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HOW DOES TRAINING AFFECT PERFORMANCE?

Energy systems


Main nutrients for energy:
TYPE STORED Kj/gram
Carbohydrates (glucose) Liver (as glycogen) 16
Fats (fatty acids) adipose tissue (as triglycerides) 37
Proteins (amino acids) Not stored 17







alactacid system (AT-CP)

General:
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): only source of energy for biological work
(movement and metabolism)
ATP is stored in mitochondria of muscle cells
When energy needed: ATP chemical reaction occursbond breaksenergy
released and ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate)body given energy
A-P-P-P A-P-P Energy
Potential energy kinetic energy
Role of carbs:
Glycogen sparing: more fats used in early stages of exercise more glycogen
stored for later (only trained athletes)
Found in food as starch/sugars
24 hrs to replace
Role of fats:
Not as efficient as carbs require more O2 to breakdown
Used once carb stores run out (or 1
st
= glycogen sparing)
After 2 hrs of exercise fat is predominant fuel (depending on fitness/intensity)
Role of proteins:
Mainly muscle building
Used as last resort for energy (carb/fat stores depleted)


lactic acid system


aerobic system



C-P C + P + ENERGY P A-P-P-P

Source of fuel: Creatine Phosphate (eg. found in meat, fish)
Efficiency: creates enough energy to replace 1 ATP molecule
Duration: <8seconds
Cause of fatigue: lack of CP
By-products: heat from energy
Recovery rate: 1-2 minutes to replace CP stores
Intensity: high
System: anaerobic- without O2

Examples:
Interval training, short sprints (during games), kick, jump, leap, tackle
GLYCOGEN GLUCOSE PYRUVIC ACID (N0 O2) LACTIC ACID

Source of fuel: Carbohydrates (as glucose/glycogen)
Efficiency: creates enough energy to replace 2 ATP molecule
Duration: 8 seconds 3 minutes
Cause of fatigue: lactic acid buildup
By-products: lactic acid
Recovery rate: 2-3 minutes to remove lactic acid
Intensity: high
System: anaerobic- without O2

Examples:
400m sprint, touch football, netball, basketball, 200m swim sprint
GLYCOGEN GLUCOSE PYRUVIC ACID (O2) H20 + CO2 + ENERGY

Source of fuel: Carbohydratesfatsproteins (unless trained athlete=glycogen
sparing fats first)
Efficiency: creates enough energy to replace 38 ATP molecule
Duration: 3mins+ (only limit is fatigue)
Cause of fatigue: depletion of fuels
By-products: H20 (sweat), CO2 (respiration)
Recovery rate: 24hours+ (depending on intensity and fuel supply)
Intensity: low-medium
System: aerobic- with O2

Examples:
Triathlon, marathon, 10km running

Hitting the wall: carbohydrates supply depleted, body starts to use fats- requiring
more O2- hence exercise becomes harder/fatigue, athlete needs to slow down to
increase O2 supplybreak down fats (for fuel)
Interchange of energy systems:

Highly specialised sports require intense use of one energy system
Most sports require contributions from all 3 energy systems (shift in emphasis)
(depending on duration and intensity)

Terms:
Steady state: oxygen supply=oxygen demand
Anaerobic threshold: limit of aerobic capacity reached, high intensity (85%MHR),
insufficient O2lactic acid buildup
Aerobic threshold: (70-85%MHR), body starts to get aerobic training effect,
sufficient O2 supply for exercise
Oxygen deficit: O2 supply < O2 required, body needs more O2, beginning of
exercise (ATP-CP/Lactic acid systems)
Oxygen debt: O2 supply > O2 required, excess amounts of O2 (reduce lactic acid),
after exercise ceases
Recovery period: after exercise finishes, panting, extra O2 supplied to reduce lactic
acid
Second wind: after 2-3 minutes of exercise when body starts to work aerobically
Glycogen sparing: glycogen still dominant furl for up to 1 hour, fats then used first
to allows more carbs for later (endurance) = work for longer (trained athletes only)

Types of training and training methods

Variables manipulated in each: duration (time), intensity, terrain

-aerobic

Increases VO2 max (body adapts)
Increased capillaries around alveoli (gaseous exchange)
Increased number of RBCincreased hemoglobinincreased O2 carrying capacity
Increased number of mitochondriaincreased energy production (can perform for
longer time at higher intensity)
Increases bodys lactic acid toleranceincreases anaerobic threshold, increases
recovery rate

Continuous
Heart rate elevated/maintained (70-85% MHR)
Performed continuously for minimum of 30 minutes (generally 30min2hours)
Helps athletes perform with some lactic acid still in system (body adapt)
Eg. jogging, power walking, cycling, swimming

Fartlek (speed play)
Combination of continuous/interval training
Continuous effort- short bursts of high intensity followed by active recovery
Ratio 1:3 work : active recovery
Predominant improvement in aerobic capacity
Duration for 20 mins +
Eg. 10 min w/up, stretch, run fast 20 secslow 60 sec X10, 30 high knees40 sec
jog X6, side steps 20 sec10 sec sprint X4, cool down for 5 mins

Aerobic interval
Intervals of exercise/work, followed by active intervals of rest/relief (reduce lactic)
Moderate duration: 30-60 minutes (long enough to allow athlete reach maximal
VO2 (O2 uptake), short enough not to bring on fatigue)
Bouts of 4-10mins 85-90%MHR, with active recovery
Intensity: allow athlete to reach VO2 (high), active rest (low-meduim)

Circuit
Usually station with 6-10 strength-type exercise completed one after the other-
alternated body parts- often interspersed with aerobic-type activities or rest
Improves mobility, builds strength/stamina/skills

Two types of circuits:
1. Fixed resistance circuit: fixed resistance and number of repetitions. Time taken can
be recorded to measure progress
2. Individual resistance circuit: fixed resistance for as many repetitions as possible in
given time period (eg. 30 seconds each station). Allows athlete to work at own pace

Progressive Overload achieved by:
Increasing number of stations
Increasing time at each station
Increasing repetitions at each station
Increasing repetitions of circuit
Decreasing time allowed to complete circuit
Basing repetitions at stations on target heart rate (HR)

-anaerobic

anaerobic interval
Very high intensity 85%+ MHR
Duration <10 secs (ratio 1:3, work : rest)
Rest can involve gentle activity (eg. walking) or sitting and stretching
develops the speed and power components
Targets ATP-CP systemperform at higher level for longer period of time, allowing
for CP replacement/recovery
Suits track sprinters 100-200m, touch football, cycle sprints
Eg. stair repetitions, athletics track training, cycle bursts on stationary bike, drills
for ball sports (sprints with tackling), heavy weight training

