower parts of the brain part of limbic system²evaluating sensory info for Amygdala emotional importance part of limbic system²evaluates sensory info & Hippocampus compares to prior knowledge Cerebrum Center of higher level thinking Corpus Callosum connects right & left hemispheres Occipital Lobe Contains visual cortex Somato-sensory Cortex²pressure, pain, touch, Parietal Lobe temp Auditory cortex± ³Wernicke¶s area´²Language Temporal Lobe components Motor Cortex± ³Broca¶s Area´²Speech Frontal Lobe Production

Dreams Dreams

Question 0) Beta waves 1) Alpha waves 2) Theta waves 3)Delta/Deep sleep

Answer awake/alert«slows to« rhythmic at times and transitions to... a little deeper sleep²undisturbed by minor noises ½ brain waves = delta, ½ = theta

more than 50% of brain waves are delta waves last 4)Deeper sleep (and deepest) of the sleep stages before REM sleep; stages reverse and then REM sleep begins most vivid dreaming occurs, rapid eye movement, REM STAGE heart beats faster Activation Neurons in the Pons fire RapidlyBrain tries to Synthesis make sense of them by combining w/ existing Theory knowledge & memory 0) Beta waves awake/alert«slows to« 1) Alpha waves rhythmic at times and transitions to... 2) Theta waves a little deeper sleep²undisturbed by minor noises 3)Delta/Deep ½ brain waves = delta, ½ = theta sleep more than 50% of brain waves are delta waves last 4)Deeper sleep (and deepest) of the sleep stages before REM sleep; stages reverse and then REM sleep begins most vivid dreaming occurs, rapid eye movement, REM STAGE heart beats faster Activation Neurons in the Pons fire RapidlyBrain tries to Synthesis make sense of them by combining w/ existing Theory knowledge & memory

psyc study guide exam 1 psyc study guide exam 1

Question life span developement

8 developmental periods 3 domains of development nature nurture

Answer long term changes in a persons physical/biological processes, patterns of thinking, and feeling prenatal (conc. to birth), infancy (birth to 2), early childhood (2 to 6), mid/late childhood (612), adolescence (12-20), early adulthood (20's to 30's), middle adulthood (40's-60's), late adulthood (60's-death) biological, cognitive, and socioemotional hereditary inheritance refers to environmental influences, experience, learning, cultures, families, groups

psychoanalytic emphasis on process/struggle between drives (psychodynamic) and environment theory freud 5 oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital psychosexual stages trust vs. mistrust (birth-1), autonomy vs. shame & doubt (1-3), initiative vs. guilt (3-6), industry vs. inferiority (6-12), identity vs. role confusion erickson 8 psychosocial stages (12-19), intimacy vs. isolation (19-25), generativity vs. stagnation (25-50), ego vs. despair (50-) trust trust that others will care for their basic needs mistrust mistrust the care of others cognitive theory (Piaget) emphasis on thinking, problem-solving sensorimotor (birth-2), preoperational (2-6), Piaget's 4 stages concrete operations 6-11), formal operations 12-adulthood driving force, motivation; balance is another cognitive equilibrium word for equilibrium; two techniques of assimilation (minor adjustment) and

adaptation accomodation (major adjustment) behavioral/operant (skinner); studies observable behavior conditioning theories key ideas of operant conditioning and classical conditioning behavioral theories behaviors; the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes a person or animal more operant conditioning likely to repeat the action or by something unwanted which makes the action less likely to be repeated emotional responses; learning process that connects a meaningful stimulus such as the classical smell of food to a hungry animal with the conditioning neutral stimulus such as the sound of a bell that had no meaning before conditioning social cognitive (bandura) emphasis on learning from own and theory other experiences learning occurs in the context of social key ideas of social relationships; effect of environment is altered cognitive theory by one's beliefs, conclusions, thoughts, and observational learning, modeling. which a person observes the actions of others modeling and then copies them ecological or (Vygotsky); emphasis on social and cultural sociocultural theory variables a zone surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that a zone of proximal person is close to acquiring but cannot yet development master without help scaffolding temporary structure or support; how to do it (ainsworth came up with strange situation ethological theory test); power of attachment; emphasis on biology and evolution attachment theory; imprinting, critical or key ideas of sensitive periods; secure attachment and ethological theory insecure attachment hypothesis prediction theory big picture; I think it means

research methods

independent, dependent variables, variable of interest that is controlled by the independent variable experimenter measured variable whose value depends on dependent variable the effect of independent variable on the subjects sample subjects whose behavior is studied infants dependent staring/attending vs. ignoring variables habitation baby boredom dishabituation back paying attention to it cross-sectional common study longitudinal study resource attentive sequential study rare; time sequential; years of waiting observes behavior as it occurs in natural descriptive research settings measure the strength of a relationship between correlation research two observed variables arranges the situation so that only one factor experimental (variable) is changed at a time; then one research measure the effect of that change on another factor (variable) a systemic relationship between two or more correlation variables that can't prove any cause and effect; it DOES NOT imply cause and effect causality cause and effect statistical results of my experiment is less likely or more significance likely to happen by chance threads of DNA sequences; sequences of genes in cell nucleus. one of the 46 molecules chromosomes of DNA (in 23 pairs) that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes in charge of characteristics; basic unit of genes heredity mature male or female sex cell; has 23 gamete chromosomes

zygote genotype phenotype monozygotic twins dizygotic twins

dominant/recessive gene

behavioral genetics

genetic heritage

fertilized egg could have been; entire genetic inheritance what we actually got; our traits identical twins; originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in devlepment fraternal twins; formed when 2 separate ova are fertilized by 2 separate sperm cells carrier that never gets expressed; the interaction of a pair of alleles (a slight variation of a particular gene) in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele (the dominant gene) more than that of the other (the recessive gene) study of the effect of genes on behavior; intellectual abilities; psychological disorders; and personality traits influences a number of psychological issues; shyness, disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, ocd, addiction, alcoholism, phobias, anxiety disorders; antisocial behavior, and Alzheimer's.

research methods twin studies and adoption studies often used by behavior geneticists narrow path; development often proceeds on canalization course despite extreme environment. extra chromosome (47)instead of (46) with down syndrome three rather than two at the 21st position part of the X chromosome seems to be fragile x attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules; females usually carriers PKU inability to metabolize common amino acid sickle-cell anemia red blood cells distorted teratogens agents and conditions that causes defects; agents and conditions that can harm the behavioral prenatal brain impairing the child's intellectual teratogens and emotional functioning. the biological protection of the brain when head sparing malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is

germinal period

embryonic period

fetal period

prenatal tests

amniocentesis Ultrasound sonography Chorionic villi sampling: Maternal blood test (AFP) full term pregnancy birth stages

the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition 0-2 weeks after fertilization; begins when zygote is formed from male & female gametes; starts in fallopian tube; ends as implantation in uterus, if successful; fist sign of cell differentiation 3rd to 8th week (6 weeks total); about 20% of embryos spontaneously aborted; placenta develops; blastocyst develops into 3 layers 9th week until birth; rule of thumb 3months/3ounces/3inches; internal organs develop; primary developement time for nervous system amniocentesis; Ultrasound sonography: Chorionic villi sampling; Maternal blood test (AFP) between 13th-20th week of pregnancy. Sample of amniotic fluid removed & studied. Risk of miscarriage is 4:1000 or less; .05% Sonar picture of fetus between 8th-11th week; small sample of placenta removed detects neural tube defects and down syndrome. 14th-20th weeks: relatively high rate of false positives 38 weeks labor stage 1: 5-12 hours avg.- cervical dilation; stage 2: 1-2 hours avg. - delivery; stage 3: 10-50 minutes avg. - placenta & umbilical cord the examiner checks for five vital signs-heart rate; breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes-at one minute and again at five minutes after birth, assigning each a score of 0, 1, or 2 and totaling all five scores between 5 1/2 and 9 lb less than 5 1/2 lb prenatal growth from conception to 5 months

Apgar test

typical birthweight low birthweight cephalocaudal

patterns proximodistal patterns


oxytocin postpartum period sensation perception

brain development

when the head grows more than the body; top to bottom prenatal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from the inside of the body outwards; center to extremities the process of insulating the axons with fatty cells to increase the speed of the neural impulse; greatest increase in 1st four years; however, process occurs prenatally through adolescence used to increase strength and duration of contractions physical adjustments, emotional adjustments; psychological adjustments; baby blues occurs when sensory receptor detects a stimulus mental processing(orginization/interpretation) of sensory information at birth brain is 25% of adult weight; enormous increase in dendrites and synaptic connections in 1st 24 months; unused connections atrophy (elimination by pruning); cerebral cortex divided into hemispheres

enriched animal studies show enriched environments environments effect show more complex brains (cortex) brain how become so familiar w/stimulus that it no longer habituation elicits responses the ability to relate & integrate information intermodal about 2 or more sensory modalities such as perception hearing and vision or vision and touch survival mechanisms; involuntary muscular reflexes response to stimulus immediate-term; oxygen supply (breathing reflex, cough, etc.) body temp. (shivering, critical reflexes crying, body posture) feeding (rooting, sucking) moro (startle response; grasping, stepping, other reflexes and the persistent (into adulthood) relexes gross motor skills large muscle activity

gross motor skills timeline

fine motor skills fine motor skills timeline

dynamic systems theory




marasmus kwashiorkor undernutrition

birth (arm waving), 1st month (head movements, 3-4 mo.(roll over), 5-7 mo.(sit w/o support), 6-8 mo.(crawling), 7-10 mo.(climbing; pulls self up), 3-5/11 mo.(standing; supported/unsupported), 8-10/11-12 mo.(walking; assisted/unassisted) small body movements 3mo.(fingering and batting), 46mo.(grabbing/grasping),6-8mo.(deliberately let go; transfer from hand to hand)11+mo.(two handed hold) Ester Thelan; not automatic, it is motivation to do something ; voluntary motor activity is assembled from component actions (bridging reflexes); activity is initiated from desire to ³do something´; non-milestone-based individual exposed to an agent that is designed to strengthen their immune system against that agent guide; 50 calories/pound/day; breast feeding vs formula; breast is best for 1st 2 years of life; appropriate weight gain; fewer allergies, etc sudden infant death syndrome; infant stops breathing; 1-4 mo. highest risk; risk factorsprenatal: smoking,teenage pregnancy, 1 year between births. Post-natal: LBW, sleeping on stomach, non-breast fed, excess clothing and soft sleep surfaces; protein-calorie deficit; starving to death protein deficit; have calories but no protein failure to thrive

Stress Disorders Stress Disorders

Question what are stress disorders composed of? what are people vulnerable to if they have stress disorders? what is trait anxiety? what is state anxiety? what two pathways by which the ANS and endocrine system produce arousal and fear reactions?

Answer stressor-> event creating demand, stress response-> reaction to demand anxiety disorders--gad, panic disorder, ocd, social phobia general level of anxiety sense of threat; situational sympathetic nervous system releases norepinephrine and epinephrine; hypothalamic pituitary adrenal pathway releases corticosteroids (hormones

acute stress disorder-symptoms begin what are the two common within four weeks and last less than a disorders that develop month; post-traumatic stress disoderafter experiencing a symptoms begin at any time and last for trauma? more than a month what are the symptoms of reexperiencing the traumatic event, acute and post-traumatic avoidance, detachment, increased stress disorder? arousal abnormal levels of norepinephrine and why do people develop cortisol from stress response, acute or post-traumatic personality, negative childhood stress disorder? experiences, weak social support, severity of trauma normalize responses, encourage what is the four stage emotional expressions, teach self-help approach for therapy? skills, provide referrals

Mood Disorders Mood Disorders

Question what are the two mood disorders? what is the difference between mania and depression? what causes major depressive disorder?

