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MODULE B: SPEECHES

PJ KEATING (FORMER PM)


FUNERAL SERVICE OF THE UNKNOWN AUSTRALIAN SOLDIER
11 NOVEMBER 1993

Purpose:
- to commemorate and reflect on the selfless sacrifice made by the thousands of unknown
Australian soldiers who had been killed in the war.
- give thanks for the actions these Australian soldiers who gallantly fought to protect our lands
and way of life.

Context:
- 75 years after WWI
- poignant and powerful symbol of All Australians who have died in war.
- National identity

Themes:
- Honour war dead and give thanks for their great sacrifice.
- Need to unify country and develop a national identity.

Reception:
- generated a sense of pride amongst all Australians as it struck a patriotic chord.
- Enormous outpouring of honour and pride (created a sense of national identity)
- TODAY: in the modern reception, his speech is more relevant today than ever before due to
the turbulent times in which we live (ever present threat of terrorism and war). Therefore
reminding us that peace and freedom are highly valued

Current issues:
- Relevant today as The Australian Government has approved the deployment of approximately
3300 Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel to 12 operations overseas and within Australia
to protect Australia and its national interests.
- Be convinced that to be happy means to be free and that to be free means to be brave.
Therefore do not take lightly the perils of war. (Thucydides- historian)

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
We do not know this Australians name and we
never will.
Repetition of first person plural we: engages all
Australians (inclusive)
Australian Unknown Soldier Repetition: develops unity and a National spirit and
draws a connection between the two.
We do not know Repetition: promotes a sense of anonymity.
Presents soldier as a universal being (can be
anyone). Links back to title.
We know that he was one of the 45,000
Australians who died on the Western Front
Cumulation of statistical information: supports his
argument. Honours servicemen. Emphasizes loss.
one of the 60,000 Australians who died on
foreign soil.
Emphasizes ultimate sacrifice and how many
served and died for Australia.
He is all of them. And he is one of us Truncated sentences, use of first person and
declarative statement: strikes a patriotic chord,
unifying all Australians in honoring and
appreciating the sacrifice Australian soldiers made
who fought with nobility to protect our country and
way of life.
Terrible Repetition: reminds the audience of the futility of
war and highlights that peace should be pursued
more readily than war.
This Australia and the Australia he knew are like
foreign countries.
Simile: reflects context.
The tide of events since he died has been so
dramatic, so fast and all-consuming, a world has
been created beyond the reach of his imagination
Metaphor tide of events: emphasizes the shocking
current context.
Listing: draws attention to his argument
Connotations of beyond: for emphasis
The Great War Allusion to World War 1
The due he owed his country and his king Allusion: emphasizes a patriotic and personal
appeal.
Because Great War was a mad, brutal, awful
struggle.
Listing: emphasizes the cruelty and difficulty in
overcoming the cruelty of the war. These
successive adjectives illustrate the futility of the war
and creates a negative image of war in an attempt
to make the audience realise the value of peace.
Because the war which was supposed to end all
wars in fact sewed the seeds of the second even
more terrible war we think the Unknown
Soldier died in vain
Sibilance and allegory: highlights tragic
consequences of war in a highly emotional appeal
For out of the war came a lesson which
transcended the horror and tragedy and
inexcusable folly
Repetition on and: emphasizes the recklessness
and the unnecessary Australian lives lost.
Personification: highlights the negative
consequences of war.
Those who taught us to endure hardship, to show
courage, to be bold as well as resilient, to believe
in ourselves, to stick together
Listing: summarizes what it means to be Australian
(Australian qualities). Also shows an egalitarianism
(equal) view
By his deeds, proved that real nobility and
grandeur belongs, not to empires and nations,
but to the people on whom they, in the last
resort, always depend.
Abstract nouns: sums us Australian characteristics
and traits.
...heart of the ANZAC story Metaphor: uses emotion to reflect our story, shares
Keatings paradoxical hope that the soldier may
become a symbol of peace
It is a legend Positive connotations: our great story
Stick together
Have bonds of mateship
Colloquial language: makes speech more accessible
to the public and helps establish a firm connection
between the speaker and his audience
City or the bush
Married or single
Contrast of binary opposites: establishes link
between the soldier and the widest possible portion
of population
Dramatic pauses, commas and hyphens Gave the audience time to consider what had been
said and reflect on the immense loss of life suffered
by those who fought to protect Australia.
Distinct somber lyrical tone Maintains mood of mourning and remembrance,
but also allows audience to feel proud of those who
have fallen before them (optimism for peace to
prevail)