-flexibility

Ability of joints to bend, stretch and twist through a range of motion without
injury
Muscle spindles: send messages from muscle to brain about state of the stretch
(protect the body from over-stretching [muscle tears]counteract the stretch
stretch reflex).
To avoid muscle tearing stretches must be held carefully, in pain-free position,
after suitable warm-up

Important to:
Prevent injury/muscle soreness
Improve bodys mechanical efficiency
Increase ability of muscles to stretch
Improving coordination among muscle groups
Improving muscle relation
Reducing tightening of muscles after performance
Counteracting the restricting effects of muscle growth (from resistance training)

Factors effecting flexibility:
Age (muscles shorten as grow older)
Sex (generally males less flexiblemuscle mass, past sports played)
Temperature (increased atmospheric and body tempimprove flexibility)
Exercise (generally people frequently involved in exercise more flexible [often
stretch before/after sports] compared to sedentary)
Specificity (joint-specific. Eg. flexible in shoulders doesnt mean flexible in hips)

Static (passive/stationary stretching)
Involves gradual (slow and sustained) lengthening of the muscle to a point,
where it is held for 10-30 seconds (without discomfort, but challenging)
Safest stretching method, effective
(eg) hold quadriceps stretch, triceps stretch, chest stretch, hamstring stretch
Ballistic (bounce stretching)
Was popular in 1950-60s, since then (due to force of stretch), has
become discredited due to damage to muscles (tears)places great
pressure on the muscle fibers
However, can be effective for sports/activities requiring sudden
bursts of power (jump, kick)under qualified guidance
Extended use will decrease flexibility- adverse effect- (leaves
muscles in state of contractionrepair of micro-tears leads to reduction in
flexibility). Thus, appropriate warm up and static stretching should be done
beforehand.

PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)
Involves lengthening a muscle against a resistance
Incorporates static stretching, stretch development (using isometric
contractions) and periods of relaxation in a progressive sequence

Based on 2 guiding principles:
1. Muscle can relax better after it has undergone maximal isometric (joint angle and
muscle length do not change during contraction) contraction as its resistance to
stretching is reduced
2. Muscle becomes stronger if its antagonist is isometrically contracted immediately
beforehand

Steps:
1. Muscle group stretch using static contraction
2. While in stretched position, the person isometrically contracts the musclepushes
against immovable object (ground/partner) and hold for approx. 6 seconds
3. Participant relaxes in lengthened position approx. 5 seconds
4. Further static stretch applied following isometric contraction
5. Repeated 3-5 reps until no further range of motion (ROM) possible

dynamic (active/range of motion)
Stretches muscle groups that cross over joints
Involves gentle repetition of types of movements experienced in performance
(usually specific to performancemimics many sport-specific movements)
Relieves tightness and prepares muscles for more intense exercise to follow
Uses speed of movement, momentum and active muscular effort (to bring
about stretch)

Dynamic stretching is often preferred to static stretching because:
Joint mobility improved, cardiovascular system/muscles/joints stimulated,
movements specific to sport (athlete better prepared for activity), movement
results in increased muscle temperature (muscle contractions more rapid and
forceful), muscle micro-tears avoided, activates neural pathways of central
nervous system (retain neural pathways)

-strength training

Fundamental to improvement in most sports, also for injury recovery (rehabilitate),
training for endurance activities, improve muscular definition and everyday life.
Ultimate aim- develop power (increase force that can be exerted in a sporting
performance and to be able to do this a quickly as possible

Definitions
Isotonic programs (eccentric/concentric, free/fixed/own body weight): muscle
fibres shorten or lengthen depending on the exercise and whether the agonist or
antagonist muscle in the exercise (eg) in bicep curl biceps shorten in a concentric
contraction and the triceps lengthens in eccentric contraction.
Isometric programs (fixed positions/immovable resistance): a force is applied, but
there is little or no change in the length of the muscle and its fibres. (The strength
is too specific to certain angles)
Isokinetic programs (hydraulic): the use of machines to ensure the weight is
applied through the full range of motion. (These machines are designed to
elaborate in their design to ensure exercise is done correctly)
Repetitions: the number of times an exercise is repeated without a break.
Repetitious Maximum (RM): the amount of resistance you can lift one time (eg 12
RM is the maximum weight you can lift 12 times)
Set: the number of repetitions completed make a set (eg 8RM=1 set, 8 RM done 3
times is 3 sets of 24RM total 8x3=24
Resistance: another word for weight
Rest: the period of time you allow for the body and muscles to recover between
sets.

Strength gains will only be made when the training program:
Puts load on working muscles (eg. hypertrophy)
Progressive overload (eg. weight lifters gradually increasing lifting weight as
training progresses)
Specificity (ie. Strength training should be specific to athletes activity/sport)

Four types of strength that can be developed through training:
1. Absolute strength: maximum force that can be generated by a muscle
2. Relative strength: maximum strength that can be generated by a muscle relative to
ones weight
3. Strength: ability of a muscle group to withstand fatigue
4. Power: ability to apply force at rapid rate

Strength pyramid (descending)
1. Power: moderate-heavy weights done quickly. Body is taught to fire the motor
units more quickly. Power= strength + speed
2. Maximal strength: Heavy weights used. Body adapts to coordinate and fire more
motor unitsmore fibres involved increasing strength
3. General strength: moderate weights increase strength. Muscle fibres thicken
(hypertrophy) resulting in muscle size-adaption due to training.
4. Muscular endurance: aims at developing the muscle so it can repeat required
effort repeatedly. Toning more definition and reduce the layer of fat.

Why train to become stronger?
Muscle fibers get thicker, body becomes more efficientuses more muscle, motor
units becomes better coordinatedmuscular and nervous system adapts

free/fixed weights

(eg) dumbbells, barbells and kettlebells.

Advantages:
Exercises can be varied can include many different muscle groups.
Exercises can mimic real life or sports specific actions (eg squattingprep for
basketball jump)
Free weights also require you to stabilize the weight helps strengthen additional
stabilizing muscles
Relatively cheap.

Disadvantages:
requires certain skill and co-ordination level to perform movements correctly
inexperience could lead to injury
poor planning/periodizationlead to injury, imbalance/s

Elastic

Resistance training performed against the natural resistance property of elastic.
Elastic is attached to a fixed position with opposite end attached to the person. As
the band is stretched the resistance increases providing progressive stimulus to
the muscles.