Answer unipolar depression and bipolar disorder mania is a state of breathless euphoria and depression is a low, sad state

biological predisposition, abnormal levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, abnormal levels of cortisol or melatonin how does the biological antidepressants > maois, tricyclics, and perspective treat major SSRIs and electroconvlusive shock depressive disorder? therapy break down norepinephrine; dietary what do MAOIs do? what restrictions-can cause strokes if eat foods is the danger? with triamaynes from high BP increases NT activity in synapse; what do tricyclics do? increases heartrate so must get regular EEGS SSRIs act on what NT? serotonin; less side effects, no dietary what are the benefits? restrictions, less likely to OD how does the early losses in life set stage; use free psychodynamic perspective view unipolar association and therapist interpretation depression? how does the behavioral related to rewards received in life; tries to perspective view improve social skills depression? how does the cognitive learned helpelessness & negative thinking perspective view are causes depression? what are the four maladaptive attitudes, cognitive triad (self, interrelated future, experiences) in negative ways, compononents of make errors in thinking, experience depression? automatic thoughts how does the cognitive increasing activities, challenging model treat depression? automatic thoughts, identifying negative (beck) thinking, changing primary attitudes what are the criteria for manic episode > 3 or more symptoms of

bipolar disorder?

mania lasting one week or more; history of mania > hypomanic or depression what are emotional, emotions seeking outlet, need for motivational, behavioral, constant excitement/companionship, cognitive, and physical moving quickly, poor judgment, high symptoms of mania? energy level bipolar 1 > full manic and depressive what are the two kinds of episodes and bipolar 2 > hypomanic and bipolar disorder? depressive episodes-can still function low serotonin + low norepinephrine = what NTs play a role in depression; low serotonin + high depression and mania? norepinephrine = mania what role can ions play in may be improperly transported; fire too bipolar disorder? easily = mania, resist firing = depression do genetics play a role in there is a potential link bipolar disorder? what is the best lithium & adjunctive psychotherapy treatment for bipolar disorder? what is the leading cause suicide of death in the world? how do suicide rates of women are more likely to attempt (3x), men and women differ? men are more likely to be successful (3x) what is suicuide related marital status, social support to? how does the suicide rate suicide rate of white americans is twice as of white americans high compare to african americans? what are some common substance abuse, mental health disorder, predictors of suicide? history of suicide in family which group is most likely elderly; illness, loss of control, loss of to commit suicide and social support, loss of social status why? what treatments are used medical care then psychotherapy and after suicide attempts? drug treatments keep person alive, get to a nonsuicidal what are the therapist's state of mind, improve/develop coping goals for suicidal? skills

Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders


Answer generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, what are the six types phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, acute of anxiety disorders? stress disorder, obsessive complusive disorder what is generalized persistent worrying causing problems in daily anxiety disorder? functioning what are the worrying about the future, constant symptoms of surveillance of danger, sweating, dizziness, generalized anxiety racing heart disorder? what is generalized anxiety disorder low levels of GABA or receptors are defective caused by? how does the psychodynamic controlling the id; creation of defense perspective treat mechanisms generalized anxiety disorder? how does the humanistic "client center therapy" development of perspective treat unconditional positive regard generalized anxiety disorder? how does the rational emotive therapy--teaching coping cognitive perspective skills and help to recognize faulty treat generalized assumptions anxiety disorder? how does the biological perspective biofeedback, relaxation techniques, treat generalized antianxiety drugs anxiety disorder? how do phobias differ fear is very intense, avoidance, causes from normal dysfunction

experiences of fear? what are the three categories of phobias? what are specific phobias?

specific, social, and agoraphobia

persistent fear of objects or situations; may suffer from more than one at a time severe, persistent, and unreasonable fear of what are social social or performance situations where phobias? embarrassment may occur BROAD or NARROW what is agoraphobia? fear of leaving the house what causes phobias modeling, classical conditioning, & perhaps a to develop? biological predisposition what are treatments systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling for specific phobias? what are the antidepressants, behavioral exposure, social treatments for social skills training phobias? what is panic periodic fear of death, losing control--panic disorder? what are disorder with agoraphobia, panic disorder the two types? without agoraphobia how long does a panic attack usually 1-30 minutes last? what contributes to abnormal function of norepinephrine, panic disorder? overexaggerate symptoms what are the antidepressants/benzodiapines, attempt to treatments for panic correct misinterpretations through education disorder? and coping skills combination of obsessions (persistent what is obsessive thoughts, impulses, desires) and compulsions compulsive disorder? (repeated and rigid behavior people feel they must perform to reduce anxiety) what are the features intrusive thoughts, most common: cleaning, of obsessions? touching, cooking, checking what are the features yielding to obssessions; "voluntary" behaviors of compulsions? or mental acts performed to reduce anxiety what are the antidepressants (increase serotonin), treatments for OCD? exposure and response prevention

Mood Disorders & Depression Mood Disorders & Depression

Question Answer Most common mental illness: Feeling of profound sadness, low self-esteem Depression & hopelessness about one's life Often SECONDARY to a medical condition, alcohol or drugs; people Depression with chronic medical problems are @ high risk Beck Depression Inventory, NMHA Online Assessment, 3 Assessment Tools for Depression: Geriatric, Hamilton & Zung Depression Scales Suicide potential, withdrawn/isolated, anhedonia, hypersomnia, insomnia, Depression guilt, shame, anergia, neurovegetaive are indicators of ? ? is the reduction in or lack of energy anergia ? is the inability to find meaning or anhedonia pleasure in EXISTENCE 2 main neurotransmitters serotonin & norepinephrine grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, genetics, Factors triggering depression: neurotransmitter imbalance, meds, stress, abandonment Signs/symptoms > 2wks, substantial pain & suffering, hx of 1 or more MDD = major depressive depressive episodes, psychological, disorder social & occupational disability are characteristics of ? Single/Recurrent episodes; Mild/moderate/severe, with psychotic, catatonic, melancholic, postpartum, MD = Mood Disorders seasonal, or atypical features are classifications of? (MD) impaired reality with PSYCHOTIC features (hallucinations/delusions)

(MD) psychomotor retardation (peculiar voluntary movement) (MD) absence of reactions (anorexia, weight loss) (MD) within 4 wks of giving birth (severe anxiety, possible psychosis) (MD)generally occurring in fall/winter & remitting in spring (MD) is lethargic, appetite changes, weight gain, hypersomnia Mild - Moderate mood disturbance, chronically depressed mood for @ least 2yrs (early or late onset) Disorder that is hard to distinguish from persons usual pattern of functioning, minimal social/occupational impairment, able to function normally but appear consistently unhappy Main differences between MDD & DD is ? Medical disorders associated w/depressive syndromes: (5) Increased aggressiveness, poor school performance, sad & cries a lot, urinary incontinence, suicidal are signs of depression in ? defiance, rebellion, promiscuity, poor school performance, run away, skip school, social isolation are signs of depression in ? True/False: Boys 15yrs & older are twice as likely as boys to experience depression True/False: Depression in Teens commonly associated w/substance abuse & antisocial behavior Ture/False: In both children & teens,

with CATATONIC features with MELANCHOLIC features Postpartum onset with SEASONAL features with ATYPICAL features DD = Dysthmic Disorder

DD = dysthmic disorder

duration & severity of symptoms Neurological, Endocrine, Metabolic/Nutritional, Infectious/Inflammatory, Other children ( as young as 3)


False - GIRLS


depression may go undiagnosed if attention is focused on behavioral problems "just a stage" Agitation or motor retardation, irritable mood, cries easily, appetite change, constipation, pessimistic about future, are signs of depression amongst ? True/False: Major problem with TEENS is they often go unrecognized/undiagnosed with depression Depression that occurs each year @ the same time; may be caused by fluctuation of sunlight or chemical imbalances Mix of physical/behavioral changes after birth of child; thoughts of harming baby, signs/symptoms persist beyond 2wks Markedly depressed mood w/anxiety, mood swings, & decreased interest in activities during the week prior to menses & subsiding shortly after onset of menses Disorder NOT recognized in DSM-IVTR as an official diagnoses Mood disorders are treated with? Normally take 1-3wks to take affect Treatment: 1st line of Antidepressants Treatment: 2nd line of antidepressants True/False: With antidepressants, there is an INCREASED risk of suicide because with the meds they feel better & will now carry out the suicide Underdiagnosing & Undertreating is common against: Hx of depression, suicide attempts,


FALSE - Elderly

(SAD) Seasonal Affective Disorder

Postpartum Depression

Premenstrual Dysmorphic Disorder Premenstrual Dysmorphic Disorder Antidepressants SSRI's, newer(atypical antidepressants), TCA's MAOI's, ECT


African Americans & Hispanics Depression

FEMALE, age 40yrs & younger, stressful events, sleep abnormalities, alcohol & substance are all risk factors for 3 phases in treatment/recover of major depression Treatment phase for depression: (49mths) focuses on PREVENTING RELAPSE through pharmacotherapy, education & depression-specific psychotherapy Treatment phase of major depression: (6-12wks) focuses on REDUCING DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS & restoring psychosocial & work function. Hospitalization may be requried. Treatment phase of depression: (1 or more yrs) focuses on prevention of further episodes of depression Counseling, Health Teaching, Promotion of self-care activities & mileu mgmt are basic level interventions of : 1. Use technique of "Making Observations", 2. Use simple concrete words, 3. Allow time for client to respond, 4. Listen for covert messages, 5. Avoid Platitudes are Guidelines for what? recommended as 1st line therapy for ALL types of depression SSRI's are 1st line therapy for ALL types of depression EXCEPT: cause fewer adverse effects & have low cardiotoxicity & are less dangerous when taken in overdose. Client/Family Teaching about (?) consists of: sexual dysfunction, lack of sex drive, interact w/other meds, No OTC's, insomnia, No alcohol, do

acute, continuation, maintenance

Continuation phase

Acute phase

Maintenance phase


Guidelines for Communication w/Severely WITHDRAWN Person

SSRI Psychotic, Melancholic & Mild Depression SSRI's


NOT stop abruptly "serotinin withdrawl" Rare/Life-Threatening potential toxic effect of SSRI's, caused by too high of a dose or interaction w/other drugs Symptoms of ? : Hyperactivity/Restlessness, Fever/Hyperpyrexia, altered mental state, abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, tachycardia/cardiovascular shock, elevated BP Remove offending agent & initiate symptomatic treatment (unique to symptoms)are interventions for: Use the following with caution when taking w/?'s: Penothiazine, Barbiturates, MAOI, Anticoagulants, Oral contraceptives, benzodiazepines, alcohol, nicotine Client/Family Teaching about (?): Mood elevation may take 7-28days & up to 6-8wks for the full effect to b e reached & for major depressive symptoms to subside Warnings about ?: Drowsiness, dizziness & hypotension usually subside after 1st few wks, Suddenly stopping can cause: nausea, altered heart beat, nightmares, cold sweats Must follow strict diet avoiding foods w/HIGH Tyramine Content or VASOPRESSORS or can result in HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS toxic effect of MAOI's due to interaction with foodstuffs & cold meds Most critical side effect of MAOI's Foods w/High Tyramine Conent

Central Serotonin Syndrome

Central Serotonin Syndrome

Central Serotonin Syndrome





Hypertensive Crisis Hypotension (w/elderly especially) avocados, figs, bologna, pepperoni, ALL CHEESE, beer, soups

Foods that are vasopressors:

Chocolate, fava beans, ginseng, caffeinated beverages

Drugs that can interact with ?: OTC's, narcotics, sedatives, stimulants, MAOI's TCA's, Antihypertensives, General anesthetics

Psychology 100 @ OSU - Psychological Disorders Psychology 100 @ OSU - Psychological Disorders


Answer approach to mental illness calling for moral treatment dignity, kindness, and respect for the mentally ill 1960s & 1970s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized deinstitutionalization psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals view of mental illness in which odd behavior hearing voices or talking to demonic model oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body perception that regarded mental illness medical model as due to a physical disorder requiring medical treatment institutions for the mentally ill created in asylums the 15th century eating disorder associated with a pattern bulemia nervosa of binging and purging in an effort to lose or maintain weight eating disorder associated with excessive anorezia nervosa weight loss and the irrational perception that one is overweight Diagnostic and Statistical diagnostic system containing the Manual of Mental American Psychiatric Association (APA) Disorders (DSM) criteria for mental disorders scholars who argue that psychiatric labeling theorists diagnoses exert powerful negative effects on people's perceptions and behaviors conditions marked by physical symptoms somatoform disorders that suggest an underlying illness, but they are actually psychological in origin an individual's continual preoccupation hypochondriasis with the notion that he/she is suffering from a seriosu physical disease

breif, intense episodes of extreme fear characterized by sweatiung, dizziness, light-headedness, racing heartbeat, and panic attacks feelings of impending death or going crazy. repeated and unexpected panic attacks, along with either persistent concerns panic disorder about future attacks or a change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them continual feelings of worry, anxiety, generalized anxiety physical tension, and irritability across disorder many areas of life functioning intense fear of an object or situation that's greatly out of proportion to its actual phobia threat fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, agoraphobia or in which help is unavailable in the event of a panic attack intense fear of objects places or specific phobias situations that are greatly out of proportion to their actual threat marked fear of public appearance in social phobia which embarrassment or humiliation is possible marked emotional disturbance after post traumatic stress experiencing or witnessing a severely disorder (PTSD) stressful event condition marked by repeated and obsessive compulsive lengthy immersion in obsessions, disorder (OCD) compulsions or both (at least 1hr per day) persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses obsessions that are unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress repetitive behaviors or mental acts compulsions performed to reduce or prevent stress anxiety-sensitivity fear of anxiety-related sensations state in which a person experiences a major depressive episode lingering depressed mood or diminished