AUNG SAN SUU KYI
KEYNOTE ADDRESS AT THE BEIJING WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN
31 AUGUST 1995
(VIA VIDEO STREAM)

Purpose:
- To present an analytical overview of the global forces affecting the quality of life of the human
community and the challenges these pose for everyone, especially women, and to attempt to
liberate women around the world and help them realize and fulfill their important role in
society

Context:
- Suu Kyi was an advocate for democracy and human rights. She was elected into government
in 1990, receiving 82% of the votes, but military leaders refused to hand over power to her
and, due to her strong ideals about these issues, she was sentenced to house arrest. Suu Kyi,
therefore, decided to deliver her speech via video as she had just been released for 6 years
house arrest and feared leaving Burma in case she was banned from returning
- Her father was a martyr for Burmese freedom and release from military dictatorship

Themes:
- Role of women in society (eg. enable them a role in government Participate fully in the
decision and processes that shape their lives)
- Tolerance (ie. vital to establish democracy, peace, equality and equal human rights without
tolerance, the foundations for democracy and respect for human rights cannot be
strengthened and the achievements of peace will remain elusive)

Reception:
- Divided historic reception of the nation (Burma) and internationally
- Received with outrage and fear by Burmese government officials, as they saw her as a threat
to their patriarchal power and system of government
- Internationally, citizens were not threatened and appreciated the universal values of freedom,
equality, democracy and peace.
- The speech reaffirmed her position as a global political activist and successfully brought more
attention to the human rights problems in Burma
- The modern day audience sees Suu Kyis speech and encouraging and inspiring, as well as
empowering for women worldwide. She is received as a freedom activist and martyr for
human rights, providing a possible answer to our problems of intolerance, hate and gender
inequality (eg. the glass ceiling)

Current issues:
- I think it is right that as a woman I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is
right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women
be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my country. I think it is right
that socially I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly I can say that there is no one
country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights. (Emma Watson)

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
Struggle for justice and peace

Contribute to the betterment of society
Uses strong emotive language whenever discussing
the role of women in society: creates a sense of
urgency, emphasising the need to expand the role
of women in society for the betterment of society
Strong and principled

Emancipated empowered
Positive diction: illustrates the vital contribution
women can make to the world
Patronising behaviour of exploitation

Patriarchal domination and degradation

The war toys of grown men
Negative emotive language: reduces the
contribution of men in society to serve as a binary
opposite to the contributions able to be made by
women
Lord Buddha Religious allusions: appeals to the religious beliefs
of her audience and works to strengthen her
argument by alluding to the idea that her opinions
are approved by a higher being
This year is the International Year for Tolerance.
The United Nations has recognised that "
Without tolerance, the foundations for
democracy and respect for human rights cannot
be strengthened, and the achievement of peace
will remain elusive."
Global reference to the International Year of
Tolerance: demonstrates that tolerance is a
worldwide problem
14 out of the 485 MPs elected in 1990 were
women
Political statistics: add credibility to her argument
and highlight the lack of female representatives in
Burma
Tender as mothers nursing their newly born

Brave as lionesses defending their young
Simile: evokes poetic maternal imagery to illustrate
how women show use their biological tendency to
nurture loved ones to work for the good of their
country and create peace
There is an age old prejudice that women talk
too much. But is this really a weakness? Could it
not in fact be a strength?