Advantages:
Single band can be used to train the whole body (compound and isolation exercises
can be used)
Can mimic sport-specific movements.
Does not rely on gravity to provide resistancedifferent exercises can be
performed and the resistance depends on how far it is stretched.
Requires much more stabilization and coordination.
Less opportunity to cheat no momentum involved.

Disadvantages:
Hard to measure RM%

Hydraulic
use liquid fluid power to do simple exercises
effort is opposed by viscosity of water
Faster the movement, greater the resistance
Gravity neither helps nor hinders workout

Advantages:
Safe environmentlittle impact on jointsno danger of dropping weights
Quick and easy methodno need to adjust weight amounts
Spotters unnecessary
can pair opposite movementshelps produce balanced development between
opposing muscle groups

Disadvantages:
No use of stabilizersguides motion of exercise

Plyometrics
Involve range of exercises which muscle is lengthened (eccentric contraction)
followed by rapid shortening (concentric contraction)
Specialized group of exercises used to develop poweroften sport specific
explosive movements
Performed preseason at beginning of week (to rest/recover by end of week),
limited reps with large rest
(eg) jump squatsbasketball, medicine ball fats throw-catchnetball

Assess the relevance of the types of training and training methods for a variety of
sports by asking questions such as:

(EG) Cross Country Runner

Which types of training are best suited to different sports.
(eg) Aerobic, Strength and Flexibility training (no Anaerobic)

Which training method(s) would be most appropriate and why.
(eg) Aerobic: fartlek, aerobic intervals / Strength: Elastic / Stretch: Static, Dyanamic

How would this training affect performance:
(eg) Aerobic: ^VO2 max, ^lactate threshold / Strength: ^muscular endurance, ^lactate
tolerance / flexibility: ^length of muscles and range of movement (ROM) specific joints

Principles of training

-progressive overload (FITTfrequency, intensity, time, type)
Progressive overload: increase intensity as body adapts (adaptationstraining
effects occur)

-specificity
Specificity: doing training specific to needs of:
Components of fitness required
Dominant energy systems used
Muscle groups involved
Skills required (Sporttype)

-reversibility
Reversibility: athlete must maintain frequencyif training
stopped/reduceddetraining effect
Training must be done 3days per week otherwise lose training effect.

-variety
Variety: changing activities often to maintain adaptationsPhysiological effect
[can also stop athlete from getting bored Mental effect]

-training thresholds
training thresholds: aerobic (70%MHR), anaerobic (85%MHR)

-warm up and cool down
warm up: general (jogging), stretching, specific sport drills
cool down: general (jogging), stretching reduce lactate acid / stop blood pooling

- Assessment
Before: establish fitness level
During: progressive effectiveness of training
After: results / progress

Analyse how the principles of training can be applied to both aerobic and
resistance training.

Physiological adaptations in response to training
-resting heart rate
Lower resting HR than pre-training due to more efficient cardiovascular system
and stroke volumemore blood can be pumped around body per beat, thus slower
HR
HR during maximal work is same for trained and untrained individual (220-
age)trained person is capable of doing a lot more work at maximal level

-stroke volume and cardiac output

Stoke volume (SV): amount of blood that leaves left ventricle per heartbeat
Trained athlete can push out more bloodmore work (more 02)exercise
longer/fasterimproved performance in endurance events
Rise of 25% SV can be achieved through aerobic training
Due to:
Increase size of heart and ventricles.
Ventricle walls become thicker and strongerallow more blood to enter heart

Cardiac output (Q): amount of blood leaving the heart per minuteability of heart to
deliver O2 rich blood to working musclesmaintain movement
Calculated by [ Q= HR x SV ]
Because max HR is same for trained and untrained greater SV = greater Q

-oxygen uptake and lung capacity

oxygen uptake (measured L/min): amount of 02 absorbed into blood stream during
exercise
More 02 reaches musclesable to work longer at higher level
Queens College step test, Multistage fitness test, Yo-Yo test can work out max O2
uptake= max VO2
Higher VO2improved performance in endurance events
Due to:
Increase RBCsincrease hemoglobin (increase O2)increase capillarisation around
alveoli (increase gaseous exchange)increase mitochondria in cells.

lung capacity: Amount of air that can move in and out of lungs during a breath
Greater amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled during exercisegreater
amount of 02 absorbed into blood streamimproved performance

Adaptions associated with lung function:
Number of breaths taken during maximal exercise can be increasedmuscles
around lungs become larger, stronger, work faster
Slight increase in lung sizeincrease O2 to be inhaled and CO2 exhaled per
breathgreater air turnover
Total amount of air breathed during training increasesincrease in lung size and
ability to breathe faster/more fully can increase pulmonary ventilation up to
15L/min
Number of capillaries in lung increasesmore 02 absorbed per breathvolume of
blood held within capillaries can rise by up to 80%

-haemoglobin level

Haemoglobin: protein found within RBCs
When training occurs body becomes short of 02body adapts by producing more
RBCs and haemoglobinimprove bodys ability to absorb and deliver O2 to
working musclesimprove performance in aerobic events
Athletes may also try to boost haemoglobin levels through altitude training or
spending time in tents with limited 02 supply

-muscle hypertrophy
Muscle hypertrophy: increase in diameter of muscleoccurs as a result of strength
training
Lifting heavy weights during strength, power or lean body mass training
muscles under stressenlarges them so they will be more prepared for task
Muscles capable of contracting with greater forcemore myofibrils contributing to
contractionimprove performance in strength and power related activities
(eg) Throwing and sprinting

Strength triangle:

Due to:
Production of more myofibrils (contraction part of muscle)
Increased stores of glycogen and energy-supplying compounds of ATP and CP

Muscle atrophy: occur if training ceases/reduces in volume and intensity
Muscular definition: through muscular endurance training (light resistance, large number
of repetitions)reducing amount of fat around muscle.