cognitive depression model learned helplessness

manic episode

bipolar disorder schizophrenia delusion psychotic symptoms hallucinations

catatonic symptoms

diathetic-stress models

personality disorder borderline personality disorder psychopathic personality

interest in pleasurable activities, along with symptoms that include weight loss and sleep difficulties theory that depression is caused by negative beliefs and expectations tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we cant control experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior condition marked by a history of at least one manic episode sever disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality strongly held, fixed beliefs that have no basis in reality psychological problems reflecting serious distortions in reality sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of an external stimulus motor problems, including extreme resistance to complying with simple suggestions, holding the body in bizarre or rigid postures, or curling up in a fetal position perspective proposing that mental disorders are a joint product of a genetic vulnerability, called a diathesis, and stressors that trigger this vulnerability. condition in which personality traits are inflexible and stable, expressed in many situations, and lead to distress or impairment condition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse control condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, self-

antisocial personality disorder psychotherapy


insight therapies

free association



work through

interpersonal therapy

humanistic-existential psychotherapy

phenomenological approach person-centered therapy Gestalt therapy

centerednesss, and risk-taking condition marked by a legnthy history of irresponsible and/or illegal actions a psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives person with no professional training who provides mental health services psychotherapies, including psychodynamic and humanistic-existential approaches, with the goal of expanding awareness or insight technique in which patients express themselves without censorship of any sort attempts to avoid confrontation and anxiety associated with uncovering previously repressed thoughts, emotions, and impulses projecting intense, unrealistic feelings and expectations from the past onto the therapist to confront and resolve problems, conflicts, and ineffective copig responses in everyday life treatment that strengthens social skills and targets interpersonal problems, conflicts, and life transitions therapies that share an emphasis on the development of humanb potential and the bel,ief that human nature is basically positive perspective in which therapists encounter patients in terms of subjective phenomena (thoughts, feelings) in the present moment therapy centering on the patient's goals and ways of solving problems therapy that aims to integrate different

and sometimes opposing aspects of personality into a unified sense of self interventions that recognize the experimental therapies importance of awareness, acceptance, and expression of feelings therapeutic approach that helps people logotherapy find meaning in their lives therapist who focuses on specific problem behaviors, and current variables behavior therapists that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors patients are taught to relaz as they are systematic desensitization gradually expose to what they fear in a stepwise manner therapy that confronts patients with what they fear with the goal of reducing the exposure therapy fear research procedure for examining the effectiveness of isolated components of a dismantling larger treatment technique in which therapists prevent patients from performing their typical response prevention avoidance behaviors technique in which the therapist first models a problematic situation and then participant modeling guides the patient through steps to cope with it unassisted method in which desirable behaviors are token economy rewarded with tokens that patients can exchange for tangible rewards treatment that uses punishment to aversion therapy decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors treatment that attempts to repalce cognative-behavior maladaptive or irrational cognitions with therapy more adaptive rational cognitions therapy that treats more than one person group therapy at a time use of medications to treat psychological pharmacotherapy problems

patients receive brief electrical pulses to electroconvulsive therapy the brain that produce a seizure to treat (ECT) serious psychological problems brain surgery to treat psychological psychosurgery prbllems

Psych 100 @ OSU - Personality (p.577-617) Psych 100 @ OSU - Personality (p.577-617)

Question traits

nomothetic approach

idiographic approach

molecular genetic studies somatogeneic catharsis psychogenic psychic determinism id pleasure principle ego reality principle superego defense mechanisms reaction-formation projection

Answer relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behavior across many situations approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person investigations that allow researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific personality traits physiologically caused feeling of relief following a dramatic outpouring of emotion psychologically caused that assumption that all psychological events have a cause reservoir of our most primitive impulses tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification psyche's executive and principal decision maker tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet our sense of morality unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety transformation of an anxiety-provoking into its opposite unconscious attribution of our negative

displacement rationalization repression denial regression

intellectualization identification with the aggressor


erogenous zone oral stage anal stage phallic stage Oedipus complex

Electra complex penis evny latency stage

characteristics to others directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors or fialures motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences the act of returning psychologically to a younger and and typically simpler and safer age avoiding emotions associated with anxietyprovoking experiences by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts process of adopting the characteristics of individuals we find threatening transformation of a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal.(Easy way to remember: You could want to be a heroine addict like Bradley Noell from Sublime through sublimation.) sexually arousing zone of the body psychosexual stages that focuses on the mouth psychosexual stage that focuses on toilet training psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals conflict during phallic stage in which boys supposedly love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate their fathers as rivals conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals supposed desire of girls to posses a penis psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses are submerged into the

unconscious psychsexual stage in which sexual impulses genital stage awaken and typically begin to mature into romantic attraction toward others theories derived from freud's model, but that place less emphasis on sexuality as a driving neo-freudian theories force in personality and were more optimistic regarding the prospects for long-term personality growth according to Adler, each person's distinctive style of life way of achieving superiority feelings of low self-esteem that can lead to inferiority complex overcompensation for such feelings according to Jung, our shared storehouse of collective unconscious memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations archetypes cross-culturally universal emotional symbols object relations followers of Freud who emphasized mental theorists representations of others social learning theorists who emphasized thinking as a theorists cause of personality extent to which people believe that locus of control reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control drive to develop our innate potential to the self-actualization fullest possible extent according to Rogers, expectations we place conditions of worth on ourselves for appropriate/inappropriate behavior inconsistency between our personalities and incongruence innate dispositons transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense peak experiences of connection to the world statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality factor analysis inventories and other measures five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in Big Five factor analyses of personality measures

approach to personality proposing that the most crucial features of personality are lexical approach embedded in our language paper-and-pencil tests consisting of structured personality questions that respondents answer in one of tests a few fixed ways Minnesota Multiphasic widely used structured test designed to Personality Inventory assess symptoms of mental disorders (MMPI) approach to building tests in which empirical method of researchers begin with two or more criterion test construction groups and examine which items best distinguish them extent to which respondents can tell what the face validity items are measuring approach to building tests that requires test rational/theorietical developers to begin with a clear cut method of test conceptualization of a trait and then write construction items to assess that conceptualization tests consisting of ambiguous stimuli that projective tests examinees must interpret or make sense of hypothesis that in the process of interpreting projective hypothesis ambiguous stimuli, examinees project aspects of their personality onto the stimulus Rorschach Inkblot projective test consisting of ten symmetrical Test inkblots extent to which a test contributes information beyond other, more easily collected, incremental validity measures. Thematic projective test require examinees to tell a Apperception Test story in response to ambiguous pictures (TAT) graphology psychological interpretation of handwriting tendency of people to accept high base rate P.T. Barnum effect descriptions as accurate

Psych 100 PSU Psych 100 PSU




Visual Capture

the tendency for vision to Continuity dominate the other senses an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes the organization of the visual field into objects (the FIGURES) that stand out from their surroundings (the GROUND) the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent

Definition2: We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones


Because they are uniform and linked, we perceive connectedness the two dots and the line between them as a single unit We fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object. Such as circles that look like they are blocked by an illusory triangle We fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object. Such as




depth perception


circles that look like they are blocked by an illusory triangle Depth cues, such retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes


we group nearby figures together. We binocular cues see not six separate lines, but three sets of two lines


relative size

A binocular cue for we group perceiving together depth: by figures that comparing are similar to images from each other. the two We see the eyeballs, the triangles and brain circles as retinal disparity computes vertical distance--the column s of greater the similar disparity shapes, not (difference) horizontal between the rows of two images, dissimilar the closer the shapes object If we assume that two Depth cues, objects are such as similar in size, interposition, we perceive and linear monocular the one that perspective, cues casts the available to smaller retinal either eye image as alone farther away. Ex: a driver

sees pedestrians as smaller thus far away, then small children look even smaller and even farther away Because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive If one object hazy objects partially as farther blocks our away than Interposition(occlusion) view of relative clarity sharp, clear another, we objects. In perceive it as fog or snow, closer the car in front of you may therefore seem farther away than it is. We perceive A gradual objects high change from in our field of a coarse, vision as distinct farther away. texture to a Because we fine, in perceive the texture distinct relative height lower part of gradient texture a figuresignals ground increasing illustration as distance. closer, we Objects far perceive it as way appear a figure . small and

linear perspective

Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with perceptual distance. The constancy more lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. We perceive objects as having a constant size, even while our distance from them varies. Ex: perceive a car large enough to carry people, even though it looks really tiny image from far away Given an objects perceived distant and the size of its image on our retinas, we instantly and unconsciously infer the object's size.

more densely packed Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape an d size) even as illumination and retinal images change.

size constancy

shape constancy

We perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images change them. Ex: door

size-distance relationship

color constancy

Enables us to perceive the color of an object as unchanging even when its illumination changes.

Perceptual Illusions

To understand how perception is organized, illusions provide good examples, by studying when our convergence sensory system makes a mistake, we can understand how our system function normally

A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the close the object

major issues in biological psychology major issues in biological psychology


Answer change in the frequencies of various genes in Artificial selection a population because of a breeder's selection of desired individuals for mating purposes gene on any of the chromosomes other than Autosomal gene the sex chromosomes (X and Y) study of the physiological, evolutionary, and Biological psychology developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience Chromosome strand of DNA bearing the genes double-stranded chemical that composes the Deoxyribonucleic acid chromosomes; it serves as a template for the (DNA) synthesis of RNA Dizygotic twins fraternal (nonidentical) twins gene that shows a strong effect in either the Dominant gene homozygous or heterozygous condition Enzymes any proteins that catalyze biological reactions change in the frequencies of various genes in Evolution a population over generations Evolutionary understanding in terms of the evolutionary explanation history of a species Evolutionary field that deals with how behaviors have psychology evolved number of copies of one's genes that endure Fitness in later generations Functional understanding why a structure or behavior explanation evolved as it did unit of heredity that maintains its structural Gene identity from one generation to another philosophical question of why and how any Hard problem kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness Heritability estimate of the degree to which variance in a

characteristic depends on variations in heredity for a given population Heterozygous having two unlike genes for a given trait having two identical genes for a given Homozygous characteristic view that mental processes are the same as Identity position certain kinds of brain processes but described in different terms selection for a gene because it benefits the Kin selection individual's relatives discredited theory that evolution proceeds Lamarckian evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics view that everything that exists is material, or Materialism physical Mentalism view that only the mind really exists Mind body problem or question of how the mind is related to the mind brain problem brain theory that only one kind of substance exists Monism in the universe (not separate physical and mental substances) identical twins, derived from a single fertilized Monozygotic twins egg tendency for small genetic or prenatal Multiplier effect influences to change the environment in a way that magnifies the change Ontogenetic understanding in terms of how a structure or explanation a behavior develops inherited inability to metabolize Phenylketonuria phenylalanine, leading to mental retardation (PKU) unless the afflicted person stays on a strict low-phenylalanine diet throughout childhood Physiological understanding in terms of the activity of the explanation brain and other organs Problem of other difficulty of knowing whether other people or minds animals have conscious experiences gene that shows its effects only in the Recessive gene homozygous condition Reciprocal altruism helping individuals who may later be helpful

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Sex-limited gene Sex-linked gene Solipsism X chromosome Y chromosome

in return single strand chemical; one type of an RNA molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens, although members of both sexes may have the gene gene on either the X or the Y chromosome philosophical position that I alone exist or I alone am conscious chromosome of which female mammals have two and males have one chromosome of which female mammals have none and males have one

Psychology-Chapter 15-therapies Mcgraw Hill Psychology-Chapter 15-therapies Mcgraw Hill

Question drugs used to reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable Drugs used to regulate mood Three ring molecular structure, believed to work by increasing the level of certain neurotransmitters, especially norepinephrine and serotonin Antidepressant used to block the enzyme monoamine oxidase Antidepressant drug that works by interfering with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain Powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns in individuals who have a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia Blocks the dopamine systems action in the brain Potential side effect of neuroleptic drugs: A neurological disorder characterized by grotesque, involuntary movements of facial muscles and mouth, as well as twitching of the neck, arms and legs Shock Therapy used mainly to treat severely depressed individuals A surgical procedure in which a surgical instrument is inserted into the brain and rotated, severing fibers that connect the frontal lobe Combination of psychodynamic and humanistic therapies

