P. 1
1. Marine Engineering System - Introduction

1. Marine Engineering System - Introduction

|Views: 9,436|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju on Dec 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/28/2013

pdf

text

original

MARINE PROPULSION ENGINE

STEAM
ENGINE

DIESEL
ENGINE

GAS TURBINE
ENGINE

STEAM
TURBINE
ENGINE

RECIPROCATING
STEAM ENGINE

SPARK
IGNITION

COMPRESSION
IGNITION

TWO STROKE

FOUR STROKE

CATERGORIES

Steam Turbine Engine

Gas turbine engine

Steam Engine

Diesel engine

Prime movers

Gas Turbines

Gas turbine have been selected as the future prime mover primarily
because of their high power to weight ratio.

4. Weight sensitive ship designs favor gas turbines and projected light
weight fuel cell power plants such as PEM.

They also provide significant reduction in the amount of routine
maintenance required when compared with diesel generators.

The other significant factor is the low emissions.

Diesel engine

Diesel engines offer fuel costs savings of 50% if heavy fuels can be
used, and if emissions can be maintained at acceptable levels.

Maintenance may include engine modifications such as dual fuel
capability for in-port use, water injection, and timing retard, and exhaust
treatment such as selected catalytic reduction and oxidation catalysts.

Heavy fuel use also requires careful selection of cylinder material and
lube oil

Turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine
that extracts energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of
gas or fuel oil in a stream of compressed air.

It has an upstream air compressor radial or axial flow mechanically
coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in
between.

Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited
in the combustor

The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades, spinning the
turbine, and, mechanically, powering the compressor.

Finally, the gases are passed through a nozzle , generating additional
thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by expansion back to
atmospheric pressure.

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy
from pressurized steam , and converts it into useful mechanical work.

Steam Turbine engine

The Steam turbine is use to obtain mechanical work
from the energy stored in steam.
Steam enters the turbine with high energy content
and leaves after giving up most of it.
The high pressure steam from the boiler is
expanded in nozzles to create a high velocity jet of
steam, which produces the force which causes
rotation of the shaft.

Gas turbine

The Gas turbine is use for obtaining mechanical
work from the energy stored in Gases in which
combustion take place in the combustion chamber.
The hot gases enters the turbine with high energy
content and leaves after giving up most of it.
The high pressure gases from the combustion
chamber is expanded in nozzles to create a high
velocity jet of gases, which produces the force which
causes rotation of the shaft.

Gas Turbine

First 3 shaft concept, January 1945

POWER
TURBINE

GEAR
BOX

Coberra 6000 Starting Sequence

Coberra 6000 Starting Sequence

Typical Arrangement

Typical Arrangement

Roll Royce

Roll Royce
Gas Generator

Gas Generator

RT - 56

RT - 56
RT - 62

RT - 62

Centrifugal

Centrifugal
Compressor

Compressor

GG TURBINES

GG COMBUSTOR

GG COMPRESSORS

AIR
INTAKE

RB211

RB211

HP

IP

Steam engine

COGAG

Combined gas turbine and gas
turbine (COGAG)
is propulsion
system for ships using two gas
turbines connected to a single
propeller shaft.

A gearbox and clutches allow
either of the turbines to drive the
shaft or both of them combined.

Using one or two gas turbines has
the advantage of having two
different power settings.

Since the fuel efficiency of a gas
turbine is best near its maximum
power level, a small gas turbine
running at its full speed is more
efficient compared to a twice as
powerful turbine running at half
speed, allowing more economic
transit at cruise speeds.

Diesel engine

Electric drive

Electric drive transmissions have a higher specific fuel consumption, specific
weight and volume than mechanical drive systems, but has advantages in
arrangement which may compensate for these disadvantages.

Advanced technology motors can be located very close to and on line with the
propulsors, at the extreme aft end of the ship, or in external pods.

Electrical generator sets can be optimally spaced around the ship and
electrically connected. In the longer term, combined with fuel cells, SFC, specific
weight and volume are comparable with gas turbine and diesel prime movers for
direct drive systems.
Zone Concept :

The concept of dividing future classes of ship into zones to maximize
survivability also extends to the power system.

Each zone would be autonomous and include ventilation systems, cooling
systems, power distribution and other services which could be affected by
damage to another part of the ship.

At least two supplies would be provided for all essential loads. Current classes,
using split generation and distribution, rely on the provision of normal and
alternative supplies via Automatic Change-Over Switches

Fuel cell

The fuel cell stack operates by utilizing electrochemical reactions between
an oxidant (air) and a fuel (hydrogen), with two electrodes separated by a
membrane.