-effect on fast (power) / slow (endurance) twitch muscle fibres
POWER
80-90% / 1RM / 2-6 reps / 3-5sets /
fast
MAX STRENGTH
90-100% / 1RM / 2-6 reps / 3-5sets /
slow-medium
GENERAL STRENGTH
70-90% / 1RM / 8-12 reps / 3-10sets /
slow
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
20+ reps / 3-5sets
Red slow-twitch (type 1):
Large number of capillaries
Produce large amount of ATP slowly.
More efficient at using 02 to generate fuel for continuous, extended muscle
contractions over long time.
Fire more slowly than fast-twitch
Last longer before fatigue

Red fast-twitch (type 2a / intermediate fast-twitch fibres):
Contain some capillaries
Produce ATP rapidly
Fatigue faster
Can use both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to create energy

White fast-twitch (type 2b):
Few capillaries
Rapidly produce ATP anaerobically
Use anaerobic metabolism to create energy
Excel at quick, powerful bursts of speed
Highest rate of contraction (rapid firing)
Fastest rate of fatiguecant last long before it needs rest

Amount of each type depends on normal function and use of muscle
Undertaking training specific to sport requirements will assist in
development/adaption of muscle fibre types
(eg) marathon runner may have 80%slow-twitch, sprinter may have 80%fast-twitch

Examine the relationship between the principles of training, physiological
adaptations and improved performance.

[relate below table to principles of training (ie: specificity, PO) and improved performance]
(Eg) doing specific activities (eg) related to aerobic system endurance large muscles in legs like quads,
glutsrunning.Progressively overloading by working 70 TO 85+ %MHR (thresholds) doing continuous
then fartlek then intervals and applying FITT no reversibility we get a training effect in response to the
constant extra load on our bodyincreased cardiac hypertrophyimproved SV, CO, improvements to
VO2max etcthis improves the runners performance by assisting them to run longer, less fatigue at
higher intensities and win races

TABLE: Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training
Adaptations Resting Sub-maximal Maximal
Heart rate or unchanged
Stroke volume
Cardiac output or unchanged or unchanged
O2 uptake unchanged or unchanged
Lung capacity - -
Haemoglobin levels - -
Blood pressure
-hypertensives
-normals

-
-unchanged

-
-unchanged

-
-unchanged
Lactate levels unchanged

HOW CAN NUTRITION AND RECOVERY STRATEGIES AFFECT PERFORMANCE?

Nutritional considerations
Influences athletes performance and successful recoveryhigher chance of optimal
performance and recovery

Nutrients: substances present in food that are essential to life and growthneed to eat
well-balanced diet from 5 food groups

1. Carbohydrates [16kj/g]
- Simple (sugars) or complex (starches)
- Major source of energy for body at least 50% of energy should come from carbs
2. Proteins [17kj/g]
- building blocks of body (tissues, skin, hair, bone, muscle)
- (eg) fish, meat, poultry, eggs, lentils, nuts
3. Fats/lipids [37kj/g]
- Concentrated source of energyinsulates body and protects vital organs
- Supplies/helps absorption of essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins
- Used in structure of every cell
a) Saturated fats: in animal productsshown to increase cholesterol levels)
b) Monosaturated fats: in almonds, hazelnuts, olives, olive oil, peanut butter/oil
c) Polyunsaturated fats: in fish, safflower oils, brazil nuts, walnutsshown to
decrease cholesterol levels- consumed in preference to saturated fats
4. Minerals
- Inorganic matter required for building tissues and maintenance of cellular
processes.
- Help in water balance, transmission of nerve impulses and contraction of muscles
- (eg) calcium- bones
iron- haemoglobin
phosphorus- teeth, bone structure, movement of energy throughout body
potassium- water and electrolyte balance in body
5. Vitamins
- Nutrients essential for vital chemical reactions to occur in body
- Growth of tissue, release of energy from foods, proper muscle functioning
- (eg) Vitamin A- skin and eye
Vitamin B- energy production
Vitamin C- immune system
Vitamin D*- calcium uptake into bones
Vitamin E*- antioxidant for immune system
Vitamin K*- for normal blood clotting [* = fat soluble]

6. Water
- Continually leaving body (sweat, exhaled air, urine)
- Approximately 70% of body consists of waterany loss must be replaced
- Transports nutrients, aids in temperature control, assists in removal of wastes
- 150-250mL every 15-20mins of exercise

7. Dietary fibre
- Indigestible carbohydrates
- Assist in movement of waste products through digestive tract

Nutritional considerations
Energy intake
Controlling fatigue
Carbohydrate and protein intake
SuggestedAthletes training 20 hours/week= 7grams carb per kg body weight
Athlete training 3-5 hours/week= 4-5grams carb per kg body weight
(eg) carbohydrates- yoghurt, sports bars, baked beans, meat and salad sandwich
Fluid: session must be started in well-hydrated state
- Dehydration can reduce performance- cause fatigue, higher HR, potential for
greater heat stress during exercise, headaches, disrupted ability to digest
food/fluids during exercise
Tests for hydration:
- pale straw urine (hydrated) vs. darker urine (dehydrated)
- Sweat rates- weighting before and after exercise and replacing lost fluidalso
helps with hyponatraemia (too much water)= use coffee, juice, cordial instead

-pre-performance, including carbohydrate loading

Depletion of fuels is major cause of fatigue (reduced glycogen in muscles)
Body must be fuelled up 24-36hours before event for endurance & high intensity
events

Fuelling up
- Increasing carbohydrate consumption to maximize bodys glycogen stores
Tapering
- Gradually reducing training before event to allow body to recover from stress

Carbohydrate loading
- Strategy used by endurance athletes to increase carbohydrate consumption before
competition to maximize glycogen stores

Consuming 7-12grams of carbs per kg of body mass and reducing training to
ensure athlete doesnt expend as much glycogen
If event is 90mins+ carb loading should be 2-4days (also for long duration team
sports)

Traditional method (old)
- Starving the body of carbs approx. 6-7 days before event whilst undertaking
strenuous training for 2-3 days to expend glycogen stores
- Next 3-4days before event, diet is changed to high carb and training reduced in
volume and intensitypromoting body to absorb more glycogen than normal due
to depleted state
- Disadvantages: fluid retention, increased fatigue, increased possibility of injury,
discomfort (possible nausea)

Recommended method (contemporary)
- 2 day high carb diet with exercise taper to elevate glycogen levels
- Advantages: shown to increase glycogen storesincreasing fuelsincreased
endurance capabilityincreased/peak performance

GI: simple or complex sugars catagorised based according to their effects on blood
glucose level.
- Foods rated 72+ are high GI and good for replenishment (after exercise).
- Foods 5570 are moderate GI
- Foods below 55 are low GIslow release of carbs prior to performance

Pre-event nutrition plan
Mostly low GI foods
Avoid fat and protein (larger to digest)
liquid carbs
Adequate fluids
Dont experiment with unfamiliar foods

