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Introduction: A steam condenser is a closed vessel into which steam is condensed by extracting the latent heat of condensation from it and pressure is maintained below the atmospheric pressure. It is the most essential component of the modern steam power plants. Types of steam Condensers: There are two principal types of condensers the jet condenser or mixing type which employs a jet of cold water to condense the steam and a surface condenser or Nonmixing type which employs cold metal surfaces. The surface condenser is used for the majority of steam engine & steam turbine applications which is not in the scope of our company. High level Jet condensers: Our company manufactures highly efficient & durable mixing type high level jet condenser (also called Barometric Condenser) for syrup boiling pans in the sugar plants as shown in Figure 1. This type of condenser is suitable where conditions permit condensation of exhaust steam by direct contact with the cooling water. It can maintain a pressure of less than 0.88 bars (650mm of Hg vacuum Gauge) or 0.1333 bar (100mm of Hg Absolute). The vacuum is created inside the condenser by the high velocity of water jets through jet nozzles. The cooling water is sprayed into the shell and the fine spray contacts the steam thus steam get condensed. The condensate (condensed steam) and sprayed water is withdrawn along with the water jets through the tail pipe. Some times a separate air ejector is attached to the condenser for the removal of non condensable gases which are necessary to be withdrawn to diminish the back pressure.
Belt Shell Spray Box W ater Entry Frustum
Exhaust Steam Spray Nozzles
Spray Jet Nozzles
Operating Principle: The shell is placed at a height greater than the barometric height of water column (i.e. 10336mm).If a long pipe more than 10336mm length is held vertical with one end immersed in a water vessel open to atmosphere and other end subjected to suction pressure, the atmospheric pressure will hold the column of water in the pipe equal to the suction pressure. This height of shell needs a separate pump for injection of cold water. There is no need of water extraction pump. The condensate and water will move down due to
2 gravity to the hot well. This height will always be maintained and excess will fall to the hot well. List of components of Condenser: Assemblies of main components of SEDL’s mixing type high level jet condenser are listed below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. MS Belt Shell Water Entry Counter Current Air Cooler (CCAC) Strainer Cleaning Mechanism (SCM) Automation nipples Spray Box Man-hole 9. Cone 10. Reducer 11. Tail Pipe 12. Tail Pipe Clamp 13. Bellow 14. Diffuser 15. Flange 16. MS Stool
General introduction to Components: We shall study in detail all above listed components in the upcoming chapters of Production Manual here general introduction is stated below. 1. MS Belt: It is a circular ring manufactured from 10mmX100mm Mild Steel Flat and used to fasten the condenser with the application of welding process to the pan vapor outlet pipe which makes the joint leak proof. It is a vertical cylinder manufactured from Austenitic Stainless Steel. It is attached to the pan vapor outlet and condenser cone from the top and bottom respectively. It surrounds the spray box and provides provisions of water entry, manhole, SCM, automation nipples and air line. Greater portion of the shell is utilized to provide space for condensation of steam. 3. Water Entry: It is a horizontal pipe through it cold water is sent into the spray box for injection and jet. It is manufactured from Austenitic Stainless Steel to prevent corrosion
Water Entry Figure 2
3 attack. Half portion of water entry is inserted in the shell while other half portion is out of shell. It contains a strainer for filtration of cold water. Inner end of the water entry is fitted on the spray box while on outer end it contains a hinge assembly through which strainer can be removed for its periodical cleaning as shown in Figure 2. It also contains the provisions for the CCAC and water inlet nipple. 4. Counter Current Air Cooler: Continuous condensation of steam causes formation of Non Condensable Gases (NCG) since steam contains some extent of air which can not be condensed at normal temperature. In other words condensation temperature of air is too low therefore it is necessary to be withdrawn from the condenser otherwise it will tend to create back pressure to the syrup boiling pan. The Counter Current Air Cooler is used to catch NCG from the condenser. It is also known as wash box. It is fitted on the water entry near spray box inside the condenser. This equipment is attached to an Air Ejector. When ever pressure inside the Condenser increases due to formation of NCG a Non Returning Valve is opened thus NCGs are sucked by the Air Ejector through CCAC. 5. Strainer Cleaning Mechanism: In the Sugar Plants there is always a problem of pure cold water for injection. Impurities present in the water may block Spray and Jet Nozzles. To minimize this problem a Strainer Basket is provided in the Water Entry of Condenser. But at the same time another problem arises. After a short SCM Handle interval of operation, strainer gets chocked with impurities like leaves, pebbles, baggase which may cause a greater head loss in to the Condenser. Condenser To minimize the above stated problems SCM Nut Shell a Strainer Cleaning Mechanism is SCM Shaft provided which cleans the strainer Strainer without interrupting the operation. Cold Water Strainer Cleaning It is fitted on the shell Mechanism SS Cover opposite to water entry as shown in Plate Figure 3. It comprises of a helical Spray Box Spray Box (screw nut) pair mechanism which gives Nipple linear motion to its shaft. This Shaft is provided with a handle at the outer end Water which is revolved manually in order to Entry give linear motion to the shaft which pulls back the attached SS Cover. This action permits cold water to flow through Spray Box Nipple and forces impurities outside the strainer and are Figure 3 ejected to hot water channel through Tail Pipe. 6. Automation Nipples: Automation Nipples are provided with automatic Condensers. These are welded on the Condenser shell and Spray Box. High pressure (3kg/cm2) water from the Accumulator is transferred through these Nipples in to the condenser to govern specific spray & jet nozzles according to the vapor load on to the Condenser.
4 7. Spray Box: Spray Box is very essential component of Condenser. It is a hollow cylindrical container of water; it is concentric to the shell and fitted on the inner side of Water Entry in the Condenser. Jet nozzles are fitted on the bottom of Spray Box with the help of jet plate while the spray nozzles are fitted normal to the Spray Box Shell above the Water Entry. A Hand hole is provided (At 90°to the Water Entry) on it for the maintenance of Jet Nozzles while top part of Spray Box is provided with flange blind for maintenance of spray nozzles. Cold water through Water Entry enters in to it and distributed to spray and jet nozzles. It is manufactured from highly corrosion resistant austenitic Stainless Steel to prevent corrosion attack. 8. Man Hole: It is provided for cleaning and maintaining the interior of Condenser. It is fitted on shell at 90° to the Water Entry and faces Hand Hole fitted at Spray Box. It is generally made up of two types, Hinge type and Flange type. Hinge type Man Hole takes comparatively lesser time to open or close than Flange Type Man Hole
Figure 4 Hinge Type Manhole Assembly
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