Surely these discoveries indicate that women
have a most valuable contribution to make in
situations of conflict, by leading the way to
solutions based on dialogue rather than on
viciousness or violence?
Rhetorical questions: makes the audience question
themselves and reflect upon the role of women in
their own families
tolerance, human rights, democracy and peace
are closely related
Direct quotation from the UN: their approval of her
ideas adds credibility to her argument as being for
the greater good of the world
But

And
Conjunctions: creates a flow of ideas and provides
dramatic pauses, allowing the audience to
contemplate the arguments she is making
no war was ever started by women Direct language: used to highlight the peaceful,
calm and caring characteristics of women and,
therefore, prove the need for participation of
women in politics and governance
The education and empowerment of women
throughout the world cannot fail to result in a
more caring, tolerant, just and peaceful life for
all.
Alliteration and listing: shows her confidence is the
fact that women can make the world a better place
if given the opportunity

FAITH BANDLER
FAITH, HOPE AND RECONCILIATION
AUGUST 1999
(AT TALKIN UP RECONCILIATION CONVENTION, WOLLONGONG)

Purpose:
- To provide an early public response to the Document of Reconciliation being developed by the
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation

Context:
- The Convention took place amidst growing public debate on important national issues
- Bandler is known as an Aboriginal activist and had previously taken part in the 1967
Referendum as a lead campaigner, where there was a 90% vote for Aboriginals to be included
into the population count and for their rights

Themes:
- Unity and co-operation for both ATSI rights: "History has shown that a genuine people's
movement can move more than governments. It can move mountains.
- Belief that the common goal of unity can best be achieved through faith and hope rather than
violence and confrontation
- Australian identity and history

Reception:
- well received, as it provided positive incentives for continued support for the Reconciliation
process despite media obstruction
- the speech galvanised flagging spirits and helped encourage a younger generation to be
actively involved in campaigning for the many things still to be achieved
- Bandlers insight clarified the way forward then, and still TODAY, highlighting the idea that
"it's our job to make sure" that rights are recognised and that "the process of reconciliation" be
quickened in order to ensure the wellbeing of the ATSI peoples

Current issues:
- Reconciliation is an ongoing process which certainly continues to be problematic in society
today with aboriginals feeling that There was a little sadness because I felt the reconciliation
program had slowed since 1967 (Faith Bandler)
- There should not be a blendingbut an integration which is done with great respect (David
Tracey)
- We shouldnt deny it anymoreThe open truth will set us free (Bob Randall - stolen
generations)

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
There was a little sadness because I felt the
reconciliation program had slowed since 1967
Sibilance, emotional language and allusion to the
1967 Referendum for ATSI rights: emphasises her
sense of disappointment, encouraging the nation to
unite again to conquer ATSI inequities
Those who supported racism excuse some of
their terrible utterances in the name of free
speech
Allusion to the Australian constitution: highlights
the way rights, such as freedom of speech, can be
misused by white Australians to give them the right
to be racist towards ATSI peoples
Lived, breathed, struggled and climbed those
ramparts of the rugged past
Listing and alliteration: highlights the past
injustices suffered by ATSI peoples
There is a need to heal the wounds of the past,
the terrible indignities
Metaphor: used to emphasise the idea that ATSI
peoples do not yet Belong to the Australia they
once knew
Why in the name of creation our differences
should matter
Religious allusion: appeals to all members of the
audience and strengthens her argument by alluding
to the idea that her struggle for ATSI rights affects
all Australians
Why is it so hard to find our commonalities? Rhetorical question: makes the audience question
the reasons behind barriers which prevent ATSI
from belonging
So in the struggle to reconcile you said its about
working together
Inclusive language: forces the audience to reflect on
the history of reconciliation in Australia
They are chained in their stubbornness, but we
are free, and if we need to go forward without
them, we must
Metaphor: used to juxtapose the characteristics of
those who agree with reconciliation and those who
do not. The imagery in this line expresses the idea
that those who are willing to repair past faults are
better people
The task is yet to be tackled Alliteration: highlights the idea that the
reconciliation process is not over, it needs to be
ongoing
History has shown that a genuine people's
movement can move more than governments. It
can move mountains
Metaphor and imagery: highlights the idea that the
power of people can overcome any obstacle

SIR WILLIAM DEANE (PREVIOUS AUSTRALIAN GOVERNOR GENERAL)
ON THE OCCASION OF AN ECUMENICAL SERVICE FOR THE VICTIMS OF THE CANYONING TRAGEDY
5 AUGUST 1999

Purpose:
- To mourn, to pay respect to victims, to comfort and support families and to unite countries
through tragedy and grief.