(EG)
3-4hours before competition Crumpets w jam/honey & flavoured milk
Baked potato w cottage cheese filling and milk
Baked beans on toast
Cereal with milk
Bread roll and cheese
Pasta, rice (w low fat ingredients)
1-2hours before competition Liquid meal supplement
Milkshake, fruit smoothie
Sports bars (check labels)
Cereal with milk
Fruit
Yoghurt
Less than 1hour before competition Sports drink
Carbohydrate gel
Cordial
Sports bars
Jelly lollies

-during performance
Identify possible factors that may cause fatigue and/or poor performance and use
dietary strategies to try to negate these
(eg) muscle glycogen store depletion (hypoglycemia-low blood glucose),
dehydration, gastrointestinal discomfort and upset
Exercise of mod-high intensity lasting 60 mins+ requires additional fuel source for
muscles and central nervous system (CNS)
Muscle glycogen is the most important fuel source for short term-high intensity
exercise & prolonged exercise tasks
Suitable carbohydrate rich food and fluid options (for most events) include:
bananas, sports gels/bars and sport drinkslatter advantage of helping athlete
meet fuel and fluid demands simultaneously

-post performance
The goals of recovery are (4R's):
Refuel carbohydrate (energy stores)
Rehydrate to replace fluids and electrolytes (lost in sweat)
Repair and regenerate damaged muscle tissue
Revitalise and maintain good immune function

Athletes should consume carbohydrate asap (ideally within 30 mins) to prepare for
the next session carbs should be consumed either part of next meal or snack.

Supplementation

Aka. Ergogenic aids (Latin word= energy-producing)designed to improve or
increase work output and might be illegal or legal

Reasons for usage- a belief that
supplements enhance performance
training needs are too high to be met by normal food intake
they eat poorly or have unhealthy lifestyle
claims of advertising

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Assist to meet nutritional goals
Direct performance enhancement
Placebo effect
may not be effective reduce athletes
adaption to training
expenses
side effects
contamination causing inadvertent
doping outcome
redirection of resources from real
performance enhancing factors


-vitamins/minerals

Deficiencies can lead to
Fatigue, illness, infections, slower recovery time

VITAMINS
Sustain bodily functions and performance
Assist the body to use energy nutrients (but dont provide energy)
Access stores in body can result in joint pain, headaches, nausea, fatigue and loss
of appetite

MINERALS
Important for cellular functions muscle contraction, fluid balance, maintenance
of energy systems
Mainly lost through sweat

CALCIUM
Key mineral for quality of bone tissue
Must be built up as adolescent to maintain healthy bone structure throughout
adult life limit osteoporosis

IRON
Found in hemoglobin
Low hemoglobin can dramatically affect performancedeprive muscles of
02reduced performance
Two types
1. Heme iron: more easily absorbed by body (derived from animal sources)
2. Non heme iron: takes longer for body to absorb (derived from plant sources)

Reasons for use of vitamins/minerals
Undergoing weight loss from long period of energy consumption
Travelling OS with different food choices
Redistricted diet for any reason
Pre-existing deficiencies
Heavy competition schedule interfering with normal eating

-protein

Important for structural (building/repairing muscle tissue), functional (immune)
and energy production role
Timing of protein intake is importantbest consumed before/after resistance
trainingpromote adaptions
Excess protein is stored as fat
Long-term consequences- stomach function problems, gout, calcium loss, damage
to kidneys/liver

Reasons for use of protein supplements
Difficulty meeting daily protein requirements
Vegetarian/want more variety
Dont feel like eating steak straight after weight training

-caffeine
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Increased alertness (stimulation of CNS
and release of adrenalin)
Decreased perception effort
Glycogen sparing effect
Increased anxiety
Increased shakiness
Stimulates gut movement
Over-arousalinhibits sleep patterns
Increased HR
Dehydration (diuretic effect)

Most beneficial if taken 1hr before event (research shows increased performance
>6hrs after intake) in modest dosages (1-3mg/kg)

-creatine products

Benefits sport relying on ATP-CP system (eg. short sprints)
Supplementation usually over 5days (5g x 4/day)taken with carbs seems to
increase uptake

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Helps individuals with lower staring level
of CP stores
Good for resistance athletes wanting to
increase body mass
Some athlete are non-responders to
supplement (no guarantee its effective)
Weight gain >1kg detrimental to some
athletes (eg. dancer)
Can cause gastrointestinal upset

Recovery strategies

Factors which must be considered before implementing routine/s:
Age of athlete (older athletes often take longer to recover)
Demands of sport/training session and possible causes of fatigue
Environmental conditions (climate, time zone)
Recovery time before next event/training session
Access to facilities
Available time for all team members

-physiological strategies eg cool down, hydration

COOL DOWN
Often involves combination (eg. jogging, walking, stretching)
5-20mins, depending on level of athlete

Benefits compared to passive recovery:
Decreased blood lactate
Decreased likelihood of DOMS (delayed-onset muscle soreness)
Better heat dissipation after exercise
Reducing muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

HYDRATION
Replenishes any fluid loss in first 3-6hrs after training/competition
Lack of adequate fluid impairs performance and can lead to serious health
consequences (eg. heat stroke, heat exhaustion)

STRETCHING
Reduction of muscle tightness/soreness and increased joint ROM

COMPRESSION GARMENTS
Decrease swelling and muscle soreness
Increase venous return and blood flow (increase 02 to muscles)
Improve endurance, power, temperature regulation
Increase force production

-neural strategies, egy hydrotherapy, massage

HYDROTHERAPY:

1. CWI (Cold Water Immersion)

Applying cold water and ice (eg. ice baths)
6-15C for 3-15mins continuously or 5x 1min:2min (cold:out)
Only caution is timingused 1hr before exercise=may have pre-cooling effect
that can be detrimental to anaerobic performance

Advantages
Decreased body temperature
Reduced soreness and swelling
Decreased perception of pain and discomfort
Increased perception of recovery

2. CWT (contrast water therapy)

Alternating 3-7 x 1min:1min (cold:hot)
Cold- 10-15C
Hot- 38C
Not recommended if athlete has illness, open wound, acute injury

Advantages
Increased blood flow
Increased lactate clearance
Decreased swelling, stiffness and pain
Decreased muscle soreness, damage
Greater sense of wellbeing

3. HWI (hot water immersion)

38C for max 15mins (eg. spa)
Not recommended for athletes with injury or in hot/humid environments