Answer Antianxiety Drugs or Tranquilizers Antidepressant Drugs Tricyclics

MAO Inhibiter SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibiter

Anti-Psychotic Drugs


Tardive Dyskinesia

Electroconvulsive Therapy Pre frontal Lobotomy Insight therapy

type of therapy that stresses the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experience in the development of an individuals problems encourages individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing the release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience In Analysis, A persons statements and behavior are not taken at face value Psychoanalytic term for the conscious remembered aspects of a dream Unconscious, unremembered parts of a dream Psychoanalytic term for the person's relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the individual's life the psychoanalytic term for the clients unconscious defense strategies that prevent the analyst from understanding the person's defense problems therapy that encourages people to understand themselves and grow personally Therapy in which the therapists provides a warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the clients self concept and encourage the client to gain insight into problems A technique in which the therapist mirrors the clients own feelings back to the client Creating a warm and caring environment and never disapproving of the client Feeling the emotions the client is feeling or putting yourself in their shoes Humanistic therapy in which the therapist challenges clients in order to help them become more aware of their feelings and face their problems therapy which uses principles of learning to

Psychodynamic Therapy

Free Association

Catharsis Interpretation Manifest Content Latent Content Transference


Humanistic Therapy Client Centered Therapy Reflective Speech unconditional positive regard empathy

Gestalt Therapy Behavior Therapy

reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior method of behavior therapy based on classical conditioning that treats anxiety by getting the person to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety producing situations. Generally effective for treating phobias Therapy which consists of repeated pairings of the undesirable behavior with aversive stimuli The application of operant conditioning principles to change human behaviors; especially to replace unacceptable,maladaptive behaviors with acceptable, adaptive behaviors Emphasize individuals cognitions or thoughts are the main source of abnormal behavior and psychological problems, and attempt to change the individuals feelings and behavior by changing cognitions belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes group therapy with family members group therapy with married or unmarried couples whose major problem lied within the relationship someone who has been taught by a professional to provide some mental health services but who does not have formal mental health training Lay counseling provided by trained teachers, ministers, nurses, and others who directly interact with community members The relationship between the therapist and client in psychotherapy Strategies for controlling health care costs,including mental health treatment, and demand for accountability treatment success short term(eight sessions), problem focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive

Systematic Desensitization

Aversive Conditioning Behavior Modification

Cognitive therapies

self-efficacy family therapy Couples therapy


Community Mental Health therapeutic alliance Managed care

Well-being therapy

Abnormal Psycho Abnormal Psycho

Question Schizophrenia Symptoms of Schizophrenia What % of schizophrenics commit suicide? What rank of disease burden is schizophrenia? When does the onset of schizo typically occur? 3 phases of duration? Active phase characteristics:

Answer "madness" or loss of touch with reality changes in a way a person feels, and relates to others in the environment 10%


adolescence or early adulthood

prodromal, active, and residual hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech precedes active phase and marked by obvious deterioration in role functioning as a student, employee, or homemaker-talking to Prodromal phase: one's self in public, outbursts of anger, increased tension, and restlessness. Social withdrawal and indecisiveness Most dramatic symptoms of psychosis Residual phase: improve but impoverished expression of emotions and social isolation still intact say things that are difficult to understand, Disorganized Type: behave in a disorganized way, and fail to express expected emotions preoccupation with one or more delusions Paranoid Type: or by frequent auditory hallucinations, most often presecutory or grandiose 3 dimensions of schizo positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and symptoms disorganization psychotic symptoms: hallucinations and Positive symptoms delusions, tend to fluctuate

Negative Symptoms: Disorganization symptom: Most typical hallucination

lack of initiative, social withdrawal, and deficits in emotional responding, more stable over time Verbal communication problems and bizarre behavior auditory failing to exhibit signs of emotion or feeling, indifferent to surroundings, faces are apathetic and expressionless, voices lack typical fluctuation in volume and pitch, demonstrate a complete lack of concern for themselves and others inability to experience pleasure lack of volition or will, accompanied by indecisiveness and ambivalence impoverished thinking that causes speechlessness saying things that do not make sense shifting topics too abruptly

Blunted Affect/ affective flattening

Anhedonia Avolition Alogia disorganized speech/ thought disorder loose associations/ derailment tangentiality

replying to a question with an irrelevant response Persistently repeating the same word or Perseveration phrase over and over again incongruity and lack of adaptability in Inappropriate Affect emotional expression, ex. laughing when describing a terrifying experience must exhibit two or more active symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, and catatonia) for 1 month. Social/ Occupational DSM-IV-TR diagnosis: dysfunction for a significant portion of the time since onset. And at least a 6 month duration in the absence of depression/ mania Less than 6 months of schizophreniform disorder symptoms = 5 types of Catatonic, disorganized, paranoid, schizophrenia: undifferentiated, and residual

Display prominent psychotic symptoms and Undifferentiated Type: either display several subtypes or none of the above No active phase symptoms but some negative symptoms, believed to be in Residual Type: "partial remission" Schizoaffective Schizophrenics with mood disorders with disorder psychotic features preoccupied for atleast 1 month with delusions that are not bizzare, doesn't Delusional Disorder interfere with life roles Brief Psychotic Experiencing schizophrenic symptoms for at Disorder: least one day but not exceeding a month Prevalence in 1 in 100 will display schizophrenic population? symptoms symptoms Gender differences in Men have earlier onset and tend to follow a schizophrenia? deteriorating course Certain genetic links have been identified, Biological factors in the COMT breaks down dopamine may be cause of schizophrenia involved Schizophrenia and problems during pregnancy increase birth difficulties: likelihood of developing schizophrenia Season typically associated with birth Winter dates of schizophrenics? decrease in total brain tissue volume, Schizophrenia and the enlarged lateral ventricles, decreased size brain of hippocampus, the amygdala, and thalamus. Decreased frontal lobe activity. Social causation Those in lower socioeconomic statuses tend hypothesis to have chances of schizophrenia Due the social impairment that occurs with Social Selection schizophrenia, these individuals will Hypothesis eventually become part of a lower socioeconomic status. Schizotaxia Predisposition to developing schizophrenia vulnerability markers such as a trait that lies Endophenotypes somewhere on the pathway between the genotype and full blown symptoms

Classical antipsychotic drugs aka neuroleptic drugs: Relapse rate for schizophrenic episode Side effects of antipsychotic medication include Extrapyramidial symptoms: Second generation antipsychotics or atypical antipsychotics: most widely used class of neuroleptic drugs is called

Thorazine, generally reduces positive symptoms 65-70 percent, 40% with antipsychotic drugs

muscular rigidity, tremors, restless agitation, involuntary postures, and motor inertia (Clozaril) don't produce motor side affects, better treat negative symptoms, may lead to weight gain/ obesity phenothiazines

sleep for biological psychology sleep for biological psychology

Question Activation-synthesis hypothesis

Alpha wave

Basal forebrain

Brain death


Cataplexy Clinico-anatomical hypothesis Coma

Answer view that during dreams, various parts of the cortex are activated by the input arising from the pons plus whatever stimuli are present in the room, and the cortex synthesizes a story to make sense of all the activity rhythm of 8 to 12 brain waves per second, generally associated with relaxation forebrain area anterior and dorsal to the hypothalamus; includes cell clusters that promote wakefulness and other cell clusters that promote sleep condition with no sign of brain activity and no response to any stimulus drug present in coffee and other drinks that constricts blood vessels to the brain and prevents adenosine from inhibiting the release of dopamine and acetylcholine of muscle weakness while a person remains awake view that regards dreams as just thinking that takes place under unusual conditions extended period of unconsciousness, with a steady low level of brain activity

Endogenous circadian self-generated rhythm that lasts about a day rhythm Endogenous self-generated rhythm that lasts about a circannual rhythm year circadian or circannual rhythm that is not Free-running rhythm being periodically reset by light or other cues lack of sleep, leaving the person feeling Insomnia poorly rested the following day disruption of biological rhythms caused by Jet lag travel across time zones

K-complex Locus coeruleus Melatonin Minimally conscious state Narcolepsy Night terror Non-REM (NREM) sleep

sharp, high-amplitude, negative wave followed by a smaller, slower, positive wave small hindbrain structure whose widespread axons send bursts of norepinephrine in response to meaningful stimuli hormone that among other eff ects induces sleepiness condition of decreased brain activity with occasional, brief periods of purposeful actions and limited speech comprehension condition characterized by unexpected periods of sleepiness during the day experience of intense anxiety during sleep from which a person awakens screaming in terror sleep stages other than REM sleep

neurotransmitter that stimulates acetylcholine-releasing cells and thereby Orexin (hypocretin) increases wakefulness and arousal sleep that is deep in some ways and light in Paradoxical sleep others Periodic limb repeated involuntary movement of the legs movement disorder and sometimes arms during sleep pattern of high-amplitude electrical potentials that occurs first in the pons, then PGO wave in the lateral geniculate, and finally in the occipital cortex small unpaired gland in the brain, just Pineal gland posterior to the thalamus, that releases the hormone melatonin combination of EEG and eyemovement Polysomnograph records, and sometimes other data, for a sleeping person part of the reticular formation that contributes to cortical arousal by axons that Pontomesencephalon release acetylcholine and glutamate in the basal forebrain and thalamus REM See Rapid eye movement sleep

REM behavior disorder

Reticular formation

Sleep apnea Sleep spindle Slow-twitch fibers Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

Vegetative state


condition in which people move around vigorously during REM sleep network of neurons in the medulla and other parts of the brainstem; the descending portion controls motor areas of the spinal cord; the ascending portion selectively increases arousal and attention in various forebrain areas inability to breathe while sleeping 12- to 14-Hz brain waves in bursts that last at least half a second muscle fibers that produce less vigorous contractions without fatiguing area of the hypothalamus, located just above the optic chiasm, that constitutes the biological clock condition in which someone has decreased brain activity and alternates between wakefulness and sleep but shows only limited responsiveness, such as increased heart rate in response to a painful stimulus stimulus that resets a biological clock

developmental psych test 3 developmental psych test 3



basic emotions

complex emotions

emotional display rules

emotional self-regulation

social referencing

empathy competent emotional expressivity competent emotional knowledge competent emotional regulation

Answer the strong affectionate ties that parents may feel toward their infant; some theorists believe that the strongest bonding occurs shortly after birth, during a sensitive period the set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in teh first year that some theorists believe to be biologically programmed self-conscious or self evaluative emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive development culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which circumstances strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity the use of others' emotional expressions to infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations the ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing frequent expression of more positive emotions and relatively infrequent displays of negative ones the abilities to correctly identify other people's feelings and the factors responsible for those emotions the ability to adjust one's experience and expression of emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity to successfully achieve one's goals


behavioral inhibition

easy temperament

difficult temperament

slow-to-warm-up temperament

"goodness-of-fit" model


synchronized routines

asocial phase (of attachment) phase of indiscriminate attachments

a person's characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviorally to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearfulness, and sociability a temperamental attribute reflecting one's tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people or situations temperamental profile in which the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good natured, and adapts easily to novelty temperamental profile in which the child is irregular in daily routines and adapts slowly to new experiences, often responding negatively and intensely temperamental profile in which the child is inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new routines and experiences Thomas and Chess's notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents' child-rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child's temperamental characteristics a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity generally harmonious interactions between two persons in which participants adjust their behavior in response to the partner's feelings and behaviors approximately the first 6 weeks of life, in which infants response in an equally favorable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli period between 6 weeks and 6 to 7 months of age in which infants prefer social to nonsocial stimulation and are

likely to protests whenever any adults puts them down or leaves them alone period between 7 and 9 months of age phase of specific when infants are attached to one close attachment companion (usually the mother) use of a caregiver as a base from which to explore the environment and to which secure base to return for emotional support period when infants are forming phase of multiple attachments to companions other than attachments their primary attachment object an initially neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcement value by virtue of its secondary reinforcer repeated association with other reinforcing stimuli an innate or instinctual form of learning in which the young of certain species will imprinting follow and become attached to moving objects (usually the mothers) an attribute that is a product of evolution and serves some function that increases preadapted characteristic the changes of survival for the individual and the species the notion that infantlike facial features kewpie doll effect are perceived as cute and lovable and elicit favorable responses from others a wary of fretful reaction that infants and stranger anxiety toddlers often display when approached by an unfamiliar person a wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when separated separation anxiety from the person(s) to whom they are attached a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to which infants are exposed in Strange Situation order to determine the quality of their attachments an infant-caregiver bond in which the child welcomes contact with a close secure attachment companion and uses this person as a

resistant attachment

avoidant attachment

disorganized/disoriented attachment

Attachment Q-set (AQS)


caregiving hypothesis

temperament hypothesis

internal working models

secure base from which to explore the environment an insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by strong separation protest and a tendency of the child to remain near but resist contact initiated by the caregiver, particularly after a separation an insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by little separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid or ignore the caregiver an insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by the infant's dazed appearance on reunion or a tendency to first seek and then abruptly avoid the caregiver alternative method of assessing attachment security that is based on observations of the child's attachmentrelated behaviors at home; can be used with infants, toddlers, and preschool children Japanese concept; refers to an infant's feeling of total dependence on his or her mother and the presumption of mother's love and indulgence Ainworth's notion that the type of attachment that an infant develops with a particular caregiver depends primarily on the kind of caregiving he has received from that person Kagan's view that the Strange Situation measures individual differences in infants' temperaments rather than the quality of their attachments cognitive representations of self, others, and relationships that infants construct from their interactions with caregivers