Context:
- Sir William Deane, as Governor General of Australia, was representing Australia at the
ecumenical service in Switzerland (Interlaken) for the twenty-one victims of the canyoning
accident, which included fourteen Australian citizens

Themes:
- Unity
- Identity
- Faith
- Loss

Reception:
- During the time, the speech offered comfort to all those affected directly or indirectly by the
tragedy. It also helped to unify the friends and family of those lost from various countries
worldwide unifying
- TODAY we see the speech as a dignified eulogy, in memory of those who died in a terrible
tragedy which was beyond the control of man. It is also seen as a peaceful and calm offering in
time of sadness and loss

Current issues:
- We, Australians, cannot avoid the fact that Australians will die in tragedies outside their own
homeland of Australia. However, we are able to journey to the places where they died and
reflect upon their lives and know that, although they may have died in faraway lands, their
spirit will be with us forever, no matter where they are. A recent example is the shooting down
of the MH17 plane in Ukraine, which took the lives of 28 Australians

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
We are gathered in great sadness First person narration used from the first line of the
speech: immediately creates a sense of
inclusiveness among the friends and family of
victims
Their loss is a profound tragedy for their families
and friends
Alliteration: serves to highlight the grief and
sadness experienced as a result of the unexpected
tragedy
We also pray that, in the words of our Lord
(Matthew 5:4), they will be truly comforted
Allusion: appeals to a higher being in order to bring
comfort to all those affected
To mourn them, to be with and to sympathise
with their family members and friends
Listing: creates a sense of community spirit and
unity amongst the friends and family of those who
died
One effect of the disaster has been to bring our
two countries closer together
Metaphor: used to bring light out of the terrible
situation
We thank the competence, the compassion and
the kindness of all who have helped
Alliteration: highlights the sense of community
which arose as a consequence of the tragedy
All shared the spirit of adventure, the joy of
living, the exuberance and the delight of youth
Listing and positive tone: encourages friends and
family to reflect, and remember, all the delightful
experiences the youth had highlighting the idea
that they lived a full and happy life
Lit the lives of all who knew them, until the end

A shining part of our humanity
Metaphor: of light is repeated throughout the
speech in order to pay tribute to the victims for the
happiness, joy and pleasure they brought their
friends and family
Grieve the young lives cut so tragically short Direct statement: highlights the sense of disbelief
of the tragedy
No man is an island. Anyones death
diminishes us all because we are all involved in
mankind
Literary allusion to John Donne: highlights the idea
that we are all connected and part of a common
humanity able to bring comfort to each other in
times of sadness and grief
These young men and women were in the flower
of their youth
Metaphor: highlights the positive contribution the
victims brought to Australia and the world
May they all rest with God Biblical allusion: brings about feelings of comfort
through the idea that the victims are now safe and
happy in heaven

ANWAR SADAT
STATEMENT TO THE KNESSET
20 NOVEMBER 1977
(KNESSET: ISRAELI PARLIAMENT)
(SPEECH WAS TRANSLATED FROM HEBREW)

Purpose:
- To go to Israel and broker a peace settlement, in order to save further massive Arab and Israeli
bloodletting form occurring - despite the great personal risk to himself - Sadat was motivated
by a desire for a lasting peace

Context:
- 4 wars had been fought in a 30 year period
- Nearly 30% of Egypts national budget was absorbed by military spending which was
financially crippling this already crowded and impoverished country
- The world knew a practical solution was needed to break the cycle of conflict and slaughter
- Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978