Benefits
Increased blood flow
Reduced stiffness/muscle spasms

4. POOL/BEACH SESSIONS

Scheduled immediately after competition or following morning
Generally include light exercise (walk, jog, swim, stretch) for 10-30min
Reduced muscle soreness and stiffness
Accelerated recovery

5. MASSAGE

Predominantly supply a psychological benefit
Improved sense of wellbeing and relaxation following post-exercise massage

6. SAUNA

Recommended athletes avoid sauna as a recovery strategy to increased risk of
dehydration

-tissue damage strategies eg cryotherapy

CRYOTHERAPY
Ice/cold therapy or recovery (eg. CWI, ice massagefoam cup moved over muscle
in circular motion, ice packs)
Reduces swelling, internal bleeding (bruising) and muscle spasms

-psychological strategies, eg relaxation

RELAXATION
Visualisation
Meditation
Controlled breathing
Relaxing music

SLEEP
7-10 hours recommended to adjust to various stressors
Additional sleep 10hrs+ slow down central nervous system, leaving athlete
feeling lethargic
Reduced sleep: reduced focus, decision-making, memory, communication skills,
increased likelihood of overtrainingdecrease in physical performance (after 3
days sleep deprivation)

Tips to obtain optimal sleep:
Practice relaxation before bed
Lie down only when sleepy
Try to go to bed and get up same time everyday
Avoid caffeine, alcohol and exercise 2 hours before sleep
Keep bedroom cool and dark
Afternoon naps no more than 40min (allow 10mins to wake up)

Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre,
during and post-performance needs
TIME PERIOD TRIATHLON SHOT PUT NETBALL/FOOTBALL
PRE (2-3hrs) Hydrate 1-2L
Increase carbslow GI
Average hydration
Normal pre-event
Hydrate 1-2L
Similar foods to
foods
Less protein, fat and
salt
meal- low GI
Less protein, fat and
salt (causes nausea)
triathlete, but
carbohydrates arent
as vital as triathlete
DURING Hydrate regularly
Sports gels/bars
Bananas (fruit)
Normal hydration
(150-250mL/15-
20mins)
No extra fuel
required
Hydrate constantly
Possible juices and
fruits during break
POST (<1hr after) Hydration (clear urine)
Carbohydrateshigh GI
Increased protein and
carbs
Sports drinks
Normal diet
(energy needs not as
highATP-CP
system)
Similar needs to
triathlete (depends
on energy
expenditure)
Sports drinks
[Examples of foods and explanations why must also be given]

Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved
performance.

Research recovery strategies to discern their main features and proposed benefits
to performance.


HOW CAN PSYCHOLOGY AFFECT PERFORMANCE?

Motivation
Level of aspiration (drive from withininnate drive)

Level of motivation is affected by:
Personal thoughts
Environment
Spectators, coaches, peers
Level of competition
Skill level
Goals (personal/tea,)
Fitness, fatigue, injury

-positive motivation
Athlete performs because they have received rewards for similar actions in the
past
(eg. praise, promotion, make team/level, newspaper article, recognition)

-negative motivation
Fear of consequences of not performing
(eg. dropped from team, negative criticism, yellow card)

-intrinsic motivation
Person takes part in activity for the sake of the activity itself
(eg. endorphins when activity completed)

-extrinsic motivation
Person takes part in activity for material gain
(eg. medals, trophies, money)

Anxiety and arousal

Arousal
Physiological processes of the body and its ability to respond to certain situations
Causes adrenalin releaseincreased HR, increased blood pressure, sweaty
palmssends nutrients to muscles to prepare body for situation
Suggested in inverted U hypothesis

Anxiety
Bodys psychological response to a given stimulus or situation
(eg) trouble breathing, sweating, headaches, restlessness, chest pain, panic attacks

-trait and state anxiety

Trait anxiety
General level of stress in individuals (general to all populations)
Varies according to how individuals have conditioned themselves to respond to
and manage stress

State anxiety
Results from a specific situation (eg. shooting goal in netball)
Unpleasant emotional arousal in the face of threatening demands/dangers

-sources of stress
Stress
Normal physical response to events that make you feel threatened or upset in the
day-to-day working of your bodybodys natural way of protecting itself
Imbalance of stress= anxiety resulting in nervousness, tension, lost
concentration, worry
Can have positive effect (optimum arousal)= eustress or negative effect= distress
(leading to anxiety)

Three stages the body goes through in response to stress:
1. ALARM PHASE
Body recognizes a threat and prepares to fight stress or fly from it (fight or flight
syndrome)cause arousal and alertness for activity OR poor judgement/execution of
fine motor skills (eg. stomach butterflies)

2. RESISTANCE PHASE
Body starts to try and cope with stressor and ultimately cannot due to fatigue

3. EXHAUSTION PHASE
Body will cease normal functioning as a result of the stressor and permanent damage
may occur. Too much stress/anxiety can seriously affect your ability to focus on your
skills and flow in performance

Levels of stress can be increased by:
PERSONAL PRESSURE
(eg) inside athlete (need to win)expectations

COMPETITIVE PRESSURE
(eg) other athletes, level of competition (finals/social reasons)

SOCIAL PRESSURE
(eg) sponsors, friends, family, media

PHYSICAL PRESSURE
(eg) pressure on body to reach new height, injury, illness, opposition in hands-on-
sportsboxing

- Level of trait anxiety, support structures, media, skill level, personal experience,
injury, illness, spectators, fitness, pressure from outside sources and family

-optimal arousal

Zone of optimal functioning (ZOF)suggested by inverted U hypothesis
Athlete feels

Inverted U hypothesis relationship between arousal and performanceas arousal
increases, so does performance until reaching an optimum level of arousalif
arousal continues to increase, performance decreases

a) (under-aroused - uninvolved in task) tired, fatigued, bored, lethargic slow to
reactlow energy, reduced skill levelpoor performance
(eg) netball player going to shoot goalboredunfocusedmiss shotpoor perf.
b) (optimal arousal - peak) energized, prepared and focused on taskreduced stress,
reduced fatigueskills performed automaticallyoptimal performance
(eg) triathlete well-prepared for eventfocused on eventvisualisationconfident,
energizedoptimum arousalpeak mental performance
c) (over-aroused extremely nervous) jerking movement, shakinglack of control,
increased HR, increased breathing (possible hyperventilation- reduce 02 to
muscles)reduced skill acquisition, reduced energy levels (expend on mental
stress)poor performance
(eg) dart player very nervousshaking handsreduced controlshoots
dartmissespoor perf.