The voltage of the fuel cell output can be controlled by a converter and it is
therefore able to connect to any point in the ship service or propulsion
distribution system.

The fuel cell stack is modularity give redundancy advantage. It also has the
additional advantages of zero noxious emissions, and low thermal and
acoustic signatures.

In the short term the fuel cell system is required to use marine diesel fuel.
Diesel fuel will require reforming within the fuel cell stack, or using an
external process, to produce a hydrogen rich gas which the fuel cell stack is
capable of processing.

The reformer will clearly add both size, weight and complexity to the fuel cell
system. In the longer term technologies such as the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
(SOFC) are contenders, which are more forgiving of impurities and can use
a fuel available world-wide, either methanol or gasoline.

Storage option

The technologies being assessed for energy storage include are electro-
chemical batteries (both conventional and advanced), regenerative fuel
cells (otherwise known as redox flow cells ) Superconducting Magnetic
Energy Storage (SMES) and Supercapacitors.

Regenerative fuel cells store or release electrical energy by means of a
reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the
electrolytes). The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell.

The cell has two compartments, one for each electrolyte, physically
separated by an ion-exchange membrane.

In contrast to most types of battery system, the electrolytes flow into and
out of the cells and are transformed electrochemically inside the cells.
The power is therefore determined by the size of the cell but the
endurance is determined by the size of the two electrolyte tanks

Storage system

Prime movers and emission

All prime movers are potentially compliant with emerging emission
requirements, however, complexity for achieving compliance varies with
prime mover and fuel type.

Diesels require the most attention to emissions control followed at some
distance by gas turbines, where ultra low emissions levels have been
achieved for land-based systems.

Fuel cells emit the lowest levels of pollutants of all the prime movers

Heavier fuel cell systems and diesels represent larger machinery and
structural weight.

Fuel cells can be used as a prime mover in an Integrated Full Electric
Propulsion (IFEP) system providing DC electrical power output, and are being
developed as a replacement for diesel generators and gas turbine alternators.

Sail and solar power ship

Skysail

Propulsion system layout

Propulsion system Layout

Depends on the type of ship,its size and role

Direct coupled

Geared

Azipods

97

98

Ship Drive Train and Power

Ship Drive Train System

Engine

Reduction
Gear

BearingSeals

Screw

Strut

BHP

SHP

DHP

THP

EHP

99

Brake Horse Power (BHP)
- Power output at the shaft coming out of the engine before
the reduction gears

Shaft Horse Power (SHP)
- Power output after the reduction gears
- SHP=BHP - losses in reduction gear

Horse Power in Drive Train

Ship Drive Train and Power

100

Delivered Horse Power (DHP)
- Power delivered to the propeller
- DHP=SHP – losses in shafting, shaft bearings and seals
Thrust Horse Power (THP)
- Power created by the screw/propeller
- THP=DHP – Propeller losses

Relative Magnitudes

BHP>SHP>DHP>THP>EHP

E/G

R/G

BHP

SHPShaft
Bearing

Prop.

DHP

THP

EHP

Hull

Ship Drive Train and Power

101

Effective Horse Power (EHP)

EHP : The power required to move the ship hull at a given
speed in the absence of propeller action

(EHP is not related with Power Train System)

EHP can be determined from the towing tank experiments at
the various speeds of the model ship.
EHP of the model ship is converted into EHP of the full scale
ship by Froude’s Law
.

V

Towing Tank

Towing carriage

Measured EHP

102

Effective Horse Power (EHP)

0

200

400

600

800

1000

Effective Horsepower, EHP (HP)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Ship Speed, Vs (Knots)

POWER CURVE

YARD PATROL CRAFT

Typical EHP Curve of YP

Typical 30 MW Steam Propulsion

Blow down gas 1 m3

/s release 30 MW
power but in port requirement is only 6
MW

Typical Diesel Propulsion

Main and aux power sources separate
and independent, re-liquefaction (5 MW)

Typical Diesel Propulsion

Main and aux power sources separate
and independent, re-liquefaction (5 MW)

Typical Diesel Propulsion

Main diesel engines drive aux generators

Typical Diesel Propulsion

Typical Schematic of IEPS

Layout of Typical IEPS

Medium speed 4-s diesel

Pictorial View of First IEPS

Hull

113

Bulbous Bow

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Summary

Development of marine engineering system

Common terms of marine engineering system

Overview of marine engineering system

Overview of marine engines - LO, Fuel Valve
cooling, Cylinder LO etc.,
Overview of marine propulsion layout

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->