Themes:
- Permanent peace based on justice
- Unity and equality
- Acceptance
- Religion
- Belief that open, honest and trustworthy communication is the key to solving conflict

Reception:
- At the time of his speech, Sadat's trip was considered remarkable and it created excitement in
both countries and around the world
- The speech was not successful as the Arabs had previously refused substantial
diplomatic contact with the Jewish state. Therefore, many of this own people resented him
and, as a result, Sadat was assassinated on October 6th 1981
- Today, listeners feel sympathetic towards Sadat and saddened by the fact that this struggle
for a permanent peace based on justice still continues today, with over more than 1800
Palestinians and 64 Israeli soldiers killed in Gaza in 2014 alone due to unceasing battles
between Israel and Gaza

Possible thesis:
- There is no stronger and more globally imperative issue than that of peace. It is something
that affects and impacts upon so many different aspects of culture, communities and
countries.

Current issues:
- Due to numerous Israeli ground assaults on residential areas, there have been mass warnings
to evacuate, displacing more than 200,000 of Gaza's 1.8 million Palestinians. Gazas
infrastructure is currently in ruins, with power and water outages

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
Permanent peace Repetition and alliteration: reinforces his goal in an
attempt to change the worldview of his listeners
and highlight the need for peace to ensure a
harmonious future for generations to come
A huge wall between us a wall that threatened
always with the long arm that could reach and
strike anywhere
Extended metaphor: used to highlight the idea that
hatred and war limits an individuals potential and,
hence, their freedom as it creates barriers to peace
and harmony
Encircled by large missiles ready for launching Metaphor: makes audiences worldwide reflect upon
their own core values and how they would feel if
victimized of trapped, like everyday civilians in
Gaza today
Shells of grudges and hatred

Graphic personification: highlights the reason
behind the growing figures of the deceased before
and during 1977and still today.
Us
You
Inclusive language: use to place Sadat on the same
level as his audience and enable him to connect
We
our
with listeners
God Almighty Repetition of religious allusions: used in an attempt
to address all three religions through their common
belief in a singular God. Through this technique
Sadat also hopes to invoke the lord's support and
reinforce to his listeners that neither the Arabs, nor
the Israelis, should consider themselves superior to
one another, but rather that they are all equal and
belong to one, dignified humanity
Why should we bequeath to the coming
generations the plight of bloodshed, death,
orphans, widowhood, family disintegration, and
the wailing of victims?
Listing of highly emotive words in a rhetorical
question: alludes to the inevitability of a bitter
future for all of humanity, not just the Arabs and
Israelis, if they do not have the clarity of vision to
overlook the past.
You have to give up, once and for all, the dreams
of conquest
Direct statement: highlights Sadats bravery and
belief in his using his leadership position for the
benefit of all humanity. This technique also
positions his immediate Israeli audience to reflect
upon the past and empower them to give up the
belief that force is the best method for dealing with
the Arabs, and instead strive, alongside Sadat, for
a harmonious world.
Why should we bequeath to the coming
generations the plight of bloodshed, death,
orphans, widowhood, family disintegration and
the wailing of victims?
Pathos in rhetorical question: promotes a sense of
responsibility and creates an urgency for political
action
Let us be frank Repetition: stresses the importance of basic
human values, such as honesty, in order to ensure
peace for future generations

NOEL PEARSON
AN AUSTRALIAN HISTORY FOR US ALL
20 NOVEMBER 1996
(ADDRESS TO THE CHANCELLORS CLUB DINNER, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY)

Purpose:
- aim to give an account of the history behind the relationship between the European and
Aboriginal inhabitants
- illustrate the need to recognize discrimination and take responsibility of the past present and
future.
- Encourage and open harmonious and hopeful vision for reconciliation as opposed to assigning
guilt.

Context:
- one of Australias most influential aboriginals in Australian politics.
- PM John Howard had been newly elected and proposed amendments to Native Title Act
- His speech was inspired by the High Court and political statements of the time.