DRIVE THEORY:
The more aroused you are better performance

Psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety

-concentration/attention skills (focusing) [to and/or arousal]

Focus on relevant cues (focusing on something else to reduce anxiety)cues that
appeal to all senses and correct aspect of game allows body to anticipate
exercise
Easier for elite compared to beginner due to experienceable to ignore irrelevant
distractions which may cause anxiety (eg. inexperienced person will pass netball to
player who is calling, yet is defended by the other team giving ball to other team)
a
b
c

-mental rehearsal/visualization/imagery [to and/or arousal]

Mental rehearsal
whole skill play (greater focus on biomechanics, skill, technique)
Images athlete may form of skilled performance improves concentration,
confidence in particular sporting situationspictures activity AND surrounding
activity (eg. spectators, weather)
Requires completely relaxed body and focus on skill and positive self-talk
Aids neuromuscular system without obvious chance of fatigue in training

Visualization
Part of skill (uses all senses)
Relates specifically to pictures in mind (own perspective) of performance that will
be undertaken

-relaxation techniques [to arousal]

Progressive muscular relaxation (tense then relax muscles)
Controlled breathing
Meditationrepeating a word, counting slowly to 10
Relaxing musicsoft, slow, classical, rhythmic
Positive self-talk (out loud or in head)
Learning a cue to remember when trying to relax or thinking of a positive situation

-goal setting [to arousal]

Short term, intermediate or long term
Motivation- sets targets that increase likelihood of appropriate behaviours eg.
(train more, train harder)
Essential part of athletes development
SHORT TERM: stepping stones which help athlete see progressmotivates to
continue, reduces boredom

Evaluate performance scenarios to determine the appropriate forms of motivation,
eg golf versus boxing.

Golfer:
Ability to use wide range of techniques to motivate
Intrinsic motivation to beat everybody elsescore lowest among tournament
players
Intrinsic motivation can also occur from feedback after golfer has hit ball
Score can be positive or negative motivator depending on the result
Golfers utilize setting as a to a great degree with short and long term goals used in
one round
Relaxation, mental rehearsal used to manage anxiety by visualisation of practice
shot prior to shot taking place

Boxer:
Extrinsic: winning the belt or prize money
Positive: not getting hit (weaving),
Intrinsic: reputation, endorphins released (high), meeting goals, staying calm,
trying hardest (performing to best of ability)

Explain the difference between anxiety and arousal in terms of the effects on
performance.

Arousal: physiological (physical) processes of the body and its ability to respond to
certain situationscauses adrenalin to be released by bodyincreased HR & blood
pressure and sweaty palms
Anxiety: psychological (mental) response to specific situation (eg. mental trauma
trouble breathing, headaches, panic attacks)



Motivational techniques for different athletes:
TYPE OF ATHLETE SUGGESTED MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES
Low motivation, low skill Talk individually to athlete
use positive motivation
enhance intrinsic motivation
doesnt respond well to extrinsic
motivation
Low motivation, high skill Challenge athlete
maintain motivation by being positive
and enhancing intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation
High motivation, low skill Already highly motivated athlete
Coaches need to guide and be energetic
in coaching and help them learn
technical skills
High motivation, high skill Highly motivated athlete
Must be part of decision-making process
Included in planning to encourage
ownership
Listen carefully to their feedback and
use for future planning


Research case studies of athletes from different sports and ascertain the nature of
their motivation and the psychological strategies they employ.

Johnny Wilkinson (soccer)

Nature of motivation:
Intrinsic- playing to best of ability
Extrinsic- for the team, peers, crowd, coach
Positive- to win, score goals

Psychological strategies:
Relaxation techniquescentering energy, relax and focus all body power into legs
for kick
Accept the crowd is there and function as normally as you would if it wasnt
there.
Situational training visualisation of kick and setting it up in headkeep
everything the same then allowing mind to be completely blank after the kick
(relax)

Ian Thorpe (swimmer)

Motivation:
Intrinsic- doing his best, achieve personal goals
Extrinsic- crowd, coach, friends, family, peers
Positive: making the finals (final event stage)

Psychological strategies:
Do not use up too much physical or mental energy
If qualifies for finaltries to keep as neutral as possible with emotions (thus, no
highs or lows in competition)
Maintaining control
HOW DOES THE ACQUISITION OF SKILL AFFECT PERFORMANCE?

Stages of skill acquisition





Skill: a coordinated set of movements which can be learnt through practice and have a
desired outcome
- Simple skill: easy, gross motor, few sub-skills, reduced time to learn
- Complex skill: hard, fine motor, more sub-parts, longer to learn
Stages of skill acquisition:

1. Cognitive:
- Understanding stage
- Focus = what to DO
- Many errors

2. Associative:
- Practice stage
- Focus = HOW to do skill
- Kinesthesis assists learner in recognizing errors (less frequent)

3. Autonomous:
- Automatic execution (established skill)
- Few errors are fine (kinesthesis well developed)


Characteristics of the learner:

[ Acronym = PE CHAP ]

- Personality


- Heredity


- Confidence
Coaching and skill acquisition:

Cognitive:
- Demonstrations (teaching points)
- Concurrent / positive feedback
- Avoid overloading (clear, simple instructions)

Associative:
- Demonstrations reinforced (teaching points)
- More specific feedback (kinesthesis developing)
- Add degree/s of complexity (variety) to ^ skill and boredom and ^ motivation
- Intro game-like situations (environ. closed more open)

Autonomous:
- Demonstrations refined & specific (teaching points)
- Feedback (kinesthesis and coach = specific and positive to ^ motivation)
- Massed skill, open (externally paced)
- Challenge athlete to focus on environ. (eg. basketball: opponents intro tactics)
An individuals characteristic way of behaving (can enhance skill acquisition)
- Cooperation
- Willingness to listen / learn
- Determination
- Enthusiasm
- Dedication / motivation
- Aggression
Characteristics inherited from parents
- Muscle fibre type (fast twitch / slow twitch %)
- Somatotype (body shape):
Endomorph: round
Mesomorph: muscular
Ectomorph: linear
- Gender (generally: males ^ muscle, females ^ flexibility)
- Intelligence (eg. problem solving)