abnormal psych final abnormal psych final

Question attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) conduct disorder

oppositional defiant disorder

separation anxiety disorder

behavioral inhibition

elimination disorders


bell and pad method

Answer syndrome marked by deficits in controlling attention, inhibiting impulses, and organizing behavior to accomplish long-term goals syndrome marked by chronic disregard for the rights of others, including specific behaviors, such as stealing, lying, and engaging in acts of violence syndrome of chronic misbehavior in childhood marked by belligerence, irritability, and defiance, although not to the extent found in a diagnosis of conduct disorder syndrome of childhood and adolescence marked by the presence of abnormal fear or worry over becoming separated from one's caregiver(s) as well as clinging behaviors in the presence of the caregiver(s) set of behavioral traits including shyness, fearfulness, irritability, cautiousness, & introversion;these children tend to avoid or withdraw from novel situations, are clingy with parents, & become excessively aroused when exposed to unfamiliar situations disorders in which a child shows frequent, uncontrolled urination or defecation far beyond the age at which children usually develop control over these functions diagnosis given to children over 5 years of age who wet the bed or their clothes at least twice a week for 3 months treatment for enuresis in which a pad placed under a sleeping child to detect traces of urine sets off a bell when urine is detected, awakening the child to condition him or her to wake up and use the bathroom before urinating

diagnosis given to children who are at least 4 years old an who defecate inappropriately at encopresis least once a month for 3 months developmental disorder involving deficits in reading disorder reading ability developmental disorder involving deficits in mathematics disorder the ability to learn mathematics disorder of written developmental disorder involving deficits in expression the ability to write developmental disorder involving deficits in the ability to coordination disorder walk, run, or hold on to objects expressive language disorder involving deficits in the ability to disorder express oneself through language mixed receptivedisorder involving deficits in the ability to expressive language express oneself through language and to disorder understand the language of others disorder involving the use of speech sounds phonological disorder inappropriate for one's age or dialect significant problem in speech fluency, often stuttering including frequent repetitions of sounds or syllables developmental disorder marked by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, as well as deficits (relative to mental retardation other children) in life skill areas, such as communication, self-care, work, and interpersonal relationships syndrome that occurs when a mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy, causing the baby fetal alcohol to have lowered IQ, increased risk for mental syndrome (FAS) retardation, distractibility, and difficulties with learning from experience pervasive disorders characterized by severe and developmental persisting impairment in several areas of disorders development childhood disorder marked by deficits in social interaction (such as a lack of interest in one's family or other children), autism communication, and activities and interests (such as engaging in bizarre, repetitive

behaviors) pervasive developmental disorder in which children develop normally at first but later Rett's disorder show permanent loss of basic skills in social interactions, language, and/or movement pervasive developmental disorder in which children develop normally at first but later childhood disintegrative disorder show permanent loss of basic skills in social interactions, language, and/or movement pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social skills and Asperger's disorder activities; similar to autism but does not include deficits in language or cognitive skills habitual and enduring ways of thinking, personality feeling, and acting that make each person unique chronic pattern of maladaptive cognition, emotion, and behavior that begins in personality disorder adolescence or early adulthood and continues into later adulthood disorders, including paranoid, schizotypal, odd-eccentric and shizoid personality disorders, marked by personality disorders chronic odd and/or inappropriate chronic and pervasive mistrust and suspicion paranoid personality of other people that are unwarranted and disorder maladaptive syndrome marked by a chronic lack on schizoid personality interest in and avoidance of interpersonal disorder relationships as well as emotional coldness in interactions with others chronic pattern of inhibited or inappropriate schizotypal emotion and social behavior as well as personality disorder aberrant cognitions and disorganized speech category including antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and histrionic personality dramatic-emotional disorders, which are characterized by personality disorder dramatic and impulsive behaviors that are maladaptive and dangerous antisocial personality pervasive pattern of criminal, disorder (ASPD) impulsive,callous, and/or ruthless behavior,

predicated upon disregard for the rights of others and an absence of respect for social norms set of broad personality traits including superficial charm, a grandiose sense of selfworth, a tendency toward boredom and need psychopathy for stimulation, pathological lying, an ability to be conning and manipulative, and a lack of remorse neurotransmitter that is involved in the serotonin regulation of mood and impulsive responses functions of the brain that involve the ability to sustain concentration;use abstract reasoning & concept formation; anticipate, plan, executive functions program; initiate purposeful behavior; selfmonitor;& shift from maladaptive patterns of behavior to more adaptive ones syndrome characterized by rapidly shifting and unstable mood, self-concept, and borderline personality interpersonal relationships, as well as disorder impulsive behavior and transient dissociative states in object relations theory, phenomenon wherein a person splits conceptions of self splitting and others into either all-good or all-bad categories, neglecting to recognize people's mixed qualities cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal dialectical behavior skills, and skills at managing negative therapy emotions syndrome marked by rapidly shifting moods, unstable relationships, and an intense need histrionic personality for attention and approval, which is sought by disorder means of overly dramatic behavior, deductiveness and dependence syndrome marked by grandiose thoughts and narcissistic feelings of one's own worth as well as an personality disorder obliviousness to others' needs and an exploitive, arrogant demeanor anxious-fearful category including avoidant, dependent, and

personality disorders obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, which are characterized by a chronic sense of anxiety or fearfulness and behaviors intended to ward off feared situations pervasive anxiety, sense of inadequacy, and fear of being criticized that lead to the avoidant personality avoidance of most social interactions with disorder others and to restrain and nervousness in social interactions pervasive selflessness, a need to be cared dependent personality for, and fear of rejection, which lead to total disorder dependence on and submission to others pervasive rigidity in one's activities and interpersonal relationships; includes qualities obsessive-compulsive such as emotional constriction, extreme personality disorder perfectionism, and anxiety resulting from even slight disruptions in one's routine ways personality theory that posits that any individual's personality is organized along five five-factor model broad dimensions of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness state involving a loss of contact with reality as psychosis well as an inability to differentiate between reality and one's subjective state disorder consisting of unreal or disorganized schizophrenia thoughts and perceptions as well as verbal, cognitive, and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia, hallucinations, delusions, positive symptoms and disorganization in thought and behavior (also called Type I symptoms) in schizophrenia, deficits in functioning that indicate the absence of a capacity present in negative symptoms normal people, such as affective flattening (also called Type II symptoms) delusions fixed beliefs with no basis of reality false, persistent belief that one is being persecutory delusion pursued by other people

false belief that external events, such as delusion of reference people's actions or natural disasters, relate somehow to oneself elevated thinking about the self, ideas of grandiose delusions omnipotence, and the taking of credit for occurrences not personally facilitated delusion of thought beliefs that one's thoughts are being insertion controlled by outside forces hallucinations perceptual experiences that are not real auditory perception of a phenomenon that is auditory not real, such as hearing a voice when one is hallucinations alone visual perceptions of something that is not visual hallucinations actually present perceptions that something is happening to tactile hallucinations the outside of one's body- for example, that bugs are crawling up one's back perceptions that something is happening somatic hallucinations inside one's body - for example, that worms are eating one's intestines formal thought state of highly disorganized thinking (also disorder known as loosening of associations) speech that is so disorganized that a listener word salad cannot comprehend it task in which individuals are asked to keep their head still and track a moving object smooth pursuit eye (sometimes referred to as eye tracking); movement some people with schizophrenia show deficits on this task ability to hold information in memory and working memory manipulate it group of disorganized behaviors that reflect catatonia an extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world catatonic excitement state of constant agitation and excitability negative symptom of schizophrenia that consists of a severe reduction or the affective flattening complete absence of affective responses to the environment

deficit in both the quantity of speech and the quality of its expression inability to persist at common goal-directed avolition activities dementia praecox historical name for schizophrenia in schizophrenia, milder symptoms prior to an acute phrase of the disorder, during which prodromal symptoms behaviors are unusual and peculiar but not yet psychotic or completely disorganized in schizophrenia, milder symptoms following residual symptoms an acute phase of schizophrenia but currently has milder and less debilitating symptoms syndrome marked by delusions and paranoid hallucinations that involve themes of schizophrenia persecution and grandiosity syndrome marked by incoherence in disorganized cognition, speech, and behavior as well as schizophrenia flat or inappropriate affect (also called hebephrenic schizophrenia) type of schizophrenia in which people show a catatonic variety of motor behaviors and ways of schizophrenia speaking that suggest almost complete unresponsiveness to their environment communication abnormality in which an individual simply repeats back what he or she echolalia hears rather than generating his or her own speech repetitive imitation of another person's echopraxia movements diagnosis made when a person experiences schizophrenic symptoms, such as delusions undifferentiated and hallucinations, but does not meet criteria schizophrenia for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic schizophrenia diagnosis made when a person has already residual experienced a single acute phase of schizophrenia schizophrenia but currently has milder and less debilitating symptoms fluid-filled spaces in the brain that are larger enlarged ventricles than normal and suggest atrophy or alogia

prefrontal cortex

perinatal hypoxia


phenothiazines mesolimbic pathway

atypical antipsychotics

social selection

expressed emotion

chlorpromazine akinesia akathesis tardive dyskinesia

deterioration in other brain tissue region at the front of the brain important in language, emotional expression, the planning and producing of new ideas, and the mediation of social interactions oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery; an obstetrical complication that may be especially important in neurological development neurotransmitter in the brain, excess amounts of which have been thought to cause schizophrenia drugs that reduce the functional level of dopamine in the brain and tend to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia subcortical part of the brain involved in cognition and emotion drugs that seem to be even more effective in treating schizophrenia than phenothiazines without the same neurological side effects; they bind to a different type of dopamine receptor than other neuroleptic drugs explanation of the effects of the symptoms of schizophrenia on a person's life and the resulting tendency to drift downward in social class, as compared with the person's family or origin family interaction style in which families are over-involved with each other, are overprotective of the disturbed family member, voice self-sacrificing attitudes to the disturbed family member, and simultaneously are critical, hostile, & resentful of him antipsychotic drug condition marked by slowed motor activity, a monotonous voice, and an expressionless face, resulting from taking neuroleptic drugs agitation caused by neuroleptic drugs neurological disorder marked by involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or

jaw, resulting from taking neuroleptic drugs conditioned characterized by a deficiency of granulocytes, which are substances agranulocytosis produced by the bone marrow and fight infection; 1 to 2 percent of people who take clozapine develop this condition system of treatment that provides comprehensive services to people with assertive community schizophrenia, employing the expertise of treatment programs medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients' needs 24 hours per day suicide purposeful taking of one's own life individuals who clearly and explicitly seek to death seekers end their lives individuals who intend to die but believe that death initiators they are simply speeding up an inevitable death individuals who intend to end their lives but death ignorers do not believe this means the end of their existence individuals who are ambivalent about dying and take actions that increase their chances death darers of death but that do not guarantee they will die acts in which individuals indirectly contribute subintentional deaths to their own deaths suicide committed by people who feel egoistic suicide alienated from others and lack social support suicide committed by people who experience a severe disorientation and role confusion anomic suicide because of a large change in their relationship to society suicide committed by people who believe that altruistic suicide taking their own lives with benefit society when two or more suicides or attempted suicides nonrandomly occur closer together suicide cluster in space or time phenomenon in which the suicide of a wellsuicide contagion known person is linked to the acceptance of

suicide by people who closely identify with that individual difficulty in controlling behaviors; acting impulsivity without thinking fast sense that the future is bleak and there is no hopelessness way of making it more positive inflexible way of thinking in which everything dichotomous thinking is viewed in either/or terms program that helps people who are highly suicidal and refers them to mental-health crisis intervention professionals organizations in which suicide crisis suicide hot lines intervention is done over the phone cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at dialectical behavior teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal therapy skills, and skills at managing negative emotions euthanasia killing of another person as an act of mercy

family family


Answer social group whose members are related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption and live what is family together, cooperate economically and care for the young spouses and offspring constitute the core nuclear family relationship; blood relatives are functionally arrangement marginal and peripheral kin-individuals related by common ancestryextended family provide core relationship; spouses are arrangement functionally marginal and peripheral family of orientation individuals own mother, father, and siblings consists of oneself and one's spouse and family of procreation children patrilineal a people reckon descent and transmit arrangement property through the line of the father matrilineal descent and inheritance take place through arrangement the the mothers side of the family both sides of an individuals family are equally bilineal arrangement important bride and groom live in the household or patrilocal residence community of the husbands family bride and groom live in household or matrilocal residence community of the wife's family bride and groom set up a new place of neolocal residence residence independent of either of their parents or other relatives patriarchal authority eldest male or the husband dominant figure eldest female or wife dominant figure: very matriarchal authorityq rare but can arise through default upon death or desertion of the husband power and authority are evenly distributed egalitarian authority between husband and wife marriage socially approved sexual union between two