Themes:
- racism: focuses intensively on the racist history of Australia
- challenges his immediate audience and the Nation to work towards reconciliation
- War and Peace
- Responsibility

Reception:
- Evoked a mixed reception - opinions on the speech were based upon the individuals pre-
conceived ideas and values about Indigenous Australians
- His stance on the issue isolated him from many members of the wider Australian society due
to his criticism on John Howards condemnation of the black armband view of history -
which many Australians agreed with at the time. Conservative Australians would have viewed
the presentation as biased towards his own ATSI people and cultural background, thus his
perspective would have been rejected by this group.
- On the other hand, many Australians would have appreciated Pearsons attempt to trace the
history of Australia and present a wide range of viewpoints. His ideas of justice, peace and the
struggle against oppression would have been received as representing core Australian values
- Most modern audiences today, who now have a greater understanding of ATSI history, believe
that the speech was vital and necessary in order to attempt to educate Australians on the
negative impact colonisation has had on their lives and to call for action in helping reduce the
current inequities of ATSI peoples

Current issues:
- Australians are growing increasingly fond of ATSI peoples as an understanding of their
ancestral past increases with the help of compulsory Aboriginal studies in Australian
Secondary schools
- We are so fortunate, as Australians, to have among us the oldest continuing cultures in
human history. Cultures that link our nation with deepest antiquity (Kevin Rudd)

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
Hot button issue
Live and let live
Colloquialism and clichs: lightens the mood and
make the speech more accessible to the audience
Alludes refers to prominent politicians historians
and other social commentators with direct quotes:
emphasizes his credibility
Our nation
We
Inclusive language and repetition: has the effect of
reconciling the divide between the indigenous and
European Australians (unifying the Nation)
Has the so-called black armed band view of
history been about apportioning guilt?
Rhetorical question: forces listeners to question the
racist history of Australia.
You have taken from us not just our land and not
just all of the icons of indigenous Australia
Cumulative list: emphasizes what has been taken
away from the aboriginal people and creates a
divide between indigenous and European
Australians through the repetition of second person
you
Recession we had to have
The turmoil and confusion the country had to
have
Sarcastic political allusions to P M Keating:
emphasizes his disgust in Keating, a great
proponent of reconciliation
Open our hearts Metaphor: highlights that there is no need for them
to feel guilt over what occurred, but they should
acknowledge that the injustices did take place and
bear some responsibility for this. This also creates a
sense of hope that reconciliation can be achieved
through an allusion to Keating
Native Title Series of legal references: emphasizes the need for
reconciliation and acceptance of past faults
Derogation and a diminution
A legacy of unutterable shame
Alliteration and onomatopoeia: shows historic
suffering of aboriginals. This is contrasted with
positive words such as: celebration, spirit of
compromise, open and generous which tries to
adopt a positive sense of harmony and
reconciliation for the future

MARGARET ATWOOD
SPOTTY-HANDED VILLAINESSES
1994

Purpose:
- To present an entertaining, informing and challenging argument, exploring the dichotomy of
good and bad women in literature and the way in which they are represented

Context:
- Atwood is a contemporary literary composer and poet
- Established herself as a controversial writer in Canada
- Occurred during a contemporary movement, particularly in regard the feminist views of
women in life and art. Atwood had slightly feministic views

Themes:
- role of women in society: changing and varied roles
- literature reflecting reality: Atwood believes that literature stems from reality, as literature
grapples with the human condition which is, inevitably, a reflection of the writers world

Reception:
- feminists at the time, and now, believe the speech is an unfavourable appraisal of the
Womens Movement
- however, she was respected by many for addressing the important issue of women in society,
and doing it in an entertaining manner
- TODAY the speech is still valued because of the topical issue of the role of women in society
a theme which transcends time as discrimination continues in many countries and gender
equality is a long way from being achieved (eg. glass ceiling idea in businesses)

Current issues:
- Literature remains a key part of everyday life for people of all ages as many notions, beliefs,
values and ideas presented in all art forms transcend time and have great textual integrity.
However, it is important to keep up with the present events, such as the womens movement,
and present their positive (or negative) results in literature in order to entertain and lure in
contemporary readers
- Literature is one of the most interesting and significant expressions of humanity. (P. T.
Barnum)