- Prior experience


- Ability Other Factors

- Other Factors


The learning environment

- Nature of skill

- Firm belief in ones ability
- Slow twitch: better suited endurance-type activities
- Fast twitch: power, speed, strength activities
- Past experience of the same / related tasks
- Positive transfer of learning : learn quicker due to influence of previous skill
- Negative : potentially reduce success due to over-confidence in skill, may ^
mistakes
- The ease in which an individual is able to perform a movement / routine
- Age
- Disability
- Illness
- Physical fitness levels
- Motivation
- Emotions


The performance elements



Decision making
OPEN
- Unpredictable environ
- (eg) outdoor: weather, responding to external stimulus (out of athletes control)
- (eg) surfing, receiving a serve in tennis

CLOSED
- Predicable environ (skill performed in same environ every time)
- athlete pressure, ^ control
- (eg) platform dive, ten pin bowling

GROSS
- Movements using large muscle groups
- (eg) run, ride, swim

FINE MOTOR
- Small, intricate movements using small muscles
- (eg) darts

DISCRETE
- Definite start / finish
- (eg) golf swing, long jump, platform dive

CONTINUOUS
- No definite start / end, skill is repeated over and over
- (eg) run, swim

SERIAL
- Sequence involving number of parts
- (eg) lay-up in basketball, gymnastic floor routine

SELF-PACED
- Execution of skill/s largely controlled by the performer
- (eg) volleyball serve

EXTERNALLY PACED
- Execution of skill largely controlled by outside, external sources
- (Eg) goal keepers moves controlled by where ball kicked
- If the coach continually tells and owns the process, the athlete becomes reliant
on the coach.
- Athlete-centered approach ^self-belief, ^ effectiveness of performed skill.
By:
Choice
Initiative taking / independent work
Informational feedback - promote problem solving
Continually ask questions
Avoid controlling behaviour
Accountable for their performance


Strategic and Tactical development




Practice Methods
- Coaches must provide opportunities for decision-making in practice ^skills:
enable clear decisions
Athlete must be in autonomous stage to make strategic / tactical plans

Strategic plan factors:
- Athletes strength/weaknesses
- Opponents strength/weaknesses
- External factors which may influence the result

Tactics: how to put the strategies to work
THE COACH
Introduce game-like situations rather than static drills, eg:
- Teaching someone to ball a ball in soccer by piggy in the middle (where 2
players try to pass the ball to each other and the third player tries to stop the
pass)
for beginners the rules can be set easier for pass to be made, as skills
develop rules can be tightened (^understanding of quickness / direction of pass)

Benefits:
- ^ understanding of skill requirements
- Develops decision-making skills , time management
- ^ motivation / confidence
- ^ team coordination



Mental and physical practice

Feedback
MASSED
- longer practice periods with short rest intervals
- (eg) netball shooter practices shooting 20mins continuously

DISTRIBUTED
- Relatively short practice and longer rest periods
- (eg) juggling for 10mins and resting for 1hr
(To improve performance, distributed more effective = ^feedback, fatigue)

WHOLE
- Skill taught entirely

PART
- Skill taught by breaking down into parts

Task complexity:
- How many parts/components are present and intellectual demands of task
- (eg) dance routine (high), weight lifting (low)

Task organisation:
- How the task components are interrelated
- (eg) Basketball jump-shot
Speed vs. Accuracy:

Speed
- Learning the skill at pace

Accuracy
- Precision of the movement
Beginners should concentrate on accuracy then increase speed
Mental practice:
- Cognitive abilities of perception, decision-making and visualization
- (eg) when an athlete is sick, injured, under pressure (to help manage
anxiety/arousal)

Physical practice:
- Motor movement used to practice a skill

Assessment of skill and performance

INTERNAL (intrinsic)
- Feedback from within athlete (from bodys senses/muscles kinesthetics)
- (eg) seeing success, sounds of golf ball when hit well

EXTERNAL (extrinsic)
- Info from outsiders perspective to enhance learning
- (eg) comments from coach, crowd, video, analysis

CONCURRENT (continuous)
- Given during the skill as skill being executed > act on info immediately
- (eg) 100m sprint race position

DELAYED (terminal)
- Given after completion of skill end of performance
- (eg) video analysis
- Terminal feedback: given too late to be beneficial to athlete

KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS (KR)
- Results of ones movement (performance result)
- (eg) shoot basketball- did ball go through hoop? Yes/No
- Usually external
- (eg) coach / scoreboard

KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE (KP)
- Info about performance pattern of movement produced
- (eg) how the skill felt during execution

Main Functions of Feedback
- Reinforce what is being performed successfully (guidance)
- Basis for correcting performance aspects that need improvement (helps
eradicate error)
- Motivate for continued improvement
Characteristics of skilled performers:
Kinesthetic sense
- Ability to interpret sensory info regarding bodys position
- (eg) finely in tune with the physical / muscular side of the execution that they
can correct errors while occurring

Anticipation
- Anticipate (predict) what might happen next in specific situations, before
happening
- (eg) path / speed / direction of ball

Consistency
- Few errors and generally consistent success (accuracy, efficiency)
- (ie) doesnt execute skill successfully one day, appalling the next

Technique
- Sub-skills put together to achieve fluent, efficient movement (smooth,
effortless, controlled)
- (ie) successful temporal patterning


Objective and subjective measures



Validity and reliability


Personal vs. Prescribed judging criteria
A skilled performance has:
- Control, coordination, accuracy, composure
- Consistent performance
- Smooth, effortless
- Recognize and respond to relevant cues (selective attention)
- ^sensory sharpness / perception
- Timing
- Temporal patterning
- Pressure handling
Objective measures:
- Impartial measurements (without bias / judgment)
- Not subject to personal opinion / interpretation of results
- Clear objective measure based on fact
- (eg) timing = stopwatch, distance = tape

Subjective measures:
- Influenced by the observers personal judgment of how the skill was performed
- (eg) quality / style in gymnastics
Observations can be made more objective by:
- Checklists
- Measurement systems
- Established criteria
- Rating scales
Validity
- Honesty of test
- (ie) degree to which the test measures what its supposed to measure
- Reinforced by comparing values with expected values, referring to percentile
bands
- (eg) beep test is an invalid test to measure strength, it is a valid test for aerobic
capacity

Reliability
- Degree of consistency of a test
- (ie) ability to measure same attributes of same individual/group under same
conditions weather, equipment, procedures

Personal
- Preconceived ideas / expectations that an individual brings to judge a
performance

Prescribed
- Established by sporting orgs / govs
- Forms the basis of assessment for competitions
- (eg) checklist requirements for gymnastics floor routine difficulty, time,
variety of skills