incest taboos

monogamy polygyny polyandry group marriage romantic love child marriage

arranged marriage

social isolation close supervision peer and parental pressures


or more individuals that is undertaken with some idea of permanence. parties to a marriage must be between two different kin groups requirement that marriage occur within a group. ie. marry within class, race, ethnic group, or religion is the requirement that marriage occur outside a group. ie. marry outside their kin group be it their immediate nuclear family, clan or tribe rules that prohibit sexual intercourse with close blood relatives and exist today in virtually every society, however was not the case for older societies like egypt, inca and dahomey one wife and one husband one husband and two or more wives two or more husbands and one wife two or more husbands and two or more wives strong physical attraction and emotional attraction between a man and woman employed one time in india, child bride would live with her husband in a marriage that was not physically consummated until much later the parents of the bride and groom make the arrangements for the marriage , sometimes when both are too young to marry but also when both are of marriageable ages young people isolated from potential mates. ie MAnus of Admirally Islands put young women in a lodge built on stilts above a lagoon. supervised by chaperones (17th century puritans) parents often threaten, cajole, wheedle, and bribe their children to limit their social contacts to youth with "suitable" ethnic, religious, and educational backgrounds the tendencyof like to marry like. people of similar age, race, religion, nationality, education, intelligence, health, stature,

attitudes and countless other traits tend to marry one another. The notion that we typically experience the greatest playoff and the least cost when we matching hypothesis select partners who have a degree of physical attractiveness similar to our own stereotypical US family as a social unit kodak family consisting of mom, pop, and the kids, living alone in a comfortable home of their own Two different personality traits that are the complementary counterparts of each other and that provide a needs theory sense of completeness when they are joined The view proposing that people involved in a mutually satisfying relationship will exchange exchange theory behaviors that have low cost and high reward. We like those who reward us and dislike those who punish us Changes and realignments (in nuclear families that are not disrupted by divorce, desertion, or death) related to the altered family life course expectations and requirements imposed on a husband and a wife as children are born and grow up The overall pattern of living that people evolve lifestyle to meet their biological, social, and emotional needs. Stepfamilies relationship with other families caused by (reconstituted/blende remarriage d) A living arrangement in which unmarried adults who share living quarters with an cohabitation unrelated adult of the opposite sex. Has recently increased a preference for an individual of the same sex homosexuality as a sexual partner homosexuality and heterosexuality are social Constructionalist view constructions that describe behaviors, roles of homosexuality that people may play, and identities, not inherent characteristics of persons essentialist view of homosexual orientation is either inborn or is


fixed very early in one¶s development and thus is an inherent part of what an individual is an important function of the family is care and functionalist protection of family members. (but evidence perspective on family on child abuse demonstrates that families do stresses not always serve this function.) ongoing nurturing relationship2)physicalprotection Needs essential to regulation&safety3)experiences the emotional and tailored2individual physical health and differences4)developmentally appropriate development of experiences5limit setting babies and children structure&expectations6stable supportive (7 needs) community&cultural continuity7protectedfuture arranging one¶s life to provide time to work, time to have children and stay home with sequencing them, and time to reenter the outside workforce again. middle-aged elderly women especially devastated by divorce who often have displaced dedicated themselves to managing a home homemakers and raising children and then find themselves jettisoned after years of marriage identify a number of functions families typically perform: reproduction, socialization, Functionalist care, protection, and emotional support, perspective on family assignment of status, and regulation of sexual behavior through the norm of legitimacy family confers ascribed statuses that orient a person2a variety of interpersonal functionalist relationships,involving parents,siblings,&other perspective on family kin,&that2.orient a person2basic group cont memberships,including racial,ethnic,religious,class,national,&commu nity relationships conflict theorists have seen the family as a social arrangement benefiting men more than conflict perspective women. Some conflict sociologists say that on family intimate relationships inevitably involve antagonism as well as love

symbolic interactionists emphasize that families reinforce and rejuvenate their bonds interactionist perspective on family through the symbolic mechanism of rituals such as family meals and ho

psychological disorders,stress,treatment psychological disorders,stress,treatment

Question Stress types of stress Frustration change pressure conflict

types of conflict

role conflicts conflict bwtn person and role:

intrarole conflict:

interrole conflict

responses to

Answer any circumstance that threaten or are perceived to threaten ones well being and tax ones coping abilities frustration,conflict,change,pressure pursuit of ones goal is blocked,everyday hassels,brief and not terribly important requires readjustment of ones life,habits. caused by positive and negativve events. expectations or demands to perform a certain way, usually time restrained when two or more impulses compete for expression approach-approach:choice to be made bwtn 2 attractive goals. avoidance-avoidance:choice to be made bwtn 2 unattractive goals. approachavoidance:choice to be made whether to pursue a goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects reflect disagreements or friction bwtn expectations about how one should behave occurs when a person is faced with a role that is incompatible with a persons attitude or personality. ex. a normally quiet and unassertive student is elected to student body president. refers to conflict within a role. ex: parents deal with intrarole conflict as it is often difficult to disciplineand be a friend to their child at the same time. tension bwtn two different roles that must be played at the same time. ex:children may find themselves playing parent to aging parents,though they are still treated as sons and daughters. emotional,physiological,behavioral

stress: emotional response: annoyance,anger,apprehension,anxiety,fear,sadn ess, grief. can affect memory,attention,judgement and decision making. brain pathways involved in stress responce. heart rate,hormones etc.

physiological responses: Selye explained stress reactions in general adaptation syndrome terms of: three stages of alarm,resistance,exhaustion gas stage 1: physiological response to threatening alarm stimulus stage 2: organism adapts to threat physiological resistance changes stabilize stage 3: the bodys resources become exhaustion taxed,organism collapses from exhaustion trying to cope with stress. coping strategies could behavioral be good or bad for you. ex. blame oneself,give response up,act aggressively,addictions is when people believe that events occure external loc because of uncontrollable factors that are external to them. internal loc is when people believe that they are in control influences out perception of and our dealing with loc stress and stressful events is a network of nerves that prepares the organs sympathetic for rigorous activity. increases blood nervous system pressure,respiration(flight or flight response) facilitates vegetative,nonemergency responses parasympathetic by the organs. dominant during our relaxed nervous system stages. the hypothalumus,pituitary gland and adrenal hpa axis cortex adrenocorticotropi stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. c hormone(acth) helps the body mobilize energy to fight a difficult cortisol situation most important leukocytes

element of the immune system in response to an infection,leukocyt es and other cells cytokines produce small proteins called are the the immune systems way of telling the cytokines brain that the body is sick. they produce symptoms of being sick. posttraumatic occurs in some people after terrifying stress experiences. disorder(ptsd) ptsd victims show lower than normal cortisol levels what? argues that the nature of todays crisis are more sapolsky(1988) prolonged explanations of biological,psychological,supernatural mental illness abnormal behavior approached like biological disease,physical cause,malfunction of the brain psychological fear,anxiety,frustration cause mental illness explanation mysterious forces such as demons,spirits,devil. magic,exorcism,bloodlettiing,trepanation,witch supernatural hunts. medical model of the idea that abnormal behavior is a disease. mental illness people with a diagnosis is made,a etiology is sought, and mental disorders prognosis is made transvestic sexual and gender identity disorder, men like to fetihism dress like women. different from normal/cultural standards)the deviant behavior is having negative consequences for maladaptive social,occupational functioning the behavior is subjectively painful the behavior is for the distressing individual

diagnostic and statistical manual book of recognied disorders of mental disorders 4th ed. disorders marked by feelings of excessive anxiety disorders apprehension and anxiety generalized chronic "free floating anxiety" about nearly anxiety disorder everything.experience trembling,diarrea,dizziness phobic disorder specific focus of fear;irrational, no real threat panic disorder paralyzing attacks of anxiety,may lead to and agoraphobia agoraphobia obsessive compulsive obsessive thoughts,compulsive actions disorder(0cd) posttraumatic psychological disturbance due to major traumatic stress disorder events physical ailments caused by psychological somatoform factors/disturbances, as they cannot be explained disorders b organi conditions.

cognitive function for bio psych cognitive function for bio psych

Question Anomia Anterior commissure Aphasia Binocular rivalry Broca's aphasia (nonfluent aphasia) Broca's area Conscious Corpus callosum Dyslexia



Inattentional blindness Language built-in mechanism for acquiring language acquisition device division of labor between the two hemispheres of Lateralization the brain point at which parts of the optic nerves cross Optic chiasm from one side of the brain to the other Phi phenomenon tendency to see something as moving back and

Answer difficulty recalling the names of objects set of axons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres; smaller than the corpus callosum language impairment alternating perception of what the left eye sees with what the right eye sees, when the two are incompatible condition marked by loss of fluent speech and impaired use and understanding of prepositions, word endings, and other grammatical devices portion of the human left frontal lobe associated with certain aspects of language, especially language production capable of reporting the presence of a stimulus large set of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex specific reading difficulty in a person with adequate vision and at least average skills in other academic areas condition characterized by repeated episodes of excessive, synchronized neural activity, mainly because of decreased release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA point in the brain where someone's epileptic seizures begin unawareness of stimuli to which a person did not direct his or her attention

forth between positions, when in fact it is alternately blinking on and off in those positions area of the temporal cortex that for most people Planum temporale is larger in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere claim that children do not hear many examples of Poverty of the some of the grammatical structures they acquire stimulus argument and therefore that they could not learn them ability of language to produce new signals to Productivity represent new ideas tendency to ignore the left side of the body or its Spatial neglect surroundings those who have undergone damage to the Split-brain people corpus callosum area of the world that an individual can see at Visual field any time Wernicke's condition marked by poor language aphasia (fluent comprehension and great difficulty remembering aphasia) the names of objects portion of the human left temporal lobe Wernicke's area associated with language comprehension type of mental retardation in which the person Williams has relatively good language skills in spite of syndrome extremely limited abilities in other regards

Abbreviations - Respiratory Abbreviations - Respiratory

Abbreviation Definition AFB ARDS CF COPD CT CXR CO2 flu LLL LTB LUL O2 OSA PCP PE PFTs PSG RLL RML RUL TB URI VPS acid-fast bacilli adult respiratory distress syndrome cystic fibrosis chronic obstructive pulmonary disease computed tomography chest x-ray carbon dioxide influenza left lower lobe laryngotracheobronchitis left upper lobe oxygen obstructive sleep apnea Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia pulmonary embolism pulmonary function tests polysomnography right lower lobe right middle lobe right upper lobe tuberculosis upper respiratory infection ventilation-perfusion scanning

Psychology Terms Psychology Terms

Question Who was William James? What did Wilhelm Wundt do? Introspection

Answer Wrote and published "The Principles of Psychology" Set up 1st psychology lab in an apartment near the university at Leipzig, Germany

where subjects are asked to record accurately their cognitive reactions to simple stimuli something that rouses to activity (incentive, stimuli stimulant being involved in conscious intellectual activity cognition (thinking, reasoning, or remembering) the idea that the mind operates by combining subjective (lacking in reality) emotions and Structuralism objective (material) sensations (Wilheml Wundt Theory) the theory of how the mind functions to adapot the individual to the environment (William James Functionalism theory) Gestalt psycologist that argued against dividing Max Wertheimer human thought and behavior into discrete structures. Psychology that tried to examine a person's total experience because the way we experience the Gestalt world is more than just an accumulation of various perceptual experiences

Domestic Abuse and Suicide Domestic Abuse and Suicide

Question Answer Describe teh scope of domestic violence in 2 to 12 million families; mostly wife abuse our society

most common with substance abuse, especially alcohol and c****; occurs in all racial, religoious and socioeconomic groups Explain the cycle of tension building phase; violent phase; violence (3) honeymoon phase psychological variables: past history of abuse, low self-esteem, to "save" the explain teh barriers to disturbed man; finances, shelter, children, women getting out of fear, threats of retaliation, isolation, lack of DV situations family and social support, embarrassment, shame, stigma, lack of faith in system openings; asking hard questions; nonPhysician responses judgmental; safety planning; know that it to DV situations takes time; no mandate to report it 3 kinds of domestic spousal abuse, elder abuse, child abuse abuse mother constantly takes child for medical Munchausen's treatment; sometimes by making the children Syndrome sick or making them look sick; mother is gratified by the clinic visit and attention intercourse, inappropriate touch, forcing teh What are forms of child to watch pornography, takin gponron Child sexual abuse pictures, sexually explicit conversations, adult having animals lick children What is child-child oral activity; one much older than the other, if sexual experimentation that one is mentally challenged, forceful behavior needs intervention? in stages similar to death/dying stages; begin tentitavely at first, and reveal once they feel How do children comfortable; many recant their stories after disclose abuse? revealing abuse parents who were abused or were overly punished; premature children; MR; physically risk factors for child disabled; excessive criers; "difficult child" abuse ADHD; views as different, slow, bad, selfish or hard to discipline ARe most child abuse no cases reported? what happens to most unsubstantiated adn dropped risk facors for domestic violence

reported child abuse cases? What sex are most child abuse victims? Who are usually the perpertrators of child abuse? What are the parent risk factors for child abuse? what is most common form of incest? what are teh behavioral indicator of child sexual abuse what do you do if child abuse is suspected How should you interview if you suspect abuse? When sexual abuse is suspected... how sensitive is physical exam? Does HIPAA apply with child abuse?