QUOTE TECHNIQUE: ANALYSIS
My older brother used this verse to tease me, or
so he thought
Personal and humorous tone: when discussing a
relatable subject successfully creates a relaxed
atmosphere to engage the audience
Spot Metaphor: for invisible but indelible evil in women
which is needed to make a good novel. This idea is
compounded throughout the repetition in the line:
spot as in guilt, spot as in blood, spot as in out,
damned
Spotty-handed villainesses (Title) Allusion to Lady MacBeth: a female character
in Shakespeares Macbeth, who convinced her
husband to kill the King then goes insane with guilt.
This allusion is used to educate the audience on the
way in which females can be, and should be,
portrayed as bad characters, as well as good
characters as this approach is more realistic
There was a little girl/ Who had a little curl
When she was good, she was very, very good/
And when she was bad, she was horrid! I took
this poem to be of great significance I did after
all have curls
Personal anecdotes and asides: used to connect
with listeners and emphasise her belief that women
can have a double life and since not all women are
pure good or bad in reality, then why are females
in books all good or bad?
possibilities of a Dr. Jekyll-Mr. Hyde double life
for women

Literary allusion to Dr. Jekyll-Mr. Hyde: a novel
which portrayed a character with a split personality,
being both good and evil
God - who is, among other things, an author Religious allusions: serves to validate her opinions
and appeal to the religious beliefs of the audience
and make them reflect upon the biblical stories
which contain both good and evil
What is a novel? Hypophora (question and answering technique):
allows Atwood to answer questions the listeners
may have
Is this the right word?
What kind of story shall I tell?
How shall I tell it?
Cumulative listing of rhetorical questions:
highlights the effort the author puts into their work,
trying to make their story entertaining, enjoyable
and believable. Thus, she highlights the need to
include both good and evil characters in order to
make the stories realistic: We do need something
like them; by which I mean, something disruptive
to static order
Seductress, murderers, wicked stepmothers,
witches and evil grannies
Listing: explores the endless possibilities of female
characters You can throw all of the above at a
cauldron and stir and advocates that women
shouldnt be restricted to the bounds pf good
characters, but instead should be able to express
themselves as they see appropriate
We live in an age of not only gender crossover but
of genre crossover, so you can throw all of the
above into the cauldron and stir
Alliteration: highlights the many possibilities of
female characters, emphasising the need to portray
a wide array of personalities in novels in order to
entertain readers why shouldnt their many-
dimensionality be given literary expression?
Innovative literature is to include the hitherto
excluded
Contrast: used to emphasise the need for evil
female characters in order to engage readers. This
idea if further emphasised in the line: many doors
stand ajar; others beg to be unlocked. This
metaphor reinforces the idea that authors need to
embrace to forms and types of characters
women are tired of being good all the time
Benefits to literature of the Womens Movement
- the expansion of the territory available
Metaphor: highlights the plethora of personalities
which can be adopted for female characters in
to writers, both in character and in language modern times as a result of the Womens
Movement which is capitalised in order to
emphasise its importance and benefits in art.
This idea is contrasted with the single-dimension
views of women in the past. Were women to be
condemned to virtue for life, salves in the salt-
mines of goodness? How intolerable. The use
sibilance and truncated sentences reflects the
previously limited possibilities and emphasises the
need for authors to take the opportunity to create
a rich five-dimensional picture of female
characters
Passive good girls adventurous, resourceful
proud slothful foolish envious and greedy
wise evilbad wicked ugly false
Listing: of the many possible characteristics of
female characters to emphasise that the
possibilities (of creating female characters) are
many and, therefore, all types of women should be
embraced by both authors and readers
We have not enough evil in us (Final line) Allusion to Dame West: reinforces her
thesis that authors need to expand the
personalities of their female characters to being
both good and evil in combination to ensure
female characters are not limited and two-
dimensional