women fathers PHYSICAL ABUSE: more often mother than fathers; one parent isusually the active batterer and the other passively accepts the situation; poor, socially isolated; regularly living in the home; inappropriate expectations of their children father-daughter detailed knowledge of sexual acts, sexualized play, sexual acts with peers REPORT IT careful adn not ask overly in-depth questions; are you hurting anywhere in your private places today? only 10%!!!! 90% of sexual abuse exam should be history! NO

speaks in a manner consistent; does not How do you analyze sound rehearsed; does not use adult-like phrasing; emotional distress, relucance to veracity of child's reveal; precocious sexual behavioral and presentation? knowledge What makes up the Police, Prosecuting attorney; child advocacy Multi-disciplinary center; CPS;special advocates; medical Investigative Team? professionals Age of censent in WV 16 but must be 4 years age difference or less common examples of bruises or marks that are symmetrical; injury injuries seen in child to both sides of face, back or buttocks; bruise


with shape of the instrument used; cigarette burns; multiple fractures

what kind of fractures fractures in non-ambulatory infoants in infants are most often from abuse? what is the second most common cuase abdominal injuries of child abuse fatality? what is the cause of most failure to thrive psychosocial causes (often from neglect) cases? ability to maintain extreme calm and imperturbability steadiness ability to handle stressful situations with an equanimity undisturbed, even temper hand to mouth; grasping reflex; visual birth to 4 weeks tracking tonic neck reflex positions predominate; follows moving objects to the midline. visual 4 weeks fixation follows a slowly moving object well; 16 weeks spontaneous social smile one hand approach and grasp of toy; takes 28 weeks foot to mouth; starts to imitate mothers sounds separation anxiety manifest when taken from 40 weeks mother; feeds self c****er and holds own bottle 52 weeks walks with one hand held; stnds alone briefly toddles; creeps up stairs; points or vocalizes 15 months wants coordinated walking; seldom falls; walks up 18 months stairs with one hand held runs well; no falling; goes up and down stairs 2 years alone rides tricycle; unbuttons buttons; feeds self 3 years well; understands taking turns washes and dries own face; burshes teeth; 4 years associative or joint play

5 years 6 years ADHD

counts 10 objects; dresses and undresses self; plays competitive exercise games rides two-wheel bike; prints name; ties shoelaces usually have other misbehaving kind of problems... maybe acting out to get under your skin

what is the order mean, median, mode between median, mode and mean? what is the mode on a top of teh "hill"; value tha tis most chart? representing in the population

Chapter 1 - Theory & Research in Child Development Chapter 1 - Theory & Research in Child Development


Answer Area of study devoted to Child Development understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence Interdisiplinary field devoted to the Developmental Science study of all changes we experience throughout the lifespan Prenatal Period Conception to birth (9 months) Birth - 2 years. Emergence of motor, perceptual, and intellectual Infancy & Toddlerhood capacities/Beginnings of language. First intimate ties to other. 2-6 years. Body lengthens, motor skills Early Childhood refined. Child more selfsufficient.Make-believe play. 6-11 years. Improved athletic abilities. More logical though processes. Middle Childhood Mastery of basic literacy skills. Advance in understanding of self, morality and friendship. 11-18 years. Puberty. Abstract and Adolescence idealistic thoughts. Autonomy. (1) Continuous or discontinuous (2) Basic Issues of One or many possible courses of Developmental Psychology development? (3) Nature vs. nurture (4) ree will vs determinism Orderly, integrated set of statements Theory that describes, explains, and predicts behavior View that regards development as a cumulative process of gradually Continuous Development augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with. Development process in which new Discontinuous Development ways of understanding and responding

to the world emerge at specific times. Like steps. Blank slate. John Locke¶s belief that a child¶s character is shaped entirely by experience. Believed praise & approval Tabula Rasa better than rewards of money or sweets. Opposed physical punishment. Many courses Ability to adapt effectively in the face of Resilience threats to development. Jean-Jacques Rousseau¶s view that children are born with a sense of right Noble Savages and wrong and a plan for orderly, healthy growth. Genetically determined, naturally Maturation unfolding course of growth. Age-related averages computed to represent typical development. Normatative Approach Launched by Hall & Gesell. Used questionnaires, observations, interviews. Founder of child-study movement. Stanley Hall Launched normatative approach. Constructed the first intelligence test. Binet & Simon Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fred¶s view of personality development. Children move through stages in which they confront conflicts Psychoanalytic Perspective between biological drives and social expectations. Resolution of conflicts determines psychological adjustment. Discontinuous. Freud¶s theory emphasizes parent¶s management of children¶s sexual and Psychosexual Theory aggressive drives in the first few years of life are crucial for personality development. Erikson¶s theory which emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, Psychosocial Theory individuals also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active,

contributing members of society. (1) Basic trust vs mistrust; Oral ± Birth1 yr (2) Autonomy vs shame and doubt; Anal ± 1-3 yrs (3) Initiative vs Erickson¶s Psychosocial guilt; Phallic ± 3- 6 yrs (4) Industry vs Stages Inferiority; Latency ± 6-11 yrs (5) Identity vs role confusion; Genital ± Adolescence Directly observable events such as stimuli and response are the BehaviourismWatson & appropriate focus of study. Classic and Skinner operant condition. John Watson. Continuous Emphasis on nurture. Emphasizes the role of modeling or Social Learning observational learning in development TheoryAlberta Bandura of behavior. Learning doesn't depend on reinforcers. Construct knowledge as explore their world. Biological Jean PiagetCognitiveadaptation to fit the external world. Development Theory Stages: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational stage. Discontinuous. Continuous development. Acquires Information Processing information through processing Theory (problem solving). Computer like. Researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, medicine study Developmental Cognitive relationship between changes in the Neuroscience brain and developing child¶s cognitive processing and behavior patterns. Focuses on adaptive or survival value of behavior and on similarities between Ethology human behavior and other species. Both continuous and discontinuous. Understanding the adaptive value of Evolutionary Developmental species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies and their change Psychology with age. VygotskySociocultural Cognitive development a socially Theory mediated process; children depend on

assistance from adults and peers to take on new challenges. Stagewise changes. Both continuous and discontinuous. How culture is transmitted to the next generation. Microsystem. Mesosystem. Bronfenbrenner'sEcological Exosystem. Macrosystem. Systems Theory Chronosystem is the temporal changes and effects of the system. Always changing, any changes Dynamic Systems disrupts the system and child actively Perspective reorganize his or her behavior to adapt. Continuous and discontinuous. Prediction, drawn directly from a Hypothesis theory. Laboratory situation is set up that evokes a behavior of interest so that Structured Observations every participant has an opportunity to display the response. Observation of a culture or social group. Typically spends months or Ethnography years in cultural community to observe. Each participant is asked the same Structured Interviews questions in the same way. Researcher fathers information on individuals without altering participants¶ experience s and examines Correlational Design relationships between variables. CON: No inferences about CAUSE and EFFECT. Quasi-experiemental. Has independent variable and Experimental Design dependent variable. Participants studied repeatedly at different ages and changes noted as they age. PROS: Able to identify Longitudinal Design patterns & examine relationships of early and later behaviours. CONS: Participants move. Test-wiseness. cohort effects People in different age groups are Cross-Sectional Design studied at the same point in time.

Sequential Design

Microgenetic Design


Resilience Nature


Protective Factors (Resilience)

Medievil Times

Sensorimotor Stages

Preoperational Stage

PROS: No dropout rates. CONS: Cohort effects ± effects of culturalhistorical change in accuracy of findings; cannot tell if individual differences exist. Combination of LONGITUDINAL & CROSS SECTIONAL. Several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times. Presents children with a task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions. Adaption of longitudinal. Useful for studying of cognitive development. All behavior is determined by preceding events. OPPOSITION ± free will Depends on protective factors (Sonja Luther); goodness of fit (Lerner & Lerner); Inborn biological hereditary information received from our parents Forces of physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth Personal Characteristics. Warm Parental Relationship. Social Support Outside of Immediate Family. Community Resources & Opportunities. Mixed ideas about children: Children regarded as born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized; children portrayed as innocents Birth - 2 yrs. Piaget's first stage. Senses and movements. Think with eyes, ears, hands & mouth 2 - 7 yrs. Piaget's 2nd stage. Symbolic but illogical thinking. Language and make-believe begin

Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage

Jean Jacques Rousseau


7 - 11 yrs. Piaget's 3rd stage. Organized reasoning, logical. 11+ yrs. Piaget's 4th stage. Abstract, systematic reasoning. Noble savages. Child centered philosophy - adults should be receptive to child's needs at all 4 stages of development. Includes 2 steps: stages and maturation. Discontinuous; one course. Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development. Periods of rapid transformation from stage to stage, plateaus in between. Discontinuous theories view development as stages.

Discovering what psychology is Discovering what psychology is

Question What is psychology?

Answer academic and applied discipline involving the systematic, and often scientific, study of human/animal mental functions and behavior

Who is the father of modern Sigmund Freud day psychology? What is one subfield of Abnormal psychology? What is one Cognitive subfield of psychology? Forensic psychology covers a broad range of What is forensic practices including the clinical evaluations of psychology? defendants, reports to judges and attorneys, and courtroom testimony on given issues Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the What is effectiveness of educational interventions, the educational psychology of teaching, and the social psychology psychology? of schools as organizations. Legal psychology is a research-oriented field populated with researchers from several different What is legal areas within psychology (although social and psychology? cognitive psychologists are typical). What is Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a occupational discipline that emerged out of health psychology, health industrial/organizational psychology, and psychology? occupational health. Quantitative psychology involves the application of What is mathematical and statistical modeling in quantitative psychological research, and the development of psychology? statistical methods for analyzing and explaining

What is school psychology?

What is social psychology? What is personality psychology?

behavioral data. School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities and otherwise to promote safe, supportive, and effective learning environments. Social psychology is the study of social behavior and mental processes, with an emphasis on how humans think about each other and how they relate to each other. Social psychologists are especially interested in how people react to social situations. Personality psychology studies enduring patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion in individuals, commonly referred to as personality.

Chapter 12 Blood Chapter 12 Blood

Hint Name the 3 Granulocytes. The nongranular Leukocytes are? Normally what percentage of blood is RBC Normally what percentage of blood is plasma? Myeloid tissue is also know as? This type of Anemia can be caused by a lack of vitamin B12. The formation of new blood cells is known as? Which type of lymphocytes make antibodies? These lymphocytes directly attack bacteria. What are the formed elements in blood? Platelets are also known as? White blood cells are also known as? Red blood cells are also known as? Normal adult blood volume is?

Answer Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils. Lymphocytes and Monocytes. 45%

55% Red bone marrow. Pernicious Anemia



T-lymphocytes RBC's, WBC's, and Platelets. Thrombocytes Leukocytes Erthrocytes 4 to 6 liters

How long can donated blood be stored?

6 weeks A hemolytic anemia found most frequently in people of Mediterranean descent, causes abnormal hemoglobin resulting in low hemoglobin numbers. Also causes low oxygen content in tissue, swelling of spleen and liver, and crippling skeletal deformity

Thalassemia Major

What type of WBC is the most numerous Neutrophils in the body? What is the life span 80 to 120 days of a RBC? Low oxygen carrying ability of the blood. Body produces defective or low numbers of RBC's. Anemia Normal adult hemoglobin numbers range from 12 to 14 g/100ml. Less than 9 g/100ml indicates anemia. Polycythemia The overproduction RBC's Myeloid tissue is Sternum, ribs, and hip bones found in what bones? Unique blood flow from the intestines to the Hepatic Portal liver. Hepatic Portal Vein carries blood from 2 Circulation capillary beds in the intestine. Hemostasis The prevention of blood loss Hemostasis is 1-Vascular Spasm2-Platelet formation3maintained by? Coagulation RBC's in 1 cubic 5,000,000 millimeter WBC's in 1 cubic 7500 millimeter Platelets in 1 cubic 300,000 millimeter Genetic disease causing sickle shaped Sickle Cell Anemia hemoglobin. Causes reduction of blood flow. What WBC's have Lymphocytes the longest life?

Umbilical Vein Umbilical Arteries Ductous Venosus Foramen Ovale Ductous Arteriosus What percentage of total body weight is blood? Size of a RBC Leukopenia Leukocytosis Differential WBC count

Carries oxygenated blood to the placenta. There is only 1. Carries oxygen-poor blood from the placenta back to the mother. There is 2. A shunt that allows blood to bypass the liver in a fetus. Hole/shunt allowing blood to pass from right atrium directly into left atrium. Allowing blood to bypass fetal lungs. Conects the aorta and pulmonary artery. Aids in the bypassing of blood to fetal lungs. 7% to 9% 7-9 micrometers Low WBC count (below 5000 WBC/cubic millimeter) High WBC count (above 10,00/cubic millimeter) Measures proportions of each type of WBC.

Neutrophils 60-70%, Lymphocytes 20-25%, Leukocytes in blood Monocytes 3-8%, Eosinophils 2-4%, Basophils 0.5-1%. What's in plasma? 7% protein, 91% water, 2% other solutes. Promotes the formation of prothrombin by the Vitamin K liver. Produce platelets. Known as platelet mother Megakarocytes cells. Albumin A protein that expands plasma. Serum Plasma minus it's clotting factors A protein containing antibodies that help Globulin protect us from infections. When a clot stays in the place where it Thrombus formed. Embolis A dislodged clot in the bloodstream. RBC antigen type A. Antibodies in plasma Type A blood anti-B

Type B blood Type AB blood Type O blood Ischemia Necrosis Gangrene Veins Layers of blood vessels Atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis

RBC antigen type B. Antibodies in plasma anti-A. RBC antigen type AB. Antibodies in plasma none. Universal recipient. RBC antigen none. Antibodies in plasma antiA and anti-B. Universal donor. Decreased blood supply to tissue. Tissue death due to lack of blood supply to tissue. The decay of necrotic tissue. Carry blood to the heart. Veins have valves. Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa. The media/muscle layer is thicker in arteries.Externa layer thicker in veins. Hardening of the inside of an artery Hardening of outside of artery

Personality Disorders Personality Disorders

Question Paranoid Personality Disorder

Answer Paranoid about everything, bear grudges, trouble in relationships, stalkers, abusive spouse

Pervasive pattern of detachment from relationships, Schizoid Pers. the loner, shows no emotion, don't care if you criticize Dis. them or praise them, very cold, into math/computers discomfort with close relationships, eccentrics-Schizotypal artists, poets, psychics, superstitious, odd thinking, Pers. Dis. long, curly nails, weird affect, paranoia--social anxiety Anti-social pervasive pattern of disregard for others since age pers. dis. 18. lack of remorse, no compassion. Borderline A pattern of instability in several areas of life; needy, Pers. dis. avoid abandonment, sabotage relationships seductive, gullible, pattern of excessive emotionality Histrionic and attention seeking; needs to be center of Pers Dis. attention, act like children seems most concerned with or in love with themselves, everyone else's fault, criterion is grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy, Narcissistic brags a lot, believe that they're special and can only pers dis be understood by a special, qualified person, sense of enti Avoidant Avoids all types of situations, social inhibitions, Pers. dis hypersensitivity to criticism, feelings of inadequacy might be diagnosed with substance abuse; can't be alone, need to be taken care of-clingy behavior, fear Dependent of separation, need excessive advice and assurance pers dis from others, scared to disagree; helpless when alone, preoccupied with being left alone

Chapter 14 -Psychological Disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 18th Edition) Chapter 14 -Psychological Disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 18th Edition)

Question acute chronic organic functional

Answer temporary, severe persistent, no cure physical/chemical cause mental and/or social cause a psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety disorder anxiety that disrupts everyday functioning an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent state generalized anxiety of anxiety that exists independently of any disorder particular stressful situation an anxiety disorder marked by sudden, unexpected attacks of overwhelming anxiety, panic disorder often associated with the fear of dying or "losing one's mind" an anxiety disorder marked by excessive or phobia inappropriate fear an anxiety disorder in which the person has obsessiverecurrent, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and compulsive recurrent urges to perform ritualistic actions disorder (OCD) (compulsions) a psychological disorder characterized by somatoform physical symptoms in the absence of disease or disorder injury a somatoform disorder in which the person hypochondriasis interprets the slightest physical changes as evidence of a serious illness a somatoform disorder in which the person exhibits motor or sensory loss or the alteration conversion disorder of a physiolocial function without any apparent physical cause a psychological disorder marked by prolonged mood disorder periods of extreme depression or elation often unrelated to the person's current situation

a mood disorder marked by depression so major depression intense and prolonged that the person may be unable to function in everyday life a mood disorder in which severe depression seasonal affective arises during a particular season, usually the disorder (SAD) winter but sometimes the summer a mood disorder marked by periods of mania bipolar disorder alternating with longer periods of major depression a psychological disorder characterized by personality disorder enduring, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behavior a class of psychological disorders characterized schizophrenia by grossly impaired social, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual functioning a type of schizophrenia marked by sever disorganized personality deterioration and extremely bizarre schizophrenia behavior a type of schizophrenia marked by unusual catatonic motor behavior, such as bizarre actions, schizophrenia extreme agitation, or immobile stupor a type of schizophrenia marked by paranoid hallucinations, delusions, suspiciousness, and schizophrenia argumentativeness a syndrome of physical and psychological posttraumatic symptoms that appears as a delayed response stress disorder after exposure to an extremely emotionally (PTSD) distressing event disorders in which, under unbearable stress, dissociative consciousness becomes dissociated from a disorders person's identity or her or his memories of important personal events, or both. dissociative A complete or partial loss of memory. amnesia Complete loss of memory of one's entire dissociative fugue identity. undifferentiated A generic term when one does not fit into a schizophrenia criteria type. A condition in which arousal and/or sexual Fetish gratification is attained through inanimate






paraphilia - sexual disorders


Abnormal Partialism Zoophilia

objects (shoes, pantyhose) or non-sexual body parts (feet, hair), its a problem when the person cannot complete a sexual act without the object present This disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (typically age 13 or younger). This disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual observes an unsuspecting stranger who is naked, disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity. (peeping tom type thing) either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual exposes his or her genitals to an unsuspecting stranger either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual is sexually aroused by causing humiliation or physical suffering of another person either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual is humiliated, beaten, bound, or made to suffer in some way distressing and repetitive sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors; must occur for a significant period of time and must interfere with either satisfactory sexual relations or everyday functioning if the diagnosis is to be made A legal term representing the inability to know right from wrong or the inability to understand the consequences of one's actions. not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm, interferes in everyday life or presentation in society concentration of libidinal interest on one part of the body an abnormal fondness or preference for animals.

Paranoid Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Dependant Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder

-Paranoid -unwarranted suspiciousness -overtly sensitive to criticism -readily angered /grudges reluctance to confide -few friends/ intimate relationships -hypervigilant about harm -deny blame of self -cold, aloof, devious and humorless -dramatic & emotional presentation -excessive need for attention -attention-seeking behaviors exaggerated emotional expressions -exaggerated sense of self-importance complete demand for attention/admiration exploitative -expect others to notice special qualities or talents -lack of empathy -demands to be center of attention -Needs to be taken care of -Reliance on others Inability to assume responsibilities -Failure to conform to social or legal codes Lack of anxiety and guilt -Irresponsible behaviors -no remorse -very impulsive egocentric, very munipulative, callous A condition occurring in individuals with a history of schizophrenic episodes, characterized by blunted or inappropriate emotion, social withdrawal, eccentric behavior, and the making of loose associations, and lacking in prominent psychotic symptoms. Gottesman, Genetics; abnormalities in the brain; family history or family interaction as an environmental stressor out of touch with reality DSM-IV-TR

Residual Schizophrenia

Causes of Schizophrenia Psychosis What manual is used to classify abnormality?

Skeletal System Skeletal System

Question Skeletal System Functions: Types/Shapes of Bones: Metaphysis: Diaphysis: Medullary Cavity:

Answer Support; Protection; Movement; Mineral Storage; Blood Formation; Long; Short; Flat; Irregular

Growth Plate of long bone Shaft of long bone Bone Marrow Thick ends of bones; Hylene cartilage Epiphysis: covered Red: Red blood cells; Children have all red; 2 Types of Bone Yellow: Fatty; Doesn't produce blood cells; Marrow: mostly in long bones 2 Parts of long bones: Periosteum; Endosteum Outer Covering of bones; 2 layers: Outer Periosteum: (collagen/fibrous); Inner: Bone forming cells Inside: Lines Medullary cavity; Bone Endosteum: forming cells; Reticular Connective Tissue Organic & Inorganic. Organic: 1/3; collagen; Matrix of Bone tissue: flexible; Inorganic: 2/3 hydroxyapatite; Strength Osteogenic; Osteoblasts; Osteocytes; 4 Bone Cells: Osteoclasts Stem cells: give way to other bone cells; Osteogenic Cells: Found in endosteum (grow/multiply); From fibroblasts From osteogenic cells; Non-mitotic; Bone Osteoblast Cells: forming; Surfaces of bone; Trapped in matrix and become osteocytes Help with mineral storage; Thicker/inner Osteocyte Cells: portion of bone Formed from 3-5 stem cells that fuse together; Large multiple nuclei formed in Osteoclast Cells: bone marrow; Dissolve bone with acid. Work with osteoblasts to break down 2 Types of bone tissue: Compact; Spongy

Formed by combining osteons; 1 central (Haversion) canal & concentric rings Lattice/Spikes & Rods; Rings but no central Spongy bone tissue: canal; Trabeculae (spikes, projections); Found in epiphysis Contains nerves and blood vessels in Haversion canal: compact bone tissue Lamellae: Rings of Matrix (in compact bone tissue) Cavities: find osteocytes (in compact bone Lacumae: tissue) Projections: Allow osteocytes to Canaliculi: communicate (in compact bone) Canal that feeds blood & nerve supply to Volkmans' Canal: haversion canal; Allows osteons to communicate; removes wastes Intramembraneous ossification: Membrane/Fibrous sheet; Endochondrial 2 ways bone develope: Ossification: Majority of bones; Cartilege model Type of bone that Flatbones encloses and protects: Slender channels that Canaliculi branch off lacunae: Rings of Matrix: Lamallae Bone Dissolving cells Osteoclasts Found in Lacunae: Osteocytes Shaft of long bone: Diaphysis Crystallized inorganic Hydroxyapatite portion of bone matrix: Inner covering, bone Endosteum forming cells found here: Bone forming cells: Osteoblasts Also known as the Metaphysis epiphseal plate: Articular surface of a Epiphysis long bone: Formed by combining Compact bone Compact bone tissue:

osteons: Have trabeculae: Outer covering, bone forming cells found here Intramembraneous ossification: Endochondrial Ossification:

Spongy Bone Periosteum Membrane/Fibrous sheet; One way bones develop Majority of bones; Cartilege model; One way bones develop

Modern Psych Perspectives Modern Psych Perspectives


Answer How the body and brain enable emotions, Neuroscience memories, and sensory experiences How the natural selection of traits promotes the Evolutionary perpetuation of one's genes Behavior How much our genes and our environment genetics influence our individual differences How behavior springs from unconscious drives Psychodynamic and conflicts Behavioral How we learn obserable responses How we encode, process, store, and retrive Cognitive information How behavior and thinking vary across situations Social-cultural and cultures

psychology psychology

Question Being aware of things outside yourself is an example of consciousness Imagining the test of a favorite food from childhood is an example consciousness The level of consciousness in which people can recall information if they have to is the ____ BIological functions such as blood pressure exist Which of the following is not an altered state of consciousness a sequence of bodily changes that occurs every 24 hours is known as What is the lightest stage of sleep The most vivd dreams occur during What is insomnia what method of narrowing consciousness leads to relaxation a method through which people have learned to control some bodily functions such as heart rate is an altered state of consciousness in which people respond to suggestions and behave as though they are in a trance is a person who takes a drug for a while and then craves it just to feel normal is experiencing what are drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system known as which of the following is an example of a narcotic what drugs increase the activity of the nervous system which of the following is a drug that produces hallucinations

Answer sensory awareness direct inner awareness Preconscious level on a nonconscious level being aware of the environment circadian rhythm Stage 1 sleep Rem sleep the inability to sleep meditation biofeedback

hypnosis an addiction depressants Morphine stimulants LSD

which of the following treatments for drug abuse involves the removal of the poisonous detoxification substance fro the body

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